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Sample records for permian c1 coal

  1. Petrified peat from a permian coal bed in antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J M

    1970-07-17

    Petrified plant remains that composed a Permian peat deposit occur at a coal horizon in a local area of Mount Augusta near the Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica. This discovery is the first in the entire Gondwana area that yields plant materials as exquisitely preserved as the materials of the well-known coal-ball localities of the Northern Hemisphere. A sampling of anatomical details is illustrated. PMID:17752538

  2. Petrified peat from a permian coal bed in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Petrified plant remains that composed a Permian peat deposit occur at a coal horizon in a local area of Mount Augusta near the Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica. This discovery is the first in the entire Gondwana area that yields plant materials as exquisitely preserved as the materials of the well-known coal-ball localities of the Northern Hemisphere. A sampling of anatomical details is illustrated.

  3. Coal forming conditions for coal seams and coal measures of the Heshan Group Upper Permian Series in Guangxi Province (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.

    1980-10-01

    Coal forming conditions for the coal measures of the Heshan Group are discussed based on the analysis of the historical background and paleogeographical environment of the Permian in Guangxi Province. The roof, floor, and partings of the seams are composed of algal micritic limestone, therefore affirming that the central part of Guangxi Province in the late Permian was a typical epi-continental sea. The compensative deposit of algea on the carbonate platform in very shallow water created the conditions for the occurrence of the peat swamp and established the supra-tidal swampy facies. The environment for the accumulation of the major coal seams are analyzed. (In Chinese)

  4. Generation and expulsion of oils from Permian coals of the Sydney Basin, Australia

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    Ahmed, M.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Faiz, M.; Stalker, L. [CSIRO Petrology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Organic geochemical and petrological assessment of coals/coaly shales and fine grained sediments, coupled with organic geochemical analyses of oil samples, all from Permo-Triassic sections of the Southern Sydney Basin (Australia), have enabled identification of the source for the widely distributed oil shows and oil seeps in this region. The Permian coals have higher hydrogen indices, higher liptinite contents, and much higher total organic matter extract yields than the fine grained sediments. A variety of source specific parameters obtained from n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids, terpanes, steranes and diasteranes indicate that the oil shows and seeps were generated and expelled predominantly from higher plant derived organic matter deposited in oxic environments. The source and maturity related biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions of the oils are similar to those of the coals. The oil-coal relationship also is demonstrated by similarities in the carbon isotopic composition of the total oils, coal extracts, and their individual n-alkanes. Extracts from the Permo-Triassic fine grained sediments, on the other hand, have organic geochemical signatures indicative of mixed terrestrial and prokaryotic organic matter deposited in suboxic environments, which are significantly different from both the oils and coal extracts. The molecular signatures indicating the presence of prokaryotic organic matter in some of the coal extracts and oils may be due to thin sections of possibly calcareous lithologies interbedded within the coal measures. The genetic relationship between the oils and coals provides new evidence for the generation and expulsion of oils from the Permian coals and raises the possibility for commercial oil accumulations in the Permian and Early Triassic sandstones, potentially in the deeper offshore part of the Sydney Basin.

  5. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

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    Holdgate, G.R. [School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); McLoughlin, S. [School of Natural Resource Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Drinnan, A.N. [School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20092 (United States)

    2005-07-20

    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest-mire communities dominated by glossopterid and noeggerathiopsid gymnosperms.

  6. Glacier-fed(?) Sandstone sheets in the Weller Coal Measures (Permian), Allan Hills, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N.D.; Barrett, P.J.; Woolfe, K.J. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences

    1998-08-01

    The upper member of the Weller Coal Measures (Permian) at Allan Hills, Victoria Land, Antarctica, consists of repetitive coal layers separated by sheetlike bodies of predominantly sandstone and subordinate siltstone and conglomerate, all of fluvial origin. Investigation of the lowermost inter-coal sheet (WC1) reveals abrupt planar basal contacts, persistent upward fining, and a strong westward palaeocurrent trend. Three Lithofacies are recognized in the WC1 sheet; these are discussed. The Allan Hills exposures are believed to represent a succession of low-lying mire complexes interrupted by abrupt but infrequent incursions of coarse sediment, possibly by extreme meltwater floods.

  7. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liugen; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Qi, Cuicui; Zhang, Ying

    2007-10-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals.

  8. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Permian Mengkarang coal facies and environment, based on organic petrology study

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    Nana Suwarna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol1no1.20061aThe Permian Mengkarang Coal Measures is situated in the middle part of Sumatera Island. Some fresh outcrop samples of the Permian Mengkarang coals have been analyzed both macroscopically and microscopically, to asses their depositional environment. On the basis of organic-petrological analysis, the coal seams show variation in the predominance of some macerals, indicating successions of environmental changes. The dominant maceral group is vitrinite, present in very low to very high values; whilst the minor one is inertinite showing low amount. Environmental information derived from the organic facies study shows that the coals were deposited in wet zone of mire, ranges from wet limnic-telmatic zone to telmatic wet forest swamp under rapid burial condition, due to rapid basin subsidence. The organic facies concept is thus applicable in basin studies context and has potential to become an additional tool for interpretation of depositional environment.    

  10. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Late Permian Coals from the Mahe Mine, Zhaotong Coalfield, Northeastern Yunnan, China

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    Xibo Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Late Permian C2, C5a, C5b, C6a, and C6b semianthracite coals from the Mahe mine, northeastern Yunnan, China. Minerals in the coals are mainly made up of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S, pyrite, and calcite; followed by anatase, dolomite, siderite, illite and marcasite. Similar to the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, the authigenic quartz and chamosite were precipitated from the weathering solution of Emeishan basalt, while kaolinite and mixed-layer I/S occurring as lenses or thin beds were related to the weathering residual detrital of Emeishan basalt. However, the euhedral quartz and apatite particles in the Mahe coals were attributed to silicic-rock detrital input. It further indicates that there has been silicic igneous eruption in the northeastern Yunnan. Due to the silicic rock detrital input, the Eu/Eu* value of the Mahe coals is lower than that of the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, where the detrital particles were mainly derived from the basalt. The high contents of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, and Sn in the Mahe coals were mainly derived from the Kangdian Upland.

  11. Fluvial sedimentology and basin analyses of the Permian Fairchild and Buckley formations, Beardmore Glacier region, and the Weller Coal Measures, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

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    Isbell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Beardmore Glacier region contains a 1-km-thick Permian fluvial sequence that was deposited in an elongate basin along the margin of the East Antarctica craton. Fluvial architecture, sandstone composition and paleocurrents within the basin record a change from an early Permian cratonic to a late Permian foreland basin. The Lower Permian Fairchild Formation consists entirely of overlapping channel-form sandstone bodies deposited by braided streams. Arkosic sandstone was deposited by SE flowing streams. Fairchild strata record slow subsidence within a broad cratonic basin. The Lower to Upper Permian Buckley Formation consists of an arkosic lower member and a volcaniclastic upper member. Paleocurrents which consist of transverse and longitudinal paleocurrents, suggest a cratonward migration of the basin axis through time. The Buckley Formation was deposited within a braided stream setting and is an important unit because it contains interstratified channel-sandstone sheets, shale and coal, along with evidence of channel-belt avulsions. Sandstone sheets predominate at the base of the formation, while flood-plain deposits thicken and increase in abundance upward. The interaction between fluvial processes and subsidence rates produced this alluvial stratigraphy. The Lower Permian Weller Coal Measures in southern Victoria Land were deposited within a narrow basin located cratonward of the foreland basin. Basin geometry and depositional patterns are similar to those of fault-bounded basins. Although basin formation is not constrained, deposition of the Weller was contemporaneous with the development of the foreland basin. This suggests a relationship between subsidence within the two basins.

  12. The geology petrology, palynology and geochemistry of Permian coal basins in Tanzania. 1. Namwele-Mkomolo, Muze and Galula coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkiwa, P.; Kalkreuth, W.; Utting, J.; Mayagilo, F.; Mpanju, F.; Hagemann, H. [Tanzania Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals, Dodoma (Tanzania)

    1998-03-01

    Permian coal-bearing strata occur in a number of intracratonic rift basins in Tanzania. This study examines coals, shales and mudstones of the Namwele-Mkomolo, Muze and Galula coalfields (Rukwan basin) by coal petrological, palynological and rock eval techniques. For the coals the focus was on the establishment of coal seam characteristics and related quality and utilization potentials, whereas the shales and mudstones were examined for age relationships, flora and related palaeodepositional environments and source rock potential. The coal seams, which have a thickness of up to 2.95 m are high in ash and have calorific values ranging from 5344 to 18947 J/g. Many seams are detrital with a high content finely disseminated clay minerals, quartz and detrital macerals. Pyrite content is variable. Vitrinite reflectance ranges from 0.43 to 0.66% R{sub random}. Use of the coals in small-scale power generation and for domestic use would greatly reduce the dependency of rural Tanzania on wood and wood-derived charcoal. Palynomorph assemblages are characterized by the predominance of nontaeniate and taeniate pollen, and trilete spores in the Namwele-Mkomolo and Muze coalfields. At Galula coalfields the palynomorph assemblages were poor. On the basis of age correlations with Karoo basins to the south and the Collie Basin of western Australia, an Artinskian to Kungurian (?) age is suggested for the coal measures in the Rukwa basin. The diversity of palynomorph assemblages suggests a variety of floras and contemporary depositional environments. This is consistent with coal petrography indicating that peat accumulation occurred in upper delta plain, braided plan and lacustrine depositional environments. Rock eval parameters indicate koergen type III for all samples investigated and indicate very poor hydrocarbon source rock potential. 59 refs., 17 figs., 6 plates, 3 tabs.

  13. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the predominance of quartz and kaolinite (also pyrite). Gypsum, gibbsite, jarosite and calcite were also identified in some samples. Feldspar was noted but is rare. The major element distribution in the three seams (coal basis) is dominated by SiO2 (31.3wt.%, mean value), Al2O3 (14.5wt.%, mean value) and Fe2O3 (6.9 wt.%, mean value). Considering the concentrations of trace elements that are of potential environmental hazards the Barro Branco, Bonito and Irapu?? seams (coal base) are significantly enriched in Co (15.7ppm), Cr (54.5ppm), Li (59.3ppm), Mn (150.4ppm), Pb (58.0ppm) and V (99.6ppm), when compared to average trace elements contents reported for U. S. coals.Hierarchical cluster analysis identified, based on similarity levels, three groups of major elements and seven groups of trace elements. Applying discriminant analyses using trace and major element distribution, it could be demonstrated that the three seams from Santa Catarina show distinct populations in the discriminant analyses plots, and also differ from the coals of Rio Grande do Sul analyzed in a previous study. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Darcy E.; Sleep, Norman H.

    2011-01-01

    The end-Permian extinction decimated up to 95% of carbonate shell-bearing marine species and 80% of land animals. Isotopic excursions, dissolution of shallow marine carbonates, and the demise of carbonate shell-bearing organisms suggest global warming and ocean acidification. The temporal association of the extinction with the Siberia flood basalts at approximately 250 Ma is well known, and recent evidence suggests these flood basalts may have mobilized carbon in thick deposits of organic-ric...

  15. Molecular and organic petrological characteristics of Permian bituminous coals in the Boskovice Basin, eastern Bohemian Massif.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franc?, E.; Franc?, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana

    Oviedo : Instituto Nacionál del Carbón, 2008. s. 101. ISBN 978-84-691-6213-2. [International Conference on Coal and organic Petrology , ICCP – TSOP Joint Meeting. 21.09.2008-27.09.2008, Oviedo] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : bituminous coal * hydrocarbons * macerals Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  16. In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal ?in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

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    Guangjian LI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and study in vitro toxicity of naturally occurring silica particles on BEAS-2B. Methods ?Separating the silica particles from combustion products of C1 bituminous coal by physical method, observing the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope, analysis elements by SEM-EDX, observed the single particle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscope, analyed its particle size distribution by Laser particle size analyzer, the surface area of silica particles were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption analysis; ?Cell viability of the experimental group (silica; naturally occurring, control group (silica; industrial produced and crystalline silica was detected by assay used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined after 24 h-72 h exposed to these particles. Results ?The physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal, which have different size, and from 30 nm to 120 nm particles accounted for 86.8%, different morphology, irregular surface area and containing trace of aluminum, calcium and iron and other elements; ?Under the same concentration, the experiment group have higher toxicity on BEAS-2B than control groups. Conclusion ?Physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal and not change the original morphology and containing trace; ?Naturally occurring silica nanoparticles have irregular morphology, surface area, and containing complex trace elements may has greater toxicity than the silica nanoparticle of industrial produced and crystalline silica.

  17. Late Permian global coal hiatus linked to {sup 13}C depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere during the final consolidation of Pangea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, K.; Dewit, M.J.; Willis, J.P. [University of Cape Town, Rondesbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Geological sciences

    1995-06-01

    At a time when all continents were finally arrayed in their Pangea supercontinental configuration (250 {+-} 50 Ma), Earth`s stratigraphy records a global and very abrupt coal discontinuity. From the Tartarian stage of the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic, reduced coal productivity and/or preservation overlaps with a period of anomalous oceanic and atmospheric decrease in {sup 13}C, as recorded in marine carbonates and organic matter, and terrestrial plant and animal fossils from the Northern and Southern hemispheres. During the same short period, the peripheral margin of the entire supercontinent Pangea, except for the southern shores of Tethys, was effectively under compressive stress. This unique tectonic state caused deformation and uplift of coal-bearing foreland basins and oxidation of Pangea`s vast peat deposits. The latter resulted in a rapid, massive {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere, which in turn may have forced global warming.

  18. Interregional correlation as exemplified by determining age of Permian suites of the Pechora coal basin

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    Gorskii, V.P.; Guseva, E.A.

    1986-04-01

    Using several different methods, age was estimated of several suites of Pechora coals located on northern part of Pre-Ural basin where the strato-type of the Permski system is found. Results of correlation of upper parts of Talatinski suite and all of Lekvorkutski with stratotypical sections of Central Pre-Ural demonstrate the Kungurski age of this part of the section, and confirm the expediency of including the Saraninski horizon in the composition of the Kungurski age, without which the border between the Artinski and Kungurski stages cannot be found as an isochronic level for any significant distance. The examined example indicates that results of interregional correlation proved to be essential factors in determining the volume of stratigraphic divisions (in the given example of Artinski and Kungurski stages). Question whether it is necessary to transfer border between sections of the Permski system to the base of the Saraninski horizon, i.e., the base of the Kungurski stage, must be decided separately on the basis of broader factual material in the order of a general revision of the entire scale of the Permski system. On the basis of the example, it is possible to conclude that the definiteness and volume of stratotype of general stratigraphic division in process of stratigraphic correlation and dependence of this volume on results of interregional correlation are a dialectic unity of two contradictory tendencies which depending on circumstances appear now in the role of argument, now of function. 16 references.

  19. Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

  20. A new type of Nb (Ta)-Zr(Hf)-REE-Ga polymetallic deposit in the late Permian coal-bearing strata, eastern Yunnan, southwestern China: Possible economic significance and genetic implications

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    Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Xibo; Luo, Yangbing; Song, Zhentao; Ren, Deyi [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, Yiping; Zhang, Mingquan; Wang, Jumin; Song, Xiaolin; Yang, Zong [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218 (China); Jiang, Yaofa [Xuzhou Institute of Architectural Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a new type of Nb(Ta)-Zr(Hf)-REE-Ga polymetallic deposit of volcanic origin in the late Permian coal-bearing strata of eastern Yunnan, southwestern China. Well logging data (especially natural gamma-ray), geochemical data (high concentrations of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, REE, and Ga) and mineralogical compositions (Nb(Ta)-, Zr(Hf)-, or REE-bearing minerals rarely observed), together with the volcanic lithological characteristics indicate that there are thick (1-10 m, mostly 2-5 m) ore beds in the lower Xuanwei Formation (late Permian) in eastern Yunann of southwestern China. The ore beds are highly enriched in (Nb,Ta){sub 2}O{sub 5} (302-627 ppm), (Zr,Hf)O{sub 2} (3805-8468 ppm), REE (oxides of La-Lu + Y) (1216-1358 ppm), and Ga (52.4-81.3 ppm). The ore beds are mainly composed of quartz, mixed-layer illite-smectite, kaolinite, berthierine, and albite. Four types of ore beds in the study area were identified, namely, clay altered volcanic ash, tuffaceous clay, tuff, and volcanic breccia. Preliminary studies suggest that the high concentrations of otherwise rare metals were mainly derived from the alkalic pyroclastic rocks. The modes of occurrence, spatial distribution, and enrichment mechanism of the rare metals, however, require further study. (author)

  1. Permian and uranium metallogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe, many uranium deposits are of Permian age and the following models are discussed: (1) Formation of uranium deposits during the Permian. Many granite-associated uranium deposits in France, Portugal and Czechoslovakia are dated at between 290 and 260 Ma. Stable isotopic data have shown that sedimentary formation waters and meteoric waters are important in the mineralisation process. (2) Uranium preconcentration during the Permian. Sedimentation is favourable to uranium concentration, especially in organic-rich environments. The presence of zirconium in pitchblende indicates leaching of cinerites during the mineralisation process. (3) Formation of uranium deposits in the Permian host rocks. Two major periods (170-185 Ma and 100-110 Ma) were identified that correspond to phases of extension related to oceanic openings. For the 180 Ma mineralisation, the role of sedimentary brines has been demonstrated. Some mineralisation of Alpine age are also known. (4) Spatial association of uranium deposits with Permian formations. The Mullenbach uranium deposit (FRG) located in Upper Carboniferous sediments beneath sediments of Permian age has been dated at 240 Ma. This corresponds to the tectonic phase between the Permian and the Triassic periods. Fluid circulation along a vertical redox front (oxidised Permian - reduced Carboniferous) is responsible for the deposition of pitchblende

  2. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shifeng; Zhao, Lei; Cao, Hongzhi; Ren, Deyi [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Tian, Linwei [School of Public Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey (Emeritus), 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Zhou, Yiping; Zhang, Mingquan; Wang, Jumin; Yang, Zong [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218 (China)

    2008-12-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20 {mu}m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO{sub 2} content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. (author)

  3. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

    2008-01-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of sequential extraction to determine the distribution and modes of occurrence of mercury in Permian Huaibei coal, Anhui Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liugen [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Science, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Guijian [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shaanxi (China); Qi, Cuicui; Zhang, Ying [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wong, Minghong [Croucher Institute for Environmental Science, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2008-01-21

    Sequential extraction tests using a Flow Injection Mercury System (FIMS) were done on 34 samples collected from the number 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 coal seams in the Huaibei Coalfield; average total mercury (Hg) concentrations for the seams were 0.13, 0.18, 0.54, 0.34, and 0.19 mg/kg respectively. The average value for all of the coal samples was 0.26 mg/kg, which is higher than most Chinese and U.S. coals. Six modes of Hg occurrence were recognized, including: water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic-bound, carbonate-bound, silicate-bound, and sulfide-bound Hg. With rare exception, little Hg was found in water-soluble, ion-exchangeable or carbonate-bound forms. Sulfide-bound Hg and organic-bound Hg dominated seams 3, 4, and 10, whereas silicate-bound Hg dominated seams 5 and 7. The relatively high Hg values observed in seams 5 and 7, especially in parting samples, are attributed to Hg enrichment by magmatic intrusions. (author)

  5. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  6. Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

  7. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that World coal trade remained strong during the second quarter of 1991, with contributing factors including unseasonally large shipments to Japan for power generation, sustained Japanese steel production at around 112 Mt and some buildup in stocks in that country. Purchases by North Asian and European consumers also remained high. At the same time Soviet output and exports declined because of strikes and political unrest. In addition, exportable supplies in Poland fell. As a result the demand for Indonesian coal increased, and Australia exported larger than previously expected quantities of coal. ills

  8. Permian potentiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

  9. Stratigraphy and palynostratigraphy, Karoo Supergroup (Permian and Triassic), mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambe, Imasiku A.; Utting, John

    1997-05-01

    The Karoo Supergroup outcropst in the mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia. It is underlain by the Sinakumbe Group of Ordovician to Devonian age. The Lower Karoo Group (Late Carboniferous to Permian age) consists of the basal Siankondobo Sandstone Formation, which comprises three facies, overlain by the Gwembe Coal Formation with its economically important coal deposits, in turn overlain by the Madumabisa Mudstone Formation which consists of lacustrine mudstone, calcilutite, sandstone, and concretionary calcareous beds. The Upper Karoo Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic) is sub-divided into the coarsely arenaceous Escarpment Grit, overlain by the fining upwards Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone, Red Sandstone; and Batoka Basalt Formations. Palynomorph assemblages suggest that the Siankondobo Sandstone Formation is Late Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (Asselian to Early Sakmarian) in age, the Gwembe Coal Formation Early Permian (Artinskian to Kungurian), the Madumabisa Mudstone Late Permian (Tatarian), and the Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone Early or Middle Triassic (Late Scythian or Anisian). The marked quantitative variations in the assemblages are due partly to age differences, but they also reflect vegetational differences resulting from different paleoclimates and different facies. The low thermal maturity of the formations (Thermal Alteration Index 2) suggests that the rocks are oil prone. However, the general scarcity of amorphous kerogen, such as the alga Botryococcus sp., and the low proportion of exinous material, indicates a low potential for liquid hydrocarbons. Gas may have been generated, particularly in the coal seams of the Gwembe Coal Formation, that are more deeply buried.

  10. Species of the medullosan ovule Stephanospermum from the Lopingian (late Permian) floras of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Alan R. T.; Wang, Shi-Jun; Dunn, Michael T.; Hilton, Jason

    2013-10-01

    The medullosan pteridosperm ovule Stephanospermum Brongniart is a well-known component of Carboniferous aged coal-ball and siderite nodule floras from North America and Europe but also occurs in the Permian floras of Cathaysia where it is represented by the Lopingian (late Permian) aged species Stephanospermum trunctatum (Li) Wang et al. (2009) from coal-balls in the Wangjiazhai Formation in Southern China. We provide a detailed emendation of S. trunctatum and illustrate it comprehensively for the first time, and document an additional specimen from the Wangjiazhai Formation coal-ball assemblage that we assign to Stephanospermum shuichengensis sp. nov. S. shuichengensis is distinguished from S. trunctatum by the absence of apical teeth in the sclerotesta and non-obovate base. The two species of Stephanospermum from the Wangjiazhai Formation are important as they extend the stratigraphic and geographical range of the genus from the Pennsylvanian of Euramerica into the Lopingian of Southern China, and demonstrate that the genus persisted in wetland, peat forming environments in the run up to the end-Permian mass extinction event. The 44 MY stratigraphic discontinuity between the Euramerican and the Cathaysian species, here named the Stephanospermum gap, leads us to infer that the genus was likely to have occurred in the Pennsylvanian-Permian successions of southern Russia and northern China that are geographically and stratigraphically intermediate to the known occurrences but from which the genus has yet to be discovered. Medullosan pteridosperms appear to have become extinct at or immediately prior to the Permian-Triassic boundary that coincides with the Permo-Trias mass extinction event; although the exact causes of this loss in plant diversity remains unknown, a response to regional climatic drying is likely to have been a contributing factor.

  11. Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle to bedding-parallel, have been identified along low-dipping limbs of the folds. They can be recognized due to the high colour contrast between the red-coloured Permian beds and the concentration of calcite veins in the decollements. The development of the structures above described has to be linked to the Alpine compressional tectonics. This interpretation is supported by the good correlation in geometry and orientation between the structures observed in the Permian basin and in southernmost areas of the South Pyrenean Zone, where the deformation is imprinted in Cretaceous to Tertiary rocks. In this regard, the southern border of the Anayet basin, at least in the western part, can be interpreted as a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the Alpine Orogeny. Bixel, F., 1987. Le volcanisme stephano-permien des Pyrenees petrographie, mineralogie, geochimie. Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica 11, 41-55. Gisbert, J., 1984. Las molasas tardihercínicas del Pirineo, in: Geología de España. Libro Jubilar de J. M. Ríos, Comba, J.A. (Ed.), IGME, Madrid, 168-186.

  12. Acritarchs from the Number 5 Seam in the Permian Vryheid Formation, Witbank Coalfield, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, M.E.; Cairncross, B. [Rand Afrikaans University, Auckland Park (South Africa). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-01

    Two species of marine acritarchs, Mehlisphaeridium fibratum and Mehlisphaeridium gondwanaensis, are described from a shale parting near the top of the No. 5 Seam at Greenside Colliery, Witbank Coalfield, Republic of South Africa. The sedimentary sequence containing this coal seam consists of fine- to very coarse-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal which constitute part of the Early Permian Vryheid Formation (Karoo Supergroup). The paleoenvironmental implications of the discovery of acritarchs imply that marine conditions prevailed in the basin at the time of deposition of this particular shale unit. 56 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Return to Coalsack Bluff and the Permian Triassic boundary in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallack, Gregory J.; Greaver, Tara; Jahren, A. Hope

    2007-01-01

    Coalsack Bluff was the first discovery site in Antarctica for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic reptile Lystrosaurus. This together with discovery of Permian Glossopteris leaves during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, indicated not only that Antarctica was part of Gondwanaland, but also that Antarctic rocks recorded faunas from the greatest of all mass extinctions at the Permian-Triassic boundary. Pinpointing the exact stratigraphic level of this life crisis has recently become possible using ? 13C values in terrestrial organic matter. Multiple, short-lived events of 13C depletion may reflect carbon cycle crises, with the isotopic change a measure of terrestrial and atmospheric disequilibrium. Additional evidence for ecosystem reorganization came from changes in paleosol types and their root traces. Such studies previously completed at the Antarctic localities of Graphite Peak, Mount Crean, Portal Mountain, Shapeless Mountain and Allan Hills, are here extended to Coalsack Bluff. Carbon isotopic values in Permian rocks at Coalsack Bluff average - 23.08 ± 0.25‰, but begin to decline within the last coal with leaves ( Glossopteris), roots ( Vertebraria) and permineralized stumps ( Araucarioxylon) of glossopterids. The low point in ä 13C values is - 27.19‰ at 5.6 m above the last coal, which is capped by unusually abundant pyrite, and a claystone breccia with common clasts of redeposited clayey soils. Above this are massive quartz-rich sandstones of braided streams, considered a geomorphic response to deforestation and soil erosion following the mass extinction. Distinctive berthierine-bearing paleosols (Dolores pedotype) within these sandstones have unoxidized iron taken as evidence of severe groundwater hypoxia. Other paleosols at this stratigraphic level are like those in other Early Triassic rocks of Antarctica, which indicate unusually warm and humid conditions for such high paleolatitude lowlands. Waterlogging is also indicated by newly discovered kinds of paleosol (Ernest pedotype) with groundwater calcretes. The lack of peat accumulation in such waterlogged lowlands, berthierine in paleosols and large negative carbon isotopic shift at Coalsack Bluff support the idea of atmospheric pollution with methane from submarine and permafrost clathrates as a cause for the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Hypoxic soils would have killed lowland plants by preventing root respiration and hypoxic air would have challenged vertebrates with pulmonary edema. Causes for catastrophic methane release remain unclear. Flood basalt eruptions, dolerite intrusions into coal measures, submarine landslides, tectonic faulting, and bolide impact suggested for episodes of methane release at other times are also plausible for the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  14. Atmospheric circulation in a Permian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven; Tost, Holger

    2015-04-01

    At the beginning of the Permian (299-251 mya) the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea that comprised all of the present-day continents was completed. This configuration with a single landmass stretching from North to South Pole provides a special case of land-sea distribution for analysing its effect on climate and atmospheric circulation. This work uses a coupled system to represent Permian climate, including an explicit formulation for meridional heat transport in both atmosphere and ocean. The simulations are done with a topography of the early Late Permian (approx. 262 mya). During the Permian the Earth turned from an icehouse world with preindustrial carbon dioxide concentration to a hothouse world with an atmosphere containing up to ten times as much of carbon dioxide as before. Therefore centurial time-slice experiments with different carbon dioxide concentrations are performed, allowing for adjusted equilibrium climate states. Our simulation results are compared to alternative modelling studies, but also to sedimental and phytogeographic data. Analysing the Permian atmosphere, special interest is given on convectional processes to study atmospheric circulation in comparison with the present-day situation.

  15. The Saint Martin de Belleville syncline and its uraniferous permian sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation (these de specialite) is a study of the geology of the St.Martin d.B. syncline and the uranium prospect 'le Cochet' in the Carboniferous Brianconnais Zone of Savoy. Stratigraphy and sedimentology: This syncline presents continental detrital sediments ranging from U.Carboniferous to L.Triassic. In the U.Carboniferous, magmatic activity begins with the Moriaz Layers acid volcanics that are considered as a lateral equivalent of the Stephanian Courchevel Conglomerates. In Permian times, parts of an alluvial fan seem to occupy the north of the study area (gray and green conglomeratic sandstone). Southwards these inter-finger with flood plain sediments (red slate) including a locally oolitic limestone. Volcanic detritus is important in the Permian. Tourmalinite pebbles are frequent and seem to be related to the regional Permian magmatism. Albitization of feldspars is general in the Carboniferous and the Permian. The Permo-triassic typically shows microcline bearing dolomitic sandstones. In the Scythian quartzites orthoclase is the dominant feldspar. The quartzites are overlain by L.Triassic evaporites identified by the sulfur isotope ratio of their gypsum. The morphology of the zircons in the sandstones has been investigated using the typological method of J.P. Pupin. Regional Permian magmatism apparently produces volcanics of the calc-alkalic and tholeiitic series as well as a high level granitic intrusion of anatectic origin. The uranium occurrences are strata-bound on a kilometric and hecto-metric scale. They are developed almost exclusively in the gray variety of the Permian sandstones whose gray and red varieties are always barren. Within this unit, the mineralization impregnates irregularly distributed lenses and pods of coal material. Uranium is accompanied by vanadium occurring as roscoelite. The association U-V, of bio-philic character, reflects the concentration in the sedimentary environment and argues for a quite indirect relation with the source rocks. The mineralization is regarded as syn-genetic or more probably early epigenetic of Permian age, related to surface or groundwater flow that precipitated its metal content on wooden debris ('trash piles') in the host rocks. Alpine deformation resulted in folds and strong schistosity striking N2O that almost obliterate north verging transverse folds. The deformation caused plastic flow of the mineralized carbonaceous material on a metric scale. This material is now commonly found in lenses parallel to schistosity. Metamorphism is at the epizone/anchizone limit with a barrovian to high pressure gradient. It had practically no effect on the mineralization. (author)

  16. Paleoenvironmental Changes at the Carboniferous/Permian Boundary: Sedimentology and Paleontology of Lasturine Deposits, the Krkonoše Piedmont Basin (NE Bohemian Massif).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíc, Jaroslav; Martínek, K.; Drábková, J.; Šim?nek, Z.

    Prague : Faculty of Science, Charles University, 2001. s. 48. [Coal Geology Conference /9./. 25.06.2001-29.06.2001, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/94/0692 Keywords : Carboniferous/Permian -boundary * Krkonoše Piedmont basin * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Fluvial architecture of Early Permian Barakar rocks of Korba Gondwana basin, eastern-central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Ram Chandra; Hota, Rabindra Nath; Maejima, Wataru

    2012-06-01

    The Early Permian Barakar Formation of the Korba basin represents repeated deposition of fining upward sequences of coarse to medium grained sandstone, fine grained sandstone-shale, shale and coal. The sandstones are channel, sheet like, multistory, and profusely cross-bedded. The shale beds are lens as well sheet like and laminated; coal facies is thin to moderately thick and shows splitting. Paleocurrent analysis suggests a northwesterly paleoslope during Barakar sedimentation. However, the deflection of paleoslope towards northeast in the eastern part of the basin supports the existence of a watershed in the depositional area. The Barakar paleochannel were 4.05 m deep and 176 m wide (single channel) with an average sinuosity of 1.27. The average flow velocity and sediment load during flood stage are in the order of 1.77 m/s and 4.15. These results indicate bed-load (braided) to mixed load nature of the Barakar streams of the Korba basin. The study suggests that the Early Permian braided Barakar streams deposited the coal measure sequence subsequent to deglaciation in a northwesterly slopping paleovalley. The basin floor was highly uneven marked by the presence of a basement high in the northwestern part that bifurcates the paleostreams into northwestern and northeastern branches.

  18. A paleoclimatic simulation of the Late Permian greenhouse world and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.T.; Jacobson, S.R.; Hayashida, D.N. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Sea-floor spreading assembled all the major cratonic blocks into a single supercontinent once in the Phanerozoic Eon. This unique Late Permian crustal tectonic event produced Pangaea and an enormous oceanic basin volume that dropped sea level to a global lowstand unrivaled in the Phanerozoic. Two paleoclimatic simulations using a numerical three-dimensional general circulation model tested changes in the greenhouse effect. The authors conclude that for a simulation to fit the Late Permian geologic record, the paleoatmosphere must contain an enhanced greenhouse gas effect. A third simulation tested changes of paleogeography in southern Pangaea (Gondwana) that did not appreciably alter the harsh continental paleoclimate. The simulated paleoclimatic changes provide extraordinarily warm ocean and atmosphere, and a significant reduction in continental rainfall and runoff. These conditions inevitably lead to more aridity and less vegetation on land, gradually reduce the delivery of vital nutrients from continental sources to marine margins, systematically liberate CO{sub 2} dissolved in ocean water, and incrementally increase stress on marine and terrestrial biotas. These consequences severely disrupted rates of oxygen and carbon cycling. Their quantitative paleoclimatic simulation is consistent with distributions of red beds, evaporites, coals, marine shelf areas, seawater isotope trends, and paleontologic originations and extinctions. Thus, the Pangaean plate assembly probably triggered an inexorable sequence of geophysical, geochemical, and biological events that forced an elevated greenhouse effect in the Late Permian, nearly annihilating the Phanerozoic biota.

  19. Life crises on land across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanqiao; Shi, G. R.

    2009-02-01

    The western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan area of southwest China commands a unique and significant position globally in the study of Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) events as it contains well and continuously exposed PTB sections of marine, non-marine and marginal-marine origin in the same area. By using a range of high-resolution stratigraphic methods including biostratigraphy, eventostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy, not only are the non-marine PTB sections correlated with their marine counterparts in the study area with high-resolution, the non-marine PTB sections of the study area can also be aligned with the PTB Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Meishan in eastern China. Plant megafossils ("megaplants") in the study area indicate a major loss in abundance and diversity across the PTB, and no coal beds and/or seams have been found in the non-marine Lower Triassic although they are very common in the non-marine Upper Permian. The megaplants, however, did not disappear consistently across the whole area, with some elements of the Late Permian Cathaysian Gigantopteris flora surviving the PTB mass extinction and locally even extending up to the Lower Triassic. Palynomorphs exhibit a similar temporal pattern characterized by a protracted stepwise decrease from fern-dominated spores in the Late Permian to pteridosperm and gymnosperm-dominated pollen in the Early Triassic, which was however punctuated by an accelerated loss in both abundance and diversity across the PTB. Contemporaneous with the PTB crisis in the study area was the peculiar prevalence and dominance of some fungi and/or algae species. The temporal patterns of megaplants and palynomorphs across the PTB in the study area are consistent with the regional trends of plant changes in South China, which also show a long-term decrease in species diversity from the Late Permian Wuchiapingian through the Changhsingian to the earliest Triassic, with about 48% and 77% losses of species occurring respectively in the end-Wuchiapingian and end-Changhsingian. Such consistent patterns, at both local and regional scales, contradict the hypothesis of a regional isochronous extinction of vegetation across the PTB, and hence call into question the notion that the end-Permian mass extinction was a one-hit disaster. Instead, the data from the study area and South China appears more consistent with a scenario that invokes climate change as the main driver for the observed land vegetation changes across the PTB in South China.

  20. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  1. The youngest trigonotarbid Permotarbus schuberti n. gen., n. sp. from the Permian Petrified Forest of Chemnitz in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new trigonotarbid (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida is described as Permotarbus schuberti n. gen., n. sp. from the Early Permian Petrified Forest (Rotliegend of Chemnitz in Saxony (Germany. At ca. 290 Ma it represents the youngest record of this extinct arachnid order discovered to date. Its familial affinities are uncertain, but may lie close to the Aphantomartidae. The distribution of the trigonotarbid genera through time is summarised, together with a list of their seventy-seven fossil-yielding localities. Together they offer a broad overview of the group's fossil record, which is heavily biased towards the Moscovian Stage (ca. 307–312 Ma of the Late Carboniferous in Europe and North America. This is due in no small part to numerous localities associated with coal mining districts, and trigonotarbids are found less frequently after this stage. While it is tempting to associate this with biological events – such as a putative "Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse" dating to ca. 305 Ma – it is difficult to differentiate the effects of genuine extinction patterns from artefacts caused by fewer appropriate localities in the economically less relevant latest Carboniferous and Early Permian strata. Nevertheless, trigonotarbids became extinct at some point after the Early Permian and loss of the Coal Measures forests remains one of the most likely possible causes. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300012

  2. Palynological records of Gondwana's mid-Permian climate amelioration: New insights from black shale deposits (Collingham Formation, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Annette E.

    2015-04-01

    Permian black shale deposits of the southern Karoo Basin were studied with respect to palynostratigraphy, palaeoenvironment, and palaeoclimate signatures recorded in palynomorph assemblages. The 28 m thick black shales of the Collingham Formation, exposed along road cuttings of the Ecca Pass north of Grahamstown (Eastern Cape Province, South Africa), are rich in sedimentary organic matter with a high content of amorphous organic matter and prasinophytes, characteristic of a deep, stratified marine basin. Moderately preserved pollen grains of the lower part of the formation reveal a mid-Permian (Roadian) age, corresponding to the stratigraphic position of the Collingham Formation in the Namibian part of the Karoo with an absolute age of 270 Ma obtained from a tuff (Stollhofen et al., 2000). The samples from the lower Collingham Formation show a very similar composition as samples from coal seams of the upper Vryheid Formation in the northeastern part of the Karoo Basin. Additionally, a similar stratigraphic trend in changes of palynomorph assemblages was detected, showing a striking increase in taeniate bissacate pollen grains up section. This signature points to a warm-temperate bisaccate-producing plant community in the hinterland, replacing cool-temperate floras of the underlying Whitehill Formation (Ruckwied et al., 2014). The detected palaeoclimate signatures document Gondwana's mid-Permian climate amelioration and have proved to be a powerful tool for high-resolution basin-wide correlation of marine and non-marine successions. References Ruckwied, K., Götz, A.E., Jones, P. 2014. Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South Africa): Utilizing climatic icehouse-greenhouse signals for cross basin correlations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 413, 167-172. Stollhofen, H., Stanistreet, I.G., Bangert, B., Grill, H. 2000. Tuffs, tectonism and glacially related sea-level changes, Carboniferous-Permian, southern Namibia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 161, 127-150.

  3. The carbon and sulfur cycles and atmospheric oxygen from middle Permian to middle Triassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Robert A.

    2005-07-01

    The results of a theoretical isotope mass balance model are presented for the time dependence of burial and weathering-plus-degassing fluxes within the combined long-term carbon and sulfur cycles. Averaged data for oceanic ? 13C and ? 34S were entered for every million years from 270 to 240 Ma (middle Permian to middle Triassic) to study general trends across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Results show a drop in the rate of global organic matter burial during the late Permian and a predominance of low values during the early-to-middle Triassic. This overall decrease with time is ascribed mainly to epochs of conversion of high biomass forests to low biomass herbaceous vegetation resulting in a decrease in the production of terrestrially derived organic debris. Additional contributions to lessened terrestrial carbon burial were increased aridity and a drop in sea level during the late Permian which led to smaller areas of low-lying coastal wetlands suitable for coal and peat deposition. Mirroring the drop in organic matter deposition was an increase in the burial of sedimentary pyrite, and a dramatic increase in the calculated global mean ratio of pyrite-S to organic-C. High S/C values resulted from an increase of deposition in marine euxinic basins combined with a decrease in the burial of low-pyrite associated terrestrial organic matter. The prediction of increased oceanic anoxia during the late Permian and early Triassic agrees with independent studies of the composition of sedimentary rocks. Weathering plus burial fluxes for organic carbon and pyrite sulfur were used to calculate changes in atmospheric oxygen. The striking result is a continuous drop in O 2 concentration from ˜30% to ˜13% over a twenty million year period. This drop was brought about mainly by a decrease in the burial of terrestrially derived organic matter. but with a possible contribution from the weathering of older organic matter on land. It must have exerted a considerable influence on animal evolution because of the role of O 2 in respiration. Some examples are the extinction of many vertebrates, loss of giant insects and amphibians, and the restriction of animals to low elevations. It is concluded that the extinction of plants may have contributed to the extinction of animals.

  4. Permian polar forests: deciduousness and environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbranson, E L; Isbell, J L; Taylor, E L; Ryberg, P E; Taylor, T N; Flaig, P P

    2012-11-01

    Forests are expected to expand into northern polar latitudes in the next century. However, the impact of forests at high latitudes on climate and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood because such forests cannot be studied in the modern. This study presents forestry and geochemical analyses of three in situ fossil forests from Late Permian strata of Antarctica, which grew at polar latitudes. Stem size measurements and stump spacing measurements indicate significant differences in forest density and canopy structure that are related to the local depositional setting. For forests closest to fluvial systems, tree density appears to decrease as the forests mature, which is the opposite trend of self-thinning observed in modern forests. We speculate that a combination of tree mortality and high disturbance created low-density mature forests without understory vegetation near Late Permian river systems. Stable carbon isotopes measured from permineralized wood in these forests demonstrate two important points: (i) recently developed techniques of high-resolution carbon isotope studies of wood and mummified wood can be applied to permineralized wood, for which much of the original organic matter has been lost and (ii) that the fossil trees maintained a deciduous habit at polar latitudes during the Late Permian. The combination of paleobotanical, sedimentologic, and paleoforestry techniques provides an unrivaled examination of the function of polar forests in deep time; and the carbon isotope geochemistry supplements this work with subannual records of carbon fixation that allows for the quantitative analysis of deciduous versus evergreen habits and environmental parameters, for example, relative humidity. PMID:22845834

  5. Concentration and distribution of uranium in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative coal uranium concentrations are essential not only to better estimate the environmental and health effects associated with the uranium emissions from coal utilization but also to utilize the potentially valuable uranium in coal combustion by products. The average uranium concentrations of coals in China are estimated based on uranium analyses of 1535 coal samples and coal reserves tonnage. The results showed that the estimated average weighted uranium concentrations of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian (C2-P1), Late Permian (P2), Late Triassic (T3), Early and Middle Jurassic (J1-2), Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (J3-K1), and Eogene and Neogene (E-N) coals are 2.91, 5.43, 3.67, 1.18, 1.84, and 3.92 ?g/g, respectively. The overall average weighted uranium concentration of coals in China is 2.31 ?g/g. The background values of uranium in coals of China were dominated by detrital materials of terrigenous origin, but the anomalous enrichments of uranium were attributed to synsedimentary volcanic ashes and epigenetic low-temperature hydrothermal fluids and magmatic hydrothermal inputs

  6. Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Šafanda, Jan; Beauchamp, B.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 393, May (2014), s. 243-253. ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Latest Permian extinction * gas hydrates * carbon isotope shift Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2014

  7. Life in the end-Permian dead zone

    OpenAIRE

    Looy, Cindy V.; Twitchett, Richard J; Dilcher, David L.; Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Visscher, Henk

    2001-01-01

    The fossil record of land plants is an obvious source of information on the dynamics of mass extinctions in the geological past. In conjunction with the end-Permian ecological crisis, ?250 million years ago, palynological data from East Greenland reveal some unanticipated patterns. We document the significant time lag between terrestrial ecosystem collapse and selective extinction among characteristic Late Permian plants. Furthermore, ecological crisis resulted in an initial increase in plant...

