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1

Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is produced. Therefore, we have hypothesized the two processes: C1 coal combustion --> nanoquartz in ambient air --> lung cancer excess in non-smoking women. Methods/Design We propose to conduct a retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis above. We will search historical records and compile an inventory of the coal mines in operation during 1930–2009. To estimate the study subjects' retrospective exposure, we will reconstruct the historical exposure scenario by burning the coal samples, collected from operating or deserted coal mines by coal geologists, in a traditional firepit of an old house. Indoor air particulate samples will be collected for nanoquartz and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs analyses. Bulk quartz content will be quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Size distribution of quartz will be examined by electron microscopes and by centrifugation techniques. Lifetime cumulative exposure to nanoquartz will be estimated for each subject. Using the epidemiology data, we will examine whether the use of C1 coal and the cumulative exposure to nanoquartz are associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer. Discussion The high incidence rate of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, one of the counties in the current study area, was once attributed to high indoor air concentrations of PAHs. The research results have been cited for qualitative and quantitative cancer risk assessment of PAHs by the World Health Organization and other agencies. If nanoquartz is found to be the main underlying cause of the lung cancer epidemic in the study area, cancer potency estimates for PAHs by the international agencies based on the lung cancer data in this study setting should then be updated.

Zhou Yiping

2008-12-01

2

Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Perm...

Tian Linwei; Dai Shifeng; Wang Jianfang; Huang Yunchao; Ho Suzanne C; Zhou Yiping; Lucas Donald; Koshland Catherine P

2008-01-01

3

Properties of Gondwana coals with emphasis on the Permian coals of Australia and South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review discusses the geological properties of Gondwana coals especially the Permian coals of Australia and South Africa and how the liquefaction, carbonization, combustion and beneficiation of these coals are affected by their properties. Many Gondwana coals have high inertinite and mineral matter contents. Much of the inertinite is often of low reflectance. This low-reflectance inertinite is reactive in carbonization and liquefaction and behaves in a similar manner to vitrinite in this regard. A brief discussion of the resources, location and general information on current uses of these coals is also included. 114 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

Kershaw, J.R.; Taylor, G.H. (CSIRO, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Division of Materials Science and Technology)

1992-07-01

4

Palynomorphs of Permian Gondwana coal from borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thirty-two core samples of Permian Gondwana coal from three coal beds of borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh, were collected for palynological analysis. The lower coal bed (331.5-372.5 m) can easily be differentiated from the upper two coal beds by the presence of Alisporites, Cordaitina, Corisaccites, Hamiapollenites, Leuckisporites, Nuskoisporites, Tumoripollenites, Vestgisporites and Vittatina. It is difficult to palynologically differentiate the middle (198.1-208 m) and upper (162.3-172.9 m) coal beds as they contain a very limited number of specimens by which they can be identified. The middle bed is distinguished by the presence of Microbaculispora and Weylandites and the upper bed by the presence of a single taxon Acanthotriletes. Some of the vesiculate or saccate taxa extracted from these coal beds are typical of those occurring in Permian strata of Gondwana in India, South Africa, South America, Russia, Australia and Antarctica. They are thought to be derived from Glossopteris flora, which is characterised by an abundance of Pteridospermic plants of the gymnosperm group.

Akhtar, A.; Kosanke, R.M. [Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

2000-07-01

5

Palynomorphs of Permian Gondwana coal from borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-two core samples of Permian Gondwana coal from three coal beds of borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, the north-northwestern part of Bangladesh, have been collected for palynological analysis. All samples except one yielded palynomorphs and some samples contain well-preserved and abundant palynomorphs of the gymnospermal and cryptogamic groups that are considered to be useful for future correlation studies. The lower coal bed (331.6-372.5 m) can easily be differentiated from the upper two coal beds by the presence of Alisporites, Cordaitina, Corisaccites, Hamiapollenites, Leuckisporites, Nuskoisporites, Tumoripollenites, Vestgisporites and Vittatina. It is difficult to palynologically differentiate the middle (198.1-208 m) and upper (162.3-172.9 m) coal beds as they contain a very limited number of specimens by which they can be identified. The middle bed is distinguished by the presence of Microbaculispora and Weylandites and the upper bed by the presence of a single taxon Acanthotriletes. Some of the vesiculate or saccate taxa extracted from these coal beds are typical of those occurring in Permian strata of Gondwana in India, South Africa, South America, Russia, Australia and Antarctica. They are thought to be derived from Glossopteris flora, which is characterised by an abundance of Pteridospermic plants of the gymnosperm group. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Limited. All rights reserved.

Akhtar, A.; Kosanke, R. M.

2000-01-01

6

Palynomorphs of Permian Gondwana coal from borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-two core samples of Permian Gondwana coal from three coal beds of borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, the north-northwestern part of Bangladesh, have been collected for palynological analysis. All samples except one yielded palynomorphs and some samples contain well-preserved and abundant palynomorphs of the gymnospermal and cryptogamic groups that are considered to be useful for future correlation studies. The lower coal bed (331.6-372.5 m) can easily be differentiated from the upper two coal beds by the presence of Alisporites, Cordaitina, Corisaccites, Hamiapollenites, Leuckisporites, Nuskoisporites, Tumoripollenites, Vestgisporites and Vittatina. It is difficult to palynologically differentiate the middle (198.1-208 m) and upper (162.3-172.9 m) coal beds as they contain a very limited number of specimens by which they can be identified. The middle bed is distinguished by the presence of Microbaculispora and Weylandites and the upper bed by the presence of a single taxon Acanthotriletes. Some of the vesiculate or saccate taxa extracted from these coal beds are typical of those occurring in Permian strata of Gondwana in India, South Africa, South America, Russia, Australia and Antarctica. They are thought to be derived from Glossopteris flora, which is characterised by an abundance of Pteridospermic plants of the gymnosperm group.

Akhtar, A.; Kosanke, R. M.

2000-07-01

7

Comparative petrological analysis between the Permian coals of India and Western Australia: paleoenvironments and thermal history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian sequences preserved in Western Australian basins (Collie, Perth and Canning) and the Gondwana basins of India (Damodar, Son-Mahanadi, Pench-Kanhan and Godavari Valley) have similar stratigraphic succession, faunal and floral assemblages, coal types and rank, and structure. The type and rank of the Permian coals indicate a similar depositional and thermal histories for the basins studied in India and western Australia. This is consistent with the view that India and Western Australia were in close proximity before the break up of Gondwanaland.

Mishra, H.K. [Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Ltd., Ranchi (India). Division of Exploration

1996-10-01

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Petrography and aliphatic hydrocarbon composition of the Barrett Coal Member, Upper Permian Wittingham Coal Measures, northern Sydney Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Barrett Coal Member in the Howick Opencut Mine, Hunter Valley, NSW, is a high-volatile bituminous coal that forms the basal seam of the Upper Permian Foybrook Formation of the Wittingham Coal Measures in the Howick area. Detailed petrographic analyses of the coal reveal cycles of peat formation defined by variations in the ratio: structured vitrinite/unstructured vitrinite (= Tissue Preservation Index, or TPI); and the percentage of liptinite macerals. These cycles also correspond to coal plies that are separated invariably by dirtbands. The n-alkane distribution of the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of the Barrett Coal Extracts are similar to other analysed coals of the Sydney Basin, the Lower Carboniferous coals from Nigeria and the Permian East Bokaro coals of India, suggesting commonality of n-alkane distributions for Gondwanan coals of similar rank and depositional setting. The petrographic cyclicity of the Barrett Coal is also manifested by a corresponding stratigraphic cyclicity in the biomarker composition of the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. The cyclic pattern of the TPI within each ply is mirrored by the absolute concentration of triterpanes, steranes, and parameters such as Carbon Preference Index (CPI), Pr/nC{sub 17} and Ph/nC{sub 18}. All these changes are evident in a coal member only 2.2m thick. The petrographic and geochemical evidence suggest that the environmental affinity of the Barrett Coal is that of a delta-plain depositional setting. 27 refs., 4 figs.

Casareo, F.; Batts, B.; Conaghan, P.; George, S.; Jardine, D. [Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

1995-08-01

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Trace elemental analysis of permian gondwana coals in Bangladesh by PIXE technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of trace elements level in coal arouses much interest days to assess and evaluate the environmental impact related to its benefit and usage in applying it to the problem of mining site. Further, it is more important during the coal combustion in thermal power stations particularly in relation to the emission of air toxic, disposal and utilization of fly ash. The paper describes the level of nineteen environmentally significant trace elements found in recently discovered Permian Gondwana coals in Barapukuria and Khalaspir of Northwestern Bangladesh using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. Both the mineral species and trace elements are expected to be due to sedimentary and aerobic environmental condition where the Permian coals have been generated depending on their degree of evolution. (author)

2004-01-01

10

Petrography, carbonate mineralogy and geochemistry of thermally altered coal in Permian coal measures, Hunter Valley, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbonate minerals commonly occur in coals of many ages and from a utilisation viewpoint can be deleterious. Several studies have been undertaken of the carbonates in the Permian coals of the Hunter Valley, Australia, but few studies use a multi-technique approach. For this study, a combined petrographic, geochemical and mineralogical approach was used to determine the distribution and residence of carbonate minerals in coal that had been intruded by a dyke. The dominant carbonate assemblages comprise primary siderite in inertinite-rich microlithotypes and secondary calcite(-ankerite-dolomite)-dawsonite in vitrinite-rich microlithotypes. The secondary carbonates were found in both the aureole of heated coal and also in an unheated mine-face sample. It is believed that the secondary carbonate minerals precipitated from magma-derived fluids percolating through the coal following the emplacement of the intrusions. The textures and distribution of the secondary carbonate minerals suggest that the temperature and pressure of the fluids may be just as important in developing fractures near dykes (particularly those that have multiple phases of geometries), cleat mineralogy and coal textures as direct heating from the intrusion. The partitioning of primary siderite with inertinite and secondary carbonates with vitrinite indicates that it can be reasonably expected that there would be a partitioning of minerals in various density fractions derived from float-sink tests and consequently a partitioning of elements with inertinite-rich fractions containing elevated Fe levels and vitrinite-rich fractions containing elevated Ca, Mg and Al. This partitioning has implications for the behaviour of the coal during washing and combustion, and the composition of combustion products. (author)

Golab, Alexandra N. [School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Hutton, Adrian C. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522 (Australia); French, David [CSIRO Energy Technology, Science and Technology Centre, Lucas Heights NSW 2234 (Australia)

2007-04-02

11

Geology and Permian coal resources of the Irwin Terrace, Perth Basin, Western Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potentially economic coal seams of the Permian Irwin River Coalfield cover approximately 170 kms of the Irwin Terrace on the east flank of the north Perth Basin. Mapping, drilling and gravity interpretation reveal outcropping coals that plunge to 400 m in a weakly folded half graben that strikes north-northwest. This post-depositional extensional structure contains an interpreted 1700 m of generally southeasterly dipping permian siliciclastic rocks preserved as a consequence of left-lateral shear in transtensional setting. Refined Permian rock stratigraphy is integrated with biostratigraphic palynomorph zones. Sediment ages span Carboniferous to Early Tatarian in the Late Permian. The coals are Aktastinian and correlate with the basal coal beds in the Collie Basin, south Perth Basin, and Karoo Basin of South Africa. A possible lacuna, spanning the Kungurian Nd Ufimian Stages, exists at the unconformity between the Wagina Sandstone and the underlying Carynginia Formation. Vitrinite reflectance indicates the Early Permian coal was buried to depths of 2.7-4.3 km in an interior sag basin between 4.3 and 5.8 km deep. Gravity modelling in the Irwin River Coalfield area shows that depth to basement varies from a maximum of 1700 m in the northern part to under 300 m in the south. Given the pre-existing mapped position of the Darling Fault, it is necessary to invoke a low density body immediately east of the fault and then a higher density body farther to the east in the models of traverses G1, G2, and G3. The low density body immediately east of the Darling Fault can be explained best as the result of shearing associated with the proto Darling Fault.(author). 26 figs, 2 plates, refs.

Le Blanc Smith, G.; Mory, A.J.; Lasky, R.P

1995-09-01

12

Palynostratigraphy of the Middle Permian coal sequences of the Sydney Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The appearance of several microspores within the Middle Permian coal sequences of the Sydney Basin permits widespread intrabasinal correlations. Dulhuntyispora parvithola appears within the Bulga Formation of the Wittingham Coal Measures, the Kulnura Marine Tongue of the Tomago Coal Measures, the Erins Vale Formation of the Illawarra Coal Measures in the Camden area and in the Gundangaroo Formation of the Illawarra Coal Measures in the Lithgow area. Microreticulatisporites bitriangularis appears within the Malabar Formation of the Wittingham Coal Measures, the upper Four Mile Creek Formation of the Tomago Coal Measures, the upper Wilton Formation of the Illawarra Coal Measures in the Camden area and in the Newnes Formation of the Illawarra Coal Measures in the Lithgow area. There are two basin-wide marine incursions within the Middle Permian sequence of the Sydney Basin: these are indicated in palynological samples by the presence of acritarchs. The position of these incursions with respect to the appearance of D. parvithola and M. triangularis implies synchronous deposition throughout the basin. These marine intervals cannot be correlated palynologically with marine intervals in the Bowen Basin. 43 references.

McMinn, A.

1985-09-01

13

Paleoecology of flora from coal measures of Upper Permian in western Guizhou  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on paleobotany, palynology and sedimentology, the paper discusses the paleoecology of flora from coal measures of Upper Permian in Western Guizhou. The four major floras are: the swamp flora dominated by Lycopodiales, the water front floras dominated by Calamites, the floodplain flora dominated by Gigantopterides, Psaronics and the upland flora dominated by conifers, Ginkgos and Pteridospermus. The features of the different floras are described in detail. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Guo, Y. (China University of Mining and Technology (China))

1990-03-01

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Maceral composition and environment of deposition of Permian coals from the Parana Basin, Brazil  

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The petrographic composition of polished pellets,blocks and thin sections of the Bonito and Barro Branco coal beds from Santa Catarina State, Charqueadas coal bed from Rio Grande do Sul State and Rio de Peixe coal bed from Parana State, Brazil were studied. These Gondwana coals are characterized by high percentage of inertinite, mineral matter and the fine grained macerals--vitrodetrinite, liptodetrinite and inertodetrinite. Long periods of dry weather and high oxidation conditions, characteristic plant communities of the depositional basin and washed-in or blown-in sediments from the margin of the basin are responsible for the high inertinite and mineral matter content, whereas the fine grained detrital macerals indicate a moderately energetic environment within the depositional basin. These Permian coals were formed under cool climatic (interglacial and postglacial) conditions with alternating rainy and dry seasons in fresh water swamps. The environmental changes in the coal swamp are interpreted from the petrographic variations within the coals. Forest moor, reed moor, subaquatic moor and open moor define the different coal facies during deposition. Subaquatic and open moor conditions were dominant during peat formation for the Bonito and Charqueadas coals beds, whereas a reed moor condition was dominant during peat formation for the Barro Branco and Rio do Peixe coal beds.

Kneller, W.A.; Wu, C.H.

1985-01-01

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Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zheng, L.; Liu, G.; Chou, C. -L.; Qi, C.; Zhang, Y.

2007-01-01

16

Temporal variability in charcoal distribution in Permian coal: Implications for interpreting palaeowildfire history  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of fossil charcoal [inertinite (Scott and Glasspool, 2007)] in coal provides evidence for palaeowildfire event/s. Charcoal distribution has been shown to vary both spatially and temporally in modern wildfires, therefore this needs to be taken into consideration when studying inertinite from palaeowildfires in order to better understand palaeowildfire history. To determine whether this variation occurs in the geological past, charcoal produced by palaeowildfires from four randomly sampled Late Permian in situ coal (fossil peat) pillars from the Kuznetsk Basin, Russia [seam 78 (a and b) and seam 88 (a and b)] have been studied using petrographic techniques. The use of in situ coal pillars are judged to be essential for this type of work as they retain the orientation of the original inertinite distribution, unlike the crushed coals that are typically used for commercial petrographic analysis. These coal pillars contain charcoal in all lithotype units, but show temporal variation both in the amount and type of inertinite between successive lithotype units. Furthermore, the pillars also contain varying amounts of charcoal both within and between seams [mean inertinite: 78(a) 29.8%, 78(b) 42.6%, 88(a) 48% and 88(b) 35%]. The distribution of this charcoal in these pillars can be used to interpret palaeowildfire type. All pillars show: (1) microscopic, scattered charcoal which is interpreted to represent background fire events and (2) macroscopic charcoal which is either scattered or contained in charcoal horizons, which is interpreted to represent surface fire events. Previous petrographic work on crushed coals by Pakh and Artser (2003) has shown that seam 78 has a higher inertinite content (33%) than seam 88 (22%), in contrast this study has shown that the pillars from seam 88 contain more inertinite (with a combined mean of 41.5%) than those from seam 78 (combined mean = 36.2%). This may suggest that during the formation of pillars 88(a,b) fires were either more frequent or that more charcoal was produced in individual fire events compared to the rest of seam 88. The variation in the amount of inertinite both within and between pillars provides evidence for temporal variation in wildfire history for the duration of both pillar and seam formation in this Late Permian peat-forming environment.

Hudspith, V. A.; Scott, A. C.; Collinson, M. E.

2012-04-01

17

An appraisal of coal petrographic facies in Lower Gondwana (Permian) coal seams of India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed analysis of petrographic facies in light of palynology in the Lower Gondwana coal seams of India is presented. The petrographic facies are characterised by coal types that depend upon the palaeogeographic and tectonic framework of the coal basins, palaeoclimate, the flora and fauna of the coal-forming swamps, and coal-constituent characteristics. The delimitation of various petrographic facies of the Indian coal seams has implications for understanding the origin and evolution of Gondwana coals. 47 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

Navale, G.K.B.; Saxena, R. (Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India))

1989-06-01

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Observations on Indian Permian Gondwana coals under fluorescence microscopy: An overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Macerals like sporinite, cutinite, suberinite and resinite of the liptinite group have been insufficiently recorded in Indian Permian Gondwana coals, until the fluorescence microscopy came into existence. With the introduction of this technique, macerals like bituminite, fluorinite and exsudatinite were convincingly recognized and alginite and liptodetrinite, normally mistaken for mineral matter under normal reflected light in routine coal petrographic analysis, were identified with certainty. Thus, fluorescence microscopy has added certain new macerals to the tally of the liptinite group and has increased their overall proportion in Indian Gondwana coals. In addition to the liptinite group, collodetrinite (=desmocollinite) and a certain fraction of collotelinite (=telocollinite) macerals of the vitrinite group were found to be fluorescing with dull reddish-brown to dark brown colours. Certain semifusinite and inertodetrinite macerals of inertinite group were also found to fluoresce with almost identical intensity and colour as that of the associated perhydrous (fluorescing) vitrinite. Contributions of degraded resinite, algal matter and bitumen in the formation of perhydrous vitrinite have been established. The fluorescence behaviour of inertinite appears to be related with its genesis from partial oxidation of resin/bitumen-impregnated cell walls.

Singh, B.D.; Singh, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

2004-01-01

19

Microfloristic and petrographic study of coal from Faxinal mine, Rio Bonito formation from the Permian period, RS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is the result of the petrological and microfloristic analysis of coal seams from the Faxinal Mine (Rio Bonito Formation, Lower Permian, Parana Basin, southern Brazil). Petrological data showed a great predominance of the Vitrinite maceral group (mainly Vitrite) and a low amount of the Exinite and Inertinite groups. Dispersed wood and cuticular fragments were predominant in the palynological samples, while pollens and spores were less abundant and in general poorly preserved. Microfloristic analysis has revealed an association with a predominance of spores related to a pteridophytic plant community. The available petrological and palynological data suggest that the coal seams originated mainly in a telmatic environment. 8 references.

Guerra-Sommer, M.; Marques-Toigo, M.; Paim, P.S.G.

1984-01-01

20

Early Permian coal-forming floras preserved as compressions from the Wuda District (Inner Mongolia, China)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four different compression/impression floras are preserved in only 4.32 m of the geologic section in the Early Permian Shanxi Formation of the Wuda District of Inner Mongolia, northwestern China. These floras represent four different plant communities and landscapes that followed each other in time. The oldest flora was rooted in sandy clay and initiated peat accumulation that lead to the formation of the lower coal seam. This seam is 230-cm thick and overlain by a 66-cm thick volcanic tuff that preserves a second different flora that grew on the peat at the time of the ash-fall. Standing stems and large plant parts are present. The upper part of the tuff is rooted by a single species of lycopsid (the third flora) again initiating peat accumulation. On top of this second seam of 120 cm thickness rests a roof-shale, deposited as mud in a shallow lake, the formation of which was responsible for the cessation of peat deposition. This fourth flora represents the plants growing around the lake on clastic substrate. Four different environments followed each other in this locality over a geologically short time span and each time conditions prevailed to preserve plant macrofossils. Three of these floras represent peat-forming plant communities of essentially the same time interval. This demonstrates the great variability of vegetation and landscapes in the tropical Cathaysian realm of the Late Paleozoic. (author)

Pfefferkorn, Hermann W. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States); Wang, Jun [Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2007-01-02

 
 
 
 
21

Raman spectroscopy of coal component of Late Permian coals from Southern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical structural characterization of four samples (M-1, M-5, VS, and BaS) from Southern China was studied by Raman spectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis. Several Raman parameters, e.g., full width at half maximum (FWHM) and intensity ratio (ID1/IG), were obtained. Vitrinite (VS) and barkinite (BaS) were separated from the same coal sample, separately. The results showed that nine bands were assigned from the Raman spectra. Two typical bands, G and D1, have broad peaks, which showed that all the samples have poor order in chemical structure. Barkinite has higher disorder in chemical structure than vitrinite. PMID:24973667

Wang, Shaoqing; Cheng, Hongfei; Jiang, Di; Huang, Fan; Su, Shen; Bai, Haipeng

2014-11-11

22

[Research on hydrocarbon-generation mechanism of upper permian coals from Leping, Jiangxi, based on infrared spectroscopy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (Micro-FTIR) technique was used to investigate the chemical compositions and structures of kerogen from the Late Permian bark coal in the B3 coal seam in mingshan mine, Leping, Jiangxi, at different temperatures. With the observation and the statistics of organic macerals under microscope, the author analysed the model of hydrocarbon generation of the bark coal in the B3 coal seam in mingshan mine, Leping, Jiangxi. And the author also estimated the oil and gas resources in Leping. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the coal is composed by aliphatic structure, heteroatomic compounds and aromatic structure, and their activation energy reduces in turn. Along with the rise in temperature, the intensity of aliphatic structure and heteroatomic compounds decreases obviously, however the aromatic structure changes little. The deamocollinite of B type and barkinite in the bark coal all can generate oil and gas easy, so the bark coal in Leping has a great petroleum-generating potential. PMID:17655089

Yu, Hai-yang; Sun, Xu-guang

2007-05-01

23

In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal ?in Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and st...

2012-01-01

24

In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal ?in Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

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Full Text Available Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and study in vitro toxicity of naturally occurring silica particles on BEAS-2B. Methods ?Separating the silica particles from combustion products of C1 bituminous coal by physical method, observing the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope, analysis elements by SEM-EDX, observed the single particle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscope, analyed its particle size distribution by Laser particle size analyzer, the surface area of silica particles were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption analysis; ?Cell viability of the experimental group (silica; naturally occurring, control group (silica; industrial produced and crystalline silica was detected by assay used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined after 24 h-72 h exposed to these particles. Results ?The physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal, which have different size, and from 30 nm to 120 nm particles accounted for 86.8%, different morphology, irregular surface area and containing trace of aluminum, calcium and iron and other elements; ?Under the same concentration, the experiment group have higher toxicity on BEAS-2B than control groups. Conclusion ?Physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal and not change the original morphology and containing trace; ?Naturally occurring silica nanoparticles have irregular morphology, surface area, and containing complex trace elements may has greater toxicity than the silica nanoparticle of industrial produced and crystalline silica.

Guangjian LI

2012-10-01

25

Numerical classification of coal-bearing cycles of Early Permian Barakar coal measures of eastern-central India Gondwana basins using Q-mode cluster analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Q-mode cluster analysis is applied to classify the fining upward cycles of Early Permian Barakar coal measures from 14 localities of eastern central India Gondwana basins. Two distinct clusters are recognised on the basis of overall similarity of upward transition probability values of embedded Markov chain statistics. Cluster A comprise 9 localities representing fining upward asymmetrical cycles of very coarse to coarse sandstone {yields} interbedded fine sandstone-shale {yields} shale {yields} coal {yields} coarse sandstone, whereas Cluster B include 5 localities represented by symmetrical cycles i.e. very coarse to coarse sandstone {yields} interbedded fine sandstone-shale {yields} shale {yields} coal {yields} shale. The development of asymmetrical cycles together with abundance of very coarse to coarse sandstone is attributed to rapid lateral migration of braided channels, whereas the deposition of symmetrical cycles with subequal amount of coarse to medium sandstone and fine elastics including coal correspond to slow and gradual overstepping of meandering stream channels and associated subenvironments across the alluvial plain.

Tewari, R.C.

1997-11-01

26

Petrography and metamorphism of the lower Gondwana (Permian) coal of Rangit Valley, eastern Himalays, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A triangular outlier of coal-bearing lower Gondwana rocks comprises a tectonic window within the Precambrian metamorphic terrain of the Rangit Valley, in the eastern Himalays of India. Due to a series of tectonic events which took place during the Mesozoic and Tertiary the succession has become reversed and the coal has undergone severe physical, chemical, microstructural and optical changes. Studies reveal that the rank of the coal prior to tectonism was low; the coal underwent oxidation in the peat forming stage and during subsequent orogenic stages but effect of oxidation on the properties of coal was insignificant; the coal reached its present abnormally high rank mainly due to heating under tectonic pressure; and the heat which was generated due to tectonic pressure, affected all the coal seams of this belt. 32 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Ghosh, T.K. [Calcutta University, Calcutta (India). Geology Dept.

1997-09-01

27

Petrography and depositional environments of the Permian coal deposits of Deoghar basin, Bihar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt has been made to carry out the petrographic characterization of coals from the Deoghar basin and to reconstruct the palaeo environmental conditions of coal formation using macerals and microlithotypes as tools. For this purpose, a large number of pillar coal samples from the Karharbari and Barakar seams were collected and were subjected to detailed petrographic examination. The results indicate that the Karharbari coals are rich in inertinite while the Barakar coals are comparatively rich in vitrinite. The rank of Deoghar coals (as per ASTM system), on the basis of the mean of random vitrinite reflectance, has been found to range between Sub-Bituminous 'B' and High Volatile 'C' Bituminous. The quantitative relationships of macerals, microlithotypes and mineral matter show that these coals have originated from the transitional plant communities in open to forest moor and under limno-telmatic to limnic conditions. Moreover, the Karharbari coals have evolved under oxic moor conditions with sudden high flooding while the Barakar coals have evolved under comparatively wet moor conditions with intermittent moderate to high flooding. Low values of TPI and GI indicate periodic dryness in the basin. This contention is supported by the dominance of inertodetrinite, particularly in the coals of Karharbari Formation.

Singh, M.P.; Singh, P.K.; Singh, A.K. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Geology

2003-04-01

28

Influence of localised igneous activity on cleat dawsonite formation in Late Permian coal measures, Upper Hunter Valley, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O) and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic data have been used to investigate the origin of cleat dawsonite (NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}) in the Late Permian Wittingham Coal Measures of the Upper Hunter region in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} values have a narrow range (-1.7%% to +2.4%%), with an average of +0.3%%, suggesting a magmatic source for the carbon. In contrast, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} values have a wide range (+13.6%% to +19.8%%), and decrease systematically with decreasing distance from a major intrusion. This systematic variation reflects establishment of localised hydrothermal cells. Water-rock interaction between fluids associated with these hydrothermal cells, and Rb-poor volcaniclastic detritus in the coal measures, produced mantle-like {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.705032 to 0.706464) in the dawsonite. (author)

Golab, Alexandra N.; Palamara, Daniel R. [School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522 (Australia); Carr, Paul F. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522 (Australia)

2006-04-03

29

Petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana?? Basin: 1. Santa Terezinha, Lea??o-Butia?? and Candiota Coalfields, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The current paper presents results on petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization in Permian coal-bearing strata from the Parana?? Basin, southern Brazil. Sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that peat accumulation in Permian time was closely linked to transgressive/regressive cycles, with peat accumulation occurring in a predominantly back barrier/lagoonal setting. Coal petrographic analysis indicates subbituminous coals at Candiota and Lea??o-Butia?? and high volatile bituminous coals at Santa Terezinha, where locally the coal seams are thermally altered by volcanic intrusions. Petrographic composition is highly variable, with seams at Candiota and Santa Terezinha frequently enriched in inertinite. Chemical analyses indicate that all coals are mineral matter-rich (mean 49.09 wt.%), with SiO2 and Al2O3 dominating as determined by ICP-AES. Quartz is also the predominant mineral detected by X-ray diffraction, where it is associated with feldspar, kaolinite and hematite and iron-rich carbonates. The results from Scanning Electron Microscopy are broadly consistent with the bulk chemical and mineralogical analysis. Quartz and clays are common in all samples analyzed. Other minerals observed were, amongst others, carbonates (calcite, siderite, ankerite), pyrite, monazite, kaolinite, barite, sphalerite, rutile and quartz of volcanic origin. The distribution of trace elements is well within the range typical for coal basins of other areas despite the fact that the Parana?? Basin coals are very high in ash yields. The average concentrations for elements of environmental concern (As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn) are similar to or less than the mean values for U.S. coal. However, considered on an equal energy basis, Parana?? Basin coals will produce in combustion 5 to 10 times the amount of most elements compared to an equal weight US coal. Concentrations of major and trace elements, such as Fe, B and S, appear to be controlled by depositional setting, with increasing values in coal seams overlain by brackish/marine strata. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified three groups of major minerals and seven groups of trace elements based on similarity levels. On a regional scale, the coalfields can be separated by the differences in rank (Candiota and Lea??o-Butia?? versus Santa Terezinha) and by applying discriminant analysis based on 4 trace elements (Li, As, Sr, Sb). Highest Rb and Sr values occur at Candiota and are linked to syngenetic volcanism of the area, whereas high Y and Sr values at Santa Terezinha can be related to the frequent diabase intrusions in that area. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Kern, M.; Machado, G.; Mexias, A.; Silva, M. B.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

2006-01-01

30

Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Lopingian (Late Permian) coal measures in southwestern China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lopingian coal measures of southwestern China were deposited within a range of facies associations spanning a spectrum of settings from fluvial to marine carbonate platform. The transitional to terrestrial coal measures are dominated by siliciclastics, but they also contain fifteen laterally extensive marine bands (limestone beds and mudstone). These bands act as marker horizons that enable correlation between fully marine and terrestrial facies. Examination of this range of facies and their sedimentology has enabled the development of a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework. Set against the established backdrop of second-order Lopingian transgression, sixteen fourth-order sequences and three composite sequences (third-order) are recognized. Results show that, in the composite sequences, peat accumulation in the seaward parts of the study area predominantly correlates with early transgressive sequence sets (TSS), while in more landward areas it correlates with the middle TSS to late highstand sequence sets (HSS). Differences in peat-accumulation regimes within the sequence stratigraphic framework are attributed to variations in subsidence and background siliciclastic input rates in different depositional settings, with these combining to produce differences in the rate of accommodation change. The preservation of coal resources in the middle to late HSS in this area was most likely related to the rise of the regional base level throughout the Lopingian. (author)

Wang, Hao [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Shao, Longyi; Hao, Liming; Zhang, Pengfei [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Glasspool, Ian J. [Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Wheeley, James R.; Hilton, Jason [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Wignall, Paul B. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Yi, Tongsheng [Guizhou Bureau of Coal Geological Exploration, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhang, Mingquan [Coal Geology and Prospecting Institute of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan (China)

2011-01-01

31

Age and significance of the Platypus Tuff Bed, a regional reference horizon in the upper Permian Moranbah coal measures, north Bowen Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Platypus Tuff Bed in the Permian Moranbah Coal Measures provides a basin-wide marker horizon traceable for over 300 km along strike. The bed is a tephra event unit, the product of a large-scale volcanic eruptive episode involving a pyroclastic volume > 10 km3. The relatively even thickness (?1-1.5 m) of the tuff across the entire northern Bowen Basin (?10 000 km2) implies a distant source. The tuff is ash-rich and its original geochemistry has been compromised by diagenetic alteration. Crystal content (10-15%) is dominated by quartz, suggesting a rhyolitic association. SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircons indicates an age of 258.9 ± 2.7 Ma for the Platypus Tuff Bed, confirming the Late Permian age that has generally been assigned to the Blackwater Group. The age framework now apparent for the coal-bearing Blackwater Group suggests an average depositional rate ranging from ?133 m/106 years for its eastern depocentre in the northern Bowen Basin to ?70 m/106 years in more marginal settings to the west. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

2001-04-01

32

Age and significance of the Platypus Tuff Bed, a regional reference horizon in the Upper Permian Moranbah Coal Measures, north Bowen Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Platypus Tuff Bed in the Permian Moranbah Coal Measures provides a basin-wide marker horizon traceable for over 300 km along strike. The bed is a tephra event unit, the product of a large-scale volcanic eruptive episode involving a pyroclastic volume {gt} 10 km{sup 3}. The relatively even thickness of the tuff across the entire northern Bowen Basin implies a distant source. The tuff is ash-rich and its original geochemistry has been compromised by diagenetic alteration. Crystal content (10-15%) is dominated by quartz, suggesting a rhyolitic association. SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircons indicates an age of 258.9 +/- 2.7 Ma for the Platypus Tuff Bed, confirming the Late Permian age that has generally been assigned to the Blackwater Group. The age framework now apparent for the coal-bearing Blackwater Group suggests an average depositional rate ranging from about to 133 m/10{sup 6} years for its eastern depocentre in the northern Bowen Basin to similar to 70 m/10{sup 6} years in more marginal settings to the west.

Michaelsen, P.; Henderson, R.A.; Crosdale, P.J.; Fanning, C.M. [James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, Qld. (Australia). School of Earth Science

2001-07-01

33

Geochemistry of the late Permian No. 30 coal seam, Zhijin Coalfield of Southwest China: influence of a siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the influence of siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid on the elemental concentrations and mineralogical characteristics of the late Permian anthracitic (Ro,max=3.58%) coal seam (No. 30) from the Zhijin Coalfield in western Guizhou Province, SW China. Coal samples were examined using instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray, and isotope analysis. The modes of occurrence of elements were determined using a sequential chemical extraction procedure. The studies indicate that the No. 30 coal seam has a very high content of veined quartz (vol. 9.4%), whose isotope values of ?30Si and ?18O are 0.6 per mille and 15.4 per mille, respectively, indicating that the quartz originated from siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid (formation temperature 160-220 deg. C) rather than detrital material of terrigenous origin or magmatic hydrothermal inputs. Results of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray and sequential chemical extraction procedure show that the veined quartz is the dominant source of Fe, Cu, U, Pd, Pt and Ir, which are as high as 2.31%, 356, 8, 2.1, 2.43, and 0.006 ?g/g in this coal seam, respectively. The studies have also found that elements, such as Fe and Cu are mainly in the veined quartz and they do not occur as sulfides in this coal seam, in sharp contrast to many other coal seams in China. The geochemical and mineralogical anomalies of the coal are attributed to the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid

2004-08-01

34

Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2008-12-01

35

Implications of variations in petrography on the aliphatic hydrocarbon composition within the Barrett Coal Member, Upper Permian Wittingham Coal Measures, northern Sydney Basin, New South Wales (NSW), Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed petrographic analyses revealed cycles of peat formation defined by the relationship between vitrinite and inertinite. These cycles also correspond to coal plies that are separated invariably by dirtbands. The petrographic cyclicity of the Barrett coal is also manifested by a stratigraphic cyclicity in the biomarker composition of the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. A delta-plain depositional setting is suggested for this coal. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Casareo, F.E.; Batts, B.D.; Conaghan, P.J.; George, S.C.; Jardine, D.R. [Macquarie University, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

1995-12-31

36

Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)  

Science.gov (United States)

This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

2012-01-01

37

Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were recognized early on to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. Different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, throughout the region represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are not found in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in large numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

Fontaine, H.

2002-07-01

38

Sill-induced evaporite- and coal-metamorphism in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia, and the implications for end-Permian environmental crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. Petrographic investigations of the metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the crisis.

Svensen, Henrik; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

2014-05-01

39

Permian and uranium metallogeny  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Europe, many uranium deposits are of Permian age and the following models are discussed: (1) Formation of uranium deposits during the Permian. Many granite-associated uranium deposits in France, Portugal and Czechoslovakia are dated at between 290 and 260 Ma. Stable isotopic data have shown that sedimentary formation waters and meteoric waters are important in the mineralisation process. (2) Uranium preconcentration during the Permian. Sedimentation is favourable to uranium concentration, especially in organic-rich environments. The presence of zirconium in pitchblende indicates leaching of cinerites during the mineralisation process. (3) Formation of uranium deposits in the Permian host rocks. Two major periods (170-185 Ma and 100-110 Ma) were identified that correspond to phases of extension related to oceanic openings. For the 180 Ma mineralisation, the role of sedimentary brines has been demonstrated. Some mineralisation of Alpine age are also known. (4) Spatial association of uranium deposits with Permian formations. The Mullenbach uranium deposit (FRG) located in Upper Carboniferous sediments beneath sediments of Permian age has been dated at 240 Ma. This corresponds to the tectonic phase between the Permian and the Triassic periods. Fluid circulation along a vertical redox front (oxidised Permian - reduced Carboniferous) is responsible for the deposition of pitchblende

1990-01-01

40

Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite  

Science.gov (United States)

Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C. -L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, J.; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

The use of sequential extraction to determine the distribution and modes of occurrence of mercury in Permian Huaibei coal, Anhui Province, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sequential extraction tests using a Flow Injection Mercury System (FIMS) were done on 34 samples collected from the number 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 coal seams in the Huaibei Coalfield; average total mercury (Hg) concentrations for the seams were 0.13, 0.18, 0.54, 0.34, and 0.19 mg/kg respectively. The average value for all of the coal samples was 0.26 mg/kg, which is higher than most Chinese and U.S. coals. Six modes of Hg occurrence were recognized, including: water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic-bound, carbonate-bound, silicate-bound, and sulfide-bound Hg. With rare exception, little Hg was found in water-soluble, ion-exchangeable or carbonate-bound forms. Sulfide-bound Hg and organic-bound Hg dominated seams 3, 4, and 10, whereas silicate-bound Hg dominated seams 5 and 7. The relatively high Hg values observed in seams 5 and 7, especially in parting samples, are attributed to Hg enrichment by magmatic intrusions. (author)

Zheng, Liugen [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Science, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Guijian [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shaanxi (China); Qi, Cuicui; Zhang, Ying [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wong, Minghong [Croucher Institute for Environmental Science, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

2008-01-21

42

Permian potentiometric analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

1983-01-01

43

Permian potentiometric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties.