  8. Sedimentary Response to Arc-Continent Collision, Permian, Southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Amory, J.; Zinniker, D.; Lamb, M.; Graham, S.; Affolter, M.; Badarch, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Eurasian Tien Shan-Yin Shan suture is a ~3000 km-long boundary between Paleozoic arc and accretionary complexes (the Altaids) and Precambrian microcontinental blocks (Tarim and North China block). Stratigraphic data are presented from localities in southern Mongolia spanning more than 800 km along the northern margin of the suture. Facies descriptions, climatic indicators, sandstone provenance, and paleocurrent data help reconstruct Permian basin evolution during and following arc-continent collision, and results are integrated with previously published data to create a preliminary regional synthesis. Upper Permian strata of southern Mongolia comprise fluvial successions in the southwest, and marine turbidite deposits in the southeast. Floral assemblages show mixing of Siberian craton and North China block communities, indicating their close proximity to Mongolia by Permian time. There is a rapid transition from humid environments in the Late Permian to more arid conditions in the Early Triassic, which corresponds to the global Permian-Triassic boundary event, but may also reflect more local driving mechanisms such as rain shadow effects. Permian sandstones from Mongolia have undissected to dissected arc provenance, with little input from continental or recycled orogen sources. Timing of the nonmarine-marine facies transition and cessation of arc magmatism broadly supports earlier collision along the western part of the suture zone than the eastern part (e.g., Late Carboniferous-Late Permian). However when regional geologic constraints are integrated, a more complex model involving differential rotation of Tarim and the North China block is preferred. Late Paleozoic rocks of southern Mongolia have been subsequently dismembered along Mesozoic-Cenozoic strike-slip faults, and thus also represent the long-term record of intracontinental deformation within accreted, heterogeneous crust.

  9. The Permian mega floras of Uruguay.A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Permian megafloras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the microfloral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called ''transition xilotaphofloras'' as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  10. Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André, Jasper; Dieter, Uhl; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Abdalla M. B, Abu Hamad; Neli T. G, Machado.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal fóssil foi encontrado na Mina do Faxinal, Permiano Inferior, Formação Rio Bonito, na porção sul da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Foram descritos três tipos de lenhos gimnospérmicos picnoxílicos originários de um único nível de tonstein, o que confirma a ocorrência de paleoincêndios vegetacionais [...] nesta área. Uma redução da concentração de charcoal da base para o topo no nível de tonstein indica que a quantidade de combustível diminuiu durante a deposição, provavelmente devido ao consumo da vegetação existente pelo fogo. A presença de inertinita na camada de carvão, em níveis sobrepostos e sotopostos ao tonstein , indica que incêndios não estavam restritos ao intervalo de deposição da cinza vulcânica. A integração dos novos dados aqui apresentados com outros publicados anteriormente acerca da Mina do Faxinal, demonstra que eventos vulcânicos ocorridos nas áreas circunvizinhas podem ser identificados como potenciais fatores de ignição para os incêndios. A presença de chacoal em sedimentos associados a níveis de carvão em diferentes localidades no Permiano, demonstra que incêndios vegetacionais foram relativamente comuns nos ambientes formadores dos depósitos de carvão da Bacia do Paraná. Abstract in english Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in t [...] his area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumption of vegetation by the fire. The presence of inertinite in coals overlying and underlying the tonstein layer indicates that fire-events were not restricted to the ash fall interval. The integration of the new data presented in the current study with previously published data for the Faxinal Coalfield demonstrates that volcanic events that occurred in the surrounding areas can be identified as one potential source of ignition for the wildfires. The presence of charcoal in Permian sediments associated with coal levels at different localities demonstrates that wildfires have been relatively common events in the peat-forming environments in which the coal formation took place in the Paraná Basin.

  11. A Late Permian coral reef complex, South Kitakami Terrane, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Toshio; Machiyama, Hideaki

    1995-11-01

    The early Late Permian (Kubergandian to Midian) Iwaizaki Limestone of the South Kitakami Terrane, situated in Northeast Japan, represents a coral reef complex which was formed on a faulted-bank in an active continental margin. The reef-building organisms include cerioid and dendroid rugose corals, a fasciculate tabulate coral and solenoporacean algae as constructors, calcisponges, bryozoans and crinoids as bafflers, and Tubiphytes, Archaeolithoporella and cyanobacteria as binders. The biotic composition is more diverse than the other coeval reefs. Characterized by the existence of an obvious framework, this reef is similar to the Recent coral reefs and unique among Late Permian reefs, most of which are mainly formed by calcisponges and calcareous algae. The distribution of Late Permian reefs is closely related to the palaeoclimate. Coral reefs were developed mainly around the South China and Indochina continental masses between the Tethys Sea and the Panthalassa Ocean, in the tropics. While, calcisponge reefs and Tubiphytes-algal crust reefs were common in tropical to subtropical regions, and stromatolite-bryozoan reefs developed in arid areas. The gradational distribution of Late Permian organic reefs including localized development of coral reefs were probably caused by decreasing of the glaciers and changing of the ocean current systems.

  12. The Permian Dongfanghong island-arc gabbro of the Wandashan Orogen, NE China: Implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wilde, Simon A.; Chen, Han-Lin; Yang, Shu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    The Dongfanghong hornblende gabbro is located in the western part of the Wandashan Orogen and to the east of the Jiamusi Block in NE China. It was emplaced into Early Paleozoic oceanic crust (i.e. Dongfanghong ophiolite) at ~ 275 Ma and both later collided with the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block. The Dongfanghong gabbro is sub-alkaline with high Na2O contents and is characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), large ion lithosphile elements (LILE), Sr, Eu, and Ba, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). The enriched isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = ~ 0.7065, ?Nd(t) = ~- 0.5, 208Pb/204Pbi = ~ 38.05, 207Pb/204Pbi = ~ 15.56, 206Pb/204Pbi = ~ 18.20 and zircon ?Hf(t) = ~+ 5.8) indicate an enriched mantle (EM2) source, with some addition of continental material. It has arc geochemical affinities similar to Permian arc igneous rocks in the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block, the Yakuno Ophiolite in SW Japan, arc rocks along the western margin of the North America Craton, and also the Gympie Group in eastern Australia. All these features, together with information from tectonic discrimination diagrams, suggest that the Dongfanghong gabbro formed in an immature island arc. The spatial configuration of ~ 290 Ma immature continental arc rocks in the eastern part of the Jiamusi Block and the ~ 275 Ma immature island arc Dongfanghong gabbro in the Wandashan Orogen to the east is best explained by eastward arc retreat and slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This model is also supported by the Carboniferous-Permian stratigraphic transition in the Jiamusi Block from oceanic carbonate rocks to coal-bearing terrestrial clastic rocks and andesites. We thus suggest that both Paleo-Pacific subduction and roll-back occurred in the Early Permian along the eastern margin of Asia.

  13. C1 lateral mass screw fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senoglu M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available C1 lateral mass screw placement is a powerful technique for segmental control of the C1 vertebra. In this report, we describe surgical technique for placement of C1 lateral mass screws, on our C1 specimen. C1 lateral mass is anatomically ideally suited for screw fixation to achieve C1-C2 arthrodesis. C1 lateral mass screw fixation is a safe technique and can be performed to achieve rigid and immediate stabilization.

  14. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Amiruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20094An active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Southern Papua and Galille-Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basins. Those large basins are respectivelly filled by fluvial, fluvio- deltaic to marine Permian-Triassic sediments, which are unconformably overlain by the Jurrassic-Cretaceous marine succession. The paleomagnetic data, confirmed by flora content found in Australia and Papua, indicate that those areas initially belong to the Gondwanaland before part of them were drifted and rotated into the present day position. Tectonically, the presence of those Permian-Triassic magmatic-volcanic belts and back-arc basins in behind, indicates that at the time there were huge compressive activities: convergence of paleo-oceanic Pasific Plate moving westward, collided and subducted into the Southeastern Gondwana Continental Plate, moved relatively eastwards. This phenomenon resembles to the formation of Sumatera Tertiary tectonic zones producing back-arc basins, i.e. South Sumatera, Central, and North Sumatera Basins including the Tertiary Magmatic Arc. Concerning the similarity of Permian-Triassic geological condition of the magmatic arc and back-arc basins in Eastern Indonesia and Eastern Australia including paleoposition, paleotectonic setting, strati- graphic succession, and lithologic composition, it is suggested to carry out an increase in a more intens- ive tin exploration in the Eastern Indonesia, e.g. Bird Head area and Banggai Sula Island, and also for hydrocarbon target (coal, coalbed methane, oil and gas, and oil shale in the Southern Papua Basin, East Indonesia. This suggestion is confirmed by cassiterite and hydrocarbon discoveries and exploitation activ- ity in the Eastern Australia and also a new seismic data of the Semai Basin a part of Southern Papua Basin. This seismic record shows a more complete stratigraphic sucession and a number of large structure traps of stratigraphic levels in which the Permian-Triassic units are included within the sequence.  

  15. The elemental and isotopic composition of sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, H.Y.; Liu, C.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2011-01-15

    Coal combustion is an important atmospheric pollution source in most Chinese cities, so systematic studies on sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese coals are needed. The sulfur contents in Chinese coals average 0.9 {+-} 1.0%, indicating that most Chinese coals are low in sulfur. A nearly constant mean {delta}{sup 34}S value is observed in low sulfur (TS < 1) Chinese coals of different ages (D, P-1, T-3 and J{sup 3}). High sulfur Chinese coals (OS > 0.8%), often found at late Carboniferous and late Permian in southern China, had two main sulfur sources (original plant sulfur and secondary sulfur). The wide variety of {delta}{sup 34}S values of Chinese coals (-15 parts per thousand to +50 parts per thousand) is a result of a complex sulfur origin. The delta N-15 values of Chinese coals ranged from -6 parts per thousand to +4 parts per thousand, showing a lack of correlation with coal ages, whereas nitrogen contents are higher in Paleozoic coals than in Mesozoic coals. This may be related to their original precursor plant species: high nitrogen pteridophytes for the Paleozoic coals and low nitrogen gymnosperms for the Mesozoic coals. Different to {delta}{sup 34}S values, Chinese coals showed higher {delta} {sup 15}N values in marine environments than in freshwater environments.

  16. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanta Murthy; Ram-Awatar; Saurabh Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Palynofloras have been recorded from the Barakar Formation in the Borehole MBKW-3, Barpali–Karmitikra Block, Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh. Three distinct palynoassemblages have been identified and referred to the following palynoassemblage zones – Gondisporites raniganjensis (Latest Permian); Faunipollenites varius (latest Early Permian), and Scheuringipollenites barakarensis (late Early Permian). It is inferred that these deposits contain the representative palynoassamblages of Early to Late Permian in age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD)s of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, A. ovatus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lundbladispora microconata, Alisporites opii, Klausipollenites sp., and Goubinispora indica (at 41.95, 45.90, 98.35 m depths), indicate the closing phase of Permian, as these elements are the key species that mark a transition from Permian to the Lower Triassic. An attempt has been made here to reconstruct the phytogeographical provincialism on the basis of Guttulapollenites recorded in this basin.

  17. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C1) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C1 to C5), while only C1 and C2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C2-C3, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C2 was detected in all samples while C3-C5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  18. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; ?engör, A. M. Celâl; Schultz, Cesar L

    2012-01-01

    The medial Permian (?270–260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of...

  19. A first record of late Middle Permian actinopterygian fish from Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho?gör, Izzet; Štamberg, Stanislav

    2014-06-01

    The Middle-Upper Permian of the Gomaniibrik Formation, of the Tanin Group, in south-east Anatolia, close to the Iraq border, yielded moderately preserved fish remains. Two species, Palaeoniscum freieslebeni and Pygopterus cf. nielseni, known so far only from the Upper Permian deposits of the Zechstein Basin in western Central Europe, were recognised. This late Middle Permian Anatolian record significantly widens the geographical range of these actinopterygians into the equatorial Palaeotethys Realm.

  20. Permian and Triassic Fluvial System in Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sopeña, A.; Ramos, A.; Pérez-Arlucea, M.

    1989-01-01

    Permian and Triassic sedimentation in the Iberian Ranges, took place in a cratonic area inside the Iberian Plate. This Plate was undergoing an extensional regime because of its location between two broad rifting areas, the Tethys and the Protoatlantic. The evolution of these two major geotectonic realms resulted in the development of a complex multidirectional system of grabens and troughs, which transected the Variscan fold belt and its European foreland (Ziegler, 1988)....

  1. Geological controls on exploitable coal seam gas distribution in Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.J. Draper; C.J. Boreham

    2006-07-01

    Commercial coal seam gas production in Queensland has been entirely from the Permian coals of the Bowen Basin, but the Jurassic coals of the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins are poised to deliver commercial gas volumes. Depositional environments range from fluvial to delta plain to paralic and marginal marine coals in the Bowen Basin are laterally more continuous than those in the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins. The tectonic and structural settings are important as they control the coal characteristics both in terms of deposition and burial history. The important coal seam gas seams were deposited in a foreland setting in the Bowen Basin and an intracratonic setting in the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins. Both of these settings resulted in widespread coal deposition. The complex burial history of the Bowen Basin has resulted in a wide range of coal ranks and properties. Rank in the Bowen Basin coal seam gas fields varies from vitrinite reflectance of 0.55% to > 1.1% Rv and from Rv 0.35-0.6% in the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins in Queensland. High vitrinite coals provide optimal gas generation and cleat formation. The commercial gas fields and the prospective ones contain coals with > 60% vitrinite. Gas generation in the Queensland basins is complex with isotopic studies indicating that biogenic gas, thermogenic gas and mixed gases are present. Biogenic processes occur at depths of up to a kilometre. Gas content is important, but lower gas contents can be economic if deliverability is good. Free gas is also present. Drilling and production techniques play an important role in making lower gas content coals viable. Since the Bowen and Surat basins are in a compressive regime, permeability becomes a defining parameter. Areas where the compression is offset by tensional forces provide the best chances for commercial coal seam gas production.

  2. Explanation for peat-forming environments of coal seam 2 and 9{sup -2} based on the maceral composition and aromatic compounds in the Xingtai coalfield, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu-zhuang Sun; Shen-jun Qin; Yan-heng Li; Ming-yue Lin; Shu-li Ding [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China). Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province

    2009-03-15

    Maceral composition and aromatic compounds were determined on column samples to study the peat-forming environments of Permian coal seam 2 and Carboniferous coal seam 9{sup -2} from the Xingtai coalfield, China. The macerals were dominated by inertinite in seam 2 and by vitrinite in seam 9{sup -2}. Three maceral groups were selected as indicators of peat-forming environments. Two triangle diagrams were drawn based on the indicators to explicate the peat-forming environments of Permian seam 2 and Carboniferous seam 9{sup -2}. The results indicate that the peat of Carboniferous seam 9{sup -2} formed dominantly in wet swamps, whereas the peat of Permian seam 2 formed dominantly in dry swamps and open moor environments. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A new species of the marattialean fern Scolecopteris (Zenker) Millay from the uppermost Permian of Guizhou Province, south-western China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X.-Y. He; S.-J. Wang; J. Hilton; Y.-L. Zhou [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Botany

    2006-06-15

    Several isolated marattialean synangia and sporangia are reported from coal balls collected from Coal Seam No.1 (C605) in the uppermost Permian Wangjiazhai Formation in Guizhou Province, south-western China. The synangia are radially symmetrical with diameters between 0.8 and 1.2 mm and are 1.7 mm long, consisting of 3-4 elongate sporangia that are fused basally, free distally and possess a pointed apex. The outer-facing sporangial wall is 4-5 cells thick and conspicuously differentiated. Spores are trilete, have a granular ornamentation and are nearly round equatorially with a diameter of 55-60 {mu}m. Comparisons with other anatomically preserved Palaeozoic marattialean synangia from the Euramerican and Cathaysian floras permit their assignment to the genus of Scolecopteris (Zenker) Millay. In this species the thick, outer-facing sporangial walls and large trilete spores are features consistent with those of the Oliveri Group within Scolecopteris, a group that has previously been considered primitive within this genus. Distinctions from all other previously recognized species within the Oliveri Group lead to the creation of a new species, S. guizhouensis sp. nov. This species is the youngest of the reported species of Scolecopteris recognized from the Euramerican and Cathaysian floras, and provides important evidence on the organization of marattialean ferns from the Upper Permian strata of south China.

  4. Main: C1MOTIFZMBZ2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C1MOTIFZMBZ2 S 000237 23-S ep-1999 (las t modified) kehi C1-motif; S imilar to Myb-box; Found in the ... moter region of maize (Z.m.) Bronze2 ( glutathione S -trans feras e) gene; C1 binding; C1-motif and R-moti ... f were s hown to be important for full R and C1 activation o ... f the Bz2 promoter; S =C or G; C1-motif; Bronze2; Myb-box; glutathione S - ... trans feras e; C1; s eed; maize (Zea mays ) TAACTS AGTTA ...

  5. Namurian and Westphalian coal tonsteins and K-bentonites in the Upper Silesian basin, Czech Republic - major elements,trace elements chemistry and magmatic affinities.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinec, Petr; Jakubec, M.

    Calgary : Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, 2002 - (Hills, L.), s. 910-923 - (Memoir. 19). [Carboniferous and permian of the world/14./. Calgary (CA), 17.08.1999-21.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA3013903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : coal tonsteins * Upper Silesian basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. The paleoclimate of the Kazanian (early Late Permian) world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.T. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA)); Peoples, C.J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Kazanian (early Late Permian, 258-253 m.y.) marked the onset of a unique interval in the Phanerozoic, distinguished by a classic end-member case of continental assembly, the megacontinent Pangaea. Compilation of biostratigraphic and lithofacies data indicate a warm, extensively arid world, largely ice free, and characterized by the onset of atmospheric conditions that were exceedingly stressful to the biosphere, the worst of the eon. Using Chevron's version of the Community Climate model, the authors report here on two Kazanian paleoclimate seasonal simulations, one using 200 ppm CO{sub 2} and the other with 2,000 ppm CO{sub 2}. The authors consider the knowledge of plate assembly back to the Permian accurate enough to allow employment of a seasonal model. Simulation of a warmer Earth with an elevated greenhouse effect (modeled as CO{sub 2}) fits the observed geology and isotope signals. The increased CO{sub 2} experiment warmed the entire planet with the greatest increases north of 50{degree} latitude and least changes in the tropics. The warming caused the poleward retreat of sea ice in both hemispheres. Precipitation and evaporation increased, but runoff was confined to areas of very intense rainfall. Monsoons are limited to the southern hemisphere, associated with the western Tethys sea and the eastern equatorial Panthalassa ocean. Extreme southeastern Pangaea (northern Australia) was a focus of precipitation throughout the year. Precipitation occurred in the higher latitudes (50-55{degree}) on the western coast, of Pangaea where storm tracks make landfall. High evaporation rates characterized the restricted Permian (US), Zechstein, and Perm (Soviet Union) basins, a time of evaporite, deposition. Interior Pangaea at middle to high latitudes endured frigid winters ({minus}40{degree}C) and torrid summers (60{degree}C).

  7. C1q nephropathy- unity in diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshappa Pavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical educationC1q nephropathy refers to a disorder in which C1q deposits are seen in mesangium on immunofluorescence microscopy and mesangial electron dense deposits on electron microscopy. The diagnosis of C1q nephropathy is based on demonstration of intense C1q (dominant or co-dominant positivity, mainly in the mesangium on immunofluorescence microscopy. Electron dense deposits of C1q in C1q nephropathy are confirmatory of the diagnostic entity.

  8. Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    Earth’s history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and po¬tentially into the open ocean realm. These events of¬ten coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing from the Siberian Traps. We measured redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, Cu, U) and the speciation of iron [Fe-HR/Fe-T and Fe-PY/ Fe- HR] in marine sediments from Svalbard (Festningen). We compare these data to additional, new, high-lati-tude data from eastern Greenland and the equatorial Tethys realm in Iran. We show that the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary at Svalbard is marked by 2 phases of euxinic (sulfidic) ocean conditions. An initial short phase at the onset of atmospheric carbon release is separated from a subsequent longer phase by a re¬turn to ferruginous ocean conditions (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland and Iran. It sug¬gests a strongly decreased global ocean molybdenum (and possibly also ocean sulfate) inventory by massive molybdenum drawdown (and possibly pyrite buri¬al) at the onset of end-Permian atmospheric carbon release and leading up to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. We compare these oceanographic changes to similar observations for the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction and discuss environmental forcing, poten¬tially inherent to major volcanic events and leading to global environmental change and extinction

  9. Gondwana basins and their coal resources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fault bounded five Gondwana basins have been discovered in the north western Bangladesh. Among these basins show considerable amount of coal deposits. The Gondwana rocks are highly formed during the Permo-carboniferous diastrophism and later on acquired dynamic characters. In almost all basins, the Permian rocks overlie the Precambrian basement and underlie either the Tertiary or the Cretaceous sediments, structural, stratigraphic, and depositional history of these basins is more or less similar. The sedimentary sequences are composed of light to dark gray, fine to very coarse grained, sub angular to sub rounded felspathic sandstone, dark grey carbonaceous shale and sandstone, variegated conglomerate and thick coal seams (single seam max. 42.38m). The rocks are often alternated and bear the characteristics of cyclic sedimentation. The depositional environments varied from restricted drainage to open fluvial dominated low to moderate sinuous drainage system. The coal bearing basins were flanked by vegetated and swampy over bank. Age of these coals is suggested to be the late permian. Proved and probable reserves of coal in Jamalganj-Paharpur basin are 670 and 1,460 million metric tons, in Barapukuria basin 303 and 3899 million metric tons; in Barapukuria basin 303 and 389 million metric tons; and in Khalaspir basin 143 and 685 million metric tons respectively. The coal is high volatile, low sulphur, bituminous type. It can be used for different forms of thermal converssed for different forms of thermal conversion. (author)Fault bounded five Gondwana basins have been discovered in the north western Bangladesh. Among these basins show considerable amount of coal deposits. The Gondwana rocks are highly formed during the Permo-carboniferous diastrophism and later on acquired dynamic characters. In almost all basins, the Permian rocks overlie the Precambrian basement and underlie either the Tertiary or the Cretaceous sediments, structural, stratigraphic, and depositional history of these basins is more or less similar. The sedimentary sequences are composed of light to dark gray, fine to very coarse grained, sub angular to sub rounded felspathic sandstone, dark grey carbonaceous shale and sandstone, variegated conglomerate and thick coal seams (single seam max. 42.38m). The rocks are often alternated and bear the characteristics of cyclic sedimentation. The depositional environments varied from restricted drainage to open fluvial dominated low to moderate sinuous drainage system. The coal bearing basins were flanked by vegetated and swampy over bank. Age of these coals is suggested to be the late permian. Proved and probable reserves of coal in Jamalganj-Paharpur basin are 670 and 1,460 million metric tons, in Barapukuria basin 303 and 3899 million metric tons; in Barapukuria basin 303 and 389 million metric tons; and in Khalaspir basin 143 and 685 million metric tons respectively. The coal is high volatile, low sulphur, bituminous type. It can be used for different forms of thermal conver

  10. Coal Rank and Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian Coal and Coaly Shale Samples, Young County, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.

  11. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachat, Sandra R.; Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  12. Application of Markov chain and entropy analysis to lithologic succession – an example from the early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Chandra Tewari; D P Singh; Z A Khan

    2009-10-01

    A statistical approach by a modi?ed Markov process model and entropy function is used to prove that the early Permian Barakar Formation of the Bellampalli coal ?eld developed distinct cyclicities during deposition.From results,the transition path of lithological states typical for the Bellampalli basin is as:coarse to medium-grained sandstone $\\longrightarrow $ interbedded ?ne-grained sandstone/shale $\\longrightarrow $ shale $\\longrightarrow $ coal and again shale.The majority of cycles are symmetrical but asymmetrical cycles are present as well.The chi-square stationarity test implies that these cycles are stationary in space and time.The cycles are interpreted in terms of in-channel,point bar and overbank facies association in a ?uvial system.The randomness in the occurrence of facies within a cycle is evaluated in terms of entropy,which can be calculated from the Markov matrices.Two types of entropies are calculated for every facies state;entropy after deposition (post)and entropy before deposition (pre),which together form entropy set;the entropy for the whole system is also calculated.These values are plotted and compared with Hattori ’s idealized plots,which indicate that the sequence is essentially a symmetrical cycle (type-B of Hattroi). The symmetrical cyclical deposition of early Permian Barakar Formation is explained by the lateral migration of stream channels in response to varying discharge and rate of deposition across the alluvial plain.In addition,the ?ning upward cycles in the upper part enclosing thick beds of ?ne clastics,as well as coal may represent differential subsidence of depositional basin.

  13. The Late Permian Ocean: What's the Big Stink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Ridgwell, A.; Kump, L. R.

    2006-12-01

    Since the ocean is (and has been) sulfate rich, the development of basinal to global anoxia is often associated with the buildup of hydrogen sulfide in anoxic waters. Bacterial sulfate reduction begins to dominate after oxygen and nitrate have been depleted, producing hydrogen sulfide. Hence, low atmospheric oxygen content, warm surface ocean temperatures, and high O2 demand reduce oceanic oxygen content and favor the establishment of euxinia. Biomarker evidence for photic zone sulfide and biogeochemical calculations suggest that the end-Permian mass extinction was one interval during which extreme anoxia may have led to H2S buildup. We hypothesize that H2S release to the atmosphere would be possible if the upward flux of sulfide from deep water in a largely euxinic ocean exceeded the oxygen flux into the surface ocean from wind mixing. In this scenario, destabilization of the chemocline (oxygen-sulfide interface) would cause sulfide poisoning in both the marine and terrestrial realms and contribute to the extinction. We used the end-Permian configuration of GENIE (www.genie.ac.uk), an energy-moisture-balance atmosphere model coupled to a 3-D, non-eddy-resolving, frictional geostrophic model to evaluate this hypothesis. This model includes marine biogeochemistry and capably simulates processes associated with the transition to oceanic anoxia. We performed a series of simulations designed to identify the conditions necessary for widespread euxinia and chemocline destabilization. We characterized the magnitude of hydrogen sulfide flux as a function of increasing oceanic phosphate content resulting from P release from sediments in anoxic environments. Significant ocean-atmosphere fluxes of H2S result from 6- to 10-fold increases in ocean phosphate at modern oxygen levels. These fluxes are focused in upwelling regions, although toxic H2S concentrations are also observed in the surface waters of nearshore equatorial regions. Our initial simulations support the hypothesis that extreme euxinia and episodic H2S eruptions can result from modest changes in the ocean's nutrient budget and may have contributed to the end-Permian mass extinction. Ongoing work addresses additional feedbacks involving sulfur utilization by sulfur-oxidizing phototrophs and the role of the nitrogen cycle during the transition to anoxia.

  14. Coalbed methane (CBM) potential in Brazil: coal characteristics and associated gas volumes in test well CBM001-ST- RS, Santa Terezinha Coal field, RS, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Holz, Michael; Levandowski, Janaina; Casagrande, Junia; Oliveira, Tiago Agne de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Kern, Marcio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernd [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal

    2008-07-01

    The Santa Terezinha coal field in Rio Grande do Sul, a coal occurrence assigned to the Early Permian Rio Bonito Formation of the Parana Basin, has been target of a research project focusing on the CBM potential of that area. Sequence stratigraphic analysis has shown that peat accumulation was closely linked to transgressive / regressive cycles, with peat accumulation occurring in a predominantly back barrier type setting. To make an assessment of the CBM potential of the coal-bearing strata, computer-aided 3 D modeling of the main coal-bearing para sequences of the Terezinha coal field, and data from a pioneer test well were used for the evaluation of the CBM potential for an area of approximately 20 x 40 km in size. Based on coal volume and averaged methane desorption values it is suggested that in excess of 5 Billion m3 methane are contained in the coal seams of the study area and as such will contribute significantly to Brazil's known natural gas resources. Preliminary results from CO 2 adsorption experiments show that the adsorption capacities of the Parana Basin coals are 3-4 times higher than the adsorption capacities determined for methane, suggesting that the coal seams may serve as storage reservoirs for CO 2. (author)

  15. Catagenesis of humic coals inferred from the X-ray phase analysis and mathematical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, Y.M.; Gagarin, S.G. [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-10-01

    Dynamics of catagenetic changes in the structure of humic coals in the Earth's interior can quantitatively be described using X-ray indices of components (phases), redistribution of which is determined by a system of differential equations in geological time. The system describes changes in the main formation parameters of coal seams in the Earth's interior (subsidence depth, temperature, pressure, and catagenesis index), on the one hand, and kinetics of catagenetic transformation of organic matter (OM), on the other. Such model makes it possible to establish regular changes in the phase composition of humic coals at different stages of coal basin formation. Using Paleozoic (Middle Carboniferous) coals of the Donets Basin as an example, it is established that main changes in the OM structure took place during the maximal subsidence of coal seams at maximal temperatures ranging from 110-150{sup o}C (for slightly metamorphosed coals of the L and G ranks) to 288{sup o}C (for anthracites) and pressures ranging from 55-74 to 146 MPa, respectively. Major processes leading to the observed X-ray phase composition of coals during the maximal subsidence of sedimentary sequences lasted approximately 40 Ma regardless of the geological age of sediments (Middle Carboniferous or Permian coal seams of the Donets or Kuznetsk coal basins, respectively).

  16. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NOx emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  17. Coal quality and resources of the Former Soviet Union - an ArcView project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Steinshouer, D.W.; Povarennykh, M.Y.; Eriomin, I.; Shprit, M.; Meitov, Y.; Sharova, I.; Goriunova, N.; Zyrianova, M.V. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The project aimed to integrate views of the geology, coal basins and deposits by coal rank, coal reserves and resource categories, rail lines, rivers, and roads of the FSU utilizing Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. (ESRI) ArcInfo and ArcView software. The Russian coauthors supplied ArcInfo files that were modified by the USGS and combined with USGS data files to create an Arc View Project. Coal deposit data contained in this project were selected from monographs, reference books and unpublished sources of data that were reviewed and seemed reliable by the authors. Information on the deposit name, location, age and rank were included in the database and obtained from Russian geologic maps and publications. The database includes more than 265 coal deposit data points with information on the deposit name, location, age, and rank; coal reserve and resource reliability categories are listed for 671 coal-bearing areas in the FSU. Coal deposits in the FSU formed under diverse geochemical and climatic conditions and have undergone various structural histories, and are found in 8 geological periods. Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Palaeogene and Neogene. Because of this diversity the coal quality shows wide ranges in composition. Coal samples included in the coal sample point database were selected from the most reliable sources of data critically reviewed by the Russian coauthors. Coal quality and chemical analyses are included for 180 coal samples with information on deposit name, location, age, rank, mine name and operator, lithology of coal-bearing rocks, proximate and ultimate analyses, mineral composition, and major, minor and trace-element content. This is the most comprehensive study compiled by the USGS to date of the coal in the FSU. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 2 apps.

  18. Permian fauna of the Krkonoše Piedmont Basin (Bohemian Massif, Central Europe).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 70, 3/4 (2014), s. 131-142. ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : faunal lists * palaeogeography * palaeoenvironment * stratigraphy * Early Permian * Krkonoše Piedmont Basin * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Fungal event and palynological record of ecological crisis and recovery across the Permian-Triassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshet, Yoram; Rampino, Michael R.; Visscher, Henk

    1995-11-01

    The end of the Permian Period was marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Detailed quantitative study of pollen and spores from shallow-marine deposits spanning the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary in Israel reveals a sequence of palynological-ecological stages reflecting a major crisis among land plants. The disappearance of the gymnosperm-dominated palynoflora of the Late Permian Lueckisporites virkkiae Zone is recorded at a claystone horizon containing almost exclusively abundant fungal remains and carbonized terrestrial plant debris. This “fungal spike” is followed by a zone dominated by marine acritarchs and a succession showing ecological recovery with abundant lycopod spores and eventual reappearance of bisaccate gymnosperm pollen in the Early Triassic. The latest Permian proliferation of fungi is recognizable worldwide and can be correlated with other paleontological and geochemical markers of a global ecological disaster.

  20. Microbial growth on C1 compounds: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains individual papers prepared for the 4th International Symposium on Microbial Growth on One Carbon Compounds. Individual reports were abstracted and indexed for EDB. Topics presented were in the areas of the physiology and biochemistry of autotraps, physiology and biochemistry of methylotrophs and methanotrops, physiology and biochemistry of methanogens, genetics of microbes that use C1 compounds, taxonomy and ecology of microbes tht grow on C1 compounds, applied aspects of microbes that grow on C1 compounds, and new directions in C1 metabolism. (DT)

  1. A well-defined Permian biogeographic unit: Peninsular Thailand and northwest Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Henri; Chonglakmani, Chongpan; bin Amnan, Ibrahim; Piyasin, Sangat

    A great quantity of new data has been gathered on the Ratburi Limestone of Peninsular Thailand and the Chuping Limestone of northwest Peninsular Malaysia. These two limestones are not restricted to the Permian as was thought in the past; they include Triassic outcrops which are apparently less widespread than the Permian limestone which displays conspicuous palaeontological peculiarities. A well-defined biogeographic unit is derived from the new data.

  2. Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Aymon Baud

    2005-01-01

    Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI). A great attention has been given to the negative ?13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1) and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE) data are reported...

  3. Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Joachimski, Michael M.; Korn, Dieter; Leda, Lucyna; Korte, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction has been associated with severe global warming. Main stage volcanism of the Siberian Traps occurred at or near the extinction interval and has been proposed as a likely greenhouse catalyst. In this study, a high-resolution ?18O record is established using diagenetically resistant apatite of conodonts and low-Mg calcite of brachiopods from stratigraphically well-constrained Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary successions in northwestern Iran. A new evaluation is made ...

  4. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  5. C1Q nephropathy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersnik Levart, Tanja; Kenda, Rajko B; Avgustin Cavi?, Mojca; Ferluga, Dusan; Hvala, Anastazija; Vizjak, Alenka

    2005-12-01

    C1q nephropathy (C1qNP) is a peculiar form of glomerulonephritis characterized by mesangial immunoglobulin and complement deposits, predominantly C1q, with no evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus. We describe the incidence, manifestation, histopathologic findings, follow-up, treatment and outcome of C1qNP. Twelve C1qNP patients were identified among 131 children who had undergone renal biopsy, accounting for a 9.16% incidence of C1qNP. Light microscopy examination showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) with or without diffuse mesangial proliferation (n=6), minimal change disease (MCD) (n=4) or focal glomerulonephritis (n=2). C1q deposits were found in all, while electron microscopy revealed visible deposits in nine cases. Eight children presented with nephrotic syndrome, while one had nephrotic proteinuria and renal insufficiency that progressed to end-stage renal failure. The remaining three patients presented with nonnephrotic proteinuria associated with microhematuria, hypertension or renal insufficiency. Only one nephrotic syndrome patient responded excellently to corticosteroids, while four became corticosteroid dependent, and three were corticosteroid resistant, showing a very poor response to other immunosuppressive therapy as well. Patients with non-nephrotic proteinuria demonstrated fixed laboratory findings. Most C1qNP patients had FSGS or MCD, the majority of them presenting with corticosteroid-dependent or corticosteroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The latter showed a very poor response to any immunosuppressive therapy and high risk for progressive renal insufficiency. PMID:16247648

  6. Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatti, C

    2009-01-01

    A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies. Using blender-horseshoes, we prove that homoclinic classes of $C^1$-generic diffeomorphisms containing saddles with different indices and that do not admit dominated splittings (of appropriate dimensions) display $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies.

  7. No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y; Piasecki, Stefan; Stemmerik, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Multiple observations have revealed that environmental disturbances may have been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and delayed biotic recovery. Biogeochemical constraints on the temporal and spatial changes of oceanic redox chemistry during the Permian–Triassic interval are essential to evaluate global significance of previous hypotheses and to improve our understanding of extinction and recovery processes. To investigate redox ocean chemistry change associated with the end-Permian exti...

  8. Origin of banded structure and coal lithotype cycles in Kargali coal seam of East Bokaro sub-basin, Jharkhand, India: Environmental implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Chandra Tewari; Zahid A Khan

    2015-04-01

    The Kargali seam of Early Permian Barakar cyclothems of East Bokaro sub-basin of Jharkhand, India is 12–30 m thick, splits into two parts, and extends throughout the length of the basin. It is made up of interbedded sequences and variable proportions of Vitrain, Clarain, Durain and Fusain. Application of embedded Markov chain model rejects the phenomenon of randomness in the repetition of coal lithotypes. The preferential upward transition path for coal lithotypes that can be derived for the Kargali top coal seam is: Vitrain $\\to$ Clarain $\\to$ Durain $\\leftrightarrow$ Fusain $\\to$ Vitrain, and for the Kargali bottom coal seam is: Clarain $\\leftrightarrow$ Vitrain $\\to$ Fusain $\\to$ Durain $\\to$ Clarain. By and large, the cyclic repetition of coal lithotypes is similar in the Kargali bottom and top seams. Among the noteworthy features are two-way transitions between Durain and Fusian in Kargali top and between Clarain and Vitrain in the case of Kargali bottom coal seam. Entropy analysis corroborates Markov chain and indicates the presence of type A-4 asymmetrical cycles of coal lithotypes. It is suggested that the banded structure of a coal seam is not a random feature and follows a definite cyclic pattern in the occurrence of coal lithotypes in vertical order and is similar to that described in Australian and European coal seams. Asymmetrical cyclic sequences are a normal, rather than an unusual condition, within coal seams. It is visualized that a gradual decline of toxic environment and ground water level resulted in the coal lithotype cycles in the Kargali seam of East Bokaro sub-basin. The close interbedding of Vitrain and Clarain is suggestive of seasonal fluctuation in anaerobic and aerobic conditions during peat formation.

  9. Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (?98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for ?98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in ?98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced oxic conditions throughout the LPE event, while anoxic conditions developed in the deep ocean. Hence, anoxic marine waters did not extend globally onto shelf environments and as such ocean anoxia cannot have been the main driver of the extinction event. While global systems were stressed by anoxia, the anoxic conditions may better represent a symptom of Siberian Trap eruptions that had catastrophic impact on the environment, potentially through nutrient loading and deposition of toxic substances into marine and terrestrial systems. Proemse et al., 2013: Molybdenum isotopic evidence for oxic marine conditions during the latest Permian extinction. Geology 41, 967-970.

  10. Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonatti, C.; Diaz, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic ta...

  11. Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Standard, J C

    2003-01-01

    Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

  12. Coal-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1992. Some information about technics, environmental questions and markets are also given. The use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced by about 10 percent during 1992 to the level of 1.1 million ton. This is the case for both heat generating boilers and co-generation boilers. On the other hand, the electricity production in the cogeneration plants have increased, mainly for tax reasons. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. During 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 cogeneration plants. For 1992 these figures are 5 and 9. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The industry has reduced its use of steamcoal by 140 000 tons to about 700 000 tons. The reason is a cut down of production in particularly the cement industry and the mineral wool industry. The steamcoal import was 1.2 million tons during 1992, the same as the year before. The import has been lower than the consumption during the last years. The companies have reduced their stocks because of changed laws about emergency stocks. The average price of steamcoal imported in Sweden in 1992 was 272 SEK/ton or 25 SEK/ton lower than in 1991. The coal market during 1992 was affected by smaller consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. Among other things independent mines in Russia and Poland have dumped low quality coals. A structuring of both process and quality has now begun. Western companies have for instance started joint ventures with Russian companies and supplied washing- and classifying equipments. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. 13 tabs

  13. An Early Permian fusuline fauna from southernmost Peninsular Thailand: Discovery of Early Permian warming spikes in the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Katsumi; Arita, Michiko; Meno, Satomi; Sardsud, Apsorn; Saesaengseerung, Doungrutai

    2015-05-01

    An Early Permian fusuline fauna is reported from the Tarn To Formation of the Yala area in southernmost Peninsular Thailand, which geotectonically belongs to the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block. The fauna consists of Pseudofusulina and Praeskinnerella? species, including forms closely resembling Tethyan and Panthalassan Pseudofusulina fusiformis and Pseudofusulina ex gr. kraffti. A Yakhtashian-Bolorian age is estimated for this fauna. In Sibumasu, shallow-marine biotas showing similar Tethyan affinities, such as the fusulines Misellina and alatoconchid bivalves, also occur in the Early Permian succession of the Kinta Valley area in western Peninsular Malaysia. These unusual Tethyan faunas within Early Permian peri-Gondwanan fossil records suggest episodic influences from paleo-tropical Tethyan biotas. They are here interpreted as showing short-term warming spikes during the late Yakhtashian-Bolorian transgression, which would facilitate sporadic migration and temporal inhabitation of warm-water dwellers into the eastern Cimmerian areas. The Yala and Kinta Valley fusuline and other invertebrate faunas would give us a new insight for the Permian geohistory and environmental change of the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block.

  14. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  15. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  16. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  18. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  19. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  20. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  1. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx. Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO2-removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 40% reduction

  2. String Interactions in c=1 Matrix Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Verlinde, Erik; Yee, Jung-Tay

    2004-03-01

    We study string interactions in the fermionic formulation of the c = 1 matrix model. We give a precise nonperturbative description of the rolling tachyon state in the matrix model, and discuss S-matrix elements of the c = 1 string. As a first step to study string interactions, we compute the interaction of two decaying D0-branes in terms of free fermions. This computation is compared with the string theory cylinder diagram using the rolling tachyon ZZ boundary states.

  3. String Interactions in c=1 Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    De Boer, J; Verlinde, E; Yee, J T; Boer, Jan de; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Verlinde, Erik; Yee, Jung-Tay

    2004-01-01

    We study string interactions in the fermionic formulation of the c=1 matrix model. We give a precise nonperturbative description of the rolling tachyon state in the matrix model, and discuss S-matrix elements of the c=1 string. As a first step to study string interactions, we compute the interaction of two decaying D0-branes in terms of free fermions. This computation is compared with the string theory cylinder diagram using the rolling tachyon ZZ boundary states.

  4. String interactions in c=1 matrix model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jan de; Verlinde, Erik; Yee, Jung-Tay; Sinkovics, Annamaria E-mail: sinkovic@science.uva.nl

    2004-02-01

    We study string interactions in the fermionic formulation of the c=1 matrix model. We give a precise nonperturbative description of the rolling tachyon state in the matrix model, and discuss S-matrix elements of the c=1 string. As a first step to study string interactions, we compute the interaction of two decaying D0-branes in terms of free fermions. This computation is compared with the string theory cylinder diagram using the rolling tachyon ZZ boundary states. (author)

  5. String Interactions in c=1 Matrix Model

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Jan; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Verlinde, Erik; Yee, Jung-Tay

    2003-01-01

    We study string interactions in the fermionic formulation of the c=1 matrix model. We give a precise nonperturbative description of the rolling tachyon state in the matrix model, and discuss S-matrix elements of the c=1 string. As a first step to study string interactions, we compute the interaction of two decaying D0-branes in terms of free fermions. This computation is compared with the string theory cylinder diagram using the rolling tachyon ZZ boundary states.

  6. String interactions in c=1 matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study string interactions in the fermionic formulation of the c=1 matrix model. We give a precise nonperturbative description of the rolling tachyon state in the matrix model, and discuss S-matrix elements of the c=1 string. As a first step to study string interactions, we compute the interaction of two decaying D0-branes in terms of free fermions. This computation is compared with the string theory cylinder diagram using the rolling tachyon ZZ boundary states. (author)

  7. Late Permian brachiopoda fauna in north-western Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yousefirad, Mostafa; Khamooshi, Touran; Shaabanian, Rahim.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La secuencia marina del Pérmico superior en el noroeste de Irán y el este de Azerbaiyán, sección estatigráfica de Zal, fue seleccionada para este estudio de braquiópodos. Las muestras fueron tomadas en las formaciones Ali Bashi y Jolfa. Se reconocieron 27 especies de 13 géneros de braquiópodos en es [...] te análisis. Las muestras recolectadas fueron comparadas con sus similares de otras regiones de Irán y de la región del Tetis, lo que sugirió el período de tardío de Dzhulfan como la proveniencia de estos depósitos. Los braquiópodos reconocidos en este trabajo pertenecen a las familias de Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida y Strophomenida. Abstract in english The Late Permian marine sequence in the north- west of Iran, in eastern Azerbaijan province in the Zal stratigraphic section, was selected for studying brachiopods. Samples were collected from the Ali Bashi and Jolfa Formation.S. Twenty-seven species from 13 brachiopoda genera were recognised in thi [...] s study.The recognised fossil community was compared to brachiopod communities in some regions of Iran and the Tethyan region, suggesting the Late Dzhulfian period as the age for the deposits being studied. Recognized brachiopods belonge to the orders Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida and Strophomenida.

  8. Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

    2001-05-01

    During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

  9. The Alashan Terrane did not amalgamate with North China block by the Late Permian: Evidence from Carboniferous and Permian paleomagnetic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-05-01

    Rock magnetic and paleomagnetic studies have been carried out on the early Carboniferous limestones and the Late Permian purple sandstones sampled in the eastern Alashan Terrane (ALT), northwest of China. Two components were isolated from the Early Carboniferous limestone by thermal progressive demagnetisation: a low unblocking temperature component (LTC) of recent origin; a pre-folding medium temperature component (MTC) (the paleomagnetic pole is ? = 13.1°N, ? = 11.0°E, A95 = 7.0°) that is probably the result of the hydrothermal fluids from the Qilian Orgenic Belt acquired during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. Also, two components were separated from the Late Permian purple sandstone by thermal progressive demagnetisation: the LTC with the recent viscous remanent magnetisation, and the higher temperature component (HTC) revealed from three sections which has passed a regional fold test at the 95% probability level and reversal test, suggesting a primary characteristic magnetisation. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole is ? = 27.2° N, ? = 18.8° E, A95 = 12.0°. The apparent polar wander path (including early Carboniferous, late Carboniferous-Early Permian, Late Permian and Early-middle Triassic poles) of the ALT is significantly different with those of the NCB. Comparison of the APWPs between the ALT and NCB shows a strong similarity. If the APWP of Hexi Corridor-Alashan rotated counterclockwise around an Euler pole at 44°N, 84°E by 32°, then the coeval APW path of the ALT overlaps to that of the NCB. This result indicates that the ALT migrated to the NCB after the Early-Middle Triassic along a tectonic boundary located between Helanshan Mountain and Zhuozishan Mountain, and finally amalgamated to the NCB before the Early Cretaceous.

  10. A high-pyrite semianthracite of Late Permian age in the Songzao Coalfield, southwestern China: Mineralogical and geochemical relations with underlying mafic tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Xibo; Chen, Wenmei [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, (China); Li, Dahua [Research Center of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Chongqing 400042, (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey (Emeritus), 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, (United States); Zhou, Yiping [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218, (China); Zhu, Changsheng; Li, Hang [Research Center of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Chongqing 400042, (China); Zhu, Xingwei; Xing, Yunwei; Zhang, Weiguo; Zou, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, (China)

    2010-09-01

    The No. 12 Coal (Late Permian) in the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, southwestern China, is characteristically high in pyrite and some trace elements. It is uniquely deposited directly above mafic tuff beds. Samples of coal and tuffs have been studied for their mineralogy and geochemistry using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, plasma low-temperature ashing plus powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results show that the minerals of the No. 12 Coal are mainly composed of pyrite, clay minerals (kaolinite, chamosite, and illite), ankerite, calcite, and trace amounts of quartz and boehmite. Kaolinite and boehmite were mainly derived from sediment source region of mafic tuffs. Chamosite was formed by the reaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. The high pyrite (S{sub p,d} 8.83%) in the coal was related to marine transgression over peat deposits and abundant Fe derived from the underlying mafic tuff bed. Ankerite and calcite were precipitated from epigenetic fluids. Chemical compositions of incompatible elements indicate that the tuffs were derived from enriched mantle and the source magmas had an alkali-basalt character. Compared to other coals from the Songzao Coalfield and common Chinese coals, the No. 12 Coal has a lower SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1.13) but a higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}O (80.1) value and is significantly enriched in trace elements including Sc (13.5 {mu}g/g), V (121 {mu}g/g), Cr (33.6 {mu}g/g), Co (27.2 {mu}g/g), Ni (83.5 {mu}g/g), Cu (48.5 {mu}g/g), Ga (17.3 {mu}g/g), Y (68.3 {mu}g/g), Zr (444 {mu}g/g), Nb (23.8 {mu}g/g), and REE (392 {mu}g/g on average). Above mineralogical compositions, as well as similar ratios of selected elements (e.g., SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}O) and similar distribution patterns of incompatible elements (e.g., the mantle-normalized diagram for incompatible elements and chondrite-normalized diagram for rare earth elements) of coal and tuff, indicated that enriched trace elements above were largely derived from mafic tuffs, in addition to a minor amount from the Kandian Oldland. (author)

  11. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  12. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  13. Paratingia wudensis sp. nov., a whole noeggerathialean plant preserved in an earliest Permian air fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, J.; Pfefferkorn, H. W.; Bek, Ji?í

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 96, ?. 9 (2009), s. 1676-1689. ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA301110701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : noeggerathiales * whole plant reconstruction * in situ spores * Permian * Permian (China) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.684, year: 2009

  14. Coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  15. On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections

  16. On Orientifolds of c=1 Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, T P T; Riccioni, F; Schellekens, Adrian Norbert

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

  17. Inversion tectonics in the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    During Permian times the Pyrenees were characterized by extensional tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries. The Anayet Permian basin crops out in the western Spanish Axial Zone between the Aragon and Tena valleys. It is WNW-trending and it is filled by a continental Permian succession that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area. Permian deposits rest discordantly over Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. In the Anayet basin, Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, mainly composed of sandstones and conglomerates, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987). Due to the lithological characteristics of the Permian rocks in this region, there are almost no accurate age constraints for these units. A detailed structural study of the area, including mapping and balanced cross-sections, shows increasingly older rocks to the west of the Anayet basin. Moreover, it can be deduced a mean slope of around 11 % to the west for the basin. These data confirm that the basin depocenter was located to the west and that the Anayet basin was partitioned by N10 °E-trending normal faults. Although the contacts between the Permian and the Devono-Carboniferous rocks are covered by quaternary deposits in most of its extent, a fault contact can also be recognized. The fault contact is a 3 m thick shear zone oriented N120 ° E and dipping 60° to the North. It develops breccias, fault gouges and sigmoidal S-C tectonites indicating a reverse motion. The contact places Permian slates and sandstones over Carboniferous limestones and is almost parallel to the alpine cleavage deforming Permian rocks. The slope of the contact together with the presence of younger rocks in the hangingwall of the reverse fault points out that the original contact was a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the Alpine Orogeny. The high dip of the contact produced a buttressing effect during the alpine compression that concentrated the deformation near the fault zone and generated the cleavage of the hangingwall. Moreover, the higher abundance of fractures and calcite veins near the contact in the Carboniferous limestones of the footwall can be interpreted as an incipient stage to the formation of a short-cut-fault related with the buttressing effect. This process can explain the uncommon thickness of the fault zone, if we compare it with other alpine thrusts in this region. The structural features described above support the interpretation of the southern limit of the Anayet Permian basin as a normal fault originated during the Permian rifting and inverted during the compressional tectonics due to the Alpine Orogeny. Bixel, F., 1987. Le volcanisme stephano-permien des pyrenees petrographie, mineralogie, geochimie. Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica 11, 41-55. Gisbert, J., 1984. Las molasas tardihercínicas del Pirineo, in: Geología de España. Libro Jubilar de J. M. Ríos, Comba, J.A. (Ed.). IGME, Madrid, 168-186.

  18. Coal plough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrop, B.; Rassmann, C.

    1979-08-02

    This coal plough is attached to a conveyor. There is a tool post which is supported in bearings so as to rotate in the partical plane parallel to the coalface on both ends of a beam parallel to the conveyor, which is supported on the coalface and output side. The floor cutter of both tool posts is fixed eccentrically on the free end of a bolt which can rotate or be clamped, which runs parallel to the coalface, and is inclined in the direction of movement of the plough towards the floor of seam. The axis of this bolt is directed towards the output side of the floor cutting tool. In a further development, the bolt can be moved from the output side by an operating linkage in the direction of rotation. Also, several cutters directed towards the coalface can be arranged on the support of the floor cutter.

  19. Clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Papers discuss some clean coal technologies that are being developed for power generation. These include circulating fluidized bed boilers, pressurized fluidised bed boilers, pressurised fluidised bed combustion, the Shell Coal Gasification Process, combined cycles, Topping cycles, coal-fired gas turbines, and hot gas cleanup. All papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  20. Mineralogical and Geochemical Compositions of the No. 5 Coal in Chuancaogedan Mine, Junger Coalfield, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Early Permian No. 5 coal from the Chuancaogedan Mine, Junger Coalfield, China, using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Low-temperature ashing X-ray diffraction (LTA-XRD in combination with Siroquant software, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The minerals in the No. 5 coal from the Chuancaogedan Mine dominantly consist of kaolinite, with minor amounts of quartz, pyrite, magnetite, gypsum, calcite, jarosite and mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S. The most abundant species within high-temperature plasma-derived coals were SiO2 (averaging 16.90%, Al2O3 (13.87%, TiO2 (0.55% and P2O5 (0.05%. Notable minor and trace elements of the coal include Zr (245.89 mg/kg, Li (78.54 mg/kg, Hg (65.42 mg/kg, Pb (38.95 mg/kg, U (7.85 mg/kg and Se (6.69 mg/kg. The coal has an ultra-low sulfur content (0.40%. Lithium, Ga, Se, Zr and Hf present strongly positive correlation with ash yield, Si and Al, suggesting they are associated with aluminosilicate minerals in the No. 5 coal. Arsenic is only weakly associated with mineral matter and Ge in the No. 5 coals might be of organic and/or sulfide affinity.

  1. Bituminous coal of the Upper Silesian basin, Czech Republic - relationship between mean vitrinite reflectance Ro, volatile matter Vdaf and content of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinec, Petr; Hon?k, J.; Stan?k, F.

    Calgary : Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, 2002 - (Hills, L.), s. 902-909 - (Memoir. 19). [Carboniferous and permian of the world/14./. Calgary (CA), 17.08.1999-21.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA3013903; GA ?R GA205/97/0307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : Upper Silesian basin * bituminous coal Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. Stratigraphy and coal resources of the Makarwal area, Trans-Indus Mountains, Mianwali District, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilchik, W.; Shah, S.M.I.

    1987-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine and nonmarine origin ranging in age from Permian to Pleistocene constitute most of the stratigraphic sequence in the Trans-Indus Mountains in Pakistan. The Makarwal coal field is located in Sargodha Division, Mianwali District, in the Surghar Range. The coal field serves as a source of energy and byproducts for the industrial center at Daud Khel, 34 miles by rail northeast of the coal field. The coal-bearing strata are of Paleocene age and are overlain by younger Tertiary rocks that exceed 15,000 feet in total thickness. The coal was involved in at least two episodes of mountain-building activity that produced the Trans-Indus Mountains. The coal is produced from a single bed that ranges in thickness from 2 feet to more than 10 feet and averages 4 feet. Most of the coal is in the west limb of the Makarwal anticline and dips 30{degree} W. The coal is ranked as high-volatile. C-bituminous, containing ash in the range of 7 to 22%; fixed carbon, 36.3 to 43.4%; sulfur, 4.1 to 5.6%; and calorific value, 9,550 to 11,850 Btu (as received). The area developed for coal mining is almost mined out. From 1914 to 1976 nearly 5 million tons of coal have been produced. The total reserves possible for development to a depth of 200 feet below sea level are 16,600,000 tons. Other mineral resources in the Makarwal coal field include large reserves of limestone, dolomite, greensand, glass sand, and iron-bearing rocks that have been extensively investigated as a possible source of iron.

  3. U-Pb calcite age of the Late Permian Castile Formation, Delaware Basin: a constraint on the age of the Permian-Triassic boundary (?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M. L.; Rasbury, E. T.; Meyers, W. J.; Hanson, G. N.

    2002-10-01

    Organic-rich calcite laminated with gypsum in the evaporitic, non-fossiliferous Castile Formation of the Delaware Basin, southwest USA, yields a Total Pb/U isochron age of 251.5±2.8 Ma (MSWD=1.3). The Castile Formation is almost certainly Late Permian based on its 87Sr/ 86Sr value of 0.706923, identical to the distinct minimum in the late Permian Sr curve. In this paper we explore the potential for using U-Pb calcite ages to date traditionally undatable sections and show how this southern-midcontinent USA (far west Texas and southeast New Mexico) deposit can be correlated to the type section in China. We accept that diagenetic alteration can bias U-Pb results, but the data set we present shows no evidence for such alteration. Clearly with alteration the age we present would represent a minimum age for the Castile Formation. If the age actually dates the Castile Formation then it requires the Permian-Triassic boundary to be younger than 251.5±2.8 Ma.

  4. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  5. 26 CFR 1.514(c)-1 - Acquisition indebtedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 true Acquisition indebtedness. 1.514(c)-1 Section 1.514(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(c)-1 Acquisition indebtedness. (a)...

  6. Anatomy of a Permian Erg sequence: the De La Cuesta Formation (northwestern Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the Permian red beds of the La Cuesta Formation (Sierra de Narvaez, northwestern Argentina) which is composed of sandstones associated with mud stones and subordinate conglomerates. The sediments obtained from the interaction between aeolian and ephemeral fluvial systems, are represented by aeolian dune, dry aeolian inter dune and aeolian sand sheet, mud flat, wet aeolian inter dune, and fluvial deposits

  7. Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S; ?engörc, A M Celâl; Schultz, Cesar L

    2012-01-31

    The medial Permian (~270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction. PMID:22307615

  8. The main fish communities of the limnic Permian and Carboniferous basins of the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    33-34, - (2006), s. 99-101. ISBN 80-210-4097-1. ISSN 1211-281X. [Paleontological Conference /7./. Brno, 19.10.2006-20.10.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : ichthyofaunae * Upper Carboniferous * Lower Permian Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  9. Ichnological analysis in San Gregorio deposits (Lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area Uruguayan north basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichnological analysis in deposits corresponding to San Gregorio Fm.(lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area (Cerro Largo Department, Uruguay) was made.Trace fossils in sandstones and mud stones outcrops were studied.The ichnofossil assemblage studied allows to propose a shallow marine environment. (author)

  10. Conditions for the formation and atmospheric dispersion of a toxic, heavy gas layer during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits by sill intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Michael; Hankin, Robin K. S.

    2010-05-01

    There is compelling evidence for massive discharge of volatiles, including toxic species, into the atmosphere at the end of the Permian. It has been argued that most of the gases were produced during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits in the East Siberia Tunguska basin following sill intrusion (Retallack and Jahren, 2008; Svensen et al., 2009). The release of the volatiles has been proposed as a major cause of environmental and extinction events at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009) Here we consider the conditions required for the formation and dispersion of toxic, heavier than air, gas plumes, made up of a mixture of CO2, CH4, H2S and SO2 and formed during the thermal metamorphism of C- and S- rich sediments. Dispersion models and density considerations within a range of CO2/CH4 ratios and volatile fluxes and temperatures, for gas discharge by both seepage and from vents, allow the possibility that following sill emplacement much of the vast East Siberia Tunguska basin was - at least intermittently - covered by a heavy, toxic gas layer that was unfavorable for life. Dispersion scenarios for a heavy gas layer beyond the Siberian region during end-Permian times will be presented. REFERENCES G. J. Retallack and A. H. Jahren, Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events, Journal of Geology, volume 116, 1-20, 2008 H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 2009

  11. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.; Tverdokhlebova, Galina I.; Minikh, Alla V.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Benton, Michael J.

    2005-02-01

    Fossil fishes and tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have been discovered at 81 localities in the Upper Permian of the Southern Urals area of European Russia. The first sites were found in the 1940s, and subsequent surveys have revealed many more. Broad-scale stratigraphic schemes have been published, but full documentation of the rich tetrapod faunas has not been presented before. The area of richest deposits covers some 900,000 km 2 of territory between Samara on the River Volga in the NW, and Orenburg and Sakmara in the SW. A continental succession, some 3 km thick, of mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones, deposited on mudflats and in small rivers flowing off the Ural Mountain chain, span the last two stages of the Permian (Kazanian, Tatarian). The succession is divided into seven successive units of Kazanian (Kalinovskaya, Osinovskaya, and Belebey svitas, in succession) and Tatarian age, which is further subdivided into the early Tatatian Urzhumian Gorizont (Bolshekinelskaya and Amanakskaya svitas, in succession), and the late Tatarian Severodvinian (Vyazovskaya and Malokinelskaya svitas, of equivalent age) and Vyatkian gorizonts (Kulchumovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas, of equivalent age). This succession documents major climatic changes, with increasing aridity through the Late Permian. The climate changes are manifested in changing sedimentation and the spread of dryland plants, and peak aridity was achieved right at the Permo-Triassic (PTr) boundary, coincident with global warming. Uplift of the Urals and extinction of land plants led to stripping of soils and massive run-off from the mountains; these phenomena have been identified at the PTr boundary elsewhere (South Africa, Australia) and this may be a key part of the end-Permian mass extinction. The succession of Late Permian fish and tetrapod faunas in Russia documents their richness and diversity before the mass extinction. The terminal Permian Kulchomovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas have yielded respectively some 6 and 13 species of fishes (sharks, bony fishes, lungfishes) and 11 and 14 species of tetrapods (aquatic amphibians, herbivorous and carnivorous reptiles of all sizes up to the hippo-sized pareiasaurs and sabre-toothed gorgonopsians). Immediately following the end-Permian environmental catastrophe, earliest Triassic faunas consisted only of a few fish taxa and small, aquatic tetrapods, in low-diversity, low-abundance assemblages.

  12. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul

    This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area and causes rotation of older probably Paleozoic sediments and creates syn-tectonic sediment wedges. The syn-tectonic wedges most probably contain volcaniclastic sediments of the Karl Formation or sandstones of the Auk Formation, but it cannot be excluded that the earliest late Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment of the E-W striking fault system are generally planar and strike parallel to the fault with a southward dip geometrically similar to antithetic faults. In contrast, the intrusions in the footwall segment show a much more complex pattern striking at a high angle to the E-W basement fault and outlining a sill complex, which in certain areas resembles a poorly outlined composite cone. The intrusions are not observed in the syn-tectonic sedimentary wedges and this combined with the general age of the intrusions suggests that the syn-tectonic wedges are of latest early Permian or earliest late Permian age. The study demonstrates Paleozoic intrusions with a systematic orientation and geometry that most likely was directly controlled by the basement faulting. Syn-tectonic hanging-wall deformation represented by antithetic fractures is suggested to be the most important controlling factor for the intrusions at the hanging-wall. At the footwall a more composite geometry of the intrusions is observed, resulting in a much more complex compartmentalization of the Paleozoic sediments due to intrusions compared to the hanging-wall segment. The intrusions and especially the compartmentalization must be taken into account during evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Paleozoic.

  13. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  14. Strontium and sulfur isotope study of well-preserved Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ?34S, 87Sr/86Sr ratio, and strontium concentrations for 50 well-preserved samples of Permian marine anhydrite have been determined. The samples were collected from two continuous cores drilled through cyclic Permian evaporites, The Department of Energy drilled the samples in its search for a permanent storage facility for high-level nuclear waste. Primary depositional fabrics (selenite pseudomorphs) and high strontium concentrations (average 1,850 ppm), in association with published bromide and fluid inclusion data from associated halite, suggest primary seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios may be recorded in many of the samples. The general shape of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio curve through the Permian is in accord with previously published observations. However, the increased stratigraphic detail from this unique set of cores constrains the abrupt charge in 87Sr/86Sr during the Permian at a precision previously available only in Deep Sea Drilling Project material. Interpretation of the more complex portions of the curve is limited by poor biostratigraphic control, the specter of provincial early diagenetic effects, and interpretation of the time significance of hiatal surfaces in cyclic strata. Age relationships are constrained by a K-Ar date on an interbedded volcanic ash in the Ochoan strata, and fusulinid age determinations of a well-documented regional transgression during the earliest Guadalupe. Sulfur isotopes yield typical Permian values of 12 per-thousand during the marine portion of the basin fill phase, and abruptly shift to 10 per-thousand in those cycles with a significant component of siliciclastic sediment

  15. Using conodont elements to distinguish Permian-Triassic boundary disconformity near Haftad Gholleh, central Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mostafa, Yousefirad; Somayeh, Ghanbari; Mahnaz, Parvanehnejad Shirazi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se enfoca en la estatigrafía del Límite Pérmico-Triásico en el área de Haftad Gholleh, al este de Arak y al norte de Mahallat, centro de Irán. Este límite de discordancia erosiva, al igual que en otras secuencias iraníes relacionadas al período Pérmico, contiene calizas dolomías, [...] esquistos y areniscas discordantes localizadas debajo de la secuencia Triásica. En una medida estratigráfica detallada del área de estudio se encontraron conodontas del Límite Pérmico-Triásico (PTB, por sus siglas en inglés). Se reconocieron tres áreas de conodontas, lo que ubica esta sección del PTB como bioestatigráfica precisa. Una de las secuencias superiores del Pérmico pertenece al período Guadalupiense. La secuencia Triásica consiste en calizas con capas vermiculitas coloreadas de esquisto que pertenecen al período Triásico temprano. La discordancia del Límite Pérmico Triásico, entonces, representa un lapso cercano a los 10 millones de años. Abstract in english The present study focuses on the stratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Haftad Gholleh area in eastern Arak and north of Mahallat,located in central Iran. This boundary of erosional unconformity or disconformity and as in other Iranian sequences related to the Permian period, contains [...] dolomitic limestone and shale and sandstone disconformably located below the Triassic sequence. A detailed measured stratigraphic section has provided conodonts from the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sequences in the area being studied. Three conodont areas have been recognied which place the PTB in this section by precise biostratigraphy. One of the most upper Permian sequences belongs to the Guadalupian period. The Triassic sequence consists of vermiculate limestone layers with coloured shale inter beds belonging to the Early Triassic period; unconformity at the Permian-Triassic boundary therefore represents a hiatus of about 10 million years.

  16. Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shahid Ghazi; Nigel P Mountney; Aftab Ahmad Butt; Sadaf Sharif

    2012-10-01

    The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage (Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage (Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode, and the gradual regional northward drift to a lower latitude of the Indian plate.

  17. Microbialites and global environmental change across the Permian-Triassic boundary: a synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, S; Crasquin, S; Li, Y; Collin, P-Y; Forel, M-B; Mu, X; Baud, A; Wang, Y; Xie, S; Maurer, F; Guo, L

    2012-01-01

    Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites (PTBMs) are thin (0.05-15 m) carbonates formed after the end-Permian mass extinction. They comprise Renalcis-group calcimicrobes, microbially mediated micrite, presumed inorganic micrite, calcite cement (some may be microbially influenced) and shelly faunas. PTBMs are abundant in low-latitude shallow-marine carbonate shelves in central Tethyan continents but are rare in higher latitudes, likely inhibited by clastic supply on Pangaea margins. PTBMs occupied broadly similar environments to Late Permian reefs in Tethys, but extended into deeper waters. Late Permian reefs are also rich in microbes (and cements), so post-extinction seawater carbonate saturation was likely similar to the Late Permian. However, PTBMs lack widespread abundant inorganic carbonate cement fans, so a previous interpretation that anoxic bicarbonate-rich water upwelled to rapidly increase carbonate saturation of shallow seawater, post-extinction, is problematic. Preliminary pyrite framboid evidence shows anoxia in PTBM facies, but interbedded shelly faunas indicate oxygenated water, perhaps there was short-term pulsing of normally saturated anoxic water from the oxygen-minimum zone to surface waters. In Tethys, PTBMs show geographic variations: (i) in south China, PTBMs are mostly thrombolites in open shelf settings, largely recrystallised, with remnant structure of Renalcis-group calcimicrobes; (ii) in south Turkey, in shallow waters, stromatolites and thrombolites, lacking calcimicrobes, are interbedded, likely depth-controlled; and (iii) in the Middle East, especially Iran, stromatolites and thrombolites (calcimicrobes uncommon) occur in different sites on open shelves, where controls are unclear. Thus, PTBMs were under more complex control than previously portrayed, with local facies control playing a significant role in their structure and composition. PMID:22077322

  18. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  19. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  20. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  1. Evidence of lacustrine sedimentation in the Upper Permian Bijori Formation, Satpura Gondwana basin: Palaeogeographic and tectonic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapan Chakraborty; Soumen Sarkar

    2005-06-01

    The Upper Permian Bijori Formation of the Satpura Gondwana basin comprising fine- to coarsegrained sandstone, carbonaceous shale/mudstone and thin coal bands was previously interpreted as the deposits of meandering rivers. The present study documents abundance of wave ripples, hummocky and swaley cross-stratification and combined flow bedforms in the Bijori Formation, suggesting that a significant part of the formation was deposited in a wave-agitated environment. Evidence of near-emergent depositional conditions provided by repeated occurrence of rootlet beds and hydromorphic paleosols, local flooding surfaces denoting rapid fluctuation of water level, occurrences of temnospondyl vertebrate fossils, and absence of tidal signatures and marine fossils suggest a lacustrine rather than marine depositional regime. Five facies associations recognised within the Bijori Formation are inferred to represent fluvial channels and associated floodplains (FA1), lake shorelines (FA2), subaqueous distributary channels and associated levees (FA3), wave- and storm-affected delta front (FA4), and open lacustrine/lower shoreface (FA5) deposits. The planoconcave fluvial channel-fill sandbodies with unidirectional cross-beds are clearly distinguishable from the delta front bars that show a convexo-plan or bi-convex sandbody geometry and dominance of wave and combined flow bedforms. Some of the distributary channels record interaction of fluvial and wave-dominated basinal processes. Major distributary sandbodies show a north to northwest flow direction while wave-affected delta front sandbodies show very complex flow patterns reflecting interaction between fluvial discharge and wave processes. Wave ripple crest trends show that the lake shoreline had an overall east–northeast to west–southwest orientation. The lack of documented contemporaneous lacustrine or marine sediments in the Satpura Gondwana basin posed a major problem of basin-scale palaeogeographic reconstruction. The existence of Bijori lake solves the problem and the lake is inferred to have acted as repository for the contemporaneous alluvial drainage. Development of the large Bijori lake body implies generation of accommodation space exceeding the rate of sediment supplied and thus represents locus of high tectonic subsidence. Transition of fluvial sediments with red mudstone and calcareous soil profile in the lower part of the succession to carbonaceous shale and coal-bearing lacustrine sediments in the upper part, denote a change from a warm semi-arid climate with seasonal rainfall to a more humid one.

  2. 77 FR 49863 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Continuance in Control Exemption-Santa Cruz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ...LLC, and Permian Basin Railways (IPH/PBR), noncarriers, have filed a verified...1\\ PBR and SCMB are wholly owned subsidiaries of...effective date of the exemption). IPH/PBR subsidiary railroads include: (1)...

  3. 78 FR 16569 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC, Permian Basin Railways, and San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Corporate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ...owned subsidiaries Permian Basin Railways (PBR) and San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad (SLRG...applicants, IPH is a noncarrier that wholly owns PBR, which directly controls seven Class III railroads.\\1\\ PBR controls, indirectly through SLRG, an...

  4. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  5. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  6. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  7. Coal Production 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  8. Sedimentary facies reconstruction and kinematic restoration of an Upper Permian Tight Gas Field, north-western Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Vackiner, Anna Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This study of a tight gas reservoir, located at ~4200 metres depth in the Upper Rotliegend II (Upper Permian) of north-western Germany, includes a geological framework model for the sedimentary facies distribution, which is strongly influenced by the structural grain. Research focused on unravelling the structural and sedimentary complexity of Permian (Rotliegend) tight gas fields in Central Europe requires multidisciplinary studies combining tectonic-stratigraphic interpretation of three-dim...

  9. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  10. Coal Tech 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) discussed clean coal, the Otway project, carbon capture and storage, the Munmorah post combustion capture project, oxyfuel technology and the Callide Oxyfuel Project, gasification technology, global developments in coal-to-liquids, FuturGas project, coal-to-liquids in South Australia, Arckaringa coal-to-liquids and power project, Latrobe urea project, Salmon Gums lignite to liquids project, Felton hybrid energy project, and transport fuels alternatives.

  11. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ra?enovi? A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  12. Episodic euxinia in the Changhsingian (late Permian) of South China: Evidence from framboidal pyrite and geochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hengye; Algeo, Thomas J.; Yu, Hao; Wang, Jiangguo; Guo, Chuan; Shi, Guo

    2015-04-01

    A multiproxy study of a new Upper Permian-Lower Triassic section (Xiaojiaba) in Sichuan Province, China, documents large changes in marine productivity, redox conditions and detrital input prior to the latest Permian mass extinction. Marine productivity, as proxied by total organic carbon content (TOC), biogenic SiO2, and excess barium, displays a long-term decline through most of the Changhsingian stage (late late Permian), culminating in very low values around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Concurrently, redox proxies including pyrite framboid, ?34Spy, Moauth and Uauth, and Corg/P document a shift from suboxic to dysoxic/oxic conditions that was interrupted by several episodes of benthic euxinia, and detrital siliciclastic proxies (Al, Hf, Nb, and REEs) suggest an increased flux of weathered material from land areas. The long-term changes in productivity, redox conditions, and terrigenous detrital fluxes were probably caused by a regional sea-level fall across the South China Craton. On the other hand, the brief euxinic episodes occurring during the late Permian had oceanographic causes, probably related to the transient upward expansion of the chemocline at the top of the oceanic oxygen-minimum zone. These euxinic episodes may have been harbingers of the more widespread anoxia that developed concurrently with the latest Permian mass extinction and that may have played a major role in triggering the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic.

  13. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  14. Minerals, sediments and coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is presented of some of the recent uses of Moessbauer spectroscopy in studying chemical changes in mineral systems. The changes considered include those occurring naturally, such as weathering, leaching, soil formation, lake and river sedimentation and coal oxidation, and some induced by man, such as chemical leaching, precipitate ageing, coal hydroliquefaction and ash resulting from coal combustion. (Auth.)

  15. The investigation of chemical structure of coal macerals via transmitted-light FT-IR microscopy by X. Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Mastalerz, Maria; Cook, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    A recent paper by Sun [X. Sun, Spectrochim. Acta A 62 (1-3) (2005) 557] attempts to characterize a variety of liptinite, termed "barkinite", from Chinese Permian coals. The component identified does not appear to fundamentally differ from previously-described liptinite macerals included in the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology's system of maceral nomenclature. Further, chemical comparisons made with macerals from coals of different rank and age are flawed because the author did not account for changes in chemistry with rank or for the chemical changes associated with botanical changes through geologic time. The author has not satisfactorily proved his hypothesis that the component differs morphologically or chemically from known liptinite-group macerals. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  17. Physiological implications of the abnormal absence of the parietal foramen in a late Permian cynodont (Therapsida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Julien; Abdala, Fernando; Van den Brandt, Marc J.; Manger, Paul R.; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2015-12-01

    The third eye (pineal eye), an organ responsible for regulating exposure to sunlight in extant ectotherms, is located in an opening on the dorsal surface of the skull, the parietal foramen. The parietal foramen is absent in extant mammals but often observed in basal therapsids, the stem-group to true mammals. Here, we report the absence of the parietal foramen in a specimen of Cynosaurus suppostus, a Late Permian cynodont from South Africa (SA). Comparison with Procynosuchus delaharpeae, a contemporaneous non-mammalian cynodont from SA, demonstrates that the absence of this foramen is an abnormal condition for such a basal species. Because seasonality was marked during the Late Permian in SA, it is proposed that the third eye was functionally redundant in Cynosaurus, possibly due to the acquisition of better thermoregulation or the evolution of specialized cells in the lateral eyes to compensate for the role of the third eye.

  18. Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymon Baud

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI. A great attention has been given to the negative ?13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1 and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.

  19. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  20. Fourth symposium on coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The ''Fourth Symposium on Coal Utilization'' was sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. and held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, Oct 18-20, 1977. Twenty papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA, and 5 also into EAPA. Papers are mainly involved with air pollution control, specifically sulfur dioxide control, by flue gas desulfurization, use of low sulfur coal, coal preparation, blending, etc. In addition there are papers on forecasting coal demand, coal markets, coal transport, trace elements in coal (and in ashes and air pollution), waste disposal, coal-in-oil mixture, and retrofitting. (LTN)

  1. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  3. c = 1 two dimensional quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, N

    1992-01-01

    The continuum (Liouville) approach to the two-dimensional (2-D) quantum gravity is reviewed with particular attention to the $c=1$ conformal matter coupling, and new results on a related problem of dilaton gravity are reported. After finding the physical states, we examine the procedure to compute correlation functions. The physical states in the relative cohomology show up as intermediate state poles of the correlation functions. The states in the absolute cohomology but not in the relative cohomology arise as auxiliary fields in string field theory. The Liouville approach is applied also to the quantum treatment of the dilaton gravity. The physical states are obtained from the BRST cohomology and correlation functions are computed in the dilaton gravity.

  4. Evidence of a therapsid scavenger in the Late Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Fordyce; Roger Smith; Anusuya Chinsamy

    2012-01-01

    Dicynodonts are an extinct group of herbivorous non-mammalian therapsids (‘mammal-like’ reptiles) that are widely known from terrestrial Permo-Triassic strata throughout Pangaea. Dicynodont fossil remains are common within the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin in South Africa. A large, partially articulated dicynodont skeleton recovered from the TropidostomaAssemblage Zone is taphonomically important in having an unusual disarticulation pattern, bone surface punctures and a broke...

  5. Sedimentology of a Permian playa lake: the Boda Claystone Formation, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Konrád, Gyula; Sebe, Krisztina; Halász, Amadé; Babinszki, Edit

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Permian Boda Claystone Formation (BCF) in SW Hungary has been previously been identified as a saline lake deposit. A country-wide screening found this 800–1000 m thick succession the most suitable for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Hungary, and research into this formation has consequently been intensified since. The investigations included a detailed study of the sedimentological characteristics. Data obtained by mapping of the 25 km2 outcrop area of the formation ...

  6. A new Early Permian reptile and its significance in early diapsid evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Reisz, Robert R; Modesto, Sean P; Scott, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    The initial stages of evolution of Diapsida (the large clade that includes not only snakes, lizards, crocodiles and birds, but also dinosaurs and numerous other extinct taxa) is clouded by an exceedingly poor Palaeozoic fossil record. Previous studies had indicated a 38 Myr gap between the first appearance of the oldest diapsid clade (Araeoscelidia), ca 304 million years ago (Ma), and that of its sister group in the Middle Permian (ca 266 Ma). Two new reptile skulls from the Richards Spur loc...

  7. Origin of the Permian-Triassic Iberian Basin, central-eastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, Alfredo; López Gómez, José

    1996-01-01

    The Iberian Basin was an intracratonic rift basin in central-eastern Spain developed since Early Permian times. The basin boundary faults were normal, listric faults controlling an asymmetric extension propagating northeast with time. Hercynian or older lineaments controlled the orientation of the Iberian Basin and extension was accommodated basically in the hanging wall block by the formation of secondary grabens and a central high. The basin was related with the coeval Ebro, Cat...

  8. Permian non-marine bivalves of the Falkland Islands and their palaeoenvironmental significance

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello G. Simões; Quaglio, Fernanda; Warren, Lucas V.; Anelli, Luiz E.; Stone, Philip; Riccomini, Claudio; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Chamani, Marlei A.C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the occurrence of non-marine bivalves in exposures of the Middle Permian (Capitanian) Brenton Loch Formation on the southern shore of Choiseul Sound, East Falklands. The bivalves are associated with ichnofossils and were collected from a bed in the upper part of the formation, within a 25 cm thick interval of dark siltstones and mudstones with planar lamination, overlain by massive sandstones. The shells are articulated, with the valves either splayed open or closed. At the top of...

  9. Depositional environment of Upper Carboniferous – Lower Permian beds in the Karavanke Mountains (Southern Alps, Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Matevž Novak

    2007-01-01

    Late Paleozoic rocks were studied in detail in the Dovžanova soteska section. The Upper Carboniferous sedimentary succession, correlated with upper part of Auernig and SchulterkofelFm. in the Carnic Alps, indicates cyclic clastic-carbonate deposition in a coastal to shallow marine ramp setting with strong influenceofcoarse-grainedfluvial-deltaicsilici-clastics from the hinterland, storm dominated regime of nearshore sediments, and offshore algal buildups. The Lower Permian sequence is develop...

  10. Evidence for a western extension of the Angaran phytogeographic province in the Early Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderlin, David [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A newly described Early Permian fossil plant assemblage in the Mt. Dall conglomerate in the Farewell terrane (Alaska Range, USA) is analyzed from a paleobiogeographic perspective. These data constitute the youngest paleontological dataset yet discovered in this terrane, represent the terrane's only predominantly terrestrial fossil assemblage, and are the only plant macrofossil remains of Early Permian age within a > 1500 km radius today. A suite of multivariate statistical analyses comparing the Mt. Dall paleoflora to similar age (Asselian-Artinskian) collections from the Angaran, Euramerican, and Cathaysian Permian phytogeographic provinces reveals that the Mt. Dall paleoflora has a paleobiogeographic affinity with Sub-Angaran plant fossil assemblages collected from Mongolia and the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. The paleoflora has dual importance in the construction and testing of hypotheses for which there are geographically and temporally few controls. First, these data may be used in association with other faunal and floral remains to test models of the assembly of Alaska, which seek, in part, an understanding of the paleogeographic and lithological origins of accreted terranes. That the Mt. Dall paleoflora indicates mixed Eurasia-North America paleobiogeographic affinity among individual taxa and plots in multivariate space with mid-latitude assemblages on northern Pangea may suggest deposition in that latitudinal belt. Second, contrary to the well-sampled fossil plant-bearing Permo-Carboniferous of the paleotropics and the northeastern temperate Pangean regions (Angaraland), terrestrial biome structure and vegetation type of northwestern Pangea are poorly known. This lack of understanding is due to the paucity of paleofloral collections from this region in this time period and the paleogeographic uncertainty of their position along the ancient active margin of Laurentia. The Mt. Dall paleoflora's phytogeographic affinity to paleobotanical collections from the northeastern Pangea therefore suggests that the Angaran province extended meridionally westward in the Early Permian into what is now northern North America. (author)

  11. Early Triassic recovery from the end-Permian extinction of benthic ecosystems in the palaeotropics

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction is widely accepted to have been the greatest biotic crises in the history of meatzoan life. The understanding of the subsequent recovery during the Early Triassic is of utmost importance to address fundamental question in earth system science: (i) how do ecosystems respond to large-scale environmental stress, (ii) how quickly do ecosystems recover, and (iii) how do evolutionary processes operate under the unusual conditions of vacated ecospace? The first studie...

  12. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  13. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  14. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  15. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession from Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield, Jharkhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikanta Murthy; Archana Tripathi; B Chakraborti; U P Singh

    2014-12-01

    Palynological investigations are carried out on approximately 538.00-m thick Gondwana strata from borehole SKB-1, Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield in Jharkhand. Based on the distribution pattern of age marker palynotaxa, two distinct palynoassemblages are identified. Palynoassemblage-I in the lithologically designated Barren Measures and Barakar formations, between 552.00 and 53.20 m depth show dominance of striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites, Crescentipollenites, and Faunipollenites) and abundance of nonstriate bisaccate (Scheuringipollenites). Upward the Palynoassemblage-II (39.50–13.80 m depth) is rich in striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites and Crescentipollenites) and significant enveloping monosaccate Densipollenites magnicorpus pollen. These strata have been equated with Raniganj Formation of Latest Permian age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD) of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, Playfordiaspora cancellosa, Alisporites sp., Falcisporites sp. and Krempipollenites indicus observed at 13.80 and 39.50 m depth, mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic. The FADs of Guttulapollenites spp. at 49.10 and 504.70 m, Goubinispora morondavensis at 415.90 m, Alisporites ovalis and Arcuatipollenites sp. at 526.70 m is observed and suggest that these sediments are equivalent to Raniganj Formation, Late Permian in age.

  16. Provenance of Permian Malužiná Formation sandstones (Hronicum, Western Carpathians: evidence from monazite geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozárová Anna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Permian Malužiná Formation and the Pennsylvanian Nižná Boca Formation are Upper Paleozoic volcano- sedimentary complexes in the Hronicum nappe system. Sandstones, shales and conglomerates are the dominant lithological members of the Malužiná Formation sequence. Detrital monazites were analysed by electron microprobe, to obtain Th-U-Pb ages of the source areas. The majority of detrital monazites showed Devonian-Mississippian ages, ranging from 330 to 380 Ma with a weighted average of 351 ± 3.3 (2?, that correspond well with the main phase of arcrelated magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians. Only a small portion of detrital monazites displayed Permian ages in the range of 250-280 Ma, with a significant maximum around 255 Ma. The weighted average corresponds to 255 ± 6.2 Ma. These monazites may have been partially derived from the synsedimentary acid volcanism that was situated on the margins of the original depositional basin. However, some of the Triassic ages (230-240 Ma, reflect, most likely, the genetic relationship with the overheating connected with Permian and subsequent Triassic extensional regime. Detrital monazite ages document the Variscan age of the source area and also reflect a gradual development of the Hronicum terrestrial rift, accompanied by the heterogeneous cooling of the lithosphere.

  17. Environmental characterization of bedded salt formations and overlying areas of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes one input to the first stage of site qualification studies. It presents a general environmental characterization of the region that is underlain by the Permian bedded salt formation. The formation covers portions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Permian bedded salt formation is one of a number of deep, stable geologic formations being studied for potential locations for nuclear waste repositories. These studies will not necessarily lead to selection of a site. They are intended only to provide information necessary to evaluate the suitability of locations for repositories. The report is intended as a general characterization of the existing environmental setting of the Permian Region with emphasis on land, water, and air characteristics; resources; plant and animal life; and man's organizations and activities. The report provides background information about the role that this regional study will play in the overall plan for environmental impact assessments and statements deemed necessary as input to the decision-making process. Background information on the present concept of nuclear waste repository design and function is also included. The information presented in this report has been summarized from open literature readily accessible to the public. No field work was conducted nor new data used in developing the descriptions contained herein

  18. Molecular analysis of the maize anthocyanin regulatory locus C1.

    OpenAIRE

    Cone, K C; Burr, F A; Burr, B.

    1986-01-01

    The C1 gene of maize plays a regulatory role in the production of anthocyanin pigments in the aleurone layer of the endosperm. As an initial step toward understanding the molecular details of how C1 controls pigment biosynthesis, we cloned the C1 gene. This was accomplished by first cloning a mutable allele of C1, c1-m5, which contains the transposable element Spm. A combination of molecular and genetic analysis was used to identify the Spm at the C1 locus. Individual genomic DNAs from a popu...

  19. Late Permian Tsunamites in Guryul Ravine (Kashmir, India) - revisited and rejected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystyn, Leopold; Horacek, Micha; Brandner, Rainer; Parcha, Suraj

    2014-05-01

    Recent claims for tsunami-related event beds induced by the Siberian Trap basalts in this section (Brookfield et al., 2013) have to be questioned. Identical storm generated carbonate beds occur not only during a short interval close to the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary but through a major part of the late Permian (Changhsingian) succession there - as low as 26 m below the so-called tsunami beds. Moreover, during our recent study in a closely neighbouring place called Mandakpal (less than 10 km to the southeast), no signs of tsunamites have been detected in time-correlative finegrained sediments. Based on sedimentary and trace fossil evidence we interpret the late Permian of Guryul as relatively shallow, neritic and delta-influenced. The so-called tsunamites are shelly-enriched discontinuous carbonate lenses fed downslope through local channels. Judging from the distinct facies change from the storm related "tsunamites" to thinly bedded mud turbidites above, the sudden deepening may be explained by local and still rift-related tectonics along the NIM (North-Indian Gondwana Margin) which led to episodic seismic induced sediment redeposition in the area of Guryul. Synsedimentary tectonic activity with tilting and eventual Horst and Graben structure building along the large NIM is indicated by margin inversion during the P-T boundary interval leading to sedimentary breaks and 20 times thinner, condensed limestone deposits far offshore from Guryul in Spiti (Krystyn et al., 2004) and Tibet (Orchard et al., 1994). Thus, local seismic activity seems to be a far more logic explanation of the Guryul "tsunamites" than the eruption of the Siberian Traps more than 6000 km away. References Brookfield, M. E., Algeo, T. J., Hannigan, R., Williams, J and Bhat, G. M., 2013: Shaken and Stirred: Seismites and Tsunamites at the Permian-Triassic boundary, Guryul Ravine, Kashmir, India. Palaios, v. 28, 568-582. Krystyn, L., Balini, M. and Nicora, A., 2004: Lower and Middle Triassic stage boundaries in Spiti. Albertiana, v. 30, 40-53. Orchard, M.J., Nassichuk, W.W., Rui Lin, 1994: Conodonts from the lower Griesbachian Otoceras latilobatum Bed of Selong, Tibet and the position of the Permian-Triassic boundary. In: Pangea: Global Environments and Resources, Memoirs of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, vol. 17, 823-843.