Devary, J.L.

1983-09-01

44

XIV international congress on the Carboniferous and Permian (ICCP): programme with abstracts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document contains approximately 300 abstracts of papers presented at 33 technical sessions and three poster sessions. The sessions are Carboniferous stratigraphy (2 sessions), Upper Paleozoic reefs, Carboniferous coal (2 sessions), Lower to Middle Permian chronostratigraphy: Permian subcommission (2 sessions), micropaleontology (2 sessions), core conference, Upper Paleozoic palynology, stratigraphy, tectonics and chemostratigraphy (2 sessions), cyclotherms (2 sessions), western Canada geology, petroleum geology, Upper Paleozoic macroflora (2 sessions), Carboniferous boundaries SCCS, Pander Society - non C/P conodonts (3 sessions), Permian-Triassic boundary, Canadian Paleontology Conference (CPC 9) (3 sessions), Upper Paleozoic stratigraphy and paleogeography (2 sessions), and paleoecology, biostratigraphy and macropaleoontology (2 sessions). Twenty-five are abstracted separately.

Hills, L.; Bamber, W. [eds.

1999-07-01

45

Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of coal resources and the factors affecting coal development in the Yukon is provided. There are more than one hundred known occurrences of coal in the Yukon. Efforts have been made to develop deposits in four areas: Division Mountain, southwest of Whitehorse, the Bonnet Plume Basin in the north where the largest reserves are found, and the Rock River area. Information is provided on coal properties, economic issues and markets, competing resources, mining costs, regulatory issues, coal production and use in neighbouring areas, history of coal development, environmental impacts of mining and burning coal, and the estimated cost of coal-fired power. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

46

Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Market report on coal for the month of June 1989. Topics covered include: the strike at the Pittston Coal Group's mines in Virginia and West Virginia which is affecting shipment; Japan's industrial steam coal demand; acute shortage of coal in Australia due to wet weather and industrial unrest; imports and exports scenarios in Europe; and the impact on the coal industry by the Bush administration's clean air proposals.

1989-07-01

47

Palaeogeographic settings of Australian coal measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oldest Australian coals are Carboniferous in age and economically insignificant. All subsequent geological Periods up to the Tertiary, however, have provided at least some economic coal deposits. The most important are the Permian black coals and the Tertiary brown coals. The coals formed in a variety of palaeogeographic settings. This paper provides a brief overview of the settings of each major coal-bearing sequence and basin. 71 refs., 10 figs.

Brakel, A.T.; Wilford, G.E.; Totterdell, J.M.; Bradshaw, M. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1995-05-01

48

Coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

2001-01-01

49

Species of the medullosan ovule Stephanospermum from the Lopingian (late Permian) floras of China  

Science.gov (United States)

The medullosan pteridosperm ovule Stephanospermum Brongniart is a well-known component of Carboniferous aged coal-ball and siderite nodule floras from North America and Europe but also occurs in the Permian floras of Cathaysia where it is represented by the Lopingian (late Permian) aged species Stephanospermum trunctatum (Li) Wang et al. (2009) from coal-balls in the Wangjiazhai Formation in Southern China. We provide a detailed emendation of S. trunctatum and illustrate it comprehensively for the first time, and document an additional specimen from the Wangjiazhai Formation coal-ball assemblage that we assign to Stephanospermum shuichengensis sp. nov. S. shuichengensis is distinguished from S. trunctatum by the absence of apical teeth in the sclerotesta and non-obovate base. The two species of Stephanospermum from the Wangjiazhai Formation are important as they extend the stratigraphic and geographical range of the genus from the Pennsylvanian of Euramerica into the Lopingian of Southern China, and demonstrate that the genus persisted in wetland, peat forming environments in the run up to the end-Permian mass extinction event. The 44 MY stratigraphic discontinuity between the Euramerican and the Cathaysian species, here named the Stephanospermum gap, leads us to infer that the genus was likely to have occurred in the Pennsylvanian-Permian successions of southern Russia and northern China that are geographically and stratigraphically intermediate to the known occurrences but from which the genus has yet to be discovered. Medullosan pteridosperms appear to have become extinct at or immediately prior to the Permian-Triassic boundary that coincides with the Permo-Trias mass extinction event; although the exact causes of this loss in plant diversity remains unknown, a response to regional climatic drying is likely to have been a contributing factor.

Spencer, Alan R. T.; Wang, Shi-Jun; Dunn, Michael T.; Hilton, Jason

2013-10-01

50

Impacts of Siberian Trap Eruption on NW Pangea during the Latest Permian Extinction (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sverdrup Basin, Canadian High Arctic, was located on the NW margin of Pangea during the Latest Permian Extinction. Strong mid-latitude westerly winds would have transported stratospheric ash clouds from Siberian Trap eruptions to the Sverdrup Basin, making it one of the best localities to examine impacts on marine systems. Three layers of organic rich shale, immediately below the Latest Permian Extinction boundary, are dominated by combustion-derived isotropic chars with optical properties that indicate intense, high temperature carbonization and rapid combustion of organic material that can not be associated with burial-related thermal maturation. These particles are consistent however with coal fly-ash suggesting significant loading of coal ash occurred just prior to the mass extinction. Deposition of coal combustion products could have had multiple deleterious affects including nutrient loading, light limitation, and release of toxic elements to marine systems. Loading events of toxic elements commonly associated with coal (e.g. Cr), are found associated with fly-ash layers. The Sverdrup Basin also records significant Hg anomalies associated with the Latest Permian Extinction, including a breakdown of the normal marine process of organic matter mediated Hg drawdown. High Hg loading rates are interpreted to be associated with the mega-eruption event of the Siberian Traps as volcanoes are the largest source of mercury in the natural Hg cycle.

Grasby, S. E.; Sanei, H.; Beauchamp, B.

2013-12-01

51

A sudden end-Permian mass extinction (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian mass extinction is the largest of the Phanerozoic. In the immediate aftermath the marine ecosystem was dominated by microbial and communities with disaster taxa. Plausible kill mechanism includes an extremely rapid, explosive release of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulfide. Siberian flood volcanism has been suggested as the most possible mechanism to trigger the massive release of greenhouse gases from volcanic eruptions and interaction of magmas with carbon from thick organic-rich deposits or rapid venting of coal-derived methane or massive combustion of coal. A sharp ?13C isotopic excursion, rapid disappearance of carbonate benthic communities and ?18O data from conodont apatite suggest rapid global warming. The end-Permian mass extinction occurred in less than 200,000 years. This extinction interval is constrained by two ash beds (Beds 25 and 28) at the Meishan section. However, the extinction patterns remain controversial largely due to the condensed nature of the Meishan sections. Geochemical signals and their interpretations are also contentious. Thus, the level of achievable stratigraphic resolution becomes crucial to determine the nature of the event and a detailed study of the extinction interval is essential to unravel the extinction pattern, chemostratigraphy, and the causes. However, the extinction interval at Meishan is only 26 cm thick and contains distinct gaps at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and possibly the base of Bed 25. Thus, it is impossible to resolve a detailed extinction pattern. Studying expanded sections is crucial to understand the detailed events before, during and after the main extinction. In this report, we show a highly-expanded Permian-Triassic boundary section in Guangxi Province, South China. The last 4.5 m between beds 22 and 28 of the Meishan sections is represented by a sequence of ~560 m at the section and the extinction interval between beds 24e and 28 at Meishan is represented by an interval about ~95 m which contains abundant benthic fossils. This expanded section reveals a very sudden extinction in a transgressive sequence that is inferred to have occurred within a few thousands of years.

Shen, S.

2013-12-01

52

Biostratigraphic potential of Permian spore-pollen floras from GSQ Mundubbera 5 and 6, Taroom Trough. [Queensland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GSQ Mundubbera 5 and 6 are fully cored stratigraphic bores located on the eastern margin of the Taroom Trough, Queensland. The rock units intersected in these bores collectively include Baralaba Coal Measures, Gyranda Formation, Flat Top Formation, and Barfield Formation. All studied assemblages are of Middle Permian age.

Foster, C.B.

1982-02-01

53

Permian Basin as a radioactive waste repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Permian Basin comprises portions of many structural basins in which halite was deposited close together aerially during the Permian Period of time. It contains at least five areas where salt beds within a formation cumulatively total greater than 200 feet, and are overlain by between 1,000 and 5,000 feet of strata: the Colorado-Kansas, Kansas, Oklahoma-Texas, Clovis and Carlsbad areas. A few other areas within the Permian Basin may contain salt beds collectively greater than 200 feet thick. The Carlsbad area contains a great thickness of salt and covers a very large area. For the Clovis and Oklahoma-Texas areas there is little data available for the Texas portions. The Kansas area has the only halite mines with rooms comparable to those of the proposed waste repository facility. There is little data available for the Colorado-Kansas area, especially for the Colorado portion. The Permian Basin major tectonic elements were formed before deposition of Permian salt beds, and only minor igneous activity and possible fault movement is along the periphery. The greatest seismic activity is associated with the Nemaha Ridge along the northeast side of the Permian Basin, and there is no proven movement, only a suggestion of movement in the form of lineaments to have caused earthquakes. All of the Permian Basin is in zone 1 of Coffman and Cloud (1970) where only distant earthquakes may cause damage to structures; therefore, ground rupture is not anticipated in the Permian Basin during the time that the radioactive waste is dangerous.

Smith, J.W.

1975-11-02

54

Acritarchs from the Number 5 Seam in the Permian Vryheid Formation, Witbank Coalfield, South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two species of marine acritarchs, Mehlisphaeridium fibratum and Mehlisphaeridium gondwanaensis, are described from a shale parting near the top of the No. 5 Seam at Greenside Colliery, Witbank Coalfield, Republic of South Africa. The sedimentary sequence containing this coal seam consists of fine- to very coarse-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal which constitute part of the Early Permian Vryheid Formation (Karoo Supergroup). The paleoenvironmental implications of the discovery of acritarchs imply that marine conditions prevailed in the basin at the time of deposition of this particular shale unit. 56 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Venter, M.E.; Cairncross, B. [Rand Afrikaans University, Auckland Park (South Africa). Dept. of Geology

1995-12-01

55

Coal potential of Antartica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

1987-01-01

56

Permian Gondwana sedimentation in Yellandu (Singareni) coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India with notes on regional paleogeography and tectonic history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Yellandu coalfield of Andhra Pradesh contains 850 m Permian Gondwana rocks composed of Barakar, Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations. They are characterised by fining upward cycles. The sandstones are channel shaped, sheet-like and multistoried, and planar and trough cross bedded. The shales are massive to laminated and form thin tenses in the Barakar, but moderately thick sheets in the overlying Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations. The coal seams are thin and lensoid. Paleocurrent studies suggest consistently northwesterly dispersal direction areally and temporally. Evidence indicates that initially braided streams at the onset of Early Permian Barakar sedimentation became meandering through into Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations of Middle and Late Permian, respectively. The close similarity in lithofacies depositional environment and dispersal direction of Permian rocks of Yellandu coalfields and those of neighbouring Pranhita-Godavari basin in the east, and their geological and tectonic setting suggest that the Yellandu coalfield was part of the Godavari basin until the Late Permian or Early Triassic.

Tewari, R.C. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Geology

1998-11-01

57

From wetlands to wet spots: Environmental tracking and the fate of carboniferous elements in early permian tropical fl oras  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverse wetland vegetation flourished at the margins of the Midland Basin in north-central Texas during the Pennsylvanian Period. Extensive coastal swamps and an ever-wet, tropical climate supported lush growth of pteridosperm, marattialean fern, lycopsid, and calamite trees, and a wide array of ground cover and vines. As the Pennsylvanian passed into the Permian, the climate of the area became drier and more seasonal, the great swamps disappeared regionally, and aridity spread. The climatic inferences are based on changes in sedimentary patterns and paleosols as well as the general paleobotanical trends. The lithological patterns include a change from a diverse array of paleosols, including Histosols (ever-wet waterlogged soils), in the late Pennsylvanian to greatly diminished paleosol diversity with poorly developed Vertisols by the Early-Middle Permian transition. In addition, coal seams were present with wide areal distribution in the late Pennsylvanian whereas beds of evaporates were common by the end of the Early Permian. During this climatic transition, wetland plants were confi ned to shrinking "wet spots" found along permanent streams where the vegetation they constituted remained distinct if increasingly depauperate in terms of species richness. By Leonardian (late Early Permian) time, most of the landscape was dominated by plants adapted to seasonal drought and a deep water table. Wetland elements were reduced to scattered pockets, dominated primarily by weedy forms and riparian specialists tolerant of flooding and burial. By the Middle Permian, even these small wetland pockets had disappeared from the region. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

DiMichele, W. A.; Tabor, N. J.; Chaney, D. S.; Nelson, W. J.

2006-01-01

58

Total petroleum systems of the Bonaparte Gulf Basin area, Australia; Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic; Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian; Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province (USGS #3910) of northern Australia contains three important hydrocarbon source-rock intervals. The oldest source-rock interval and associated reservoir rocks is the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system. This petroleum system is located at the southern end of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and includes both onshore and offshore areas within a northwest to southeast trending Paleozoic rift that was initiated in the Devonian. The Milligans Formation is a Carboniferous marine shale that sources accumulations of both oil and gas in Carboniferous and Permian deltaic, marine shelf carbonate, and shallow to deep marine sandstones. The second petroleum system in the Paleozoic rift is the Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian. Source rocks include Lower Permian Keyling Formation delta-plain coals and marginal marine shales combined with Upper Permian Hyland Bay Formation prodelta shales. These source-rock intervals provide gas and condensate for fluvial, deltaic, and shallow marine sandstone reservoirs primarily within several members of the Hyland Bay Formation. The Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian petroleum system is located in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, north of the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system, and may extend northwest under the Vulcan graben sub-basin. The third and youngest petroleum system is the Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic system that is located seaward of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf on the Australian continental shelf, and trends southwest-northeast. Source-rock intervals in the Vulcan graben sub-basin include deltaic mudstones of the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation and organic-rich marine shales of the Upper Jurassic Vulcan Formation and Lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals Formation. These intervals produce gas, oil, and condensate that accumulates in, shallow- to deep-marine sandstone reservoirs of the Challis and Vulcan Formations of Jurassic to Cretaceous age. Organic-rich, marginal marine claystones and coals of the Plover Formation (Lower to Upper Jurassic), combined with marine claystones of the Flamingo Group and Darwin Formation (Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous) comprise the source rocks for the remaining area of the system. These claystones and coals source oil, gas, and condensate accumulations in reservoirs of continental to marine sandstones of the Plover Formation and Flamingo Group. Shales of the regionally distributed Lower Cretaceous Bathurst Island Group and intraformational shales act as seals for hydrocarbons trapped in anticlines and fault blocks, which are the major traps of the province. Production in the Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province began in 1986 using floating production facilities, and had been limited to three offshore fields located in the Vulcan graben sub-basin. Cumulative production from these fields totaled more than 124 million barrels of oil before the facilities were removed after production fell substantially in 1995. Production began in 1998 from three offshore wells in the Zone of Cooperation through floating production facilities. After forty years of exploration, a new infrastructure of pipelines and facilities are planned to tap already discovered offshore reserves and to support additional development.

Bishop, M. G.

1999-01-01

59

Geological conditions of occurrence and petrographic-chemical characteristics of Indian coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presents the geological conditions of occurrence of the Permian (Gondwana) coking, semicoking, non-coking coal, Cretaceous and Tertiary hard coal and Tertiary and Pleistocene brown coal in India. Maps of main coal basins in India are shown and data are given. Petrographic, chemical and quality characteristics of the coals mined and geochemical characteristics of coal ashes are given and compared with European coals. Projection triangles of maceral and microlithotype composition of coals are presented. Maceral and microlithotype composition of Indian coals is given in a table. The conclusion is reached that the petrographical composition of the Indian Gondwana coals is featured by high inertinite content. According to reflectivity of vitrinite, the Permian Gondwana coals can be categorized into coking, semicoking and non-coking coals with the values of the reflectivity index being 0.85-1.5%, 0.75-0.85% and 0.42-0.7% respectively. 18 refs.

Varna, A.T. (Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland))

1990-07-01

60

Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Upper permian foraminifera from East Greenland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foraminiferal assemblages recorded from limestones of the Upper Permian Wegener Halvoe Formation in the Wegener Halvoe, Karstryggen and Clavering Oe areas of East Greenland mostly consist of the nodosariid genera Dentalina, Frondina, Geinitzina and Ichtyolaria, and the miliolid genera Agathammina nd Calcitornella. More limited assemblages dominated by Agathammina were recorded from the underlying Karstrygen Formation. The foraminifera are all benthonic, mostly shallow-water forms. The fauna is of Zechstein aspect and suggests a broad correlation with Zechstein 1 and younger strata in the Zechstein basin of North-West Europe. Solid specimens of agglutinated foraminifera, mostly referable to Ammobaculites and Ammodiscus, were recorded from the youngest Permian strata, The Schuchert Dal Formation, in the Schuchert Dal. (au) 32 refs.

Pattison, J. [Loughborough Road, West Brigford, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Stemmerik, L. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

1996-12-31

62

Floras of Australian coal measures with notes on their associated Mesozoic faunas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reconstructing the vegetation of coal swamps and nearby environments is fraught with uncertainty. Ascertaining which plants actually contributed to the coal is never easy and becomes progressively more difficult with increasing geological age. Both palynological and macrofossil evidence is used to reconstruct the vegetation of the Permian and Mesozoic coal deposits in Australia. 129 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Balme, B.E.; Kershaw, A.P.; Webb, J.A. [University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia). Dept. of Geology

1995-05-01

63

The Greta Coal Measures: clastic sedimentation in a high accommodation setting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deposition and sedimentology of the Early Permian Greta Coal Measures, Australia, are discussed. These are a regressive wedge of coarse clastic sediments with generally discontinuous coal seams of variable thickness. Proximate and maceral analysis of the Greta and Tangorin Coal seams were studied to determine the provinciality of the two seams. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Heeswijck, A. van [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

1998-08-01

64

Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments of the Pyeongan Supergroup (Carboniferous Permian) in the Taebaek area, mid-east Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pyeongan Supergroup (Carboniferous-Permian) consists of a thick siliciclastic sequence (1700 m thick). Recent sedimentological work in the Taebaek area has refined the lithostratigraphic units: Manhang, Geumcheon-Jangseong, Hambaeksan, Dosagok, Gohan and Donggo formations in ascending order. The entire sequence is represented by thirteen sedimentary facies, which can be organized into seven facies associations (FA). The lower part of the Manhang Formation (FA 1) (Moscovian) consists of crudely cross-stratified conglomerate, massive sandstone and gray homogeneous siltstone, formed in shoreface off river mouth, whereas purple siltstone and grainstone of the upper part (FA 2) probably formed in a coastal plain environment. The Geumcheon-Jangseong Formation (Moscovian-Artinskian) consists of dark gray sandstone, dark gray shale, coal and bioturbated wackestone (FA 3) formed in a lagoonal environment. The Hambaeksan Formation (Kungurian) comprises milky white, crudely stratified, conglomerate, gray coarse sandstone and partly laminated black shale (FA 4), representing a shoreface progradation. The Dosagok Formation (Late Permian) is characterized by an alternation of purple fine sandstone and conglomerate (FA 5), formed in a bedload-dominated fluvial system. The Gohan Formation (Late Permian) is mostly composed of upward-fining units (massive sandstone to dark gray siltstone) (FA 6), suggesting a restricted inter-distributary bay environment. The Donggo Formation (?Late Permian) consists of cross-stratified coarse sandstone and purple sandstone (FA 7), interpreted as deposits of perennial, sandy braided river system.

Lee, H. S.; Chough, S. K.

2006-03-01

65

Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F-T plant development in the U.S. is in the Alaskan oil fields.

Gerald P. Huffman

2000-10-27

66

The Major-ion Composition of Permian Seawater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major-ion (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -}) composition of Permian seawater was determined from chemical analyses of fluid inclusions in marine halites. New data from the Upper Permian San Andres Formation of Texas (274--272 Ma) and Salado Formation of New Mexico (251 Ma), analyzed by the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) method, along with published chemical compositions of fluid inclusions in Permian marine halites from North America (two formations of different ages) and the Central and Eastern European basins (eight formations of four different ages) show that Permian seawater shares chemical characteristics with modern seawater, including SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > Ca{sup 2+} at the point of gypsum precipitation, evolution into Mg{sup 2+}-Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-Cl{sup -} brines, and Mg{sup 2+}/K{sup +} ratios {approx} 5. Permian seawater, however, is slightly depleted in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and enriched in Ca{sup 2+}, although modeling results do not rule out Ca{sup 2+} concentrations close to those in present-day seawater. Na{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} in Permian seawater are close to (slightly below) their concentrations in modern seawater. Permian and modern seawater are both classified as aragonite seas, with Mg{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} ratios >2, conditions favorable for precipitation of aragonite and magnesian calcite as ooids and cements. The chemistry of Permian seawater was modeled using the chemical composition of brine inclusions for three periods: Lower Permian Asselian-Sakmarian (296--283 Ma), Lower Permian Artinskian-Kungurian (283--274 Ma), and Upper Permian Tatarian (258--251 Ma). Parallel changes in the chemistry of brine inclusions from equivalent age evaporites in North America, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe show that seawater underwent secular variations in chemistry over the 50 million years of the Permian. Modeled SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations are 20 mmol per kg H{sub 2}O (mmolal) and 19 mmolal in the Asselian-Sakmarian and Artinskian-Kungurian, with higher concentrations in the Upper Permian Tatarian (23 mmolal). Modeled Ca{sup 2+} is at or above its concentration in modern seawater throughout the Permian. Mg{sup 2+} is close to (slightly below) its concentration in modern seawater (55 mmolal) in the Asselian-Sakmarian (52 mmolal), and Tatarian (52 mmolal), but slightly higher than modern seawater in the Artinskian-Kungurian (60 mmolal). Mg{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} ratios are 3.5 (total range = 2.7 to 5.5) in the Lower Permian and rose slightly to 3.7 (total range = 3.1 to 5.8) in the Upper Permian, primarily due to decreases in Ca{sup 2+}. These results are consistent with models that predict oscillations in the major-ion composition of Phanerozoic seawater on the basis of changes in the midocean ridge/river water flux ratio driven by changes in the rate of midocean ridge crust production. The Permian was characterized by low sea levels, icehouse conditions, and southern hemisphere glaciation. Such conditions, analogous to the present ice age, and the similarities between Permian seawater and modern seawater, all suggest that general Phanerozoic supercycles, driven by mantle convection and global volcanicity, also control the major-ion chemistry of seawater.

Lowenstein, T K. [State University of New York, Binghamton; Timofeeff, Michael N. [State University of New York, Binghamton; Kovalevych, Volodymyr M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Naukova, Ukraine; Horita, Juske [ORNL

2005-01-01

67

Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

The Grassi Detachment Fault is located in the Orobic Alps east of Lake Como and was described by Froitzheim et al. (2008) as an Early Permian extensional structure. Many issues still remained unclear, like the exact timing of faulting and the extension from the well-exposed part of the detachment towards west. The Grassi Detachment Fault separates the Variscan Basement in its footwall from the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Early Permian Collio Formation within its hanging wall, marked by a mylonitic and cataclastic layer whose textures indicate top-to-the-southeast displacement. The footwall basement is formed by the Variscan Morbegno Gneiss and two granitic intrusions, the Val Biandino Quarz Diorite (VBQD) and the Valle Biagio Granite (VBG). The former is syntectonic with respect to the detachment, whereas for the latter, the relation to the detachment is unknown. The age of the VBQD is poorly defined as 312 Ma ± 48 Ma (Thöni et al. 1992); the VBG has not been dated. Volcanic rocks of the Collio Formation in the hanging wall may represent the extrusive part of the magmatic system. In our study area west of Val Biandino, several faults and shear zones are exposed: (1) The Grassi Detachment Fault is represented by mylonites and cataclasites with top-SE shear sense, between basement rocks and the Collio Volcanics. Towards NW, it is truncated by the unconformably overlying Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. This may reflect the eroded culmination of a Permian metamorphic core complex. (2) A steeply NW-dipping, brittle normal fault is found further west in the footwall between VBQD and VBG. It is sealed by the basal unconformity of the Verrucano Lombardo and therefore should also be of Early Permian age (Sciunnach, 2001). It may represent an antithetic fault with respect to the detachment, accommodating the uplift of the magmatically inflated core complex. (3) The Biandino Fault is a steeply SE-dipping reverse fault, affecting also the Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

2014-05-01

68

Upper Permian fluviolacustrine deposits of southern Africa and the late Permian climate southern Gondwana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upper Permian-age fluviolacustrine deposits are widespread throughout southern Africa. In the southern part of the subcontinent, where deposition took place in foreland basin settings, the sequences are thicker and fluvial-dominated whereas, lacustrine-dominated deposits accumulated in settings of low relief, broad warping and mild faulting at the northern end. The geographic extent and lateral correlatability of these deposits suggest the existence of concurrent, perhaps interconnected, giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks throughout the subcontinent, thousands of miles inland from the sea. This period of major lake development within fluvial depositional settings suggests climatic conditions that sustained a uniquely wet continental environment, deep in the heart of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Simulations based on various general circulation and energy balance climate models predict extreme seasonal temperatures and aridity for Gondwana at the palaeolatitudes of southern Africa during the Late Permian. On the other hand, distribution of climate-sensitive rocks, palynologic and palaeobotanic data and vertebrate fossils, coroborate the temperature climate documented by sedimentologic studies. The erroneous modeling results may have arisen from the fact that the models do not employ palaeogeographies that accommodate the existence of the vast lakes and rivers of Gondwana. The Late Permian palaeogeography of series of giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks would have had considerable influences on the regional climate. This suggests that it is imperative that numerical modeling studies incorporate accurate palaeogeographies, constructed based on available geological data, in order to recreate past climates with acceptable degree of accuracy.

Yemane, K. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

69

Paleoenvironments of lacustrine coals - the occurrence of algae in humic coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to previous studies, there is a significant difference in the thickness and number of coal seams from the foredeep and the intermontane coal basins (or basins situated on platforms and cratons). Recent petrographic and geochemical investigations on selected coal samples from foredeep and intermontane basins of Europe (Carboniferous and Tertiary) and South American (Permian) show that the coal seams in each of these coal basins have significant differences in their petrographic and geochemical compositions. Many intermontane coals are characterized by more liptinite than foredeep coals. Fluorescence studies show that up to 75% of the liptinite macerals of these humic coals can be attributed to alginite and/or degradation products of algae. This indicates that generally subaquatic conditions occurred more often in the peats that formed within intermontane basins. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Hagemann, H.W.; Wold, M. (Aachen University of Technology (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle)

1989-06-01

70

Synecology of lower Permian Qixia Formation in Hunan and Guangxi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fossils found in lower Permian Qixia Formation in Hunan and Guangxi often appear in typical associations. Each of these associations indicates the ecological factors of the environments in which they were formed. This paper describes the organic compositions and ecological character of these associations and discusses their significance in environmental analysis. According to the synecological analysis of these associations, some paleogeographic inferences of Hunan and Guangxi in Lower Permian Qixia stage have been drawn. 7 refs., 8 figs.

Liu, Z. (Xiangtan Mining Institute (China). Geology Department)

1992-06-01

71

Comparative Earth History and Late Permian Mass Extinction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into...

Knoll, Andrew; Canfield, Donald E.; Grotzinger, John P.; Bambach, Richard

1996-01-01

72

C1-stably expansive flows  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the C1 interior of the set of vector fields whose integrated flows are expansive is characterized as the set of vector fields without singularities satisfying both Axiom A and the quasi-transversality condition, and it is proved that the above vector fields possessing the shadowing property must be structurally stable. As a corollary, there exists a non-empty C1 open set of vector fields whose integrated flows do not have the shadowing property.

Moriyasu, K.; Sakai, K.; Sun, W.

73

Coal in the Cranky Corner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bond group's involvement in coal mining is through the Sydney based company Pacific Copper Ltd, which operates Queensland's Rhonda Collieries owned by the Swan Brewery Ltd and the Great Greta Collieries in NSW which are owned by Pacific Copper subsidiary Barix Pty Ltd. Great Greta is located in the Hunter Valley of NSW east of Singleton and holds reserves of about 29 million tonnes of coal in leases which cover about 974 hectares. The area falls within the Cranky Corner coal basin which is an outlier of the Permian Sydney Basin and contains three coal seams. They are the Tangorin, Eui and Stanhope, although at the moment only the uppermost seam, the Tangorin is being mined to a maximum operating depth of 180 metres below the surface.

1986-06-01

74

Illite/smectite clays preserving porosity at depth in Lower Permian Reservoirs, Northern Perth Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The appraisal well Hovea-2, drilled in July 2002, was the first well in the onshore Perth Basin to discover commercial volumes of gas in sandstone reservoirs of the Artinskian (Early Permian) High Cliff Sandstone sealed beneath basal shales and siltstones of the Irwin River Coal Measures. A drill stem test in this formation, in the interval 2,370-419 mMDRT (measured depth below rotary table), flowed gas to surface at 16.5 MMcfd. Thereafter, the High Cliff Sandstone became an important play for exploration in the basin; however, no additional discoveries have been made in this reservoir, even though it has been tested in another seven wells (Jingemia-1, Eremia-1, Kunzia-1, Corybas-1, Yardarino-6, Hakia-2 and Bunjong-1).

D.D. Ferdinando; J.C. Baker; A. Gongora; B.A. Pidgeon

2007-07-01

75

Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Permian Basin locatd in the western part of Texas. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

1983-01-01

76

c=1 from c<1: Bulk and boundary correlators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the c{sub L}=25 limit, which corresponds to c=1 string theory, of bulk and boundary correlation functions of Liouville theory with FZZT boundary conditions. This limit is singular and requires a renormalization of vertex operators. We formulate a regularization procedure which allows to extract finite physical results. A particular attention is paid to c=1 string theory compactified at the self-dual radius R=1. In this case, the boundary correlation functions diverge even after the multiplicative renormalization. We show that all infinite contributions can be interpreted as contact terms arising from degenerate world sheet configurations. After their subtraction, one gets a well defined set of correlation functions. We also obtain several new results for correlation functions in Liouville theory at generic central charge.

Alexandrov, Sergei [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.alexandrov@phys.uu.nl; Imeroni, Emiliano [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.imeroni@phys.uu.nl

2005-12-26

77

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid gas hydrate release (the “clathrate gun” hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ?400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2‰ negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

2014-05-01

78

The Permian mega floras of Uruguay.A synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Permian megafloras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the microfloral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called ''transition xilotaphofloras'' as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

2007-10-10

79

Upper Permian (Late Changhsingian) marine strata in Nan Province, northern Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Upper Permian of northeastern Thailand (Loei Province), continental plants have been found and to the north in Laos near Luang Prabang, continental vertebrates (Dicynodon species) have been discovered. The Middle Permian is in sharp contrast to this as it is represented only by marine sediments. West of these areas in the province of Nan in Thailand, the Upper Permian is represented by marine sediments which extend to a high level in the Upper Permian and continental beds appear to be entirely absent, at least at Pha Dang Khwai, a locality where limestone extends from the end of the Lower Permian to the Triassic.

Fontaine, Henri; Hoang, Thi Than; Kavinate, Sathaporn; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Vachard, Daniel

2013-10-01

80

Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. (Texas Christian Univ., Ft. Worth, TX (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Thermal Conductivity of Permian Basin Bedded Salt at Elevated Pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of thermal conductivity were made on five core samples of bedded rock salt from the Permian Basin in Texas. The sample size was 100 mm in diameter by 250 mm in length. Measurements were conducted under confining pressures ranging from 3.8 to ...

W. B. Durham C. O. Boro J. M. Beiriger

1984-01-01

82

Chronological constraints on the Permian geodynamic evolution of eastern Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The New England Orogen in eastern Australia developed as a subduction-related orogen in the Late Devonian to Carboniferous, and was modified in the Permian by deformation, magmatism and oroclinal bending. The geodynamics associated with the development of the New England oroclines and the exact timing of major tectonic events is still enigmatic. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar results from metasedimentary and volcanic rocks from the southern New England Orogen. Eight grains from four metasedimentary samples (Texas beds) that originated in the Late Devonian to Carboniferous accretionary wedge yielded reproducible plateau ages of ~ 293, ~ 280, ~ 270 and ~ 260 Ma. These results suggest a complex thermal history associated with multiple thermal events, possibly due to the proximity to Permian intrusions. Two samples from mafic volcanic rocks in the southernmost New England Orogen (Alum Mountain Volcanics and Werrie Basalt) yielded eruption ages of 271.8 ± 1.8 and 266.4 ± 3.0 Ma. The origin of these rocks was previously attributed to slab breakoff, following a period of widespread extension in the early Permian. We suggest that this phase of volcanism marked the transition from backarc extension assisted by trench retreat to overriding-plate contraction. The main phase of oroclinal bending has likely occurred during backarc extension in the early Permian, and terminated at 271–266 Ma with the processes of slab segmentation and breakoff.

Li, Pengfei; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Vasconcelos, Paulo

2014-03-01

83

Thermal conductivity of Permian Basin embedded salt at elevated pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report on the results of measurements of thermal conductivity made on five core samples of bedded rock salt from the Permian Basin in Texas. This work was done in line with the premise that rock salt formations are among the leading contenders as sites for nuclear waste disposal

1985-01-01

84

S=1 for c=1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We compare the tachyon correlation functions in the Liouville path integral and in the string field theory approaches to quantum gravity coupled to c = 1 matter. Both calculations yield external leg factors which have poles at the quantized values of momentum where there are extra degrees of freedom in the form of dressed special primary fields. If the external leg factors are absorbed in the redefinition of vertex operators, then the correlation functions are zero per unit volume, characteristic of a free-field theory in two dimensions. Indeed, although its bosonic action is non-polynomial, the string field theory is non-interacting if the reflections from the spatial boundaries are ignored. (orig.).

Gross, D.J.; Klebanov, I.R. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Joseph Henry Labs.)

1991-07-29

85

Concentration and distribution of uranium in Chinese coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representative coal uranium concentrations are essential not only to better estimate the environmental and health effects associated with the uranium emissions from coal utilization but also to utilize the potentially valuable uranium in coal combustion by products. The average uranium concentrations of coals in China are estimated based on uranium analyses of 1535 coal samples and coal reserves tonnage. The results showed that the estimated average weighted uranium concentrations of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian (C2-P1), Late Permian (P2), Late Triassic (T3), Early and Middle Jurassic (J1-2), Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (J3-K1), and Eogene and Neogene (E-N) coals are 2.91, 5.43, 3.67, 1.18, 1.84, and 3.92 ?g/g, respectively. The overall average weighted uranium concentration of coals in China is 2.31 ?g/g. The background values of uranium in coals of China were dominated by detrital materials of terrigenous origin, but the anomalous enrichments of uranium were attributed to synsedimentary volcanic ashes and epigenetic low-temperature hydrothermal fluids and magmatic hydrothermal inputs

2007-03-01

86

Making coal clean coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been a revival of interest in advanced clean coal technology (CCT) as many countries adopt emission controls and the US takes on a new energy policy. But similar results may be obtained by using clean coal. This paper looks at the options - burning coal with low ash and sulphur content, installing low NOx burners, blending coals, and cleaning coals to remove ash and reduce sulphur content. 2 photos.

NONE

2001-10-01

87

Permian palynostratigraphy and palaeoclimate of Lingala-Koyagudem coalbelt, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Godavari Graben, one of the biggest basins among several Gondwana basins of India, holds a unique position not only because of its geographical location in South India, but also due to the presence of almost complete succession from Permian to Cretaceous sediments. The Graben is traversed by many small faults due to which the dating and correlation of coal bearing horizons is difficult in this area. As palynology is one of the most reliable parameter for dating, correlation and characterization of continental deposits, palynological studies have been carried out in order to date and correlate the coal bearing horizons of Gundala, Mamakannu and Kachinapalli areas from Lingala-Koyagudem coalbelt of Godavari Graben.The distributional pattern of various palynotaxa has suggested the occurrence of eight distinct palynozones in five borecores of Gundala (MLG-23, MLG-24, and MLG-28), Mamakannu (MMK-19) and Kachinapalli (MGK-6) areas. These palynozones are comparable to Talchir, Lower Karharbari, Upper Karharbari, Barakar and Raniganj palynoflora of Indian Lower Gondwana. Palynozone-1 is equivalent to Parasaccites Assemblage of Talchir Palynoflora; Palynozone-2 is correlatable with Callumispora + Parasaccites Assemblage of Lower Karharbari palynoflora; Palynozone-3 corresponds well with Parasaccites + Scheuringipollenites Assemblage of Upper Karharbari palynoflora; Palynozone-4 is comparable to Scheuringipollenites Assemblage of Barakar palynoflora; Palynozone-5 is correlatable with Faunipollenites + Striatopodocarpites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora; Palynozone-6 is comparable with Striasulcites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora; Palynozone-7 shows its equivalence with Parasaccites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora and Palynozone-8 corresponds well with the Crescentipollenites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora. On the basis of palynofloral evidences, it has been suggested that palaeoclimate during Palynozone 1-3 was cool but humidity was more in Palynozone-3 in comparison to Palynozone-2. Warmer phase started during Palynozone-4 with thick coal deposits, while Palynozones 5-8 representing Raniganj palynoflora indicate warm climate with very high humidity.

Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

2013-03-01

88

Evidence for the occurrence of Gondwana coals in North America as indicated by comparisons of similar deposits in the world  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The occurrence of Gondwana coals in North America and in Nova Scotia, in particular, are discussed. Gondwana coals are Late Carboniferous and Early Permian in age and differ from the Laurasian coals mined extensively in North America. The study is based on a literature survey and on the petrographic examination of minor deposits at Debert and Kemptown and main deposits in the Pictou coalfield in Nova Scotia. 1 fig. (Summary form only).

Hacquebard, P.A.; Avery, M.P. [Natural Resources of Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

2004-12-01

89

Autochthonous deposition of Indian coal beds with palaeobotanical evidences of in situ plants from Saharjuri Basin, Jharkhand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ Glossopteris plants on Vertebraria root, in situ Glossopteris seedlings, i.e. Deogharia and the first report of Annularia leafy shoots emerging from upright axes are recorded from the coal-bearing Late-Early Permian (Barakar Formation) sediments of Saharjuri Basin, Lower Gondwana. Besides, root beds, upright Vertebraria root, and Diphyllopteris seedlings are recorded from other Lower Gondwana coal fields. All evidences are considered to suggest autochthonous origin of the respective coal beds of the Indian Lower Gondwana basins.