  20. Illawarra Reversal: the onset of the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Permian magnetostratigraphic records demonstrate that a remarkable change occurred in geomagnetism in the Late Guadalupian (Middle Permian; ca. 265 Ma) from the long-term stable Kiaman Reverse Superchron (throughout the Late Carboniferous and Early-Middle Permian) to the Permian-Triassic Mixed Superchron with frequent polarity change (in the Late Permian and Triassic). This unique episode called the Illawarra Reversal probably reflects a significant mode change in geodynamo in the outer core of the planet after a 50 million year-long stable geomagnetism. The Illawarra Reversal was likely led by the appearance of thermal instability at the 2,900 km-deep core-mantle boundary in connection with mantle superplume activity. The Illawarra Reversal and the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary event recorded the significant transition from the Paleozoic to Mesozoic-Modern world. Major global environmental changes in the Phanerozoic occurred almost simultaneously in the latest Guadalupian, e.g., 1) mass extinction, 2) ocean redox change, 3) sharp isotopic excursions (C and Sr), 4) sea-level drop, and 5) plume-related volcanism. In addition to the claimed possible link between the above-listed various environmental changes and mantle superplume activity, here I propose an extra explanation that a change in the core's geodynamo may have played another important role in determining the surface climate of the planet and the course of biotic evolution. When a superplume is launched from the core-mantle boundary, resultant thermal instability makes the geodynamo's dipole of the outer core unstable, and lowers the geomagnetic intensity. Being modulated by geo- and heliomagnetism, cosmic ray flux from the outer space into the Earth's atmosphere changes along time. The more cosmic ray penetrates through the atmosphere, the more cloud develops to increase albedo, thus enhances cooling the Earth's surface. The Illawarra Reversal, the Kamura cooling event, and other unique geologic phenomena in the Late Guadalupian were all likely caused by the superplume activity that initially triggered the breakup of Pangea. The secular change of cosmic radiation may explain not only the extinction-related global climatic changes in the end-Guadalupian but also the long- term global warming/cooling trend in Earth"fs history in terms of cloud coverage over the planet.

  1. Coal-magma interaction - an integrated model for the emplacement of cylindrical intrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, R.W.; Ghose, N.C.; Paul, P.R.; Hassan, M.J.; Saunders, A.D. (Leicester University, Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-11-01

    Olivine-bearing lamproite magmas intruded into Permian coal seams in northeast India occur as root-like cylinder stockworks, extending for up to several kilometres up-dip along the bedding planes of their sedimentary host. Clusters of eight or more conduits are typical, linked by thin tubular cross-branches. Cylindrical geometry may arise by injection of hot, low-viscosity fluid through a slot, with the development of multiple tube-like instabilities at the interface between the moving fluid and a higher-viscosity host. Surface and subsurface exposures of the cylinders reveal the presence of a carbonate-chlorite-clay halo surrounding each intrusion, resulting from the alteration of mafic mineral phases by fugitive volatiles released from the protective vapour jacket. The coal seams proximal to intrusion clusters are relatively underformed, with no evidence of assimilation by the invading melts. The coals have experienced extensive carbonization, probably as a result of slow conductive heating from the cooling lamproite bodies, or fluids derived therefrom. Field observations indicate that these thermal effects are not merely confined to the coal-melt interface, but occur for some considerable distance away from the intrusions, producing large areas of naturally coked coal.

  2. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  3. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  4. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  5. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  6. Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2010-01-07

    During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as sporinite and cutinite with an oil generation potential typical of type II kerogen contribute to the source rock potential of the Um Irna Formation which is equivalent to the Khuff Formation in the oil provinces of Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (thermal maturity of dispersed OM ranges between 0.48 and 0.55% R{sub r} giving rise to the mature stage of oil generation). Additionally, Botryococcus-type algae point towards the presence of type I kerogen. Moreover the presence of solid bitumen and oil droplets (petroleum fluid expulsions) in the sediments of the Um Irna Formation indicates formation of hydrocarbons. Organic chemistry not only supported the coal petrographic findings but also indicated inhospitable aquatic conditions near the P/Tr boundary evidenced by PAHs present in the sample and by lots of charcoal. The tropical areas were affected by vast wildfires raging in the forest and swamps during the late Permian. They contributed to a highly toxic atmosphere, a decrease of the oxygen contents speeded up by dead OM spilled into the water and creating anoxia approaching the P/Tr boundary. The elevated geothermal gradient sparking hydrothermal alteration in the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation during the Late Permian may be accounted for as related to a precursor stage of the Dead Sea Rift, which is still active today in terms of migration of hot brines and hydrocarbons. (author)

  7. Sampling the coal chain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.E., Hand.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is a complex heterogeneous commodity that can be mined in a number of ways and needs to be processed to a homogeneous quality that satisfies the customer's requirements, while attempting to maximize revenues. Only a small proportion of coal is suitable for metallurgical use. Export coals cover [...] a wide range of qualities and some coals can be used optimally in the raw state for energy production. Critical quality parameters vary and can be a combination of heat value, ash, volatiles, sulphur, phosphorus, sizing, amongst others. The level of beneficiation is generally dictated by the washability of the coal, mining contamination, and the target product quality. The steps in the coal chain covered in this paper comprise exploration, mining selections, production, the washing process, and product delivery. Many points of sampling are needed to maximize yield at the correct quality, and some of these will be described in the paper.

  8. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  9. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous link between them. Post-Variscan, Late Carboniferous-Early Permian wrench tectonics is the oldest and main identified cause for regional basin formation in Central Europe. This relatively short-lived tectonic regime cannot explain the observed common history of subsidence of the Permian Basins during the 200 My that followed. Our analysis demonstrates that transfer faults that both follow and cross rheological transitions and inherited fault zones continued to be active after the early Permian. We therefore suggests that crustal-scale transfer faults may be the missing link that explains the common subsidence history of basins with a fundamentally different crustal architecture and structural history.

  10. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  11. Celtic bank on coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, G.

    1998-11-01

    A policy of investment has helped Celtic Energy, the largest coal mining company in Wales and the second largest in the UK, to become more profitable even as the UK market for coal has shrunk. Celtic Energy operates six opencast mining sites and has another three being restored. 15 million pounds has recently been spent on new plant to help in development at the 330 hectare Selar site in the Neath Valley, and 4 million has been invested in a new washery distribution facility and coal processing plant at Onllwyn in the Dulais Valley. Details are given of the washery and distribution facility/coal processing plant. 7 photos.

  12. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  13. Indian coal industry perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.K. [Coal India Ltd., Kolkata (India)

    2002-08-01

    Coal will play a major role in satisfying energy demand in India well into the future, and also is important in shaping the profile of the nation's economy. The article looks at: India's coal resources; its demands from the power, steel and cement sector as anticipated in 2001-2, the terminal year of the IX plan, and the X plan; the growth in coal production from 1973-4 to projections for 2006-7 (the terminal year of the X Plan); coal marketing and the effect of deregulation of distribution and pricing of coal; and the technologies used for opencast and underground coal mining in India. It puts forward suggestions for improvements in the growth of the coal industry such as some fund to make underground mining more economically viable; more beneficiation and coal blending plants; a more efficient process for land acquisition for opencast mining; more attention to environmental impacts of coal mining; development of coalbed methane recovery and in-situ gasification; rationalization of railway freight, reduction in the rates of royalty/cess; and removal of disparity in power tariffs and income tax assessment. 2 tabs.

  14. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  15. A Review of h_c(1P1), eta_c(1S) and eta_c(2S)

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Jianming

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental results on charmonium $h_c(^1P_1)$, $\\eta_c(1S)$ and $\\eta_c(2S)$ from Belle, BaBar, CLEO and BESIII are reviewed. $h_c$ production and properties, the $\\eta_c(1S)$ lineshape and the observation of $\\eta_c(2S)$ in $\\psi'$ decays are discussed.

  16. The Carboniferous - Permian basins of Central and Western Bohemia, the Krkonoše Mt. foreland and the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic : part I.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opluštil, S.; Martínek, K.; Lojka, R.; Rosenau, N.; Zajíc, Jaroslav; Šim?nek, Z.; Drábková, J.; Štamberg, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 46, ?. 1 (2014), s. 14-54. ISSN 1433-1284. [Field Meeting on Carboniferous and Permian Nonmarine – Marine Correlation. Freiberg, 21.07.2014-27.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Carboniferous * Permian * excursion guide Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Permian clockwise rotations of the Ebro and Corso-Sardinian blocks during Iberian-Armorican oroclinal bending: Preliminary paleomagnetic data from the Catalan Coastal Range (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, Jean-Bernard; Schulmann, Karel; Lexa, Ondrej; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves

    2015-08-01

    Paleomagnetic investigations of Early Permian and Triassic magmatic rocks from Catalan Coastal Ranges provide three magnetic directions which are interpreted as primary magnetizations and partly as overprints. The succession of magnetic directions is interpreted in terms of a succession of large-scale clockwise rotations, which bring the whole assembly of Pyrenees, Catalonia, Corsica-Sardinia and Maures-Esterel massifs from the southeast of the Massif Central to the west during Permian. This major movement is associated with clockwise rotation of northern limb of the Iberian orocline during Latest Carboniferous and Early Permian (~ 305-290 Ma). Subsequently, Permian large-scale dextral transtensional-extensional shearing operated along Aquitanian Shear Belt between the Massif Central in the northeast and the Iberian Variscan massifs in the southwest. The latest phase of the rotation in the Late Permian-Early Triassic is associated with alkaline magmatism probably linked to Neo-Tethys opening activity in Western Europe.

  18. Trace fossil evidence for late Permian shallow water condition in Guryul ravine, Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcha, Suraj; Horacek, Micha; Krystyn, Leopold; Pandey, Shivani

    2015-04-01

    The present study is focused on the Late Permian (Changhsingian) succession, present in the Guryul ravine, Kashmir Basin. The basin has a complete Cambro-Triassic sequence and thus contains a unique position in the geology of Himalaya. The Guryul Ravine Permian mainly comprises of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments deposited in a shallow-shelf or ramp setting. The present assemblage of Ichnofossils is the first significant report of trace fossils in the Guryul ravine since early reports in the 1970s. The Ichnofossils reported from this section include: Diplichnites, Dimorphichnus, Monomorphichnus, Planolites, Skolithos along with burrow, scratch marks and annelid worm traces?. The ichnofossils are mainly preserved in medium grain sandstone-mudstone facies. The Ichnofossils are widely distributed throughout the section and are mostly belonging to arthropods and annelid origin, showing behavioral activity, mainly dwelling and feeding, and evidence the dominant presence of deposit feeders. The vertical to slightly inclined biogenic structures are commonly recognized from semi-consolidated substrate which are characteristic features of the near shore/foreshore marine environment, with moderate to high energy conditions. The topmost layer of silty shale contains trace fossils like Skolithos and poorly preserved burrows. The burrow material filled is same as that of host rock. The studied Zewan C and D sequence represents the early to late part of the Changhsingian stage, from 40 to 5 m below the top of Zewan D member with bioturbation still evident in some limestone layers till 2 metres above. No trace fossils could be recognized in the topmost 3 m beds of Zewan D due to their gliding related amalgamated structure. The widespread distribution of traces and their in situ nature will be useful for interpretation of the paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Permian in the Guryul ravine of Kashmir.

  19. The origin and formation model of Permian dolostones on the northwestern margin of Junggar Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinchuan; Shi, Ji'an; Zhang, Shuncun; Zou, Niuniu; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhang, Shengyin

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the mechanism of dolostone formation and establishes a dolomitization model in the Permian strata on the northwestern margin of Junggar Basin, China. Dolomitic rock samples are collected from the Permian Fengcheng Formation in Urho area and then characterized by petrological, mineralogical, carbon and oxygen isotope, and trace element geochemical analyses. Results show that the major types of dolomitic rocks include dolomitic mudstone, dolomitic siltstone, dolomitized tuffaceous siltstone, and dolomitized tuffaceous mudstone. The dolomitized rocks are dominated by euhedral or subhedral powder- and fine-crystal dolomites formed by replacement lacustrine argilla-calcareous and siliceous (tuffaceous) components and commonly filled with residual and late calcite cements. The parameters of dolomitic rocks show great variations, including the V/Ni ratio (1.02-4.88), Sr content (95.9-783.6 ?g/g), Mg/Ca ratio (0.68-5.13), degree of ordering (0.39-1.00), ?18OPDB (-14.8‰ to 3.2‰), and ?13CPDB (-1‰ to 5.2‰). The dolomitic rocks have multi-stage origins and were formed in a semi-closed continental brackish-saltwater bay with weak hydrodynamic processes, deep water bodies, and relatively quiet conditions. In the Permian depositional stage, a combination of complex tectonic activities, fault development, hot subtropical climate, and frequent volcanic activities provided not only Mg2+ source for dolomitization but also channels for rapid flow and seepage of Mg-rich fluids. The origins of dolostones in the study area include penecontemporaneous dolomitization, burial dolomitization, and hydrothermal dolomitization. This study lays a foundation for further studies on dolomite formation and dolomite reservoir, and provides effective methods for researching complex dolostone (tuffaceous, shale and silty dolomite) formation.

  20. Coal liquefaction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  1. Method for coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  2. LIBS Analysis for Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Romero, Carlos; De Saro, Robert

    Coal is a non-uniform material with large inherent variability in composition, and other important properties, such as calorific value and ash fusion temperature. This quality variability is very important when coal is used as fuel in steam generators, since it affects boiler operation and control, maintenance and availability, and the extent and treatment of environmental pollution associated with coal combustion. On-line/in situ monitoring of coal before is fed into a boiler is a necessity. A very few analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis are available commercially with enough speed and sophistication of data collection for continuous coal monitoring. However, there is still a need for a better on-line/in situ technique that has higher selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and that is safer and has a lower installation and operating costs than the other options. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is ideal for coal monitoring in boiler applications as it need no sample preparation, it is accurate and precise it is fast, and it can detect all of the elements of concern to the coal-fired boiler industry. LIBS data can also be adapted with advanced data processing techniques to provide real-time information required by boiler operators nowadays. This chapter summarizes development of LIBS for on-line/in situ coal applications in utility boilers.

  3. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  4. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  5. Community stability and selective extinction during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Peter D.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.

    2015-10-01

    The fossil record contains exemplars of extreme biodiversity crises. Here, we examined the stability of terrestrial paleocommunities from South Africa during Earth's most severe mass extinction, the Permian-Triassic. We show that stability depended critically on functional diversity and patterns of guild interaction, regardless of species richness. Paleocommunities exhibited less transient instability—relative to model communities with alternative community organization—and significantly greater probabilities of being locally stable during the mass extinction. Functional patterns that have evolved during an ecosystem's history support significantly more stable communities than hypothetical alternatives.

  6. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  7. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  8. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  9. End-Permian mass extinction and palaeoenvironmental changes in Neotethys: Evidence from an oceanic carbonate section in southwestern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zhang, Yi-chun; Li, Wen-zhong; Shi, G. R.; Wang, Yue; Wu, Ya-sheng; Ueno, K.; Henderson, C. M.; Wang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-juan; Chen, Jun

    2010-08-01

    This paper documents a new Permian-Triassic carbonate sequence which recorded the end-Permian mass extinction in the isolated oceanic setting of Neotethys in southwestern Tibet, China. The sequence is over 350 m thick and consists of the Gyanyima and the Lower Lanchengquxia formations in ascending order. The Lopingian (Late Permian) Gyanyima Formation is composed of fossiliferous reddish carbonates dominated by Colaniella grainstone and reef facies including fenestrate/sponge/coral framestone and bafflestone. 156 species are recognized from the Lopingian Gyanyima Formation. Composite ranges of brachiopods, ostracods, rugose corals and foraminifers at the Gyanyima Section suggest that evolution and diversification of Permian marine organisms continued to the end-Permian preceding a major faunal extinction close to the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), coincident with a 2-3‰ negative shift of ?13C carb. The timing and accelerating extinction pattern and the negative ?13C carb excursion are largely comparable with those reported from many previously-documented sections on continental shelf environments. Based on a detailed lithofacies analysis, the latest Permian reefal facies is sharply replaced by ostracod/crinoid packstone/grainstone with abrupt abundant occurrences of Early Triassic conodonts at the Gyanyima Section. This is then followed by thrombolitic microbialite, stromatolite, packstone containing abundant spherical microbes, and bivalve/ammonoid packstone of tidal and intertidal facies. This distinct lithofacies and biofacies shift would, therefore, suggest a dramatic faunal community and environmental change across the PTB. Distinct palaeoclimate fluctuations through the P- T interval are also indicated by the alternation of warm- and cool-water faunas through the uppermost part of the succession. The lower part of the Gyanyima Formation is characterized by a warm condition as indicated by Cathaysian-dominated fossils. This was then followed by a mild cooling event as suggested by the occurrence of many distinct peri-Gondwanan elements and absence of compound corals. The latest Changhsingian is characterized exclusively by warm-water faunal elements of Cathaysian affinities, together with the negative shift of ?13C carb, suggesting a rapid warming event at the very end of Permian in association with much more widespread volcanic activities than we thought before.

  10. Coal blending theory for dry coal charging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Takashi Arima; Kenji Kato [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center

    2004-09-01

    Nippon Steel has successfully developed dry coal charging processes such as CMC and DAPS for cokemaking. In this report, the fundamental aspects of the coal blending theory for dry coal charging processes are investigated. The investigation has made it clear that even in cases of high coal bulk density due to dry coal charging processes, it is possible to control coking pressure by adjusting the blending ratio of a slightly caking and low rank coal; and it is also possible to produce high quality coke by adjusting the total dilatation of the blended coal at a suitable level. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  12. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  13. Coal in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Y.

    1998-09-01

    The Republic of Korea (South Korea) is a typical example of a country which has experienced increasing energy demand in parallel with the economic development in the process of industrialisation. During the period 1980-95, South Korea`s energy demand increased 3.5 times, while the GDP increased 7.1 times. However, South Korea is very poorly endowed with indigenous energy resources, so South Korea`s energy demand will be met by imports. South Korea remains a major consumer of coal. Almost all coal produced in South Korea is anthracite, which has total reserves estimated at 276 Mt. Anthracite production peaked at 24.3 Mt in 1988, but by 1996 had fallen to 5.0 Mt due to the closure of small and uneconomic mines. However, most sectors have increased coal consumption. South Korea is the second biggest coal importer in the world, importing 43.9 Mt in 1995. Coal currently provides around 19% of South Korea`s primary energy supply and this share is expected to be maintained as use of other energy sources increases. In fact, South Korea has increased the role of coal in its energy mix, particularly in the industry and power generation sectors. The most serious air pollutants in South Korea are sulphur dioxide and total suspended particulate, which result from the combustion of oil and coal. Environmental regulation and policy have been strengthened in recent years. 42 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Coal in a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  15. Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Joachimski, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction has been associated with severe global warming. Main stage volcanism of the Siberian Traps occurred at or near the extinction interval and has been proposed as a likely greenhouse catalyst. In this study, a high-resolution ?18O record is established using diagenetically resistant apatite of conodonts and low-Mg calcite of brachiopods from stratigraphically well-constrained Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) boundary successions in northwestern Iran. A new evaluation is made for previously published conodont ?18O values from South China and revised palaeotemperatures are presented together with new data from Wuchiapingian to Griesbachian sections in Iran. ?18O data from P–Tr sections in Iran document tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) of 27–33 °C during the Changhsingian with a negative shift in ?18O starting at the extinction horizon, translating into a warming of SSTs to over 35 °C. The results are consistent with re-calculated SSTs of the South Chinese sections. Warming was associated with an enhanced hydrological cycle involving increased tropical precipitation and monsoonal activity in the Tethys Sea. Global warming, intensification of the hydrological cycle and associated processes, vertical water column stratification, eutrophication and subsequent local anoxia may all have facilitated an extinction event.

  16. Uranium potential in outcropping Permian basins in France and their extensions beneath mesozoic and tertiary cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About a third of metropolitan France's uranium production is from Permian deposits located in the Lodeve and, to a lesser extent, Bourbon-l'Archambault basins. Of the Autun, west Vanoise, St-Affrique, Rodez, Brive and Var basins investigated in this study, only those of Rodez and Var have been shown to contain significant deposits. Some of the basins contain potentially interesting targets, often removed from the areas of known mineral occurrences, that have never been investigated. Geophysical exploration and drilling have shown that the Permian extends over a vast area beneath the cover of the large Mesozoic and Tertiary basins. However zones within reach of mineral exploration, ie. those less than 500 m deep, are only found in a few areas. To reach the distant targets down-dip in the outcropping basins or beneath the Mesozoic and Tertiary cover, a detailed study of the basin must be undertaken beforehand. To define and locate targets that are obviously more costly to investigate, direct methods of investigation need to be used such as drilling and geochemistry, and indirect methods such as remote sensing, geophysics and well-logging

  17. The oldest post-palaeozoic crinoid and permian-triassic origins of the articulata (echinodermata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Tatsuo; Twitchett, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    The Crinoidea are the most primitive class of living echinoderms, and suffered a severe crisis during the Late Permian mass extinction event. All post-Palaeozoic crinoids, including living species, belong to the Articulata, and morphological and recent molecular studies demonstrate that they form a monophyletic clade. The Articulata originated from Palaeozoic cladid crinoids, but the nature and timing of their origination remains obscure. Problems with understanding the origin and early evolution of the Articulata have arisen because the Permian-Triassic crinoid fossil record is particularly poor. We report on a new genus and species from the earliest Triassic, which is the oldest known post-Palaeozoic articulate crinoid and fundamentally alters our understanding of the early evolution of the Articulata. Prior to this study, the most primitive post-Palaeozoic articulate was thought to be Holocrinus of the order Isocrinida. Unexpectedly, the new taxon belongs to the order Encrinida, which reveals a previously hidden diversity of crinoids in the earliest Triassic. Its discovery implies either a dramatic radiation of crinoids in the immediate post-extinction aftermath, when environmental conditions were at their most severe, or a pre-extinction origin of the crown group articulates and survival of multiple lineages. PMID:25826072

  18. No link between the Panjal Traps (Kashmir) and the Late Permian mass extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Bhat, G. M.; Brookfield, M. E.; Jahn, B.-M.

    2011-10-01

    Voluminous Late Permian flood basalt eruptions are contemporaneous with the mid-Capitanian (260 Ma) and end-Permian (251 Ma) mass extinction events. The Panjal Traps of Kashmir are thought to be correlative to the mid-Capitanian mass extinction however no radiometric age has been determined. We report a single zircon U-Pb laser ablation ICP-MS date of a rhyolite from the lower-middle part of the volcanic sequence. Twenty-four individual zircon crystals yield a mean 206U/238Pb age of 289 ± 3 Ma. The results show that the Panjal Traps are considerably older than previously interpreted and not correlative to post-Neo-Tethys rifting of the Gondwanan margin or the mid-Capitanian mass extinction and are, in fact, correlative to the opening of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. In contrast to other similarly size large igneous provinces, the Panjal Traps are not coincident with a mass extinction event and therefore casts doubt on the direct relationship between continental flood basalt volcanism and ecosystem collapse.

  19. Microbial response to limited nutrients in shallow water immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C; Huang, J; Kershaw, S; Luo, G; Farabegoli, E; Perri, M C; Chen, L; Bai, X; Xie, S

    2012-01-01

    Previous work indicates that a variety of microbes bloomed in the oceans after the end-Permian faunal mass extinction, but evidence is sporadically documented. Thus, the nature and geographic distribution of such microbes and their associations are unclear, addressed in this study using a series of biomarker groups. On the basis of microbial biomarker records of the 2-methylhopane index, evidence is presented for cyanobacterial blooms in both the western and eastern Tethys Sea and in both shallow and deep waters, after the mass extinction. The enhanced relative abundance of C(28) (expressed by the C(28) /C(29) ratio of) regular steranes suggests a bloom of prasinophyte algae occurred immediately after the end-Permian faunal extinction, comparable with those observed in some other mass extinctions in Phanerozoic. Significantly, cyanobacteria and prasinophyte algae show a synchronized onset of bloom in the shallow water Bulla section, north Italy, inferring for the first time their coupled response to the biotic crisis and the associated environmental conditions. However, in Meishan of Zhejiang Province in south China, the bloom declined earlier than in Bulla. The association of increased 2-methylhopane index with a negative shift in the nitrogen isotope composition infers a scenario of enhanced nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria immediately after the faunal mass extinction. N(2) fixation by cyanobacteria is here interpreted to have provided prasinophyte algae with ammonium in nutrient-limited shallow waters, and thus caused their associated blooms. PMID:22168223

  20. Changhsingian (Late Permian) conodonts from Son La, northwest Vietnam and their stratigraphic and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, I.

    2012-05-01

    Late Permian conodonts are for the first time reported from Vietnam. Pa, Sa, Sb, Sc and M elements of the Changhsingian conodont species Hindeodus julfensis (Sweet) are reported from a 40 cm thick limestone in the middle part of the Yenduyet Formation near Son La, NW Vietnam. The occurrence of H. julfensis indicates a Changhsingian age that is consistent with an interpreted early Changhsingian age for a brachiopod fauna slightly higher in the sampled section. The Son La section is located in the Song Da Rift Zone and overlies basaltic volcanics considered equivalent to the Emeishan large igneous province basalts that are plume related. The Permian-Triassic boundary in Vietnam is yet to be precisely located biostratigraphically but proxy chemostratigraphic data indicate its likely position in sections at Nhi Tao and Lung Cam, N. Vietnam and correlation with the Global Stratotype Section and Point at Meishan, South China. The recovered conodonts have a Conodont Colour Alteration Index of 5 and have been heated to c. 600 °C but they do not show any evidence of textural alteration due to regional metamorphism such as micro-folding or stretching that would indicate any direct effects of the compressional Indosinian Orogeny.

  1. Biostratigraphic correlation in the Karoo: The case of the Middle Permian parareptile Eunotosaurus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mike, Day; Bruce, Rubidge; John, Almond; Sifelani, Jirah.

    Full Text Available The richness of fossil tetrapods from the Beaufort Group of South Africa has enabled biostratigraphic subdivision of this Permo-Triassic succession, with global applicability. Despite being the thickest of the seven biozones recognised, attempts at further subdivision of the Middle Permian Tapinocep [...] halus Assemblage Zone (Abrahamskraal Formation) have not been successful, largely because the exact stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa are unknown. This gap in knowledge has limited stratigraphic correlation of the Abrahamskraal Formation and hindered understanding of Middle Permian Karoo basin development. Currently, the lowermost Beaufort Group is split between an eastern and a western stratigraphic scheme and, because of poor outcrop and the relative paucity of fossils in the east, stratigraphic correlation between the two areas has been uncertain. Recent fossil discoveries of the parareptile Eunotosaurus africanus in the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces have extended its known geographic range in the east. An additional specimen from the lower Middleton Formation in the Eastern Cape has, for the first time, enabled the biostratigraphic correlation of this unit with the Poortjie Member of the Teekloof Formation in the west. These finds confirm the diachroneity of the boundary between the marine Ecca Group and the terrestrial Beaufort Group.

  2. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  3. Research on genesis of pyrite near the Permian-Triassic boundary in meishan, Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.-F.; Tang, Y.-G.; Chou, C.-L.

    2006-01-01

    The content and crystal forms of pyrite and sulfur isotope composition of pyrite sulfur as well as its vertical distribution near the Permian-Triassic (P/T) boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing county, Zhejiang province, China were studied using geological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical methods (techniques). The result showed that the genesis of abundant pyrites in bed 24e2 at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation in the Meishan section may be related to volcanic activity. In bed 24e2 of the Meishan section, pyrite has its highest content of 1.84% and the sulfur isotope composition has the highest ??34S value at + 2.2??? which is very similar to that of the average value of volcanic gas. There are some volcanic products such as ??-quartz, siliceous cylinders and siliceous spherules which coexisted with pyrites in beds 24e2 and 24f. It can be concluded that a large quantity of volcanic ash fell into the South China Sea and was incorporated into marine sediments during the formation of limestone at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation. The volcanic eruption with massive amounts of H2S and S02 gas at the end of the Permian period resulted in the enrichment of H2S in the South China Sea areas. The reaction of H2S with reactive iron minerals formed the mass of abundant pyrites.

  4. The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO42- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO42- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

  5. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  6. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  7. High arsenic coals related to sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposition in southwestern Guizhou Province, People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, H.E.; Warwick, P.D.; Finkelman, R.B. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Zheng, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhou, D. [Autonomous Prefecture Anti-Epidemic Station of Southwest Guizhou Province (China)

    1998-12-31

    The rural population of southwestern Guizhou Province, China uses locally derived coal for domestic heating, cooking, and drying of various food stuffs by un-vented stoves. Coal became the dominant fuel source after deforestation earlier this century. Approximately 40 years ago, symptoms of arsenic poisoning, in some cases extreme, appeared in isolated, rural populations. More than 3,000 cases of arsenosis have been documented, whereas the affected population exceeds 10,000. Chemical analyses show that selected coals are extremely enriched in As and contain high concentrations of other trace elements deleterious to health. Southwestern Guizhou Province is underlain by an extensive thickness of Upper Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The Permian, although aerially much less extensive, contains coal-bearing argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Longtan Formation. The predominantly rural population in this mountainous region obtains most of their coal from many, very small mines operated locally. Southwestern Guizhou Province is also the site of extensive, mostly small-scale, gold mining from discontinuous sedimentary rock-hosted, Carlin-type gold deposits. Gold is currently being mined from areas that contact high-arsenic coals. The structural complexity of the area as well as the gold-As- rich coal association suggests that coal zones containing high As are probably as irregular and discontinuous as the gold deposits. The local public health officials have instituted a program of testing the coal being mined for its high As concentration. A collaborative study between the US Geological Survey and the Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry in Guiyang, Chinese Academy of Science is investigating the origin, occurrence, and distribution of arsenic in these coals. The goal is to be able to understand the petrogenesis in order to be able to predict and delineate arsenic-rich coals or zones.

  8. Permian–Triassic palynostratigraphy in Mailaram area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neerja Jha; Neha Aggarwal

    2012-10-01

    Palynological investigations of five borecores, viz., GAM-3, GAM-6, GAM-7, GAM-8 and GAM-10 from Mailaram area have suggested the occurrence of complete Lower Gondwana succession in Mailaram area. Total nine palynozones have been identified on the basis of dominance, sub-dominance and appearance of various palynotaxa. These palynozones belong to Talchir, Upper Karharbari and Barakar (Early Permian), Raniganj (Late Permian) and Panchet (Early Triassic) palynofloras of Indian Gondwana. The oldest Palynozone-1 demonstrated in borecore GAM-6 (331.4–500 m) and borecore GAM-10 (505.66–581.55 m), is characterized by the dominance of Parasaccites and sub-dominance of Plicatipollenites belongs to Talchir Palynoflora; Palynozone-2 identified in borecore GAM-7 (667–749 m) and borecore GAM-8 (89.75 m) is characterized by the dominance of Parasaccites and sub-dominance of Scheuringipollenites which belongs to Upper Karharbari Palynoflora. Palynozone-3, identified in borecore GAM-6 (149.7–240.05 m) and borecore GAM-8 (84.95 m), is characterized by the dominance of Scheuringipollenites akin to Scheuringipollenites zone of Barakar palynoflora; Palynozone-4, recorded in borecores GAM-3 (294–437.98 m), GAM-7 (453–640.5 m) and GAM-8 (35.35 m) is characterized by the dominance of Faunipollenites and sub-dominance of Striatopodocarpites along with certain stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Weylandites, Guttulapollenites, Corisaccites, Aurangapollenites and Osmundacidites. Palynozone-5, demarcated in borecore GAM-3 (144.86–221.3 m) and borecore GAM-10 (35.35 m), is distinguished by the dominance of striate disaccates along with at least 30% pollen assigned to Striasulcites; Palynozone-6, identified in borecore GAM-3 (35.1–73.08 m) and borecore GAM-7 (231–423 m), is characterized by the dominance of striate disaccates along with 20–30% of Densipollenites; Palynozone-7, recorded in borecore GAM-7 (206 m), is distinguished by the dominance of Crescentipollenites along with striate disaccates; Palynozone-8, identified in borecore GAM-7 (178.4 m), is characterized by the distinguished presence of taeniate pollen Guttulapollenites. Palynozones 4–8 belong to Raniganj Palynoflora. Palynozone-9, identified in borecore GAM-7 (166 m), is discriminated by the dominance of trilete spore Verrucosisporites and sub-dominance of taeniate pollen Lunatisporites which belongs to Triassic palynoflora. On the basis of palynological data Palynozone-1 (= Talchir palynoflora), Palynozone-2 and Palynozone-3 have been assigned to Early Permian age; Palynozones 4–8 (= Raniganj palynoflora) have been assigned to Late Permian age and Palynozone-9 (= Triassic palynoflora) has been assigned to Early Triassic age. With the aim of correlating the Permian and Triassic sediments of Mailaram area palynological investigations of five borecores were carried out.

  9. Interbasinal correlation between Jameson Land and Hold-with-Hope (Northeast Greenland) organic carbon isotope records during the latest Permian-earliest Triassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson Barrera, Anna; Meier, Maximiliano; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Weissert, Helmut; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

    2015-04-01

    Latest Permian-earliest Triassic sequences in Northeast Greenland were deposited during the main rift phase between the two margins of the Greenland-Norway Basin, and were influenced by several relative sea-level fluctuations. The associated crustal extension created several sub-basins that led to marked lateral thicknesses between the latest Permian and earliest Triassic formations. These formations outcrop along the Northeast Greenland coast and can be followed from Jameson Land around 71°N up to Wollaston Forland around 74.5°N. Due to a latest Permian relative sea-level fall, northern sub-basins show a sedimentary gap close to the Permian-Triassic boundary, while southern sub-basins show continuous sedimentation across the Permian-Triassic transition. Earlier studies focused just on the Permian-Triassic boundary from continuous sections from Jameson Land. This study presents the correlation between two new sections from Jameson Land, and one section of a northern sub-basin (Hold-with-Hope) merging terrestrial and marine geochemical and paleontological data. The combination of organic carbon isotopes, palynofacies and palynology analyses, few ammonoids belonging to the Ophiceratidae family found in the sections, and sedimentological observations provides a robust correlation between both sub-basins, and the first interbasinal organic carbon isotope correlation for Northeast Greenland during the latest Permian-earliest Triassic.

  10. 17 CFR 240.14c-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 240.14c-1 Section 240.14c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  11. Hawking's singularity theorem for $C^{1,1}$-metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kunzinger, Michael; Stojkovic, Milena; Vickers, James A

    2014-01-01

    We provide a detailed proof of Hawking's singularity theorem in the regularity class $C^{1,1}$, i.e., for spacetime metrics possessing locally Lipschitz continuous first derivatives. The proof uses recent results in $C^{1,1}$-causality theory and is based on regularisation techniques adapted to the causal structure.

  12. Nobloedischia rasnitsyni, a new genus and species of Oedischiidae (Orthoptera) from the Lower Permian Wellington Formation of Oklahoma, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Beckemeyer

    2011-01-01

    Nobloedischia rasnitsyni gen. et sp. n. (Oedischiidae) is described from the Lower Permian Wellington Formation of Noble County, Oklahoma. The genus is similar to both Petrelcana (Oedischiidae: Mezenoedischiinae) and Oedischia (Oedischiidae: Oedischiinae) and is left unplaced at the subfamily level. The new species is the twelfth Orthoptera species and the fourth species of Oedischiidae from these deposits.

  13. 77 FR 57188 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Continuance in Control Exemption-Rusk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...owned subsidiary, Permian Basin Railways (PBR), have filed a verified notice of exemption...becoming a Class III rail carrier. IPH and PBR filed a corrected copy of that notice on...effective date of the exemption). IPH and PBR subsidiary railroads include: (1)...

  14. Amphibian and Paleoisciforms from the Lower Part of the Taquaral Member of the Permian Irati Formation, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Chahud

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the east-central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, good exposures of Permo-Carboniferous sequences of theParaná intracratonic basin are found. These sequences start with the Tubarão Supergroup deposits, the PermocarboniferousItararé Group, and the earliest Permian Guatá Group, of which the Tatuí Formation is the only unit occurring in the Stateof São Paulo. The Permian Passa Dois Group overlies the Tubarão Supergroup, with the Early Permian Irati Formation andthe Middle Permian Corumbataí Formation. Two members are recognized in the Irati Formation, Taquaral and Assistência.Most beds of the Taquaral Member are gray laminated siltic-argillaceous, but sandstone beds are present in lower outcropsof this member. One of these sandstones, 9.5 cm thick unconformably overlying sedimentos of the Tatuí Formation, exhibitsdiversifi ed vertebrate remains. The present paper deals with a Palaeonisciformes mandible fragment, one amphibianTemnospondyli tooth, and one Temnospondyli mandible fragment. These fossils are associated to Chondrichthyes andOsteichthyes. It is an open question whether the Parnaíba Basin Palaeonisciformes Brasilichthys macrognathus and theTemnospondyli Prionosuchus plummery belong to the same taxa of the Paraná Basin fossils. Only better preserved fossilsmight solve this question.

  15. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  16. Climatic and biotic changes around the Carboniferous/Permian boundary recorded in the continental basins of the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opluštil, S.; Šim?nek, Z.; Zajíc, Jaroslav; Mencl, V.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 119, ?. 1 (2013), s. 114-151. ISSN 0166-5162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biotic change * Bohemian Massif * Carboniferous-Permian transition * continental basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2013

  17. Nobloedischia rasnitsyni, a new genus and species of Oedischiidae (Orthoptera) from the Lower Permian Wellington Formation of Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckemeyer, Roy J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nobloedischia rasnitsyni gen. et sp. n. (Oedischiidae) is described from the Lower Permian Wellington Formation of Noble County, Oklahoma. The genus is similar to both Petrelcana (Oedischiidae: Mezenoedischiinae) and Oedischia (Oedischiidae: Oedischiinae) and is left unplaced at the subfamily level. The new species is the twelfth Orthoptera species and the fourth species of Oedischiidae from these deposits. PMID:22259269

  18. Sharpness for C1 linearization of planar hyperbolic diffeomorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenmeng; Zhang, Weinian

    2014-12-01

    C1 linearization preserves smooth dynamical behaviors and distinguishes qualitative properties in characteristic directions. Planar hyperbolic diffeomorphisms are the most elementary ones of representatively technical difficulties in the study of C1 linearization. In the Poincaré domain (both eigenvalues inside the unit circle S1) a lower bound ?0 was given such that C smoothness with ?0C1 linearization. Our first purpose of this paper is to prove the sharpness of ?0 and give a weaker linearization for ???0. In the Siegel domain (one eigenvalue inside S1 but the other outside S1) it is known that C smoothness admits C1 linearization for all ??(0,1]. The second purpose is to prove that the C1 linearization is actually a C linearization and give sharp estimates for ?.

  19. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  20. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with this disease are older than 50. Smoking does not increase your risk of developing this disease, but it may have an additional harmful effect on the lungs. If coal worker's pneumoconiosis occurs with rheumatoid arthritis , ...

  1. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  2. Coal biodesulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayuenyong, P.

    2002-09-01

    Sulfur emissions from coal combustion present many environmental problems. It is believed that the best method to limit the amount of sulfur oxides emitted into the atmosphere is to reduce the amount of sulphur in coal before combustion. The techniques used include physical, chemical and biological processes. Biological processes based on degradation of sulfur compounds by microorganisms offer many advantages over the conventional physical and chemical processes. The processes are performed under mild conditions with no harmful reaction products and the value of coal is not affected. In this article the progress achieved to date in coal biodesulfurization processes is reviewed. The barriers for biodesulfurization processes to scale up to commercial applications are highlighted. In addition, the future needs of research for the development of efficient biodesulfurization processes are included.

  3. Coal biodesulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Prayuenyong

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur emission from coal combustion presents many environmental problems. It is believed that the best method to limit the amount of sulfur oxides emitted into the atmosphere is to reduce the amount of sulfur in coal before combustion. The techniques used include physical, chemical and biological processes. Biological processes based on degradation of sulfur compounds by microorganisms offer many advantages over the conventional physical and chemical processes. The processes are performed under mild conditions with no harmful reaction products and the value of coal is not affected. In this article the progress achieved to date in coal biodesulfurization processes is reviewed. The barriers for biodesulfurization processes to scale up to commercial applications are highlighted. In addition, the future needs of research for the development of efficient biodesulfurization processes are included.

  4. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  5. Coal liquefaction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  6. Improvements in monitoring coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrument for determining a first characteristic of a material, eg ash in coal, by X-radiation comprises a turntable with material feeding means. An X-radiation source and detector unit determines the first characteristic, and a microwave source and detector unit, determine a second characteristic of the material, eg moisture in coal. The turntable is transparent to microwaves in at least the region traversed by the microwaves. (author)

  7. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  8. Raman and cathodoluminescence spectroscopic investigations on Permian fossil wood from Chemnitz—a contribution to the study of the permineralisation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witke, Klaus; Götze, Jens; Rößler, Ronny; Dietrich, Dagmar; Marx, Günter

    2004-10-01

    Samples of different three-dimensionally preserved fossil plants ( Medullosa sp., Dadoxylon sp., Calamodendron striatum, Psaronius sp.) from the Lower Permian petrified forest of Chemnitz were examined with regard to their chemical composition and structural order. Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence microscopy are shown to be powerful tools for such investigations. Silicified wood from Chemnitz-Hilbersdorf generally shows yellow cathodoluminescence (CL) of the cell walls and only weak yellow-brownish CL of the cell lumina. By time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, a secondary mineralisation of hydrothermal origin was recognized. The latter is shown by short-lived blue CL at the cell walls extinguishing the yellow signal. Therefore, after the primary silicification step a secondary mineralisation step initiated by hydrothermal processes, seems to have taken place at probably slightly higher temperatures. The resulting silica matrix consists of phanerocrystalline and microcrystalline ?-quartz as well as microcrystalline moganite, both partially associated with iron oxides. Dadoxylon sp. is a prominent example for parallel permineralisation by ?-quartz and fluorspar, which is outstanding for the Chemnitz Petrified Forest. CL on this samples shows parallel silicification and fluoritisation, followed by infiltration of iron oxides. Permineralised samples show very low percentage of original organic remains. The seed fern Medullosa, for example, shows dispersed carbon, which is mainly restricted to the centres of the typical star-shaped vascular bundles. Raman spectroscopy revealed that these carbonaceous particles are of an anthracite structure. For experimental confirmation coal samples of different rank, especially anthracite from different geological times and localities, were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The remaining pith of the vascular bundles is white-coloured and consists of ?-quartz and moganite, whereas surrounding tracheides exhibit white and reddish coloured parts. The reddish parts, mainly found in the rays, additionally contain ?-Fe 2O 3 and Fe 3O 4 among the SiO 2 polymorphs of ?-quartz and moganite. Sometimes iron oxides could have dominated permineralisation processes as the peak intensities of distinct parts of the samples suggest.

  9. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    2005-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input obser...

  10. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input obser...

  11. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  12. High-Precision Marine Sr Isotope Geochronology in Deep Time: Permian Tuffs and Conodonts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Davydov, V. I.; Snyder, W. S.

    2007-12-01

    Stratigraphic sections of the Southern Urals containing abundant and well-preserved fauna for precise biostratigraphic correlation and common instratified volcanic ash beds dated by U-Pb zircon geochronology offer a unique opportunity to constrain a temporally accurate Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian seawater Sr curve. The 87Sr/86Sr compositions of conodonts (biogenic apatite) were measured by high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry following rigorous pretreatment protocols, and plotted within an age model calibrated by 13 high-precision U-Pb zircon ash bed ages. The resulting seawater Sr curve shows a significant reduction in data scatter by comparison to earlier curves (Denison et al., 1994; Veizer et al., 1999; Bruckschen et al., 1999; Korte et al., 2006), suggesting that our conodont pre-dissolution treatment was highly effective for retrieving the original seawater Sr signal. The relatively flat Late Moscovian through mid-Ghzelian seawater Sr curve of this study is generally consistent with that of Bruckschen et al. (1999). Beginning in the mid-Ghzelian, our data define a decreasing trend in 87Sr/86Sr through the mid-Sakmarian, consistent with the data of Korte et al. (2006). By combining our high precision 87Sr/86Sr measurements and U-Pb age calibration, the resolution of Sr isotope geochronology approaches 0.5 Ma in this interval. This highly resolved seawater 87Sr/86Sr record obtained for the Late Moscovian through mid-Sakmarian will aid in global carbonate chemostratigraphic correlation and contribute to our understanding of the timing of Late Paleozoic glacial and tectonic events. References: Bruckschen, P., Oesmann, S., Veizer, J., 1999. Isotope stratigraphy of the European Carboniferous: proxy signals for ocean chemistry, climate and tectonics. Chemical Geology 161, p. 127-163. Denison, R.E., Koepnick, R.B., Burke, W.H., Hetherington, E.A., Fletcher, A., 1994. Construction of the Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Permian seawater 87Sr/86Sr curve. Chemical Geology 112, p.145-167. Veizer, J., Ala, D., Azmy, K., Bruckschen, P., Buhl, D., Bruhn, J., Carden, G.A.F., Diener, A., Ebneth, S., Godderis, Y., Jasper, T., Korte, C., Pawellek, F., Podlaha, O.G., Strauss, H., 1999. 87Sr/86Sr, ´13C and ?18O evolution of Phanerozoic seawater. Chemical Geology 161, p. 59-88. Korte, C., Jasper, T., Kozur, H.W., Veizer, J., 2006. 87Sr/86Sr record of Permian seawater. Palaeogeography, Pala3eoclimatology, Palaeoecology 240, p. 89-107.