Banerjee, M. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

2005-05-10

90

A lysorophid amphibian from the Coal Measures of northern England  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description is given of the presacral vertebrae and ribs of a lysorophid amphibian from the Middle Coal Measures (Westphalian B) of Northumberland. The specimen is the earliest lysorophid yet described and is the first certainly identifiable member of the group to be recorded from any horizon outside North America. An isolated presacral vertebrae from an unknown Coal Measures horizon at Low Moor, West Yorkshire, may present additional evidence of lysorophids in the British Carboniferous. Lysorophids appear to have been present in both lacustrine and coal swamp pool environments in the Upper Carboniferous as well as survivng in 'red bed' environments in the Lower Permian in North America.

Boyd, M.J.

1980-12-01

91

Permian-Triassic mafites of Sette-Daban  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describe the ores which form the Permian-Triassic dike zones of the Southern part of the Sette-Daban fold-blowing structure adjacent to the Siberian platform. The data are presented on K-Ar age of gabbro-diabase dike in the basin of Ariavkan River: the age of plagioclase is 276 ± 1 million years and that of kali feldspar - 222 ± 30 million years. It agrees with potassium - argon dating of mafites with similar compositions in the Northern part of the region. It is shown that the Permian-Triassic dikes can be of interest for the prospecting of the deposits of lead, zinc, phosphates and other minerals. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab,

1995-06-01

92

Calcium isotope constraints on the end-Permian mass extinction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The end-Permian mass extinction horizon is marked by an abrupt shift in style of carbonate sedimentation and a negative excursion in the carbon isotope (?13C) composition of carbonate minerals. Several extinction scenarios consistent with these observations have been put forward. Secular variation in the calcium isotope (?44/40Ca) composition of marine sediments provides a tool for distinguishing among these possibilities and thereby constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here we repor...

Payne, Jonathan L.; Turchyn, Alexandra V.; Paytan, Adina; Depaolo, Donald J.; Lehrmann, Daniel J.; Yu, Meiyi; Wei, Jiayong

2010-01-01

93

Hooked: Habits of the Chinese Permian gigantopterid Gigantonoclea  

Science.gov (United States)

Based upon anatomical evidence, Permian aged gigantopterid fossils are in general reconstructed as climbing or scrambling plants. Gigantonoclea, a genus of adpressed gigantopterid foliage from the Permian of northern China, has been reported to co-occur with hook-like organs that were interpreted as indicating a scrambling/climbing habit. We reinvestigated these hook-like structures and re-evaluated the nature of the co-occurrences in context with the flora preserved in each plant-bearing fossil 'bed' in the North China sedimentary succession. New findings show that the species Gigantonoclea hallei probably climbed using specially adapted clusters of compound grappling hook-like shoots borne on the stems. This structural arrangement comprising shoots of hooks is new to the scrambling/climbing concept in gigantopterids. However, a key figured specimen previously reported as showing intermediate hook-tipped leaf morphology on a sole pinnule tip is discounted as such and is reinterpreted as a 'normal' pinnule partially hidden under sediment that results in an unusual appearance to this pinnule tip. Adaptations for climbing or scrambling based upon 'hooked leaves' observed in Gigantonoclea lagrelii are no longer supported and are reinterpreted as incompletely expanded leaves where the vernation process was interrupted. These data weaken prior interpretations of G. lagrelii as a climber/scrambler and raise doubts about the ubiquity of hooks amongst the gigantopterids as structures enabling them to climb or scramble their way through the Permian world.

Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Hilton, Jason

2014-04-01

94

The Permian Whitehill Formation (Karoo Basin, South Africa): deciphering the complexity and potential of an unconventional gas resource  

Science.gov (United States)

A key energy policy objective of the South African government is to diversify its energy mix from coal which constitutes 85% of the current mix. Gas will play a key role in the future South African economy with demand coming from electricity generation and gas-to-liquids projects. A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2011 concluded that there could be as much as 485 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the South African Karoo Basin. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. The present study compiles existing data from literature review and new data from outcrop analogue studies on the Permian Whitehill Formation, the main target formation for future shale gas production, including thickness, depth, maturity, TOC, lithologies, sedimentary and organic facies, and dolerite occurrence to provide a first reference dataset for further investigations and resource estimates.

Götz, Annette E.

2014-05-01

95

The late Paleozoic oxygen pulse and accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent geophysical and geochemical data and theoretical modeling indicate high levels of atmospheric O{sub 2} (up to 35%) during the Carboniferous-Permian. I suggest that this O{sub 2} pulse had a substantial impact on global accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal during this geological period.

Pavle I. Premovi [University of Nis, Nis (Serbia and Montenegro). Laboratory for Geochemistry, Cosmochemistry and Astrochemistry, Faculty of Science

2006-07-01

96

Palynological dating of a coal seam in Ayyanapalem area, Khamman District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A palynological study of five subsurface samples of a coal seam near Ayyanapalem, Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari valley, Andhra Pradesh, was carried out. Twenty-five genera, including monosaccate, striate and nonstriate bisaccate, and trilete sporomorphs were identified; striate bisaccates predominate. Based on occurrence of {ital Rhizomaspora, Microbaculispora, Indotriradites, Crucisaccites ital} and {ital Corisaccites}, the coal seam is inferred to be similar in age to the Permian age Barakar Formation of the Lower Gondwana. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Rao, M.R.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Ramanujam, C.G.K. (Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad (India). Southern Region)

1990-05-25

97

Forward stratigraphic modeling of the Permian of the Delaware Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian platform-to-basin strata of the Delaware Basin In west Texas and New Mexico represent one of the world`s most complete, best studied, and most hydrocarbon productive records of this geologic period in the world. This superb marriage of a refined stratigraphic framework and active exploration provided impetus to develop a forward stratigraphic model of this section to better predict the distribution of reservoir and seal relationships. The approximately 30 m.y. interval modeled is composed of 2 km of platform strata and 3 km of basinal strata divided into 8 composite sequences (average 3 m.y. duration) and 45 high-frequency sequences (400 ky m.y. duration). A 130 km dip section through the basin margin Guadalupe/Deleware Mountain outcrop is inversely modeled to derive local tectonic subsidence and a sea level curve for the Permian. In this process, the highest and lowest shoreline positions of each sequence are interpreted based on facies description which are assumed to approximate the highest and lowest relative sea level. A eustatic sea level curve is calculated by restoring these shoreline positions and removing local tectonic subsidence using a polynomial fit to the derived relative sea level curve. The quantitatively constrained curve for the Permian contains 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order 180m. This quantitatively constrained accommodation history (calculated eustatic curve and subsidence history) are input into the PHIL forward modeling program. Model variables of sediment supply are depositional system are adjusted to match known outcrop relations. The resulting model is potentially capable of predicting stratigraphy elsewhere in the basin using only subsidence history data from the inverse model.

Qiucheng, Ye; Kerans, C.; Bowman, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

98

Palynology of Permian Gondwana sequence of Umrer coalfield, Maharashtra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantitative and qualitative palynological analysis of Early Permian sediments, Umrer Coalfield, Wardha Basin has been carried out. The microspore assemblage consists of 22 genera and 40 species. It is characterized by dominance of radial monosaccates chiefly, Parasacciles and subdominance of non-striate disaccates chiefly, Scheuringipollenites. Presence of Crucisaccites and Caheniasaccites suggests Upper Karharbari (Late Sakmarian-Early Artinskian) affinity. The presence of the Karharbari palynozone has been demarcated in lithologically designated Barakar Formation. The present finding corroborates the earlier studies by Bharadwaj and Anand Prakash (1974).

Jha, N.; Tewari, R.; Rajanikanth, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

2007-04-15

99

Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earthâ??s history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and po¬tentially into the open ocean realm. These events of¬ten coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earthâ??s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing from the Siberian Traps. We measured redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, Cu, U) and the speciation of iron [Fe-HR/Fe-T and Fe-PY/ Fe- HR] in marine sediments from Svalbard (Festningen). We compare these data to additional, new, high-lati-tude data from eastern Greenland and the equatorial Tethys realm in Iran. We show that the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary at Svalbard is marked by 2 phases of euxinic (sulfidic) ocean conditions. An initial short phase at the onset of atmospheric carbon release is separated from a subsequent longer phase by a re¬turn to ferruginous ocean conditions (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland and Iran. It sug¬gests a strongly decreased global ocean molybdenum (and possibly also ocean sulfate) inventory by massive molybdenum drawdown (and possibly pyrite buri¬al) at the onset of end-Permian atmospheric carbon release and leading up to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. We compare these oceanographic changes to similar observations for the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction and discuss environmental forcing, poten¬tially inherent to major volcanic events and leading to global environmental change and extinction

Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.

2013-01-01

100

Gondwana basins and their coal resources in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fault bounded five Gondwana basins have been discovered in the north western Bangladesh. Among these basins show considerable amount of coal deposits. The Gondwana rocks are highly formed during the Permo-carboniferous diastrophism and later on acquired dynamic characters. In almost all basins, the Permian rocks overlie the Precambrian basement and underlie either the Tertiary or the Cretaceous sediments, structural, stratigraphic, and depositional history of these basins is more or less similar. The sedimentary sequences are composed of light to dark gray, fine to very coarse grained, sub angular to sub rounded felspathic sandstone, dark grey carbonaceous shale and sandstone, variegated conglomerate and thick coal seams (single seam max. 42.38m). The rocks are often alternated and bear the characteristics of cyclic sedimentation. The depositional environments varied from restricted drainage to open fluvial dominated low to moderate sinuous drainage system. The coal bearing basins were flanked by vegetated and swampy over bank. Age of these coals is suggested to be the late permian. Proved and probable reserves of coal in Jamalganj-Paharpur basin are 670 and 1,460 million metric tons, in Barapukuria basin 303 and 3899 million metric tons; in Barapukuria basin 303 and 389 million metric tons; and in Khalaspir basin 143 and 685 million metric tons respectively. The coal is high volatile, low sulphur, bituminous type. It can be used for different forms of thermal conversion. (author)

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies  

CERN Document Server

A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies. Using blender-horseshoes, we prove that homoclinic classes of $C^1$-generic diffeomorphisms containing saddles with different indices and that do not admit dominated splittings (of appropriate dimensions) display $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies.

Bonatti, C

2009-01-01

102

Panjal Paleomagnetism: Implications for Early Permian Gondwana break-up  

Science.gov (United States)

The mid-Early Permian represents an important phase in Pangaea's development marking the time when the >13,000 km-long string of terranes that are collectively known as 'Cimmeria' separated from Gondwana's Tethyan margin (northern Africa-NE Arabia-northern India-NW and northern Australia). The ~289 Ma Panjal Traps of NW India (Kashmir) are one of a number of mafic suites (Abor, Sikkim etc.) that were erupted onto the Indian block possibly during the separation of the Lhasa/SE Qiangtang block. Herein, we report data from the first modern paleomagnetic study of the unit. Results from four quarry sections (15 individual cooling units) from a locality close to Srinagar together form a tectonically coherent sequence spanning 2-3 km of stratigraphy. The derived direction and paleopole yield key new information concerning (1) the Early Permian location of India, and by inference that of central Gondwana, and (2) inform debates related to Cimmeria's breakup from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, they provide a new independent control for assessing NW Greater India's extent prior to its collision with Asia and the amount of vertical-axis rotation this sector of the Himalayan range experienced in the mid to late Cenozoic.

Stojanovic, D.; Aitchison, J.; Ali, J. R.; Ahmad, T.; Ahmad Dar, R.; Agarwal, A.; Roeder, T.

2013-12-01

103

Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales, southern Junggar basin, northwest China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upper Permian organic-rich lacustrine mudstones (oil shales) that crop out in the southern Junggar basin rank among the richest and thickest petroleum source rock intervals in the world, with maximum TOC values reaching 34% and Rock-Eval pyrolytic yields (S[sub 2]) up to 200 kg HC/t rock. Lacustrine sedimentary facies define an overall transgressive-regressive cycle of approximately 2000 m gross thickness, which includes approximately 800 m of source rocks averaging 4.1% TOC and 26.2 kg HC/t rock. Basinal facies comprise silicic, organic-rich, laminated lacustrine mudstones and interbedded siltstones; organic matter contained in the mudstones ranges in composition from type I to type III. Basinal facies were deposited in a deep, oxygen-deficient, stratified lake. Lake-margin facies consist of nonlaminated siliciclastic mudstones, rippled dolomitic silstones and sandstones, and minor limestones. Maximum TOC values are approximately 6%. Desiccation cracks are common in the marginal facies, but evaporite minerals are rare or absent. Biomarker correlation parameters measured from rock extracts exhibit significant stratigraphic variability, but strongly support the hypothesis that Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales charge the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar basin. Karamay oils are characterized by high relative abundances of [beta]-carotane. This characteristic is restricted to desiccated facies in the outcrop sections, however. We therefore propose that an abundance of [beta]-carotane indicates elevated environmental salinities during deposition of the oil shales. 16 figs., 9 tabs.

Carroll, A.R.; Brassell, S.C.; Graham, S.A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1992-12-01

104

Is S=1 for c=1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The c=1 string in the Liouville field theory approach is shown to possess a nontrivial tree-level S-matrix which satisfies the factorization property implied by unitarity, if all the extra massive physical states are included. (orig.).

Minic, D.; Yang Zhu (Theory Group, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1992-01-02

105

String interactions in c=1 matrix model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study string interactions in the fermionic formulation of the c=1 matrix model. We give a precise nonperturbative description of the rolling tachyon state in the matrix model, and discuss S-matrix elements of the c=1 string. As a first step to study string interactions, we compute the interaction of two decaying D0-branes in terms of free fermions. This computation is compared with the string theory cylinder diagram using the rolling tachyon ZZ boundary states. (author)

2004-02-01

106

String Interactions in c=1 Matrix Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study string interactions in the fermionic formulation of the c=1 matrix model. We give a precise nonperturbative description of the rolling tachyon state in the matrix model, and discuss S-matrix elements of the c=1 string. As a first step to study string interactions, we compute the interaction of two decaying D0-branes in terms of free fermions. This computation is compared with the string theory cylinder diagram using the rolling tachyon ZZ boundary states.

Boer, Jan; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Verlinde, Erik; Yee, Jung-tay

2003-01-01

107

String Interactions in c=1 Matrix Model  

CERN Document Server

We study string interactions in the fermionic formulation of the c=1 matrix model. We give a precise nonperturbative description of the rolling tachyon state in the matrix model, and discuss S-matrix elements of the c=1 string. As a first step to study string interactions, we compute the interaction of two decaying D0-branes in terms of free fermions. This computation is compared with the string theory cylinder diagram using the rolling tachyon ZZ boundary states.

De Boer, J; Verlinde, E; Yee, J T; Boer, Jan de; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Verlinde, Erik; Yee, Jung-Tay

2004-01-01

108

Evidence of lacustrine sedimentation in the Upper Permian Bijori Formation, Satpura Gondwana basin: Palaeogeographic and tectonic implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Upper Permian Bijori Formation of the Satpura Gondwana basin comprising fine- to coarse-grained sandstone, carbonaceous shale/mudstone and thin coal bands was previously interpreted as the deposits of meandering rivers. The present study documents abundance of wave ripples, hummocky and swaley cross-stratification and combined flow bedforms in the Bijori Formation, suggesting that a significant part of the formation was deposited in a wave-agitated environment. Evidence of near-emergent depositional conditions provided by repeated occurrence of rootlet beds and hydromorphic paleosols, local flooding surfaces denoting rapid fluctuation of water level, occurrences of temnospondyl vertebrate fossils, and absence of tidal signatures and marine fossils suggest a lacustrine rather than marine depositional regime. The lack of documented contemporaneous lacustrine or marine sediments in the Satpura Gondwana basin posed a major problem of basin-scale palaeogeographic reconstruction. The existence of Bijori lake solves the problem and the lake is inferred to have acted as repository for the contemporaneous alluvial drainage. Development of the large Bijori lake body implies generation of accommodation space exceeding the rate of sediment supplied and thus represents locus of high tectonic subsidence. Transition of fluvial sediments with red mudstone and calcareous soil profile in the lower part of the succession to carbonaceous shale and coal-bearing lacustrine sediments in the upper part, denote a change from a warm semi-arid climate with seasonal rainfall to a more humid one.

Chakraborty, T.; Sarkar, S. [Indian State Institute, Calcutta (India). Geological Studies Unit

2005-06-01

109

Coal microlithotypes related to sedimentary environments in the Cooper Basin, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal microlithotypes in seams from the Permian Gidgealpa Group in the Patchawarra Trough of the Cooper Basin are related to the depositional environments prevailing at the time of peat accumulation. Formations which include more than one depositional environment contain coals whose microlithotypes are concentrated into a corresponding number of groups. Using petrographic analyses, coals which accumulated in a lake environment can be distinguished from those of the lower coastal plain and the area dominated by coal swamps. Channel belt coals can be distinguished from those of the lower coastal plain, upper coastal plain and area dominated by coal swamps. Lower coastal plain coals can be differentiated from those of the upper coastal plains. 10 references.

Smyth, M.

1984-01-01

110

New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France), viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidaefam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permianagen. etsp. n., the ParelmoidaePermelmoa magnificagen. etsp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyrieigen. etsp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined). In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera) is reported. These new fossils clearly demonstrate that the present knowledge of the Permian insects remains very incomplete. They also confirm that the Lodève entomofauna was highly diverse providing links to other Permian localities and also rather unique, with several families still not recorded in other contemporaneous outcrops. PMID:22259265

Prokop, Jakub; Nel, André

2011-01-01

111

Regional structural cross sections, mid-permian to quaternary strata, Texas Panhandle and Eastern New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twelve regional cross sections (with text) of the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko Basins illustrating the tabular geometry of Permian evaporite beds, areas where salt has been lost by dissolution, and the effects of dissolution-induced subsidence on Permian and post-Permian strata. The authors identify areas of dissolution beneath the High Plains, the Caprock Escarpment, the Rolling Plains, the Pecos Plains, and along the Canadian River valley. The cross sections are printed at a vertical scale of 1 inch equals 400 feet and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals approximately 8 miles and were constructed using geophysical logs, sample logs, and surficial geologic data.

McGookey, D.A.; Gustavson, T.C.; Hoadley, A.D.

1989-01-01

112

Coal and coal mine drainage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The review relates to surface mining, hydrology, sedimentology, land reclamation and mine water discharges. Environmental regulations existing are described, and the regional and chemical aspects of coal mine drainage characterization are covered. Coal mine drainage process and mitigation studies are discussed as well as coal cleaning, coal transportation and storage and a coal mine drainage model is proposed. 76 refs.

Olem, H.

1987-06-01

113

Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian extinction is associated with a mysterious disruption to Earth’s carbon cycle. Here we identify causal mechanisms via three observations. First, we show that geochemical signals indicate superexponential growth of the marine inorganic carbon reservoir, coincident with the extinction and consistent with the expansion of a new microbial metabolic pathway. Second, we show that the efficient acetoclastic pathway in Methanosarcina emerged at a time statistically indistinguishable from the extinction. Finally, we show that nickel concentrations in South China sediments increased sharply at the extinction, probably as a consequence of massive Siberian volcanism, enabling a methanogenic expansion by removal of nickel limitation. Collectively, these results are consistent with the instigation of Earth’s greatest mass extinction by a specific microbial innovation.

Rothman, Daniel H.; Fournier, Gregory P.; French, Katherine L.; Alm, Eric J.; Boyle, Edward A.; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger E.

2014-01-01

114

Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian extinction is associated with a mysterious disruption to Earth's carbon cycle. Here we identify causal mechanisms via three observations. First, we show that geochemical signals indicate superexponential growth of the marine inorganic carbon reservoir, coincident with the extinction and consistent with the expansion of a new microbial metabolic pathway. Second, we show that the efficient acetoclastic pathway in Methanosarcina emerged at a time statistically indistinguishable from the extinction. Finally, we show that nickel concentrations in South China sediments increased sharply at the extinction, probably as a consequence of massive Siberian volcanism, enabling a methanogenic expansion by removal of nickel limitation. Collectively, these results are consistent with the instigation of Earth's greatest mass extinction by a specific microbial innovation. PMID:24706773

Rothman, Daniel H; Fournier, Gregory P; French, Katherine L; Alm, Eric J; Boyle, Edward A; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger E

2014-04-15

115

Gondwana coals of Bhutan Himalaya - occurrence, properties and petrographic characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A narrow belt of highly inclined coal-bearing Gondwana strata occurs in the extreme southeastern part of Bhutan Himalaya. Recently, a systematic survey was undertaken along this coal belt and coals of three areas were analyzed in detail for the evaluation of their physico-chemical properties and petrographic characteristics. The entire region is in the midst of the Great Himalayan orogenic belt, and the whole stratigraphic sequence underwent several diastrophic movements in the geological past. The massive effects of these orogenies is more pronounced in the coal beds, of Gondwana sequence, and due to severe crushing and tectonic shearing these coals became powdery and flaky in nature. Significantly, the coals retained their pre-deformational rank exhibiting typical high-volatile, low-rank, bituminous characters, with mild caking propensities. Also these coals are markedly low in sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine and carbonate content like that of Peninsular Gondwana coals. Petrographic studies of these Bhutan coals revealed a close similarity with the eastern Raniganj coals (Upper Permian) of Peninsular India. The tectonic shearing and crushing of the coals are exhibited by the frequent presence of microfolding, microfaulting, and other compressional structures. However, the coals of all the three areas have shown a consistently low order of reflectance values. This typical retention of pre-deformational low-rank bituminous character is a significant feature of Bhutan coals. It shows that massive orogenic movements were only able to physically crush these coals but could not generate the requisite thermal regime to raise the rank of these coals. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Mukherjee, A.K.; Alam, M.M.; Ghose, S.

1988-03-01

116

Thermal Properties of Permian Basin Evaporites to 493 K Temperature and 30 MPa Confining Pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory measurements of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas, were made in conditions rangin...

W. B. Durham H. C. Heard C. O. Boro K. T. Keller W. E. Ralph

1987-01-01

117

Thermal Properties of Permian Basin Evaporites to 493 K and 30 MPa Confining Pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering the Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Measurement...

W. B. Durham H. C. Heard C. O. Boro K. T. Keller W. E. Ralph

1987-01-01

118

Sedimentology and Depositional Environments of the Lower Permian Yeso Formation, Northwestern New Mexico (Chapter M).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Nacimiento Mountains of northwestern New Mexico, the Lower Permian (Leonardian) Yeso Formation is divided into a lower member, the Meseta Blanca, and an upper member, the San Ysidro. The report describes lithofacies of the Yeso Formation in northwe...

J. D. Stanesco

1991-01-01

119

A new coil-stemmed camerate crinoid from the Permian of Eastern Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new dichocrinid camerate Neocamptrocrinus is proposed for a number of coiled stem species from the Permian of eastern Australia. As its name reflects, the genus closely resembles Camptrocrinus Wachsmuth and Springer from the Carboniferous of North America.

Willink, R.J.

1980-01-01

120

Permian biogeography of the Indian subcontinent with special reference to the marine fauna  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian biogeography of the Indian subcontinent is discussed in the light of brachiopods and associated fossils from different localities. The discussion is based primarily on the Permian "biome" concept of Waterhouse and Bonham-Carter (1975), wherein three biomes are proposed: group A of subpolar, group B of temperate, and group C of tropical character. Data on the occurrence of Permian brachiopods and associated fossils are given for the Salt Range, Karakoram, and Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, and Peninsular India with respect to the age of the fauna. Marine Permian localities of the Himalayan region include those of Ladakh, Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti, Kashmir, Bhadarwah-Bhallesh-Chamba, Kinnaur, Garhwal, Kumaun, Darjeeling, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh. Permian marine localities of Peninsular India, which forms a part of central Gondwanaland, include those of Bap, Badhaura, Umaria, Manendragarh, and Daltonganj, where marine transgression occurred in Early Permian time. The faunas of these localities are discussed with respect to their age, which falls into two groups, Early and Late Permian. It is suggested that widespread colder climatic conditions prevailed in the Indian subcontinent during the early Early Permian. Similar conditions continued in most of the localities until the late Early Permian, except at west Karakoram (Shaksgam valley), Zanskar, north Tibet (central and western part), and the Salt Range. However, during the Late Permian, climatic conditions were varied. Cold climatic conditions prevailed in north Tibet (central part), Kumaun Tethyan Himalaya, and south Tibet; temperate conditions occurred in west Karakoram (Shaksgam valley), Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti, Bhadarwah-Bhallesh-Chamba, north Nepal, and north Sikkim; and tropical conditions occurred in the Salt Range, east Karakoram, Ladakh, Kashmir, and north Tibet (western and eastern parts). At a few localities there appear to be some anomalies that might be due to lack of stratigraphical details and/or lack of detailed faunal investigations. An analysis of the Permian fauna of the Indian subcontinent reveals that the fauna belongs to one single biogeographic province, the Gondwana province. The northern boundary of this biogeographic province passes through the Karakoram Pass, Bangong Lake, and the Nujiang River. The Gondwana biogeographic province, further, shows two subprovinces, the Himalayan and the Tibetan.

Singh, Trilochan

 
 
 
 
121

SLE and C1q: A quantitative ELISA for determining C1q levels in serum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

C1q is of interest in SLE research due to deficiencies in its activity being associated with the disease. Current published protocols for measuring C1q vary greatly in their results and ease of reproducibility. Due to this, average C1q concentrations have been reported between 56 and 276 µg/ml in non-SLE serum. We present an improved method for quantifying C1q concentrations that employs a sandwich ELISA. This method has improved precision, cost efficiency, up-scaling, reproducibility, and u...

Dillon, Skyler P.; D’souza, Anil; Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal

2009-01-01

122

Coal preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces the concept of coal cleaning, including washability analyses and release analyses; describes various methods of coal preparation and the different operations coal undergoes between mining and utilization including size reduction; gravity separation using cyclones, jigs, concentrating tables, and spirals; flotation; and dewatering. The design and operation of a typical coal preparation plant are described. 28 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Onal, G.; Celik, M.S.; Honaker, R.Q. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

1994-12-31

123

Characterization of an Upper Permian Tight Gas Reservoir : a multidisciplinary, multiscale analysis from the Rotliegend, Northern Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes a multidisciplinary, multiscale approach to the analysis of tight gas reservoirs. It focused initially on the facies architecture of a Permian tight gas field in the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), East Frisia, Northern Germany. To improve field development, 3D seismic data, wireline and core data were compared to a reservoir analogue in the Panamint Valley, California, United States. Depositional environments of the Permian Upper Rotliegend II included perennial saline la...

Antrett, Philipp

2011-01-01

124

(Coal science)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traveler attended the 1989 International Conference on Coal Science, which covered a broad spectrum of topics in fundamental and applied coal science. Of particular interest and relevance to the DOE sponsored Organic Coal Chemistry Program at ORNL were symposia on Coal Structure and Characterization and Basic Reactions of Coal. The traveler presented a paper on his research to a large international audience, chaired a technical session, and participated in numerous informal discussions of benefit to the Coal Chemistry Program. Visits with staff at the technology centers indicated above provided insights into the current status of Japanese efforts in coal liquefaction and gasification.

Buchanan, A.C. III.

1989-11-09

125

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

126

Coal Fires  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anupma

2011-06-30

127

Coal Fires  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anumpa

128

Coal upgrading  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

129

Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (?98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for ?98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in ?98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced oxic conditions throughout the LPE event, while anoxic conditions developed in the deep ocean. Hence, anoxic marine waters did not extend globally onto shelf environments and as such ocean anoxia cannot have been the main driver of the extinction event. While global systems were stressed by anoxia, the anoxic conditions may better represent a symptom of Siberian Trap eruptions that had catastrophic impact on the environment, potentially through nutrient loading and deposition of toxic substances into marine and terrestrial systems. Proemse et al., 2013: Molybdenum isotopic evidence for oxic marine conditions during the latest Permian extinction. Geology 41, 967-970.

Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

2014-05-01

130

Intrinsic geometry of c=1 random surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Employing baby universe surgery we study numerically the fractal structure of the intrinsic geometry of random surfaces coupled to matter field with c=1. We simulate surfaces of the size up to 260000 triangles. We observe the first indication that the branching and Haussdorff dimensions saturate. We estimate the branching dimension d_B?2.6 and get a lower bound for the Hausdorff dimension d_H>3.0. ((orig.))

1995-04-01

131

Intrinsic geometry of c=1 random surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Employing baby universe surgery we study numerically the fractal structure of the intrinsic geometry of random surfaces coupled to matter field with c=1. We simulate surfaces of the size up to 260000 triangles. We observe the first indication that the branching and Haussdorff dimensions saturate. We estimate the branching dimension d{sub B}{approx}2.6 and get a lower bound for the Hausdorff dimension d{sub H}>3.0. ((orig.)).

Ambjoern, J. [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Bialas, P. [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Burda, Z. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Jurkiewicz, J. [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersson, B. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

1995-04-01

132

A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints.

Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong.

1990-12-01

133

A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: `quenched` matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our `quenched` matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints.

Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong

1990-12-01

134

Evolution of the Early Permian volcanic-plutonic complex in the western part of the Permian Gobi-Altay Rift (Khar Argalant Mts., SW Mongolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lower Permian volcano-sedimentary complexes of the Khar Argalant and Delger Khangay formations in the Khar Argalant Mts. in south-western Mongolia are products of postorogenic within-plate magmatic activity. They consist of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic flows with local intercalations of clastic sedimentary rocks. Vascular plants in volcano-clastic layers correspond to typical Lower to Middle Permian terrestrial associations formed under dry to intermediate conditions of temperate to colder climatic zones. The plant communities of all three formations show affinities to the Siberia (Angara “Cordaitean taiga”.
Relationships of volcanic rocks suggest simultaneous eruptions of mafic (basalt to trachyandesite and felsic (trachyte to rhyolite lavas. The rocks of both formations have similar major- and trace-element contents as well as volcanological character. The granite of the Shar Oroy Massif, with zircon concordia age of 285 ± 1 Ma, was roughly contemporaneous with the volcanic rocks of the Delger Khangay Fm. The Early/Late Permian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Butnaa Khudag Fm. in the hanging wall of the Delger Khangay Fm. postdated the terrestrial volcanic events. Geochemical and structural characteristics suggest that the Shar Oroy Massif and the surrounding Permian volcanic suite represent an eroded, shallow-level plutonic centre and its eruptive cover, which evolved during a crustal extension.

Buriánek D

2012-07-01

135

Geology and coal bed methane resource potential of the Gondwana Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With an area of 5.16 km{sup 2}, the Barapukuria coal deposit is one of the five largest Gondwana coal basins in Bangladesh, and is located in the north west of the country close to the towns of Dinajpur and Saidpur. The existence of the basin was initially indicated by a negative gravity anomaly in oil and gas exploration. Exploration for the deposit was commenced by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), with seven surface boreholes that confirmed the existence of a significant coal deposit. The deposit occurs as an asymmetrical synclinal structure with an axis striking approximately N-S. The deposit is limited to the east by a large normal fault which has displaced Archaean metamorphics against the Gondwana sediments. The coal-bearing sediments are comprised of Gondwana Permian-age sandstones, siltstones, subordinate carbonaceous shales, and six correlated coal seams. The Gondwana sediments are unconformably overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, against which the coal seams are successively subcropped to the west. Within the structural limits of the basin, approximately 377 Mt coal in-situ has been quantified in the six coal seams that range in depth from 118 to 518 m below surface. Due to the synclinal nature of the deposit, the upper coal seams, designated I to V, occur over diminishing areal extent with decreasing depth. The principal seam of interest is the lowermost Seam VI, with a variable thickness across the deposit from 22 m in the northern part of the deposit to more than 42 m in the southern and eastern areas. Development of the Barapukuria Mine, the country's first coal mine, commenced in 1996 with the construction of two vertical shafts. Coal production from Seam VI began in 2005 and continues at the present time. Seam VI coal is high volatile B bituminous rank. About 34 Mt of coal has been estimated as recoverable resources, utilising descensional multi-slice longwall mining. The mine design and development have been severely constrained by adverse seam gradients and the presence of the overlying water-bearing Tertiary Dupi Tila sediments. The potential of coal bed methane extraction has been investigated as an alternative to underground mining. The study considers the Barapukuria deposit in terms of its geological structure, geothermal gradient, and the rank, porosity and permeability of the coal seams as determined by several phases of exploration of the area. The methane content of the bituminous coal at Barapukuria varies within the range 6.51-12.68 m{sup 3}/t, representing a potential resource of more than 5 Gm{sup 3} of gas. (author)

Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Hayashi, Daigoro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan)

2008-08-05

136

Coal-92  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

1992-01-01

137

Permian nonmarine bivalve zonation of the East European platform  

Science.gov (United States)

New finds and revision of available collections of nonmarine bivalves provided grounds for development of a zonal scale for terrestrial sequences of the Permian System based on species belonging to the genus Palaeomutela Amalitzky, 1891, which are characterized by regular changes in the structure of the shell hinge. The scale includes two parallel zonal successions that are based on the stratigraphic distribution and evolutionary trends of two morphological lineages of the genus. The zonal succession based on development of the P. umbonata group (dwellers of mobile waters and silty-psammitic substrates) includes 11 range zones: stegocephalum, ovatiformis, umbonata, quadriangularis, krotowi, wohrmani, numerosa, ulemensis, keyserlingi, curiosa, golubevi. The zonal succession based on development of the P. castor group (dwellers of calm waters and silty-pelitic substrates) includes eight range zones: larae, castor, olgae, doratioformis, marposadica, fischeri, obunca, amalitzkyi. The proposed zonal units are correlated with scales based on ostracod, fish, and tetrapod fossils. New species Palaeomutela golubevi sp. nov. and P. amalitzkyi sp. nov. are described with the extended diagnosis of the genus Palaeomutela.

Silantiev, V. V.

2014-01-01

138

Late Permian brachiopoda fauna in north-western Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La secuencia marina del Pérmico superior en el noroeste de Irán y el este de Azerbaiyán, sección estatigráfica de Zal, fue seleccionada para este estudio de braquiópodos. Las muestras fueron tomadas en las formaciones Ali Bashi y Jolfa. Se reconocieron 27 especies de 13 géneros de braquiópodos en es [...] te análisis. Las muestras recolectadas fueron comparadas con sus similares de otras regiones de Irán y de la región del Tetis, lo que sugirió el período de tardío de Dzhulfan como la proveniencia de estos depósitos. Los braquiópodos reconocidos en este trabajo pertenecen a las familias de Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida y Strophomenida. Abstract in english The Late Permian marine sequence in the north- west of Iran, in eastern Azerbaijan province in the Zal stratigraphic section, was selected for studying brachiopods. Samples were collected from the Ali Bashi and Jolfa Formation.S. Twenty-seven species from 13 brachiopoda genera were recognised in thi [...] s study.The recognised fossil community was compared to brachiopod communities in some regions of Iran and the Tethyan region, suggesting the Late Dzhulfian period as the age for the deposits being studied. Recognized brachiopods belonge to the orders Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida and Strophomenida.

Yousefirad, Mostafa; Khamooshi, Touran; Shaabanian, Rahim.

139

Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m-3) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m-3 in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m-3). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system

2002-01-01

140

Recrystallized microbial trace fossils from metamorphosed Permian basalt, southwestern Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial trace fossils on terrestrial basalts can be used as an analogue in the search for traces of life on other terrestrial planets. This study reports on microbial trace fossils within Permian greenstones in the Maizuru Terrane, southwest Japan, which is recognized as back-arc basin oceanic crust that consists mainly of metabasalt and metagabbro. The trace fossils have been studied by means of morphology, mineralogy, elemental mapping, and carbon isotope analysis. Although minute original textures of trace fossils are recrystallized in these rocks, Granulohyalichnus vulgaris isp., Tubulohyalichnus spiralis isp., and Tubulohyalichnus annularis isp. were identified. Significant concentration of C within the trace fossils implies these are organic remnants from microbes. The ?13CPDB values <-7‰ of calcite within the greenstones indicates that the bacterial activity took place prior to the formation of calcite veins. The results support that microbial trace fossils within low-grade metamorphic basalt can be reliably identified based on their morphology and chemical composition, as reveled by elemental mapping. In this context, glassy Martian basalt may be the best rock type to investigate in terms of searching for signs of microbial activity on Earth and other planets.

Sugawara, H.; Sakakibara, M.; Ikehara, M.

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Structural basis of the C1q/C1s interaction and its central role in assembly of the C1 complex of complement activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complement component C1, the complex that initiates the classical pathway of complement activation, is a 790-kDa assembly formed from the target-recognition subcomponent C1q and the modular proteases C1r and C1s. The proteases are elongated tetramers that become more compact when they bind to the collagen-like domains of C1q. Here, we describe a series of structures that reveal how the subcomponents associate to form C1. A complex between C1s and a collagen-like peptide containing the C1r/C1s-binding motif of C1q shows that the collagen binds to a shallow groove via a critical lysine side chain that contacts Ca(2+)-coordinating residues. The data explain the Ca(2+)-dependent binding mechanism, which is conserved in C1r and also in mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases, the serine proteases of the lectin pathway activation complexes. In an accompanying structure, C1s forms a compact ring-shaped tetramer featuring a unique head-to-tail interaction at its center that replicates the likely arrangement of C1r/C1s polypeptides in the C1 complex. Additional structures reveal how C1s polypeptides are positioned to enable activation by C1r and interaction with the substrate C4 inside the cage-like assembly formed by the collagenous stems of C1q. Together with previously determined structures of C1r fragments, the results reported here provide a structural basis for understanding the early steps of complement activation via the classical pathway. PMID:23922389

Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Gingras, Alexandre R; Marshall, Jamie E; Panchal, Roshni; Sheikh, Md Arif; Gál, Péter; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Mitchell, Daniel A; Moody, Peter C E; Wallis, Russell

2013-08-20

142

Structural basis of the C1q/C1s interaction and its central role in assembly of the C1 complex of complement activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Complement component C1, the complex that initiates the classical pathway of complement activation, is a 790-kDa assembly formed from the target-recognition subcomponent C1q and the modular proteases C1r and C1s. The proteases are elongated tetramers that become more compact when they bind to the collagen-like domains of C1q. Here, we describe a series of structures that reveal how the subcomponents associate to form C1. A complex between C1s and a collagen-like peptide containing the C1r/C1s-binding motif of C1q shows that the collagen binds to a shallow groove via a critical lysine side chain that contacts Ca2+-coordinating residues. The data explain the Ca2+-dependent binding mechanism, which is conserved in C1r and also in mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases, the serine proteases of the lectin pathway activation complexes. In an accompanying structure, C1s forms a compact ring-shaped tetramer featuring a unique head-to-tail interaction at its center that replicates the likely arrangement of C1r/C1s polypeptides in the C1 complex. Additional structures reveal how C1s polypeptides are positioned to enable activation by C1r and interaction with the substrate C4 inside the cage-like assembly formed by the collagenous stems of C1q. Together with previously determined structures of C1r fragments, the results reported here provide a structural basis for understanding the early steps of complement activation via the classical pathway.

Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Gingras, Alexandre R.; Marshall, Jamie E.; Panchal, Roshni; Sheikh, Md. Arif; Gal, Peter; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Moody, Peter C. E.; Wallis, Russell

2013-01-01

143

Bioessential element-depleted ocean following the euxinic maximum of the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe variations in trace element compositions that occurred on the deep seafloor of palaeo-superocean Panthalassa during the end-Permian mass extinction based on samples of sedimentary rock from one of the most continuous Permian-Triassic boundary sections of the pelagic deep sea exposed in north-eastern Japan. Our measurements revealed low manganese (Mn) enrichment factor (normalised by the composition of the average upper continental crust) and high cerium anomaly values throughout the section, suggesting that a reducing condition already existed in the depositional environment in the Changhsingian (Late Permian). Other redox-sensitive trace-element (vanadium [V], chromium [Cr], molybdenum [Mo], and uranium [U]) enrichment factors provide a detailed redox history ranging from the upper Permian to the end of the Permian. A single V increase (representing the first reduction state of a two-step V reduction process) detected in uppermost Changhsingian chert beds suggests development into a mildly reducing deep-sea condition less than 1 million years before the end-Permian mass extinction. Subsequently, a more reducing condition, inferred from increases in Cr, V, and Mo, developed in overlying Changhsingian grey siliceous claystone beds. The most reducing sulphidic condition is recognised by the highest peaks of Mo and V (second reduction state) in the uppermost siliceous claystone and overlying lowermost black claystone beds, in accordance with the end-Permian mass extinction event. This significant increase in Mo in the upper Changhsingian led to a high Mo/U ratio, much larger than that of modern sulphidic ocean regions. This trend suggests that sulphidic water conditions developed both at the sediment-water interface and in the water column. Above the end-Permian mass extinction horizon, Mo, V and Cr decrease significantly. On this trend, we provide an interpretation of drawdown of these elements in seawater after the massive element precipitation event during the end-Permian maximum development of the reducing water column. A decrease in the Mo/U ratio despite enrichment of Mo and U also supports that of Mo. Calculations of the total amounts of these elements precipitated compared with the global seawater inventory suggest that when more than 6-10% of the global ocean became euxinic as much as the study section, most of the dissolved elements would precipitate into sediments, resulting in a global element-depleted seawater condition. Mo, V, and Cr act as bioessential elements for both primary producers and animals. The continuing reducing water column and the lack of bioessential elements could have had a considerable effect on primary producer turnover and marine life metabolism not only in the pelagic environment, but also in surrounding marine environments.

Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kaiho, Kunio; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

2014-05-01

144

Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction  

CERN Document Server

Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

Standard, J C

2003-01-01

145

The last "pelycosaur": a varanopid synapsid from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone, Middle Permian of South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a partial varanopid skull and mandible from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone of the Beaufort Group, in the South African Karoo Basin, which is probably latest Middle Permian (Capitanian) in age. This mycterosaurine is not only the youngest known varanopid from the Southern Hemisphere, but it is also the youngest known "pelycosaur" (i.e., non-therapsid synapsid). Like all other members of this clade of hypercarnivores, the teeth are strongly flattened, recurved, and have finely serrated cutting edges. The anterior dentary teeth form a caniniform region, and the splenial features a foramen intermandibularis oralis, the first ever to be described in a "pelycosaur." The last varanopids were the smallest carnivores of latest Middle Permian continental faunas. Occupation of the small carnivore guild appears to have allowed varanopids to achieve a nearly cosmopolitan distribution throughout the Middle Permian, between the great Early Permian radiation of basal synapsids and the spectacular diversification of therapsid synapsids in the Late Permian and Early Triassic. PMID:22009069

Modesto, Sean P; Smith, Roger M H; Campione, Nicolás E; Reisz, Robert R

2011-12-01

146

New mutations in C1GALT1C1 in individuals with Tn positive phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tn polyagglutination results from inactivating mutations in C1GALT1C1, an X-borne gene encoding a core 1 beta3-galactosyltransferase-specific molecular chaperone (cosmc) required for the functioning of T-synthase (beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase), a glycosyltransferase essential for the correct biosynthesis of O-glycans. This study found novel inactivating mutations (Glu152Lys, Ser193Pro and Met1Ile) in the coding sequence of C1GALT1C1 in three Tn positive individuals and a complete lack of C1GALT1C1 cDNA expression was observed in an additional Tn positive individual. In addition, expression of ST6GALNAC1, which encodes (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1, 3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 and gives rise to sialyl-Tn antigen, was present at comparable levels in normal and Tn-positive human erythroblasts. Expression studies of wild-type and Tn positive C1GALT1C1 cDNA in the Jurkat cell line confirmed that the amino acid substitutions observed in Tn are inactivating. Analysis of the transcriptome of cultured normal and Tn positive erythroblasts revealed numerous differences in gene expression. Reduced transcript levels for fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) and plexin D1 (PLXND1), and increased levels for aquaporin 3 (AQP3) were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These data show that alteration of O-glycan structures resulting from T-synthase deficiency is accompanied by altered expression of a wide variety of genes in erythroid cells. PMID:18537974

Crew, Vanja Karamatic; Singleton, Belinda K; Green, Carole; Parsons, Stephen F; Daniels, Geoff; Anstee, David J

2008-08-01

147

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

Gerald P. Huffman

2001-04-30

148

???? (?????): Penicillium sp. 04TRU C1  

Full Text Available Penicillium sp. 04TRU C1 ???????JP? ?????B2? ?2710834? ??9??1997?10?24? ? ?????

 C07D321/12 
A61K 31/365 ADN
C12P 17/08
// C12N 1/14
(C12P
 C07D321/12 
A61K 31/365 ADN
C12P 17/08
C12N 1/14

149

Quantization of string theory for c?1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the canonical quantization scheme for c ? 1 ((p,q)-) string theories and compare it with what is known from matrix model approach. We derive explicitly a trivial ( triple bond topological) solution. We discuss a ''dressing'' operator which in principle allows one to obtain a non-trivial solution, but an explicit computation runs into a problem of analytic continuation of the formal expressions for ?-functions. We discuss also the application of proposed scheme to the case of discrete matrix model and consider some parallels with mirror symmetry and background independence in string theory. (orig.)

1994-03-01

150

Coal week  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The newsletter 'Coal Week' includes, in the first issue of each month, a 'Monthly market monitor supplement' which tests selected USA utility market spot coal transactions of more than 5,000 tons. All prices are on a delivered basis. Supplier data includes the company name, mine location and mine type (surface or underground). Quantities of coal distributed, btu/lb and sulphur and ash content of the coal are listed.

1992-01-06

151

Diagenetic and detrital origin of moretane anomalies through the Permian-Triassic boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

Many biogeochemical anomalies coincide with the Late Permian Extinction (LPE; 252.28 Ma). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the moretane/hopane anomaly that has been identified in samples from Meishan GSSP section in southeastern China. Here, we report homohopane, 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopane and lithological data for a drill core from the Meishan section in southeastern China. Three intervals of elevated C30 moretane/hopane ratios are recorded in the Lungtan, Yinkeng and Helongshan Formations. Moretane/hopane ratios of C31-34 homohopanes and the 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopanes display the same stratigraphic patterns as the C30 moretane/hopane record. In light of the multiple and parallel moretane anomalies for the homohopane and 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopane series, enhanced input from higher plant organic matter, such as coal and peat, does not adequately explain the observed isomer patterns. Correlation of high moretane/hopane ratios with low C35 Homohopane Index (HHI) and high hopane/sterane values suggest increased input of hopanoids from oxic soils. Additionally, moretane/hopane ratios show excellent correlations with total clay percentages and specific clay types, particularly chlorite, illite, and mixed layer illite/smectite. We conclude that a combination of episodic hopanoid input from soil bacteria and diagenetic effects related to redox and detrital clays generated the unique moretane/hopane patterns at Meishan. Similar relationships of Ts/(Ts + Tm) with redox, source indicators, and lithology indicate that Ts/(Ts + Tm) is affected by the same factors controlling the moretane/hopane ratios. Berthierine, a clay that requires reducing conditions for formation, was detected in samples from the Lungtan Formation. We are unable to determine from our results whether the berthierine is authigenic or detrital, but future determination of the origin of berthierine at Meishan may offer additional environmental insight. No link between diasteranes and lithology was observed in this study suggesting that diasteranes are relatively unaffected by the detrital clay component of the Meishan sediments. In total, the results point toward the complex role of source input, lithology, and depositional redox conditions in the transformation of organic matter during maturation. Future work is required to elucidate the lithological effects on diagenetic processes, including biomarker genesis isomerization, and thermal degradation.

French, Katherine L.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger E.

2012-05-01

152

New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lod?ve Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France), viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined). In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera) is reported. These new fossils clearly demonstrate that the present knowledge of the Permian insects remains very incomplete. They also confirm that the Lodève entomofauna was highly diverse providing links to other Permian localities and also rather unique, with several families still not recorded in other contemporaneous outcrops.

Prokop, Jakub; Nel, Andre

2011-01-01

153

New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France, viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined. In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera is reported. These new fossils clearly demonstrate that the present knowledge of the Permian insects remains very incomplete. They also confirm that the Lodève entomofauna was highly diverse providing links to other Permian localities and also rather unique, with several families still not recorded in other contemporaneous outcrops.

André Nel

2011-09-01

154

Stratigraphy of Upper Permian and Lower Triassic Strata of the Žiri Area (Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the stratigraphy of Late Permian and Early Triassic strata of the Luka? section in the Žiri area of western Slovenia. This is the only section presently known in the External Dinarides where the Permian-Triassic boundary is defined following international criteria based on the first appearance of the conodont Hindeodus parvus. The following lithostratigraphic units have been formalized: the Bellerophon Limestone and Evaporite-dolomite Members of the Bellerophon Formation and the Luka~ Formation with the three members,the Transitional Beds, Streaky Limestone and Carbonate-clastic Member. The paper presents the results of micropaleontologicalstudy based on foraminifers and conodonts as well as petrographic and sedimentologic research results. The investigation of conodont assemblages enabled the conodont biozonation of the Permian-Triassic interval of the studied Luka? section.

Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek

2011-12-01

155

Coal from South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates coal mining and coal exports from South Africa. The following aspects are analyzed: reserves of black coal, coal properties and quality, mining conditions, methods for mining, number of coal mines and coal output per mine, coal consumption in South Africa, coal exports, development of coal exports, competitive position of coal from South Africa, activities of SASOL, TRANS-NATAL, RANDCOAL and RBCT, position of black coal from South Africa on the world market, prospects for increasing coal exports from South Africa.

Serafin, K. [Akademia Ekonomiczna, Katowice (Poland)

1993-10-01

156

Coal science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have designed a book to used primarily as a text for an introductory course in coal chemistry. The book is designed to be used with minimal background in chemistry and geology. However, a background in analytical, organic, and physical chemistry would be very useful in fully understanding some of the concepts presented in the test. The book is divided into five chapters covering major topics in coal chemistry. Chapter one is an introduction to coal. A brief history of the uses of coal is presented. Definitions of common terms such as resource, reserve, and rank are presented and explained. Chapter two deals with the petrology and petrography of coal. The various coal classification systems are discussed with an emphasis of microscopic analysis. Chapter three deals with the organic structure of coal. Emphasis is placed on the reactivity of coal to various conditions and reagents. Several models for the structure of coal are presented. Chapter four deals with coal conversion. Various techniques of both liquefaction and gasification are discussed. The last chapter deals with the analytical chemistry of coal. Sampling and the problems associated with sampling are discussed in some detail. All of the classical analysis techniques employed by coal scientists are discussed. Several references are made to the ASTM procedures.

Hessley, R.K.; Reasoner, J.W.; Riley. J.T.

1986-01-01

157

Evolution of Permian evaporite basin in Texas panhandle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian (Leonardian to Ochoan) evaporites in the Texas Panhandle were deposited in a range of marine shelf to supratidal environments along an arid coastline. Carbonates in these strata generally were deposited in inner shelf systems and include subtidal to supratidal facies. Landward of shelf environments, evaporites were deposited in brine pans and salt flats. Brine-pan facies are laminated anhydrite and banded salt that formed in shallow, hypersaline water such as restricted lagoons or supratidal salines. Salt-flat facies are mainly chaotic mixtures of mudstone and halite possibly formed by salt deposition on and within mud flats that bordered brine pans, or in brine-soaked mud-flat depressions. Periodically, mud flats built across the evaporite systems and were supplied with red terrestrial clastics, mainly mud and silt. These facies occur together in at least three different types of lithogenetic units. Strata in the Clear Fork Group (Leonardian) are considered deposits of a coastal evaporite basin that was progressively filled by terrestrial clastics. These rocks exhibit regressive cycles of brine-pan, salt-flat, and mud-flat facies. In contrast, San Andres strata (Guadalupian) were deposited in a broad marine embayment with persistent brine-pan conditions, and contain cycles of inner shelf and brine-pan facies. Post-San Andres strata (late Guadalupian and Ochoan) were deposited in the inner reaches of a broad interior salt basin and are composed mainly of mud-flat, salt-flat, and halite-rich brine-pan facies. 20 figs., 2 tabs.

Presley, M.W. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

1987-02-01

158

Coal in western Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Activities of coal companies operating producing coal mines in western Canada are reported. Individual coal mines, production, contracts, and coal rank are included in the description. The coal producers are BC Coal, Cardinal River Coals, Coleman Collieries, Crows Nest Resources, Esso Minerals Canada, Fording Coal, Luscar, Manalta Coal, and McIntyre Mines.

1982-03-01

159

The Collie transtensional extension Basin: a starting point for Permian Gondwana correlation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sequence from Asselian to approximately Ufimian is preserved in the Collie Basin by post-depositional extensional faulting. It is proposed that many Indian, African and Antarctic Permian basins result from the same style of extensional tectonics and contain similar Permian sequences. The Collie Basin sequence contains ten palynological zones that are extrapolated into the Perth and Carnarvon basins. Tentative correlations are made with comparable Gondwana coalfields in India and southern Africa, based on published palynomorph range charts, and allow speculation on coeval depositional and palaeoclimatic regimes. 20 refs., 4 figs.

Le Blanc Smith, G.; Backhouse, J. [CSIRO, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia). Exploration & Mining Division

1996-08-01

160

Coal liquefaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various coal liquefaction methods are described. Coal liquefaction was used in the earlier part of the century, but at present it is not competitive with petroleum; research is still being done on clean synthetic fuels. The techniques described here include: solvent extraction; the Potte-Broche Process; the solvent refined coal process; the Exxon donor solvent process; catalytic processes; the H-coal process; the CO-STEAM process; two stage processes; supercritical gas extraction; co-processing with heavy oils; bio-processing, and indirect coal liquefaction. Other techniques are also examined. 64 refs., 7 figs.

Olcay, A.; Oner, M. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
161

Coal technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The substitution of petroleum by coal is possible in the low and high temperature heat range of industry, trade and households as well as in the field of chemistry raw materials and fuels. The generation of power and district heat as well as the provision of energy for coal gasification and coal liquefaction processes are assumed on the basis of a coal/nuclear energy combination. The state of technology with regard to combustion, gasification and liquefaction of coal used for petroleum substitution is presented. (HS)

1980-11-04

162

A high-pyrite semianthracite of Late Permian age in the Songzao Coalfield, southwestern China: Mineralogical and geochemical relations with underlying mafic tuffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The No. 12 Coal (Late Permian) in the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, southwestern China, is characteristically high in pyrite and some trace elements. It is uniquely deposited directly above mafic tuff beds. Samples of coal and tuffs have been studied for their mineralogy and geochemistry using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, plasma low-temperature ashing plus powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results show that the minerals of the No. 12 Coal are mainly composed of pyrite, clay minerals (kaolinite, chamosite, and illite), ankerite, calcite, and trace amounts of quartz and boehmite. Kaolinite and boehmite were mainly derived from sediment source region of mafic tuffs. Chamosite was formed by the reaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. The high pyrite (S{sub p,d} 8.83%) in the coal was related to marine transgression over peat deposits and abundant Fe derived from the underlying mafic tuff bed. Ankerite and calcite were precipitated from epigenetic fluids. Chemical compositions of incompatible elements indicate that the tuffs were derived from enriched mantle and the source magmas had an alkali-basalt character. Compared to other coals from the Songzao Coalfield and common Chinese coals, the No. 12 Coal has a lower SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1.13) but a higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}O (80.1) value and is significantly enriched in trace elements including Sc (13.5 {mu}g/g), V (121 {mu}g/g), Cr (33.6 {mu}g/g), Co (27.2 {mu}g/g), Ni (83.5 {mu}g/g), Cu (48.5 {mu}g/g), Ga (17.3 {mu}g/g), Y (68.3 {mu}g/g), Zr (444 {mu}g/g), Nb (23.8 {mu}g/g), and REE (392 {mu}g/g on average). Above mineralogical compositions, as well as similar ratios of selected elements (e.g., SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}O) and similar distribution patterns of incompatible elements (e.g., the mantle-normalized diagram for incompatible elements and chondrite-normalized diagram for rare earth elements) of coal and tuff, indicated that enriched trace elements above were largely derived from mafic tuffs, in addition to a minor amount from the Kandian Oldland. (author)

Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Xibo; Chen, Wenmei [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, (China); Li, Dahua [Research Center of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Chongqing 400042, (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey (Emeritus), 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, (United States); Zhou, Yiping [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218, (China); Zhu, Changsheng; Li, Hang [Research Center of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Chongqing 400042, (China); Zhu, Xingwei; Xing, Yunwei; Zhang, Weiguo; Zou, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, (China)

2010-09-01

163

Origin of Gondwanic South Brazilian coal measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palynological and petrological studies of several Gondwanic South Brazilian coalfields have resulted in a better understanding of different aspects relating both moor facies and ancient peat-forming vegetation. From the palaeobotanical affinities of certain Lower Permian miospores a shrub-like plant community comprising herbaceous and arbustive lycophyta and subordinate gymnospermae is supposed to be the main contributors to the formation of coal seams. According to the petrographic composition, different environments of coal deposition are considered in relation to both the water level variation and the type of vegetation. The forest-terrestrial moor is poorly developed and the deposition is restricted to coaly shale with fusinite, sporinite-poor durite and resinite. The limno-telmatic reed moor coals characterized by high amounts of nonstructured vitrinite, sporinite-rich clarite, trimacerite, associated with alginite and cutinite. The open moor is the most productive in South Brazilian coal measures and is characterized by the presence of clay minerals in excess of 50% associated with carbargilite, trimacerite and high exinite (sporinite and/or alginite) content.

Marques-Toigo, M.; Correa da Silva, Z.C.

1984-01-01

164

Records of Late Permian surface temperatures in continental Gondwana in isotope geochemistry of upper Permian early diagenetic calcite concretions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present geochemical and isotopic evidence of paleotemperatures from freshwater continental deposits from 55{degrees}S in interior southern Gondwana. Lacustrine shales host spheroidal concretions with abundant septarian cracks. Cement carbonate varies from 65% at the centre to 15% at the edges. Cistraccide remains are preserved. Septarian calcite occurs in dull and bright bands, with three distinct generations of vein-fills. Early-formed cement both in concretions and septarian veins is magnesium-rich whereas, later-formed carbonates are pure calcite. Carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios (PDB) are: host shales, {delta}{sup 13}C= -4.36 to o.77{per_thousand}, {delta}{sup 18}O= -12.73 to -17.12{per_thousand}; concretion cements, {delta}{sup 13}C=+0.26 to {delta}{sup 18}O= -9.34{per_thousand}; and vein-fills, {delta}{sup 13}C= -7.05 to +1.09{per_thousand}, {delta}{sup 18}O= -8.28 to -18.24{per_thousand}. 13C and 18O ratios are depleted from the center of concretions to the periphery, as well as from the centre of veins to the tip. Near-surface cementation is suggested by textural evidence. {delta}18O in the range of -12.636{per_thousand} to -8.989 SMOW is calculated for the meteoric palaeowaters, from which average annual surface temperatures of 5-8{degrees}C are inferred. {delta}18O of early-formed cements also yields a mean annual surface temperature of 2-6{degrees}C. Based on continentality and palaeolatitudes of northern Malawi during the Late Permian, we propose that mean annual surface palaeotemperatures may have been as high as 10{degrees}C, similar to those found in modern continental temperate climates.

Yeman, E. [Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kelts, K. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1996-12-31

165

Fracture pattern of the Illawarra Coal Measures, southeastern Sydney Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the findings of extensive fracture mapping of the Illawarra Coal Measures exposed along the coastal platforms and adjacent cliffs, between Coalcliff and Wollongong. Fracture mapping has enabled identification of four phases of deformation active from the time of Late Permian deposition until the present. Syn-depositional mild warping and normal faulting has been recognised for the southeastern Sydney Basin and was confirmed by the present study. Regional joint systems formed after deposition and developed in three major directions. All fracture sets were reactivated with common strike-slip movements. 22 refs., 1 fig.

Memarian, H.; Fergusson, C.L. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

1994-12-31

166

Role of the reaction C1F/sub 2/ + C1. -->. 2C1F in the photolysis of chlorine monofluoride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper studies the kinetics and mechanism of the photolysis of chlorine monofluoride under the action of UV light, lambda = 260-370 nm. The quantum yields of the products of photolysis of CIF have been determined at various (C1/sub 2/)/(C1F) ratios. It is shown that in the photolysis of chlorine monofluoride at wavelengths corresponding to effective photodissociation of C1/sub 2/, C1F/sub 2/ radicals take part in reactions not only with F atoms but also with C1 atoms.

Zhitneva, G.P.

1986-01-01

167

Classical complement pathway component C1q: purification of human C1q, isolation of C1q collagen-like and globular head fragments and production of recombinant C1q-derivatives. Functional characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The classical complement pathway (CCP) activation is a multimolecular complex, composed of three subcomponents namely C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q is the recognition subunit of this complex and its binding to the specific targets leads to the formation of active C1, which in turn activates the CCP in an immunoglobulin-dependent or -independent manner. C1q is a hexameric glycoprotein composed of 18 polypeptide chains of three different types (A, B, and C), organized in two fragments-collagen-like (CLR) and globular head (gC1q) possessing different functional activity. The contemporary knowledge of the C1q structure allows the isolation and purification of a C1q molecule from serum by combination of different chromatography procedures including ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity chromatography, as well as the isolation of CLR and gC1q by limited enzymatic hydrolysis of the native C1q molecule. In this chapter, we described methods for purification of human C1q and its CLR and gC1q fragments, as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production and purification of recombinant C1q derivatives ghA, ghB, and ghC (globular fragments of the individual C1q chains) are also presented. PMID:24218248

Kojouharova, Mihaela

2014-01-01

168

Significance of vitrinite/inertinite ratio in Lower Gondwana coals of Peninsular India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lower Gondwana coals (Permian) of India are generally classified as vitric, mixed and fusic types of the basis of quantitative maceral composition. Systematic differences in vitrinite and inertinite contents, and the relative abundance of their macerals have been used by many researchers to describe variations in the Pench-Kanhan-Tawa (Satpura Gondwana) and Wardha-Godavari valleys, realizing that the vitrinite and inertinite ratio may possibly be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale and also for a general assessment of the coals. 7 refs.

Navale, G.K.B.; Misra, B.K.

1984-01-01

169

Coal shipping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new report by Drewry Shipping Consultants, London, examines recent developments and outlook in international seaborne coal trade and its effects on sea transport logistics and freighting costs. The last two decades have witnessed a transformation in coal trading in volume terms and also in coal grade requirements. In the early 1970`s coal trade was dominated by met coal - accounting for 84 Mt out of a total seaborne coal traffic of 104 Mt in 1970. Steam coal, though, has now become the dominant factor accounting for over 200 Mt in 1991. Geographically the steam coal market has changed. Up to 1993 the market was divided fairly evenly between Europe and the Far East. Today the Asia Pacific region has emerged as a major player and is taking a third more than the European market. Today the coal industry is regaining confidence and a further increase in steam coal traffic is expected, with the possibility of supply side constraints - especially in the low sulphur market. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-05-01

170

Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four components, we detected increased provincialism between our Permian and Triassic datasets. In southern Pangea, a more homogeneous and broadly distributed fauna in the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian, ?257 Ma) was replaced by a provincial and biogeographically fragmented fauna by Middle Triassic times (Anisian, ?242 Ma). Importantly in the Triassic, lower latitude basins in Tanzania and Zambia included dinosaur predecessors and other archosaurs unknown elsewhere. The recognition of heterogeneous tetrapod communities in the Triassic implies that the end-Permian mass extinction afforded ecologically marginalized lineages the ecospace to diversify, and that biotic controls (i.e., evolutionary incumbency) were fundamentally reset. Archosaurs, which began diversifying in the Early Triassic, were likely beneficiaries of this ecological release and remained dominant for much of the later Mesozoic.

Sidor, Christian A.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Huttenlocker, Adam K.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Peecook, Brandon R.; Steyer, J. Sebastien; Smith, Roger M. H.; Tsuji, Linda A.

2013-01-01

171

Phosphatic Permian rocks of the Adobe Range, Nevada, and their environment of deposition  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian sedimentary rocks in the Adobe range, northern Nevada, are phosphatic, and although the particles of phosphate are relatively more disseminated, they closely resemble the rocks of the Phosphoria Formation. In the northern Adobe Range, where the entire Permian sequence is approximately correlative with the Phosphoria Formation, it is 200 m thick and averages 1.7 percent P2O5 . In the southern Adobe Range, the Permian sequence is more than 1,700 m thick, and the upper half which is roughly correlative with the Phosphoria Formation averages more than 2 percent P2O5. Some thin beds in rocks of Permian age contain more than 20 percent P2O5. Phosphatic rocks of the Adobe Range were deposited in shallow water among islands in the western part of the epicontinental Phosphoria sea. The continental margin and the open ocean lay far to the west. At the same time, the Phosphoria Formation was being deposited in the eastern and central parts of the Phosphoria sea. Theories based on the work of Kasakov done in 1937 relating phosphate deposition directly to sites of upwelling oceanic waters are questioned. Nondeposition of diluent materials such as detritus and carbonate is probably of more importance in producing phosphate in economic concentrations than is geographic position with respect to upwelling waters.

Ketner, Keith Brindley

1979-01-01

172

Ichnological analysis in San Gregorio deposits (Lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area Uruguayan north basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ichnological analysis in deposits corresponding to San Gregorio Fm.(lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area (Cerro Largo Department, Uruguay) was made.Trace fossils in sandstones and mud stones outcrops were studied.The ichnofossil assemblage studied allows to propose a shallow marine environment. (author)

1998-05-13

173

Simulated Modes Of Variability In the Permian (251 Ma): The North Panthalassic Oscillation  

Science.gov (United States)

An Arctic Oscillation-type variability is found and investigated in two multi-millennia fully coupled climate simulations of the Permian/Triassic (251Ma) period using the Community Climate System Model, Version 3 (CCSM3). We refer to this mode of variability as the North Panthalassic Oscillation (NPO) and diagnose its character in both Permian experiments. The first simulation is a realistic representation of the Permian/Triassic boundary where CO2 levels are set to 10 times present day values. The NPO in this experiment manifests in the western Panthalassic Ocean (akin to the Pacific Ocean). The second simulation represents a much colder Permian world where CO2 levels are set to present day values. In this experiment, the NPO demonstrates its ability to change its maximum variance location from eastern Panthalassa (akin to the Atlantic Ocean) to western Panthalassa, by the end of the simulation. The NPO's ability to flip dominance location is influenced by sea ice expansion into eastern Panthalassa and subsequent changes in baroclinicity and storm tracks. Tropical precipitation is also shown to play a smaller role in the cold case where the mid-latitude connection to the tropics is stronger.

Shields, C. A.; Kiehl, J. T.

2007-12-01

174

Tectonic controls on Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales in the Junggar basin, NW China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Collision of the Tarim craton with the southern margin of Asia during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian resulted in uplift of an ancestral Tian Shan range and geographic isolation of the previously marine Junggar basin. Dramatic shifts from marine to nonmarine sedimentation took place in both the southern Junggar and northern Tarim basins during the Permina. Paleocurrent analysis indicate that by the Late Permian, coarse-grained sediments in both basins were being supplied predominantly from the area of the Tian Shan. During the Late Permian, the southern Junggar received in excess of 5,000 m of nonmarine sediments, including approximately 1,000 m of laminated, highly organic-rich lacustrine mudstones (oil shales). These deposits commonly have TOCs of 20-30%, and Rock-Eval pyrolitic yields reaching 2,000 mg/g, ranking them among the most prolific petroleum source rocks in the world. Based on a comparison of the distribution of steranes and extended tricyclic terpanes, these Upper Permian oil shales appear to be the primary source of oils in the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar basin. Ancestral uplift of the Tian Shan thus produced a complex tectono-hydrologic partitioning of the Late Permina Junggar basin, which exerted a strong influence on the character of petroleum source rocks deposited within the basin.

Carroll, A.R.; Brassell, S.C.; Graham, S.A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1991-03-01

175

Catagenesis of organic matter of oil source rocks in Upper Paleozoic coal formation of the Bohai Gulf basin (eastern China)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bohai Gulf basin is the largest petroliferous basin in China. Its Carboniferous-Permian deposits are thick (on the average, ca. 600 m) and occur as deeply as 5000 m. Coal and carbonaceous shale of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation formed in inshore plain swamps. Their main hydrocarbon-generating macerals are fluorescent vitrinite, exinite, alginite, etc. Coal and carbonaceous shale of the Permian Shanxi Formation were deposited in delta-alluvial plain. Their main hydrocarbon-generating macerals are vitrinite, exinite, etc. The carbonaceous rocks of these formations are characterized by a high thermal maturity, with the vitrinite reflectance R{sub 0} > 2.0%. The Bohai Gulf basin has been poorly explored so far, but it is highly promising for natural gas.

Li, R.X.; Li, Y.Z.; Gao, Y.W. [Changan University, Xian (China)

2007-05-15

176

Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the â??Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Provinceâ? that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area and causes rotation of older probably Paleozoic sediments and creates syn-tectonic sediment wedges. The syn-tectonic wedges most probably contain volcaniclastic sediments of the Karl Formation or sandstones of the Auk Formation, but it cannot be excluded that the earliest late Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment of the E-W striking fault system are generally planar and strike parallel to the fault with a southward dip geometrically similar to antithetic faults. In contrast, the intrusions in the footwall segment show a much more complex pattern striking at a high angle to the E-W basement fault and outlining a sill complex, which in certain areas resembles a poorly outlined composite cone. The intrusions are not observed in the syn-tectonic sedimentary wedges and this combined with the general age of the intrusions suggests that the syn-tectonic wedges are of latest early Permian or earliest late Permian age. The study demonstrates Paleozoic intrusions with a systematic orientation and geometry that most likely was directly controlled by the basement faulting. Syn-tectonic hanging-wall deformation represented by antithetic fractures is suggested to be the most important controlling factor for the intrusions at the hanging-wall. At the footwall a more composite geometry of the intrusions is observed, resulting in a much more complex compartmentalization of the Paleozoic sediments due to intrusions compared to the hanging-wall segment. The intrusions and especially the compartmentalization must be taken into account during evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Paleozoic.

Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul

177

The mechanism of phospholipase C?1 activation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phospholipase C is an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2 into second messengers inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins(1,4,5P3 and diacylglycerol (DAG. These messengers then promote the activation of protein kinase C and release of Ca2 from intracellular stores, initiating numerous cellular events including proliferation, differentiation, signal transduction, endocytosis, cytoskeletal reorganization or activation of ion channels. There have been identified 14 isozymes of PLC among which PLC?1 and PLC?2 are of particular interest. PLC? contains catalytic region XY and a few regulatory domains: PH, EF and C2. The most unique features of these two enzymes are the Src homology domains (SH2, SH3 and split PH domain within the catalytic barrel. PLC?1 and PLC?2 have an identical domain structure, but they differ in their function and occurrence. Phospholipase C?1 is expressed ubiquitously, especially in the brain, thymus and lungs.PLC?1 can be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (i.e.: PDGFR, EGFR, FGFR, Trk, as well as non-receptor protein kinases (Src, Syk, Tec or phosphatidic acid, tau protein and its analogue.The molecular mechanism of PLC?1 activation includes membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, rearrangements and activation in the presence of growth factors.In reference to PLC?1 regulation, a number of positive and negative modulators have been considered. The most important positive modulator is phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5P2. Protein kinase A and C, tyrosine phosphatases (SHP-1, PTP-1B and Cbl, Grb2, Jak2/PTP-1B complex proteins have been described as negative regulators of PLC?1 activation.

Pawe? Krawczyk

2011-08-01

178

Australian coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

1985-11-01

179

First report of the fertile plant genus Umkomasia from Late Permian beds in India and its biostratigraphic significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The genus Umkomasia Thomas, a female fructification of Dicroidium, is reported from Late Permian beds exposed in the Behra Rivulet near the village of Karaonda in the Tatapani-Ramkola Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India. This is the first record of this genus from the Late Permian, and from Indian Gondwana. Two species have been recognized: Umkomasia polycarpa Holmes and U. uniramia Axsmith, Taylor, Taylor and Cuneo. The find suggests that the genus Dicroidium appeared in the Late Permian before reaching its acme in the Middle-Upper Triassic.

Chandra, S.; Singh, K.J.; Jha, N. [Birbal Sahni Institute for Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

2008-07-15

180

Paleomagnetism of Late Permian volcanic rocks from South Transbaikalia: preliminary results  

Science.gov (United States)

Tamir volcano-tectonic structure (VTS) is one of the largest Late Paleozoic rift related features within Selengin-Vitim volcano-plutonic belt. The belt was formed in the back area of Siberian continent active margin (Gordienko et al., 2010). Igneous-sedimentary rocks within Tamir VTS are presented by contrastive volcanites more than 5 km thick. The deposits are subdivided into three suits: Ungurkuy (mostly basaltic), Tamir (acidic volcanics and tuffs) and Chernoyar (presented mostly by basalts, andesites and tuffs, sandstones and conglomerates). The age of youngest suits (Tamir and Chernoyar) is Late Permian, Middle-late Triassic accordingly. The age of Ungurkuy suit is deemed to be between Late Carboniferous and Late Permian (Gordienko et al., 1998; Popeko et al., 2005). Volcanic deposits of the three suits were studied to create APWP for the Siberian craton. 200 oriented samples from 31 sites were collected from the Tamir, Shazaga, Kiret, Ungurkuy and Ara-Kiret river valleys within South Transbaikalia. A number of samples were characterized by interpretable paleomagnetic signal. Tamir and Chernoyar rocks were collected from monoclinal structure within Tamir river valley. 5 sites show direction of magnetization similar to directions revealed from Early Cretaceous volcanites from nearby area (Metelkin et al., 2004). The magnetization is metachronous. In the other 8 sites the directions of magnetization are bipolar. The magnetization direction is well-correlated with Triassic APWP of Europe (Torsvik, Cocks, 2005). The volcanites of Ungurkuy suite show mostly monopolar (normal polarity) magnetization direction (formed before crustal folding) between Early Permian and Permian-Triassic Siberian poles, which indicates its Late Permian age. The normal polarity of the deposits indicates its formation in the period between Kiama superchron, characterized by reversal polarity, and Illavara hyperchron with mixed polarity - 265 Ma. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 13-05-12030.

Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Strontium and sulfur isotope study of well-preserved Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro basin, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The {delta}{sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio, and strontium concentrations for 50 well-preserved samples of Permian marine anhydrite have been determined. The samples were collected from two continuous cores drilled through cyclic Permian evaporites, The Department of Energy drilled the samples in its search for a permanent storage facility for high-level nuclear waste. Primary depositional fabrics (selenite pseudomorphs) and high strontium concentrations (average 1,850 ppm), in association with published bromide and fluid inclusion data from associated halite, suggest primary seawater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios may be recorded in many of the samples. The general shape of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio curve through the Permian is in accord with previously published observations. However, the increased stratigraphic detail from this unique set of cores constrains the abrupt charge in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr during the Permian at a precision previously available only in Deep Sea Drilling Project material. Interpretation of the more complex portions of the curve is limited by poor biostratigraphic control, the specter of provincial early diagenetic effects, and interpretation of the time significance of hiatal surfaces in cyclic strata. Age relationships are constrained by a K-Ar date on an interbedded volcanic ash in the Ochoan strata, and fusulinid age determinations of a well-documented regional transgression during the earliest Guadalupe. Sulfur isotopes yield typical Permian values of 12{per thousand} during the marine portion of the basin fill phase, and abruptly shift to 10{per thousand} in those cycles with a significant component of siliciclastic sediment.

Leary, D.A. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

182

Strontium and sulfur isotope study of well-preserved Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro basin, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?34S, 87Sr/86Sr ratio, and strontium concentrations for 50 well-preserved samples of Permian marine anhydrite have been determined. The samples were collected from two continuous cores drilled through cyclic Permian evaporites, The Department of Energy drilled the samples in its search for a permanent storage facility for high-level nuclear waste. Primary depositional fabrics (selenite pseudomorphs) and high strontium concentrations (average 1,850 ppm), in association with published bromide and fluid inclusion data from associated halite, suggest primary seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios may be recorded in many of the samples. The general shape of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio curve through the Permian is in accord with previously published observations. However, the increased stratigraphic detail from this unique set of cores constrains the abrupt charge in 87Sr/86Sr during the Permian at a precision previously available only in Deep Sea Drilling Project material. Interpretation of the more complex portions of the curve is limited by poor biostratigraphic control, the specter of provincial early diagenetic effects, and interpretation of the time significance of hiatal surfaces in cyclic strata. Age relationships are constrained by a K-Ar date on an interbedded volcanic ash in the Ochoan strata, and fusulinid age determinations of a well-documented regional transgression during the earliest Guadalupe. Sulfur isotopes yield typical Permian values of 12 per-thousand during the marine portion of the basin fill phase, and abruptly shift to 10 per-thousand in those cycles with a significant component of siliciclastic sediment

1990-05-01

183

Coal sorting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces the new technology of bulk coal sorting. The high ash segments from a coal stream are separated using a fast acting ash monitor and a director. The operating experiences of two Australian mines with this technology are summarized. The operation of a coal sorter on a particular coal stream must be simulated to determine the sortability of that stream. The collection of real time plant data and its processing through computer programs which simulate sorter operation is discussed. 1 ref., 8 figs.