  13. Gradients in seasonality and seawater oxygen isotopic composition along the early Permian Gondwanan coast, SE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, J. Andrew; Ivany, Linda C.; Runnegar, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of marine carbonates are commonly employed for understanding ancient temperatures, but this approach is complicated in the very distant past due to uncertainties about the effects of diagenesis and the isotopic composition of seawater, both locally and globally. Microsampled accretionary calcite from two species of the fossil bivalve Eurydesma Sowerby and Morris 1845 collected from sediments of Cisuralian age in high latitude marine sediments along the SE coast of Australia records cyclic seasonal fluctuations in shell ?18O values during growth, demonstrating the primary nature of the isotope signal and thus allowing investigation of early Permian seawater isotopic composition and water temperature in the high southern latitudes. The mean and seasonal range of ?18Ocarb decreases poleward across about 10° of paleolatitude (?67°S-77°S). The presence of co-occurring dropstones and stratigraphically associated glendonites constrains winter temperatures across the region to near-freezing, thus permitting calculation of realistic estimates of water composition and summer temperatures. Summer ?18Ocarb values indicate water temperatures between 5 °C and 12 °C, with warmer values at lower latitudes. The decrease in both mean sea surface temperature and seasonal amplitude with increasing latitude on the Gondwanan coast is much like that observed along high-latitude coastlines today. Calculated ?18Owater decreases toward the pole, likely associated with an increasing contribution of isotopically light fresh water derived from summer snow-melt. The gradient in ?18Owater is similar to that documented over a similar span of latitude on the modern SE Greenland coast. We infer the presence of a north-flowing coastal current of cold, O18-depleted water that entrains progressively greater amounts of more typical seawater as it moves away from the pole. ?18O values in SE Australia, however, are about 3‰ lower than those off Greenland, suggesting comparatively lower salinity water or more O18-depleted glacial ice/runoff in the Permian Gondwanan high latitudes, perhaps augmented by more depleted (negative) global average seawater. Conditions in southeastern Australia during the largest of the Permian deglaciations were warmer than present-day Antarctica at similar latitudes, but may approximate those of early-mid Miocene Antarctica, with frozen winters but summers closer to 10 °C.

  14. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as demonstrations to the Indonesian Government. Successful demonstrations obtained visible benefits for a large number of local interests and received overwhelmingly favorable public response. This built the public and political support needed to continue this work.These successes encouraged the Ministry to officially assume the responsibility for coal fire management by Decree 1539/20/MPE/1999. The Ministry reallocated internal funds to support portions of the immediate suppression projects and committed a portion of the Coal Royalty Fund to provide long-term support for coal fire suppression activities. Coal fires continue to present a serious risk to Indonesia's ecosystems, population and forest resources. The Ministry and local governments in East Kalimantan are still working on the coal fire inventory. It presently contains 164 coal fires, but it is far from complete. Unless these coal fires are managed or extinguished, they will add to the already catastrophic cycle of anthropogenic forest fires that further reduce Indonesia's forest resources and endangered species while contributing unnecessarily to global carbon emissions.

  15. The factor VIII C1 domain contributes to platelet binding

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ting-Chang; Pratt, Kathleen P.; Thompson, Arthur R.

    2008-01-01

    Activated factor VIII (FVIIIa) forms a procoagulant complex with factor IXa on negatively charged membranes, including activated platelet surfaces. Membrane attachment involves the FVIII C2 domain; involvement of the adjacent C1 domain has not been established. Binding of recombinant FVIII C1C2 and C2 proteins to platelets was detected by flow cytometry using (1) anti-C2 monoclonal antibody ESH8 followed by a phycoerythrin-labeled secondary antibody; (2) biotinylated C1C2 detected by phycoery...

  16. An algorithm for payoff space in C1-games

    OpenAIRE

    David Carfì; Angela Ricciardello

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm implemented by MATLAB, and several examples completely realized by this algorithm, based on a method developed by one of the authors to determine the payoff-space of certain normal-form C1-games. Specifically, our study is based on a method able to determine the payoff space of normal form C1-games in n dimensions, that is for n-players normal form games whose payoff functions are defined on compact intervals of the real line and of class at least C1. In ...

  17. Surgical approach to C1-C2 nerve sheath tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Prasad; Behari Sanjay; Banerji Deepu; Mehrotra Naveen; Chhabra Devendra; Jain Vijendra

    2004-01-01

    Background: C1 and C2 nerve sheath tumors (NST) are unique in presentation, relationship to neighbouring structures and surgical approaches when compared to their counterparts in other regions of the spine. Aim: The strategies involved in the surgery for C1-C2 NST are discussed Setting and Design: Retrospective study. Methods: 21 patients with C1 (n=6) and C2 (n=15) NST were operated based on their position with respect to the cord i.e. anterior (4), anterolateral (10), poster...

  18. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  19. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  20. Restoration of marine ecosystems following the end-Permian mass extinction: pattern and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Life came closest to complete annihilation during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME). Pattern and cause of this great dying have long been disputed. Similarly, there is also some debate on the recovery rate and pattern of marine organisms in the aftermath of the EPME. Some clades recovered rapidly, within the first 1-3 Myr of the Triassic. For instance, foraminiferal recovery began 1 Myr into the Triassic and was not much affected by Early Triassic crises. Further, some earliest Triassic body and trace fossil assemblages are also more diverse than predicted. Others, ie. Brachiopods, corals etc., however, did not rebound until the Middle Triassic. In addition, although ammonoids recovered fast, reaching a higher diversity by the Smithian than in the Late Permian, much of this Early Triassic radiation was within a single group, the Ceratitina, and their morphological disparity did not expand until the end-Spathian. Here, I like to broaden the modern ecologic network model to explore the complete trophic structure of fossilized ecosystems during the Permian-Triassic transition as a means of assessing the recovery. During the Late Permian and Early Triassic, primary producers, forming the lowest trophic level, were microbes. The middle part of the food web comprises primary and meso-consumer trophic levels, the former dominated by microorganisms such as foraminifers, the latter by opportunistic communities (i.e. disaster taxa), benthic shelly communities, and reef-builders. They were often consumed by invertebrate and vertebrate predators, the top trophic level. Fossil record from South China shows that the post-extinction ecosystems were degraded to a low level and typified by primary producers or opportunistic consumers, which are represented by widespread microbialites or high-abundance, low-diversity communities. Except for some opportunists, primary consumers, namely foraminifers, rebounded in Smithian. Trace-makers recovered in Spathian, which also saw biodiversity increases of some clades. However, benthic communities were still of low diversity and high abundance and did not recover until middle-late Anisian when reef ecosystems have also constructed. The mid-Anisian ecosystems were characterized by the diverse reptile and fish faunas such as the Luoping biota from Yunnan, Southwest China, in which marine reptiles diversified as top predators. Thus, ecosystems were constructed step by step from low level to top trophic level through the Griesbachian to late Anisian, some 8-9 Myr after the crisis. Moreover, although some top predators also rebounded spoarically in Early Triassic, they constructed incomplete and unstable ecosystems, which could not develop sustainably and thus did not occur repetitedly in younger strata. The contrast between the extrinsic and intrinsic models exemplifies a wider debate about macroevolution -- whether the key driver is the physical environment or biotic interactions. Case studies on microbe-metazoan interactions in matground ecosystems reveal that microbial bloom seems to have set an agenda for metazoan diversification in Early Triassic, implying that intrinsic dynamics may have played a crucial role driving ecosystem's restoration following the EPME.

  1. Geology and metallogeny of the uranium deposits in the Lodeve Permian basin (southern Massif Central, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Permian continental basin of Lodeve, in the southern part of the Massif Central, 60 km west of Montpellier contains a significant uranium potential by French mining standards. The orebodies can take the form of ribbon-shaped, massive or even stratiform bodies, but always associated with bituminous facies beds and strong brittle tectonics. The major faults are sites of hydrothermal activity and in places hydraulic fracturing. Most of the uraniferous mineralisation is thought to have been associated with acid volcanism, contemporaneous with sedimentation, which could also have facilitated syn- and diagenetic preconcentrations of uranium. Later, in the course of two phases of hydrothermal mobilisation during the Jurassic and Cretaceous, uranium was remobilised on a large scale along faults containing bituminous material and impregnated with sulphides

  2. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  3. Depositional environment of Upper Carboniferous – Lower Permian beds in the Karavanke Mountains (Southern Alps, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Novak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleozoic rocks were studied in detail in the Dovžanova soteska section. The Upper Carboniferous sedimentary succession, correlated with upper part of Auernig and SchulterkofelFm. in the Carnic Alps, indicates cyclic clastic-carbonate deposition in a coastal to shallow marine ramp setting with strong influenceofcoarse-grainedfluvial-deltaicsilici-clastics from the hinterland, storm dominated regime of nearshore sediments, and offshore algal buildups. The Lower Permian sequence is developed differently from its time equivalentGrenzland Fm. and is subdivided into Dovžanova soteska Fm., Born Fm., and Rigelj beds. It is marked by the formation of a reef mound on the platform margin. Open-marine inner platform close to the marginal shoals represented the depositional environment of the mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediments. Thus, a platform evolution from a ramp into a rimmed shelf is suggested.

  4. Getting to the source: aeolian influx to the Permian Delaware basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocurek, Gary; Kirkland, Brenda L.

    1998-05-01

    Although an aeolian origin for the siliciclastics of the Permian (Guadalupian) Delaware and adjacent basins and shelf has been recognized, their source has remained elusive. An Ancestral Rockies source to the west and northwest has been traditionally favored. We propose instead that these sediments were derived from aeolian systems to the northeast and represented by the Whitehorse Group in the Anadarko Basin. This hypothesis is based upon (1) recognition of the aeolian nature of the Whitehorse, (2) regional correlation of the Whitehorse Group with portions of the Artesia Group, (3) paleoclimatic model-predicted and measured southwestward sediment transport for the Whitehorse, and (4) a proposed transport corridor over emergent mudflats along the northern margins of basisins in the Texas Panhandle and onto the New Mexico shelf. Potentially, a Whitehorse-Artesia link could show the formation of this mixed carbonate/siliciclastic system as the result of the interactions of diverse and distant environmental systems under eustatic and climatic forcing factors.

  5. Evaluation of four coals for blast furnace pulverized coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Raygan; H. Abdizadeh; A. Eskandari Rizi [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    2010-03-15

    One of the effective methods of reducing coke consumption is pulverized coal injection. The most important problems encountered in this method are reduced permeability, unburned and high ash content. To select the best coal for injection, suitable tests can be used. Therefore, experiments such as proximate and ultimate analysis, Rock-Eval and combustion tests were performed on four kinds of coals from different mines, including Sarakhs, Sangrood, Karmozd, and Tabas. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis indicated that although the sulfur content and ash content of selected coals were a little high, they were suitable for coal injection. The results of combustion experiments and Rock-Eval tests showed that Karmozd coal was the best one to be injected into blast furnace. The result indicated that the mixing of coals could improve the combustion properties of pulverized coals.

  6. Magnetostratigraphy and high-resolution lithostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary interval in Central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurlies, Michael; Bachmann, Gerhard H.; Menning, Manfred; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Käding, Karl-C.

    2003-07-01

    A comprehensive lithostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic study was carried out in order to provide a magnetic polarity scale for the Lower Buntsandstein of the classic Germanic Trias. In its type area of Central Germany the ˜300 m thick Lower Buntsandstein consists of 20 small-scale fining-upward cycles. They can be correlated over large parts of the Central European Basin using a combination of high-resolution cyclic stratigraphy and gamma-ray logging. On the basis of this robust lithostratigraphic framework a very precise positioning and correlation of paleomagnetic results has been realized. Eight outcrops and one completely cored well were collected, yielding a total of ˜900 paleomagnetic samples. From about 80% of them a characteristic remanence was obtained. The consistent correlation of lithostratigraphic units and magnetozones supports an early acquisition of the characteristic magnetizations in both the magnetite-bearing gray lithologies as well as the hematite-bearing red-brown lithologies. The inter-section correlation of all investigated profiles allows the creation of a well-defined composite magnetic polarity scale. The uppermost Zechstein comprises one normal (znz) and two reversed (zry, zrz) magnetozones. In the overlying Lower Buntsandstein are delineated three normal (sn1 to sn3) and three reversed (sr1 to sr3) well-documented magnetozones, which can be correlated with magnetic records from the Boreal and Tethyan realms. The combination of magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data suggests the base of the Oolite Alpha 2 within the beds of the so-called 'Graubankbereich' (Lower Buntsandstein) as the position of the Hindeodus parvus calibrated Permian-Triassic boundary within the Germanic Trias. It is situated within the lowermost part of a remarkable thick normal magnetozone (sn1), which is a distinctive feature occurring in virtually all magnetic records across the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  7. Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neerja Jha; M Basava Chary; Neha Aggarwal

    2012-10-01

    The entire 606 m-thick sedimentary sequence in borecore MCP-7 from Chintalapudi area, Chintalapudi sub-basin has been lithologically designated as Kamthi Formation. However, the palynological investigation revealed five distinct palynoassemblages, which essentially fall under two groups, one group (Palynoassemblage-I, II and III) having dominance of striate disaccates along with presence of some stratigraphically significant taxa, belongs to Late Permian (Raniganj) palynoflora, while the other group (Palynoassemblages IV and V) shows sharp decline in percentage of characteristic taxa of first group, i.e., striate disaccates, and consequent rise or dominance of taeniate and cingulate cavate spores, belongs to Early Triassic (Panchet) palynoflora. Palynoassemblage-I, II and III (Group I) are characterized by dominance of striate disaccates chiefly, Striatopodocarpites spp. and Faunipollenites spp. Along with presence of rare but stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Gondisporites raniganjensis, Falcisporites nuthaliensis, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Chordasporites sp., Striomonosaccites, ovatus, Crescentipollenites multistriatus, Verticipollenites debiles, Strotersporites crassiletus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, G. gondwanensis, Hamiapollenites insolitus, Corisaccites alutus, Lunatisporites ovatus, Weylandites spp. and Vitreisporites pallidus. Palynoassemblage-I is distinguished by significant presence of Densipollenites spp. while Palynoassemblage-II shows significant presence of Crescentipollenites spp. and Palynoassemblage-III differs from the above two assemblages in having significant presence of Guttulapollenites hannonicus. Palynoassemblage-IV (Group II) is characterized by high percentage of taeniate disaccates chiefly Lunatisporites spp., while Palynoassemblage-V (Group II) is characterized by cingulate-cavate trilete spores chiefly, Lundbladispora spp. and Densoisporites spp. Striate disaccates show a sharp decline in these two assemblages. In Chintalapudi area Late Permian and Early Triassic palynoflora has been recorded for the first time indicating existence of Raniganj and Panchet sediments as well. The study further supports the earlier studies of Jha and Srivastava (1996) that Kamthi Formation represents Early Triassic (=Panchet Formation) overlying Raniganj equivalent sediments with a gradational contact.

  8. Anomalous carbonate precipitates: is the Precambrian the key to the Permian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, J. P.; Knoll, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    Late Permian reefs of the Capitan complex, west Texas; the Magnesian Limestone, England; Chuenmuping reef, south China; and elsewhere contain anomalously large volumes of aragonite and calcite marine cements and sea-floor crusts, as well as abundant microbial precipitates. These components strongly influenced reef growth and may have been responsible for the construction of rigid, open reefal frames in which bryozoans and sponges became encrusted and structurally reinforced. In some cases, such as the upper biostrome of the Magnesian Limestone, precipitated microbialites and inorganic crusts were the primary constituents of the reef core. These microbial and inorganic reefs do not have modern marine counterparts; on the contrary, their textures and genesis are best understood through comparison with the older rock record, particularly that of the early Precambrian. Early Precambrian reefal facies are interpreted to have formed in a stratified ocean with anoxic deep waters enriched in carbonate alkalinity. Upwelling mixed deep and surface waters, resulting in massive seafloor precipitation of aragonite and calcite. During Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic time, the ocean became more fully oxidized, and seafloor carbonate precipitation was significantly reduced. However, during the late Neoproterozoic, sizeable volumes of deep ocean water once again became anoxic for protracted intervals; the distinctive "cap carbonates" found above Neoproterozoic tillites attest to renewed upwelling of anoxic bottom water enriched in carbonate alkalinity and 12C. Anomalous late Permian seafloor precipitates are interpreted as the product, at least in part, of similar processes. Massive carbonate precipitation was favored by: 1) reduced shelf space for carbonate precipitation, 2) increased flux of Ca to the oceans during increased continental erosion, 3) deep basinal anoxia that generated upwelling waters with elevated alkalinities, and 4) further evolution of ocean water in the restricted Delaware, Zechstein, and other basins. Temporal coincidence of these processes resulted in surface seawater that was greatly supersaturated by Phanerozoic standards and whose only precedents occurred in Precambrian oceans.

  9. Interpretation of the Last Chance thrust, Death Valley region, California, as an Early Permian décollement in a previously undeformed shale basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Last Chance thrust, discontinuously exposed over an area of at least 2500 km2 near the south end of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in the Death Valley region of east-central California, is controversial because of its poorly constrained age and its uncertain original geometry and extent. We interpret this thrust to be Early Permian in age, to extend throughout a sedimentary basin in which deep-water Mississippian shale overlain by Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian limestone turbidites accumulated, to represent about 30 km of eastward displacement, and to be related to convergence on a northeast-trending segment of the Early Permian continental margin. Last Chance deformation occurred between the times of the Antler and Sonoma orogenies of Late Devonian–Early Mississippian and Late Permian ages, respectively, and followed Early to Middle Pennsylvanian truncation of the continental margin by transform faulting.

  10. The Penrose singularity theorem in regularity C1,1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzinger, Michael; Steinbauer, Roland; Vickers, James A.

    2015-08-01

    We extend the validity of the Penrose singularity theorem to spacetime metrics of regularity {C}{1,1}. The proof is based on regularization techniques, combined with recent results in low regularity causality theory.

  11. The Penrose singularity theorem in regularity $C^{1,1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Kunzinger, Michael; Vickers, James A

    2015-01-01

    We extend the validity of the Penrose singularity theorem to spacetime metrics of regularity $C^{1,1}$. The proof is based on regularisation techniques, combined with recent results in low regularity causality theory.

  12. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  13. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  14. World's brown coal reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Z. (Poltegor, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1989-01-01

    Discusses brown coal deposits and coal reserves in the 20 countries with the highest brown coal reserves. The following aspects are discussed: age of brown coal deposits, coal petrology, coal physical properties, coal classification. Brown coal classification used in Poland is discussed: power coal, briquetting coal, coal for pyrolysis, extraction coal and coking coal. Classification of brown coal reserves in Poland is evaluated: recoverable reserves (over 3 m thick coal seams with a calorific value exceeding 1,600 kJ/kg) and nonrecoverable reserves (over 1.0 m thick coal seams with a calorific value exceeding 1,000 kJ/kg). Brown coal reserves in Poland amount to 41,000 Mt. Of it 17,800 Mt falls on nonrecoverable reserves, 23,200 Mt on recoverable reserves. Brown coal surface mines in Poland are situated in coal deposits with recoverable coal reserves of 3,000 Mt. Statistical data on brown coal reserves in Poland are analyzed (coal reserves, coal reserve class, overburden, coal seam thickness, calorific value, ash content, sulfur content, overburden-to-coal ratio). 4 refs.

  15. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multicenter study. METHODS: Information and blood samples were obtained in a cross-sectional study from patients with SLE (n?=?308) and other rheumatologic diseases (n?=?389) from 25 clinical sites (84% female, 68% Caucasian, 17% African descent, 8% Asian, 7% other). IgG anti-C1q against the collagen-like region was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Prevalence of anti-C1q was 28% (86/308) in patients with SLE and 13% (49/389) in controls (OR?=?2.7, 95% CI: 1.8-4, p?C1q was associated with proteinuria (OR?=?3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.1, p?C1q was independently associated with renal involvement after adjustment for demographics, ANA, anti-dsDNA and low complement (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2, p?C1q, anti-dsDNA and low complement was strongly associated with renal involvement (OR?=?14.9, 95% CI: 5.8-38.4, p?C1q was more common in patients with SLE and those of Asian race/ethnicity. We confirmed a significant association of anti-C1q with renal involvement, independent of demographics and other serologies. Anti-C1q in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement was the strongest serological association with renal involvement. These data support the usefulness of anti-C1q in SLE, especially in lupus nephritis.

  16. Market, trading and coal price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal world experienced a true upheaval in the past five years World coal consumption went up 28 % between 2000 and 2005, as a result of the strong growth in Chinese demand. The growth should continue in the coming years: electrical plant builders' orders are mainly for coal. The regained interest in coal is based on the constraints experienced by competing energies (increase in oil and natural gas prices, geopolitical uncertainties, supply difficulties) and by the abundant reserves of coal in the world and the competitiveness of its price. The strong growth in world coal demand comes with a change in rules governing steam coal trading. While long term bilateral agreements were most common until the late nineties, there has been a true revolution in coal marketing since 2000: spot contracts, stock exchange emergence and futures contracts, price indexes. In a few years, the steam coal market has become a true commodities market, overtaking many more goods. The price of coal has also gone through strong variations since 2003. Whereas the price had been stable for decades, in 2004 the strong increase in China' s demand for coal and iron ore resulting in transport shortage, caused a strong increase in CAF coal prices. Since then, prices have gone down, but remain higher than the Eighties and Nineties levels. In spite of the increase, coal remains available at more competitive prices than its competing energies. (authors)

  17. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewart, E. [Wood Mackenzie Coal Consulting, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs.

  18. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O; Fang, H; Alarcón, G S; Gordon, C; Merrill, Jt; Fortin, P R; Bruce, I N; Isenberg, D A; Wallace, D J; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Bae, S-C; Hanly, J G; Sanchez-Guerrero, J; Clarke, A E; Aranow, C B; Manzi, S; Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Kalunian, K C; Costner, M I; Werth, V P; Zoma, A; Bernatsky, S; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Khamashta, M A; Jacobsen, S; Buyon, J P; Maddison, P; Dooley, M A; Van Vollenhoven, R F; Ginzler, E; Stoll, T; Peschken, C; Jorizzo, J L; Callen, J P; Lim, S S; Fessler, B J; Inanc, M; Kamen, D L; Rahman, A; Steinsson, K; Franks, A G; Sigler, L; Hameed, S; Pham, N; Brey, R; Weisman, M H; McGwin, G; Magder, L S; Petri, M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multicenter study. METHODS: Information and blood samples were obtained in a cross-sectional study from patients with SLE (n?=?308) and other rheumatologic diseases (n?=?389) from 25 clinical sites (84% female, 68% Caucasian, 17% African desce...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either as...

  20. Riemannian Geometry of $C^{1,1}$ Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Groah, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Riemannian Geometry for $C^{1,1}$ manifolds contains important differences from that for $C^{2}$ manifolds. This paper develops Riemannian geometry at the $C^{1,1}$ level of regularity. It is shown that the connection is not symmetric and this leads to additional terms in curvature tensors, geodesic equations and the Bianchi identities. Failure to account for these terms leads to nonzero torsion, affecting everything from geodesics to the Einstein curvature tensor.

  1. Two-matrix models and c =1 string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the most general two-matrix model with bilinear coupling underlies c = 1 string theory. More precisely we prove that W1+? constraints, a subset of the correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy characterizing such two-matrix model, correspond exactly to the W1+? constraints, to the discrete tachyon correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy of the c = 1 string theory. (orig.)

  2. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O; Fang, H; Alarcón, G S; Gordon, C; Merrill, Jt; Fortin, P R; Bruce, I N; Isenberg, D A; Wallace, D J; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Bae, S-C; Hanly, J G; Sanchez-Guerrero, J; Clarke, A E; Aranow, C B; Manzi, S; Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Kalunian, K C; Costner, M I; Werth, V P; Zoma, A; Bernatsky, S; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Khamashta, M A; Jacobsen, Søren; Buyon, J P; Maddison, P; Dooley, M A; Van Vollenhoven, R F; Ginzler, E; Stoll, T; Peschken, C; Jorizzo, J L; Callen, J P; Lim, S S; Fessler, B J; Inanc, M; Kamen, D L; Rahman, A; Steinsson, K; Franks, A G; Sigler, L; Hameed, S; Pham, N; Brey, R; Weisman, M H; McGwin, G; Magder, L S; Petri, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multicenter study. METHODS: Information and blood samples were obtained in a cross-sectional study from patients with SLE (n?=?308) and other rheumatologic diseases (n?=?389) from 25 clinical sites (84% female, 68% Caucasian, 17% African desce...

  3. C1q nephropathy presenting as acute renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Malleshappa Pavan; Ranganath Ravi; Chaudhari Anup; Ayiangar Ashwinikumar; Lohitaksha Suratkal

    2011-01-01

    We describe a 42-year-old male patient who presented with high grade fever asso-ciated with acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Renal biopsy revealed that he had focal proliferative glomerulonephritis on light microscopy, dominant mesangial deposition of C1q by immunofluorescent staining, and electron dense deposits on electron microscopy, with no evi-dence of systemic lupus erythematosus, compatible with the diagnosis of C1q nephropathy. Intensive treatment with a combination of meth...

  4. The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Virgili, C.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important climatic and biological crises of the history of the Earth occurred 250 m.a. ago, during the transition from the Permian to the Triassic. During the Permian, all of the continental blocks were covering one hemisphere forming the Pangea supercontinent, while the other was covered by the Panthalasa ocean. General conditions for living on land were very precarious. The exuberant vegetation of the Carboniferous period had disappeared almost completely, as well as the ...

  5. The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Virgili, Carmina

    2008-01-01

    [EN] One of the most important climatic and biological crises of the history of the Earth occurred 250 m.a. ago, during the transition from the Permian to the Triassic. During the Permian, all of the continental blocks were covering one hemisphere forming the Pangea supercontinent, while the other was covered by the Panthalasa ocean. General conditions for living on land were very precarious. The exuberant vegetation of the Carboniferous period had disappeared almost completely, as w...

  6. Pulverized coal combustion characteristics of high-fuel-ratio coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoichi Kurose; Michitaka Ikeda; Hisao Makino; Masayoshi Kimoto; Tetsuo Miyazaki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Kanagawa (Japan). Yokosuka Research Laboratory

    2004-09-01

    It is strongly desired for coal-fired power plants in Japan to utilize not only low-rank coals with high moisture and high ash contents, but also high-rank coals with high fuel ratio for diversifying fuel sources and lowering cost. In this study, pulverized coal combustion characteristics of high-fuel-ratio coals are experimentally investigated using an approximately 100 kg-coal/h pulverized coal combustion test furnace. The combustion characteristics are compared to those for bituminous coal. The coals tested are six kinds of coal with fuel ratios ranging from 1.46 to 7.10. The results show that under the non-staged combustion condition, the minimum burner load for stable combustion rises as fuel ratio increases. To improve the stability, it is effective to lengthen the residence time of coal particles in the high gas temperature region close to the burner outlet by using a recirculation flow. The conversion ratio of fuel nitrogen to NOx and unburned carbon fraction increases with increasing the fuel ratio. In addition, as the fuel ratio increases, NOx reduction owing to the staged combustion becomes small, and unburned carbon fraction increment becomes significant. The numerical simulations conducted under the staged combustion condition show that although the numerical results are in general agreement with the experimental ones, there remains room for improvement in NOx reduction model for high-fuel-ratio coals. 17 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. TEKO returns to coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

  8. Healy Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  9. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  10. Natural radioactivity in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

  11. Power generation at coal pit-heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crushing and sieving of coal at the collieries could improve quality of coal supplied to the consumers. Retaining 50 to 70 million tonnes of coal fines at pit-heads would enable the Indian railways to transport all coal, thus eliminating coal transport by trucks which consumes diesel. The retained coal fines can be used for generating cheaper power. (author)

  12. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  13. Coal terminal developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, J.

    2008-02-15

    The article reports developments at many coal terminals worldwide. These include Bulgaria's Port of Bourgas Temrinal 2A, Spain's Tarragona Port Services (TPS) terminal, New Zealand's Lyttleton Port of Christchurch (LPC), Kinder Morgan's terminals in the USA (the International Marine terminal, Cora terminal, Grand Rivers terminal and Fairless Hills terminal) and Croatia's Port of Ploce. Developments at coal terminals in France and Belgium are also summarized. Global transportation services offered by Rhenus are described. 12 photos.

  14. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  15. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  16. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    OpenAIRE

    Be?ovská Mária; Èurillová Dana; Machajová Zlatica

    2002-01-01

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - th...

  17. Primer caso registrado en Cuba de nefropatía C1q / First case of C1q nephropathy in Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neri Georgina, Campañá Cobas; Agustín, Chong López; Sandalio, Durán Álvarez; Severino, Hernández Hernández; Mario, Valdés Mesa.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La nefropatía C1q es una glomerulopatía no comprendida completamente y con algunas controversias conceptuales, pero con característica inmunológica distintiva (depósito dominante o co-dominante de C1q) y no evidencia clínica ni serológica de lupus eritematoso sistémico. Se presenta paciente masculin [...] o que comienza a los 10 meses de edad con un síndrome nefrótico con hematuria, hipertensión arterial e insuficiencia renal. Se realiza una primera biopsia renal y se plantea una esclerosis mesangial difusa, pero su evolución posterior con respuesta parcial a la prednisona y el mantenimiento de proteinuria en rango nefrótico con normalización de los parámetros humorales, nos lleva a realizar una segunda biopsia renal que arroja, por la inmunofluorescencia, una nefropatía C1q. Abstract in english C1q nephropathy is a poorly understood glomerulopathy with some conceptual controversies, but with a distinctive immunologic characteristic (dominant or co-dominant deposit of C1q) and neither clinical nor serological evidence of systemic erythematous lupus. This is the case of a male patient who be [...] gan suffering nephritic syndrome with hematuria, blood hypertension and renal failure at 10 months of age. A first renal biopsy was performed to detect diffuse mesangeal sclerosis; however after partial response of the patient to prednisone therapy and to maintenance treatment of proteinuria in nephritic range, with normalization of humoral parameters, then a second renal biopsy was performed with immunofluorescence. The final result was C1q nephropathy.

  18. The new deal of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO2 emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO2 capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO2-free coal: CO2 capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  19. Permian depositional age of metaturbidites of the Duque de York Complex, southern Chile: U-Pb SHRIMP data and palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Duque de York Complex (DYC) is part of the low grade metamorphic accretionary complexes of the pre-Andean Patagonian 'basement'. It is a sedimentary succession exposed along the western margin of southernmost South America. New U-Pb zircon ages and palynological data restrict the maximum depositional age of the DYC to the limit between the early Permian (Kungurian) and the middle Permian (Roadian). The palynological association recorded in the DYC, characterized mainly by Gymnospermopsida pollen, indicates a humid environment of forest with an under-growth of ferns. Regional paleogeographic correlations point out that an interpretation of DYC as an autochthonous terrane cannot be discarded, contrasting with previous hypotheses which suggest an allochthonous character for this complex

  20. Structure of the major carrot allergen Dau c 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovi?-Housley, Zora; Basle, Arnaud; Padavattan, Sivaraman; Maderegger, Bernhard; Schirmer, Tilman; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin

    2009-11-01

    Dau c 1 is a major allergen of carrot (Daucus carota) which displays IgE cross-reactivity with the homologous major birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1. The crystal structure of Dau c 1 has been determined to a resolution of 2.7 A, revealing tight dimers. The structure of Dau c 1 is similar to those of the major allergens from celery, Api g 1, and birch pollen, Bet v 1. Electron density has been observed in the hydrophobic cavity of each monomer and has been modelled with polyethylene glycol oligomers of varying length. Comparison of the surface topology and physicochemical properties of Dau c 1 and Bet v 1 revealed that they may have some, but not all, epitopes in common. This is in agreement with the observation that the majority of carrot-allergic patients have Bet v 1 cross-reactive IgE antibodies, whereas others have Dau c 1-specific IgE antibodies which do not recognize Bet v 1. PMID:19923716

  1. Polygeneration from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.M.

    2008-10-15

    The development prospects and current situation of coal-based polygeneration projects are reviewed. A polygeneration plant is defined as one that exports electricity and one or more other products. Manufacturing two or more products can exploit synergies between the constituent processes (thereby increasing overall plant efficiency), increase operational flexibility, and offer economic advantages. Polygeneration is achieved via coal gasification that produces syngas. The report begins by outlining the technologies for the production (entrained, fluidised and moving bed gasifiers) and cleaning of the syngas, before describing the production of electricity, hydrogen, SNG, ammonia, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, methanol and dimethyl ether from the syngas. The economics of the coproduction of electricity and these products is discussed in general terms. Environmental aspects of these plants, including air emissions, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, water usage and solid wastes, are examined. Polygeneration plants have the potential to be low emission plants. Polygeneration projects in Australia, China, Japan, Europe, Canada and the USA, that are in the public domain, are then described. Opportunities for polygeneration plants exist in countries and areas where there are ample coal reserves or where there is an existing coal import infrastructure, good CO{sub 2} utilisation or storage options, and a market for the electricity and coproducts. 266 refs., 19 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  3. Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  4. World coking coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Novel Bacterial Isolate from Permian Groundwater, Capable of Aggregating Potential Biofuel-Producing Microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Laughinghouse, Haywood D.; Matthew A. Anderson; CHEN, Feng; Willliams, Ernest; Place, Allen R; Zmora, Odi; Zohar, Yonathan; Zheng, Tianling; Hill, Russell T.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing petroleum costs and climate change have resulted in microalgae receiving attention as potential biofuel producers. Little information is available on the diversity and functions of bacterial communities associated with biofuel-producing algae. A potential biofuel-producing microalgal strain, Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1, was grown in Permian groundwater. Changes in the bacterial community structure at three temperatures were monitored by two culture-independent methods, and cultu...

  6. Identification of the Early Permian (Autunian) in the subsurface of the Ebro Basin, NE Spain, and its paleogeographic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, Alfredo; Diez Ferrer, José B.; López Gómez, José

    2007-01-01

    The Early Permian (Autunian) has not been identifi ed up to now in the subsurface of the Tertiary Ebro Basin because of the scarcity of oil well boreholes reaching the Variscan basement and the systematic attribution of a Carboniferous age, without any paleontological data, to the unmetamorfosed siliciclastic sediments found at the base of some of them, clearly above the Early Paleozoic basement. Grey and black shale samples recovered from cores preserved in the REPSOL-YPF archives o...

  7. Identification of the Early Permian (Autunian) in the subsurface of the Ebro Basin, NE Spain, and its paleogeographic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, A.; Díez, J.B.; López-Gómez, José

    2007-01-01

    [EN] The Early Permian (Autunian) has not been identifi ed up to now in the subsurface of the Tertiary Ebro Basin because of the scarcity of oil well boreholes reaching the Variscan basement and the systematic attribution of a Carboniferous age, without any paleontological data, to the unmetamorfosed siliciclastic sediments found at the base of some of them, clearly above the Early Paleozoic basement. Grey and black shale samples recovered from cores preserved in the REPSOL-YPF archi...

  8. Palaeogeographical significance of clay mineral assemblages in the Permian and Triassic sediments of the SE Iberian Ranges, eastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Arche, Alfredo; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; López Gómez, José; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Rodas , Magdalena

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the palaeogeography of the SE Iberian Basin during the Permian and Triassic represents a general evolution from continental to marine environments. It has been recently studied from the sedimentological, stratigraphical, tectonic and palaeontological points of view. In spite of these results, many aspects of this palaeogeography are still a matter of discussion. In this study, clay mineralogy analysis complements previous studies representing a new aspect for unde...

  9. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  10. Kerogen morphology and geochemistry at the Permian-Triassic transition in the Meishan section, South China: Implication for paleoenvironmental variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Ken; Kaiho, Kunio; Okano, Kazuki

    2012-08-01

    Detailed fluorescent microscopic observations and organic geochemical analyses for insoluble sedimentary organic matter (kerogens) are conducted on the end-Permian to earliest Triassic sediments in the Meishan section A of South China. The main objectives of the present study are to reconstruct variations of marine and terrestrial environments, and to evaluate bulk characteristics of terrestrial input in the palaeo-Tethys ocean for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). Most of kerogens in the Meishan section are mainly composed of marine algae-derived amorphous organic matter, while terrestrial plant-derived amorphous organic matter is remarkably dominant in the mass extinction horizon reported previously. The relative abundances of marine organic matter may vary depending on marine production rather than terrestrial input in the palaeo-Tethys associated with changing terrestrial vegetation. We also identified aromatic furans as major compounds in kerogen pyrolysate of all layers. It is possible that sources of aromatic furans with alkyl group, fungi and lichen, proliferated as disaster biota in terrestrial ecosystem through the PTB. Higher abundances of herbaceous organic matter are observed in the layers above the mass extinction horizon. However, the conifer biomarker retene can be identified in kerogen pyrolysates of all layers. These results imply that the productions of herbaceous plants increased as dominant pioneer biota in early stage of recovery for terrestrial ecosystem after its collapse, but also that woody plant potentially continued to be produced in land area throughout the end-Permian and earliest-Triassic.

  11. String beta function equations from the c=1 matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive the ?-model tachyon ?-function equation of 2-dimensional string theory, in the background of flat space and linear dilaton, working entirely within the c=1 matrix model. The tachyon ?-function equation is satisfied by a nonlocal and nonlinear combination of the (massless) scalar field of the matrix model. We discuss the possibility of describing the 'discrete states' as well as other possible gravitational and higher tensor backgrounds of 2-dimensional string theory within the c=1 matrix model. We also comment on the realization of the W-infinity symmetry of the matrix model in the string theory. The present work reinforces the viewpoint that a nonlocal (and nonlinear) transform is required to extract the space-time physics of 2-dimensional string theory from the c=1 matrix model. (orig.)

  12. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  13. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  14. Angioedema in a Patient with C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sra Braz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Angioedema is characterized by recurrent, circumscribed, solitary or multiple subcutaneous and mucosal swelling, involving the extremities, face, larynx, bowel wall. Angioedema is due to hereditary or acquired varieties of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH deficiency. A case of atypical acquired angioedema in a 49-year old man, responding favourably to cinnarizine and alcohol abstinence, is presented in this article. Cinnarizine was prescribed due to presumed alcoholic liver disease. The clinical significant amelioration was not associated with concomitant good laboratory result, which is a relatively common occurrence.

  15. Novel C-1 Substituted Cocaine Analogs Unlike Cocaine or Benztropine

    OpenAIRE

    Reith, Maarten E. A.; Ali, Solav; Hashim, Audrey; Sheikh, Imran S.; Theddu, Naresh; Gaddiraju, Narendra V.; Mehrotra, Suneet; Schmitt, Kyle C; Murray, Thomas F; Sershen, Henry; Unterwald, Ellen M; Davis, Franklin A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on cocaine-like compounds, there is no information on cocaine analogs with substitutions at C-1. Here, we report on (R)-(?)-cocaine analogs with various C-1 substituents: methyl (2), ethyl (3), n-propyl (4), n-pentyl (5), and phenyl (6). Analog 2 was equipotent to cocaine as an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas 3 and 6 were 3- and 10-fold more potent, respectively. None of the analogs, however, stimulated mouse locomotor activity, in contrast...

  16. Topological cigar and the c=1 string: Open and closed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We clarify some aspects of the map between the c=1 string theory at self-dual radius and the topologically twisted cigar at level one. We map the ZZ and FZZT D-branes in the c=1 string theory at self dual radius to the localized and extended branes in the topological theory on the cigar. We show that the open string spectrum on the branes in the two theories are in correspondence with each other, and their two point correlators are equal. We also find a representation of an extended N = 2 algebra on the worldsheet which incorporates higher spin currents in terms of asymptotic variables on the cigar. (author)

  17. C1q nephropathy presenting as acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshappa Pavan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 42-year-old male patient who presented with high grade fever asso-ciated with acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Renal biopsy revealed that he had focal proliferative glomerulonephritis on light microscopy, dominant mesangial deposition of C1q by immunofluorescent staining, and electron dense deposits on electron microscopy, with no evi-dence of systemic lupus erythematosus, compatible with the diagnosis of C1q nephropathy. Intensive treatment with a combination of methyl prednisolone pulse therapy and oral predni-solone was successful in achieving complete remission and disappearance of proteinuria in our patient.

  18. Matrix models, topological field theories and c?1 string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review ordinary and extended two-matrix models and their application to 2D gravity. After a general introduction we deal in particular with two aspects: 1) the emergence from two-matrix models of n-th KdV hierarchies and the topological field theories associated to them; 2) the representation of the discrete states of the c=1 string theory by means of the extended two-matrix model. These constitute two remarkable examples of our idea that two-matrix models provide a unifying description of 2D gravity coupled to c?1 conformal matter. (author)

  19. 75 FR 57846 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...2010-18-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...design installation, with replacement as necessary for Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1...

  20. Buckets of money for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revival of coal prices is providing record profits for Australian coal producers. As the world's largest coal exporter, any move in coal prices has significant ramifications for the Australian economy. The coal boom of the mid-1980s resulted in a massive increase in mine capacity and subsequently excess supply. This resulted in the decade between 1990 and 2000 seeing benchmark prices for coking coal in Japan plummeting to $US 39 a tonne (down from around the $US 52 mark) and a price of $US 28 for a tonne of steaming coal. Asia's financial problems, late in the decade coupled with a rapid fall in Asian steel making, also added to our coal export woes. As a result for most of the 1990s, Australia's coal sector delivered inadequate returns, was seen as over-capitalised and suffered from a profound investor indifference. But the sector is now seeing a definite turnaround in fortunes. Prices for thermal coal are on the rise and the benchmark coking coal prices to Asia have also jumped. Market analysts reported the price for contract deliveries of thermal coal in April this year were $US 34.50 ($AUD 69.35) up by $US 5.75 from the same time last year. The increased production is expected on the back of a continued rise in export demand, further improvement in prices, significant improvements in mine productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of new projects and mine extensions going into operation. The improved returns have also flowed into rising valuations for listed coal miners. Over the last year, coal miners such as MIM and Gympie Gold, have delighted in share price gains of 12 per cent and 55 per cent respectively. These sort of performances are being repeated across the Australian industry

  1. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  2. Chromium in coal in Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptak, B. [Polish Geological Institute (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The average concentration of chromium in Silesian hard coal was obtained on the basis of more than 15,000 analysis from 540 boreholes in Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Analysis of chromium concentration in coal ash was carried out by X-ray fluorescence, by the Polish Geological Institute and by emission spectography at the Geological Company of Katowice. Its average concentration in coal is 23 g/t and 170 g/t in coal ash. The average concentration was also calculated for Carboniferous stratigraphical series, exploited (68 items) and nonexploited (27 items) coal deposits in Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Elevated concentration of chromium occur in the coal from eastern and southern parts of the basin. Low concentration is observed in most of deposits in central part of the basin. Knowledge of lateral and vertical distribution of chromium concentration in coal is important for taking more advantage of coal, application of appropriate enrichment technologies and environmental contamination. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Unusual carbon isotope compositions of biomarker hydrocarbons in a Permian tasmanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Schoell, Martin; Dias, Robert F.; de Aquino Neto, F. Radler

    1993-09-01

    The Permian oil shale sample of this study is from a deposit in Tasmania in which the only recognizable structures are large, thick-walled, unicellular specimens of the green alga Tasmanites. The fossils are so densely packed that this shale is termed tasmanite. The carbon isotopic composition of bulk kerogen carbon ( ?C13Corg = -16.6%., vs. PDB) is unusually enriched in 13C compared to marine Permian organic carbon (-25 to -30%.). This 13C enrichment suggests specific environmental conditions (CO 2 draw down) and/or physiological specialties (cell size and growth rate) of Tasmanites which, in modern environments, are known to cause 13C enrichment in marine phytoplankton. Isotope signatures of extractable organic species, unlike in normal immature oil shales, are considerably enriched in 13C compared to the kerogen. The bitumen (-10.9%.) is composed predominantly of extended saturated C 18-C 25 tricyclic terpane hydrocarbons (-9.9 to -12.2%. total range, with an average of -10.8%.). These tricyclics are not only found as free lipids in the extract but also in pyrolysates with similar isotopic signatures and are therefore likely biosynthesis products of Tasmanites. The monoaromatic and diaromatic tricyclic terpane hydrocarbons (C 17-C 19) have similar isotopic signatures (-9.3 to -12.8%. total range, with an average of -10.6%.). Two monoaromatic tetracyclic hydrocarbons (C 23 and C 24), a quantitatively minor but biogenetically interesting group, average at -10.2%.. In contrast, pristane and phytane, as well as n-alkanes (-18 to -22%.), are depleted in 13C compared to kerogen carbon. The isotopic similarity of all the cyclic terpanes in this sample, together with their occurrence in the free lipids and kerogen, suggests that they have a common origin and are biosynthesis products of the marine unicellular green algae Tasmanites. The tetracyclic terpanes, therefore, are not des-A-oleananes derived from land plants but are possibly monoaromatic des-A-gammaceranes or other des-A-triterpenoids derived from marine sources. The unusual enrichment in 13C in the cyclic hydrocarbons is hypothesized to result from the special growth conditions of the algae. Isoprenoids and n-alkanes are also likely biosynthesis products of Tasmanites, possibly during the spore formation stage when physiological and environmental conditions were different than during planktonic biosynthesis.

  4. The Permian-Triassic granitoids in Bayan Obo, North China Craton: A geochemical and geochronological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ming-Xing; Zhang, Hong; Li, He; Liu, Yu-Long; Liu, Jian; Li, Lin-Qing; Li, Cong-Ying; Yang, Xiao-Yong; Sun, Weidong

    2014-03-01

    Granitoids near the Bayan Obo giant rare earth element (REE) deposit at the north margin of the North China Craton (NCC), the world's largest light REE (LREE) deposit, have been taken by some authors as the key factors that controlled the mineralization. In contrast, others proposed that the REE deposit has been partially destructed by these granitoids. Here we report systematic studies on geochronology and geochemical characteristics of granitoids of different distances from the orebodies, to investigate the genesis and their relationship to the giant Bayan Obo deposit. Granitoids studied here, including granites and quartz monzonites, are peraluminous with A/CNK = 0.99-1.11, LREE enriched and heavy REE (HREE) depleted, with variable REE concentrations (total REE = 54-330 ppm) and large negative Eu anomaly (?Eu = 0.19-0.70). The REE patterns are distinct from those of ore-bearing dolomites. Some samples have slightly higher LREE concentrations, which may have been contaminated by the orebodies during intrusion. Trace elements of the granitoids are characterized by positive Pb anomaly, strong negative Ti anomaly and Nb, Ta and Sr anomalies. The granites exhibit negative Ba anomaly. The granitoids plot within the post-collision granite field in the Pearce diagram, which is consistent with the tectonic regime. The quartz monzonites and one granite have A-type granite characteristics and belong to the A2 subgroup. Zircons in these granitoids have high Th/U values, which are typical for magmatic zircons. High precision U-Pb dating for these zircons by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) yields Permian-Triassic 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 243.2 to 293.8 Ma. The formation of the granitoids is > 55 Ma later than the latest ore forming age. The zircons have low La concentrations (0.02-12 ppm), high (Sm/La)N (0.8-685) and Ce/Ce* (1.4-80). The Ti-in-zircon temperature of the granitoids ranges from 590 to 770 °C. All these evidences suggest that the granitoids have no contribution to the formation of the Bayan Obo deposit. Granitoids that are close to the orebodies had limited interaction with it and gained some LREE-enriched characteristics during magmatisms. Nevertheless, their effects to the orebodies are subtle. All the granitoids formed in a post-collisional tectonic regime at convergent margins, which is consistent with plate subduction during the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean, which started in the Neoproterozoic and lasted until the Carboniferous/Permian.

  5. National coal utilization assessment: modeling long-term coal production with the Argonne coal market model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dux, C.D.; Kroh, G.C.; VanKuiken, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    The Argonne Coal Market Model was developed as part of the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a comprehensive study of coal-related environmental, health, and safety impacts. The model was used to generate long-term coal market scenarios that became the basis for comparing the impacts of coal-development options. The model has a relatively high degree of regional detail concerning both supply and demand. Coal demands are forecast by a combination of trend and econometric analysis and then input exogenously into the model. Coal supply in each region is characterized by a linearly increasing function relating increments of new mine capacity to the marginal cost of extraction. Rail-transportation costs are econometrically estimated for each supply-demand link. A quadratic programming algorithm is used to calculate flow patterns that minimize consumer costs for the system.

  6. Chondromyxoid fibroma of C1: first case report / Fibroma condromixoide de C1: primer caso / Fibroma condromixóide de C1: primeiro relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ericson, Sfreddo; Asdrubal, Falavigna; Vinícius Borges, Soares; Silvia Chaves e, Silva; André, Nesi; Vinícius Carraro do, Nascimento; Pedro Guarise da, Silva.

    Full Text Available REVISÃO: O fibroma condromixóide (FCM) é um tumor ósseo primário, benigno e raro. A coluna cervical é um local incomum desse tumor, com apenas 10 casos relatados, sendo que nenhum envolveu a primeira vértebra cervical (C1). RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 25 anos, gêmea monozigótica, apre [...] sentando dor cervical. A imagem radiográfica demonstrou lesão lítica contrastada, predominantemente na massa lateral de C1 com extensão para o arco posterior e anterior. A ressecção do tumor foi feita em dois tempos, inicialmente uma abordagem postero-lateral, seguida pela via posterior. Nesta última, foi relizada uma fixação occiptocervical. O exame anátomo-patológico foi compatível com FCM. Passado um ano dos procedimentos, a paciente permanecia sem doença e com estabilidade craniocervical. CONCLUSÃO: Especialistas de coluna devem ter o conhecimento de que estes tumores raros podem acometer a coluna vertebral e, apesar da sua proximidade com tecido neural e estruturas vasculares, o objetivo da cirurgia é a sua ressecção radical devido ao alto índice de recidiva. Abstract in spanish REVISIÓN: El fibroma condromixoide (FCM) es un tumor óseo primario, benigno y raro. La columna cervical es un lugar raro de este tumor, con solamente 10 casos relatados, siendo que ninguno involucra a la primera vértebra cervical (C1). RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo femenino, 25 años, gemela mon [...] ozigótica, presentando dolor cervical. La imagen radiográfica demostró una lesión contrastada, predominantemente en la masa lateral de C1 con extensión hacia el arco posterior y anterior. La resección del tumor se realizó en dos tiempos, inicialmente una aproximación posterolateral, seguida por la vía posterior. En esta última, se realizó una fijación occipitocervical. El análisis anatomopatológico fue compatible con FCM. Pasado un año de los procedimientos, la paciente permanecía sin enfermedad y con estabilidad cranio-cervical. CONCLUSIÓN: Especialistas de columna deben tener el conocimiento de que estos tumores raros pueden acometer a la columna vertebral y, a pesar de su proximidad con el tejido neural y las estructuras vasculares, el objetivo de la cirugía es su resección radical debido al alto índice de recidiva. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare, benign primary bone tumor. The cervical spine is an uncommon site for this tumor, with only 10 reported cases to date and none involving the first cervical vertebra (C1). CASE REPORT: Female patient, 25-year-old monozygotic female twin, presented wi [...] th cervical pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated a contrast-enhanced, right-sided lytic lesion of the insufflated type in C1, with a punched-out appearance and extending to the anterior arch. A postero-lateral and a posterior approach were performed in two steps to resect the tumor followed by occipitocervical fixation. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of CMF. At one year, the patient remains disease free with excellent spinal stability. CONCLUSION: Spinal surgeons may need to treat rare spinal tumors. Despite the proximity to neural and vascular structures, the goal of surgery is always a radical resection due to high recurrence rates.

  7. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

  8. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kessels [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    This report examines the prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Thailand. The country's existing coal reserves are examined and the probable need to import coal to meet the future coal is explained. A discussion on the generation capacity in Thailand examines the current and future prospects for coal-fired power generation. The role of the government in the coal sector is discussed along with the power development plan being implemented to meet increasing energy demand. Environmental issues related to coal are a major issue in Thailand particularly because of problems with SO{sub 2} emissions at the Mae Moh power station which have been solved by the use of flue gas desulphurisation. The report examines the role of international organisations such as the ADB, APEC, WB, ASEAN, IEA and USAID in clean coal technologies and how this could be improved. 70% of Thailand's power is generated from natural gas. The government recognises the need to diversify its energy sources since only 12 years of proven domestic gas reserves remain. Northern Thailand has around 2 Gt of coal reserves, mostly lignite of high sulphur content. It is estimated that 1 Gt of these could be used economically. Coal production in 2008 was between 18-19 Mt which was supplemented with 17-18 Mt of imports. In the future it is likely that all new coal-fired power stations will burn imported low sulphur coal with imports projected to rise to 48 Mt by 2021. Thailand is facing up to a challenge to develop and deploy clean coal technologies. This has begun with the first supercritical coal-fired power station being built, due to be operational by 2011. A key conclusion of this report is that a central organisation should be established in the public or private sector to undertake and promote clean coal technology research, education and deployment with domestic and international organisations as well as strengthen the sustainable use of coal in Thailand. 186 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires. Finally, coal fire geomorphology helps to explain landscape features whose occurrence would otherwise not be understood. Although coal fire-induced thermal anomalies and gas release are also indications of coal fire activity, as addressed by many investigators, no assessment is complete without sound geomorphologic mapping of the fire-induced geomorphologic features.

  10. C^1-regularity for local graph representations of immersions

    OpenAIRE

    Breuning, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We consider immersions admitting uniform graph representations over the affine tangent space over a ball of fixed radius r>0. We show that for sufficiently small C^0-norm of the graph functions, each graph function is smooth with small C^1-norm.

  11. Pediatric hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH is a rare, life-threatening disorder. It is characterized by attacks of angioedema involving the skin and/or the mucosa of the upper airways, as well as the intestinal mucosa. In approximately 50 per cent of cases, clinical manifestations may appear during childhood. The complex management of HAE in pediatric patients is in many respects different from the management of adults. Establishing the diagnosis early, preferably before the onset of clinical symptoms, is essential in cases with a positive family history. Complement studies usually afford accurate diagnosis, whereas molecular genetics tests may prove helpful in uncertain cases. Appropriate therapy, supported by counselling, suitable modification of lifestyle, and avoidance of triggering factors (which primarily include mechanical trauma, mental stress and airway infections in children may spare the patient unnecessary surgery and may prevent mortality. Prompt control of edematous attacks, short-term prophylaxis and intermittent therapy are recommended as the primary means for the management of pediatric cases. Medicinal products currently used for the treatment of children with hereditary angioedema include antifibrinolytics, attenuated androgens, and C1-INH replacement therapy. Current guidelines favour antifibrinolytics for long-term prophylaxis because of their favorable safety profile but efficacy may be lacking. Attenuated androgens administered in the lowest effective dose are another option. C1-INH replacement therapy is also an effective and safe agent for children. Regular monitoring and follow-up of patients are necessary.

  12. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Be?ovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  13. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  14. Adding coal pitch to coal charges for coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurtovnik, P.F.; Larionov, Yu.A.; Lipchik, I.I.; Malevich, V.K.; Bychev, M.I.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Zvegil' skii, D.S.; Turik, I.A.

    1982-07-01

    This paper defines possibilities for coal pitch utilization during blast furnace coke production. Technical and element analysis show coke quality improvements when coal pitch is added to the coal charge. Noticeable decreases occur in ash and sulfur contents, 0.1 and 0.03% respectively. Grain size composition and physico-mechanical properties are studied, their figures are given in tables. Tables show the effects of 0.5% to 8.0% addition of pitch to the coal charge on numerous properties of the charge and coke. A direct relationship is revealed between changes in coke quality and additional quantities of pitch added within an interval studied. Higher temperature coal pitch, however, tends to be less effective than medium temperature pitch. The authors explain Mass spectroscopic method by which coal pitch samples were studied. Pitch's chemical composition characteristics which have an effect on caking are given. (13 refs.)

  15. Hwasun coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jai; Kang, Chang Hee; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Jong Lim; Kim, Chung Han; Hong, Sung Gyu [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This research is for providing appropriate measures on mine safety and long term development base of the operating mines by over whole safety inspections. Hwasun mine of Daihan Coal Corporation was target for this research. Major problems of Hwasun mine are the surface subsidence and water inflow caused by extraction of large scale pocket type ore body. Besides, in most cases, the morale of mine workers and business mind of owners are so depressed that the mine safety is going to be vulnerable anyhow. In this point of view, the regulatory and systematic measures to encourage the workers` morale and owners` investment mind are urgently requested. However, investigation result of underground electrical hazard showed that there is no remarkable problems. The average efficiency of pumps revealed 50% which is considered rather good condition yet, and no coal seams were found which bears excessive carbon dioxide gas. (author). 11 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. 75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal...

  17. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, J.K. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. (Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  18. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  19. Reducing coal transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years ago, the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 became law. This act significantly altered the landscape against which the freight rates paid by electric utilities and other shippers for transporting coal and other goods by rail are determined. Among the most significant changes was the creation of the Rail Cost Adjustment Factor (RCAF), a special mechanism to enable railroads to recoup increases in their costs through expedited rate increases. The RCAF has generated much controversy between shippers and railroads, especially over the treatment of changes in rail productivity, that is, whether the RCAF should track only changes in the prices paid by railroads for raw inputs or should instead measure changes in the actual cost of rail production by reflecting increases in the amount of output achieved per unit of input. Shippers last year won a major battle when the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) added a productivity adjustment to the RCAF, although that decision is still subject to judicial review and possible modification by the ICC. The railroads have responded to the productivity adjustment by pursuing other means of raising their rates, thus creating new issues and choices for utilities. This article reviews the role and significance of the RCAF, explains the nature and impact of the new productivity adjustment, and analyzes the implications of the productivity adjustment for the pricing of rail transportation services in the future. These matters are of major importance for coal-burning utilities and their ratepayers, especially as the cost of coal transportation in many areas exceeds the cost of the coal itself

  20. Producing coal briquets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuraniva, M.

    1983-08-25

    The process includes polymer (P1) coating of coal briquets which forms at conventional temperature but disappears with heat treatment, combustion or evaporation, for instance, with combustion in a coke furnace. Polymer materials, such as polyvinylacetate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyolefin, polyether and polyvinylchloride are used for the coating. A certain erosion occurs with transport of the briquets to warehouses and beyond. This reduces the output of the briquets, but the use of the film coating (Pk) eliminates this phenomenon.

  1. Eolian dune types preserved in the Tensleep Sandstone (Pennsylvanian-Permian), north-central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Dennis R.; Dott, Robert H.

    1988-04-01

    The Tensleep Sandstone is one component of an erg system that prograded southward out of north-central Wyoming from Middle Pennsylvanian to Early Permian time. Each erg advance was temporarily interrupted by regional marine transgression. Interpretation of dune types deposited in these ergs is developed from an analysis of the relative proportions of eolian stratification types comprising foreset strata, geometry and relationships of bounding surfaces, and paleodispersal patterns. Two basic morphologic dune types are inferred: simple dunes and compound crescentic dunes. The simple dunes are dominant and are subdivided into 1-2 km wavelength and 1.0 km saddle-spacing slightly crescentic, and 0.1-0.2 km wavelength straight-crested subtypes based on their first-order bounding surface geometries. Foresets are composed of grainfall and wind-ripple strata; avalanche strata are rare. The compound crescentic dunes had wavelengths of 0.5-1 km and saddle spacings of 0.8 km. Foresets are dominated by avalanche and wind-ripple strata. A morphodynamic classification of the dune types is inferred from considerations deduced from paleodispersal patterns and comparison with paleocirculation models. The simple dunes were demonstrably oblique to some elements of the wind field and less oblique to others. The compound crescentic dunes had a predominantly transverse configuration.

  2. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2-97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK =1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09-2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32-8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806? is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian. (author)

  3. Evidence of a therapsid scavenger in the Late Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicholas, Fordyce; Roger, Smith; Anusuya, Chinsamy.

    Full Text Available Dicynodonts are an extinct group of herbivorous non-mammalian therapsids ('mammal-like' reptiles) that are widely known from terrestrial Permo-Triassic strata throughout Pangaea. Dicynodont fossil remains are common within the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin in South Africa. A large, [...] partially articulated dicynodont skeleton recovered from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone is taphonomically important in having an unusual disarticulation pattern, bone surface punctures and a broken tooth of an unidentified carnivore associated with it. Here we report on the nature of the bone damage, and the identity of the carnivore that lost a canine tooth whilst scavenging the dicynodont carcass. The morphological characteristics of the serrations on the unidentified tooth were compared with those of contemporaneous carnivores, the gorgonopsians and therocephalians. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of a silicone cast of the unidentified tooth revealed distinctive 0.5-mm square-shaped serrations. Our comparative assessment of the tooth size, curvature, cross-sectional shape and morphology of the serrations revealed that the unidentified canine most closely matched Aelurognathus, a gorgonopsian known from the same assemblage zone.

  4. Evidence of a therapsid scavenger in the Late Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Fordyce

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dicynodonts are an extinct group of herbivorous non-mammalian therapsids (‘mammal-like’ reptiles that are widely known from terrestrial Permo-Triassic strata throughout Pangaea. Dicynodont fossil remains are common within the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin in South Africa. A large, partially articulated dicynodont skeleton recovered from the TropidostomaAssemblage Zone is taphonomically important in having an unusual disarticulation pattern, bone surface punctures and a broken tooth of an unidentified carnivore associated with it. Here we report on the nature of the bone damage, and the identity of the carnivore that lost a canine tooth whilst scavenging the dicynodont carcass. The morphological characteristics of the serrations on the unidentified tooth were compared with those of contemporaneous carnivores, the gorgonopsians and therocephalians. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of a silicone cast of the unidentified tooth revealed distinctive 0.5-mm square-shaped serrations. Our comparative assessment of the tooth size, curvature, cross-sectional shape and morphology of the serrations revealed that the unidentified canine most closely matched Aelurognathus,a gorgonopsian known from the same assemblage zone.

  5. Anoxia/high temperature double whammy during the Permian-Triassic marine crisis and its aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Sun, Yadong; Song, Huyue; He, Weihong; Tian, Li

    2014-02-01

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction was the most severe biotic crisis in the past 500 million years. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the crisis, but few account for the spectrum of extinction selectivity and subsequent recovery. Here we show that selective losses are best accounted for by a combination of lethally warm, shallow waters and anoxic deep waters that acted to severely restrict the habitable area to a narrow mid-water refuge zone. The relative tolerance of groups to this double whammy provides the first clear explanation for the selective extinction losses during this double-pulsed crisis and also the fitful recovery. Thus, high temperature intolerant shallow-water dwellers, such as corals, large foraminifers and radiolarians were eliminated first whilst high temperature tolerant ostracods thrived except in anoxic deeper-waters. In contrast, hypoxia tolerant but temperature intolerant small foraminifers were driven from shallow-waters but thrived on dysoxic slopes margins. Only those mollusc groups, which are tolerant of both hypoxia and high temperatures, were able to thrive in the immediate aftermath of the extinction. Limited Early Triassic benthic recovery was restricted to mid-water depths and coincided with intervals of cooling and deepening of water column anoxia that expanded the habitable mid-water refuge zone.

  6. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren Measures from Raniganj field, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruah, Annapurna; Ganapathi, S.

    2015-07-01

    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of Damodar Basin were analysed to evaluate their gas generation potential using Rock-Eval pyrolysis techniques. Petrographic analysis brings out the lithofacies of Barren Measures as carbonaceous silty shale, iron rich claystone and sand-shale intercalation. The total organic content (TOC) of the shale units of Barren Measures ranges from 3.75 to 20.9 wt%, whereas hydrogen index (HI) ranges from 58.45 to 125.34 mg HC/g TOC. Present study suggests early to late maturated (0.6-1%) organic matters in Barren Measures with gas prone type III kerogen. The study analysed the effect of burial history on the preservation and maturation of organic matters. The organic richness, kerogen type, thermal maturity and petrographic properties of Barren Measures signify fair to excellent gas generation potential.

  7. Triassic actinopterygian fishes: the recovery after the end-Permian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintori, Andrea; Hitij, Tomaž; Jiang, Dayong; Lombardo, Cristina; Sun, Zuoyu

    2014-08-01

    In the last 15 years, the discovery of several new actinopterygian fish faunas from the Early and Middle Triassic of the Tethys, cast new light on the timing, speed and range of their recovery after the end-Permian crisis. In addition to several new taxa having been described, the stratigraphical and geographical record of many others have been greatly extended. In fact, most of the new fossiliferous sites are in southern China, thus at the Eastern end of the Tethys, and furthermore a few are somewhat older (Chaohu, Panxian, Luoping) than the major classical Western Tethys sites (Monte San Giorgio). Following these new finds, it is possible to have a better definition of the Triassic recovery stages. Indeed, after a quite short phase till the end of the Smithian (Olenekian, Early Triassic) in which a rather consistent fauna was present all around the Pangea coasts, a major radiation occurred in the Early-Middle Anisian after the new Middle Triassic fish fauna already appeared in the late Early Triassic, thus occuring well before what was previously supposed from the Alps localities. Furthermore, the new assemblages from southern China point to an early broader differentiation among the basal neopterygians rather than in the 'subholosteans', the group that was then dominant in the Western Tethys since the Late Anisian. It stands that during the Norian a new basal neopterygian radiation gave rise to several new branches that dominated the remaining part of the Mesozoic. PMID:24148549

  8. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azman A Ghani; Fatin Izzani Hazad; Azmiah Jamil; Quek Long Xiang; Wan Nur Atiqah Wan Ismail; Sun-Lin Chung; Yu-Ming Lai; Muhammad Hatta Roselee; Nur Islami; Kyaw Kyaw Nyein; Meor Hakif Amir Hassan; Mohd Farid Abu Bakar; Mohd Rozi Umor

    2014-12-01

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2–97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK=1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09–2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32–8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806°C is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian.

  9. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren Measures from Raniganj field, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annapurna Boruah; S Ganapathi

    2015-07-01

    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of Damodar Basin were analysed to evaluate their gas generation potential using Rock–Eval pyrolysis techniques. Petrographic analysis brings out the lithofacies of Barren Measures as carbonaceous silty shale, iron rich claystone and sand-shale intercalation. The total organic content (TOC) of the shale units of Barren Measures ranges from 3.75 to 20.9 wt%, whereas hydrogen index (HI) ranges from 58.45 to 125.34 mg HC/g TOC. Present study suggests early to late maturated (0.6–1%) organic matters in Barren Measures with gas prone type III kerogen. The study analysed the effect of burial history on the preservation and maturation of organic matters. The organic richness, kerogen type, thermal maturity and petrographic properties of Barren Measures signify fair to excellent gas generation potential.

  10. Geological environment of the uranium deposits in the Permian of Lodeve Basin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Permian rocks of the Lodeve Basin are characterized by a biorhexistasic cycle which produced fine alternating sequences of organic-rich sedimentary deposits in a basin ranging from lacustrine to a confined briny lagoon. The erosion of the Hercynian massifs, source for the sediments, along with the constant arrival of volcanic ash, provided metallic ions, particularly uranium. A continual subsidence permitted a regular influx of sediments and a burial compatible with a genesis of hydrocarbons. Post-sedimentary tectonic extension as well as the fine bedding of certain layers, created permeable zones that facilitated the circulation of fluids: the oils migrated, concentrated in petroleum-type traps by fault zones and the finely bedded layers. The interstitial waters flushed by compaction were carriers of metallic ions in solution. They used the same permeable zones as the oil, and the uranium was precipitated in the hydrocarbon traps which were strong reducing agents. During diagenesis, an important physical and mineralogical evolution affected the surroundings and certainly played a role of prime importance in the ''recycling'' and precipitation of the uranium. In the meantime, oxidizing and carbonate-bearing meteoric water rose within the rock formations along the principal faults, flushing and transporting uranium to the traps, developing a complementary accretion process. Classified into three principal types, the mineralizations developed within the framework of a dynamic basin system in which several factors - sedimentary, tectonic and diagenetic - operated. (author)

  11. Isotope shifts in the late Permian of the Delaware Basin, Texas, precisely timed by varved sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closely spaced samples (285 in number) of varved sediments from the Upper Permian in Delaware Basin, Texas, have been analyzed for delta13Csub(carb), delta13Csub(org), delta18Osub(carb), Csub(org), Csub(carb) and calcite/dolomite. delta13C records a dramatic rise from -2.8 to + 5.7per mille in only 4400 years, detected in three sections across the basin, extrapolating smoothly through a 600-year interruption by a local (west side of the basin) fresh-water inflow evidenced by low delta18O. This continuity and low Csub(org) within the basin, both indicate that the excess net deposition of Csub(org), necessary to generate the rise in delta13C, took place in the ocean external to the Delaware Basin, Correlation with similar records from the Zechstein Basin suggest that the event was world-wide, although this poses obvious difficulties for the carbon cycle. The rate of rise of delta13C, and its sustained high level, must imply conversions of oxidized carbon to reduced carbon that are very large depending on which reservoirs were involved. (orig.)

  12. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Béatrice Forel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1 problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, where proposed marine dissolution surfaces may be subaerial. Sedimentary evidence that the extinction was partly due to ocean acidification is therefore inconclusive; (2 Fossils of marine animals potentially affected by ocean acidification are imperfect records of past conditions; selective extinction of hypercalcifying organisms is uncertain evidence for acidification; (3 The current high rates of acidification may not reflect past rates, which cannot be measured directly, and whose temporal resolution decreases in older rocks. Thus large increases in CO2 in the past may have occurred over a long enough time to have allowed assimilation into the oceans, and acidification may not have stressed ocean biota to the present extent. Although we acknowledge the very likely occurrence of past ocean acidification, obtaining support presents a continuing challenge for the Earth science community.

  13. Coal fights back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the twentieth century coal has moved from being the dominant energy hero that fueled the industrial revolution to a background role: a fuel of last choice, a supplemental resource, and sometimes a convenient villain in the environmental debate. But, as this paper points out, the other side of the coin is that coal is dependable, plentiful, and the price is right. To examine the issue as it merits, reason will have to be substituted for emotion. We are currently in what the author of this paper calls the crisis enrichment stage of the debate. In this stage, when definitive knowledge is lacking, there is a temptation to imagine the worst, overcorrect the problem, and do considerable damage to energy supply and economic needs. The environmental movement has provoked a hunt for someone to blame for the world's current environmental situation. Without a proven culprit to blame for disturbances to some of the world's lakes and forests, it has been decided that coal is the cause. This paper makes a plea for balance, urging all parties to find some acceptable middle ground between energy production and environmental protection

  14. Phenanthrene sorption to Chinese coal: Importance of coal's geochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Phen was chosen as the probe compound for determining the sorption of PAHs to a series of different Chinese coal samples. ? The combined partition and adsorption model yielded a better fit than the Freundlich isotherm. ? Compared to total carbon, BC might play more important role in the sorption of Phen to coal samples. ? Relationships between aromatic and aliphatic carbon contents and sorption parameters indicated the significance of aromatic and aliphatic carbon in the coal sorption behavior. - Abstract: Phenanthrene (Phen) was chosen as the probe compound for determining the sorption of PAHs to a series of different coal samples from China. Based on elemental analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra analysis, coal samples were characterized with different metamorphic evolutional degrees. The experimental sorption data were fitted well by the Freundlich model, suggesting enhanced sorption capacity and strong nonlinearity of coal samples. The combined partition and adsorption model yielded a better fit than the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that adsorption dominated the sorption at low aqueous concentrations. Correlations between coal properties and sorption capacity values indicated that C%, H/C and O/C atomic ratios were the key factors controlling the sorption behavior. Compared to total carbon, BC might play more important role in the sorption of Phen to coal samples. Moreover, there existed nonlinear relationships between combined carbon, aromatic and aliphatic carbon contents and log KFr and n values, respectively, indicating the significance of aromatic and aliphatic carbon in the coal sorption behavior.

  15. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  16. Proceedings of the 1978 coal chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radding, S. B.; Peters, H. M. [eds.

    1978-11-01

    Ten papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. They deal with the structural chemical analysis of coal and the chemistry of coal gasification and coal liquefaction. DOE's Fossil Energy Program is discussed in detail and recommendations for further research in coal gasification and coal liquefaction are made. (LTN)

  17. Coal desulfurization via different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.; Balat, M.

    2004-05-01

    Inorganic materials of coal contain a number of inorganic constituents, especially sulfur, which plays an important role in almost all coal utilization systems. Some methods have been applied to coal to remove its inorganic materials from the organic part. Coal before utilization is subjected to some physical, chemical and biological desulfurization methods. However, physical and biological methods are ineffective and time consuming and they can be applied only on the bench scale. Most of the effective coal desulfurization techniques are based on chemical methods. Main desulfurization methods are chemical desulfurization, leaching, extraction, flotation, oxydesulfurization and biodesulfurization. The alkaline desulfurization is more effective in removing the pyritic sulfur from the coal, which is the less abundant form than the organic sulfur.

  18. CVFA: Coal vendor financial advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expert system for determining coal vendor financial viability in fuel purchasing contracts at an electric utility is described. The system blends rules, data objects, and financial knowledge to provide a rational basis for accepting or rejecting coal contracts given the financial capability of the coal vendor. The discussion concludes with a critique of managerial issues in the development of the system and its use in decision making. 3 refs., 1 fig

  19. Ambitious coal to gasoline plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P.

    1979-06-20

    A design study carried out by Badger Energy concludes that the first US commercial gasoline from coal facility could be completed in eight years. The cost of gasoline would be 1.09 US dollars/gal. in 1990 with coal at 25 US dollars/ton. The process involves oxygen-blown coal gasification, conversion to methanol by the Mobil process, gas fractionation and HF alkylation.

  20. Representation of coal and coal derivatives in process modelling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A., Theron; E., le Roux.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on performing mass and energy balance modelling involving coal and coal derivatives. Usually, the inputs to a pyrometallurgical process would be specified in terms of elements and compounds. Reliable thermochemical data is more widely available for species involving un [...] iquely defined, relatively smaller molecules. However, in the case of coal, the molecules are extremely large and not uniquely defined. Consequently, modelling processes involving coal and its derivatives involve several potential pitfalls. These are outlined in the present paper. It was found that coal proximate analysis should not be regarded as absolute; it could vary with several parameters, including heating rate. For modelling, the use of ultimate analyses should be considered a preferable option to proximate analyses, where 'fixed carbon' and 'volatiles' are not defined in terms of chemical composition. Significant errors could be incurred if the larger molecules are neglected during calculation of the calorific value (CV) of coal gas (the gas liberated when coal is heated in the absence of oxygen). For elemental analysis determination, the oxygen content (which is calculated by balance) should be checked to ensure it is within the expected range. For representation of sulphur in coal, one should avoid double-counting due to SO3 in the ash analysis. Potentially, oxygen in coal could be represented as O2, H2O, CO, or CO2. However, use of some of these species without considering the experimentally determined gross CV leads to significant errors in the energy balance. If coal enthalpy is calculated from elemental analyses without correction, representation of coal oxygen as H2O(1) gives reasonable accuracy. Coal volatiles could be represented by a complex mixture of compounds, even using different oxygen-containing species than these four, provided the enthalpy is corrected. It is recommended that an 'enthalpy correction value' be incorporated in energy balances involving combustion, devolatilization, or conversion of coal and coal derivatives, e.g. coke, char, or tar. That would imply that proximate analysis, elemental analysis, as well as the gross CV would be required for all solid or liquid coal-derived substances being modelled. No other correction due to carbon being present in a form other than graphite should be used, as that would imply double-counting some effects.

  1. World coal perspectives to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Summer 2004, The World Energy Council published a Study on 'Sustainable Global Energy Development: the Case of Coal'. The Study aims at developing an internationally consistent reply to the question whether and to what extent coal use could be economic and sustainable in meeting global energy demand to 2030 and beyond. It covers markets, trade and demand, mining and combustion technologies, restructuring and international policies, and perspectives. It considers both, the contribution that coal could make to economic development as well as the need for coal adapt to the exigencies of security of supply, local environmental protection and mitigation of climate change. (Author)

  2. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  3. Coal pre-feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It examines the feasibility of using coal from the Delbi-Moya reserve for domestic or institutional cooking, industrial process heating and electricity generation. It indicates as coal can be mined from the Delbi reserve at a cost of EB110/tonne, can be processed for EB400/tonne and transported to Addis Ababa for 150/tonne. The wholesale price of coal briquettes in Addis Ababa would be EB750/tonne. Domestic users can save EB475 per year by switching from charcoal to coal briquettes. And for a 50MW plant annual saving would be of the order of EB30 million per year. 11 tab. 4 figs. 6 appendex

  4. The Global Value of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal plays an essential role in our global energy mix, particularly for power generation; and through that to the alleviation of energy poverty. The use of coal continues to grow rapidly and will continue, together with other fuels, to support world economic and social development particularly in rapidly developing world economies such as China and India. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for policy makers the value of coal to world economic and social development and so encourage development of a policy environment that will allow the coal and electricity industries to make the necessary investments in production capacity and CO2 emissions reduction technologies.

  5. Strings from tachyons: the c = 1 matrix reloaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, John; Verlinde, Herman

    2003-12-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the c = 1 matrix model as the world-line theory of N unstable D-particles, in which the hermitian matrix is provided by the non- abelian open string tachyon. For D-particles in 1+1-d string theory, we find a direct quantitative match between the closed string emission due to a rolling tachyon and that due to a rolling eigenvalue in the matrix model. We explain the origin of the double-scaling limit, and interpret it as an extreme representative of a large equivalence class of dual theories. Finally, we define a concrete decoupling limit of unstable D-particles in IIB string theory that reduces to the c = 1 matrix model, suggesting that 1+1-d string theory represents the near-horizon limit of an ultra-dense gas of IIB D-particles.

  6. Propene polymerization mechanisms by using C1-symmetric catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    DI SILVESTRO, GIUSEPPE; CORNELIO, MASSIMILIANO

    2011-01-01

    A set of propene homopolymerizations have been carried out with three different C1-symmetric catalysts, in order to evaluate the polymerization performances. A comparison among the polymer microstructures on the basis of statistical analysis has been performed to have a deeper investigation about the polymerization mechanism. The development of a Cs-symmetric class of catalysts with two enantiomorphic sites, by Ewen and Razavi1, has opened the possibility to synthesize syndiotactic polypro...

  7. Surgical approach to C1-C2 nerve sheath tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Prasad

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: C1 and C2 nerve sheath tumors (NST are unique in presentation, relationship to neighbouring structures and surgical approaches when compared to their counterparts in other regions of the spine. Aim: The strategies involved in the surgery for C1-C2 NST are discussed Setting and Design: Retrospective study. Methods: 21 patients with C1 (n=6 and C2 (n=15 NST were operated based on their position with respect to the cord i.e. anterior (4, anterolateral (10, posterolateral (5, and posterior (2. The tumors had extra- and intradural components in 20 patients; while in one, the tumor was purely intradural. The operative approaches included the extreme lateral transcondylar approach (3; laminectomy with partial facetectomy (5; laminectomy (11; and, suboccipital craniectomy and laminectomy (2. Results: Total excision was performed in 13 patients; while in 7, a partial extraspinal component, and in 1, a small intradural component were left, in situ. Thirteen patients showed improvement by one or more grades in the Harsh myelopathy score; 2 patients with normal power had significant decrease in spasticity; while 5 maintained their grade. One poor-grade patient succumbed to septicemia. Conclusions: C1-C2 NST may have exuberant growth due to the capacious spinal canal and the absence of a 'true' intervertebral foramen at this level. Surgical approaches are determined by its relationship to the cord . A 'T incision' on the dura, the partial drilling of the facets, sectioning of the denticulate ligament, rotating the operating table 15 to 30 degrees, and at times sectioning the posterior nerve roots are all useful adjuncts for facilitating access.

  8. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  9. Pulverized coal injection into pressurized furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Tests of pulverised coal injection into an experimental blast furnace are briefly reported. The coal combustion characteristics are examined in relation to residence time, coal type and powder properties.

  10. Composition and properties of SS coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Gagarin; T.M. Bronovets [Institute of Mineral Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    State Standard coal, predominantly from open-pit mines, is regarded as an oxidized analog of valuable (KO, K, OS) isometamorphic coals from underground mines. The options for modifying SS coal are discussed.

  11. Safety and surgical techniques of C1 lateral mass screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the proper insertion techniques of C1 lateral mass screws. Eighteen consecutive patients were examined after upper cervical fusion using twenty-nine C1 lateral mass screws. Screws were placed by three different techniques; Goel's technique (4), Tan's technique (20), Notching technique (5). Pre and post-operative CT scans with multiplanar reconstruction were used to detect cortical breaches and direction of screws. No transverse foramen and vertebral groove violation was found in CT scans. Three had breached superior articular facet of the atlas. However, the range of motion (R.O.M) of atlanto-occipital joints had not changed postoperatively. Theses screws were inserted with Tan's technique and two of three were directed medially. It is feasible to safely insert C1 lateral mass screws when correct insertion point and direction are considered preoperatively. However, care should be taken because screws can violate the atlanto-occipital joint especially with Tan's technique. (author)

  12. Merit Pila coal basin, Malaysia - geology and coal petrology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Osvald, P.

    Bandung : Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 2006. s. 16-17. [International Symposium on Lower Rank Coal. 07.09.2006-08.09.2006, Bandung] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300460510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : sub-bituminous coal * rank Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  13. Characterization of coal samples from Dasal-i coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Characterization of coal from Dasal coal mine Khyber pukatunkwa, Pakistan. Coal samples were collected from 50, 100, 150, 175, 200 and 250 feet. Coal samples were crushed, grounded and screened through 250 macro m sieves shaker. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal showed that these coals were of low grade from sub-bituminous to bituminous. Sulphur content from Dasal coal mine was less as compared with other mines in Pakistan. Leaching of coal led to significant amount of mineral matter with hydrochloric acid (HCl), ammonium acetate (CH/sub 3/ COONH/sub 4/ ), nitric acid (HNO/sub 3/), hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Among the leachants HCl was most effective for copper, iron, chromium and cobalt. In case of CH/sub 3/ COONH/sub 4/ no significant leaching was made. HNO/sub 3/ and NaOH also resulted average leaching while, HF was found to be a good leachant for lead, nickel and zinc. Most of inorganic elements were effectively leached by digestion as compared to other leachants. (author)

  14. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahtouh Muriel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR, which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech.

  15. Development of coal combustion in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugot, Andreas; Leotta-Hauer, Roberta [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Coal-based power generation has always been a major pillar of European electricity supply and Europe will continue to rely on coal also in future although public acceptance is often missing concerning coal development, environmental impact and social consequences. The paper describes current and future energy conversion with the coal markets and coal qualities as well as the relation to coal by-products and their utilisation. Future market needs are an additional aspect. (orig.)

  16. Effects of fractal pore on coal devolatilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongli; He, Rong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cao, Liyong [Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu (China). Centre New Energy Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Coal devolatilization is numerically investigated by drop tube furnace and a coal pyrolysis model (Fragmentation and Diffusion Model). The fractal characteristics of coal and char pores are investigated. Gas diffusion and secondary reactions in fractal pores are considered in the numerical simulations of coal devolatilization, and the results show that the fractal dimension is increased firstly and then decreased later with increased coal conversions during devolatilization. The mechanisms of effects of fractal pores on coal devolatilization are analyzed.

  17. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Baruya [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Malaysia is a regular participant in world coal trade. Coal production is a modest 1 Mt/y but, as an importer, the country trades some 30 Mt/y. As one of ASEAN's most prosperous economies, the expected growth in electricity demand is inevitable. For many years the country has been dependent on gas-fired power, much of which is in the form of expensive single cycle gas turbines. However, coal-fired power has emerged as an important provider of power in a country desperate to improve its energy security. This report looks at how coal-fired power has developed, and examines the current technologies deployed in the country. It is the fourth in a series of reports by the lEA Clean Coal Centre on ASEAN countries, following Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Paleotectonic reconstruction of the central Tethys domain since the Late Permian: the DARIUS Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, Eric; Vrielynck, Bruno; Brunet, Marie-Françoise; Robertson, Alastair; Sosson, Marc; Zanchi, Andrea; Brouillet, Jean-françois; Kaveh, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    The DARIUS Programme is a 4-years consortium sponsored by Major Oil Companies and Research Organizations. DARIUS drive together a group of academic scientific teams whose expertise includes several domains of tectonics (structural analysis, paleotectonic reconstructions, basin analysis, subsidence modeling), stratigraphy (paleontology, sequence stratigraphy, organic matter analysis), modeling, kinematics, and geophysics. The main objective is characterizing the tecto-stratigraphic evolution of a vast domain around Central Tethys extending from Black-Sea Anatolia in the west to western Central Asia in the east. One of the final products of the DARIUS Programme is a set of 20 paleotectonic maps of the DARIUS domain ranging in age from the Late Permian to Pliocene. In these maps we propose paleotectonic reconstructions of the south-central Eurasian and north African-Arabian plates starting after the Late Paleozoic Hercynian orogeny. These palinspastic maps are based on an up-to-date kinematics reconstruction of the African, Indian and Arabian plates with respect to Eurasia. For each map we depict the major tectonic-geodynamic features (i.e. the rifts, different types of basins, major orogens and fold belts, main transcurrent faults, subduction zones, accretionary prisms...) as well as the main paleofacies. Our reconstructions are based on an accurate timing of the tectonic events that have succeeded in the central Tethyan margins since the Late Paleozoic. These events include both the main orogenies resulting from collisions of major plates and blocks and the series of openings and inversions of basins that developed in the northern and southern Tethyan margins between the main collisions. Following the Variscian orogeny that ended in the Early Permian, the Mid to Late Triassic Eo- and Mid-Cimmerian orogenies are related to the collision of Gondwanian blocs with the Pangea margin after closure of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic domain. Then, for the rest of the Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic mainly developed: (1) a northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere beneath the southern Eurasian margin, and (2) a passive margin bordering the African-Arabian plate to the North. In this latter plate, riftings and basins developed until Late Cretaceous when the Neo-tethys ophiolites were obducted onto the Arabian passive margin. On the contrary, the North Tethys active margin recorded a complex tectonic evolution characterized by: (1) the opening of back-arc and marginal basins during the Triassic to Early-Mid Cretaceous times (e.g. Black Sea, Great Caucasus, South Caspian, Central Iran, Amu-Darya and Tadjik basins), and (2) regional compressions associated with the inversions and/or closure of these basins. The main inversions are Mid-Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, and uppermost Cretaceous-Paleogene in age. The first collision between major plates began in the Early Eocene when the northern Indian and southern Eurasian margins collided. The second one is the Arabia-Eurasia collision, which initiated in the Late Eocene. Both developed until Present, originating the Himalaya and Tien-Shan ranges and the Alpine chains respectively. After the complete closure of the remnant Tethyan oceanic domain, at the beginning of Neogene, the continent-continent collisions were developing all along the southern Eurasian active margin.