Butel, D.; Howarth, W.J.; Rogis, J.; Smith, K.G. (Vickery Joint Venture, Gunnedah, NSW (Australia))

1993-01-01

184

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30

185

Concentration and distribution of sixty-one elements in coals from DPR Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty coal samples (28 anthracite and 22 lignites) were collected from both main and small coal mines in DPR Korea prioritized by resource distribution and coal production. The concentrations of 61 elements in 50 coal samples were determined by several multielement and element-specific techniques, including inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ion chromatogram (IC), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). The ranges, arithmetic means and geometric means of concentrations of these elements are presented. A comparison with crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that some potentially hazardous elements in the coals of DPR Korea are highly enriched Li, B, S, Cl, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sn, Sb, W, Te, Hg, Ag, Pb, and La, Ce, Dy, Tm, Ge, Mo, Cs, Tl, Bi, Th and U are moderately enriched. A comparison of ranges and means of elemental concentrations in DPR Korea, Chinese, and world coals shows the ranges of most elements in DPR Korea coals are very close to the ranges of world coals. Arithmetic means of most elements in DPR Korea coals are close to that of American coals. Most elements arithmetic means are higher in Jurassic and Paleogene coals than coals of other ages. In DPR Korea coals, only seven elements in early Permian coals are higher than other periods: Li, Zn, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Bi. Only five elements B, As, Sr, Mo, W in Neogene coals have arithmetic means higher than others. SiO2 and Al2O 3 in ashes are more than 70% except six samples. The correlation between ash yields and major elements from high to low is in the order of Si>Al>Ti>K>Mg>Fe>Na>Ca>P>S. Most elements have high positive correlation with ash (r>0.5) and show high inorganic affinity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hu, J.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R. B.; Wang, B.; Wang, M.; Li, S.; Wu, D.

2006-01-01

186

U Pb ages and source composition by Hf-isotope and trace-element analysis of detrital zircons in Permian sandstone and modern sand from southwestern Australia and a review of the paleogeographical and denudational history of the Yilgarn Craton  

Science.gov (United States)

Detrital zircons from the Permian Collie Coal Measures and modern sands on the northern part of the Albany Province have been analysed for U-Pb ages by a laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LAM-ICPMS) and for Hf-isotope compositions by a laser ablation microprobe multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LAM-MC-ICPMS). Trace elements were determined by analysis on the electron microprobe (EMP) and the ICPMS's. This combination of techniques makes it possible to determine for each grain not only the age but the nature and source of the host magma, whether crustal or juvenile mantle, and a model age ( TDM) based on a depleted-mantle source, which gives a minimum age for the source material of the magma from which the zircon crystallised. The integrated analysis, applied to suites of detrital zircon, gives a more distinctive, and more easily interpreted, picture of crustal evolution in the provenance area than age data alone. Zircons from Permian and Triassic sediments already analysed for U-Pb ages by a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) were also analysed for Hf isotopes and trace elements. Zircons from Collie and Permian and Early Triassic rocks of the northern Perth Basin have an age spectrum with a peak at about 1200 Ma that can be traced to the Albany Province. Differences, however, in Hf-isotope composition indicate that the Collie Coal Measures and the northern Perth Basin sandstones were not derived from the northern part of the Albany Province or from the coastal strip of felsic granitoids. The Perth Basin samples have a second peak age of 600-500 Ma that can be traced to the Leeuwin Block. One of the modern sands has a major peak at 2616 Ma that can be traced to the Yilgarn Craton. Compiled with previously published U-Pb zircon age spectra, the analyses provide insights into the paleogeographical history. The Yilgarn Craton sloped from the north at 1700 Ma, from the southeast at 1350-1140 and 490 Ma, its eastern part to the east at 300 Ma, and the southern part to the northwest from the Albany Province at 300-255 Ma. Denudational data from apatite fission-track analysis and vitrinite-reflectance studies suggest that the Yilgarn Craton was covered by a ˜5-km-thick blanket of Permian and Mesozoic sedimentary rock that was almost entirely removed by the Cenozoic, possibly because the craton was situated between the shoulders of rift systems that grew into the eastern and southeastern Indian Ocean. Ordovician, Permian, Early Triassic, and Quaternary sediment of the Perth Basin came from Proterozoic orogens. Only the Late Permian sample contains significant populations of Archean (Yilgarn) zircons but whether they came direct from the craton or were recycled from the postulated sedimentary cover is not known. The increased influx of sediment during the Jurassic matched by a peak in the denudation rate would seem to require a primary supply from the craton. This question could be resolved by dating zircon from the rapidly accumulated Jurassic formations.

Veevers, J. J.; Saeed, A.; Belousova, E. A.; Griffin, W. L.

2005-01-01

187

Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

Ross, D.S.

1989-12-21

188

Coal science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

493 papers were presented at this conference. Volume I contains papers dealing with: fundamentals and general aspects; combustion and gasification; and pyrolysis and carbonization. Volume II contains papers on: liquefaction and hydropyrolysis; and coal and the environment. All the papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

Pajares, J.A.; Tascon, J.M.D. [eds.] [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

1995-12-31

189

Structure and depositional environments of Permian-Triassic terrigeneous complex of the Barents Sea shelf  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian-Triassic complex of the Barents Sea shelf composed of up to 8-12 km of clastic sediments has a great interest for geology as it contains hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs and source rocks. It is drilled on shelf margins and structural highs; it outcrops in adjoining archipelagos. However within depositional centers like the South-Barents basin where Permian-Triassic reaches maximum thickness and burial, its structure can only be understood from seismic data. We present an evaluation of structure, depositional environments and cyclicity of Permian-Triassic terrigeneous complex based on interpretation of 18 000 km of regional seismic profiles with record length of 10-12 s acquired by MAGE in 2007-09 in the south-east shelf. Transgressive-regressive sequences were identified and correlated using well log analysis for 17 wells, descriptions of well sections and outcrops in Franz Josef Land, Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya archipelagos. Cooling of the climate throughout Sakmarian-Artinskian (Lower Permian), marine transgression, and Ural orogeny in the south-east had interrupted carbonate deposition and initiated the deposition of terrigeneous (East Barents) and spiculite, siliceous-carbonate, and siliciclastic (West Barents) sediments (Geological history, 2009). Triassic is represented by clastic lithologies all over the basin. On seismic data lower boundary of Permian-Triassic complex is a high-amplitude reflector (Ia) and downlap surface corresponding to the top of Lower Permian carbonates. Upper boundary is related to Rhaetian erosional unconformity best pronounced in the pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep, Kola monocline and Pechora Sea. Permian is represented by 5 transgressive-regressive sequences with upward regressive trend and total thickness of 100-800 m. Low-angle clinoforms prograding from south-east (Ural provenance) and east were interpreted on seismic. Increasing thickness of Permian towards Novaya Zemlya is consistent with up to 4 km of sediments in the archipelago's outcrops and indicates Kara provenance. In the south-eastern basin margin Permian-Triassic boundary is well-traced due to its erosional origin and downlapping of overlaying Induan clinoforms. Triassic sediments were formed in deltaic, shallow-marine to deep shelf environments in the large epicontinental basin with vast transgressions and significant lateral shift of the shoreline during sea level changes. Interpreted Triassic horizons correspond to Induan/Olenekian (top Havert), Lower/Upper Olenekian, Olenekian/Anisian (top Klappmyss) and Ladinian/Carnian boundaries. These relatively continuous reflectors were formed as transgressive shaly packages overlaid sequence boundaries. During Induan clinoforms (height ~100 s) had prograded to the north-west and west compensating the steady subsidence of the South- and North Barents depressions and pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep. We traced migration of the clinoform break (platform margin) of several Induan prograding sequences across the South-Barents basin towards Norwegian Barents Sea, where the area of non-compensated deposition in deep shelf environments was delineated (Glorstad-Clark, 2010). During Olenekian and Middle Triassic the clinoform break persisted in the western shelf, thus no clinoforms are observed in the south-east of the Barents Sea where deltaic environments had prevailed. Late Triassic was characterized by shallowing of the basin, spreading of deltas and filling of previously non-compensated area in the north-west. Maximum thickness of Triassic is related to Lower Triassic within South Barents basin and Lower-Middle Triassic within the pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep.

Norina, Daria; Stoupakova, Antonina

2014-05-01

190

Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

2008-03-15

191

Coal liquefaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The many different technologies developed, mainly during the 1970s and 1980s, for coal liquefaction are described. These are: carbonization; mild pyrolysis (e.g., Encoal's LFC process); single-stage direct liquefaction process (Kohleoel, NEDOL, H-Coal, Exxon Donor Solvent, SRC-I and II, Imhausen high pressure, Conoco zinc chloride); two-stage direct liquefaction process (catalytic two-stage liquefaction, liquid solvent extraction, brown coal liquefaction); coprocessing processes (Lummus Crest, Alberta Research Council, CANMET hydrocracking, and HTI co-processing); and indirect liquefaction processes (Sasol, Mobil MTG and Shell SMDS). The thermal efficiency of the process and the amount of CO{sub 2} produced is briefly discussed. Prospects for implementing coal liquefaction are most dependent on the price of crude oil. A table compares the likelihood of major countries pursuing coal liquefaction. Possibilities for further technological developments are outlined. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1999-10-01

192

Coal situation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nineteen eighties are likely to see a reversal of the fortunes of the coal industry in the non-Communist world. After declining for much of the post-World War II period, coal will increase its share of world energy supplies. Meeting the goals implicit in this new role will be expensive by past standards in the coal industry, but not unduly expensive in comparison to the investment needs of the other energy industries. The coal industry's cumulative expenditures during the eighties estimated at $99 billion (1980 US dollars) are less than half the expenditures Chase estimates will be required by the world petroleum industry in the year 1990 alone. If the current financing trend continues, more than half of the coal industry's future capital needs will be met from external sources of funds, with the international banking community playing a major role in meeting those needs. 2 tables.

1980-10-01

193

Coal liquefaction with coal tar solvent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of liquefying coal, comprising: mixing solid coal with a process solvent comprising coal tar material which has been at least partially hydrogenated under conditions which selectively hydrogenate aromatic coal tar components to hydroaromatics and which preserve the integrity of organonitrogen coal tar components, to produce a coal-solvent slurry; treating the coal-solvent slurry under coal-liquefying conditions in a liquefaction zone to produce a solution containing coal liquefaction products; and recovering coal liquefaction products from the solution.

Gir, S.; Rhodes, D.E.

1986-12-16

194

Dating of authigenic clays related to igneous intrusions in Hunter Valley Coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sydney Basin is composed mainly of Permian and Triassic marine and non-marine clastic sedimentary strata together with economically significant coal deposits and volumetrically minor igneous rocks. Many of these igneous rocks are also economically significant not only for their use in the construction industry but also for their deleterious effects on coal mining, particularly in underground mines utilising longwall extraction systems. Igneous activity in the Sydney Basin ranges from Early Permian to Tertiary in age and although episodic in nature, activity was unlikely to have ceased for periods of more than approximately 10 million years (Carr and Facer 1980; Embleton et al. 1982). Dating of the time of emplacement of igneous rocks using the K-Ar isotopic system is a relatively straightforward procedure if suitable analytical facilities and samples of appropriate, fresh, primary minerals are available. In the case of intrusions in coal seams, however, the occurrence of fresh, primary minerals is very rare due to widespread alteration produced by interaction between the igneous rock and fluids in the coal seam. This interaction produces a variety of secondary minerals with most primary minerals and glass being altered to clays (mainly kaolinite) and carbonates. Consequently, relatively few isotopic dates for intrusions into coal seams have been determined. A detailed study of several hundred samples of igneous rocks from the Sydney Basin found only six samples of intrusions into coal seams that were suitable for conventional K-Ar dating (Carr and Facer 1980). Techniques for K-Ar dating of authigenic illite, developed in response to the need by the petroleum industry to understand the timing of diagenesis in petroleum source-rocks and reservoirs, are now well established (Clauer and Chaudhuri 1995). As part of a larger project on the impact of igneous intrusions on coal mining and the alienation of coal reserves, a preliminary investigation of the timing of authigenic illite formation by alteration of intrusions in Dartbrook Mine has been undertaken

2000-01-01

195

Late Permian–early Middle Triassic back-arc basin development in West Qinling, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Late Permian-early Middle Triassic strata of the northern West Qinling area, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, are composed of sediment gravity flow deposits. Detailed sedimentary facies analysis indicates these strata were deposited in three successive deep-marine environments. The Late Permian-early Early Triassic strata of the Maomaolong Formation and the lowest part of the Longwuhe Formation define a NW-SE trending proximal slope environment. Facies of the Early Triassic strata composing the middle and upper Longwuhe Formation are consistent with deposition in a base-of-slope apron environment, whereas facies of the Middle Triassic Anisian age Gulangdi Formation are more closely associated with a base-of-slope fan depositional environment. The lithofacies and the spatial-temporal changes in paleocurrent data from these strata suggest the opening of a continental margin back-arc basin system during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the northern West Qinling. U-Pb zircon ages for geochemically varied igneous rocks with diabasic through granitic compositions intruded into these deep-marine strata range from 250 to 234 Ma. These observations are consistent with extensional back-arc basin development and rifting between the Permian-Triassic Eastern Kunlun arc and North China block during the continent-continent collision and underthrusting of the South China block northward beneath the Qinling terrane of the North China block. Deep-marine sedimentation ended in the northern West Qinling by the Middle Triassic Ladinian age, but started in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi to the south. We attribute these observations to southward directed rollback of Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere, continued attenuation of the West Qinling on the upper plate, local post-rift isostatic compensation in the northern West Qinling area, and continued opening of a back-arc basin in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi. Rollback and back-arc basin development during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the West Qinling area explains: the truncated map pattern of the Eastern Kunlun arc, the age difference of deep-marine sediment gravity flow deposits between the Late Permian-early Middle Triassic northern West Qinling and the late Middle Triassic-Late Triassic southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi, and the discontinuous trace of ophiolitic rocks associated with the Anyemaqen-Kunlun suture.

Li, Lin; Meng, Qingren; Pullen, Alex; Garzione, Carmala N.; Wu, Guoli; Wang, Yanling; Ma, Shouxian; Duan, Liang

2014-06-01

196

Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China  

Science.gov (United States)

Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. ?13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). ?34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive ?13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ?REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in ?13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of ?34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior to the main extinction horizon may have been caused by oceanic oxygen-minimum zone expansion and upward movement of the chemocline5. The coupled increases in Eu/Eu* and Baxs may record hydrothermal influence, possibly accompanied by increased ocean acidity and high seawater temperatures. Collectively, our results document major changes in seawater chemistry during the Changhsingian prior to the main end-Permian crisis.

Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

2013-12-01

197

Summary of breakout Session C1: C1, chemical countermeasures; dispersants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discussions in breakout session C1 are summarized. The topics discussed include the pros and cons of dispersant use. Many of the positions which have been heard for the last twenty years were restated. Neither group convinced the other of the advisability of easing the use of dispersants. There was better agreement on the need for research and development programs to get a better handle on some of the questions being raised. The R ampersand D needs on which the participants could agree are summarized

1992-06-01

198

Greta Coal Measures on the Muswellbrook Anticline area, New South Wales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Greta Coal Measures are the lower of two main coal-bearing intervals in the Permian northern Sydney Basin. High quality outcrop and continuous core data are available from the Muswellbrook Anticline area in the Hunter Valley, enabling a sequence-stratigraphic interpretation of the Greta Coal Measures to be presented. Age and core relationships indicate an unconformity at the base and the top of the Greta Coal Measures. A correlation between dated tuffs in the upper Greta Coal Measures in the Muswellbrook area and the Maitland Group in the Cessnock area establishes a clear diachronous upper boundary for the Greta Coal Measures resulting from a northwestward marine transgression. The Greta Coal Measures are interpreted to occupy a single sequence in which the lower fluvial and lacustrine Skeletar Formation makes up a transgressive systems tract, the Ayrdale Sandstone Member is an estuarine unit around the maximum flooding surface, and the upper fluvial to deltaic Rowan Formation occupies a highstand systems tract. The overlying Jasdec Park Sandstone Member of the Maitland Group infills incised valleys above a sequence boundary and then occurs as a transgressive shoreline system before passing into the glacial marine Branxton Formation. The Greta Coal Measures represent high accommodation where subsidence and sediment supply were approximately balanced over more than 100 m of accumulation, and the development of 14 recognisable coal seams occurred in a single sequence.

Boyd, R.; Leckie, D. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

2000-07-01

199

Bivalves and brachiopods in the Carboniferous - Early Permian of Argentine Precordillera: Diversification and faunal turnover in Southwestern Gondwana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diversification patterns and faunistic turnovers of bivalves and brachiopods through the Carboniferous – Early Permian interval in the central western Argentinian basins are analyzed and compared with the global events proposed in former studies. This study reveals a generalized increase of bivalves, at familiar and generic levels, through three time intervals, i.e., Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian-Visean), Late Carboniferous (Bashkirian-Kasimovian) and Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian), ...

Fabiana Sterren, Andrea

2010-01-01

200

Study on variation of micro-pores (< 100 nm) and volatile components of different rank coals during carbonization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six different rank coals (including anthracite, lean coal, coking coal, fat coal, weakly-caking coal and a gas coal) were carbonised at 3{sup o}C/min in crucibles up to 1,000{sup o}C. The pore volume and pore diameter of the chars and cokes produced at different final temperature were analysed with a SORPTOMATIC1990 absorber. Bio-rad FTS-1654 pyrolysis-ir was used to measure the volatile matter in the six coals and their release temperature domain at 10{sup o}C/min. During carbonisation the quantity of volatile aromatics ranked as: fat coal C1 > coking coal B1 > lean coal A5 > gas coal Y1. The quantity of hydroxyl group and carboxyl group released by fat coal C1 was the greatest of the six coals. The yield of aliphatic hydrocarbons ranked C1 > B1 > A5, Y1. Except for CO{sub 2}, the quantity of all kinds of groups released by weak-caking coal D1 was the least of the six coals. At 1,000{sup o}C, the rank of coke pore volume is C1 > D1 > B1 > YQ and coke average pore radius rank is D1 {much_gt} B1 > YQ > C1. C1 coal produced coke with the largest specific surface area, about 20 m{sub 2}/g, and the other three coals produced coke with specific surface area of about 3 m{sub 2}/g. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Shen, J.; Wang, Z. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

2007-06-15

 
 
 
 
201

Quarterly coal statistics of OECD countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These quarterly statistics contain data from the fourth quarter 1990 to the fourth quarter 1991. The first set of tables (A1 to A30) show trends in production, trade, stock change and apparent consumption data for OECD countries. Tables B1 to B12 show detailed statistics for some major coal trade flows to and from OECD countries and average value in US dollars. A third set of tables, C1 to C12, show average import values and indices. The trade data have been extracted or derived from national and EEC customs statistics. An introductory section summarizes trends in coal supply and consumption, deliveries to thermal power stations; electricity production and final consumption of coal and tabulates EEC and Japanese steam coal and coking coal imports to major countries.

1993-06-21

202

Quarterly coal statistics of OECD countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These quarterly statistics contain data from the fourth quarter 1990 to the fourth quarter 1991. The first set of tables (A1 to A30) show trends in production, trade, stock change and apparent consumption data for OECD countries. Tables B1 to B12 show detailed statistics for some major coal trade flows to and from OECD countries and average value in US dollars. A third set of tables, C1 to C12, show average import values and indices. The trade data have been extracted or derived from national and EEC customs statistics. An introductory section summarizes trends in coal supply and consumption, deliveries to thermal power stations; electricity production and final consumption of coal and tabulates EEC and Japanese steam coal and coking coal imports to major countries.

1992-04-27

203

King Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal is undoubtedly the fuel for the future because of its unique advantages: reserves for over 300 years at current rates of consumption compared with 40-50 years estimated for other fossil fuels; relative cheapness and longterm price stability; proximity to European markets; capability of conversion into gas and oil. Although coal has been a poor competitor to oil and gas for recent years this will soon change as prices begin to climb towards the year 2000. This paper outlines the problems that need to be solved for coal to regain it's place as the primary fossil fuel.

Gibson, J.

1987-01-01

204

Coal petrography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The term maceral describes the shape and the nature of the microscopically recognizable (organic) constituents of the coal. The rock types in coal are called lithotypes. Microlithotypes are maceral constituents used mainly to interpret paleodepositional environments. The term lithotype is used for megascopic observations, but the terms microlithotype and maceral are used for microscopic observations. The ICCP classification recognise the macerals: vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite. Coal commonly contains ash in the form of clays, silica, carbonates and sulfides. Other methods of classification include the recognition of microlithotypes, and the use of reflectance and fluorescence in analysis. 33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Toprak, S. [Mineral Research and Exploration Institute, Ankara (Turkey)

1994-12-31

205

U-Th-Geochemistry of Permian and Triassic sediments of the Drauzug, Carinthia, Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical analysis of samples of Triassic and Permian rocks from the Drauzug, Carinthia and Austria was carried out. U concentration was measured by flurimetry, Th and Cu by spectrophotometry using Thoronol method or Arsenazo III method for Th, Fe by titrimetry and V, Ba, Sr by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average U concentration ranged from 0.8 to 4.6 ppm and the Th concentration from 3.2 to 15.6 ppm depending upon the mineral material. The quartzporphyries contained the highest concentration of both. It was concluded that the Permian-Triassic series are very similar to the equivalent deposits in Northern Italy. Assuming a lateral displacement, the former represent the Northern marginal part of the latter and therefore are inferior in thickness and thus not favourable for larger U mineralization

1976-01-01

206

Sulfur and oxygen isotopes in Italian marine sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaporitic sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from Italian occurrences were analyzed for sulfur and oxygen isotopes in order to supplement the corresponding isotope-age curves and to use isotopic data to trace the origin of the sulfate in hydrologic systems. The sulfur-isotopic composition-age relationships obtained in this study generally agree with those found throughout the world. In two cases, i.e. in samples from the Carniola di Bovegno Formation (Bergamo and Brescia Alps) and from the lower part of the Gracilis Formation (Recoaro, Vicenza), sulfur isotopes suggest different ages for the rocks than the formerly ascribed ones. Oxygen-isotopic compositions show the same range from approximately +10.5 to +18.5per thousand, without any consistent relationship with sulfur. These ranges of values are almost identical to those published previously for sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from other locations.

Cortecci, G.; Reyes, E.; Berti, G. (Pisa Univ. (Italy)); Casati, P. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

1981-11-01

207

Sulfur and oxygen isotopes in Italian marine sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaporitic sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from Italian occurrences were analyzed for sulfur and oxygen isotopes in order to supplement the corresponding isotope-age curves and to use isotopic data to trace the origin of the sulfate in hydrologic systems. The sulfur-isotopic composition-age relationships obtained in this study generally agree with those found throughout the world. In two cases, i.e. in samples from the Carniola di Bovegno Formation (Bergamo and Brescia Alps) and from the lower part of the Gracilis Formation (Recoaro, Vicenza), sulfur isotopes suggest different ages for the rocks than the formerly ascribed ones. Oxygen-isotopic compositions show the same range from approximately +10.5 to +18.5per thousand, without any consistent relationship with sulfur. These ranges of values are almost identical to those published previously for sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from other locations. (Auth.)

1981-01-01

208

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

209

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-03-31

210

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2005-03-31

211

New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France), viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined). In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera) ...

Jakub Prokop; André Nel

2011-01-01

212

Nitrogen Limitation and Productivity in the Permian-Triassic Greenhouse Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine primary productivity is an important ecological variable with major implications for the end-Permian carbon cycle. While numerous studies have examined relative changes in productivity across the Permian-Triassic boundary, we have less constraint on absolute rates of carbon export from the surface ocean, or qualitative comparison to modern marine environments. The HEATT model suggests that under sufficiently warm conditions, an increase in denitrification and decrease in P burial efficiency could lead to replacement of P by N as the ultimate limiting nutrient in marine systems, although the implications of such limitation on primary productivity are not clear. The Gujo Hachiman and Ubara sections, located in the Mino-Tamba accretionary complex of Japan, record sedimentation in the equatorial Panthalassic ocean across the Permian-Triassic boundary, an interval experiencing potentially the most intense greenhouse conditions of the Phanerozoic. Nitrogen isotope measurements of sedimentary organic matter in the Japanese accreted sections show values consistently close to 0, suggesting that the planktonic ecosystem relied on direct N fixation from the atmosphere by cyanobacteria to supply its nutrient requirements. Calculated organic carbon fluxes are comparable to those seen in the modern equatorial Pacific, however these results are complicated by preservational effects, suggesting an approach that includes several proxies for productivity with different modes of preservation. In this study, we attempt to constrain productivity in the late-Permian/earliest-Triassic equatorial Panthalassic Ocean and make comparisons with analogous environments in the modern equatorial Pacific. We compare calculated mass fluxes of inorganic productivity proxies to the modern equatorial Pacific Ocean, as well as areas of known local N limitation due to denitrification, such as the Cariaco Basin.

Schoepfer, S.; Algeo, T. J.

2013-12-01

213

Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1) problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, wh...

Stephen Kershaw; Sylvie Crasquin; Yue Li; Pierre-Yves Collin; Marie-Béatrice Forel

2012-01-01

214

Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs of the Mengkarang Formation (Early Permian, Sumatra) and their palaeobiogeographical significance  

Science.gov (United States)

Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs from the Lower Permian Mengkarang Formation (Sumatra, Indonesia) have been studied in order to establish the palaeogeographical position and the palaeolatitude of the West Sumatra Block. The position of the West Sumatra Block within the Palaeo-Tethys and Panthalassa oceans and its relationships to their marginal landmasses, in particular the Gondwana supercontinent and the Cathaysian palaeogeographical area, currently is uncertain.

Crippa, G.; Angiolini, L.; Van Waveren, I.; Crow, M. J.; Hasibuan, F.; Stephenson, M. H.; Ueno, K.

2014-01-01

215

Study of association of fossil levels in the Mangrullo Formation (Terminal Permian age) Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution makes reference to new findings, product of paleontological surveys performed in the Mangrullo Formation in the NE region of the country. The presence of a new group of vertebrates associated to mesosaurid remains was confirmed , in strata where only the latter where recorded until this moment. Palynological analysis were carried out in fossil bearing levels confirming a Terminal Permian Age and a possibly non marine acuatic depostional environment under an arid climate. (author)

1998-05-13

216

Reproductive biology of the Permian Glossopteridales and their suggested relationship to flowering plants.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discovery of permineralized glossopterid reproduction organs from Late Permian deposits in the Beard-more Glacier region (central Transantarctic Mountains) of Antarctica provides anatomical evidence for the adaxial attachment of the seeds to the megaasporophyll in this important group of Late Paleozoic seed plants. The position of the seeds is in direct contradiction to many earlier descriptions, based predominatly on impression/compression remains. The attachement of the ovules on the ad...

1992-01-01

217

A first Late Permian fish fauna from Baghuk Mountain (Neo-Tethyan shelf, central Iran)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A diverse Late Permian assemblage of chondrichthyan and actinopterygian micro- and macroremains is presented from the central Iranian locality of Baghuk Mountain for the first time. The vertebrate remains were found in sediments containing mainly pelagic organisms such as nautiloids, ammonoids, and conodonts. Their habitat is interpreted as a deep shelf area with well-oxygenated bottom water conditions below the storm wave base. The chondrichthyans are represented by various dermal denticles,...

Hampe O; Hairapetian V; Dorka M; Witzmann F; Akbari A M; Korn D

2012-01-01

218

Size-Frequency Distributions along a Latitudinal Gradient in Middle Permian Fusulinoideans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geographic gradients in body size within and among living species are commonly used to identify controls on the long-term evolution of organism size. However, the persistence of these gradients over evolutionary time remains largely unknown because ancient biogeographic variation in organism size is poorly documented. Middle Permian fusulinoidean foraminifera are ideal for investigating the temporal persistence of geographic gradients in organism size because they were diverse and abundant al...

2012-01-01

219

International correlation of Early Permian palynofloras from the Karoo sediments of Morupule, Botswana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is the first published account of Palaeozoic palynological assemblages from Botswana. Palynological assemblages of the lower Karoo Morupule Main Seam of the Morupule Colliery in Botswana are similar to those of the Striatopodocarpites fusus Biozone of the Collie Basin, Western Australia and the 3a Microfloral Biozone of the northern Karoo Basin, South Africa. This indicates an Aktastinian (Early Permian) age for the strata of Morupule. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Stephenson, M.H.; McLean, D. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

1999-03-01

220

Geochemical anomalies near the Eocene-Oligocene and Permian-Triassic boundaries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence is presented to support the theory that several mass extinctions, i.e., those that define the Permian-Triassic boundary, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and the Eocene-1 Oligocene boundary, were caused by impact on the earth of extraterrestrial objects having the composition of carbonaceous chondrites and diameters of about 10 km. The evidence consists of anomalously high concentrations of iridium and other siderophile elements at the stratigraphic levels defining the extinctions. (ACR)

Asaro, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H.V.

1981-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous-Permian volcanosedimentary sequences of the Northern Pamir, Tajikistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The point of view on two angular unconformities in the section of the Lower Carboniferous volcanosedimentary sequences of the northern Pamir is disproved. Two terrigenous sequences in contrast to one Beleuli sequence of shales are present in the Beleuli River basin. The first Carboniferous sequence conformably overlaps limestones with Serpukhovian goniatites and the second Permian sequence may be correlated with the Pshikharv Formation of shales from the western regions of the northern Pamir and contacts by the thrust Carboniferous rocks.

Leven, E. Ja.

2013-11-01

222

Organic geochemistry across the Permian-Triassic transition at the Idrijca Valley, Western Slovenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bulk and molecular stable C isotopic compositions and biomarker distributions provide evidence for a diverse community of algal and bacterial organisms in the sedimentary organic matter of a carbonate section throughout the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) transition at the Idrijca Valley, Western Slovenia. The input of algae and bacteria in all the Upper Permian and Lower Scythian samples is represented by the predominance of C15-C22 n-alkanes, odd C-number alkylcyclohexanes, C27 steranes and substantial contents of C21-C30 acyclic isoprenoids. The occurrence of odd long-chain n-alkanes (C22-C30) and C29 steranes in all the samples indicate a contribution of continental material. The decrease of Corg and Ccarb contents, increase of Rock-Eval oxygen indices, and 13C-enrichment of the kerogen suggest a decrease in anoxia of the uppermost Permian bottom water. The predominance of odd C-number alkylcycloalkanes, C27 steranes, and C17 n-alkanes with ?13C values ?-30%o, and 13C-enrichment of the kerogens in the lowermost Scythian samples are evidence of greater algal productivity. This increased productivity was probably sustained by a high nutrient availability and changes of dissolved CO2 speciation associated to the earliest Triassic transgression. A decrease of Corg content in the uppermost Scythian samples, associated to a 13C-depletetion in the carbonates (up to 4%o) and individual n-alkanes (up to 3.4%o) compared to the Upper Permian samples, indicate lowering of the primary productivity (algae, cyanobacteria) and/or higher degradation of the organic matter

2004-01-01

223

Concentrations and occurrences of mercury and arsenic in coals from the Qianxi fault depression area in southwestern Guizhou, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-arsenic coal combustion has caused extremely harmful on inhabitants and environment in Southwestern Guizhou. Sixty-one coal samples were collected and determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption (CV-AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) for understanding the contents and distributions of mercury and arsenic in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou. And sequential chemical extraction procedures were carried out for understanding the modes of occurrences of mercury and arsenic in the coals. The results show that the concentrations of mercury in coals are between 0.034 to 10.5 mg/kg and the average value is 1.006 mg/kg. The content of arsenic in coal is between 0.2 to 238 mg/kg and the average value is 40.7 mg/kg. The concentrations of mercury and arsenic in Late Triassic coal are higher than in Late Permian coal, mercury is 1.421 mg/kg and 0.891 mg/kg and arsenic is 53.3 mg/kg and 30.7 mg/kg respectively. Compared with average value of World and Chinese coal, the concentrations of mercury and arsenic in QFDA coal are higher. And the concentrations of mercury and arsenic in QFDA coal are also higher than the average value of Guizhou coal. Mercury and arsenic in coal are predominately associated with minerals and the percents of mercury and arsenic with macerals are very low. There are some water extractable and readily exchangeable mercury and arsenic because of the leaching of mercury and arsenic contained rock. Mercury and arsenic are mainly contained in the minerals in coal and hence the physical coal cleaning techniques can remove minerals from coal and decrease the mercury and arsenic emissions. 16 refs., 8 tabs.

Junying Zhang; Yaqin Qiu; Deyi Ren; Jing Liu; Chuguang Zheng [Huazhong University Of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2003-07-01

224

The Universal Askey-Wilson Algebra and DAHA of Type (C_1^?,C_1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Around 1992 A. Zhedanov introduced the Askey-Wilson algebra AW(3. Recently we introduced a central extension $Delta_q$ of AW(3 called the universal Askey-Wilson algebra. In this paper we discuss how $Delta_q$ is related to the universal DAHA $hat H_q$ of type$(C^vee_1, C_1$. Our main result is an algebra injection $psi: Delta_q o hat H_q$. We compute the image under $psi$ of various central elements in $Delta_q$. We describe how the Artin braid group $B_3$ acts on $Delta_q$ and $hat H_q$. We show that $psi$ commutes with these $B_3$ actions.

Paul Terwilliger

2013-07-01

225

Sulfur isotopic evidence for chemocline upward excursions during the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest Permian was a time of major change in ocean chemistry, accompanying the greatest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. To examine the nature of these changes, samples from two well-studied marine sections that span the Permian-Triassic boundary have been analyzed: the Meishan and Shangsi sections located in Southern China. Isotopic analysis of the carbonate-associated sulfate in these samples provides a detailed record of several isotopic shifts in ? 34S CAS approaching and across the PTB, ranging from +30 to -15‰ (VCDT), with repeated asynchronous fluctuations at the two locations. We interpret the patterns of isotopic shifts, in conjunction with other data, to indicate a shallow unstable chemocline overlying euxinic deep-water which periodically upwelled into the photic zone. These chemocline upward excursion events introduced sulfide to the photic zone stimulating a bloom of phototrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria. We hypothesize that elemental sulfur globules produced by these organisms and 34S-depleted pyrite produced in the euxinic water column were deposited in the sediment; later oxidation led to incorporation as CAS. This created the large changes to the ? 34S CAS observed in the latest Permian at these locations.

Riccardi, Anthony L.; Arthur, Michael A.; Kump, Lee R.

2006-12-01

226

Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in the Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of the Permian Basin. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Permian Basin is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal material used in the seal system in the repository-level rooms and tunnels is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate in response to closure of the repository rooms, to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For Permian Basin Unit 4 salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 700 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 200 years for a seal located in a main passageway within the repository. These analyses are based on uncertain laboratory data regarding intact salt creep rates and crushed salt consolidation characteristics, and must be regarded as preliminary. Bulkheads composed of concrete, as well as bentonite-rich earth fill, are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation

1985-01-01

227

Permian basalts and trachytes from Esterel (SE France): a transitional tholeiitic suite emplaced during lithosphere thinning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geochemical (major, trace and rare earth elements) and isotopic (143Nd/144Nd) compositions of lavas emplaced in the Esterel Massif (eastern Provence, France) at the end of the Permian allow to estimate the evolution of the continental lithosphere between the end of the Hercynian orogenesis and the beginning of the Tethyan rifting. Basalts from Agay basin and trachyte from Batterie des Lions belong to a transitional tholeiitic suite, characterized by negative Nb and Ta anomalies (relative to N-MORB) and homogeneous ?Nd(T=250Ma) ratios, close to the Bulk Earth. This suggests that the basalts from Agay basin and trachyte from Batterie des Lions derived from the partial melting of a mantle contaminated by lower continental crust. Maure Vieille trachytes differ from the differentiated rocks of the transitional suite by higher heavy rare earth abundances and ?Nd(T=250Ma) of +4/+5. These high ?Nd ratios suggest that the Maure Vieille trachytes could derive from the partial melting of a more depleted source, likely an asthenospheric mantle. The isotopic compositions of the Permian lavas from Esterel suggest the thinning (and perhaps the disappearance) of the lithospheric mantle which is associated at the surface with a NNW-SSE extension. The progressive change recorded in Agay basin from a stretching regime to a strike-slip regime may be related to the end of the lithospheric thinning and of the Permian magmatism. (authors)

1999-01-01

228

Coal Sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.; Simon, Frederick Otto, 1939-

2011-03-29

229

Coal science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume is the second of a serial publication designed to provide an integrated approach to the study of the reactivity, utilization, and physical and organic structure of coal. Critical reviews by recognized experts present an up-too-date analysis of selected areas of coal science from the perspectives of the physicist; the organic, inorganic, and physical chemist; and the chemical and mechanical engineer. The reviews include contributions on organic structure, reductive alkylation chemistry, and plasticity mechanisms, and an article on magnetic resonance studies of coal. This long-needed, continuing reference work comprehensively treats fundamental information, laying the groundwork for research that will lead to further advances in coal science and technology.

Gorbaty, M.L.; Larsen, J.W.; Wender, I. (eds.)

1983-01-01

230

Illawarra Reversal: the onset of the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian magnetostratigraphic records demonstrate that a remarkable change occurred in geomagnetism in the Late Guadalupian (Middle Permian; ca. 265 Ma) from the long-term stable Kiaman Reverse Superchron (throughout the Late Carboniferous and Early-Middle Permian) to the Permian-Triassic Mixed Superchron with frequent polarity change (in the Late Permian and Triassic). This unique episode called the Illawarra Reversal probably reflects a significant mode change in geodynamo in the outer core of the planet after a 50 million year-long stable geomagnetism. The Illawarra Reversal was likely led by the appearance of thermal instability at the 2,900 km-deep core-mantle boundary in connection with mantle superplume activity. The Illawarra Reversal and the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary event recorded the significant transition from the Paleozoic to Mesozoic-Modern world. Major global environmental changes in the Phanerozoic occurred almost simultaneously in the latest Guadalupian, e.g., 1) mass extinction, 2) ocean redox change, 3) sharp isotopic excursions (C and Sr), 4) sea-level drop, and 5) plume-related volcanism. In addition to the claimed possible link between the above-listed various environmental changes and mantle superplume activity, here I propose an extra explanation that a change in the core's geodynamo may have played another important role in determining the surface climate of the planet and the course of biotic evolution. When a superplume is launched from the core-mantle boundary, resultant thermal instability makes the geodynamo's dipole of the outer core unstable, and lowers the geomagnetic intensity. Being modulated by geo- and heliomagnetism, cosmic ray flux from the outer space into the Earth's atmosphere changes along time. The more cosmic ray penetrates through the atmosphere, the more cloud develops to increase albedo, thus enhances cooling the Earth's surface. The Illawarra Reversal, the Kamura cooling event, and other unique geologic phenomena in the Late Guadalupian were all likely caused by the superplume activity that initially triggered the breakup of Pangea. The secular change of cosmic radiation may explain not only the extinction-related global climatic changes in the end-Guadalupian but also the long- term global warming/cooling trend in Earth"fs history in terms of cloud coverage over the planet.

Isozaki, Y.