  19. Differential severity of Permian Triassic environmental changes on Tethyan shallow-water carbonate platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Oliver; Bernecker, Michaela

    2007-01-01

    Significantly different Guadalupian-Late Triassic patterns are observed in the evolution of attached and isolated carbonate platforms of the southwestern Tethys (Oman Mountains). Close to the rim of the attached Arabian platform, carbonates of the Saiq and Mahil Formations reveal an almost complete Permian-Triassic sedimentary record. Guadalupian-Changhsingian 3rd order sequences consist of fossiliferous transgressive systems tracts and monotonous highstand systems tracts with mud/wackestone and coral bafflestone. The youngest Changhsingian beds are bioturbated floatstone with crinoids, sponges and bryozoans. All sediments indicate a healthy, tropical carbonate production. Above, a unique facies change begins with a pyrite-encrusted omission surface. Greenish mudstone rich in authigenic pyrite infills the relief of the unconformity and is overlain by clastic sediment and by laminated, microbialite-bearing carbonate. Unfossiliferous sediments and seafloor cements indicate a change in carbonate production towards abiotic processes. Prevailing anoxic conditions were interrupted by seven oxic event beds, as indicated either by low-diversity and small-sized ichnotaxa or by shell beds with low-diversity bivalve and crinoid assemblages. By comparison with published data, the described sedimentary sequence can be assigned to the Changhsingian-earliest Griesbachian. Beginning probably with the Anisian, bioturbated Griesbachian-Dienerian recovery period and the unconformity below to the latest grain-supported sediment textures mark the return to biogenic tropical carbonate production under oxic conditions. The Middle-Late Triassic carbonate platform consists of stacked high-frequency shallowing upward cycles. By contrast, carbonate production of Neo-Tethyan isolated platforms was discontinuous and interrupted by a large gap. Guadalupian deposits of the Al Jil Formation consist of bioclastic limestone typical of a tropical carbonate production. The uppermost bed, an impoverished bioclastic packstone capped by an unconformity, marks the onset of platform drowning which resulted from the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. Above, a polymict breccia witnessed rift pulses of the Neo-Tethys. The overlying pelagic mud- and packstone contains radiolarians and rare foraminifera of Lopingian age, and overlying microbialites. In the Carnian, tropical shallow-water carbonate production restarted with a low-relief platform and culminated in a Norian-Rhaetian reef-rimmed platform. Stacked Lofer cycles dominated the inner platform of Jebel Kawr (Misfah Formation). We here propose a differential onset and severity of the Late Permian mass extinctions for carbonate platforms. On the Arabian Plate, tropical carbonate production collapsed after the end-Lopingian mass extinction and was replaced by microbialites and sea-floor cements during the earliest Triassic. After approximately six million years, tropical shallow-water carbonate production resumed in the Middle Triassic. Neo-Tethyan isolated platforms drowned shortly after the end-Guadalupian mass extinction and did not recover before the Late Triassic. Absence of shallow-water limestone suggests that carbonate production of isolated platforms ceased for about 30 million years, a period exceeding the recovery of most marine ecosystems.

  20. Coal, oil and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author believes contaminants in our external environment play a significant role in causing cancer in humans and the cumulative impact of exposure to chemical carcinogens over a lifetime has also to be considered. An efficient method to prevent cancer is to restrict the presence of chemical carcinogens not only indoor, but also in outdoor, environments. Due to collective efforts to reduce tobacco use, lung cancer rates are falling in the USA. Most chemical carcinogens are derived from coal and petroleum, so finding substitutes for these two substances is the right way to proceed in cancer prevention efforts, the author states.

  1. Coal tar creosote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, C.; Kielhorn, J.; Mangelsdorf, I. [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hanover (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with the risks to human health of coal tar creosote. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Identity, physical/chemical properties, and analytical methods; Sources of human and environmental exposure; Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation; Environmental levels and human exposure; comparative kinetics and metabolism in laboratory animals and humans; Effects on laboratory mammals and in vitro test systems; Effects on humans; Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and field; Evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment; Previous evaluations by international bodies. 460 refs., 5 apps.

  2. Importance of carbon isotopic data of the Permian-Triassic boundary layers in the Verkhoyansk region for the global correlation of the basal Triassic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Yu. D.; Biakov, A. S.; Richoz, S.; Horacek, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to a global correlation of marine Permian-Triassic boundary layers on the basis of partially published and original data on the ?13Corg and ?13Ccarb values of the Suol section (Setorym River, South Verkhoyansk region). The section consists of six carbon isotopic intervals, which are easily distinguishable in the carbon isotopic curves for a series of Permian-Triassic reference sections of Eurasia and Northern America, including paleontologically described sections of Central Iran, Kashmir, and Southern China. This suggests that the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Suol section is close to the carbon isotopic minimum of interval IV. In light of new data, we suggest considering the upper part of the Late Permian Changhsingian Stage and the lower substage of the Early Triassic Induan Stage of Siberia in the volumes of the rank Otoceras concavum zone and the Tompophiceras pascoei and Wordieoceras decipiens zones, respectively. The O. concavum zone of the Verkhoyansk region probably corresponds to the Late Changhsingian Hypophiceras triviale zone of Greenland. The carbon isotopic intervals II, III, IV, and V in the Permian-Triassic boundary layers of the Verkhoyansk region traced in a series of the reference sections of Eurasia correspond, most likely, to intensification of volcanic activity at the end of the Late Changhsingian and to the first massive eruptions of Siberian traps at the end of the Changhsingian and the beginning of the Induan Stages. New data indicate the possible survival of ammonoids of the Otoceratoidea superfamily at the species level after mass extinction of organisms at the end of the Permian.

  3. Thermal properties of Permian Basin evaporites to 493 K temperature and 30 MPa confining pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory measurements of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas, were made in conditions ranging from 303 to 473 K in temperature and 0.1 to 31.0 MPa in hydrostatic confining pressure. Within the +-5% measurement resolution neither conductivity nor diffusivity showed a dependence upon pressure in any of the rocks. Conductivity and diffusivity in all rocks had a negative temperature dependence. For the Cycle 4 salt samples, conductivity fell from 5.5 to 3.75 W/m . K, and diffusivity fell from about 2.7 to 1.7 x 10-6 m2/s. One Cycle 5 salt was a single crystal with anomalous results, but the other had a low conductivity with very weak temperature dependence and a high diffusivity. In the nonsalts, conductivity and diffusivity decreased 10 to 20% over the temperature range explored. In measurements of the coefficient of thermal linear expansion for Cycle 5 salt and nonsalts, the coefficient typically varied from about 12 x 10-6 K-1 at P = 3.0 MPa to 4 x 10-6 K-1 at P = 30 MPa for both nonsalt rocks. In anhydrite, it decreased with increasing temperature. In dolomite, the coefficient increased at roughly the same rate. Expansion of the salt ranged from 33 to 38 x 10-6 K-1 and was independent of pressure and temperature

  4. New palaeomagnetic results from the Oslo Graben, a Permian Superchron lava province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldan, M. M.; Meijers, M. J. M.; Langereis, C. G.; Larsen, B. T.; Heyer, H.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed an extended palaeomagnetic study of the Oslo Graben volcanics, compared to the study of half a century ago by van Everdingen, using modern techniques and a four times larger amount of sites, plus additional rock magnetic experiments. We conclude that the average direction (D = 204.0, I = -37.9, k = 46.9, ?95 = 2.0) and associated palaeomagnetic pole (? = 48.3, ? = 155.5, K = 52.2, A95 = 1.9) of the Krokskogen and Vestfold volcanics together are statistically identical to those of the earlier study. This gives confidence in the fact that older palaeomagnetic studies can be reliable and robust, even though methods have improved. Our larger number of samples, and better age constraints, enable us to separate the data into two major intervals: the younger, on average, Krokskogen area and the older Vestfold area. The results show firstly that palaeolatitudes are slightly higher than predicted by the latest apparent polar wander path (APWP) for Eurasia by Torsvik et al. These data support an early Permian Pangaea A configuration and do not necessitate a Pangaea B configuration. The larger data set also allows us to assess the distribution of the characteristic remanent magnetization directions of the Oslo Graben in terms of geomagnetic field behaviour, which were acquired during a long period of dominantly single polarity the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron (PCRS). The distributions show a significantly lower virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) scatter at the observed (low) latitudes than expected from a compilation from lavas of the last 5 Myr. The data do however show excellent agreement with the scatter observed both during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron and the PCRS. A comparison of the directional distributions in terms of elongation is less discriminating, since the large errors in all cases allow a fit to the predicted elongation/inclination behaviour of the TK03.GAD model.

  5. Geochemistry of the Upper Permian Ca-2 deposits of the Loegumkloster-1 well, South Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock samples of the Upper Permian Ca-2 unit of the Loegumkloster-1 well have been subjected to chemical analysis. The Ca-2 interval was undoubtedly originally an aragonite which have undergone several episodes of diagenesis including a dolomitization and a heavy anhydrite mineralization. Two original facies types are recognized, an oolitic shoal facies, and a lagoonal carbonate facies. The samples have been characterized by neutron activation, atomic absorption, X-ray diffraction, palaeomagnetism, optical and electron microscopical examination. Samples of the drilling mud has been analyzed as well, and it is found that contamination of the samples included in the present study from the drilling mud is unlikely to have happened. Imprints of both the original facies and the diagenetic events are found in the present work. The Sr and Ba abundances reflect the original facies-bound distribution, which is also reflected in the normalized REE distribution patterns. A low-Sr anhydrite component is clearly distinguishable in several parameter cross plots. Iron, Sc, REE and several other elements are found to be situated in the EDTA-insoluble residue, which has been identified primarily as a muscovite or clay mineral phase. Pyrite is present, although of small relative volume it is thought to be responsible for the occurrence of As, Sb, and possibly Se. A small fraction of the Cr, As, and Sb may originate from the heavy part of the crude oil, the introduction of which was the last process of alteration the rock experienced. A geomagnetically reversed period is encountered in the middle of the Ca-2 interval, and is tentatively identified as one of the Tatarian reversed events. (author) 87 refs

  6. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen Daten. Ziele dieser `Erdgas-Inventur` waren, die Gasqualitaeten in ihrer raeumlichen Verteilung von der suedlichen Nordsee im Westen bis nahezu an die Ostgrenze Polens darzustellen, sie genetisch zu charakterisieren und eine Beziehung zu den geologischen Rahmenbedingungen herzustellen. (orig.)

  7. Bone-conduction hearing and seismic sensitivity of the Late Permian anomodont Kawingasaurus fossilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaß, Michael

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of the internal cranial anatomy of the anomodont Kawingasaurus from the Upper Permian Usili Formation in Tanzania by means of neutron tomography revealed an unusual inner and middle ear anatomy such as extraordinarily inflated vestibules, lateroventrally orientated stapes with large footplates, and a small angle between the planes of the anterior and lateral semicircular canals. The vestibule has a volume, which is about 25 times larger than the human vestibule, although Kawingasaurus has only a skull length of approximately 40 mm. Vestibule inflation and enlarged stapes footplates are thought to be functionally correlated with bone-conduction hearing; both morphologies have been observed in fossorial vertebrates using seismic signals for communication. The firmly fused triangular head with spatulate snout was probably used for digging and preadapted to seismic signal detection. The quadrate-quadratojugal complex was able to transmit sound from the articular to the stapes by small vibrations of the quadrate process, which formed a ball and socket joint with the squamosal. Mechanical considerations suggest that the ventrolaterally orientated stapes of Kawingasaurus was mechanically better suited to transmit seismic sound from the ground to the fenestra vestibuli than a horizontal orientated stapes. The low sound pressure level transformer ratio of 2-3 in Kawingasaurus points to a seismic sensitivity of the middle ear and a vestigial or reduced sensitivity to airborne sound. Three hypothetical pathways of bone conduction in Kawingasaurus are discussed: 1) sound transmission via the spatulate snout and skull roof to the otic capsules, 2) relative movements resulting from the inertia of the mandible if sound is percepted with the skull, and 3) bone conduction from the substrate via mandible, jaw articulation, and stapes to the inner ear. PMID:25284624

  8. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01

    Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

  9. Amplitude analyses of the decays chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, G S; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Szczepaniak, A; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B

    2011-01-01

    Using a data sample of 2.59 x 10^7 psi(2S) decays obtained with the CLEO-c detector, we perform amplitude analyses of the complementary decay chains chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-. We find evidence for a P-wave eta' pi scattering amplitude, which, if interpreted as a resonance, would have exotic J^PC = 1^-+ and parameters consistent with the pi_1(1600) state reported in other production mechanisms. We also make the first observation of the decay a_0(980) -> eta' pi and measure the ratio of branching fractions B(a_0(980) -> eta' pi)/B(a_0(980) -> eta pi) = 0.064 +- 0.014 +- 0.014. The pi pi spectrum produced with a recoiling eta is compared to that with eta' recoil.

  10. Why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important : an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States); Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This presentation explained why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important. The presentation provided an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, located in western Texas. Several illustrations were presented to demonstrate a stratigraphic sequence in black shale. Other topics that were discussed included geologic settings; paleogeography; silled basins; motivation for rock properties research; and factor analysis results. It was concluded that sequence stratigraphic analyses in black shales requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach. The presentation showed that third and fourth order stratigraphic cycles are indicated by the repetition of exotic beds whose composition vary regionally. tabs., figs.

  11. Progress in the Gondwanan Carboniferous–Permian palynology and correlation of the Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan: A brief review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Irfan U Jan

    2014-02-01

    This paper comprises of two sections. The first section describes challenges in the Carboniferous–Permian Gondwanan stratigraphic palynology, and progress in techniques such as presence of the ‘rare-marine intervals’, and ‘radiometric dating’ in some Gondwanan successions, e.g., South Africa, Australia and South America, as tools to confidently calibrate these palynozones. The second section describes developments in the palynological work on the Carboniferous–Permian Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan, and summarises their correlation with the coeval succession of the Gondwana continents and with the Russian/International stages.

  12. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C.

    1997-05-29

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study.

  13. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  14. Sulfur meter speeds coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulfur content has become the most important criterion that industry looks at when purchasing coal. The exact amount of sulfur in coal being processed by a preparation plant must be known and, if possible, controlled by blending coal streams of various sulfur contents. Present techniques, however, of measuring the sulfur in coal involve laborious and time-consuming sampling and chemical analysis (12 to 24 hr), and the results usually are not available until the following day. By then, the coal barges or trains are already on the way to their destinations. A new nuclear sulfur meter is expected to overcome these difficulties and help lead to true automation in coal preparation plants. Initially developed by the Bureau of Mines' Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) at Morgantown, W. Va., and completed after reorganization of the center by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the meter can scan coal to produce a reading within 2 min to an accuracy of 0.04 percent sulfur. The meter is expected to soon result in an element-ash-moisture-Btu meter that would rapidly detect the sulfur, sodium, potassium, and overall mineral content of the coal, as well as its ash and Btu content

  15. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  16. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  17. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  18. Uranium content of Philippine coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.S.; Bulos, A.M.; Bucoy, B.M.; De la Cruz, M.

    Uranium content of coal samples from seven areas in the Philippines, i.e. Cebu, Semirara, Bislig, Albay, Samar, Malangas and Polilio Is. was found to contain trace quantities of uranium. The mean value of 0.401 ppm U is lower than reported mean uranium contents for coal from other countries. (ELC). 9 refs.; 2 tabs; 2 figs.

  19. Uranium content of Philippine coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium content of coal samples from seven areas in the Philippines, i.e. Cebu, Semirara, Bislig, Albay, Samar, Malangas and Polilio Is. was found to contain trace quantities of uranium. The mean value of 0.401 ppm U is lower than reported mean uranium contents for coal from other countries. (ELC)

  20. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  1. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COAL STORAGE PILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from coal storage piles. Fugitive emissions of dust and gases are emitted from coal storage piles. The average emission factor for respirable particulate (< 7 micrometer) is 6.4 mg/kg per annum; this factor describes the emis...

  2. Thermography in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Ven, H., E-mail: hvandeven@thesnellgroup.com [The Snell Group, Barre, VT (United States)

    2013-03-15

    In the past, maintenance in the coal industry was using the 'run-to-failure' philosophy. This mindset is not only costly; it can also be dangerous. Today, some of the more progressive coal companies are trying to find ways to be more cost effective in their maintenance practices including adding infrared thermography for to their maintenance process. (author)

  3. Thermography in the coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, maintenance in the coal industry was using the 'run-to-failure' philosophy. This mindset is not only costly; it can also be dangerous. Today, some of the more progressive coal companies are trying to find ways to be more cost effective in their maintenance practices including adding infrared thermography for to their maintenance process. (author)

  4. 75 FR 53861 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk...airworthiness directive (AD) for all Robert E. Rust, Jr. Models DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk...an AD that would apply to all Robert E. Rust, Jr. Models DeHavilland DH.C1...

  5. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  6. Coke from partially briquetted preheated coal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitskii, A.N.; Sklyar, M.G.; Toryanik, Eh.I.; Bronshtein, A.P.

    1988-07-01

    Analyzes effects of partial coal charge briquetting on coking and on quality of coke for metallurgy. Effects of mixing hot coal briquets on temperature and moisture of coal were investigated on an experimental scale in a coking plant. Coal with a moisture content of 12% was used. Coking mixture consisted of 30% briquets and 70% crushed coal. Fifteen minutes after briquet mixing with coal, the mean coal charge temperature increased to 100-105 C and moisture content was lower than 2-5%. Results of laboratory investigations were verified by tests on a commercial scale. Experiments showed briquetting of weakly caking or non-caking coal charge components to be an efficient way of preventing coke quality decline. Adding 15-20% briquets consisting of weakly caking coal did not influence coke quality. Mixing hot coal briquets reduced moisture content in crushed coal, increased its temperature and reduced coking time.

  7. The role of ficolins and MASPs in hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Munthe-Fog, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) causes disturbances in the complement system. However, the influence of HAE-C1-INH on the lectin pathway of complement is unresolved. Thus, we studied the main initiator molecules, enzymes and regulators in the lectin pathway in patients with HAE-C1-INH.

  8. of Coal Seams with Severe Coal and Gas Outburst Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For coal seams susceptible to serious coal and gas outburst, numerous problems and issues, such as the low excavation speed and serious security risks, exist during the process of outburst prevention. Through on-site examinations, this study analyzes the effect of hydraulic slotting measures on changes in the coal-bearing assemblages and gas status and reveals the involved mechanisms that hydraulic slotting measures are applied to deal with coal and gas outburst. This study further proposes the rapid excavation technology with supporting equipment designed and integrated and establishes a comprehensive security system with hydraulic slotting as the core of the entire system. Therefore, the goals of achieving hydraulic slotting operated unattended to avoid personnel injury, implementing coal and gas control technology are achieved. The results of on-site examination indicate that the excavation speed using the proposed method could be two times faster than the excavation speed when boring and drilling method is applied and thus the goal of safely and efficiently carrying out excavation work in coal seams with severe coal and gas outburst potentials is realized.

  9. Cohesive coal grain bonding during pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biryukov, Yu.V.; Slyn' ko, V.P.; Ol' fert, A.I.; Malevich, V.K.; Latypov, R.T.

    1988-08-01

    Coal grain adhesion during pyrolysis was investigated under laboratory conditions. An iron rod was heated to 850 C. A hot iron rod was indented 50 mm deep into a mixture of coal grains crushed to below 3 mm. Rate of coal grain buildup (adhesion) on the iron rod was analyzed considering coal type and additive. The following coal groups were used: G6, Zh21, K14 and OS6. Coal blends consisting of one coal type only, and coal mixtures with or without petroleum additives were used. Coal type influenced coal grain buildup (reflecting adhesion of coal grains bonded by caking), reaching a maximum for fat coal. Increasing iron rod temperature influenced coal grain bonding. In the case of gas coal, the bonding was regular within the whole temperature range; in the case of lean caking coal and coking coal, grain bonding was more intensive at higher temperatures. Use of binary mixtures increased the bonding rate. Use of petroleum products as binders significantly increased coal grain bonding. 5 refs.

  10. C=1 conformal field theories on Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.

    1988-03-01

    We study the theory of c=1 torus and Z/sub 2/-orbifold models on general Riemann surfaces. The operator content and occurrence of multi-critical points in this class of theories is discussed. The partition functions and correlation functions of vertex operators and twist fields are calculated using the theory of double covered Riemann surfaces. It is shown that orbifold partition functions are sensitive to the Torelli group. We give an algebraic construction of the operator formulation of these nonchiral theories on higher genus surfaces. Modular transformations are naturally incorporated as canonical transformations in the Hilbert space.

  11. Asia's coal and clean coal technology market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian region is unique in the world in having the highest economic growth rate, the highest share of coal in total primary energy consumption and the highest growth rate in electricity generation capacity. The outlook for the next two decades is for accelerated efforts to control coal related emissions of particulates and SO2 and to a lessor extent NOx and CO2. Only Japan has widespread use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) however a number of economies have plans to install CCTs in future power plants. Only CCTs for electricity generation are discussed, and are defined for the purpose of this paper as technologies that substantially reduce SO2 and/or NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The main theses of this paper are that major increases in coal consumption will occur over the 1990-2010 period, and this will be caccompanied by major increases in coal related pollution in some Asian economies. Coal fired electricity generation is projected to grow at a high rate of about 6.9 percent per year over the 1990-2010 period. CCTs are projected to account for about 150 GW of new coal-fired capacity over the 1990-2010 period of about one-third of all new coal-fired capacity. A speculative conclusion is that China will account for the largest share of CCT additions over the 1990-2010 period. Both the US and Japan have comparative advantages that might be combined through cooperation and joint ventures to gain a larger share of the evolving CCT market in Asia. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Long-distant contribution and ?c1 radiative decays to light vector meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discrepancy between the PQCD calculation and the CLEO data for ?c1?? V(V=?0, ?,?) stimulates our interest in exploring other mechanisms of ?c1 decay. In this work, we apply an important non-perturbative QCD effect, i.e., the hadronic loop mechanism, to study ?c1?? V radiative decay. Our numerical result shows that the theoretical results including the hadronic loop contribution and the PQCD calculation of ?c1??V are consistent with the corresponding CLEO data of ?c1??V. We expect further experimental measurement of ?c1??V, which will be helpful to test the hadronic loop effect on ?c1 decay. (orig.)

  13. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  14. AUthigenic feldspar as an indicator of paleo-rock/water interactions in Permian carbonates of the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotl, C.; Kralik, M.; Kunk, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Dolostones interbedded with Upper Permian evaporites at the base of the Northern Calcareous Alps contain abundant authigenic K-feldspar. Two petrographically, structurally, and isotopically distinct generations of K-feldspar can be distinguished: crystals composed of an inclusion-rich core and a clear rim, and optically unzoned, transparent crystals. Both feldspar types have essentially identical K-feldspar end-member compositions with ??? 99.5 mole % Or component. Low oxygen isotope ratios (+16.1??? to +18.1??? SMOW) suggest precipitation from 18O-enriched, saline fluids at temperatures in excess of ??? 140??C. 40Ar/39Ar plateau-age spectra of five samples range from 145 ?? 1 to 144 ?? 1 Ma (Early Berriasian) and suggest that both types of feldspar were formed within an interval that did not exceed ??? 2 m.y. Rb/Sr model ages range from 152 to 140 Ma, assuming that the burial diagenetic regime was buffered with respect to strontium by the associated marine Permian evaporites. Authigenic K-feldspar records two distinct events of hot brine flow, most likely triggered by tectonic movements (detachment) and by an increase in the subsurface temperature in response to thrust loading.

  15. Early Permian supra-subduction assemblage of the South Island terrane, Percy Isles, New England Fold Belt, Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultramafic-intermediate rocks exposed on the South Island of the Percy Isles have been previously grouped into the ophiolitic Marlborough terrane of the northern New England Fold Belt. However, petrological, geochemical and geochronological data all suggest a different origin for the South Island rocks and a new terrane, the South Island terrane, is proposed. The South Island terrane rocks differ from ultramafic-mafic rocks of the Marlborough terrane not only in lithological association, but also in geochemical features and age. These data demonstrate that the South Island terrane is genetically unrelated to the Marlborough terrane but developed in a supra-subduction zone environment probably associated with an Early Permian oceanic arc. There is, however, a correlation between the South Island terrane rocks and intrusive units of the Marlborough ophiolite. This indicates that the two terranes were in relative proximity to one another during Early Permian times. A K/Ar age of 277 ± 7 Ma on a cumulative amphibole-rich diorite from the South Island terrane suggests possible affinities with the Gympie and Berserker terranes of the northern New England Fold Belt. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  16. Permian salt dissolution, alkaline lake basins, and nuclear-waste storage, Southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areas of Permian salt dissolution associated with 15 large alkaline lake basins on and adjacent to the Southern High Plains of west Texas and eastern New Mexico suggest formation of the basins by collapse of strata over the dissolution cavities. However, data from 6 other alkaline basins reveal no evidence of underlying salt dissolution. Thus, whether the basins were initiated by subsidence over the salt dissolution areas or whether the salt dissolution was caused by infiltration of overlying lake water is conjectural. However, the fact that the lacustrine fill in Mound Lake greatly exceeds the amount of salt dissolution and subsidence of overlying beds indicates that at least Mound Lake basin was antecedent to the salt dissolution. The association of topography, structure, and dissolution in areas well removed from zones of shallow burial emphasizes the susceptibility of Permian salt-bed dissolution throughout the west Texas-eastern New Mexico area. Such evidence, combined with previous studies documenting salt-bed dissolution in areas surrounding a proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas, leads to serious questions about the rationale of using salt beds for nuclear-waste storage

  17. Functional C1-inhibitor diagnostics in hereditary angioedema: assay evaluation and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke G A; Drouet, Christian; Aygören-Pursun, Emel; Bork, Konrad; Bucher, Christoph; Bygum, Anette; Farkas, Henriette; Fust, George; Gregorek, Hanna; Hack, C Erik; Hickey, Alaco; Joller-Jemelka, Helen I; Kapusta, Maria; Kreuz, Wolfhart; Longhurst, Hilary; Lopez-Trascasa, Margarita; Madalinski, Kazimierz; Naskalski, Jerzy; Nieuwenhuys, Ed; Ponard, Denise; Truedsson, Lennart; Varga, Lilian; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Wagner, Eric; Zingale, Lorenza; Cicardi, Marco; van Ham, S Marieke

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. The most widespread underlying genetic deficiency is a heterozygous deficiency of the serine protease inhibitor C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh). In addition to low C4 levels, the most important laboratory parameter for correct diagnosis of HAE or angioedema due to acquired C1-Inh deficiency is reduced C1-Inh function (fC1-Inh). No direct recommendations abou...

  18. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-06-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization. PMID:25605519

  19. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-02-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  1. Australia's export coal industry: a project of the Coal Australia Promotion Program. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet presents an overview of the Australian coal industry, emphasises the advantages of using Australian coal and outlines government policies, both Commonwealth and State, which impact on coal mine development, mine ownership and coal exports. It also provides information on the operations and products of each producer supplying coal and coke to export markets and gives contact details for each. The emphasis is on black coal, but information on coal briquettes and coke is also provided. Basic information on the rail networks used for the haulage of export coal and on each of the bulk coal loading terminals is also included.(Author). 3 figs., photos

  2. L-C1qDC-1, a novel C1q domain-containing protein from Lethenteron camtschaticum that is involved in the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guangying; Liu, Ge; Pan, Xiong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    The C1q domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of proteins characterized by a globular C1q (gC1q) domain at their C-terminus. These proteins are involved in various processes in vertebrates and are assumed to serve as important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity in invertebrates. Here, a novel C1qDC protein from Lethenteron camtschaticum was identified and characterized (designated as L-C1qDC-1). After a partial cDNA sequence of L-C1qDC-1 was identified in a L. camtschaticum liver cDNA library, the full-length cDNA was obtained using 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). L-C1qDC-1 encodes 236 amino acids and contains a signal peptide, a collagen-like sequence with Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeats, and a C-terminal gC1q domain. The L-C1qDC-1 protein was primarily distributed in the gut, liver and supraneural body of L. camtschaticum and was also marginally detectable in leukocytes via real-time PCR and immunofluorescence assays. Furthermore, both immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence results showed that in L. camtschaticum serum, L-C1qDC-1 could interact with variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) B and displayed strong colocalization with cancer cell immune responses. These results indicated that the L-C1qDC-1 gene encodes a novel C1qDC protein that may play an important role in the immune responses of L. camtschaticum, providing clues for understanding the universal functions of C1qDC proteins in other species and suggesting that these proteins could serve as pattern recognition molecules in immunotherapy. PMID:26342581

  3. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1989-12-14

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds., In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  4. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  5. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  6. Coal supply and transportation model (CSTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coal Supply and Transportation Model (CSTM) forecasts annual coal supply and distribution to domestic and foreign markets. The model describes US coal production, national and international coal transportation industries. The objective of this work is to provide a technical description of the current version of the model

  7. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  8. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  9. Evaluating transition-metal catalysis in gas generation from the Permian Kupferschiefer by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M.D.; Kotarba, M.J.; Wieclaw, D.; Piestrzynski, A.

    2008-01-01

    Transition metals in source rocks have been advocated as catalysts in determining extent, composition, and timing of natural gas generation (Mango, F. D. (1996) Transition metal catalysis in the generation of natural gas. Org. Geochem.24, 977–984). This controversial hypothesis may have important implications concerning gas generation in unconventional shale-gas accumulations. Although experiments have been conducted to test the metal-catalysis hypothesis, their approach and results remain equivocal in evaluating natural assemblages of transition metals and organic matter in shale. The Permian Kupferschiefer of Poland offers an excellent opportunity to test the hypothesis with immature to marginally mature shale rich in both transition metals and organic matter. Twelve subsurface samples containing similar Type-II kerogen with different amounts and types of transition metals were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis at 330° and 355 °C for 72 h. The gases generated in these experiments were quantitatively collected and analyzed for molecular composition and stable isotopes. Expelled immiscible oils, reacted waters, and spent rock were also quantitatively collected. The results show that transition metals have no effect on methane yields or enrichment. ?13C values of generated methane, ethane, propane and butanes show no systematic changes with increasing transition metals. The potential for transition metals to enhance gas generation and oil cracking was examined by looking at the ratio of the generated hydrocarbon gases to generated expelled immiscible oil (i.e., GOR), which showed no systematic change with increasing transition metals. Assuming maximum yields at 355 °C for 72 h and first-order reaction rates, pseudo-rate constants for methane generation at 330 °C were calculated. These rate constants showed no increase with increasing transition metals. The lack of a significant catalytic effect of transition metals on the extent, composition, and timing of natural gas generation in these experiments is attributed to the metals not occurring in the proper form or the poisoning of potential catalytic microcosms by polar-rich bitumen, which impregnates the rock matrix during the early stages of petroleum formation.

  10. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane M. Calarge

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m. The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.Um depósito Permiano de bentonita em Melo, Uruguai,é composto por um arenito com cimento calcítico contendo pseudomorfos de argila sobre detritos vítreos(0-0.50 m superpostos a um deposito maciço de argila rosado (0.50-2.10 m. A camada maciça é composta por dois níveis contendo quartzo e esmectita ou esmectita pura, respectivamente. A homogeneidade de esmectita ao longo do perfil é notável: trata-se de um interestratificado composto de três tipos de camadas, cuja expansibilidade com etileno-glicol (folhas 2EG, 1EG ou 0EG na zona interfoliar correspondentes a camadas com baixa, média e alta carga, respectivamente variam com o tipo de cátion que satura a zona interfoliar. A homogeneidade da esmectita ao longo do perfil é a assinatura de um processo de alteração precoce em uma água lagunar supersaturada em calcita. A compactação durante o soterramento tornou a camada de bentonita um sistema fechado empobrecido em K no qual a ilitização diagenética foi inibida. Variações nas abundâncias de elementos maiores, menores e ETR no depósito maciço de argila sugere que este foi originado a partir de duas quedas sucessivas de cinza. A abundância de elementos incompatíveis é consistente com a de um vidro vulcânico fracionado a partir de um magma riolitico formado em um ambiente geológico de subducção/colisão.

  11. Petrography and provenance of the Early Permian Fluvial Warchha Sandstone, Salt Range, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahid; Mountney, Nigel P.

    The Warchha Sandstone of the Salt Range of Pakistan is a continental succession that accumulated as part of a meandering, fluvial system during Early Permian times. Several fining-upward depositional cycles are developed, each of which is composed of conglomerate, cross-bedded sandstone and, in their upper parts, bioturbated siltstone and claystone units with distinctive desiccation cracks and carbonate concretions. Clast lithologies are mainly of plutonic and low-grade metamorphic origin, with an additional minor sedimentary component. Textural properties of the sandstone are fine- to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately sorted, sub-angular to sub-rounded, and with generally loose packing. Based on modal analyses, the sandstone is dominantly a feldspathoquartzose (arkose to sub-arkose). Detrital constituents are mainly composed of monocrystalline quartz, feldspars (more K-feldspar than plagioclase) and various types of lithic clasts. XRD and SEM studies indicate that kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral and that it occurs as both allogenic and authigenic forms. However, illite, illite-smectite mixed layer, smectite and chlorite are also recognised in both pores and fractures. Much of the kaolinite was likely derived by the severe chemical weathering of previously deposited basement rocks under the influence of a hot and humid climate. Transported residual clays deposited as part of the matrix of the Warchha Sandstone show coherent links with the sandstone petrofacies, thereby indicating the same likely origin. Illite, smectite and chlorite mainly occur as detrital minerals and as alteration products of weathered acidic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Based primarily on fabric relationship, the sequence of cement formation in the Warchha Sandstone is clay (generally kaolinite), iron oxide, calcareous and siliceous material, before iron-rich illite and occasional mixed layer smectite-illite and rare chlorite. Both petrographic analysis and field characteristics of the sandstone indicate that the source areas were characterised by uplift of a moderate to high relief continental block that was weathered under the influence of hot and humid climatic conditions. The rocks weathered from the source areas included primary granites and gneisses, together with metamorphic basement rocks and minor amounts of sedimentary rocks. Regional palaeogeographic reconstructions indicate that much of the Warchha Sandstone detritus was derived from the Aravalli and Malani ranges and surrounding areas of the Indian Craton to the south and southeast, before being transported to and deposited within the Salt Range region under the influence of a semi-arid to arid climatic regime.

  12. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liane M., Calarge; Alain, Meunier; Bruno, Lanson; Milton L.L., Formoso.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Um depósito Permiano de bentonita em Melo, Uruguai,é composto por um arenito com cimento calcítico contendo pseudomorfos de argila sobre detritos vítreos(0-0.50 m) superpostos a um deposito maciço de argila rosado (0.50-2.10 m). A camada maciça é composta por dois níveis contendo quartzo e esmectita [...] ou esmectita pura, respectivamente. A homogeneidade de esmectita ao longo do perfil é notável: trata-se de um interestratificado composto de três tipos de camadas, cuja expansibilidade com etileno-glicol (folhas 2EG, 1EG ou 0EG na zona interfoliar correspondentes a camadas com baixa, média e alta carga, respectivamente) variam com o tipo de cátion que satura a zona interfoliar. A homogeneidade da esmectita ao longo do perfil é a assinatura de um processo de alteração precoce em uma água lagunar supersaturada em calcita. A compactação durante o soterramento tornou a camada de bentonita um sistema fechado empobrecido em K no qual a ilitização diagenética foi inibida. Variações nas abundâncias de elementos maiores, menores e ETR no depósito maciço de argila sugere que este foi originado a partir de duas quedas sucessivas de cinza. A abundância de elementos incompatíveis é consistente com a de um vidro vulcânico fracionado a partir de um magma riolitico formado em um ambiente geológico de subducção/colisão. Abstract in english A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m) overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m). The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. [...] The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively) varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.

  13. Automated Coal-Mining System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangal, M. D.; Isenberg, L.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed system offers safety and large return on investment. System, operating by year 2000, employs machines and processes based on proven principles. According to concept, line of parallel machines, connected in groups of four to service modules, attacks face of coal seam. High-pressure water jets and central auger on each machine break face. Jaws scoop up coal chunks, and auger grinds them and forces fragments into slurry-transport system. Slurry pumped through pipeline to point of use. Concept for highly automated coal-mining system increases productivity, makes mining safer, and protects health of mine workers.

  14. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.; Piasecki, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In 1908, members of the “Danmark Expedition” discovered a coal deposit in a very remote area in western Germania Land, close to the margin of the inland ice in northeast Greenland. The deposit was, however, neither sampled nor described, and was revisited in 2009 for the first time since its discovery. The outcrops found in 2009 amount to approximately 8 m of sediment including a coal seam of 2 m thickness. More outcrops and additional coal deposits most certainly are to be found, pending furthe...

  15. Remaking the World's Largest Coal Market

    OpenAIRE

    Rui, Huaichuan; Morse, Richard, K; He, Gang

    2010-01-01

    China's coal market is now in the midst of a radical restructuring that has the potential to change how coal is produced, traded and consumed both in China and the rest of the world. The restructuring aims to integrate the coal and power sectors at giant "coal-power bases" that combined would churn out more coal annually than all the coal produced in the entire United States. Coal-power integration is now a focal point of the Chinese government's energy policy, driven by the dram...

  16. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  17. COAL AND COAL CONSTITUENT STUDIES BY ADVANCED EMR TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson

    1997-03-28

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, progress was made on setting up a separate high frequency EMR system particularly appropriate for such studies and exploring the use of low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles.

  18. Inorganic Matter in Coal Particles of Coal Waste Piles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Z.; Fojtíková, M.; Mat?jka, V.; Kolomazník, I.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Trejtnarová, Hana; Martinec, Petr; Šulc, Alexandr

    Freiberg : TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 2010, s. 404-405. ISBN 978-3-86012-397-3. [Second International Conference on Coal Fire Research ICCFR2. Berlin (DE), 19.05.2010-21.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : coal wastes * inorganic matter * phase analysis Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling

  19. Effect of coal soluble constituents on caking property of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Mingdong Zheng; Zhicai Wang; Xunming Li [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Anhui Educational Department

    2007-07-15

    Three cokemaking bituminous coals were extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvents with different content of NMP, and the effect of the amount and the component of coal soluble constituents on the caking property of the extracted residues of coals were investigated in this study. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) was found to give the maximal extraction yields for the three coals, and the fat coal gave the highest extraction yield of 78.6% (daf) corresponding to its highest caking index of 101. It was found that for coking coal, when the extraction yield got to the maximum of 25.3% in the 1:1 by volume of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent, the residue extracted still had caking property with the caking index of 19. This means parts of the caking constituents of coal are un-extractible because of covalent bonding or strong associative cross-links. The soluble components extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent and their effects on the caking indexes of the residues at a similar extraction yield quite differed depending on the NMP content in the mixed solvent. The coal solubles extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP less than 50% contained less light constituents with less of oxygen groups. This may lead to the decrease in the caking indexes for the residues obtained at the similar extraction yields compared to those of the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP more than 50%. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Coal and Coal Constituent Studies by Advanced EMR Techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.; Ceroke, P.J.

    1997-09-30

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, progress was made on a high frequency EMR system particularly appropriate for such studies and on low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles.

  1. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  2. Problems and challenges in detection of pre-Mesozoic maar volcanoes: example from the Principálek Volcano in the Permian Krkonoše Piedmont Basin.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valenta, Jan; Rapprich, V.; Stárková, M.; Skácelová, Z.; Fojtíková, Lucia; Stan?k, František; Balek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 59, ?. 3 (2014), s. 169-181. ISSN 1802-6222 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : diatreme * geophysics * volcanology * Permian * Krkonoše Piedmont Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014 http://www.jgeosci.org/detail/jgeosci.170

  3. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  4. Preliminary study of uranium in Pennsylvanian and lower Permian strata in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, and the Northern Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent and widespread radiometric anomalies occur in Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata in the subsurface of the northern Great Plains and the Powder River Basin. The primary host lithology of these anomalies is shale interbedded with sandstone, dolomite, and dolomitic sandstone. Samples from the project area indicate that uranium is responsible for some anomalies. In some samples there seems to be a correlation between high uranium content and high organic-carbon content, which possibly indicates that carbonaceous material acted as a trapping mechanism in some strata. The Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks studied are predominantly marine carbonates and clastics, but there are rocks of fluvial origin in the basal Pennsylvanian of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota and in the Pennsylvanian and Permian deposits on the east flank of the Laramie Mountains. Fine-grained clastic rocks that flank the Chadron arch in western Nebraska are possibly of continental origin. The trend of the Chadron arch approximately parallels the trend of radiometric anomalies in the subsurface Permian-Pennsylvanian section. Possible source areas for uranium in the sediments studied were pre-Pennsylvanian strata of the Canadian Shield and Precambrian igneous rocks of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains

  5. Carbon isotopic shift and its cause at the Wuchiapingian-Changhsingian boundary in the Upper Permian at the Zhaojiaba section, South China: Evidences from multiple geochemical proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hengye; Yu, Hao; Wang, Jianguo; Qiu, Zhen; Xiang, Lei; Shi, Guo

    2015-06-01

    The Late Permian environmental change, connecting the Guadalupian-Lopingian (G-L) (Middle-Upper Permian) boundary mass extinction and the Permain-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary mass extinction, has attracted more and more attentions. A significant negative shift for carbon isotope had been found at the Wuchiapingian-Changhsingian (W-C) boundary in the Upper Permian recently. However, the cause(s) of this negative excursion is still unknown. To resolve this problem, we analyzed the bulk organic carbon isotope, total organic carbon (TOC) content, pyritic sulfur (Spy) content, major element concentrations, and molecular organic biomarkers in the Wujiaping and Dalong formations in the Upper Permian from the Zhaojiaba section in western Hubei province, South China. Our results show that (1) there was a significant negative excursion in organic carbon isotopes at the W-C boundary and again a negative excursion at the top of Changhsingian stage; (2) the significant negative excursion at the W-C boundary was probably a global signal and mainly caused by the low primary productivity; and (3) the negative carbon isotope excursion at the top of Changhsingian was probably caused by the Siberian Traps eruptions. A decline in oceanic primary productivity at the W-C boundary probably represents a disturbance of the marine food web, leading to a vulnerable ecosystem prior to the P-Tr boundary mass extinction.

  6. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  7. Differential cleaning of coking coals. [Cleaning coals before blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tselik, M.P.; Yakovenko, A.M.; Antimonova, L.F.; Litmanovich, I.M.; Belitskii, A.N.; Plastovets, I.Kh.; Isaev, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    A separate and differential cleaning scheme for poorly and good caking coals has been developed, introduced, and investigated at the Yasinovka coking plant. The qualitative and quantitative results of coal cleaning and carbonization before and after introducing the scheme are compared and discussed. The results show that separate and differentiated cleaning gives a number of improvements over the blend-crushing system previously used at the Yasinovka Works cleaning plant: (a) it increases the yield of carbonization charge, mainly by increasing the yield of concentrate from the good-caking grade Zh and K coals and simultaneously lowering the yield of saleable intermediate product and the combined coal losses in the intermediate product and tailings; (b) it increases the caking capacity of the charge by subjecting the poorly-caking coals to more thorough cleaning and increasing the proportion of good-caking coals. The improvements in the grade constitution and caking capacity of the charge were reflected in increased mechanical strength and coke yield.

  8. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  9. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  10. Coal extrusion in the plastic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C.; Ryason, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    Continuous feeding of coal in a compressing screw extruder is described as a method of introducing coal into pressurized systems. The method utilizes the property of many bituminous coals of softening at temperatures from 350 to 425 C. Coal is then fed, much in the manner of common thermoplastics, using screw extruders. Data on the viscosity and extruder parameters for extrusion of Illinois No. 6 coal are presented.

  11. Microbalance applications to sorption testing of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B.B.; O' Donnell, G. (James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, Qld (Australia). Coalseam Gas Research Institute)

    1992-01-01

    A technique for sorption testing of coals has been developed which uses a high pressure microbalance. The key function of performing this type of sorption testing is the ability to provide results for the direct comparison of effects of coal type, coal microstructure, and particle size. Tests performed on Bowen Basin coals indicate that there is a general positive correlation between sorption capacity and coal rank, and a negative correlation with ash content. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  13. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  14. Recent developments in coal petrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973 a major programme of coal exploration was initiated by Shell Companies operating in various parts of the world. While it was recognized that Coal Petrophysics was still a fairly new and inexact science, a policy decision was made at the outset to log every bore hole. Requirements are given for a suitable package of wireline instrumentation. Qualitative and quantitative use and interpretation of the logs are discussed. These include control on coring, correlation, determination of ash content, calorific value, rank, and identification of and characterising of overburden lithologies for mining engineering purposes. An integrated computer system is described to handle coal core analysis and petrophysical evaluation. This is based on a data bank of coal core measurements 'COGEO', on an interpretation system 'COPLA' and a data bank of interpreted values 'COPET'. A number of application subroutines generate Pseudo-Washability curves and vertical selection for mining feasibility studies

  15. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  16. Ash Microspheres for Coal Burning

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Estimation of perspectives for ash microspheres production at coal burning thermal power stations , development of methods for their quality certification. Creation of a database for ash microspheres in Russian Federation.

  17. NMR investigation of coal extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton NMR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of 10% coal extract solutions in deuterated pyridine. Four types of Czechoslovak coal were analyzed. Agreement was found between the aromaticity of coal extracts calculated from 1H NMR data using Brown's method and Ladner's and Williams' method and the characterization of an average molecule of the coal extract by the number of non-bridge carbon atoms of aromatic rings, by the overall number of aromatic ring carbon atoms and the number of aromatic rings, determined by the Williams and Ferris methods. The methods for calculating carbon distribution from 1H NMR data, however, contain some constants theoretically estimated or experimentally found using the method which still remain to be verified. (M.K.)