2008-12-01

231

Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area in southwestern Guizhou, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mineralogy, coal chemistry and 21 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) of 44 coal samples from the Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou province, China have been systematically studied. The major minerals in coals studied are quartz, kaolinite, illite, pyrite, calcite, smectite, marcasite and accessory minerals, including rutile, dolomite, siderite, gypsum, chlorite, melanterite, apatite, collophane and florencite. The SiO{sub 2} content shows a broad variation (0.8-30.7%). A high SiO{sub 2} content in Late Permian coals reflects their enrichment in quartz. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content varies from 0.8% to 13.4%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 0.2% to 14.6%, CaO from <0.1% to 11.9% and the contents of other oxides are relatively low. The relationship between the major oxides and the ash content of coals from high to low is in the order of Si>Al>K>Ti>Na>Mg>Ca>Fe>S. A comparison with World coal averages shows that the Late Permian coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As, Hg, F and U, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Se, Th, V and Zn. The Late Triassic coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As and Hg, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Th and U. The concentrations of As, Hg, Mo, Se, Tl and Zn in the QFDA coal are higher than other Guizhou coal and Liupanshui coal nearby.The QFDA is an area strongly affected by the low-temperature hydrothermal activity during its geologic history (Yanshanian Age, about 189 Ma). The coals in QFDA are enriched in volatile PHTEs, including As, Hg, Se, Sb, Mo, among others. The regions where the coals are enriched in As, Hg and F have been mapped. The regions of coals enriched in volatile PHTEs overlap with the regions of noble metal ore deposits. These coals are located in the cores of anticline and anticlinorium, which are connected with the profound faults through the normal faults. Coals are enriched in volatile PHTEs as a result of the low-temperature hydrothermal activity associated with tectonic faulting.

Zhang, Junying [National Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ren, Deyi [China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Zhu, Yanming [China University of Mining and Technology (Xuzhou), Xuzhou 221008 (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Zeng, Rongshu [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zheng, Baoshan [Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)

2004-01-15

232

Coal production in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first coal mine in Thailand was opened in 1955, and coal production has increased steadily since then. The coal, from brown coal to anthracite, is used mainly for electricity generation. Thailand is thought to have at least 1660 million tonnes of coal reserves, mainly of low rank coal. Production is currently underway in 7 coal basins. Figures for production and consumption of coal from 1955 are presented.

Supurtipanish, S.

1986-01-01

233

Coal and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attention is paid to the impact of winning of coal and the use of coal on the environment and how to abate the pollution to a minimum. After a brief introduction on coal, coal reserves and coal production the most important environmental issues concerning the exploitation and transport of coal are discussed. Next the key part of coal in power generation and the clean coal techniques are dealt with. These techniques demand large investments which is a problem for developing countries. 12 figs

1990-01-01

234

Coal 99  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimise the env ironmental

2000-01-01

235

Coal -98  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx-burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the environmental influence will lead to more efficient power generation methods and us e of other fuels such as

236

Coal 95  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO2 and NOx as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NOx cleaning system. Most other plants use low NOx burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

1995-01-01

237

The Powerful Neuroprotective Action of C1-Inhibitor on Brain Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Does Not Require C1q  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) is a major regulator of the complement classical pathway. Besides this action, it may also inhibit other related inflammatory systems. We have studied the effect of C1-INH in C57BL/6 mice with focal transient brain ischemia induced by 30 minutes of occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. C1-INH induced a dose-dependent reduction of ischemic volume that, with the dose of 15 U/mouse, reached 10.8% of the volume of saline-treated mice. Four days after ischemia the treated ...

2004-01-01

238

Coal shipping and costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report examines the international seaborne trade in steam coal and coking coal and presents forecasts for trade in the year 2000. Sections headings of the report are: coal demand trends and developments; seaborne coal trade; sea transport and shipping of coal; and the economics of seaborne coal shipping.

NONE

1995-08-01

239

26 CFR 31.3402(c)-1 - Wage bracket withholding.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage bracket withholding. 31.3402(c)-1 ...Source § 31.3402(c)-1 Wage bracket withholding. (a) In general. (1) The employer may elect to use the wage bracket method provided in section...

2010-04-01

240

Are C1 chondrites chemically fractionated - A trace element study  

Science.gov (United States)

Six C1 chondrite samples and a C2 xenolith from the Plainview H5 chondrite were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for a large variety of elements, including rare earths. The sample processing is described, including the irradiation, chemical procedure, rare earths separation, counting techniques, radiochemical purity check, and chemical yields. The results of consistency checks on a number of elements are discussed. Abundances for siderophiles, volatiles, and rare earths are presented and discussed. Tests are presented for fractionation of rare earths and other refractories, compositional uniformity of C1's, and interelement correlations. There is no conclusive evidence for nebular fractionation affecting C1's. Three fractionation-prone rare earths have essentially the same relative abundances in C1's and all other chondrite classes, and hence are apparently not fractionated in C1's.

Ebihara, M.; Wolf, R.; Anders, E.

1982-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Efficient coal liquefaction process using highly dispersed catalyst into macromolecular network structure of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to develop an efficient coal liquefaction process, the effect of the pre-treatment of coal (coal-gel) swollen in the iron carboxylate solutions have been examined. In the case of iron(II) trifloroacetate catalyst, the lignite (Yallourn coal) previously swollen in the THF solution has shown interesting features in the liquefaction (450{degree}C, 1 hour), as follows: (1) the yield of THF-soluble was significantly increased compared with that of the synthetic pyrite catalyst (simple mixing), (2) the effect of the particle size of coal sample was very small, and (3) the sulfidation treatment of the catalyst was not necessary. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Yamanishi, I.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Iizuka (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

1998-07-01

242

Conditions for the formation and atmospheric dispersion of a toxic, heavy gas layer during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits by sill intrusion  

Science.gov (United States)

There is compelling evidence for massive discharge of volatiles, including toxic species, into the atmosphere at the end of the Permian. It has been argued that most of the gases were produced during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits in the East Siberia Tunguska basin following sill intrusion (Retallack and Jahren, 2008; Svensen et al., 2009). The release of the volatiles has been proposed as a major cause of environmental and extinction events at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009) Here we consider the conditions required for the formation and dispersion of toxic, heavier than air, gas plumes, made up of a mixture of CO2, CH4, H2S and SO2 and formed during the thermal metamorphism of C- and S- rich sediments. Dispersion models and density considerations within a range of CO2/CH4 ratios and volatile fluxes and temperatures, for gas discharge by both seepage and from vents, allow the possibility that following sill emplacement much of the vast East Siberia Tunguska basin was - at least intermittently - covered by a heavy, toxic gas layer that was unfavorable for life. Dispersion scenarios for a heavy gas layer beyond the Siberian region during end-Permian times will be presented. REFERENCES G. J. Retallack and A. H. Jahren, Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events, Journal of Geology, volume 116, 1-20, 2008 H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 2009

Storey, Michael; Hankin, Robin K. S.

2010-05-01

243

The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous link between them. Post-Variscan, Late Carboniferous-Early Permian wrench tectonics is the oldest and main identified cause for regional basin formation in Central Europe. This relatively short-lived tectonic regime cannot explain the observed common history of subsidence of the Permian Basins during the 200 My that followed. Our analysis demonstrates that transfer faults that both follow and cross rheological transitions and inherited fault zones continued to be active after the early Permian. We therefore suggests that crustal-scale transfer faults may be the missing link that explains the common subsidence history of basins with a fundamentally different crustal architecture and structural history.

Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

2014-05-01

244

Coal gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal gasification is a process whereby a mixture of combustible gases is obtained. The input reactants are steam, air or oxygen and coal. They react heterogeneously to produce gaseous mixtures of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O. The liquid product is generally tar. Char and ash are produced as the solid residue. The conversion of a solid fuel into a gaseous fuel is important in that most of the problems associated with the usage of a solid fuel e.g. transportation, environmental pollution, are eliminated. This article presents the fundamentals of coal gasification with regard to its chemistry, basic process technology and product gas purification systems including particulate and acid gas removal. Gasifier types described include: fixed-bed gasifiers, fluidized-bed gasifiers, entrained-flow gasifiers; molten bath gasifiers and solar and nuclear aided gasification. 29 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Unal, S.; Piskin, S.; Williams, A. [University of Marmara, Istanbul (Turkey)

1994-12-31

245

Palaeoecology of selected South African export coals from the Vryheid Formation, with emphasis on the role of heterosporous lycopods and wildfire derived inertinite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of six bulk coal samples from the Early Permian Vryheid Formation of the Karoo Basin, South Africa has revealed the importance of wildfire in this coal-forming environment. Inertinite is a major constituent of these coals and was predominantly produced by wildfire. The accumulation of the peat in this setting was both autochthonous and hypautochthonous/allochthonous, conditions varying between the occurrence of standing water and desiccation. Woody gymnosperms and also lycopods were important components of the coal swamp vegetation, of which the diversity and abundance of the lycopods may be tentatively assessed by the distribution of megaspores in the coals. Consistent with lycopod reproductive strategy, these megaspores are more abundant and diverse where the vitrinite content is greater. 59 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Ian Glasspool [Royal Holloway University of London, Egham (United Kingdom). Department of Geology

2003-05-01

246

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this program in its third year, as briefly summarized below. (1) Nanoscale iron-based catalysts containing molybdenum, palladium, or nickel and supported on alumina have been developed that are very effective for the dehydrogenation of methane and ethane to produce pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. Some of the nanotube structures are being investigated as a safe storage medium for hydrogen. Dehydrogenation of higher hydrocarbons, including several liquids that are compatible with vehicular transportation under fuel cell power, is currently under investigation. (2) Operation of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis under supercritical fluid (SCF) solvent conditions increases liquid fuel yields and improves the selectivity of the process to produce desired products. (3) Small additions ({approx}1%) of organic probe molecules with carbon-carbon triple bonds to the FT reaction markedly shift the molecular weight distribution and increase the oxygenate content of the products. The goal is to develop better technology for producing cleaner burning diesel fuel and other fuels. (4) Several different types of catalyst are under investigation to develop better control of FT fuel product distributions. (5) C1 processes have been developed for producing ethylene and propylene, two high-value products, from methanol. Novel silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) catalysts containing nickel and other metals are used. (6) Binary tungsten-cobalt carbide catalysts have been found to have excellent activities and lifetimes for reforming of methane into synthesis gas using carbon dioxide. This type of catalyst is being further investigated for synthesis gas reactions relevant to the goal of producing hydrogen from coal.

Gerald P. Huffman

2002-09-30

247

Chondromyxoid fibroma of C1: first case report Fibroma condromixoide de C1: primer caso Fibroma condromixóide de C1: primeiro relato de caso  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare, benign primary bone tumor. The cervical spine is an uncommon site for this tumor, with only 10 reported cases to date and none involving the first cervical vertebra (C1). CASE REPORT: Female patient, 25-year-old monozygotic female twin, presented with cervical pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated a contrast-enhanced, right-sided lytic lesion of the insufflated type in C1, with a punched-out appearance and extending to the anterior arch. A ...

Ericson Sfreddo; Asdrubal Falavigna; Vinícius Borges Soares; Silva, Silvia Chaves E.; André Nesi; Vinícius Carraro do Nascimento; Pedro Guarise da Silva

2012-01-01

248

The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most important climatic and biological crises of the history of the Earth occurred 250 m.a. ago, during the transition from the Permian to the Triassic. During the Permian, all of the continental blocks were covering one hemisphere forming the Pangea supercontinent, while the other was covered by the Panthalasa ocean. General conditions for living on land were very precarious.

Virgili, Carmina

2008-01-01

249

An algorithm for payoff space in C1-games  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present an algorithm implemented by MATLAB, and several examples completely realized by this algorithm, based on a method developed by one of the authors to determine the payoff-space of certain normal-form C1-games. Specifically, our study is based on a method able to determine the payoff space of normal form C1-games in n dimensions, that is for n-players normal form games whose payoff functions are defined on compact intervals of the real line and of class at least C1. In ...

Carfi?, David; Ricciardello, Angela

2010-01-01

250

Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as sporinite and cutinite with an oil generation potential typical of type II kerogen contribute to the source rock potential of the Um Irna Formation which is equivalent to the Khuff Formation in the oil provinces of Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (thermal maturity of dispersed OM ranges between 0.48 and 0.55% R{sub r} giving rise to the mature stage of oil generation). Additionally, Botryococcus-type algae point towards the presence of type I kerogen. Moreover the presence of solid bitumen and oil droplets (petroleum fluid expulsions) in the sediments of the Um Irna Formation indicates formation of hydrocarbons. Organic chemistry not only supported the coal petrographic findings but also indicated inhospitable aquatic conditions near the P/Tr boundary evidenced by PAHs present in the sample and by lots of charcoal. The tropical areas were affected by vast wildfires raging in the forest and swamps during the late Permian. They contributed to a highly toxic atmosphere, a decrease of the oxygen contents speeded up by dead OM spilled into the water and creating anoxia approaching the P/Tr boundary. The elevated geothermal gradient sparking hydrothermal alteration in the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation during the Late Permian may be accounted for as related to a precursor stage of the Dead Sea Rift, which is still active today in terms of migration of hot brines and hydrocarbons. (author)

Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

2010-01-07

251

Coal Mines Security System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, au...

Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Rane, Milind E.

2012-01-01

252

Permian Basin maturation: proof for pervasive magmatic heat flow in the Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

The area of the Permian Basin is marked by significant Stephanian-Permian magmatism that is related to the Variscanorogenic collapse, resulting in pervasive mantle upwelling. Large extrusive evidence is visible in the North German Basin and in the Central North Sea. Theoretical models for tectonic heat flow and maturity evolution show that mantle upwelling, underplating, and intrusions are likely to have a significant effect on maturity-depth trends. Tectonic modelling of selected wells shows that tectonic subsidence and exhumation can be reconciled with a significant heat flow pulse at the Stephanian-Permian, and this could well explain the widespread elevated depth gradient of maturity in Carboniferous rocks. The quantitative assessment of heat flow, which is based on a kinematic model of the process of orogenic collapse, shows that the mantle upwelling and underplating at the base of the crust proposed by earlier studies in fact provides insufficient heat flow to explain strongly elevated maturity-depth trends. However, the Southern part of the Texel IJsselmeer High shows unusually high maturation values that cannot be explained by the simple effect of burial alone. This area of high maturation is also associated with evidence of intrusive magmatic rocks. By modelling five wells in the Texel IJsselmeer High, we conclude that the burial of the sediments and a shallow intrusion in the upper crust provide an elevated heat flow mechanism that has a regional impact, consistent with observed high maturity-depth trends. In each well, the model that best matches the elevated maturity data of the Carboniferous demonstrates the impact of a large intrusion emplacement in the upper crust at the time of the collapse of the Variscan orogen. The impact of this magmatic intrusion at such a shallow depth is extremely likely to have brought the maturity to the gas window during the heat pulse, and, based on the tectonic subsidence record, the model allows us to position this pulse at late Carboniferous times.

Bonte, Damien; van Wees, Jan Diederik; Fattah, Rader Abdul; Nelskamp, Suzanne; Cloetingh, Sierd

2014-05-01

253

Upper Permian magnetic stratigraphy of the lower Beaufort Group, Karoo Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

We carried out a magnetostratigraphic and geochronological study of late Permian sediments in the Karoo Basin of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A continuous, ~700 m thick section of deltaic sediments of the upper Waterford Formation (uppermost Ecca Group) and the fluvial sediments of the Abrahamskraal Formation (lowermost Beaufort Group) were sampled at the meter scale. U-Pb dating of zircons from interbedded volcanic ash beds by ion microprobe (SHRIMP) provided absolute age constraints on the age of the sedimentary rocks. Paleomagnetic analysis reveals a partial overprint of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) that is tentatively ascribed to the emplacement of the Karoo Large Igneous Province in the Western Cape region during the middle Jurassic. A stable component of the NRM was found at temperatures higher than 450 °C and was interpreted as a Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) acquired during deposition, supported by a positive reversals test for this dual polarity ChRM. The virtual geomagnetic pole position for the Waterford and Abrahamskraal Formations computed from the average ChRM direction is in general agreement with the late Permian directions for stable Gondwana. A significantly different average inclination, and thus paleomagnetic pole position, is obtained by correcting the inclination shallowing error by the Elongation-Inclination method (Tauxe and Kent, 2004). The presence of both normal and reversed polarity zones indicate deposition after the end of the Kiaman Superchron, moreover the polarity sequence is in good agreement with the Illawarra sequence of Steiner (2006). Our results indicate a Capitanian (late Guadalupian) age for the Abrahamskraal Fm., in agreement with the Late Permian age, based on presence of Glossopteris flora and Dicynodont fauna, traditionally assigned to the fluvial-lacustrine sediments of the Beaufort Group. However, the U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 264-268 Ma suggest an age of 269 Ma for the top of the Kiaman superchron.

Lanci, L.; Tohver, E.; Wilson, A.; Flint, S.

2013-08-01

254

Role of anhydrite diagenesis in the creation of porosity in middle Permian dolostone reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In middle Permian dolostone reservoirs, the most abundant pore type is secondary intercrystalline porosity. Generally ranking second in abundance, but first in many instances, are pores created by dissolution of anhydrite that occurred in the Permian. Much anhydrite was emplaced diagenetically during and following early dolomitization, as nodules, blocky porphyroblasts, and cement, and as combination cement and replacement. Generally, anhydritization was followed by an influx of a low-salinity fluid, which dissolved anhydrite - creating tertiary porosity - or altered it to gypsum, hemihydrate, silica, calcite, or fluorite. Dissolution of anhydrite nodules and porphyroblasts creates distinctive molds with angular and stair-step outlines. Dissolution of anhydrite, which was emplaced as cement and replacement, enhances the original primary and secondary pores by the increment that was replaced. This dissolution also produces voids with angular and stair-step outlines. Replacive anhydrite tends to nucleate within organic-rich components, such as burrows, stromatolites, skeletal grains, ooids, and peloids. Many dolomite crystals have cloudy organic-rich centers, which represent the original replacive crystals, and clear rims of epitaxial dolomite cement. Anhydrite preferentially nucleates within the organic-rich cores, and subsequent dissolution produces hollowed dolomite crystals or intracrystalline porosity. Intracrystalline pores constitute the predominant pore types within many intervals. Anhydrite commonly replaces skeletal grains or ooids, and the replacement of such anhydrite produces a mold that replicates the original shell (biomold). It is possible to determine how many biomolds actually record dissolution of replacive anhydrite. The best Permian reservoirs contain intercrystalline porosity in conjunction with pores created by dissolution of anhydrite and grains.

Jacka, A.D.

1986-03-01

255

Blastoid Body Size - Changes from the Carboniferous to the End-Permian  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate, known for affecting biodiversity within genera of animal species, is often addressed as a major variable of geological systems. The Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous was noted for its lush, tropical climate that sustained a variety of biological life. In contrast, the Permian era was marked primarily by an ice age that had started earlier during the Pennsylvanian. The blastoids, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, were in existence from the Silurian (443.4 Ma) to the end of the Permian (252.28 Ma). This study focused on whether climate affected blastoid theca size over the span of those one hundred million years between the Mississippian and the Permian or if was simply a negligible factor. We analyzed size data from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology and correlated it to both Cope's Rule, which states that size increases with geologic time, and Bergmann's Rule, which states that latitude and temperature are catalysts for size change. CO2 levels from known records served as a proxy for global temperature. Our results indicated that the blastoids increased in size by 59% over geologic time. The size of the blastoids increased over geologic time, following Cope's Rule. According to our graphs in R, there was an inverse relationship between volume and climate. Size decreased as temperature increased, which follows Bergmann's Rule. However, we also wanted to observe spatial factors regarding Bergmann's Rule such as paleolatitude and paleolongitude. This info was taken from the Paleobiology Database and showed that a majority of the blastoids were found near the equator, which, according to the other part of Bergmann's Rule, suggests that they would therefore increase in size. Further tests implied strong correlations between temperature, volume, and paleolocation. We ultimately believe that although Cope's Rule is in effect, Bergmann's mechanisms for size may not apply to the blastoids due to the environments that the blastoids lived in or their anatomical compositions.

Nguyen, L.; Tolosa, R.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

2013-12-01

256

Cooking coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research being carried out at Aston University has demonstrated the value of microwave heating methodology in the science of coal analysis. Although in the short to medium term the cost of microwave energy will prove a disincentive, in the longer term these applications could be exploited. This article discusses the advantages of microwave heating and the methodology developed at Aston University.

McWhinnie, W.R.; Monsef-Mirzai, P. [Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Engineering

1993-12-01

257

Coal grader  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A coal grader is proposed which includes a housing with cutting heads and frame with clamps and guide bushings. In order to improve work efficiency, the frame is made with longitudinal slit, into which there are clamps. The latter are connected to the frame with the help of shock absorbers, and the guide bushings are made in the form of spherical supports with bushings.

Butenbayev, B.M.; Bezuglov, V.M.; Ignat' yev, A.D.; Karlenkov, A.A.

1982-01-01

258

Geostatistical cross-association method used for the lithostratigraphic correlation of coal-measure profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

The case study from the Early Permian coal-bearing Barakar Formation in the East Bokaro sub-basin of Jharkhand, India demonstrates that the non-parametric geostatistical method of cross-association can give a reliable lithostratigraphic correlation of borehole or outcrop profiles, at a confidence level of at least 95%. The inclusion of lithofacies details in the stratigraphic criteria does not necessarily enhance the correlation and may actually render it less reliable, because the main lithological units vary internally on a local scale and their lateral variability is virtually irrelevant to basin-scale correlation.

Khan, Zahid A.; Tewari, Ram Chandra

2012-02-01

259

Compositional trends in the Permian sandstones from the Denison Trough, bowen basin, queensland reflect changing provenance and tectonics  

Science.gov (United States)

Point-count data of sandstone samples collected from six sedimentary formations encountered in boreholes in the Permian sequence of the Denison Trough (an Australian backare/ retroarc foreland basin) provide information about the tectonic evolution of their source areas and the depositional sites. Plots of the detrital compositions of these Permian sandstones against borehole depths indicate that the Reids Dome Beds sandstones, containing highly abundant lithic/volcanolithic grains, mark the onset of intense compressional tectonics and arc volcanic activities to the east accompanied by extensional tectonics and subsidence in the trough. Folding and thrusting owing to intense compressional tectonics in the New England Fold Belt and Arc volcanism in the Camboon Volcanic Arc region to the east generated a great supply of recycled sediment and volcanic detritus that led to a rapid infilling of the subsiding Denison Trough during formation of the Reids Dome Beds sandstones in Early Permian time. The detrital composition of the sandstones of the overlying Cattle Creek Formation, Aldebaran Sandstone, and the Freitag Formation indicate gradually decreasing compressional tectonics and arc volcanism accompanied by increasingly dominant sediment-supply from the stable continental craton to the west. The Freitag Formation sandstone compositions mark the quietest tectonic and volcanic episode in the region, accompanied by subsidence of the Denison Trough owing to thermal cooling during the Middle Permian. The Peawaddy Formation and the Bandanna Formation sandstone compositions represent a Late Permian renewal of compressional tectonics and arc volcanism to the east accompanied by uplift and folding of the sedimentary strata, resulting in the formation of largely fluvial depositional environments in the Denison Trough. Modal compositions of the Bandanna Formation sandstones indicate that renewed arc volcanism and compressional tectonic activity attained maximum intensities during the Late Permian.

R., Ahmad; J. C., Tipper; Eggleton, R. A.

1994-03-01

260

An Exact Bosonization Rule for c=1 Noncritical String Theory  

CERN Multimedia

We construct a string field theory for c=1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields.

Ishibashi, N

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A Temnospondyl amphibian from the Rio do Rasto Formation, Upper Permian of southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partially preserved lower jaw constitutes the holotype of Bageherpeton longignathus n. g., n. sp., a probable archegosaurid amphibian, which is here assigned to the Platyoposaurinae. The material was collected in the beds of the Rio do Rasto Formation outcropping in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. This is the second archegosaurid described for the Permian of Brazil. Prionosuchus plummeri Price 1948, from the Pedra do Fogo Formation in the Parnaiba Basin (northeastern Brazil, is the first. The new taxon differs from other platyoposaurs by the presence of an extremely elongated precoronoid that participates in the mandibular symphysis.

DIAS ELISEU V.

2001-01-01

262

Sponge assemblage of some Upper Permian reef limestones from Phrae province (Northern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sponge fauna of uppermost Permian reef or reefal limestones of the Phrae province in northern Thailand include representatives of hexactinellida, sclerospongea,"sphinctozoans", and "inozoans". The "sphinctozoans" and "inozoans"are described in detail. Following taxa are new:"Sphinctozoans": Phraethalamia tubulara n. gen., n. sp., Ambithalamia pérmican. gen., n. sp."Inozoans": Bisiphonella tubulara n. sp., Solutossaspongia crassimuralis n.gen., n. sp.The genus name Belyaevaspongia nom. nov. is proposed for PolysiphonellaBelyaeva, 1991 (in Boiko et al., 1991, non Polysiphonella Russo, 1981.

Baba Senowbari-Daryan

1994-12-01

263

Paleomagnetism of Lower Permian Abo and Yeso Formation, Carizzo Arroyo, Lucero Uplift, New Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

We report paleomagnetic data from Lower Permian hematite-cemented sandstones and siltstones from Carrizo Arroyo, on the eastern edge of the Lucero uplift along the west-side of the middle Rio Grande rift, to test the hypothesis that the rift margins have accommodated extensional strain via vertical axis rotation. In addition, we present a revised interpretation of the structural setting and deformation history of the area, were late-Tertiary transtensional stresses have produced the majority of the structures in the area. The paleomagnetic data are discussed in the context of this hypothesis. In the Rio Grande rift area, a mid-Cenozoic and younger extensional feature defining the eastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, relatively little work has been done to assess the magnitude and sense of vertical axis rotations of fault-bounded crustal blocks within and at the margins of the plateau. A growing body of evidence shows that the Colorado Plateau has experienced some degree of vertical axis rotation and some magnitude of northward translation, although the magnitudes of the rotation and translation have been subject to considerable debate. Eight to ten oriented samples from 50 sites have been fully demagnetized with all sites yielding interpretable results: 41 sites from three sections in the Lower Permian Abo Formation, and 9 sites in the Meseta Blanca Member of the overlying Yeso Formation. In most cases, progressive thermal demagnetization resulted in a nearly univectorial decay of the magnetization to the origin that is well grouped at the site level. After correcting for modest dip of strata, the 50 sites in Carrizo Arroyo yield an estimate group mean (D = 162.1°, I = -4.1°, ?95 = 6.8°, k = 10.18). Overall, the data from this part of the west side of the rift are discordant, in a clockwise since, with Early Permian (about D = 140°, I = -2.0°) and mid-Permian (about D = 145°, I = -4.0°) expected directions. We interpret the paleomagnetic data from Carrizo Arroyo to be consistent with modest clockwise vertical axis rotation of these sections since the latest Paleozoic, arguably during Laramide deformation and subsequent Rio Grande extension. We hypothesize that a component of tectonic rotation has accommodated extensional strain along the margins of the Rio Grande rift since inception. The observed rotation could be the result of oblique-slip displacement of the hanging wall block; in this case, the observed rotation is apparent. Alternatively, the rotation is a true block rotation where the block is decoupled from the underlying strata along a detachment surface. Additional field mapping will help to distinguish between these two possible models.

Petronis, M. S.; Geissman, J. W.

2002-12-01

264

Synthrusting deposition of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Strathearn Formation, Northern Carlin Trend, Nevada  

Science.gov (United States)

The middle Upper Pennsylvanian and middle Lower Permian Strathearn Formation belongs to the overlap assemblage of the Antler orogen in Nevada. At Beaver Peak, near the Carlin Trend of gold deposits, it contains synorogenic conglomerate deposits associated with emplacement of a regionally extensive, 1-km-thick tectonic wedge that is floored by the Coyote thrust. Normal marine conodont biofacies throughout the Strathearn Formation suggest middle shelf or deeper, depositional environments. The allochthon floored by the Coyote thrust has been thrust above a middle Upper Pennsylvanian, lower conglomerate unit of the Strathearn Formation. A middle Lower Permian upper conglomerate unit, the highest unit recognized in the Strathearn Formation, as well as similarly aged dolomitic siltstone, onlap directly onto Ordovician quartzarenite of the Vinini Formation that makes up most of the Coyote allochthon. Quartz grains and quartzarenite fragments of variable roundness and shape in the conglomerate units were derived from the presently adjoining tectonic lobe of mostly quartzarenite that advanced southeast (present geographic coordinates) during the late Paleozoic into the developing Strathearn basin. Chert fragments in the conglomerates probably were derived mostly from Devonian Slaven Chert, including a widespread thick me??lange unit of the Slaven Chert in the footwall of the Coyote thrust.Lithologic and shape ratio data from approximately 4200 clasts at 17 sites of the two major conglomerate units in the Strathearn Formation at Beaver Peak are roughly similar in that they contain only chert and quartzarenite clasts, and chert clasts predominate in both units. They differ in the relative proportion of the two lithologies whereby quartzarenite clasts increase sixfold in the upper unit (middle Lower Permian) versus its content in the lower conglomerate unit. Relations at the unconformity between the upper conglomerate unit and its underlying quartzarenite shows quartzarenite fragments actually breaking away from an immediately subjacent source. Ordovocian quartzarenite, which forms a tectonically uplifted wedge with the Coyote thrust at its base, became a source region for much of the quartzarenite detritus deposited preferentially in the upper parts of the Strathearn Formation. The conglomerate units of the Strathearn Formation temporally bracket emplacement of the Coyote thrust. Thrusting related to contractional reactivation of the Robert Mountains thrust system largely was completed by middle Early Permian. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Theodore, T. G.; Berger, V. I.; Singer, D. A.; Harris, A. G.; Stevens, C. H.

2004-01-01

265

Shadowing, expansiveness and specification for C1-conservative systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove that a C1-generic volume-preserving dynamical system (diffeomorphism or flow) has the shadowing property or is expansive or has the weak specification property if and only if it is Anosov. Finally, we prove that the C1-robustness, within the volume-preserving context, of the expansiveness property and the weak specification property, imply that the dynamical system (diffeomorphism or flow) is Anosov.

Bessa, M.; Lee, M.; Wen, X.

2013-01-01

266

C1q nephropathy presenting as acute renal failure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a 42-year-old male patient who presented with high grade fever asso-ciated with acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Renal biopsy revealed that he had focal proliferative glomerulonephritis on light microscopy, dominant mesangial deposition of C1q by immunofluorescent staining, and electron dense deposits on electron microscopy, with no evi-dence of systemic lupus erythematosus, compatible with the diagnosis of C1q nephropathy. Intensive treatment with a combination of meth...

Malleshappa Pavan; Ranganath Ravi; Chaudhari Anup; Ayiangar Ashwinikumar; Lohitaksha Suratkal

2011-01-01

267

Two-matrix models and c =1 string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the most general two-matrix model with bilinear coupling underlies c = 1 string theory. More precisely we prove that W1+? constraints, a subset of the correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy characterizing such two-matrix model, correspond exactly to the W1+? constraints, to the discrete tachyon correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy of the c = 1 string theory. (orig.)

1994-01-01

268

Evolution of calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism through Carboniferous convergence to Permian transcurrent tectonics, western Chinese Tianshan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Continuous magmatic activity occurred in the western Chinese Tianshan, Central Asia, from the Carboniferous to the Permian, i.e. before and after the Late Carboniferous amalgamation of Junggar and the Yili Blocks. Zircon U–Pb LA-ICPMS and Ar–Ar data reveal a coincidence in time between regional wrench faulting and granitoid emplacement. Permian post-collisional granitoids crop out within or at the margins of large-scale dextral strike-slip shear zones, some of them show synkinematic fabri...

Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Shu, Liangshu S.; Faure, Michel; Charvet, Jacques; Chen, Yan; Meffre, Se?bastien; Jong, Koenraad

2009-01-01

269

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01

270

Coal industry annual 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01

271

Coal industry annual 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

1997-01-01

272

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

1996-01-01

273

Treating uraniferous coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uraniferous coal is treated for the recovery of the contained uranium and its calorific value. The latter may be achieved through burning the coal, pyrolysis of the coal, gasifying the coal or liquefying the coal. In all cases the final burning step is conducted at a temperature below about 650 degrees Celcius to prevent the uranium content from becoming refractory

1979-03-14

274

Western Kentucky Coal Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Western Kentucky coal field originally contained 40,989,293,000 short tons of coal; remaining coal is estimated to be 38,626,562,000 short tons. Several coal beds account for more than 93% of the estimated coal. Twenty-five percent of the total is con...

G. E. Smith R. A. Brant

1978-01-01

275

Biostratigraphic correlation in the Karoo: The case of the Middle Permian parareptile Eunotosaurus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The richness of fossil tetrapods from the Beaufort Group of South Africa has enabled biostratigraphic subdivision of this Permo-Triassic succession, with global applicability. Despite being the thickest of the seven biozones recognised, attempts at further subdivision of the Middle Permian Tapinocep [...] halus Assemblage Zone (Abrahamskraal Formation) have not been successful, largely because the exact stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa are unknown. This gap in knowledge has limited stratigraphic correlation of the Abrahamskraal Formation and hindered understanding of Middle Permian Karoo basin development. Currently, the lowermost Beaufort Group is split between an eastern and a western stratigraphic scheme and, because of poor outcrop and the relative paucity of fossils in the east, stratigraphic correlation between the two areas has been uncertain. Recent fossil discoveries of the parareptile Eunotosaurus africanus in the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces have extended its known geographic range in the east. An additional specimen from the lower Middleton Formation in the Eastern Cape has, for the first time, enabled the biostratigraphic correlation of this unit with the Poortjie Member of the Teekloof Formation in the west. These finds confirm the diachroneity of the boundary between the marine Ecca Group and the terrestrial Beaufort Group.

Mike, Day; Bruce, Rubidge; John, Almond; Sifelani, Jirah.

276

Morphological Disparity During the Ammonoid Recovery After the Permian Mass Extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian mass extinction caused the elimination of 80% of marine genera. Ammonoids, however, survived the extinction and returned to the levels of diversity that had been seen in the Late Permian within a million years while other groups recovered at a much slower rate. Previous analyses have looked at taxonomy and environmental factors as being reasons for the rapid recovery of ammonoids, but morphological disparity may be decoupled from taxonomic diversity. I measured whorl expansion, umbilical diameter, aperture height, aperture shape and ventral acuity from illustrated specimens of 135 genera and used principal components analysis to quantify morphological diversity. Ammonoid disparity decreased after the extinction, but did not reach its lowest until the Dienerian substage, unlike taxonomic diversity which was lowest immediately after the extinction. By the Smithian ammonoids had recovered in both morphological disparity and taxonomic diversity. This was most likely due to their ecology which allowed them to avoid the deepest waters where oxygen levels were low and due to their high metabolic rate which enabled them to better adapt to ocean acidification. The response of these ammonoids can help us to understand traits like motility that allowed ammonoids to come back successfully from the brink of extinction unlike so many benthic groups.

Leopold, R.; Clapham, M.

2011-12-01

277

Strontium isotope profile of carboniferous-Permian Akiyoshi limestone in southwest Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The isotope and chemical compositions of marine calcareous sediments(limestones and calcareous fossiles) offer important information on paleoocean chemistry. The isotope compositions ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios) of calcareous sediments have been recognized particularly to be a powerful tool in estimating the secular changes in paleoocean chemistry. The purpose of this study was to apply the above conceptions to the Akiyoshi Limestone(SW Japan) which is a continuous limestone sequence from Early Carboniferous to Late Permian, and is considered as an offshore reef limestone unit developed on a basaltic seamount. The Sr isotope ratios were measured and a range of 0.7068 to 0.7088 was obtained for the values of Sr isotope compositions ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) of the Akiyoshi Limestone. As a rerult, it has been concluded that the profile of the Sr isotope compositions of the Akiyoshi Limestone is interpreted as preserving the temporal change of sea water Sr isotope compositions during Carboniferous to Permian. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Nishioka, S.; Arakawa, Y.; Kobayashi, Y. (Univ. of Tsukuba Tsukuba (Japan))

1991-01-01

278

Structural evolution of the Permian-Triassic Cooper basin, Australia: Relation to hydrocarbon trap styles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structural and depositional history of the Cooper basin in eastern central Australia has revealed that the basin is a mildly compressional structural depression controlled by northwestrending and northeast-trending pre-Permian basement features. Pronounced pre-Permian compressions are indicated by northeast-trending major structures, the Gidgealpa-Merrimelia-Innamincka and Murteree-Nappacoongee trends. Detailed chronostratigraphic facies analysis, with closely spaced palynological control, of the Patchawarra Formation revealed that two pronounced phases of uplift occurred during the Sakmarian. The major intrabasin highs were rejuvenated during these tectonic events, as documented by crestal unconformities (middle and upper Patchawarra unconformities). Evidence of each event is dominantly tectonic in character, with similar depositional patterns over these highs related to each event. These events are also recognizable in midflank areas and basin margins with contemporaneous deposition in deeper parts of the basin. Results from this research show potential for future hydrocarbon discoveries within structural, stratigraphic, and structural/stratigraphic traps in the Cooper basin. Various trap styles are closely associated with faults, unconformities, and lateral facies changes. Lowside fault closures, onlap plays, and unconformity traps are expected to be well developed along intrabasinal highs, basin margins, and preexisting structures. The primary reservoir targets would be deltaic sequences comprising shoreline sandstones, distributary and delta-mouth bar deposits that may be well developed in synclinal areas, and flanks of intrabasin highs in the Copper basin.

Apak, S.N. [Geological Survey of Western Australia, East Perth (Australia); Stuart, W.J.; Lemon, N.M. [Univ. of Adelaide (Australia); Wood, G. [Santos Ltd., Adelaide (Australia)

1997-04-01

279

Bedout: a possible end-Permian impact crater offshore of northwestern Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bedout High, located on the northwestern continental margin of Australia, has emerged as a prime candidate for an end-Permian impact structure. Seismic imaging, gravity data, and the identification of melt rocks and impact breccias from drill cores located on top of Bedout are consistent with the presence of a buried impact crater. The impact breccias contain nearly pure silica glass (SiO2), fractured and shock-melted plagioclases, and spherulitic glass. The distribution of glass and shocked minerals over hundreds of meters of core material implies that a melt sheet is present. Available gravity and seismic data suggest that the Bedout High represents the central uplift of a crater similar in size to Chicxulub. A plagioclase separate from the Lagrange-1 exploration well has an Ar/Ar age of 250.1 +/- 4.5 million years. The location, size, and age of the Bedout crater can account for reported occurrences of impact debris in Permian-Triassic boundary sediments worldwide. PMID:15143216

Becker, L; Poreda, R J; Basu, A R; Pope, K O; Harrison, T M; Nicholson, C; Iasky, R

2004-06-01

280

Evaluation report on CCTF Core-I reflood tests C1-5 (Run 14), C1-7 (Run 16) and C1-14 (Run 23)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report describes the effects of the initial clad temperature on the reflood phenomena observed in the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The evaluation is based on the data of tests C1-5, C1-7 and C1-14 of the CCTF-Core I test series. Nominal initial peak clad temperatures in these tests are 600_0C, 700_0C and 800_0C, respectively. With the higher initial clad temperature, the higher loop mass flow rate and the lower water accumulation in the core and the upper plenum were obtained in an early reflood transient. However, the core inlet flow conditions, which is sensitive to the core cooling, were not much affected by the higher initial clad temperature. The slower quench front propagation was observed with the higher initial clad temperature. However, the heat transfer coefficient was almost identical with each other before the turnaround time, which resulted in the lower temperature rise with the highest initial clad temperature. This qualitatively agreed with the results of the forced feed FLECHT experiment. (author)

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Coal gasification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal power of a 3,000 MWth HTR reactor is proposed for coal gasification. The plant is to generate methane and synthesis gas from carbonaceous materials; the gas yield is to be as high as possible with complete gasification of the carbon charge. The efficiency of the plant is the better the less nuclear heat is used for steam or power generation. At least two helium cooling circuits are used, the first of which incorporates a steam gasifier and a low-temperature carbonisation unit. Apart from the expulsion of volatile gases, the coal is also partly gasified in the low-temperature gasification unit. The second cooling circuit incorporates a cracking furnace where part of the methane generated is cracked to form hydrogen. The hydrogen is used in a hydro-gasifier for the gasification of part of the carbonaceous material. It is also possible to use only one gasifier for the endothermal water reaction and for exothermal hydrogasification. (GG)

1977-01-01

282

Coal-93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1992. Some information about technics, environmental questions and markets are also given. The use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced by about 10 percent during 1992 to the level of 1.1 million ton. This is the case for both heat generating boilers and co-generation boilers. On the other hand, the electricity production in the cogeneration plants have increased, mainly for tax reasons. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. During 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 cogeneration plants. For 1992 these figures are 5 and 9. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The industry has reduced its use of steamcoal by 140 000 tons to about 700 000 tons. The reason is a cut down of production in particularly the cement industry and the mineral wool industry. The steamcoal import was 1.2 million tons during 1992, the same as the year before. The import has been lower than the consumption during the last years. The companies have reduced their stocks because of changed laws about emergency stocks. The average price of steamcoal imported in Sweden in 1992 was 272 SEK/ton or 25 SEK/ton lower than in 1991. The coal market during 1992 was affected by smaller consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. Among other things independent mines in Russia and Poland have dumped low quality coals. A structuring of both process and quality has now begun. Western companies have for instance started joint ventures with Russian companies and supplied washing- and classifying equipments. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO_2 and NO_x given by county administrations or concession boards. 13 tabs

1993-01-01

283

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, H.D.; Chen, J.M.

1985-10-08

284

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01

285

Changes in geochemistry and mineralogy of thermally altered coal, Upper Hunter Valley, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Igneous intrusions thermally and geochemically alter coal, commonly causing economic and safety problems for many coal mines. The effects of two dykes on the inorganic content of the Late Permian bituminous Upper Wynn seam were determined from analyses of 44 samples that were collected along transects approaching the intrusions. Petrographic and XRD data were used to determine sample mineralogy, and INAA and XRF spectrometry were utilised to determine the contents of 57 elements. The mineralogy of the unaltered coal, altered coal and dyke is dominated by carbonates, particularly dawsonite, which formed by epigenetic precipitation at a late stage, after thermal alteration. Ankerite and siderite are the products of thermal alteration and are restricted to the altered coal and dykes. Principal component analysis, correlations and compositional trends approaching the intrusions were used to subdivide the elements into groups and to identify the mineralogical affinity of each group. Geochemical data are more sensitive than mineralogy for defining the size of the alteration halo, and three zones ranging from unaltered coal, through altered coal to highly coked coal are recognised as each intrusion is approached.The alteration halos differ in extent (9.5 and 56 m wide), but their size is not a multiple of the size of the causative intrusion. At the contact between coal and intrusion, concentrations of elements with affinities to some aluminosilicates, oxides, carbonates, sulphides and organic components are enriched, while other aluminosilicate-related elements are depleted. In the altered coal towards the edge of the alteration halo, some aluminosilicate elements are enriched and oxide elements are depleted.

Golab, Alexandra N.; Carr, Paul F. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522 (Australia)

2004-03-23

286

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

Gerald P. Huffman

2006-03-30

287

Fossil Fuels: Coal  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

Pratte, John

288

Coal in West Greenland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several sections of coal-bearing sequence of the Valley Atata Kua (W. Greenland) were measured. In total 1087 m were drilled in 1980 and core recoveries in coal and non-coal rocks gave more than 95% in coal seams, about 90% in shales and about 85% in sandstones. The preliminary chemical analyses suggest that the coal is of low rank, bituminous coal variety.

Shekhar, S.C.; Frandsen, N.; Thomsen, E.

1981-01-01

289

Amphibian and Paleoisciforms from the Lower Part of the Taquaral Member of the Permian Irati Formation, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the east-central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, good exposures of Permo-Carboniferous sequences of theParaná intracratonic basin are found. These sequences start with the Tubarão Supergroup deposits, the PermocarboniferousItararé Group, and the earliest Permian Guatá Group, of which the Tatuí Formation is the only unit occurring in the Stateof São Paulo. The Permian Passa Dois Group overlies the Tubarão Supergroup, with the Early Permian Irati Formation andthe Middle Permian Corumbataí Formation. Two members are recognized in the Irati Formation, Taquaral and Assistência.Most beds of the Taquaral Member are gray laminated siltic-argillaceous, but sandstone beds are present in lower outcropsof this member. One of these sandstones, 9.5 cm thick unconformably overlying sedimentos of the Tatuí Formation, exhibitsdiversifi ed vertebrate remains. The present paper deals with a Palaeonisciformes mandible fragment, one amphibianTemnospondyli tooth, and one Temnospondyli mandible fragment. These fossils are associated to Chondrichthyes andOsteichthyes. It is an open question whether the Parnaíba Basin Palaeonisciformes Brasilichthys macrognathus and theTemnospondyli Prionosuchus plummery belong to the same taxa of the Paraná Basin fossils. Only better preserved fossilsmight solve this question.

Artur Chahud

2010-03-01

290

Restudy of conodont biostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary section in Zhongzhai, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China  

Science.gov (United States)

New conodont samples have been systematically collected at high stratigraphic resolution from the upper part of the Longtan Formation through to the lower part of the Yelang Formation at the Zhongzhai section, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China, in an effort to verify the first local occurrence of Hindeodus parvus in relation to the Permian-Triassic boundary at this section. The resampled conodont fauna from the Permian-Triassic boundary interval comprises five identified species and two undetermined species in Hindeodus and Clarkina. Most importantly, the first local occurrence of Hindeodus parvus is found for the first time from the bottom of Bed 28a, 18 cm lower than the previously reported first local occurrence of this species at this section. Considering the previously accepted PTB at the Zhongzhai section, well calibrated by conodont biostratigraphy, geochronology and carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, this lower (earlier) occurrence of H. parvus suggests that this critical species could occur below the Permian-Triassic boundary. As such, this paper provides evidence that (1) the first local occurrences of H. parvus are diachronous in different sections with respect to the PTB defined by the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of this species at its GSSP section in Meishan, China and that (2) the lower stratigraphic range of H. parvus should now be extended to latest Permian.

Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Shi, G. R.; He, Wei-Hong; Yuan, Dong-Xun; Yue, Ming-Liang; Yang, Ting-Lu

2014-02-01

291

Coal 2020: burning questions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers addressed the major environmental, economic and technology issues associated with coal use between now and 2020. The panellists discussed the following five 'burning questions': what will shape coal's future? (The economic, political and regulatory outlook for coal through 2020); how shall we ensure sustainability? (coal and the environment); where will the coal come from? key challenges for the coal industry between now and 2020); how will the use of coal change? (combustion technology, electric power generation and coal utilisation through 2020); and what are the opportunities for University-industry collaboration on future research? The papers only consist of the overheads/viewgraphs.

NONE

2004-07-01

292

Coal preparation - an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses the characteristics of Indian coal and the need for improving its quality by coal beneficiation. Coal beneficiation has concentrated on preparing coking coal for steel making. Details are given of coking coal washeries of Coal India Ltd. The different technology options for various types of coal and its usage are reviewed. The power and steel sector should inform suppliers of their quality requirements. Demand for low ash coal is likely to increase greatly in the power generation sector. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

Sagar, C.K.; Mishra, P.K.; Baranwal, P.K. [Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Ltd., Ranchi (India)

2003-02-01

293

Induced boundary flow on the c = 1 orbifold moduli space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boundary flow in the c = 1 2d CFT of a Z2 orbifold of a free boson on a circle is considered. Adding a bulk marginal operator to the c = 1 orbifold branch induces a boundary flow. We show that this flow is consistent for any bulk marginal operator and known initial given boundary condition. The supersymmetric c= 3/2 case is also mentioned. For the circle branch of the moduli space, this has been shown by Fredenhagen et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 F17). The ground state multiplicity (gb) is calculated and it is shown that it does indeed decrease. (paper)

2012-11-16

294

Induced Boundary Flow on the c = 1 Orbifold Moduli Space  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boundary flow in the $c=1$ 2d CFT of a $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ orbifold of a free boson on a circle is considered. Adding a bulk marginal operator to the $c=1$ orbifold branch induces a boundary flow. We show that this flow is consistent for any bulk marginal operator and known initial given boundary condition. The supersymmetric $c=3/2$ case is also mentioned. The supersymmetric $c=3/2$ case is also mentioned. For the circle branch of the moduli space this has been shown in arXiv:he...

Elitzur, Shmuel; Karni, Boaz; Rabinovici, Eliezer

2012-01-01

295

Chondromyxoid fibroma of C1: first case report / Fibroma condromixóide de C1: primeiro relato de caso / Fibroma condromixoide de C1: primer caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese REVISÃO: O fibroma condromixóide (FCM) é um tumor ósseo primário, benigno e raro. A coluna cervical é um local incomum desse tumor, com apenas 10 casos relatados, sendo que nenhum envolveu a primeira vértebra cervical (C1). RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 25 anos, gêmea monozigótica, apre [...] sentando dor cervical. A imagem radiográfica demonstrou lesão lítica contrastada, predominantemente na massa lateral de C1 com extensão para o arco posterior e anterior. A ressecção do tumor foi feita em dois tempos, inicialmente uma abordagem postero-lateral, seguida pela via posterior. Nesta última, foi relizada uma fixação occiptocervical. O exame anátomo-patológico foi compatível com FCM. Passado um ano dos procedimentos, a paciente permanecia sem doença e com estabilidade craniocervical. CONCLUSÃO: Especialistas de coluna devem ter o conhecimento de que estes tumores raros podem acometer a coluna vertebral e, apesar da sua proximidade com tecido neural e estruturas vasculares, o objetivo da cirurgia é a sua ressecção radical devido ao alto índice de recidiva. Abstract in spanish REVISIÓN: El fibroma condromixoide (FCM) es un tumor óseo primario, benigno y raro. La columna cervical es un lugar raro de este tumor, con solamente 10 casos relatados, siendo que ninguno involucra a la primera vértebra cervical (C1). RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo femenino, 25 años, gemela mon [...] ozigótica, presentando dolor cervical. La imagen radiográfica demostró una lesión contrastada, predominantemente en la masa lateral de C1 con extensión hacia el arco posterior y anterior. La resección del tumor se realizó en dos tiempos, inicialmente una aproximación posterolateral, seguida por la vía posterior. En esta última, se realizó una fijación occipitocervical. El análisis anatomopatológico fue compatible con FCM. Pasado un año de los procedimientos, la paciente permanecía sin enfermedad y con estabilidad cranio-cervical. CONCLUSIÓN: Especialistas de columna deben tener el conocimiento de que estos tumores raros pueden acometer a la columna vertebral y, a pesar de su proximidad con el tejido neural y las estructuras vasculares, el objetivo de la cirugía es su resección radical debido al alto índice de recidiva. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare, benign primary bone tumor. The cervical spine is an uncommon site for this tumor, with only 10 reported cases to date and none involving the first cervical vertebra (C1). CASE REPORT: Female patient, 25-year-old monozygotic female twin, presented wi [...] th cervical pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated a contrast-enhanced, right-sided lytic lesion of the insufflated type in C1, with a punched-out appearance and extending to the anterior arch. A postero-lateral and a posterior approach were performed in two steps to resect the tumor followed by occipitocervical fixation. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of CMF. At one year, the patient remains disease free with excellent spinal stability. CONCLUSION: Spinal surgeons may need to treat rare spinal tumors. Despite the proximity to neural and vascular structures, the goal of surgery is always a radical resection due to high recurrence rates.

Sfreddo, Ericson; Falavigna, Asdrubal; Soares, Vinícius Borges; Silva, Silvia Chaves e; Nesi, André; Nascimento, Vinícius Carraro do; Silva, Pedro Guarise da.

296

Chondromyxoid fibroma of C1: first case report Fibroma condromixoide de C1: primer caso Fibroma condromixóide de C1: primeiro relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF is a rare, benign primary bone tumor. The cervical spine is an uncommon site for this tumor, with only 10 reported cases to date and none involving the first cervical vertebra (C1. CASE REPORT: Female patient, 25-year-old monozygotic female twin, presented with cervical pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated a contrast-enhanced, right-sided lytic lesion of the insufflated type in C1, with a punched-out appearance and extending to the anterior arch. A postero-lateral and a posterior approach were performed in two steps to resect the tumor followed by occipitocervical fixation. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of CMF. At one year, the patient remains disease free with excellent spinal stability. CONCLUSION: Spinal surgeons may need to treat rare spinal tumors. Despite the proximity to neural and vascular structures, the goal of surgery is always a radical resection due to high recurrence rates.REVISIÓN: El fibroma condromixoide (FCM es un tumor óseo primario, benigno y raro. La columna cervical es un lugar raro de este tumor, con solamente 10 casos relatados, siendo que ninguno involucra a la primera vértebra cervical (C1. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo femenino, 25 años, gemela monozigótica, presentando dolor cervical. La imagen radiográfica demostró una lesión contrastada, predominantemente en la masa lateral de C1 con extensión hacia el arco posterior y anterior. La resección del tumor se realizó en dos tiempos, inicialmente una aproximación posterolateral, seguida por la vía posterior. En esta última, se realizó una fijación occipitocervical. El análisis anatomopatológico fue compatible con FCM. Pasado un año de los procedimientos, la paciente permanecía sin enfermedad y con estabilidad cranio-cervical. CONCLUSIÓN: Especialistas de columna deben tener el conocimiento de que estos tumores raros pueden acometer a la columna vertebral y, a pesar de su proximidad con el tejido neural y las estructuras vasculares, el objetivo de la cirugía es su resección radical debido al alto índice de recidiva.REVISÃO: O fibroma condromixóide (FCM é um tumor ósseo primário, benigno e raro. A coluna cervical é um local incomum desse tumor, com apenas 10 casos relatados, sendo que nenhum envolveu a primeira vértebra cervical (C1. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 25 anos, gêmea monozigótica, apresentando dor cervical. A imagem radiográfica demonstrou lesão lítica contrastada, predominantemente na massa lateral de C1 com extensão para o arco posterior e anterior. A ressecção do tumor foi feita em dois tempos, inicialmente uma abordagem postero-lateral, seguida pela via posterior. Nesta última, foi relizada uma fixação occiptocervical. O exame anátomo-patológico foi compatível com FCM. Passado um ano dos procedimentos, a paciente permanecia sem doença e com estabilidade craniocervical. CONCLUSÃO: Especialistas de coluna devem ter o conhecimento de que estes tumores raros podem acometer a coluna vertebral e, apesar da sua proximidade com tecido neural e estruturas vasculares, o objetivo da cirurgia é a sua ressecção radical devido ao alto índice de recidiva.

Ericson Sfreddo

2012-01-01

297

The investigation of chemical structure of coal macerals via transmitted-light FT-IR microscopy by X. Sun  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent paper by Sun [X. Sun, Spectrochim. Acta A 62 (1-3) (2005) 557] attempts to characterize a variety of liptinite, termed "barkinite", from Chinese Permian coals. The component identified does not appear to fundamentally differ from previously-described liptinite macerals included in the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology's system of maceral nomenclature. Further, chemical comparisons made with macerals from coals of different rank and age are flawed because the author did not account for changes in chemistry with rank or for the chemical changes associated with botanical changes through geologic time. The author has not satisfactorily proved his hypothesis that the component differs morphologically or chemically from known liptinite-group macerals. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J. C.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Mastalerz, M.; Cook, A. C.

2007-01-01

298

Pediatric hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH is a rare, life-threatening disorder. It is characterized by attacks of angioedema involving the skin and/or the mucosa of the upper airways, as well as the intestinal mucosa. In approximately 50 per cent of cases, clinical manifestations may appear during childhood. The complex management of HAE in pediatric patients is in many respects different from the management of adults. Establishing the diagnosis early, preferably before the onset of clinical symptoms, is essential in cases with a positive family history. Complement studies usually afford accurate diagnosis, whereas molecular genetics tests may prove helpful in uncertain cases. Appropriate therapy, supported by counselling, suitable modification of lifestyle, and avoidance of triggering factors (which primarily include mechanical trauma, mental stress and airway infections in children may spare the patient unnecessary surgery and may prevent mortality. Prompt control of edematous attacks, short-term prophylaxis and intermittent therapy are recommended as the primary means for the management of pediatric cases. Medicinal products currently used for the treatment of children with hereditary angioedema include antifibrinolytics, attenuated androgens, and C1-INH replacement therapy. Current guidelines favour antifibrinolytics for long-term prophylaxis because of their favorable safety profile but efficacy may be lacking. Attenuated androgens administered in the lowest effective dose are another option. C1-INH replacement therapy is also an effective and safe agent for children. Regular monitoring and follow-up of patients are necessary.

Farkas Henriette

2010-07-01

299

Isometric C1-immersions for pairs of Riemannian metrics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Let h1, h2 be two Euclidean metrics on Rq, and let V be a C?-manifold endowed with two Riemannian metrics g1 and g2. We study the existence of C1-immersions f:(V,g1,g2)?(Rq,h1,h2) such that f*(hi)=gi for i=1,2. (author)

2001-01-01

300

Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii Rohn and Rösler (ver Vieira et al. 2004, foi previamente assinalada para estratos do Permiano Superior da Bacia do Paraná (formações Estrada Nova e Rio do Rasto. Portanto, uma idade neopermiana é tentativamente proposta para os níveis da Formação Chutani que contém a associação estudada. As implicações fitogeográficas deste novo achado são brevemente analisadas.

Roberto Iannuzzi

2004-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia): II. The morphogenus Glossopteris  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia). Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descr [...] ição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii Rohn and Rösler (ver Vieira et al. 2004), foi previamente assinalada para estratos do Permiano Superior da Bacia do Paraná (formações Estrada Nova e Rio do Rasto). Portanto, uma idade neopermiana é tentativamente proposta para os níveis da Formação Chutani que contém a associação estudada. As implicações fitogeográficas deste novo achado são brevemente analisadas. Abstract in english Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group), near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). This paper presents the [...] first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004), was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil). Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.

Roberto, Iannuzzi; Carlos E. L., Vieira; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Enrique, Díaz-Martínez; George W., Grader.

302

Atropisomerism of the C-1-C'-1 axis of 2,2',8,8'-unsubstituted 1,1'-binaphthyl derivatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Suzuki coupling of optically active (S)-binaphthyl bromide 10 with (S)-binaphthyl boronic acid 11 produced a diastereomeric mixture of tetrahydroxyquaternaphthyls 4. The coupling products 4as well as their derivatives 5-7 can be considered as members of the family of 1,1'-binaphthyl-3,3'-diols. The C-1-C'-1 axis of all these compounds was found to have an unusually high rotational barrier. Generally, the barrier is higher for derivatives having more bulky substituents at the 3 and 3' positions. PMID:11463254

Chow, H F; Wan, C W

2001-07-27

303

Coal liquefaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01

304

Geology and metallogeny of the uranium deposits in the Lodeve Permian basin (southern Massif Central, France)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Permian continental basin of Lodeve, in the southern part of the Massif Central, 60 km west of Montpellier contains a significant uranium potential by French mining standards. The orebodies can take the form of ribbon-shaped, massive or even stratiform bodies, but always associated with bituminous facies beds and strong brittle tectonics. The major faults are sites of hydrothermal activity and in places hydraulic fracturing. Most of the uraniferous mineralisation is thought to have been associated with acid volcanism, contemporaneous with sedimentation, which could also have facilitated syn- and diagenetic preconcentrations of uranium. Later, in the course of two phases of hydrothermal mobilisation during the Jurassic and Cretaceous, uranium was remobilised on a large scale along faults containing bituminous material and impregnated with sulphides

1990-01-01

305

Illitization of Smectite in Sandstones - The Permian Unayzah Reservoir, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The transformation of smectite to illite through an illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer is a major clay mineral reaction that occurs in a range of diagenetic environments and is commonly observed in siliciclastic sedimentary basins worldwide. This reaction is controlled by several chemical and physical factors, the two most important of which are temperature and potassium availability within the sediments. Diagenetic illite is a major factor affecting reservoir quality in all pre-Khuff clastic reservoirs in Saudi Arabia. Illite coating in the Permian Unayzah reservoir has two main morphologies: the platelet-like and fibrous illite. The former morphology is interpreted to form by transformation of infiltrated smectite during burial. This work shows that understanding the type and distribution of early diagenesis in clastic sequences is of paramount importance for the prediction of deep burial alterations and their related reservoir properties.

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi; Al-Ramadan, Khalid

2014-05-01

306

Silicification of trace fossils in carbonates; evidence from Permian Kaibab Formation, southwestern Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silicification in carbonates, particularly silicified trace fossils, has received relatively little previous study. Chert comprises a significant percentage of the upper Fossil Mountain Member of the Kaibab Formation, a Permian epicontinental limestone. Distribution and origin of this chert were studied from outcrops in southwestern Utah. The origin of much of this chert is believed to be as silicified Thalassinoides burrows. Field evidence for trace fossil silicification includes (1) silicified cylindrical tubes with Y-shaped branching patterns as well as hollow tubes, and (2) polygonal box-work patterns of tubes. In addition, brachiopods, bryozoans, and abundant specimens of the sponge Actinocelia maendrina Finks are also silicified. Recognition of silicified trace fossils in carbonates provides a different approach to the study of early diagenetic silica precipitation. These silicified trace fossils also represent new information on bioturbation in ancient carbonates, a subject that has, until recently, been relatively unstudied.

Whidden, K.J.; Bottjer, D.J.

1989-04-01

307

Getting to the source: aeolian influx to the Permian Delaware basin region  

Science.gov (United States)

Although an aeolian origin for the siliciclastics of the Permian (Guadalupian) Delaware and adjacent basins and shelf has been recognized, their source has remained elusive. An Ancestral Rockies source to the west and northwest has been traditionally favored. We propose instead that these sediments were derived from aeolian systems to the northeast and represented by the Whitehorse Group in the Anadarko Basin. This hypothesis is based upon (1) recognition of the aeolian nature of the Whitehorse, (2) regional correlation of the Whitehorse Group with portions of the Artesia Group, (3) paleoclimatic model-predicted and measured southwestward sediment transport for the Whitehorse, and (4) a proposed transport corridor over emergent mudflats along the northern margins of basisins in the Texas Panhandle and onto the New Mexico shelf. Potentially, a Whitehorse-Artesia link could show the formation of this mixed carbonate/siliciclastic system as the result of the interactions of diverse and distant environmental systems under eustatic and climatic forcing factors.

Kocurek, Gary; Kirkland, Brenda L.

1998-05-01

308

Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

1999-09-23

309

Section of Permian deposits and fusulinids in the Halvan Mountains, Yazd province, Central Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian section situated northwest of Tabas in the Halvan Mountains is studied and fusulinids occurring in the section are described. The Chili, Sartakht, and Hermez formations distinguished in the section are separated by horizons of bauxitic laterite and belong to the Khan Group formerly ranked as a synonymous formation. Fusulinids occur at two levels in the section. The lower one confined to the Chili Formation yields the so-called Kalaktash fusulinid assemblage of the late Sakmarian age. The second late Asselian assemblage has been discovered in pebbles from conglomerate-breccia in the basal laterite of the Sartakht Formation. A brief characterization of fusulinids is presented and three new species are described. The new Benshiella genus is discriminated from the Rugosofusulinidae family. As Skinner and Wilde (1965, 1966) changed the original diagnosis of the Pseudofusulina genus, we suggest, regarding all species, which have been attributed to this genus but do not satisfy the new diagnosis, as representing the new Nonpseudofusulina genus.

Leven, E. Ya.; Gorgij, M. N.

2009-04-01

310

Permian Bone Spring formation: Sandstone play in the Delaware basin. Part I - slope  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New exploration in the Permian (Leonardian) Bone Spring formation has indicated regional potential in several sandstone sections across portions of the northern Delaware basin. Significant production has been established in the first, second, and third Bone Spring sandstones, as well as in a new reservoir interval, the Avalon sandstone, above the first Bone Spring sandstone. These sandstones were deposited as submarine-fan systems within the northern Delaware basin during periods of lowered sea level. The Bone Spring as a whole consists of alternating carbonate and siliciclastic intervals representing the downdip equivalents to thick Abo-Yeso/Wichita-Clear Fork carbonate buildups along the Leonardian shelf margin. Hydrocarbon exploration in the Bone Spring has traditionally focused on debris-flow carbonate deposits restricted to the paleoslope. Submarine-fan systems, in contrast, extend a considerable distance basinward of these deposits and have been recently proven productive as much as 40-48 km south of the carbonate trend.

Montgomery, S.L. [Petroleum Consultant, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-08-01

311

Coal gasification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities for the construction of a coal gasification plant according to the example of Saarland have been examined in a study, taking the energy market as well as the market development for the products produced into account. Factors for the site selection are discussed. Based on the investigation which shows clear advantages for sites close to mines, the following concept is suggested for the plant: Heat supplier is a HTGR with 3000 MW thermal power and 9500C helium exit temperature. The plant produces as main product 1.22 Mrd. Nm3 SNG/a and 870 MW electricity in the base-load region. Yield deviation on the gas side are compensated for by a parallel production of methanol which has an average annual SNG production of 0.8 Mrd Nm3 420.000 t. The by-products per year are about 0.4 million t of tar and oil so that one needs a total amount of 2.1 million t/a coal. (HPH)

1977-06-01

312

Clean Coal Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research explains clean coal technologies, including coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, and carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation explores the benefits and processes of clean coal technologies (gasification, coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, carbon capture & sequestration and integrated gasification combined cycle).

2011-03-16

313

Coal activity in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper gives a brief resume of Thailand's coal industry. To meet increasing demands for coal, the cabinet resolution on coal policy in June 1987 divided duties of coal management between the Department of Mineral Resources, the National Energy Administration and The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand.

Nakanart, A. (Department of Mineral Resources (Thailand). Coal Exploration and Assessment Project)

1990-03-01

314

Coal in West Greenland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological investigations accomplished hitherto in West Greenland in Nugssuaq region have given basis for coal deposit evaluations. Very considerable coal reserves seem to be available, but calorific value of coal according to chemical analysis is under the usual power-plant fuel standards. Prospective mining requires further test borings wider investigations and eventually interest of coal-using industry.

Ellitsgaard-Rasmussen, K.; Frandsen, N.; Thomsen, E.

1981-01-01

315

Deploying Clean Coal Technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Poland, the electric power generation is almost entirely based on coal (hard coal and brown coal). According to the author, there is a wide interest in Clean Coal Technology (CCT). However, a key concern is the high expected cost of this technology. (TEC) 2 refs.

Rakowski, J. [Institute of Power Engineering, (Poland)

1996-12-31

316

Coal dust suppression in French coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes methods of coal dust suppression applied in coal mines in France. As the most effective methods for coal dust suppression, water infusion in coal seams, and water spraying by means of nozzles fixed on cutting drums, drilling bits, at loading and haulage facilities, are noted. Drilling patterns of deep water infusion boreholes, and water consumption of infusion and spraying are given along with other details of the methods. Operational parameters of dust collectors are described. The main working operations causing dust pollution are enumerated. Coal cutting and support advance are the main dust sources. The use of spraying nozzles at these sources is outlined. (In Bulgarian)

Pashov, P.

1983-08-01

317

Biomarker analysis of Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales, Junggar basin, NW China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales containing up to 34% TOC (total organic carbon) underlie approximately 50,000 km{sup 2} of the Junggar basin in western China, and appear to be the principal source of oils in the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar and in several recent discoveries in other areas of the basin. The siliceous oil shales were deposited in a sediment-starved foreland basin during a period of predominantly humid climate. Previous biomarker studies of crude oils from Karamay field have documented an abundance of {beta}-carotane (which in some cases dominates the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution) and gammacerane, suggesting a source bed deposited under hypersaline conditions. However, relatively complete outcrop exposures of finely laminated oil shales in the southern Junggar conspicuously lack evaporites, extensive dessication horizons, or other sedimentological evidence of playa lake environments. Indeed, the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution in bitumen extracts from southern Junggar oil shales appear characteristic of freshwater to brakish water deposition of organic matter in an anoxic lake. Normal alkanes show a slight odd-over-even preference with relatively low levels of the C{sub 22}, n-alkane, pristane/phytane ratios close to unity, low {beta}-carotane and gammacerane levels, and the absence of C{sub 34}-C{sub 35} hopanes. This apparent difference in source bed depositional environments may be due to tectonic partitioning between separate depocenters of the Late Permian Junggar basin. Alternatively, hypersaline oil shale facies may be limited to deeper basinal areas, whereas upslope southern Junggar sediments record highstands in lake level or influx of fresh water from the adjacent drainage areas.

Carroll, A. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

1990-05-01

318

Diagenesis and porosity development associated with major sea level fluctuations, Upper Permian, Jameson land, east Greenland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two major carbonate sequences, represented by the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The initial Karstryggen transgression led to the development of a shallow marine platform with structurally controlled evaporite basins (salinas) separated by stromatolitic, peloidal, or micritic carbonate depositional areas. The Wegener Havloe sequence reflects more rapid and extensive transgression with the deposition of three subcycles of fully marine, platform, or biohermal carbonates containing minor evaporites near the basin margins. Bioherms (bryozoan-brachiopod-marine cement mounds) show > 100 m of relief, indicating that large relative sea level changes were involved. Both the Karstryggen and Wgener Havloe cycles were terminated by major regressions, which led to karstic and/or fluvial incision of the underlying sequences. Not surprisingly, carbonate and evaporite diagenesis was greatly affected by these regional or eustatic sea level fluctuations. Evaporites dissolved or were replaced by calcite and celestite under the influence of meteoric waters. Limestones show collapse brecciation, grain leaching, soil development, and characteristic vadose and phreatic cements. Most significantly meteoric flushing led to massive dissolution of botryoidal marine cements (aragonite and probable high-Mg calcite) within biohermal facies on the Wegener Peninsula. This early porosity resurrection led to the preservation of porous bioherm core zones until hydrocarbon migration. Only late (posthydrocarbon), probably hydrothermal fluid flow led to cementation of the bioherm cores while expelling most of the reservoired hydrocarbons. If the sea level changes affecting the Greenlandic Permian are eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin.

Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA)); Stemmerik, L. (Greenland Geological Survey, Copenhagen (Denmark))

1990-05-01

319

Concerning coal: an anthology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

1997-12-31

320

Thermal coal to 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Profiles the Indonesian coal industry. Areas covered include: the rapid expansion of the Indonesian coal industry; the role of the state coal corporation, PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Assam in establishing contractual agreements with foreign and domestic companies to exploit. Indonesian coal reserves; production outlook to the year 2000; and infrastructure development. The recent rapid growth of the coal industry is forecast to continue. Growth beyond the year 2000 will depend on a number of factors, in particular, the quality of coal in new contract areas and the rate of development of domestic coal demand, primarily in the electric power sector. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Millsteed, C.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

1993-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Canadian coal update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

News items are included as follows: developments at Devco, coal exploration in Nova Scotia, Ouintette Coal Limited's new mining project in northeastern BC, Teck's Bullmoose project in northeastern BC, Crows Nest Resources start of mining operations at Line Creek, Fording Coal's Shaughnessy project, expansion at BC Coal, McIntyre Mine has good year and outlook, Esso Resources activities at Byron Creek and Judy Creek, Manalta Coal operations and production, Luscar and the Sheerness Mine, Sage Creek Coal, and Consolidation Coal reserves and output.

1981-09-01

322

The effect of excision of the posterior arch of C1 on C1/C2 fusion using transarticular screws.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transarticular screw fixation with autograft is an established procedure for the surgical treatment of atlantoaxial instability. Removal of the posterior arch of C1 may affect the rate of fusion. This study assessed the rate of atlantoaxial fusion using transarticular screws with or without removal of the posterior arch of C1. We reviewed 30 consecutive patients who underwent atlantoaxial fusion with a minimum follow-up of two years. In 25 patients (group A) the posterior arch of C1 was not excised (group A) and in five it was (group B). Fusion was assessed on static and dynamic radiographs. In selected patients CT imaging was also used to assess fusion and the position of the screws. There were 15 men and 15 women with a mean age of 51.2 years (23 to 77) and a mean follow-up of 7.7 years (2 to 11.6). Stable union with a solid fusion or a stable fibrous union was achieved in 29 patients (97%). In Group A, 20 patients (80%) achieved a solid fusion, four (16%) a stable fibrous union and one (4%) a nonunion. In Group B, stable union was achieved in all patients, three having a solid fusion and two a stable fibrous union. There was no statistically significant difference between the status of fusion in the two groups. Complications were noted in 12 patients (40%); these were mainly related to the screws, and included malpositioning and breakage. The presence of an intact or removed posterior arch of C1 did not affect the rate of fusion in patients with atlantoaxial instability undergoing C1/C2 fusion using transarticular screws and autograft. PMID:23814252

Chang, K C; Samartzis, D; Fuego, S M; Dhatt, S S; Wong, Y W; Cheung, W Y; Luk, K D K; Cheung, K M C

2013-07-01

323

Clean coal engineering technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contents are: Introduction; Past, Present, and Future Role of Coal Chapter 1: Chemistry of Coal; Chapter 2: Worldwide Distribution of Coal; Chapter 3: The Effect of Coal Usage on Human Health and the Environment; Chapter 4: Technologies for Coal Utilization; Chapter 5: Anatomy of a Coal-Fired Power Plant; Chapter 6: Coal-Fired Emissions International Regulations; Chapter 7: Advanced Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants; Chapter 8: Fluidized-Bed Combustion Technology; Chapter 9: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Systems; Chapter 10: Clean Liquids and Gaseous Fuels from Coal for Power Generation; Chapter 11: Emissions Control Strategies; Chapter 12: CO{sub 2} Capture and Sequestration; Chapter 13: Emissions Trading; Chapter 14: Future Power Generation; Appendix A.: Coal-Fired Emissions Factors; Appendix B: List of Hazardous Air Pollutants; Appendix C: Initial 261 Units Identified in Phase I (SO{sub 2}) of the Acid Rain Program (from 1st edition); and Appendix D.: Commercial Gasification Facilities Worldwide.

Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

2010-07-01

324

Black coal export giant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1984 Australia became the top world coal exporter. Recoverable reserves, mainly in New South Wales and Queensland, are about 30,000 Mt and total production in 1986 was 168,113,000 t of raw black coal and 38 Mt of brown coal, and exports of black coal were up 3.4%. The paper considers production and export of coal in Australia under the following headings: the exporting states; increasing productivity; and first exports in 1801. 8 refs.

Chadwick, J.

1987-06-01

325

Inorganic Constituents in Coal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

2006-01-01

326

Canadian coal 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contains 6 articles with the following titles: coal soon to be world's single most important source of energy; coal's energy lights up Canada's economy; research and development key to coal's future; reclamation - a success story for coal; a teacher's dream; on the move - coal in motion. Five of the articles have been abstracted separately.

1993-01-01

327

Sulphur in Assam coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research carried out on sulphur in Assam coals is reviewed. It is intended to provide a general overview with some recent advances on the forms of sulphur in these coals and their desulphurization and recovery in the forms of elemental sulphur or useful compounds. Greater emphasis is given on a new form of sulphur i.e., secondary sulphur in Assam coals. Studies on sulphur in Assam coals would be potentially useful in coal utilization. 94 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Barooah, P.K.; Baruah, M.K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat (India). Library and Documentation Division

1996-02-01

328

Mechanical properties of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Factors affecting the mechanical properties of coal and their measurement are examined. These include: coal petrology and strength characteristics of lithotypes; compressive strength and stress-strain characteristics of coal specimens; tensile strength; point load strength; Schmidt Hammer values; cone indenter hardness; impact strength index; Cerchar hardness test; Hardgrove grindability index; coal characterization through Vickers microhardness measurements; and strength classification of coal for cuttability assessment. 38 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Bilgin, N.; Phillips, H.R. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

1994-12-31

329

Coal combustion products  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

Kalyoncu, R. S.; Olson, D. W.

2001-01-01

330

Fields of cohomological dimension one versus C_1-fields  

CERN Multimedia

Ax gave examples of fields of cohomological dimension 1 which are not C_1-fields. Kato and Kuzumaki asked whether a weak form of the C_1-property holds for all fields of cohomological dimension 1 (existence of solutions in extensions of coprime degree rather than existence of a solution in the ground field). Using work of Merkur'ev and Suslin, and of Rost, D. Madore and I produced examples which show that the answer is in the negative. In the present note, I produce examples which require less work than the original ones. In the original paper, some of the examples were given by forms of degree 3 in 4 variables. Here, for an arbitrary prime p>3, I use forms of degree p in p+1 variables.

Colliot-Thélène, J L

2005-01-01

331

Quantum and classical aspects of deformed c = 1 strings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantum and classical aspects of a deformed c=1 matrix model proposed by Jevicki and Yoneya are studied. String equations are formulated in the framework of the Toda lattice hierarchy. The Whittaker functions now play the role of generalized Airy functions in c<1 strings. This matrix model has two distinct parameters. Identification of the string coupling constant is thereby not unique, and leads to several different perturbative interpretations of this model as a string theory. Two such possible interpretations are examined. In both cases, the classical limit of the string equations, which turns out to give a formal solution of Polchinski's scattering equations, shows that the classical scattering amplitudes of massless tachyons are insensitive to deformations of the parameters in the matrix model. (author)

1995-01-01

332

Induced Boundary Flow on the c = 1 Orbifold Moduli Space  

CERN Multimedia

Boundary flow in the $c=1$ 2d CFT of a $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ orbifold of a free boson on a circle is considered. Adding a bulk marginal operator to the $c=1$ orbifold branch induces a boundary flow. We show that this flow is consistent for any bulk marginal operator and known initial given boundary condition. The supersymmetric $c=3/2$ case is also mentioned. The supersymmetric $c=3/2$ case is also mentioned. For the circle branch of the moduli space this has been shown in arXiv:hep-th/0609034v2. The ground state multiplicity ($g_b$) is calculated and it is shown that it does indeed decrease.

Elitzur, Shmuel; Rabinovici, Eliezer

2012-01-01

333

Observation of ?(c1) decays into vector meson pairs ??, ??, and ??.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using (106±4)×10?? ?(3686) events accumulated with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e?e? collider, we present the first measurement of decays of ?(c1) to vector meson pairs ??, ??, and ??. The branching fractions are measured to be (4.4±0.3±0.5)×10??, (6.0±0.3±0.7)×10??, and (2.2±0.6±0.2)×10??, for ?(c1)???, ??, and ??, respectively, which indicates that the hadron helicity selection rule is significantly violated in ?(cJ) decays. In addition, the measurement of ?(cJ)??? provides the first indication of the rate of doubly OZI-suppressed ?(cJ) decay. Finally, we present improved measurements for the branching fractions of ?(c0) and ?(c2) to vector meson pairs. PMID:21929228

Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; An, L; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Baldini, R; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Cao, G F; Cao, X X; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Duan, M Y; Fan, R R; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Feng, C Q; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Greco, M; Grishin, S; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kavatsyuk, M; Komamiya, S; Kuehn, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, G C; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y W; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z Q; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X; Ma, X Y; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Sonoda, S; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tang, X F; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Varner, G S; Wan, X; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, S G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xu, Z Z; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, M; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, L; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhao, Z L; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhong, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X; Zweber, P

2011-08-26

334

Numerical Study of c>1 Matter Coupled to Quantum Gravity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the results of a numerical simulation aimed at understanding the nature of the `c = 1 barrier' in two dimensional quantum gravity. We study multiple Ising models living on dynamical $\\phi^3$ graphs and analyse the behaviour of moments of the graph loop distribution. We notice a universality at work as the average properties of typical graphs from the ensemble are determined only by the central charge. We further argue that the qualitative nature of these results c...

Catterall, Simon M.; Kogut, John B.; Renken, Ray L.

1992-01-01

335

Pesin Entropy Formula for C1 Diffeomorphisms with Dominated Splitting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For any C1 diffeomorphism with dominated splitting we consider a nonempty set of invariant measures which describes the asymptotic statistics of Lebesgue-almost all orbits. They are the limits of convergent subsequences of averages of the Dirac delta measures supported on those orbits. We prove that the metric entropy of each of these measures is bounded from below by the sum of the Lyapunov exponents on the dominating subbundle. As a consequence, if those exponents are non ...

Catsigeras, Eleonora; Cerminara, Marcelo; Enrich, Heber

2012-01-01

336

The Carboniferous-Permian boundary in the central western Argentinean basins: paleontological evidences El límite Carbonífero-Pérmico en las cuencas del centro oeste de Argentina: evidencias paleontológicas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The central western Argentinean basins of Río Blanco, Calingasta-Uspallata and western Paganzo, enclose the most complete marine successions used for examining the Carboniferous-Permian boundary in Gondwana. A detailed review of the key stratigraphical sections has allowed the identification of the latest Carboniferous assemblages; NBG, Interval megafloristic Zone and DM (Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata) Palynological Zone in the lower part, and the earliest Permian T-S (Tiverton...

Cisterna, Gabriela A.; Sterren, Andrea F.; Gutie?rrez, Pedro R.

2011-01-01

337

The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] One of the most important climatic and biological crises of the history of the Earth occurred 250 m.a. ago, during the transition from the Permian to the Triassic. During the Permian, all of the continental blocks were covering one hemisphere forming the Pangea supercontinent, while the other was covered by the Panthalasa ocean. General conditions for living on land were very precarious. The exuberant vegetation of the Carboniferous period had disappeared almost completely, as w...

Virgili, Carmina

2008-01-01

338

Are C1 chondrites chemically fractionated. A trace element study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six C1 chondrite samples and a C2 xenolith from the Plainview H5 chondrite were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for the elements Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Ce, Cs, Eu, Ge, In, Ir, Lu, Nd, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Sn, Tb, Te, Tl, Yb, and Zn. The data were combined with 9 earlier analyses from this laboratory and examined for evidence of chemical fractionation in C1 chondrites. A number of elements (Br, Rb, Cs, Au, Re, Os, Ni, Pd, Sb, Bi, In, Te) show small but correlated variations. Those of the first 8 probably reflect hydrothermal alteration in the meteorite parent body, whereas those of Sb, Bi, In, and Te may at least in part involve nebular processes. Br and Au show systematic abundance differences from meteorite to meteorite, which suggests hydrothermal transport on a kilometer scale. The remaining elements vary from sample to sample, suggesting transport on a centimeter scale. We present revised mean C1 abundances for 35 elements, based on the new data and a critical selection of literature data. The Plainview C2 xenolith has normal trace element abundances, except for 3 elements falling appreciably above the C2 range: Rb, Cs and Bi. The results are discussed. (author)

1982-01-01

339

Safety and surgical techniques of C1 lateral mass screws  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the proper insertion techniques of C1 lateral mass screws. Eighteen consecutive patients were examined after upper cervical fusion using twenty-nine C1 lateral mass screws. Screws were placed by three different techniques; Goel's technique (4), Tan's technique (20), Notching technique (5). Pre and post-operative CT scans with multiplanar reconstruction were used to detect cortical breaches and direction of screws. No transverse foramen and vertebral groove violation was found in CT scans. Three had breached superior articular facet of the atlas. However, the range of motion (R.O.M) of atlanto-occipital joints had not changed postoperatively. Theses screws were inserted with Tan's technique and two of three were directed medially. It is feasible to safely insert C1 lateral mass screws when correct insertion point and direction are considered preoperatively. However, care should be taken because screws can violate the atlanto-occipital joint especially with Tan's technique. (author)

2010-03-01

340

Coal mine workers` pneumoconiosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fibrogenic and cytotoxic potential of coal mine dust is independent of the amount of quartz and other inorganic parameters. Results of coal petrographical and organic geochemical investigations of coals and coal mine dust from the Ruhr and Ibbenbueren Region of Germany demonstrate variations of organic dust amount possibly influencing these noxious properties. Coal mine dust of high rank coals is characterized by a pronounced fibrogenic risk. This risk, independent of the quantity of quartz, is probably based on shape variations of different coal macerals. With increasing coalification of the corresponding seam, the vitrinite is enriched in its dust; however, lower concentrations have been determined for inertinite. Vitrinite shows constant shapes and sizes independent of the rank of coal. Inertinite particles with elongated to fibrous shapes tend to larger sizes with increasing coalification. Strikingly, coal mine dust from miners` lungs with high degrees of coal mine workers` pneumoconiosis (CWP) is enriched in inertinite. In contrast, high cytotoxicities in cell tests are known for coal mine dust from low coalfield coals. High concentrations of phenolic compounds can be extracted by dichloromethane from low coalfield coal mine dust. These compounds, which are characterized by a high water solubility and therefore high bioavailability, explain the high cytotoxicities of coal mine dust. Contamination of dust by diesel emissions in the coal mine can act as additionally supporting parameters for extended cytotoxicities. (orig.)

Schulz, H.M. [Baltic Sea Research Inst., Dept. of Marine Geology, Rostock (Germany); Hagemann, H.W. [Dept. of Geology, Geochemistry and Deposits of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany); Wolf, M. [Dept. of Geology, Geochemistry and Deposits of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany); Brammertz, A. [Dept. of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany); Einbrodt, H.J. [Dept. of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany)

1997-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-09-30

342

Amplitude analyses of the decays chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-  

CERN Document Server

Using a data sample of 2.59 x 10^7 psi(2S) decays obtained with the CLEO-c detector, we perform amplitude analyses of the complementary decay chains chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-. We find evidence for a P-wave eta' pi scattering amplitude, which, if interpreted as a resonance, would have exotic J^PC = 1^-+ and parameters consistent with the pi_1(1600) state reported in other production mechanisms. We also make the first observation of the decay a_0(980) -> eta' pi and measure the ratio of branching fractions B(a_0(980) -> eta' pi)/B(a_0(980) -> eta pi) = 0.064 +- 0.014 +- 0.014. The pi pi spectrum produced with a recoiling eta is compared to that with eta' recoil.

Adams, G S; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Szczepaniak, A; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B

2011-01-01

343

Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

1995-06-01

344

Properties of Halococcus salifodinae, an Isolate from Permian Rock Salt Deposits, Compared with Halococci from Surface Waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Halococcus salifodinae BIpT DSM 8989T, an extremely halophilic archaeal isolate from an Austrian salt deposit (Bad Ischl), whose origin was dated to the Permian period, was described in 1994. Subsequently, several strains of the species have been isolated, some from similar but geographically separated salt deposits. Hcc. salifodinae may be regarded as one of the most ancient culturable species which existed already about 250 million years ago. Since its habitat probably did not change during...

2013-01-01

345

Carbon, sulfur, oxygen and strontium isotope records, organic geochemistry and biostratigraphy across the Permian/Triassic boundary in Abadeh, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Pelagic deposits at Abadeh represent a complete biostratigraphic record across the Permian/Triassic boundary (PTB). The presumed water depth during deposition of these sediments was between 60 and 90 m. Similar to other Permian/Triassic boundary sections, the succession at Abadeh is characterised by a negative carbon isotope shift of approximately 4‰. The values start to decrease in the lower C. changxingensis - C. deflecta s.l. Zone, reach -0.12‰ (V-PDB) in the uppermost Permian just below the PTB, remain low to the early I. isarcica Zone (-0.32‰) and increase subsequently in the upper I. isarcica Zone. For the time interval of the PTB negative carbon isotope excursion, between the C. iranica and the I. isarcica Zones, no correlation exists between the ?13Ccarb and the ?18Ocarb. The above observations argue against the conclusion of Heydari et al. (2001) that the carbon isotope event at the P/T transition is an alteration artefact and not a global signal. The decrease in ?13Ccarb is accompanied by a ~5‰ (and potentially up to 10‰) increase in ?34SSSS. Together, these features are thought to reflect a complex global event, notably the development of widespread anoxic oceans with anoxic bottom layers rising onto the shelves. For the carbon isotope drop, other factors, such as the collapse of ocean primary productivity may also have played a role. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of Dzhulfian seawater show only a minor increase from 0.70705 to 0.70710, reaching 0.70720 in the Dorashamian. The increase becomes steeper in the Early Triassic reaching 0.70754 in the N. dieneri Zone. The rise of the strontium isotope values is thought to be related to enhanced continental weathering under humid climatic conditions in the uppermost Permian (C. meishanensis - H. praeparvus Zone) and the lack of a dense land vegetation in the Early Triassic, prior to the Spathian (Upper Olenekian).

Korte, Christoph; Kozur, Heinz W.; Joachimski, Michael M.; Strauss, Harald; Veizer, Ján; Schwark, Lorenz

2004-09-01

346

Novel Bacterial Isolate from Permian Groundwater, Capable of Aggregating Potential Biofuel-Producing Microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing petroleum costs and climate change have resulted in microalgae receiving attention as potential biofuel producers. Little information is available on the diversity and functions of bacterial communities associated with biofuel-producing algae. A potential biofuel-producing microalgal strain, Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1, was grown in Permian groundwater. Changes in the bacterial community structure at three temperatures were monitored by two culture-independent methods, and cultu...

Wang, Hui; Laughinghouse, Haywood D.; Anderson, Matthew A.; Chen, Feng; Willliams, Ernest; Place, Allen R.; Zmora, Odi; Zohar, Yonathan; Zheng, Tianling; Hill, Russell T.

2012-01-01

347

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08

348

Clean coal technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

1998-02-01

349

Can coal upgrading help  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from a doubled energy consumption which is expected to take place by the year 2000, the possibilities of finding an important contributor to energy supply by upgrading coal are investigated. Coal gasification is taking the first place among all deliberations as by using nuclear process heat it is most likely to be profitable. Without nuclear energy, coal gasification would have to take place completely autothermally, which would lead to a high coal demand. This means that coal gasification would be somewhat impossible without nuclear energy which is due to the large quantities of coal needed to generate electric power. (UA)

350

Southeast Asian coal developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper studies the recent growth in the coal industry and coal-fired power sector in Southeast Asia. With 6500 MW of coal-fired power capacity under construction and an additional 4800 MW planned by 2010, regional coal consumption will increase significantly over the next 5-10 years. Domestic demand and projected increases in coal export requirements will continue to fuel the growth of South-east Asia's coal industry in the years to come. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 photos.

Ewart, D.L. Jr. [Marston & Marston, Inc. (United States)

2004-06-01

351

C=1 conformal field theories on Riemann surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the theory of c=1 torus and Z/sub 2/-orbifold models on general Riemann surfaces. The operator content and occurrence of multi-critical points in this class of theories is discussed. The partition functions and correlation functions of vertex operators and twist fields are calculated using the theory of double covered Riemann surfaces. It is shown that orbifold partition functions are sensitive to the Torelli group. We give an algebraic construction of the operator formulation of these nonchiral theories on higher genus surfaces. Modular transformations are naturally incorporated as canonical transformations in the Hilbert space.

Dijkgraaf, R.; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.

1988-03-01

352

Correlation Functions and Multicritical Flows in $c<1$ String Theory  

CERN Document Server

We compute all string tree level correlation functions of vertex operators in $c<1$ string theory. This is done by using the ring structure of the theory. In order to study the multicritical behaviour, we calculate the correlation functions after perturbation by physical vertex operators. We show that the $(2k-1,2)$ models can be obtained from the $(1,2)$ model and the minimal models can be obtained from the $(1,p)$ model by perturbing the action by appropriate physical operators. Our results are consistent with known results from matrix models.

Govindarajan, S; John, V; Govindarajan, Suresh; John, Varghese

1995-01-01

353

Chiral Rings and Physical States in c<1 String Theory  

CERN Document Server

We show how the double cohomology of the String and Felder BRST charges naturally leads to the ring structure of $c<1$ strings. The chiral ring is a ring of polynomials in two variables modulo an equivalence relation of the form $x^p \\simeq y^{p+1}$ for the (p+1,p) model. We also study the states corresponding to the edges of the conformal grid whose inclusion is crucial for the closure of the ring. We introduce candidate operators that correspond to the observables of the matrix models. Their existence is motivated by the relation of one of the screening operators of the minimal model to the zero momentum dilaton.

Govindarajan, S; John, V

1993-01-01

354

Occurrence and significance of magnesite in Upper Permian (Guadalupian) Tansill and Yates Formations, Delaware Basin, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}) occurs pervasively in a 270-ft (82-m) cored interval of Upper Permian (Guadalupian) shelf deposits from the northern rim of the Delaware basin portion of the Permian basin, New Mexico. In their core example, magnesite is found in tidal flat/lagoon and pisolite shoal dolomites and siltstones of the Tansill and uppermost Yates formations. The interval is overlain by magnesite-bearing anhydrite and a thick halite section of the (Ochoan) Salado Formation. The basinwide extent of magnesite is unknown. Magnesite may have formed either (1) during Ochoan deposition or thereafter, after burial of the Tansill and Yates formations, from dense brines originating from the overlying Salado evaporites; or less likely, (2) syndepositionally with the Tansill and Yates sediments. Preliminary measurements of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes for magnesite yield normal Permian values for {delta}{sup 13}C averaging + 6.84% (PDB) and slightly evaporitic values for {delta}{sup 18}O averaging + 1.04% (PDB); corrected {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope composition averages 0.70687. Because a high content of associated uranium in the magnesite-rich part of the core causes large gamma-ray deflections similar to those for shale, and because the density of magnesite is close to that of anhydrite, the presence of magnesite could lead to improper evaluation of lithology and porosity from logs and could ultimately result in failure to recognize potential reservoir zones. 14 figs., 1 tab.

Garber, R.A.; Harris, P.M.; Borer, J.M. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA))

1990-02-01

355

Massive volcanism at the Permian-Triassic boundary and its impact on the isotopic composition of the ocean and atmosphere  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bulk carbonate and conodonts from three Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary sections at Guryul Ravine (Kashmir), Abadeh (central Iran) and Pufels/Bula/Bulla (Italy) were investigated for d13C and d18O. Carbon isotope data highlight environmental changes across the P-T boundary and show the following features: (1) a gradual decrease of 4� to more than 7� starting in the Late Permian (Changhsingian) C. bachmanni Zone, with two superimposed transient positive excursions in the C. meishanensis-H. praeparvus and the M. ultima-S. ? mostleri Zones; (2) two d13C minima, the first at the P-T boundary and a higher, occasionally double-minimum in the lower I. isarcica Zone. It is unlikely that the short-lived phenomena, such as a breakdown in biological productivity due to catastrophic mass extinction, a sudden release of oceanic methane hydrates or meteorite impact(s), could have been the main control on the latest Permian carbon isotope curve because of its prolonged (0.5 Ma) duration, gradual decrease and the existenceof a >1� positive shift at the main extinction horizon. The P-T boundary d13C trend matches in time and magnitude the eruption of the Siberian Traps and other contemporaneous volcanism, suggesting that volcanogenic effects, such as outgassed CO2 from volcanism and, even more, thermal metamorphism of organic-rich sediments, as the likely cause of the negative trend.

Korte, Christoph; Pande, P.

2010-01-01

356

Early Permian ammonoids from the Kaeng Krachan Group of the Phatthalung-Hat Yai area, southern peninsular Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

An Early Permian small ammonoid fauna consisting of Neocrimites sp., Agathiceras suessi Gemmellaro, A. girtyi Böse, Agathiceras? sp., and Miklukhoceras sp. was found in nodules of a fine sandstone bed exposed in the Phatthalung-Hat Yai area of southern peninsular Thailand. The ammonoid-bearing bed belongs stratigraphically to the uppermost part of the Kaeng Krachan Group, which is essentially a clastic-dominant, Late Carboniferous (?) to Early Permian stratigraphic unit, widely distributed in western and peninsular Thailand. This ammonoid fauna is considered to be of Bolorian (Kungurian) age and includes Agathiceras girtyi Böse, which is described for the first time from Thailand. The present discovery of Bolorian ammonoids suggests that the uppermost part of the Kaeng Krachan Group is slightly younger than previously considered and around the latest Early Permian. This further implies that the continental margin environment of the Sibumasu Block drastically changed at around Bolorian time from a cool, clastic-dominant shelf condition to a temperate to subtropical, carbonate platform due to rapid northward drift after middle Artinskian rifting.

Fujikawa, Masayuki; Ueno, Katsumi; Sardsud, Apsorn; Saengsrichan, Wirote; Kamata, Yoshihito; Hisada, Ken-ichiro

2005-03-01

357

Kerogen morphology and geochemistry at the Permian-Triassic transition in the Meishan section, South China: Implication for paleoenvironmental variation  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed fluorescent microscopic observations and organic geochemical analyses for insoluble sedimentary organic matter (kerogens) are conducted on the end-Permian to earliest Triassic sediments in the Meishan section A of South China. The main objectives of the present study are to reconstruct variations of marine and terrestrial environments, and to evaluate bulk characteristics of terrestrial input in the palaeo-Tethys ocean for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). Most of kerogens in the Meishan section are mainly composed of marine algae-derived amorphous organic matter, while terrestrial plant-derived amorphous organic matter is remarkably dominant in the mass extinction horizon reported previously. The relative abundances of marine organic matter may vary depending on marine production rather than terrestrial input in the palaeo-Tethys associated with changing terrestrial vegetation. We also identified aromatic furans as major compounds in kerogen pyrolysate of all layers. It is possible that sources of aromatic furans with alkyl group, fungi and lichen, proliferated as disaster biota in terrestrial ecosystem through the PTB. Higher abundances of herbaceous organic matter are observed in the layers above the mass extinction horizon. However, the conifer biomarker retene can be identified in kerogen pyrolysates of all layers. These results imply that the productions of herbaceous plants increased as dominant pioneer biota in early stage of recovery for terrestrial ecosystem after its collapse, but also that woody plant potentially continued to be produced in land area throughout the end-Permian and earliest-Triassic.

Sawada, Ken; Kaiho, Kunio; Okano, Kazuki

2012-08-01

358

Evaluating the temporal link between Siberian Traps magmatism and the end-Permian mass extinction (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in Large Igneous Provinces as agents for massive climatic and biological change is steadily increasing, though the temporal constraints on both are seldom precise enough to allow detailed testing of a causal relationship. The end-Permian mass extinction is one of the most biologically important and intensely studied events in Earth history and has been linked to many possible trigger mechanisms, from voluminous volcanism to bolide impact. Proposed kill mechanisms range from acidic and/or anoxic oceans to a cocktail of toxic gases, although the link between trigger and kill mechanisms is unconstrained due to the lack of a high-precision timeline. Critical to assessing the plausibility of different trigger and kill mechanisms is an accurate age model for the biotic crisis and the perturbations to the global carbon cycle and ocean chemistry. Recent work using the EARTHTIME U/Pb tracer solution has refined the timing of the onset and duration of the marine mass extinction event and the earliest Triassic recovery at the GSSP for the Permian-Triassic boundary in Meishan, China. This work constrains the mass extinction duration to less than 100 kyr and provides an accurate and precise time point for the onset of extinction, against which the timing of potential trigger mechanisms may be compared. For more than two decades, eruption and emplacement of the Siberian traps has been implicated as a potential trigger of the end-Permian extinction. In this scenario, magmatism drives the biotic crisis through mobilization of volatiles from the sedimentary rock with which intruding and erupting magmas interact. Massive volatile release is believed to trigger major changes in atmospheric chemistry and temperature, both of which have been proposed as kill mechanisms. Current temporal constrains on the timing and duration of the Siberian magmatism are an order of magnitude less precise than those for the mass extinction event and associated environmental perturbations, limiting detailed testing of a causal relationship. We present new high-precision U/Pb geochronology on zircon crystals isolated from a suite of shallowly intruded dolerites in the Noril'sk region and two welded tuffs in the Maymecha river-valley. These two sections are the most extensively studied in the magmatic province and although there are thick exposures of lava and volcaniclastic rock elsewhere, the Noril'sk and Maymecha-Kotuy sections are thought to be representative of the entire extrusive stratigraphy. Our dates suggest that intrusive and extrusive magmatism began within analytical uncertainty of the onset of mass extinction, permitting a causal connection with age precision at the ~ × 0.06 Ma level. The new dates also allow projection of the extinction interval and associated chemostratigraphy onto the Siberian trap stratigraphy, which suggests that ~300m of volcanicalstic rocks and ~1800m of lavas in the Maymecha-Kotuy section were erupted just prior to the onset of mass extinction. Comparison of a detailed eruption history to biological and chemical records over the extinction and recovery intervals allows for better evaluation of plausible kill mechanisms.

Burgess, S. D.; Bowring, S. A.

2013-12-01

359

Coal Combustion Science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01

360

International perspectives on coal preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

NONE

1997-12-31

 
 
 
 
361

Catalytic effects in coal gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Catalytic effects in atmospheric coal gasification using steam and under isothermal conditions were investigated. Potassium salts or barium salts were impregnated into coal, pyrolyzed coal and ashes. Gasification of pyrolyzed coal impregnated with potassium was more efficient than using untreated coal. Barium also accelerated coal gasification. The mechanism of the reaction was also investigated. (14 refs.)

Santos, M.D.C.; Souza, G.L.M.; Schmal, M.

1983-04-01

362

Evolution of groundwater from Permian and Triassic aquifers in the Thuringian basin, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrochemical properties of shallow and deep groundwater with special emphasis on stable isotopes (2H, 18O, 34SSO4, 18OSO4) as well as rare earth elements (REE) are investigated to study the evolution of groundwater in the edge areas of the Thuringian basin (central Germany). The Thuringian basin is a syncline structure with an extension of 160 km in northwest-southeast and 100 km in northeast-southwest direction. It consists of sandstones, limestones, clays, gypsum and salts, that were deposited from the Late Permian until the Early Jurassic (approximately 250 to 180 million years ago). At the edge areas of the basin, sediments of Zechstein (Permian) and Bunter Sandstone (Early Triassic) are cropping out over a wide area being the catchment areas for ground water recharge of the main aquifers in Bunter Sandstone and Zechstein formations. In addition to the infiltration of atmospheric water, highly mineralized ascending groundwater occurs at fault systems leading to interactions between the aquifers. The isotope data of dissolved sulfates (34SSO4) indicate a terrestrial origin of sulfates in Early Bunter Sandstone as well as marine conditions for sulfate formation in Late Bunter Sandstone and Late Zechstein. Thus, sulfate isotopes can be used to identify the origin of water and to estimate the proportions of sulfates of different sources in mixing water. The isotopic composition of water in Bunter Sandstone aquifers in the eastern part of the basin indicate an increasing influence of sulfates from Late Bunter Sandstone in aquifers of Middle Bunter Sandstone along the groundwater flow towards the center of the basin. On the other hand there is no indication for mixing with Zechstein associated water in these aquifers. In contrast, in the northern part of the Thuringian basin and southward of the basin (south of the Thuringian forest) an interaction of Zechstein and Bunter Sandstone aquifers bound on fault systems becomes evident. The fractionations of rare earth elements in groundwater were determined after an enrichment procedure based on the method of Shabani (1992). Positive and negative Ce anomalies on PAAS (Post Achaean Australian shale) normalized REE fractionation pattern give hints on different redox conditions during groundwater evolution. Positive Ce anomalies were identified only on samples originated at Zechstein aquifers, whereas groundwaters in Bunter Sandstone aquifers with high redox potential show negative Ce anomalies, generally. References: Shabani, M.B., T. Akagi, and A. Masuda (1992): Preconcentration of trace rare earth elements in seawater by complexation with (2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate and 2-ethylhexyl dihydrogen phosphate adsorbed on a C18 cardridge and determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Anal. Chem. 64, 737-743.

Lonschinski, Martin; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg

2014-05-01

363

Magmatic plumbing of a Permian caldera exposed to a depth of 25 Km.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report discovery of a large caldera within a Permian bimodal volcanic field situated structurally above the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ) and Serie dei Laghi (SdL) of northwest Italy, two lithostratigraphic packages that constitute the deep- and the middle- to upper-crustal components, respectively, of a tilted and exposed section through the pre-Alpine crust of northwest Italy. A caldera diameter of ?13 km is indicated by outcrops of rhyolitic megabreccia and intra-caldera tuff, and a contact between intra-caldera tuff and basement two-mica schist appears to be a relic of the caldera wall based on an increase in abundance of schist inclusions in the tuff as the contact is approached. A 7- to 8-km-thick granite of the SdL intrudes the volcanic rocks, grading downward from granophyre and fine-grained granite with miarolitic cavities near the volcanic rocks at its roof to a coarse-grained "mesogranite" that is rooted in migmatitic, metapelitic paragneiss of the IVZ. Intruding the IVZ paragneiss at deeper crustal levels is a ?8-km-thick gabbronorite complex; equilibration pressures at the roof of this complex indicate that it "underplated" beneath 15 to 20 km of crust. Most rhyolitic and SdL granitic rocks are peraluminous, consistent with an origin involving partial melting of metapelitic paragneiss in the IVZ. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of bimodal volcanism (288 ± 2 to 282 ± 3 Ma), formation of granitic plutons in the SdL (289 ± 3 to 275 ± 5 Ma), and gabbro in the IVZ (289 ± 3 to 286 ± 6 Ma) indicate that the onset of bimodal volcanism and granitic plutonism was coincident with and probably triggered by intrusion of mantle-derived mafic melt in the deep crust, and that volcanic activity and presence of granitic melt at depth persisted after underplating had ceased. Palinspastic restoration of the Permian section provides a possible reference section for the crustal seismic structure beneath large calderas analogous to that provided by the ophiolite model for the seismic structure of the oceanic crust.

Sinigoi, Silvano; Quick, James E.; Peressini, Gabriella; Kloezli, Urs; Demarchi, Gabriella

2010-05-01

364

Rare-earth elements in the Permian Phosphoria Formation: Paleo proxies of ocean geochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The geochemistry of deposition of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation (MPM) in southeast Idaho, USA, a world-class sedimentary phosphate deposit of Permian age that extends over 300,000 km2, is ascertained from its rare earth element (REE) composition. Ratios of REE:Al2O3 suggest two sources-seawater and terrigenous debris. The seawater-derived marine fraction identifies bottom water in the Phosphoria Sea as O2-depleted, denitrifying (suboxic) most of the time, and seldom sulfate-reducing (anoxic). This interpretation is supported by earlier research that showed progressively greater ratios in the marine sediment fraction of Cr:Ni>V:Ni???Mo:Ni, relative to their ratios in seawater; for which marine Cr, V, and Mo can have a dominantly O2-depleted bottom-water source and Ni a photic-zone, largely algal, source. The water chemistry was maintained by a balance between bacterial oxidation of organic matter settling through the water column, determined largely by primary productivity in the photic zone, and the flux of oxidants into the bottom water via advection of seawater from the open ocean. Samples strongly enriched in carbonate fluorapatite, the dominant REE host mineral, have variable Er/Sm, Tm/Sm, and Yb/Sm ratios. Their distribution may represent greater advection of seawater between the Phosphoria Sea and open ocean during deposition of two ore zones than a center waste and greater upwelling of nutrient-enriched water into the photic zone. However, the mean rate of deposition of marine Ni, a trace nutrient of algae, and PO43-, a limiting nutrient, indicate that primary productivity was probably high throughout the depositional history. An alternative interpretation of the variable enrichments of Er, Tm, and Yb, relative to Sm, is that they may reflect temporally variable carbonate alkalinity of open-ocean seawater in Permian time. A more strongly negative Ce anomaly for all phosphatic units than the Ce anomaly of modern pelletal phosphate is further indicative of an elevated O2 concentration in the Permo-Carboniferous open ocean, as proposed by others, in contrast to the depletion of O2 in the bottom water of the Phosphoria Sea itself. The oceanographic conditions under which the deposit accumulated were likely similar to conditions under which many sedimentary phosphate deposits have accumulated and to conditions under which many black shales that are commonly phosphate poor have accumulated. A shortcoming of several earlier studies of these deposits has resulted from a failure to examine the marine fraction of elements separate from the terrigenous fraction. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Piper, D. Z.; Perkins, R. B.; Rowe, H. D.

2007-01-01

365

Paleomagnetism of Angara-Vitim batholith: relative position of Siberia and Europe in Permian  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Late Paleozoic paleomagnetic data of the Siberian platform is a white spot on the general background of the received data. These paleomagnetic data are needed to develop APWP of the Siberian platform, paleogeography and assessment of its place in the global paleoreconstructions for the Late Paleozoic. In particular, to determine the relative motions of Siberia and the Europe during the amalgamation of the supercontinent Pangea. The purpose of this paper is to obtain reliable data for the Late Paleozoic of the Siberian platform. The main object of the present study is the Late Paleozoic Angara-Vitim batholith (AVB). Age AVB is well defined (U-Pb 294 +/- 6 Ma). The study area is located in the northern part of the Baikal-Patom folded region, namely Patom passive margin. Where is superimposed tectonic processes absent. During the detailed thermo-cleaning revealed the presence of high-temperature characteristic components of magnetization. This component is present in the samples as the most stable. The main mineral - a carrier of magnetization is magnetite, hematite content with a subordinate, and maghemite (magnetic iron oxide modification of ?-Fe2O3, the transition from magnetite to hematite). The presence of hematite and maghemite in granites associated with increased activity of the volatile oxygen in the formation of these rocks. The direction of the remanent magnetization vector shows high stability in the entire range of demagnetization (from 120 C to 640 C) and is characterized by northern declinations and steep negative inclinations. In favor of a primary thermoremanent nature magnetization AVB granitoids may indicate two things: 1) the difference between the calculated directions from known areas of Mesozoic-Cenozoic directions Siberia, 2) positive "test firing" (regional remagnetization of older rocks Patom passive margin). The parameters of the pole: Plat=36.9, Plong=124.4, A95=6.4. The obtained data say that in the early Permian time, the Siberian platform was located in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes close to the present (between 48° and 72° N), and was unfolded at ~ 160 ° counterclockwise. Given the data for Europe (Torsvik, 2005) in the early Permian north-eastern margin of Europe and north-western margin of Siberia took its relative position close to the present position. Closing Paleouralian ocean occurred due to a reversal of Siberia in a clockwise direction with a corresponding convergence south-eastern and south-western margins of platforms (like scissors).

Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.

2012-12-01

366

The large scale structures of the Late Permian Zechstein 3 intra-salt stringer, northern Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

The three dimensional study of the internal structure of salt structures on the several different scales is of fundamental importance to understand mechanisms of salt tectonics, for intra-salt storage cavern stability, and for drilling in salt-prone petroleum systems with associated problems like borehole instability and overpressured fluids. While most salt-related studies depict salt as structureless bodies, detailed field-, well- and mining gallery mapping have shown an amazing spectrum of brittle, complexly folded, faulted and boudinaged intra-salt layers ("stringers"), but mostly on a very local scale. First detailed insights into these three-dimensionally heterogeneous and very complex structures of the layered evaporites were provided by observations in modern high-resolution 3D seismic data, such as across the Late Permian Zechstein in the Southern Permian Basin (SPB). In the northern Dutch onshore part of the SPB, the Z2 and Z3 halite interface is characterized by the seismically visible reflections of the 30-150 m thick Z3 anhydrite-carbonate layer that clearly resolves the complex intra-salt structure. This stringer shows a high fragmentation into blocks of several tens of meters to kilometres diameter with complexly folded and faulted structures that correlate to the regionally varying deformation stages of the Zechstein, as it is implied by the shape of Top Salt. After an extensive seismic mapping over the entire northern Netherlands, structures observed include an extensive network of thicker zones, inferred to result from early karstification. Later, this template of relatively strong zones was deformed into large scale folds and boudins as the result of salt tectonics. Non-plane-strain salt flow produced complex fold and boudin geometries that overprint each other. There are some indications of a feedback between the early internal evolution of this salt giant and the position of later salt structures. The stringer has a higher density then the surrounding halite, and in the literature there is some controversy concerning the sinking rates of single stringer fragments. We observed no structures indicative of sinking, but conclude that the present-day position of the blocks can be explained by internal folding of the entire salt section. In the end, this study aims at (i) improving the understanding of the development and dynamics of Zechstein halokinesis, (ii) gaining new insights into the 3D internal deformation in salt, and (iii) a linkage of processes in the layered evaporites with the deformation of the enclosing sub- and supra-salt sediments.

van Gent, H.; Strozyk, F.; Urai, J. L.; de Keijzer, M.; Kukla, P. A.

2012-04-01

367

Effects of Igneous Intrusion on Microporosity and Gas Adsorption Capacity of Coals in the Haizi Mine, China  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120?m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054?cm3/g to a maximum of 0.0146?cm3/g and then decreased to 0.0079?cm3/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60–160?m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine.

2014-01-01

368

XPS characterization of coal surfaces: study of aerial oxidation of brown coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

XPS was used to determine the surface concentrations of different elements present in two Spanish brown coals. Sputtering with Ar/sup +/ ions followed by XPS analysis permitted depth concentration profiles in both fresh and oxidized coals to be obtained, and show that aerial oxidation brought about a redispersion of the organic matter onto the mineral phase. Analysis of C 1s band shape together with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study of organic functional groups show that loss of hydroxyl groups from the organic phase occurs by thermal decomposition during the first stages of oxidation, leading to an increase of the hydroxyl groups in the mineral phase by proton transfer. At higher temperatures, oxidation gives rise to formation of new carboxyl groups. The usefulness of XPS and some bulk characterization techniques used for studying coal oxidation is compared. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D.

1988-07-01

369

Superacid-catalyzed coal solubilization with olefin under relatively mild conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The treatment of coal with 1-decene has been carried out in the presence of a super-acid, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. A marked solubility of coal in pyridine was achieved by the treatment under relatively mild conditions (150 C, 1 atm). The same procedure was applied to a pyridine extract from coal, and structural changes in the coal extract were investigated. The results suggest that in addition to the main alkylation reaction, formation of cross-links between aromatic ring systems took place in the course of the treatment. (13 refs.)

Shimomura, M.; Sanada, Y.

1982-01-01

370

Smoldering US coking coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consists of overheads from the authors presentation on issues impacting U.S. metallurgical coal supplies. Areas covered include prices, mine closures, electric demand, permitting, and coking coal demand.

Boyd, J.W. [John T. Boyd Company, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)

2001-07-01

371

Coal Mine Workers' Compensation  

Science.gov (United States)

... Forms | About DOL | Contact Us | Español Office of Workers' Compensation Programs DOL Home > OWCP > DCMWC > DCMWC TOC Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation (DCMWC) Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Home ...

372

Coal chain gets integrated  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both coal suppliers and users looking to save time, money and improve supply chain performance need to consider better integrating business management applications with coal tracking systems. 1 fig., 3 photos.

NONE

2006-11-15

373

World coal mining (1)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presents an abridged translation of part of the General Report of the ILO's 11th Coal Mines Committee. General facts and figures concerning world coal production and international coal trading are given. Comprehensive tables give breakdowns by country of world hard coal and brown coal production, and of coal exports and imports, for years 1975 to 1980. There are brief notes on the production situations of various countries, and on the amounts traded amongst them. For example, it is noted that the main growth in production has occurred in Asia, with European production declining each year. Australian coal exports increased 11 times over 1960-1970, and 2.3 times over 1970-1980, at present earning 1500 m million Australian dollars, or 12.5% of total export earnings. Japan is the world's biggest importer: 58.5 Mt in 1979, or 25.6% of total world coal imports. (In Japanese)

1982-04-01

374

Rational coal gas utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates use of coal gas in the USSR and the possibility of its more economic use. About 95% of coal gas is used as fuel. Of all coal gas, 45.1% is used by coking plants (34.7% is used for coal oven heating), 53.1% is supplied to other industrial plants (46.5% to metallurgical plants), and 3.6% is used for ammonia production. About 1.8% of coal gas is lost or released to the atmosphere. Coal gas losses depend on service life and wear of coke ovens. Feasibility of increased use of coal gas for blast furnace heating is analyzed. Partial replacement of natural gas with coal gas reduces coke consumption by 5.8-6.9% and increases blast furnace output by 4.7-5.8%.

Ivanov, B.V.; Borodin, M.V.; Popov, V.Yu. (Giprokoks (USSR))

1989-02-01

375

Nitrogen in Chinese coals  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, J.; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R. B.

2011-01-01

376

Coal Production 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29

377

Overview of coal conversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure of coal and the processes of coal gasification and coal liquefaction are reviewed. While coal conversion technology is not likely to provide a significant amount of synthetic fuel within the next several years, there is a clear interest both in government and private sectors in the development of this technology to hedge against ever-diminishing petroleum supplies, especially from foreign sources. It is evident from this rather cursory survey that there is some old technology that is highly reliable; new technology is being developed but is not ready for commercialization at the present state of development. The area of coal conversion is ripe for exploration both on the applied and basic research levels. A great deal more must be understood about the reactions of coal, the reactions of coal products, and the physics and chemistry involved in the various stages of coal conversion processes in order to make this technology economically viable.

Clark, B.R.

1981-03-27

378

Fluidized coal combustion  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

1979-01-01

379

Indonesian coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15

380

Turning brown coal green  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With vast reserves of brown coal, the state of Victoria, Australia, is among the leading supporters of CCS and other clean coal technologies. The paper describes the state's initiatives to meet the carbon challenge.

Philpot, R. [Invest Victoria (Australia)

2009-07-15

 
 
 
 
381

75 FR 57846 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-18-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.<