  18. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  19. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  20. Black coal. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.)

  1. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, R.A.; Balogh-Nair, V.

    1990-01-01

    Steam pretreatment is the reaction of coal with steam at temperatures well below those usually used for solubilization. The objective of the proposed work is to test the application of steam pretreatment to coal liquefaction. This quarter, a 300 ml stirred autoclave for liquefaction tests were specified and ordered, procedures for extraction tests were reestablished, and the synthesis of four model compounds was completed. Two of these compounds remain to be purified.

  2. ORIGIN OF QUARTZ IN COAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Cecil, C. Blaine; Stanton, Ronald W.

    1984-01-01

    Both a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe (EMP) were used in this study to analyze the cathodoluminescence properties of quartz grains in samples of the Upper Freeport coal bed because quartz grains in coal are small (silt sized) and below the resolution capabilities of a standard luminoscope. Quartz grains were identified by the detection of silicon alone with energy dispersive X-ray units attached to both the SEM and the EMP.

  3. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the Danforth Hills coal field, Colorado (dan*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Final unioned polygon coverages and shapefiles used to calculate coal resources of the A through G coal zones, Danforth Hills coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  4. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Power Generation from Coal 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Coal is the biggest single source of energy for electricity production and its share is growing. The efficiency of converting coal into electricity matters: more efficient power plants use less fuel and emit less climate-damaging carbon dioxide. This book explores how efficiency is measured and reported at coal-fired power plants. With many different methods used to express efficiency performance, it is often difficult to compare plants, even before accounting for any fixed constraints such as coal quality and cooling-water temperature. Practical guidelines are presented that allow the efficiency and emissions of any plant to be reported on a common basis and compared against best practice. A global database of plant performance is proposed that would allow under-performing plants to be identified for improvement. Armed with this information, policy makers would be in a better position to monitor and, if necessary, regulate how coal is used for power generation. The tools and techniques described will be of value to anyone with an interest in the more sustainable use of coal.

  6. Panorama 2010: World coal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time when the international community must face the key challenges posed by global warming as well as sustainability in general and many of our fellow citizens have come to look unfavorably upon fossil energies, the world is still heavily dependent on these energies to cover growing global energy demand. With proved reserves equivalent to more than 120 years at the present rate of extraction, with a better worldwide geographical distribution than petroleum, coal seems like an especially secure energy. While the renewable energies are showing rapid growth but still only represent a small proportion of the world energy mix, coal was the energy whose consumption grew at the fastest rate and for the sixth consecutive year. This gives cause for concern when one realizes that coal is also the most environmentally harmful energy at local level (its extraction generates pollution) and globally (its combustion emits CO2). So how is it possible to reconcile the apparently irreconcilable, especially when, in some countries, coal represents the bulk of the energy resources? Since it is impossible to do without coal, the solution is to develop new 'clean coal' technologies, among which the capture and storage of CO2 looks like a promising pathway. In the process, it will be necessary to overcome major technical, economic and social challenges. (author)

  7. Gold, coal and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio U

    2010-03-01

    Jared Diamond has hypothesized that guns, germs and steel account for the fate of human societies. Here I propose an extension of Diamond's hypothesis and put it in other terms and dimensions: gold, coal and oil account not only for the fate of human societies but also for the fate of mankind through the bodily accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic, an invisible weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change. The background is clear; arsenic species fulfill seven criteria for a weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change: (i) bioavailability to all living organisms; (ii) imperceptibility; (iii) acute toxicity; (iv) bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity; (v) adverse impact on reproductive fitness and reproductive outcomes and early-age development and growth in a wide range of microbial, plant and animal species including man; (vi) widespread geographical distribution, mobility and ecological persistence on a centennial to millennial basis and (vii) availability in necessary and sufficient amounts to exert evolutionarily meaningful effects. The proof is becoming increasingly feasible as human exploitation of gold, coal and oil deposits cause sustainable rises of arsenic concentrations in the biosphere. Paradoxically, humans are among the least arsenic-resistant organisms because humans are long-lived, encephalized and complex social metazoans. An arsenic accumulation model is presented here to describe how arsenic accumulates in the human body with increasing age and at different provisionally safe exposure levels. Arsenic accumulates in the human body even at daily exposure levels which are within the lowest possible WHO provisional tolerance limits, yielding bodily arsenic concentrations which are above WHO provisional limits. Ongoing consequences of global scale arsenic poisoning of mankind include age-specific rises in morbidity and mortality followed by adaptive changes. The potential rise of successful forms of inborn resistance to arsenic in humans will make it certain that a number of other hardly won, nicely balanced human-specific adaptednesses will decline. These include a decline of encephalization and life-span, and consequentially intelligence and longevity. These changes are likely to have far-reaching impacts on biological and cultural evolution of mankind. The only efficient way of reducing chronic global exposure to arsenic and avoiding further human losses is the inactivation of important sources of anthropogenic arsenic such as hard rock mining and burning of fossil fuels. PMID:19846256

  8. Geochemical evidence from Lower Permian volcanic rocks of northeast New South Wales for asthenospheric upwelling following slab breakoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ca 280 Ma Alum Mountain Volcanics and Werrie Basalt were erupted in northeast New South Wales, Australia, during Early Permian lithospheric extension that separated discrete episodes of subduction of Carboniferous and Late Permian - Triassic age. The Alum Mountain rocks, which are preserved in two major synclines in the southeast Tamworth Belt, are mostly basalt, but andesite and rhyolite are also present. The Werrie Basalt found further north in the Tamworth Belt and in the floor of the Gunnedah Basin is composed mainly of basalt, but includes more evolved rocks in the vicinity of several eruptive centres. The Alum Mountain rocks have REE abundances similar to N-MORB, with flat REE patterns, (La/Sm)N ratios ranging from 0.54 to 1.07, and (La/Yb)N ratios from 0.94 to 2.78, suggesting an origin by large degrees of partial melting of asthenosphere at a depth Nd values, ranging from +2.05 to +6.00, suggesting an asthenospheric origin for these rocks. Spider diagrams show a clear negative Nb anomaly, typical of subduction zones, but LREE/HREE [(La/Sm)N = 1.61 to 2.20; (La/Yb)N = 5.07 to 8.81], Ti/Zr, and Ti/P ratios are close to OIB values. The enriched character of the Werrie Basalt has resulted from either asthenospheric melts being progressively modified during ascent of fractionating magmas through the lithosphere, or by partial melting of a mantle metasomatised by subduction. The presence of a significant depleted-mantle component in the signature of the Lower Permian volcanic rocks indicates rise of the local mantle geotherm to allow extensive melting. We therefore propose a model of asthenospheric upwelling and lateral flow following breakoff of the Carboniferous subducting slab. Our model of asthenospheric convection as derived from eastern Australia suggests a major role for the asthenosphere in subduction zones: not only is the asthenosphere the reservoir from which magmatic arc melts originate, but we surmise that the behaviour of asthenospheric mantle at subduction zones may have far-reaching implications for the overall thermal state of the planet. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  9. The magnetic anomaly on the Permian Alcaparrosa porphyry (Argentina). A case of pyrrhotite-remanence-dominated anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The Permian Alcaparrosa porphyry is a small (600 meters in diameter) rhyodacite stock outcropping in the Precordillera geological province, San Juan, Argentina. It developed a 3-kilometers-long, NW-SE-trending alteration halo ('Faja Amarilla', yellow belt) in the host rocks, which is a sequence of Ordovician marine mudstones with interbedded basaltic flows included in the Alcaparrosa Fm. The porphyry-related alteration overprinted a previous low-grade-metamorphic alteration assemblage characteristic of an oceanic floor environment. The aeromagnetic survey revealed a bipolar anomaly in the total magnetic intensity (TMI) coinciding with the outcropping alteration halo. The surrounding Alcaparrosa Fm is non-magnetic and therefore the anomaly is clearly defined in a quiet magnetic zone, showing a minimum to the north, centred on the porphyry, and a semi lunar maximum to the south. The shape of the anomaly is opposed to the expected shape of induced magnetic anomalies in mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere. Available data show that both the Permian porphyry and its alteration halo carry a magnetic remanence with positive inclination (i.e. reversed polarity), probably acquired during the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The Koenigsberger ratio (Q) for the porphyry resulted lower than 1, which means that remanence is not intense enough to control the shape of the magnetic anomaly. On the other side, outcropping rocks of the alteration halo show intense supergene alteration and are non-magnetic. However, relics of phyllic alteration where found relatively preserved of supergene alteration, and they showed monoclinic pyrrhotite as magnetic carrier, and a Q ratio higher than 1. We used those data to model a body carrying a reversed magnetic remanence. The shape and extension of the modelled body seems a good approximation to the possible shape of the sulphide-bearing alteration halo around the rhyodacite porphyry. The presence of monoclinic pyrrhotite carrying reversed-polarity, high-Q remanence in the Permian porphyry systems of Precordillera should be assessed, as its related inverted anomalies could be used as an exploration guide in aeromagnetic surveys.

  10. Characterizing the Hydrogeology and Surface Waters of a Select Portion of the Permian Basin Using an Arc Hydro Groundwater Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J. T.; McPhearson, B. J.; Land, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    Atmospheric levels of anthropogenic CO2 have increased from a pre industrial level of 280 parts per million to a 1999 concentration of over 365 parts per million, largely due to expanding use of fossil fuels for human energy needs. Current levels are the highest observed in over 350,000 years. The desire to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 supports research on and development of technologies that will achieve this end. Sequestration of carbon in geologic formations is one such technology that is actively being pursued. Of particular interest is the Permian Basin of eastern Texas and southeastern New Mexico, a basin with substantial saline and brine aquifers that might be very suitable for carbon sequestration, and also a basin that has been producing oil and gas for well over 100 years, a process which utilizes CO2 injection for enhanced recovery. Understanding the interactions between those portions of the Permian Basin proposed for CO2 sequestration and those portions currently utilized as a water supply (i.e., Pecos River and freshwater aquifers) is a critical component of the R&D in this area because of the reliance of a large agricultural community and other delicate legal and environmental balances prevailing in this region. The main purpose of this study is to create a detailed hydrological model with emphasis on hydrogeology and surface waters of a select portion of the Permian Basin, delineated by the Sacramento Mountains to the west and the Delaware Basin to the east, with the long term goal that this study will be one component of a total basin characterization and evaluation. Arc Hydro groundwater data model framework is used to create a database of the study area. The construction of this database is an initial step in the integration of the plethora of oil, gas, and water databases (e.g., IHS Database, New Mexico Subsurface and Core Libraries, and WATERS Database), and provides a platform for the addition of hydrological and geological data (e.g., from the New Mexico Bureau of Geology's Sacramento Mountains Project). The database is then coupled with a numerical model used to explore groundwater surface water interactions and aquifer connectedness at both the regional and site scale, with particular emphasis placed on those phenomena elucidating the interdependencies between the Pecos Slope and the Delaware Basin. This application of the Arc Hydro groundwater data model will be expanded upon and its predictive capabilities further developed such that the effects of CO2 sequestration in the Capitan Reef aquifer can be evaluated.

  11. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  12. Application of coal petrographic and paleobotanic analyses in brown coal exploration. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rascher, J.; Seifert, A.

    1985-04-01

    The classification methods employed in the GDR for characterizing brown coal quality are outlined. The methods include macropetrographic analysis of exploratory drill cores, micropetrographic analysis, evaluation of coal suitability for beneficiation, determination of coal xylite content and micropaleobotany studies. Micropaleobotany studies characterize the facial composition of coal seam horizons, including analyses of preserved sporomorphs from adjacent sediments of coal seams and analyses of cuticles and pollen from coal samples. Based on results of these studies, an assessment of deposit genesis and coal quality is made. Various tables and graphs provide examples of coal seam classification. 41 references.

  13. Plasma coal reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Results of many years of investigations of plasma-chemical technologies for pyrolysis, hydrogenation, thermochemical preparation for combustion, gasification, and complex reprocessing of solid fuels and hydrocarbon gas cracking are represented. Application of these technologies for obtaining the desired products (hydrogen, industrial carbon, synthesis gas, valuable components of the mineral mass of coal) corresponds to modern ecological and economical requirements to the power engineering, metallurgy, and chemical industry. Plasma fuel utilization technologies are characterized by the short-term residence of reagents within a reactor and the high degree of the conversion of source substances into the desired products without catalyst application. The thermochemical preparation of the fuel to combustion is realized in a plasma-fuel system presenting a reaction chamber with a plasmatron; and the remaining plasma fuel utilization technologies, in a combined plasma-chemical reactor with a nominal power of 100 kW, whose zone of the heat release from an electric arc is joined with the chemical reaction zone.

  14. Jongam coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jai; Kang, Chang Hee; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Jong Lim; Kim, Chung Han; Hong, Sung Gyu [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This research is for providing appropriate measures on mine safety and long term development base of the operating mines by over whole safety inspections. Jongam mine owned by Samtan Co. Ltd. was target for this research. Major issue of Jongam mine was revealed that lack of pumping capacity to treat ever increasing underground water which is mainly due to the inflow from the adjacent closed mines, and insufficient investment for the preparation of long term program. Besides, in most cases, the morale of mine workers and business mind of owners are so depressed that the mine safety is going to be vulnerable anyhow. In this point of view, the regulatory and systematic measures to encourage the workers` morale and owners` investment mind are urgently requested. However, investigation result of underground electrical hazard showed that there is no remarkable problems. The average efficiency of pumps revealed 50% which is considered rather good condition yet, and no coal seams were found which bears excessive carbon dioxide gas. (author). 21 figs., 42 tabs.

  15. NSW coal industry overview and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is the fourth-largest coal producer in the world, after China, the USA and India. In 2001, Australia produced some 257 Million tonnes (Mt) of hard coal, with almost 45% of this coming from NSW. Australia is the world's largest exporter of hard coal. In 2001, Australia exported some 193 Mt of hard coal, well ahead of its nearest rival, China, at 91 Mt and South Africa and Indonesia at 69 and 66 Mt respectively. Of the total coal exports from Australia in 2001, nearly 40% came from NSW. Trade in coal is forecast to continue its growth, particularly for thermal coal. Substantial growth in Asian demand for thermal coal is forecast over the next decade. Asian demand is expected to increase from 193 Mt in 2000 to 333 Mt in 2020. By 2020, Asian demand is expected to make up 62% of world seaborne thermal coal trade

  16. Ten questions on the future of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author comments data and information on the main uses of coal, the evolution of the coal share in the world energy consumption, the amounts and locations of coal reserves in comparison with oil and gas, the coal reserves left in the European Union, the world coal market characteristics with respect to those of oil and gas, the reason of the bad environmental reputation of coal, the internal cost of a KWh produced by a coal power station, the external cost resulting from its environmental pollution, the possibility of reducing those defects by 2020, 2040, 2060, the way of transforming coal into oil and to which cost, in order to expand its use to modern transports, the role of coal during the 21. century and the possibilities of CO2 sequestration

  17. Lower Permian stems as fluvial paleocurrent indicators of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capretz, Robson Louiz; Rohn, Rosemarie

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive biostratinomic study was carried out with abundant stems from the Lower Permian Motuca Formation of the intracratonic Parnaíba Basin, central-north Brazil. The fossils represent a rare tropical to subtropical paleofloristic record in north Gondwana. Tree ferns dominate the assemblages (mainly Tietea, secondarily Psaronius), followed by gymnosperms, sphenophytes, other ferns and rare lycophytes. They are silica-permineralized, commonly reach 4 m length (exceptionally more than 10 m), lie loosely on the ground or are embedded in the original sandstone or siltstone matrix, and attract particular attention because of their frequent parallel attitudes. Many tree fern stems present the original straight cylindrical to slightly conical forms, other are somewhat flattened, and the gymnosperm stems are usually more irregular. Measurements of stem orientations and dimensions were made in three sites approximately aligned in a W-E direction in a distance of 27.3 km at the conservation unit "Tocantins Fossil Trees Natural Monument". In the eastern site, rose diagrams for 54 stems indicate a relatively narrow azimuthal range to SE. These stems commonly present attached basal bulbous root mantles and thin cylindrical sandstone envelopes, which sometimes hold, almost adjacent to the lateral stem surface, permineralized fern pinnae and other small plant fragments. In the more central site, 82 measured stems are preferentially oriented in the SW-NE direction, the proportion of gymnosperms is higher and cross-stratification sets of sandstones indicate paleocurrents mainly to NE and secondarily to SE. In the western site, most of the 42 measured stems lie in E-W positions. The predominantly sandy succession, where the fossil stems are best represented, evidences a braided fluvial system under semiarid conditions. The low plant diversity, some xeromorphic features and the supposedly almost syndepositional silica impregnation of the plants are coherent with marked dry seasons. Thick mudstones and some coquinites below and above the sandy interval may represent lacustrine facies formed in probably more humid conditions. The taphonomic history of the preserved plants began with exceptional storms that caused fast-flowing high water in channels and far into the floodplains. In the eastern site region, many tree ferns only fell, thus sometimes covering and protecting plant litter and leaves from further fragmentation. Assemblages of the central and western sites suggest that the trees were uprooted and transported in suspension (floating) parallel to the flow. Heavier ends of stems (according to their form or because of attached basal bulbous root mantle or large apical fronds) were oriented to upstream because of inertial forces. During falling water stage, the stems were stranded on riverbanks, usually maintaining the previous transport orientation, and were slightly buried. The perpendicular or oblique positions of some stems may have been caused by interference with other stems or shallow bars. Rare observed stems were apparently waterlogged before the final depositional process and transported as bedload. The differences of interpreted channel orientations between the three sites are expected in a braided fluvial system, considering the very low gradients of the basin and the work scale in the order of tens of kilometers. The mean direction of the drainage probably was to east and the flows apparently became weaker downstream. This study seems to provide reliable data for paleocurrent interpretations, especially considering areas with scarce preserved sedimentary structures.

  18. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  19. Ultrasonic coal washing to leach alkali elements from coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Reddy, V Midhun; Nagarajan, R

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of fly ash particles onto heat-transfer surfaces is often one of the reasons for unscheduled shut-downs of coal-fired boilers. Fouling deposits encountered in convective sections of a boiler are characterized by arrival of ash particles in solidified (solid) state. Fouling is most frequently caused by condensation and chemical reaction of alkali vapors with the deposited ash particles creating a wet surface conducive to collect impacting ash particles. Hence, the amount of alkali elements present in coals, which, in turn, is available in the flue gas as condensable vapors, determines the formation and growth of fouling deposits. In this context, removal of alkali elements becomes vital when inferior coals having high-ash content are utilized for power generation. With the concept of reducing alkali elements present in a coal entering the combustor, whereby the fouling deposits can either be minimized or be weakened due to absence of alkali gluing effect, the ultrasonic leaching of alkali elements from coals is investigated in this study. Ultrasonic water-washing and chemical-washing, in comparison with agitation, are studied in order to estimate the intensification of the alkali removal process by sonication. PMID:26186840

  20. Architecture and evolution of an Early Permian carbonate complex on a tectonically active island in east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Magginetti, Robert T.; Stone, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The newly named Upland Valley Limestone represents a carbonate complex that developed on and adjacent to a tectonically active island in east-central California during a brief interval of Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. This lithologically unique, relatively thin limestone unit lies within a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic rocks and is characterized by its high concentration of crinoidal debris, pronounced lateral changes in thickness and lithofacies, and a largely endemic fusulinid fauna. Most outcrops represent a carbonate platform and debris derived from it and shed downslope, but another group of outcrops represents one or possibly more isolated carbonate buildups that developed offshore from the platform. Tectonic activity in the area occurred before, probably during, and after deposition of this short-lived carbonate complex.

  1. A new captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma showing remarkable dental and mandibular convergence with microsaurian tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, R. R.; LeBlanc, Aaron R. H.; Sidor, Christian A.; Scott, Diane; May, William

    2015-10-01

    The Lower Permian fossiliferous infills of the Dolese Brothers Limestone Quarry, near Richards Spur, Oklahoma, have preserved the most diverse assemblage of Paleozoic terrestrial vertebrates, including small-bodied reptiles and lepospondyl anamniotes. Many of these taxa were previously known only from fragmentary remains, predominantly dentigerous jaw elements and numerous isolated skeletal elements. The recent discovery of articulated skulls and skeletons of small reptiles permits the recognition that dentigerous elements, previously assigned at this locality to the anamniote lepospondyl Euryodus primus, belong to a new captorhinid eureptile, Opisthodontosaurus carrolli gen. et sp. nov. This mistaken identity points to a dramatic level of convergence in mandibular and dental anatomy in two distantly related and disparate clades of terrestrial tetrapods and sheds light on the earliest instance of durophagy in eureptiles.

  2. Some Preliminary Results of Detailed Paleomagnetic Investigations of the Siberian Permian-Triassic Traps in the Kotuy River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Fetisova, A.; Veselovskiy, R.

    2009-04-01

    Now essential part of geological investigations is dedicated to revealing of reasons and time relation between the mass extinction on the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary and pulses of magmatic activity expressed in forming of the largest Permian-Triassic trap province on the Siberian platform. Thus revealing of the dynamic of the magmatic activity caused formation of the Siberian traps will allow to obtain an important information for establishing of its relation with Permian-Triassic extinction. Recent years several reliable paleomagnetic results from the Siberian traps were obtained, but there is a problem of correlation of Maimecha-Kotuy traps with other trap sequences. Especially this problem is actual in a case of traps of Norilsk and Maimecha-Kotuy regions (Gurevich et al., 2004), because an absence of clearly magnetostratigraphic scheme of the Maimecha-Kotuy region traps. This problem doesn't allow to estimate volume of traps explosion of the Northern part of the Siberian platform. In this work preliminary results of detailed paleomagnetic investigations of Maimecha-Kotuy traps are represented. The most complete and representative sequence of lava flows of Arydzhangsky suite (P2-T1) was exposed to the detailed paleomagnetic sampling. This sequence is situated on the left bank of the Kotuy river. Arydzhangsky suite overlays subhorizontally the eroded surface of the Permian sandstones (Fedorenko et al., 2000) and represents the sequence of lava flows of alkaline basaltic rocks, among which limburgites, augitites, melilite basalts, picrites and nephelinites are the most widely spread. Layers of tuffs are subordinated. Summary thickness of the Arydzhangsky suite in this outcrop is 240 m, and about 27 flows are distinguished there (section 1 in Fedorenko et al., 2000). 23 lava flows were sampled during our researches. 8-10 oriented samples were taken from each lava flow; all samples were obtained from the lower and middle parts in order to decrease the probability of remagnetization by overlayed flow. Orientation of samples was made with geological compass controlling absence of influence of the high-magnetic rocks. In the outcrop on the right bank of the Kotuy river were investigated 4 subhorizontal layers of alkaline mixed tuffs. These tuffs are underlayed by Permian sandstones and they are situated lower then lava flows in relief. Resemblance of these tuffs and alkaline-ultramafic tuffs of Khardakhsky suite (Egorov, 1995) allows to correlate them. Khardakhsky suite is correlated with the Pravoboyarsky suite (P2-T1) (Egorov, 1995). Paleomagnetic investigation revealed rather good paleomagnetic record in the studied samples. The quantity of steps of the thermal cleaning reached 20. Magnetization of tuff layers, correlated with Khardakhskaya suite, includes one or two (contemporary and characteristic) components, the second of them has only reversal polarity. Directions of distinguished characteristic components of magnetization tightly concentrated around their average meaning. Thermal demagnetization of the samples from all 23 sampled lava flows of Arydzhangsky suite showed that these rocks are magnetized in normal polarity. The quality of paleomagnetic record varies, but its interpretation is possible in almost flows: the average direction of magnetization and the corresponding paleomagnetic pole are calculated. Also measurements of the magnetic anisotropy were made. Obtained paleomagnetic pole of the Arydzhangsky suite lies in the area of other trap poles of the Siberian platform: this fact can be considered as evidence of absence of the essential tectonic movements. It indicates the perspective of this suite for detailed paleomagnetic investigations. An essential difference in paleomagnetic poles from the tuffs of the Khardakhsky suite and the lavas of Arydzhangsky suite is explained by absence of averaging of secular variations of the geomagnetic field. In the study (Gurevich et al., 2004) two variants of correlation of the Norilsk and Maimecha-Kotuy outcrops are offered. According to the first variant lower parts of

  3. Flash pyrolysis of coal, coal maceral, and coal-derived pyrite with on-line characterization of volatile sulfur compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lake, M.A.; Griffin, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    A Pyroprobe flash pyrolysis-gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector was used to study volatile sulfur compounds produced during the thermal decomposition of Illinois coal, coal macerals and coal-derived pyrite. Maximum evolution of volatile organic sulfur compounds from all coal samples occurred at a temperature of approximately 700??C. At this temperature, the evolution of thiophene, its alkyl isomers, and short-chain dialkyl sulfide compounds relative to the evolution of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene compounds was greater from coal high in organic sulfur than from coal low in organic sulfur. The variation in the evolution of sulfur compounds observed for three separate coal macerals (exinite, vitrinite, and inertinite) was similar to that observed for whole coal samples. However, the variation trend for the macerals was much more pronounced. Decomposition of coal-derived pyrite with the evolution of elemental sulfur was detected at a temperature greater than 700??C. The results of this study indicated that the gas chromotographic profile of the volatile sulfur compounds produced during flash pyrolysis of coals and coal macerals varied as a function of the amount of organic sulfur that occurred in the samples. Characterization of these volatile sulfur compounds provides a better understanding of the behavior of sulfur in coal during the thermolysis process, which could be incorporated in the design for coal cleaning using flash pyrolysis techniques. ?? 1988.

  4. The salt that wasn't there: Mudflat facies equivalents to halite of the Permian Rustler Formation, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four halite beds of the Permian Restler Formation in southeastern New Mexico thin dramatically over horst lateral distances to correlative classic (mudstone) beds. The mudstones have long been considered residues after post-burial dissolution (subrosion) of halite, assumed to have been deposited continuously across the area. Hydraulic properties of the Culebra Dolomite Member have often been related to Rustler subrosion. In cores and three shafts at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), however, these mudstones display flat bedding, graded bedding, cross-bedding, erosional contacts, and channels filled with intraformational conglomerates. Cutans indicate early stages of soil development during subaerial exposure. Smeared intraclasts developed locally as halite was removed syndepositionally during subaerial exposure. The authors interpret these beds as facies formed in salt-pan or hypersaline-lagoon, transitional, and mudflat environments. Halite is distributed approximately as it was deposited. Breccia in limited areas along one halite margin indicates post-burial dissolution, and these breccials are key to identifying areas of subrosion. A depositional model accounts for observed sedimentary features of Restler mudstones. Marked facies and thickness changes are consistent with influence by subsidence boundaries, as found in some modern continental evaporites. A subrosion model accounts for limited brecciated zones along (depositional)halite margins, but bedding observed in the mudstones would not survive 90% reduction in rock volume. Depositional margins for these halite beds will be useful in reconstructing detailed subsidence history of the Late Permian in the northern Delaware Basin, It also no longer is tenable to attribute large variations in Culebra transmissivity to Rustler subrosion

  5. Late Permian to Late Triassic basin evolution of North Vietnam: geodynamic implications for the South China and Indochina blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Hallot, Erwan; Poujol, Marc; Roger, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The core of South East Asia is composed of a mosaic of continental blocks, among which the Indochina and the South China blocks (present day northern Vietnam), amalgamated during the Permian and/or the Triassic. Late Permian to Late Triassic geodynamic evolution of these two blocks remains controversial. The main discussion points concern the existence and the closure of an oceanic domain separating the Indochina and the South China blocks during this period. Especially, the polarity and the timing of the subduction zone that led to the collision between the blocks as well as the present location of the suture delimiting them are a matter of debate. Despite the valuable information they can provide, the sedimentary basins from northern Vietnam have been neglected in the previous studies dealing with the geodynamic evolution of South East Asia. To determine the geodynamic evolution of the area, the basins of Sam Nua and Song Da, presently located in North Vietnam, have been investigated using a combined approach involving sedimentology, geochronology (U-Pb/zircon) and geochemistry (whole-rock major and trace elements composition of both volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks). The palaeoenvironment evolution, the main unconformities, their age and the tectonic affinities of the interbedded volcanic and volcaniclastics series have been characterized for these two basins. Our results demonstrate (i) that the Song Da Basin exhibits a palaeogeographic affinity with the South China block, (ii) the occurrence of extensive calk-alkaline volcanism and associated volcaniclastic deposits in the Sam Nua Basin, related to the existence of an active magmatic arc during the Early and the lower Middle Triassic, (iii) a South dipping (present day coordinate) oceanic lithosphere beneath the Indochina block, deduced from the location of the magmatic arc south of the potential suture zones, (iv) that an angular unconformity postdates the lower Middle Triassic volcaniclastic deposits in the Sam Nua basin. This unconformity, crosscutting the subduction related deposits, is interpreted as the result of the collision between the Indochina and the South China blocks.

  6. Paleoenvironmental reconstitution of Motuca and Sambaíba formations, Permian-Triassic of the Parnaíba Basin in southwest Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Romério Abrantes Júnior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interval between the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic was marked by paleogeographic and paleoclimatic global changes, partly attributed to catastrophic events. The intense continentalization of the supercontinent Pangaea of End-Permian propitiated the development of extensive deserts that succeeded the coastal and platform environments of Early Permian. The records of these events in northern Brazil are found in intracratonic basins, particularly in the Permo-triassic succession of the Parnaíba Basin. The facies and stratigraphic outcrops analysis of this succession allowed the individualization of 14 sedimentary facies grouped into four facies associations (FA: FA1 and FA2 related to deposits of Motuca Formation and, FA3 and FA4, representative of the base of Sambaíba Formation. The FA1 – Shallow lake/Mudflat consists of red laminated mudstone with lenses of gypsum, calcite and marl, besides lobes of sigmoidal sandstones. The FA2 – Saline pan consists of lenticular bodies of laminated gypsum, nodular gypsum and gypsarenite, overlapped by greenish mudstones with dolomite nodules and palygorskite. The FA3 – sand sheet and FA4 – dunes field are formed, respectively, for orange cream sandstones with even parallel stratification and medium- to large-scale cross-bedding. In the contact between Motuca and Sambaíba formations occurs a deformed interval, laterally continuous for hundreds of kilometers. Brecciated and contorted bedded siltstones and mudstone (Motuca Formation and sandstone with sinsedimentary faults/microfaults, convolute lamination and mud-filled injection dykes (Sambaíba Formation are interpreted as seismites triggered by high magnitude earthquakes (> 8 according Richter scale.

  7. Characterization of an upper Permian tight gas reservoir. A multidisciplinary, multiscale analysis from the rotliegend, northern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrett, Philipp [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group

    2013-06-01

    Outstanding Ph.D. thesis nominated for a Springer Theses Prize by the RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Uses various approaches and covers a broad range of disciplines. Integrated study, carried out on multiple scales with state of the art technical equipment, that only few laboratories can offer worldwide. ''The thesis of Philipp Antrett is focused on reservoir properties, petrography, lithofacies and sedimentology, core analysis and nanoporosity studies. It will be of major interest for colleagues involved in the exploration and production of tight gas reservoirs in Northern Europe and elsewhere.'' - Francois Roure, August 2012 This thesis describes a multidisciplinary, multiscale approach to the analysis of tight gas reservoirs. It focused initially on the facies architecture of a Permian tight gas field in the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), East Frisia, northern Germany. To improve field development, 3D seismic data, wireline and core data were compared to a reservoir analogue in the Panamint Valley, California, United States. In addition to the large scale approach, a work flow that investigates microporosity by combining Scanning Electron Microscopy-Broad Ion Beam (SEM-BIB) and optical microscopy was developed. For a better understanding of the depositional environment and reservoir rock distribution in the SPB, a sedimentary facies analysis of four cores from the tight gas field in East Frisia was compared to a second study area in northern central Germany. This study demonstrates that tight gas exploration and production requires multidisciplinary, multiscale approaches beyond standard seismic interpretation work flows to better understand the temporal and spatial evolution of these complex reservoirs.

  8. Permian fusulinid biostratigraphy of the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China with constraints on paleogeography and paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shi, Yukun; Jin, Xiaochi

    2015-05-01

    Newly obtained fossil materials together with published data enable a review on the Permian fusulinids of the Gondwana-derived Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China. The Baoshan Block yields rather impoverish Sakmarian-Yakhtashian fusulinids with just Eoparafusulina and Pseudofusulina in its northern and southern parts. These fusulinids biogeographically demonstrate the feature of peri-Gondwana province and signify a temperate-water condition. Further comparison suggests the Baoshan Block was located distant from the tropical region and even with higher latitude than Central Iran and Central Pamir during the Sakmarian-Yakhtashian. In contrast, Murgabian-Midian fusulinids are more diversified. In the southern Baoshan Block, the Schwagerina assemblage, the Eopolydiexodina assemblage, the Sumatrina assemblage and the Verbeekina assemblage could be recognized in the Xiaoxinzhai area, and the Yangchienia-Nankinella assemblage and the Chusenella-Rugosofusulina assemblage in the Bawei area, in ascending order. Contemporaneously, the Neofusulinella assemblage occurs in the northern and the Eopolydiexodina assemblage in the southwestern Baoshan Block respectively. These Murgabian-Midian fusulinids show affinity of western Tethyan province and suggest a warm-water environment. Interestingly, the Midian Verbeekina assemblage is characterized by relatively low diversity and rather abundance of just one genus. Such compositional feature most likely signifies warm but still not optimal sea-surface water for the diversification of fusulinids. Also taking into account of the presence of Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids and the moderate total diversity, the Middle Permian fusulinids indicate that the Baoshan Block, during the Murgabian-Midian, was probably located between equatorial region with warm water to the north and the majority of Sibumasu areas lacking Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids with temperate water to the south.

  9. Coal resources of selected coal beds and zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Ruppert; Susan Tewalt; Linda Bragg

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is completing a National Coal Resource Assessment of five coal-producing regions of the United States, including the Appalachian Basin. The USGS, in cooperation with the State geological surveys of Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, has completed a digital coal resource assessment of five of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions -- the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal zones, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. Of the 93 billion short tons of original coal in these units, about 66 billion short tons remain. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Assessment of coal charge and coke quality in processing coal from various basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filonenko, Yu.Ya.; Konev, N.L.; Kruchinin, M.S.; Sobolev, S.Ya.; Zinov' eva, L.A.; Makarov, G.N.

    1988-04-01

    Effects of coal mixture properties on coke physical and chemical properties were investigated in a coking plant in the USSR in 1984-1986. Coking conditions in the analyzed period were stable. The following indices were used in characteristics of coal mixtures: total content of leaning components, vitrinite reflectivity, fluctuations of vitrinite reflectivity, caking power, thickness of plastic layer during coking, volatile matter. Effects of coal mixture composition on coke properties were analyzed. Coal types used in coal mixtures came from various coal basins. The following coke properties were evaluated: size distribution, M25 and M10 indices, etc. Analyses showed that in the case of coal mixtures consisting of coals from various coal basins in the USSR, correlations among coal mixture properties and coke properties were low or very low. There was only one exception (correlation of coal size and mechanical properties and the mean-square-deviation of vitrinite reflectivity). 7 refs.

  11. 26 CFR 1.674(c)-1 - Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees. 1.674(c)-1 Section 1.674(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1.674(c)-1 Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees. Section 674(c) provides...

  12. 75 FR 34956 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk...airworthiness directive (AD) for all Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk...adding the following new AD: Robert E. Rust, Jr.: Docket No....

  13. Genetic analysis of complement C1s deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus highlights alternative splicing of normal C1s gene.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armano, MT; Ferriani, VP

    2008-01-01

    Deficiencies of complement proteins of the classical pathway are strongly associated with the development of autoimmune diseases. Deficiency of C1r has been observed to occur concomitantly with deficiency in C1s and 9 out of 15 reported cases presented systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe a family in which all four children are deficient in C1s but only two of them developed SLE. Hemolytic activity mediated by the alternative and the lectin pathways were normal, but classical pathway activation was absent in all children's sera. C1s was undetectable, while in the parents' sera it was lower than in the normal controls. The levels of C1r observed in the siblings and parents sera were lower than in the control, while the concentrations of other complement proteins (C3, C4, MBL and MASP-2) were normal in all family members. Impairment of C1s synthesis was observed in the patients' fibroblasts when analyzed by confocal microscopy. We show that all four siblings are homozygous for a mutation at position 938 in exon 6 of the C1s cDNA that creates a premature stop codon. Our investigations led us to reveal the presence of previously uncharacterized splice variants of C1s mRNA transcripts in normal human cells. These variants are derived from the skipping of exon 3 and from the use of an alternative 3' splice site within intron 1 which increases the size of exon 2 by 87 nucleotides.

  14. Genetic analysis of complement C1s deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus highlights alternative splicing of normal C1s gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amano, Mariane T; Ferriani, Virgínia P L

    2008-01-01

    Deficiencies of complement proteins of the classical pathway are strongly associated with the development of autoimmune diseases. Deficiency of C1r has been observed to occur concomitantly with deficiency in C1s and 9 out of 15 reported cases presented systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe a family in which all four children are deficient in C1s but only two of them developed SLE. Hemolytic activity mediated by the alternative and the lectin pathways were normal, but classical pathway activation was absent in all children's sera. C1s was undetectable, while in the parents' sera it was lower than in the normal controls. The levels of C1r observed in the siblings and parents sera were lower than in the control, while the concentrations of other complement proteins (C3, C4, MBL and MASP-2) were normal in all family members. Impairment of C1s synthesis was observed in the patients' fibroblasts when analyzed by confocal microscopy. We show that all four siblings are homozygous for a mutation at position 938 in exon 6 of the C1s cDNA that creates a premature stop codon. Our investigations led us to reveal the presence of previously uncharacterized splice variants of C1s mRNA transcripts in normal human cells. These variants are derived from the skipping of exon 3 and from the use of an alternative 3' splice site within intron 1 which increases the size of exon 2 by 87 nucleotides.

  15. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  16. South Africa's diminishing coal reserves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chris J.H., Hartnady.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's coal reserves have been significantly reduced since 2003 and a re-assessment based on the complete statistical history of production from southern Africa has indicated that the present remaining reserve for the entire subcontinent comprises only about 15 billion tonnes or gigatonnes ( [...] Gt). South African coal geologists should therefore be mindful of experience in Britain, where reserves were grossly overestimated by conventional techniques and remained a large multiple of future production until very shortly before the effective collapse of the industry in the 1980s. The southern African historical analysis has shown that an impressive leap in coal production occurred between 1975 and 1985, from about 69 million tonnes per year (Mt/yr) to 179 Mt/yr. By 1989, the cumulative production had reached 4 Gt. Despite this doubling since to just over 8 Gt, the underlying pattern has been one of faltering growth. Hubbertarian analysis predicts a peak in production rate of about 284 Mt/yr in 2020, at which stage approximately half (12 Gt) of the total resource (23 Gt) will be exhausted. The Waterberg Coalfield (Ellisras Basin) in South Africa may be a remaining large resource, but structural complexity, finely interbedded coal-shale strata at large depths, low grades, high ash content and water scarcity are likely to inhibit its major development. Given South Africa's heavy dependence on coal for power generation and electricity supply, an anticipated peak production in 2020 will cause problems for future economic growth.

  17. Analytical support for coal technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valá?ek Václav

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of success in the selection negotiation The Brown Coal Research Institute j.s.c. Most was authorized to process the project Phare D5/93 with the title "Analytical support to clean coal technologies". The elaboration of the task run in 1997 in a close cooperation with the Mining University - TU Ostrava; DBI - AUA GmbH, Freiberg, Germany; DMT mbH, Essen, Germany and Cerchar, Mazingarbe, France. In the work the available reserves of brown and hard coal and from them following possible levels of annual minings in relation to prognosed needs of the electro-energetics and heating-industry were evaluated. The knowledge about the contents of selected trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, V, Zn in Czech (CZ coal were also evaluated it was investigated. Further, the distribution of trace elements during the burning process in four types of boilers in CZ. was investigated. The CZ and EU legislation related to trace elements in coal and combustion products was finally comparred. It was stated that the CZ legal standards are not at variant with EU the standards.

  18. Drivers for the renaissance of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Jan Christoph; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Jakob, Michael

    2015-07-21

    Coal was central to the industrial revolution, but in the 20th century it increasingly was superseded by oil and gas. However, in recent years coal again has become the predominant source of global carbon emissions. We show that this trend of rapidly increasing coal-based emissions is not restricted to a few individual countries such as China. Rather, we are witnessing a global renaissance of coal majorly driven by poor, fast-growing countries that increasingly rely on coal to satisfy their growing energy demand. The low price of coal relative to gas and oil has played an important role in accelerating coal consumption since the end of the 1990s. In this article, we show that in the increasingly integrated global coal market the availability of a domestic coal resource does not have a statistically significant impact on the use of coal and related emissions. These findings have important implications for climate change mitigation: If future economic growth of poor countries is fueled mainly by coal, ambitious mitigation targets very likely will become infeasible. Building new coal power plant capacities will lead to lock-in effects for the next few decades. If that lock-in is to be avoided, international climate policy must find ways to offer viable alternatives to coal for developing countries. PMID:26150491

  19. Regulation of PKC alpha activity by C1-C2 domain interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Simon J; Seiz, Jodie L; Cook, Anthony C; Buzas, Christopher J; Malinowski, Steve A; Kershner, Jennifer L; Stagliano, Brigid A; Stubbs, Christopher D

    2002-05-01

    In this study, the role of interdomain interactions involving the C1 and C2 domains in the mechanism of activation of PKC was investigated. Using an in vitro assay containing only purified recombinant proteins and the phorbol ester, 4 beta-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), but lacking lipids, it was found that PKC alpha bound specifically, and with high affinity, to a alpha C1A-C1B fusion protein of the same isozyme. The alpha C1A-C1B domain also potently activated the isozyme in a phorbol ester- and diacylglycerol-dependent manner. The level of this activity was comparable with that resulting from membrane association induced under maximally activating conditions. Furthermore, it was found that alpha C1A-C1B bound to a peptide containing the C2 domain of PKC alpha. The alpha C1A-C1B domain also activated conventional PKC beta I, -beta II, and -gamma isoforms, but not novel PKC delta or -epsilon. PKC delta and -epsilon were each activated by their own C1 domains, whereas PKC alpha, -beta I, -beta II, or -gamma activities were unaffected by the C1 domain of PKC delta and only slightly activated by that of PKC epsilon. PKC zeta activity was unaffected by its own C1 domain and those of the other PKC isozymes. Based on these findings, it is proposed that the activating conformational change in PKC alpha results from the dissociation of intra-molecular interactions between the alpha C1A-C1B domain and the C2 domain. Furthermore, it is shown that PKC alpha forms dimers via inter-molecular interactions between the C1 and C2 domains of two neighboring molecules. These mechanisms may also apply for the activation of the other conventional and novel PKC isozymes. PMID:11850425

  20. Autoantibodies against C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus are antigen-driven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Monica; Bigler, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Autoantibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q Abs) were shown to strongly correlate with the occurrence of severe nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting a potential pathogenic role by interfering with the complement cascade. To analyze the humoral immune response against C1q at the molecular level, we screened a bone marrow-derived IgGkappa/IgGlambda Fab phage display library from a SLE patient with high anti-C1q Ab titer against purified human C1q. Six Fabs that exhibited strong binding to C1q in ELISA were isolated. The anti-C1q Fabs recognized neoepitopes that were only exposed on bound C1q and not present on soluble C1q mapping to different regions of the collagen-like region of C1q. Analysis of the genes encoding the variable H and L chains of the IgG-derived anti-C1q Fab revealed that all the variable H and L chain regions were highly mutated, with nucleotide and amino acid homologies to the closest germline in the range of 71-97% (average 85 +/- 4) and 72-92% (average 88 +/- 6), respectively. In addition, the variable region of the Fabs exhibited high replacement to silent ratios. The six anti-C1q Fabs were shown to be of high affinity, with a K(d) ranging from of 8.4 x 10(-8) M to 1.4 x 10(-7) M, comparable to an antiviral immune response. Our data underlines the notion that the development of anti-C1q Abs in SLE is the consequence of an Ag-driven, affinity-matured immune response. Those anti-C1q Fabs are unique tools to address how complement C1q is implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE.