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Sample records for permian c1 coal

  1. Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Yiping; Ho Suzanne C; Huang Yunchao; Wang Jianfang; Dai Shifeng; Tian Linwei; Lucas Donald; Koshland Catherine P

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is pr...

  2. Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study - article no. 398

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, L.W.; Dai, S.F.; Wang, J.F.; Huang, Y.C.; Ho, S.C.; Zhou, Y.; Lucas, D.; Koshland, C.P. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School of Public Health

    2008-12-15

    The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is produced. Therefore, we have hypothesized the two processes: C1 coal combustion {yields} nanoquartz in ambient air {yields} lung cancer excess in non-smoking women. To estimate the study subjects' retrospective exposure, we will reconstruct the historical exposure scenario by burning the coal samples, collected from operating or deserted coal mines by coal geologists, in a traditional firepit of an old house. Indoor air particulate samples will be collected for nanoquartz and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analyses. Bulk quartz content will be quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Size distribution of quartz will be examined by electron microscopes and by centrifugation techniques. Lifetime cumulative exposure to nanoquartz will be estimated for each subject. Using the epidemiology data, we will examine whether the use of C1 coal and the cumulative exposure to nanoquartz are associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer. If nanoquartz is found to be the main underlying cause of the lung cancer epidemic in the study area, cancer potency estimates for PAHs by the international agencies based on the lung cancer data in this study setting should then be updated.

  3. Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yiping

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is produced. Therefore, we have hypothesized the two processes: C1 coal combustion --> nanoquartz in ambient air --> lung cancer excess in non-smoking women. Methods/Design We propose to conduct a retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis above. We will search historical records and compile an inventory of the coal mines in operation during 1930–2009. To estimate the study subjects' retrospective exposure, we will reconstruct the historical exposure scenario by burning the coal samples, collected from operating or deserted coal mines by coal geologists, in a traditional firepit of an old house. Indoor air particulate samples will be collected for nanoquartz and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs analyses. Bulk quartz content will be quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Size distribution of quartz will be examined by electron microscopes and by centrifugation techniques. Lifetime cumulative exposure to nanoquartz will be estimated for each subject. Using the epidemiology data, we will examine whether the use of C1 coal and the cumulative exposure to nanoquartz are associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer. Discussion The high incidence rate of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, one of the counties in the current study area, was once attributed to high indoor air concentrations of PAHs. The research results have been cited for qualitative and quantitative cancer risk assessment of PAHs by the World Health Organization and other agencies. If nanoquartz is found to be the main underlying cause of the lung cancer epidemic in the study area, cancer potency estimates for PAHs by the international agencies based on the lung cancer data in this study setting should then be updated.

  4. Petrified peat from a permian coal bed in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Petrified plant remains that composed a Permian peat deposit occur at a coal horizon in a local area of Mount Augusta near the Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica. This discovery is the first in the entire Gondwana area that yields plant materials as exquisitely preserved as the materials of the well-known coal-ball localities of the Northern Hemisphere. A sampling of anatomical details is illustrated.

  5. Revisiting platinum group elements of Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Liang [State Key Lab of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2008-08-05

    Twenty five coal samples from the Late Permian coal-bearing strata in Weining, Nayong, and Zhijin, western Guizhou Province, SW, China, were analyzed for platinum group elements (PGEs). The coal ashes were digested by the Carius tube technique and accurately measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for all PGEs. The results are much lower than the previous reported values. Our study suggested that the previously reported PGE values are incorrect and may due to the polyatomic interferences in ICP-MS measurements. In our study, samples from the Weining coalfield have the lowest PGE contents (from 0.019 Ir to 0.42 ng/g Pd), which represent the PGE background value in coal in western Guizhou province. Some of the coals have Pt and Pd contents about 20-times higher than the background value, indicating PGEs are concentrated. We also reported new and reliable PGE data and background value of coal in western Guizhou province, SW, China, and suggested to rework the PGE background values of Chinese coals. (author)

  6. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and oloral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  7. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  8. Concentration and distribution of elements in Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shifeng; Ren, Deyi; Tang, Yuegang; Yue, Mei; Hao, Liming [China University of Mining and Technology, D11, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2005-01-18

    With the aim of better understanding geochemistry of coal, 71 Late Permian whole-seam coal channel samples from western Guizhou Province, Southwest China were studied and 57 elements in them were determined. The contents of Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Sn, Ta, Ti, Th, U, V, Zr, and REEs in the Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province are higher than the arithmetic means for the corresponding elements in the US coals, whereas As, Ba, Br, F, Hg, P, Se, and Tl are lower. Compared to common Chinese coals, the contents of Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Hf, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sc, Sn, Ti, U, V, Zn, and Zr in western Guizhou coals are higher, and As, F, Hg, Rb, Sb, Tl, and W are lower. Five groups of elements may be classified according to their mode of occurrence in coal: The first two, Group A, Tm-Yb-Lu-Y-Er-Ho-Dy-Tb-Ce-La-Nd-Pr-Gd-Sm, and Group B, As-Sr-K-Rb-Ba-F-Ash-Si-Sn-Ga-Hf-Al-Ta-Zr-Be-Th-Na, have high positive correlation coefficients with ash yield and they show mainly inorganic affinity. Some elements from Group B, such as Ba, Be, Ga, Hf, and Th, are also characterized by significant aluminosilicate affinity. In addition, arsenic also exhibits high sulfide affinity (r{sub S-Fe}>0.5). The elements, which have negative or lower positive correlation coefficients with ash yield (with exceptions of Bi, Cs, Nb, Mn, Se, and Ti), are grouped in other four associations: Group C, Cr-V-Mo-U-Cd-Tl; Group D, Hg-Li-Sc-Ti-Eu-Nb-Cs-W; Group E, Bi-Sb; and Group F, Co-Ni-Cu-Pb-Zn-Mg-Se-Ca-Mn-S-Fe. The correlation coefficients of some elements, including Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mo, Ni, P, S, Sc, U, V, and Zn, with ash yield are below the statistically significant value. Only Cr and Cu are negatively correlated to ash yield (-0.07 and -0.01, respectively), showing intermediate (organic and inorganic) affinity. Manganese and Fe are characterized by carbonate affinity probably due to high content of epigenetic veined ankerite in some coals. Phosphorus has low correlation coefficients with any other elements and is not included in these six associations. There are five possible genetic types of enrichment of elements in coal from western Guizhou Province: source rock, volcanic ash, low-temperature hydrothermal fluid, groundwater, and magmatic hydrothermal inputs.

  9. The genesis and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with some Permian Australian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderite and calcite are the two forms of carbonate commonly associated with Permian Australian coals. The former occurs as disseminated spherulites and is a product of the early post-depositional environment. Isotopic measurements show that the CO2 fixed as siderite did not result from the direct oxidation of photosynthetically derived materials, but rather from the anaerobic fermentation of these. The higher concentrations of calcite are generally found towards the roofs of coal seams and are characterized by isotopic enrichments to delta13C values of +25% PDB. Isotopic exchange between CO2 and CH4 within the coal seam is postulated as the mechanism which leads to the formation of isotopically heavy CO2. At sites along the seam margins where the CO2 escapes, interaction with circulating metal ions or preexisting calcite results in the deposition of ''heavy'' calcite. With increasing alteration of coal by thermal metamorphism, the 13C content of calcites and finally siderites decreases so that it more nearly approaches that of the associated coal. (Auth.)

  10. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Late Permian Coals from the Mahe Mine, Zhaotong Coalfield, Northeastern Yunnan, China

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    Xibo Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Late Permian C2, C5a, C5b, C6a, and C6b semianthracite coals from the Mahe mine, northeastern Yunnan, China. Minerals in the coals are mainly made up of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S, pyrite, and calcite; followed by anatase, dolomite, siderite, illite and marcasite. Similar to the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, the authigenic quartz and chamosite were precipitated from the weathering solution of Emeishan basalt, while kaolinite and mixed-layer I/S occurring as lenses or thin beds were related to the weathering residual detrital of Emeishan basalt. However, the euhedral quartz and apatite particles in the Mahe coals were attributed to silicic-rock detrital input. It further indicates that there has been silicic igneous eruption in the northeastern Yunnan. Due to the silicic rock detrital input, the Eu/Eu* value of the Mahe coals is lower than that of the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, where the detrital particles were mainly derived from the basalt. The high contents of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, and Sn in the Mahe coals were mainly derived from the Kangdian Upland.

  11. Radiometric age determination of tonsteins and stratigraphic constraints for the Lower Permian coal succession in southern Parana Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Hartmann, Leo Afraneo; Formoso, Milton Luis Laquintinie [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, Joao Orestes Schneider [Centre for Global Targeting, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia); Ketzer, Joao Marcelo [Instituto de Meio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Avenida Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2008-03-03

    Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons from tonsteins interbedded with coal seams from the Candiota and Faxinal coalfields (Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil) is presented. The mean ages obtained (290.6 {+-} 1.5 Ma) are more precise than previously published intervals. Calibrations of chronostratigraphic data with radiometric ages show that the main coal succession from the southern Basin is constrained to the Middle Sakmarian. The {+-} 2 Ma time interval of deposition supports the hypothesis that the coal-generating process was quite rapid in terms of geological time. In a general context, Faxinal and Candiota coals are assigned, into the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone, besides some paleocological differences evidenced by palynological studies. This bio-interval does not correspond to a consistent palynostratigraphic tool and more accurate biostratigraphic zonation for the Carboniferous-Permian interval must be delineated. The new results have far-reaching significance for correlations of the Basin with sequences of the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and also with the Karoo Basin, with the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). This new evidence supports the presence of an active and widespread Lower Permian explosive volcanic event in western Gondwana, which is interpreted as the same volcanism which produced the Choiyoi Group in western Argentina. According to this correlation the ash-fall source is located about 1400 km to the southwest of their area of deposition. (author)

  12. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

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    Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang; Liu, Jing [National Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Institute of Energy Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Ren, Deyi [China University of Mining and Technology, 100083 Beijing (China); Zeng, Rongshu [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100029 Beijing (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 East Peabody Drive, 61820 Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The content of trace element in pyrite vein depends upon the content of mosaic pyrite and of trace elements in it. Many environmentally sensitive trace elements are mainly contained in the minerals in coal, and hence the physical coal cleaning techniques can remove minerals from coal and decrease the emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements.

  13. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The content of trace element in pyrite vein depends upon the content of mosaic pyrite and of trace elements in it. Many environmentally sensitive trace elements are mainly contained in the minerals in coal, and hence the physical coal cleaning techniques can remove minerals from coal and decrease the emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Megaspores from coals of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation (Lower Permian, northeastern Paraná State, Brazil

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    FRESIA RICARDI-BRANCO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a detailed study of megaspores occurring in coal seams of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation at Figueira, Paraná State, Brazil. This coal-bearing sequence accumulated in a marine delta system during the Early Permian. Four species are described and illustrated: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, and Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Of these, the two species of Lagenoisporites are predominant. Relationships to other megaspore species are discussed; and the temporal and spatial distributions of the four species in the Paraná Basin are documented.No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos a partir do estudo sistemático detalhado dos megásporos provenientes das camadas de carvão do Membro Triunfo, Formação Rio Bonito, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A seqüência portadora de carvão, foi o resultado do acúmulo de matéria orgânica num de sistema deltaico marinho durante o Eopermiano. Quatro espécies são aqui descritas e ilustradas: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, e Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Destas, as duas espécies de Lagenoisporites são dominantes. São igualmente discutidas as relações existentes com outras espécies de megásporos, assim como documentada a distribuição temporal e espacial das quatro espécies na Bacia do Paraná.

  15. Megaspores from coals of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation (Lower Permian), northeastern Paraná State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FRESIA, RICARDI-BRANCO; MITSURU, ARAI; OSCAR, RÖSLER.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos a partir do estudo sistemático detalhado dos megásporos provenientes das camadas de carvão do Membro Triunfo, Formação Rio Bonito, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A seqüência portadora de carvão, foi o resultado do acúmulo de matéria orgânica num [...] de sistema deltaico marinho durante o Eopermiano. Quatro espécies são aqui descritas e ilustradas: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, e Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Destas, as duas espécies de Lagenoisporites são dominantes. São igualmente discutidas as relações existentes com outras espécies de megásporos, assim como documentada a distribuição temporal e espacial das quatro espécies na Bacia do Paraná. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of a detailed study of megaspores occurring in coal seams of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation at Figueira, Paraná State, Brazil. This coal-bearing sequence accumulated in a marine delta system during the Early Permian. Four species are described and illustrate [...] d: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, and Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Of these, the two species of Lagenoisporites are predominant. Relationships to other megaspore species are discussed; and the temporal and spatial distributions of the four species in the Paraná Basin are documented.

  16. Microfloristic and petrographic study of coal from Faxinal mine, Rio Bonito formation from the Permian period, RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Sommer, M.; Marques-Toigo, M.; Paim, P.S.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is the result of the petrological and microfloristic analysis of coal seams from the Faxinal Mine (Rio Bonito Formation, Lower Permian, Parana Basin, southern Brazil). Petrological data showed a great predominance of the Vitrinite maceral group (mainly Vitrite) and a low amount of the Exinite and Inertinite groups. Dispersed wood and cuticular fragments were predominant in the palynological samples, while pollens and spores were less abundant and in general poorly preserved. Microfloristic analysis has revealed an association with a predominance of spores related to a pteridophytic plant community. The available petrological and palynological data suggest that the coal seams originated mainly in a telmatic environment. 8 references.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of coal component of Late Permian coals from Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Cheng, Hongfei; Jiang, Di; Huang, Fan; Su, Shen; Bai, Haipeng

    2014-11-01

    The chemical structural characterization of four samples (M-1, M-5, VS, and BaS) from Southern China was studied by Raman spectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis. Several Raman parameters, e.g., full width at half maximum (FWHM) and intensity ratio (ID1/IG), were obtained. Vitrinite (VS) and barkinite (BaS) were separated from the same coal sample, separately. The results showed that nine bands were assigned from the Raman spectra. Two typical bands, G and D1, have broad peaks, which showed that all the samples have poor order in chemical structure. Barkinite has higher disorder in chemical structure than vitrinite.

  18. Modes of occurrence and origins of noble metals in the Late Permian coals from the Puan Coalfield, Guizhou, southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianye Yang [Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an (China). Department of Materials

    2006-09-15

    The concentrations, modes of occurrence, and origins of noble metals in the Late Permian coals from the Puan Coalfield, southwest China were studied using high-resolution inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and sequential chemical extraction procedures (SECP). The results show that the minerals in the No. 2 coal from the Puan Coalfield were dominated by pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin and clay minerals of detrital terrigenous origin. As compared with the concentrations of noble metals in the ordinary Chinese and American coals, the No. 2 coal significantly enriched in elements Rh (38 ng/g), Pd (640 ng/g), Ir (9 ng/g), Pt (98 ng/g), Au (16 ng/g), and Ag (1620 ng/g). The concentrations of Pd, Ir, and Au in the No. 2 coal are 4.3, 9, and 5.3 times higher than those of the ordinary Chinese coals, respectively. The SECP results indicate that the noble metals enriched in the No. 2 coal were mainly distributed in the sulfide association. The concentrations of Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt, Au, and Ag in the sulfide association are as high as 720, 15,000, 310, 2380, 360, and 32,300 ng/g, respectively. However, these noble metals in organic and silicate associations were lower than or close to their background values of coal. The low-temperature hydrothermal fluids play a dominant role in the enrichment of noble metals in the coal. 46 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Occurrence and origin of minerals in a chamosite-bearing coal of Late Permian age, Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Chou, C.-L.

    2007-01-01

    The minerals found in the no.5 coal (Late Permian) from the Zhaotong Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been examined and found to consist mainly of kaolinite, pyrite, chamosite, quartz, and calcite, with trace amounts of illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite. The proportion of chamosite in clay minerals ranges from 32 to 56 wt%, with an average of 46 wt%. Chamosite is distributed not only in collodetrinite, but also occurs as cell fillings in fusinite, semifusinite, and telinite. The high content and mode of occurrence of chamosite in this mine indicate its formation by interaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. Except for a minor amount of terfigenous quartz, most quartz is of authigenic origin and formed from kaolinite desilication. The calcite content of the no. 5 coal is 1.4-6.3% (with an average of 3%) and is distributed in collodetrinite and as cell fillings of coal-forming plants. Calcite originated from seawater invasion during peat accumulation. Pyrite occurs in several ways: as massive, framboidal, isolated enhedral/ anhedral, and euhedral forms. In addition, the presence of a large amount of pyritized red algae provides strong evidence of seawater invasion during peat accumulation. The red algae may have played an important role in the enrichment of sulfur in the coal. The characteristic assemblage of minerals in this mine resulted from a unique basinal environment in which the mineral matter was derived from a basaltic source region, volcanic activity, and seawater transgression during coal formation.

  20. Concentrations and modes of occurrence of trace elements in the Late Permian coals from the Puan Coalfield, southwestern Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.Y. [Xian University of Science & Technology, Xian (China)

    2006-12-15

    The concentration, mode of occurrence, and origin of trace elements in the Late Permian coals from the Puan Coalfield, southwestern Guizhou, China, were examined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), ion-selective electrode method (ISE), sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and optical microscope. Results show that minerals in the No. 2 Coal from the Puan Coalfield were mainly made up of epigenetic pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal fluid origin and kaolinite of detrital terrigenous origin. Elements including As (36.9 {mu} g/g), Cd (10.2 {mu} g/g), Cr (167.3 {mu} g/g), Cu (365.4 {mu} g/g), Hg (2.82 {mu} g/g), Mo (92.6 {mu} g/g), Ni (82.6 {mu} g/g), Pb (184.6 {mu} g/g), Se (6.23 {mu} g/g), Zn (242.3 {mu} g/g), and U (132.7 {mu} g/g) are significantly enriched in the No. 2 Coal from the Puan Coalfield. However, concentrations of trace elements in the other four coals, the No. 1, No. 8, No. 11, and No. 18 Coals, were close to the usual ranges found for Guizhou of China, China, and USA. Results of SEM-EDX and SCEP showed that As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn occur mainly in veined pyrite, while Cr, Cu, and U distribute mainly in kaolinite, indicating that the low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and detrital materials of terrigenous origin are the main contributors to the enrichment of these trace elements in the No. 2 Coal.

  1. Enrichment of U-Se-Mo-Re-V in coals preserved within marine carbonate successions: geochemical and mineralogical data from the Late Permian Guiding Coalfield, Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shifeng; Seredin, Vladimir V.; Ward, Colin R.; Hower, James C.; Xing, Yunwei; Zhang, Weiguo; Song, Weijiao; Wang, Peipei

    2015-02-01

    We present multi-element data on the super-high-organic-sulfur (SHOS; 5.19 % on average) coals of Late Permian age from Guiding, in Guizhou Province, China. The coals, formed on restricted carbonate platforms, are all highly enriched in S, U, Se, Mo, Re, V, and Cr, and, to a lesser extent, Ni and Cd. Although the Guiding coals were subjected to seawater influence, boron is very low and mainly occurs in tourmaline and mixed-layer illite/smectite. Uranium, Mo, and V in the coal are mainly associated with the organic matter. In addition, a small proportion of the U occurs in coffinite and brannerite. The major carrier of Se is pyrite rather than marcasite. Rhenium probably occurs in secondary sulfate and carbonate minerals. The U-bearing coal deposits have the following characteristics: the formation age is limited to Late Permian; concentrations of sulfur and rare metals (U, Se, Mo, Re, V, and in some cases, rare earth elements and Y) are highly elevated; the U-bearing coal beds are intercalated with marine carbonate rocks; organic sulfur and rare metals are uniformly distributed within the coal seams; and the combustion products (e.g., fly and bottom ash) derived from the coal deposits may have potential economic significance for rare metals: U, Se, Mo, Re, V, rare earth elements, and Y.

  2. Characteristics of zircons from volcanic ash-derived tonsteins in Late Permian coal fields of eastern Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Ren, Y.; Tang, D.; Bohor, B.

    1994-01-01

    Kaolinitic tonsteins of altered synsedimentary volcanic ash-fall origin are well developed in the Late Permian coal-bearing formations of eastern Yunnan Province. Because of their unique origin, wide lateral extent, relatively constant thickness and sharp contacts with enclosing strata, great importance has been attached to these isochronous petrographic markers. In order to compare tonsteins with co-existing, non-cineritic claystones and characterize the individuality of tonsteins from different horizons for coal bed correlation, a semi-quantitative method was developed that is based on statistical analyses of the concentration and morphology of zircons and their spatial distribution patterns. This zircon-based analytical method also serves as a means for reconstructing volcanic ash-fall dispersal patterns. The results demonstrate that zircons from claystones of two different origins (i.e., tonstein and non-cineritic claystone) differ greatly in their relative abundances, crystal morphologies and spatial distribution patterns. Tonsteins from the same area but from different horizons are characterized by their own unique statistical patterns in terms of zircon concentration values and morphologic parameters (crystal length, width and the ratio of these values), thus facilitating stratigraphic correlation. Zircons from the same tonstein horizon also show continuous variation in these statistical patterns as a function of areal distribution, making it possible to identify the main path and direction in which the volcanic source materials were transported by prevailing winds. ?? 1994.

  3. Relative sea level control of deposition in the Late Permian Newcastle Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Accumulation of the 400 m-thick Late Permian Newcastle Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin was controlled by changes in relative sea level. Three 3rd-order sequences, which constitute the coal measures, consist of 4th-order depositional sequences of fluvial conglomerate, coal, and small paralic/lacustrine deltas/crevasse splays, deposited on a coastal plain landward of a marine shoreline. Each 4th-order sequence was deposited during a single 4th-order relative sea level cycle. Following falls in relative sea level alluvial conglomerates derived from the New England Orogen filled incised valleys above sequence boundaries forming lowstand systems tracts. Sigmoidal conglomerates with 'giant crossbeds' were deposited as alluvial fill in compactional moats formed at the toes of abandoned paralic deltas. Alluvial sediments passed through the coastal plain directly to the marine shoreline causing the shoreface to prograde. Rising relative sea level, caused siliciclastic sedimentation to wane. During these hiatuses, in the transgressive systems tract, a rising water table stimulated peat mire growth blanketing the entire non-marine area. When the vertical accumulation of peat was outpaced by increasing rates of rising relative sea level, transgressing lagoons, interdistributary bays and lakes inundated the mires above maximum flooding surfaces. Continuing relative sea level rise in the highstand systems tracts caused paralic/lacustrine crevasse splays, crevasse subdeltas, and small deltas to prograde westwards into the Newcastle half-graben from a volcanic source on the Offshore Uplift. At this time of rising base-levels sediments were trapped on the coastal plain while the marine shoreface was starved. Falling relative sea level terminated paralic/lacustrine delta progradation and initiated exposure and erosion to repeat the cycle and initiate another 4th-order sequence. Two source areas supplied sediment into the Newcastle half-graben. An easterly source on the Offshore Uplift shed volcanic detritus into the Newcastle Coalfield via paralic/lacustrine deltas, and the New England Orogen shed volcano-lithic detritus via braided streams. The supply from the New England Orogen was switched on or increased by a fall in relative sea level while supply from the Offshore Uplift was switched off, reduced, or diverted, and vice versa during a rise in relative sea level. Increasing rates of 2nd-order falling relative sea level resulted in an upward change from predominantly marine shoreface and coastal plain sedimentation to predominantly fluvial sedimentation in the upper Newcastle Coal Measures.

  4. In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal ?in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian LI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and study in vitro toxicity of naturally occurring silica particles on BEAS-2B. Methods ?Separating the silica particles from combustion products of C1 bituminous coal by physical method, observing the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope, analysis elements by SEM-EDX, observed the single particle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscope, analyed its particle size distribution by Laser particle size analyzer, the surface area of silica particles were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption analysis; ?Cell viability of the experimental group (silica; naturally occurring, control group (silica; industrial produced and crystalline silica was detected by assay used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined after 24 h-72 h exposed to these particles. Results ?The physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal, which have different size, and from 30 nm to 120 nm particles accounted for 86.8%, different morphology, irregular surface area and containing trace of aluminum, calcium and iron and other elements; ?Under the same concentration, the experiment group have higher toxicity on BEAS-2B than control groups. Conclusion ?Physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal and not change the original morphology and containing trace; ?Naturally occurring silica nanoparticles have irregular morphology, surface area, and containing complex trace elements may has greater toxicity than the silica nanoparticle of industrial produced and crystalline silica.

  5. Palynology of an Early Permian coal seam from the Karoo Supergroup of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbolini, N.; Bamford, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two borehole cores from the south-east area of the Mmamantswe coalfield (Mmamabula area), Botswana, provided 124 samples for palynological analysis. The assemblage is dominated by trilete and alete spores, indicating a parent flora of mostly lower order lycopods, sphenophytes and ferns. Distinctive taxa at Mmamantswe include Brevitriletes levis, Cannanoropollis densus, Gondisporites raniganjensis, Platysaccus radialis, Scheuringipollenites ovatus, and Verrucosisporites naumovae. Saccate pollen is less common, suggesting the assemblage reflects the local vegetation of the coal swamp. The Mmamantswe microflora has been sub-divided into two assemblage zones, with the lower Assemblage Zone 1 correlating with Assemblage Zone 1 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone B of the Waterberg (South Africa) and the Milorgfjella assemblage (Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). The upper Assemblage Zone 2 of Mmamantswe is correlated with Assemblage Zone 2 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone C of the Waterberg (South Africa), and the No. 2 Seam assemblage (Witbank coalfield, South Africa). On the basis of these correlations the Mmamantswe microfloral assemblage is assigned to the Asselian, Sakmarian and Early Artinskian periods.

  6. Age and significance of the Platypus Tuff Bed, a regional reference horizon in the upper Permian Moranbah coal measures, north Bowen Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Platypus Tuff Bed in the Permian Moranbah Coal Measures provides a basin-wide marker horizon traceable for over 300 km along strike. The bed is a tephra event unit, the product of a large-scale volcanic eruptive episode involving a pyroclastic volume > 10 km3. The relatively even thickness (?1-1.5 m) of the tuff across the entire northern Bowen Basin (?10 000 km2) implies a distant source. The tuff is ash-rich and its original geochemistry has been compromised by diagenetic alteration. Crystal content (10-15%) is dominated by quartz, suggesting a rhyolitic association. SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircons indicates an age of 258.9 ± 2.7 Ma for the Platypus Tuff Bed, confirming the Late Permian age that has generally been assigned to the Blackwater Group. The age framework now apparent for the coal-bearing Blackwater Group suggests an average depositional rate ranging from ?133 m/106 years for its eastern depocentre in the northern Bowen Basin to ?70 m/106 years in more marginal settings to the west. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  7. Origin and correlation of tuffs in the Permian Newcastle and Wollombi Coal Measures, NSW, Australia, using chemical fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, W.; Weatherall, G.; Offler, R. [Discipline of Geology, School of Geosciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2001-08-01

    Felsic tuffs are common throughout the Late Permian Newcastle and Wollombi Coal Measures (NCM, WCM) of the northern Sydney Basin. Petrographic studies reveal that they are composed of fragmented crystals of plagioclase, quartz, and less common degraded biotite and K-feldspar, together with lithic fragments and relict, altered glass shards. Alteration during burial at T<100 C has resulted in the formation of illite/smectite (I/S; I{sub 62-78}), kaolinite, siderite/ankerite and, in extreme circumstances, tonsteins dominated by I/S. The latter is formed by the alteration of vitric tuffs. Zr/TiO{sub 2} and Nb/Y ratios, and rock-primordial and chondrite-normalised REE patterns (La/Yb=4.05 to 11.37) indicate that the tuffs have been derived from rhyodacitic to dacitic, continental arc, calc-alkaline magmas. The accuracy of a recent lithostratigraphic correlations between the NCM and the WCM has been tested by determining the chemical composition of four stratigraphically well defined tuffs in the NCM and comparing them with those obtained from tuffs of the WCM which are thought to be stratigraphically equivalent. The comparison was carried out using multivariate statistical analysis. The analysis revealed that two of the tuffs (Awaba, Nobbys) in the NCM could be distinguished; the others (Mt. Hutton, Warners Bay) showed considerable scatter. This contrasted with the tonsteins formed from the tuffs, which, apart from the Mt. Hutton Tuff, were able to be separated. In the WCM, three of the tuffs (Nalleen, unnamed tuff equivalent to the Mt. Hutton Tuff, Monkey Place Creek) could be separated; however, the fourth (unnamed tuff equivalent to the Warners Bay Tuff) exhibited some scatter. Treating tuffs in the WCM separately, as unknowns in the discriminant model to determine possible correlatives in the NCM, revealed that the Nalleen Tuff is equivalent to the Awaba Tuff in the NCM, confirming the lithostratigraphic correlation. The remainder of the tuffs in the WCM, however, show moderate to poor correlation with the proposed stratigraphically equivalents in the NCM. Thus, the analysis shows that correlation based on lithostratigraphic grounds may be incorrect.

  8. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a Late Permian coal in the Dafang Coalfield, Guizhou, China: Influence from siliceous and iron-rich calcic hydrothermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Yue, M.; Luo, K.; Ren, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of siliceous and iron-rich calcic low-temperature hydrothermal fluids (LTHF) on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Late Permian No. 11 Coal (anthracitic, Rr =2.85%) in the Dafang Coalfield in northwestern Guizhou Province, China. The No. 11 Coal has high contents of vein ankerite (10.2 vol.%) and vein quartz (11.4 vol.%), with formation temperatures of 85 and 180 ??C, respectively, indicating that vein ankerite and vein quartz were derived from low-temperature calcic and siliceous hydrothermal fluids in two epigenetic episodes. The vein quartz appears to have formed earlier than vein ankerite did, and at least three distinct stages of ankerite formation with different Ca/Sr and Fe/Mn ratios were observed. The two types of mineral veins are sources of different suites of major and trace metals. Scanning electron microscope and sequential extraction studies show that, in addition to Fe, Mg, and Ca, vein ankerite is the dominant source of Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the coal, and the contents of these five elements are as high as 0.09% and 74.0, 33.6, 185, and 289 ??g/g, respectively. In contrast, vein quartz is the main carrier mineral for platinum-group elements (PGEs) Pd, Pt, and Ir in the coal, and the contents of Pd, Pt, and Ir are 1.57, 0.15, and 0.007 ??g/g, respectively. Sequential extraction showed a high PGE content in the silicate fraction, up to 10.4 ??g/g Pd, 1.23 ??g/g Pt, and 0.05 ??g/g Ir, respectively. It is concluded that the formation of ankerite and quartz and the anomalous enrichment of trace elements in the No. 11 Coal in the Dafang Coalfield, Guizhou, result from the influx of calcic and siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Trace element geochemistry of altered volcanic ash layers (tonsteins) in late Permian coal-bearing formations of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Bohor, B.F.; Ren, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Trace element compositions were determined (by instrumental neutron activation analysis; INAA) in 30 samples of synsedimentary volcanic ash-derived tonsteins and detrital claystones from coal seams within the late Permian coal-bearing formation of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China. The characteristics of trace-element geochemistry in the tonsteins can be distinguished from those of detrital claystones because of the former's unique volcanic-ash origin. The detrital claystones are characterized by their relatively high content of V, Ti, Sc, Cr, Co and Ni, relatively low content of Th and U, Th/U ratio, and small negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* 0.63-0.93). Overall, these trace element characteristics are consistent with a mafic source similar to the composition of basalt rocks in the erosional region on the western edge of the study area. In contrast, the tonsteins are low in V, Ti, Sc, Cr, Co and Ni contents and have a high Th/U ratio with a distinct negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* normally in the range of 0.2-0.4), consistent with a silicic magmatic source. Within the group of tonsteins, those from the lower section (P2.1) of the coal-bearing formation are relatively high in Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and rare earth elements (REE), as compared to those from the middle and upper sections (P2.2+3). In trace-element discrimination diagrams (scatter plots) of Hf-Ta, Ti-Ta, Ti-V, Hf-Sc, Lu-Hf and Lu-Th, tonsteins from the P2.1 horizon always fall in isolated distribution areas, separate from the tonsteins of the P2.2+3 horizon. These results suggest that the source materials of tonsteins from the two separate horizons were probably derived from volcanic ash falls of two distinctly different natures. Based on a comparison of the concentrations and assemblages of trace elements between various magmatic rocks, the source materials of tonsteins from P2.1 horizon were mostly composed of calc-alkalic, silica-poor volcanic ash (similar to rhyodacitic magma), whereas those from P2.+3 were apparently more siliceous and K-rich (rhyolitic magma). Thus, tonsteins from the two different horizons are characterized by unique geochemical properties, which remain constant over a wide lateral extent. Integration of trace-elemental compositions with mineralogical and textural observations makes possible the establishment of tonstein stratigraphy, thus, facilitating more precise and reliable coal-seam correlations. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Trace element compositions were determined in 30 samples of synsedimentary volcanic ash-derived tonsteins and detrital claystones from coal seams within the late Permian coal-bearing formation of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China. The characteristics of trace-element geochemistry in the tonsteins can be distinguished from those of detrital claystones because of the former's unique volcanic-ash origin. The detrital claystones are characterized by their relatively high content of V, Ti, Sc, CR, Co and Ni, relatively low content of Th and U, Th/U ratio, and small negative Eu anomaly.

  10. Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

  11. Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions (Shandong Province, China): Sequence development in an epicontinental basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dawei; Chen, Jitao

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions in Shandong Province, North China in order to understand the depositional processes and sequence-stratigraphic framework in an epicontinental basin. Based on detailed analysis of eleven facies, five facies assemblages (FAs) were recognized in the studied succession. FA1-3 are present mainly in the Benxi and Taiyuan formations, and consist of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate lithofacies, representing eluvial-lagoon, barrier-lagoon, and tidal-flat environments. FA4 occurs in the Shanxi formation and consists mainly of interbedded medium to fine sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, and coal lithofacies, representing river-dominated deltaic environments. FA5 is characterized by interbeds of trough cross-stratified coarse sandstone, and silty mudstone, mainly in the Lower Shihezi Formation, which was deposited in meandering river channel and floodplain. Three third-order sequences were established based on the vertical arrangement of facies assemblages and identification of physical surfaces (i.e., subaerial unconformity, transgressive surface, and regressive surface). Each sequence comprises a transgressive systems tract (TST) and a highstand systems tract (HST). TST of sequence 1 is composed of eluvial lagoonal deposits (FA1), whereas HST formed in lagoon-barrier and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 2 formed in a barrier-lagoon system (FA2), whereas HST is characterized by repetitive accumulation of interbedded limestone, sandstone, mudstone, and coal, deposited under lagoonal and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 3 comprises FA2, and HST mainly FA4, deposited in a river-dominated shallow-water delta system. Sequence 3 is overlain by a fluvial sequence (FA5). The three third-order sequences in the Shandong region are generally correlated with those in the Taebaeksan Basin (South Korea), the eastern part of the North China Block. The relative sea-level curves established in the two regions show a generally similar long-term rising trend.

  12. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Henri

    2002-08-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were early recognized to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. It is now recognized that different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, widespread throughout the region, represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are absent in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils, representing many fossil groups, are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in astronomical numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  13. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, J.; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

    2008-01-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in 1990, the United States became only the second country (after China) to produce more than 900 Mt (1 billion st) of coal in a single year. US production of bituminous and subbituminous coal, lignite and anthracite total 933.5 Mt (1.029 billion st) in 1990, 5% more than in 1989. The production gains were largely due to the rebuilding of depleted coal stockpiles by electric utilities and a surge in US coal exports. Domestic coal consumption essentially remained at its 1989 level. A slight increase in electric utility coal consumption was partly offset by a decline in metallurgical coal use. The use of coal in other industries and in the residential-commercial sector remained virtually flat

  15. Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

  16. Influences of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids on the re-distributions and occurrences of associated elements in coal - A case study from the Late Permian coals in the Zhijin coalfield, Guizhou Province, Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.F.; Ren, D.Y.; Tang, Y.G.; Shao, L.Y.; Hao, L.M. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China)

    2002-07-01

    The occurrences of associated elements and their genetic factors in the No. 30 coal seam in the Zhijin Coalfield were studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. A microscope photometer system (Leitz MPV-III) was used to observe the characteristics of coal petrology. According to the influence degree by the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids, the organic matter is divided into four types: A, B, C, and D of the hydrothermally-altered organic matter (HAOM). The study shows that the high content of Fe (2.31%) is not from pyrite, but mostly from the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids. The occurrences of the associated elements in the four organic matter types are different. The contents of Fe, Si, and Al are decreasing, but S and Cu are increasing in the order of the HAOM-A, HAOM-B, HAOM-C, and HAOM-D. The losing rate of sulfur in organic matter is 0.35% and the content of Fe taken from the low-temperature hydrothermal fluids into the organic matter is 0.794% during the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids invading the coal seam. The above facts indicate that the low-temperature hydrothermal fluids play a crucial role in the re-distributions and occurrences of associated elements in coal.

  17. Permian potentiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

  18. Stratigraphy and palynostratigraphy, Karoo Supergroup (Permian and Triassic), mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambe, Imasiku A.; Utting, John

    1997-05-01

    The Karoo Supergroup outcropst in the mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia. It is underlain by the Sinakumbe Group of Ordovician to Devonian age. The Lower Karoo Group (Late Carboniferous to Permian age) consists of the basal Siankondobo Sandstone Formation, which comprises three facies, overlain by the Gwembe Coal Formation with its economically important coal deposits, in turn overlain by the Madumabisa Mudstone Formation which consists of lacustrine mudstone, calcilutite, sandstone, and concretionary calcareous beds. The Upper Karoo Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic) is sub-divided into the coarsely arenaceous Escarpment Grit, overlain by the fining upwards Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone, Red Sandstone; and Batoka Basalt Formations. Palynomorph assemblages suggest that the Siankondobo Sandstone Formation is Late Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (Asselian to Early Sakmarian) in age, the Gwembe Coal Formation Early Permian (Artinskian to Kungurian), the Madumabisa Mudstone Late Permian (Tatarian), and the Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone Early or Middle Triassic (Late Scythian or Anisian). The marked quantitative variations in the assemblages are due partly to age differences, but they also reflect vegetational differences resulting from different paleoclimates and different facies. The low thermal maturity of the formations (Thermal Alteration Index 2) suggests that the rocks are oil prone. However, the general scarcity of amorphous kerogen, such as the alga Botryococcus sp., and the low proportion of exinous material, indicates a low potential for liquid hydrocarbons. Gas may have been generated, particularly in the coal seams of the Gwembe Coal Formation, that are more deeply buried.

  19. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arseating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  20. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  1. Permian-triassic life crisis on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallack, G J

    1995-01-01

    Recent advances in radiometric dating and isotopic stratigraphy have resulted in a different placement of the Permian-Triassic boundary within the sedimentary sequence of the Sydney Basin of southeastern Australia. This boundary at 251 million years ago was a time of abrupt decline in both diversity and provincialism of floras in southeastern Australia and extinction of the Glossopteris flora. Early Triassic vegetation was low in diversity and dominated by lycopods and voltzialean conifers. The seed fern Dicroidium appeared in the wake of Permian-Triassic boundary floral reorganization, but floras dominated by Dicroidium did not attain Permian levels of diversity and provinciality until the Middle Triassic (244 million years ago). PMID:17840061

  2. Paleophysiology and End-Permian Mass Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Andrew; Fischer, Woodward W.; Pruss, Sara; Payne, Jonathan L.; Bambach, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    Physiological research aimed at understanding current global change provides a basis for evaluating selective survivoyship associated with Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Comparative physiology links paleontological and palcoenvironmental observations, supporting the hypothesis that an end-Permian trigger, most likely Siberian Trap volcanism, touched off a set of physically-l inked perturbations that acted synergistically to disrupt the metabolisms of latest Permian organisms. Global wan-ning...

  3. Carbon isotope variations in the upper Carboniferous - Permian Mallemuk Mountain Group, eastern North Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope data from Late Palaeozoic limestones of the Wandel Sea Basin in eastern North Greenland show a variation of ?13C from 0.0 0/00 to 5.7 0/00 vs PDB. Carbonates depleted in 13C occur in the basal part of lower Moscovian, upper Moscovian and middle Gzhelian transgressive sequences. 13C enriched limestones occur later in the cycles. The most 13C enriched limestones occur in the youngest (late Early Permian-early Late Permian) part of the sequence in Amdrup Land. The isotopic data is believed to represent changes in the global carbon cycle. Thus 13C enriched carbonates correlate to periods of burial of organic carbon mostly as coal, while 13C depleted carbonates formed as the result of erosion and oxidation of organic carbon during sea-level low stands. (author)

  4. The Saint Martin de Belleville syncline and its uraniferous permian sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation (these de specialite) is a study of the geology of the St.Martin d.B. syncline and the uranium prospect 'le Cochet' in the Carboniferous Brianconnais Zone of Savoy. Stratigraphy and sedimentology: This syncline presents continental detrital sediments ranging from U.Carboniferous to L.Triassic. In the U.Carboniferous, magmatic activity begins with the Moriaz Layers acid volcanics that are considered as a lateral equivalent of the Stephanian Courchevel Conglomerates. In Permian times, parts of an alluvial fan seem to occupy the north of the study area (gray and green conglomeratic sandstone). Southwards these inter-finger with flood plain sediments (red slate) including a locally oolitic limestone. Volcanic detritus is important in the Permian. Tourmalinite pebbles are frequent and seem to be related to the regional Permian magmatism. Albitization of feldspars is general in the Carboniferous and the Permian. The Permo-triassic typically shows microcline bearing dolomitic sandstones. In the Scythian quartzites orthoclase is the dominant feldspar. The quartzites are overlain by L.Triassic evaporites identified by the sulfur isotope ratio of their gypsum. The morphology of the zircons in the sandstones has been investigated using the typological method of J.P. Pupin. Regional Permian magmatism apparently produces volcanics of the calc-alkalic and tholeiitic series as well as a high level granitic intrusion of anatectic origin. The uranium occurrences are strata-bound on a kilometric and hecto-metric scale. They are developed almost exclusively in the gray variety of the Permian sandstones whose gray and red varieties are always barren. Within this unit, the mineralization impregnates irregularly distributed lenses and pods of coal material. Uranium is accompanied by vanadium occurring as roscoelite. The association U-V, of bio-philic character, reflects the concentration in the sedimentary environment and argues for a quite indirect relation with the source rocks. The mineralization is regarded as syn-genetic or more probably early epigenetic of Permian age, related to surface or groundwater flow that precipitated its metal content on wooden debris ('trash piles') in the host rocks. Alpine deformation resulted in folds and strong schistosity striking N2O that almost obliterate north verging transverse folds. The deformation caused plastic flow of the mineralized carbonaceous material on a metric scale. This material is now commonly found in lenses parallel to schistosity. Metamorphism is at the epizone/anchizone limit with a barrovian to high pressure gradient. It had practically no effect on the mineralization. (author)

  5. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and thallium in a Late Permian anthracite from Xingren, Guizhou, Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shifeng; Sun, Yuzhuang [Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province, Handan 056038 (China); Zeng, Rongshu [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2006-03-03

    Mineralogy and geochemistry of nine Late Permian coal-seam channel samples (anthracite) from Xingren, Guizhou, Southwest China were examined. Results showed that As, Sb, Hg, and Tl are significantly enriched in a Late Permian anthracite (sample XR-M1) in the study area, and their contents are as high as 2226 {mu}g/g, 3860 {mu}g/g, 12.1 {mu}g/g, and 7.5 {mu}g/g, respectively. However, the contents of the four elements in other coal-seam channel samples from Xingren, even the two channel samples (samples XR-M2 and XR-M3) that are from the same bed as sample XR-M1, are close to the ordinary coal average, indicating that these four elements varied greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed, and such coals highly enriched in these hazardous elements are very local and restricted. The main carrier of As, Sb, Hg, and Tl in sample XR-M1 is an epigenetic getchellite rather than syngenetic pyrite and clay minerals. Getchellite occurs only in the veined kaolinite of hydrothermal origin. The high As, Sb, Hg, and Tl in coal are derived from an arsenic- and antimony-rich hydrothermal fluid. (author)

  6. Siderite--pyrite association in Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.

    1966-01-01

    Occurrences of significant amounts of pyrite and siderite in the same seam are unusual, particularly with Australian bituminous coals. A description is given of such occurrences in the Walloon Coal Measures (Jurassic) of Queensland and in the Upper Coal Measures (Permian) of New South Wales. The relation between the two minerals has been investigated microscopically and by other experimental techniques to determine the origin and time of formation of each mineral. The evidence suggests that the siderite was the first-formed mineral, of syngenetic or diagenetic origin, and was replaced by epigenetic siderite.

  7. Modern Pearl River Delta and Permian Huainan coalfield, China: a comparative sedimentary facies study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.P.; Flores, R.M. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1996-02-01

    This paper compares the sedimentary facies types of the Pleistocene deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China with the Permian Member D deposits in Huainan coalfield in Anhui Province. Both are exemplified by depositional facies of anastomosing fluvial systems. Sand/sandstone and mud/mudstone-dominated facies types formed in diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels laterally juxtaposed with flood plains containing ponds, lakes, and topogeneous mires. The mires accumulated thin to thick peat/coal deposits that vary in vertical and lateral distribution between the two study areas. This difference is probably due to attendant sedimentary processes that affected the floodplain environments.

  8. Life crises on land across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanqiao; Shi, G. R.

    2009-02-01

    The western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan area of southwest China commands a unique and significant position globally in the study of Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) events as it contains well and continuously exposed PTB sections of marine, non-marine and marginal-marine origin in the same area. By using a range of high-resolution stratigraphic methods including biostratigraphy, eventostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy, not only are the non-marine PTB sections correlated with their marine counterparts in the study area with high-resolution, the non-marine PTB sections of the study area can also be aligned with the PTB Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Meishan in eastern China. Plant megafossils ("megaplants") in the study area indicate a major loss in abundance and diversity across the PTB, and no coal beds and/or seams have been found in the non-marine Lower Triassic although they are very common in the non-marine Upper Permian. The megaplants, however, did not disappear consistently across the whole area, with some elements of the Late Permian Cathaysian Gigantopteris flora surviving the PTB mass extinction and locally even extending up to the Lower Triassic. Palynomorphs exhibit a similar temporal pattern characterized by a protracted stepwise decrease from fern-dominated spores in the Late Permian to pteridosperm and gymnosperm-dominated pollen in the Early Triassic, which was however punctuated by an accelerated loss in both abundance and diversity across the PTB. Contemporaneous with the PTB crisis in the study area was the peculiar prevalence and dominance of some fungi and/or algae species. The temporal patterns of megaplants and palynomorphs across the PTB in the study area are consistent with the regional trends of plant changes in South China, which also show a long-term decrease in species diversity from the Late Permian Wuchiapingian through the Changhsingian to the earliest Triassic, with about 48% and 77% losses of species occurring respectively in the end-Wuchiapingian and end-Changhsingian. Such consistent patterns, at both local and regional scales, contradict the hypothesis of a regional isochronous extinction of vegetation across the PTB, and hence call into question the notion that the end-Permian mass extinction was a one-hit disaster. Instead, the data from the study area and South China appears more consistent with a scenario that invokes climate change as the main driver for the observed land vegetation changes across the PTB in South China.

  9. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  10. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  11. Effects of Igneous Intrusion on Microporosity and Gas Adsorption Capacity of Coals in the Haizi Mine, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyu Jiang; Yuanping Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120?m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance...

  12. Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Šafanda, Jan; Beauchamp, B.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 393, May (2014), s. 243-253. ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Latest Permian extinction * gas hydrates * carbon isotope shift Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.724, year: 2013

  13. The late Paleozoic oxygen pulse and accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLE I. PREMOVIC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent geophysical and geochemical data and theoretical modeling indicate high levels of atmospheric O2 (up to 35% during the Carboniferous-Permian. I suggest that this O2 pulse had a substantial impact on global accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal during this geological period.

  14. Coal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  15. Coal Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumpa Prakash

    This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

  16. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Permian Basin locatd in the western part of Texas. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  17. Curiosities at c=1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider conformal field theories on a torus with central charge c=1, and in particular models based upon modding out string propagation on the SU(2) group manifold by its finite subgroups. We find that the partition functions for these models coincide with the continuum limit partition functions of a recently introduced class of RSOS models, defined in terms of the extended Dynkin diagrams of simply-laced Lie algebras, thus giving an alternative interpretation for the primary fields in these latter theories. Three of the models have no massless moduli and thus do not lie on the same line of critical points with the rest. The particular correspondence between simply-laced Lie algebras and finite subgroups of SU(2) that emerges coincides with that which has already appeared in other mathematical contexts. (orig.)

  18. Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jasper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in this area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumption of vegetation by the fire. The presence of inertinite in coals overlying and underlying the tonstein layer indicates that fire-events were not restricted to the ash fall interval. The integration of the new data presented in the current study with previously published data for the Faxinal Coalfield demonstrates that volcanic events that occurred in the surrounding areas can be identified as one potential source of ignition for the wildfires. The presence of charcoal in Permian sediments associated with coal levels at different localities demonstrates that wildfires have been relatively common events in the peat-forming environments in which the coal formation took place in the Paraná Basin.Charcoal fóssil foi encontrado na Mina do Faxinal, Permiano Inferior, Formação Rio Bonito, na porção sul da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Foram descritos três tipos de lenhos gimnospérmicos picnoxílicos originários de um único nível de tonstein, o que confirma a ocorrência de paleoincêndios vegetacionais nesta área. Uma redução da concentração de charcoal da base para o topo no nível de tonstein indica que a quantidade de combustível diminuiu durante a deposição, provavelmente devido ao consumo da vegetação existente pelo fogo. A presença de inertinita na camada de carvão, em níveis sobrepostos e sotopostos ao tonstein , indica que incêndios não estavam restritos ao intervalo de deposição da cinza vulcânica. A integração dos novos dados aqui apresentados com outros publicados anteriormente acerca da Mina do Faxinal, demonstra que eventos vulcânicos ocorridos nas áreas circunvizinhas podem ser identificados como potenciais fatores de ignição para os incêndios. A presença de chacoal em sedimentos associados a níveis de carvão em diferentes localidades no Permiano, demonstra que incêndios vegetacionais foram relativamente comuns nos ambientes formadores dos depósitos de carvão da Bacia do Paraná.

  19. Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André, Jasper; Dieter, Uhl; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Abdalla M. B, Abu Hamad; Neli T. G, Machado.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal fóssil foi encontrado na Mina do Faxinal, Permiano Inferior, Formação Rio Bonito, na porção sul da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Foram descritos três tipos de lenhos gimnospérmicos picnoxílicos originários de um único nível de tonstein, o que confirma a ocorrência de paleoincêndios vegetacionais [...] nesta área. Uma redução da concentração de charcoal da base para o topo no nível de tonstein indica que a quantidade de combustível diminuiu durante a deposição, provavelmente devido ao consumo da vegetação existente pelo fogo. A presença de inertinita na camada de carvão, em níveis sobrepostos e sotopostos ao tonstein , indica que incêndios não estavam restritos ao intervalo de deposição da cinza vulcânica. A integração dos novos dados aqui apresentados com outros publicados anteriormente acerca da Mina do Faxinal, demonstra que eventos vulcânicos ocorridos nas áreas circunvizinhas podem ser identificados como potenciais fatores de ignição para os incêndios. A presença de chacoal em sedimentos associados a níveis de carvão em diferentes localidades no Permiano, demonstra que incêndios vegetacionais foram relativamente comuns nos ambientes formadores dos depósitos de carvão da Bacia do Paraná. Abstract in english Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in t [...] his area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumption of vegetation by the fire. The presence of inertinite in coals overlying and underlying the tonstein layer indicates that fire-events were not restricted to the ash fall interval. The integration of the new data presented in the current study with previously published data for the Faxinal Coalfield demonstrates that volcanic events that occurred in the surrounding areas can be identified as one potential source of ignition for the wildfires. The presence of charcoal in Permian sediments associated with coal levels at different localities demonstrates that wildfires have been relatively common events in the peat-forming environments in which the coal formation took place in the Paraná Basin.

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of coal from the Liupanshui mining district, Guizhou, south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, X. [Institute of Sedimentary Basin, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F. [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Zeng, R.; Xu, W. [Institute of Geology, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)

    2000-11-01

    This study focuses on the geochemistry and mineralogy of 23 coal seams from the Shuicheng and Luizhi coal fields from the Late Permian Liupanshui coal mining district, in the west of Guizhou province in southern China. Coal rank ranges widely from high volatile bituminous to low volatile bituminous and anthracite. Major mineral phases present in the Liupanshui coal are kaolinite, quartz, pyrite, and calcite. Traces of other primary minerals are marcasite, gypsum, and dolomite. The Shuicheng coal usually has higher kaolinite and quartz contents than the Luizhi coal. Marcasite occurs indiscriminately in the different coal seams without a clear distribution pattern. The presence of other minerals, such as rutile, anatase, tourmaline, zircon, and phosphates, was also noted.The total sulphur content of Liupanshui coals is higher in the marine-influenced coal seams (up to 7.5% dry), and lower in the nonmarine-influenced coals (as low as 0.3%). In the Luizhi coal field, the coal is characterised by a high sulphur and iron content, whereas in the Shuicheng coal field, contents varied from low to high, depending on the coal seams. An inverse geochemical distribution was detected for the mean contents of Ca-Mn-Ge, with lower contents in the Luizhi coal field. The Liupanshui coals are characterised by relatively high contents of Mn, V, Cu, Li, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, Tl, Th, and U, when comparing with the usual concentration ranges in bituminous coals. Trace elements in coals from Liupanshui showed narrow variations in their concentrations among coal seams and coal. Three major trace element affinities (aluminium-silicates, sulphides, and carbonates) accounted for the occurrence and distribution of most of the elements studied were determined.

  1. The elemental and isotopic composition of sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, H.Y.; Liu, C.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2011-01-15

    Coal combustion is an important atmospheric pollution source in most Chinese cities, so systematic studies on sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese coals are needed. The sulfur contents in Chinese coals average 0.9 {+-} 1.0%, indicating that most Chinese coals are low in sulfur. A nearly constant mean {delta}{sup 34}S value is observed in low sulfur (TS < 1) Chinese coals of different ages (D, P-1, T-3 and J{sup 3}). High sulfur Chinese coals (OS > 0.8%), often found at late Carboniferous and late Permian in southern China, had two main sulfur sources (original plant sulfur and secondary sulfur). The wide variety of {delta}{sup 34}S values of Chinese coals (-15 parts per thousand to +50 parts per thousand) is a result of a complex sulfur origin. The delta N-15 values of Chinese coals ranged from -6 parts per thousand to +4 parts per thousand, showing a lack of correlation with coal ages, whereas nitrogen contents are higher in Paleozoic coals than in Mesozoic coals. This may be related to their original precursor plant species: high nitrogen pteridophytes for the Paleozoic coals and low nitrogen gymnosperms for the Mesozoic coals. Different to {delta}{sup 34}S values, Chinese coals showed higher {delta} {sup 15}N values in marine environments than in freshwater environments.

  2. Clean coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    Fossil fuels such as coal can be powerful polluters of the environment. This article, part of site on the future of energy, introduces students to methods being implemented to make burning coal a cleaner process. Students read about the 1986 creation of the Clean Coal Technology Program and the coal-burning improvements it generated. Definitions of key terms are available, and a link is provided to an ABC News article about bacteria that have been bioengineered to clean coal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  3. Did an Impact Trigger the Permian-Triassic Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    This resource, authored by David Morrison, contains the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Astrobiology Institute news story on new evidence of a 251-million year-old impact crater off the western coast of Australia that may have caused the "Great Dying", the Permian-Triassic extinction event.

  4. Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area in southwestern Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Ren, D.; Zhu, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Zeng, R.; Zheng, B.

    2004-01-01

    Mineralogy, coal chemistry and 21 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) of 44 coal samples from the Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou province, China have been systematically studied. The major minerals in coals studied are quartz, kaolinite, illite, pyrite, calcite, smectite, marcasite and accessory minerals, including rutile, dolomite, siderite, gypsum, chlorite, melanterite, apatite, collophane and florencite. The SiO2 content shows a broad variation (0.8-30.7%). A high SiO2 content in Late Permian coals reflects their enrichment in quartz. The Al2O3 content varies from 0.8% to 13.4%, Fe2O3 from 0.2% to 14.6%, CaO from Al>K>Ti>Na>Mg>Ca>Fe>S. A comparison with World coal averages shows that the Late Permian coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As, Hg, F and U, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Se, Th, V and Zn. The Late Triassic coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As and Hg, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Th and U. The concentrations of As, Hg, Mo, Se, Tl and Zn in the QFDA coal are higher than other Guizhou coal and Liupanshui coal nearby. The QFDA is an area strongly affected by the low-temperature hydrothermal activity during its geologic history (Yanshanian Age, about 189 Ma). The coals in QFDA are enriched in volatile PHTEs, including As, Hg, Se, Sb, Mo, among others. The regions where the coals are enriched in As, Hg and F have been mapped. The regions of coals enriched in volatile PHTEs overlap with the regions of noble metal ore deposits. These coals are located in the cores of anticline and anticlinorium, which are connected with the profound faults through the normal faults. Coals are enriched in volatile PHTEs as a result of the low-temperature hydrothermal activity associated with tectonic faulting. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Permian Whitehill Formation (Karoo Basin, South Africa): deciphering the complexity and potential of an unconventional gas resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Annette E.

    2014-05-01

    A key energy policy objective of the South African government is to diversify its energy mix from coal which constitutes 85% of the current mix. Gas will play a key role in the future South African economy with demand coming from electricity generation and gas-to-liquids projects. A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2011 concluded that there could be as much as 485 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the South African Karoo Basin. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. The present study compiles existing data from literature review and new data from outcrop analogue studies on the Permian Whitehill Formation, the main target formation for future shale gas production, including thickness, depth, maturity, TOC, lithologies, sedimentary and organic facies, and dolerite occurrence to provide a first reference dataset for further investigations and resource estimates.

  6. Gondwana's climate history inferred from the palynological record of South Africa's coal deposits: the Early Triassic wet intermezzo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Annette E.

    2013-04-01

    Permian-Triassic coals of the South African Karoo Basin play a central role in the study and interpretation of Gondwana's climate history and related vegetational changes in time and space. The palynological record of the coal-bearing formations reveals major phases of climate amelioration succeeding the Permo-Carboniferous Gondwana glaciations. Subsequent to the melting of the Dwyka ice, cold to cool-temperate climate conditions prevailed during the Early Permian and a continuous change to hot and dry climate conditions of the Late Permian and Triassic was inferred from sedimentological and palaeontological data so far. The here presented new palynological and geochemical data from the Early Triassic Molteno coal (Stormberg Group) point to a short-term switch from dry to wet climate conditions. To date, this wet intermezzo of Gondwana's early Mesozoic climate history has been overlooked in the Molteno coal of the Karoo Basin. The spore/pollen ratios, used as a proxy for humidity changes, indicate a significant climatic change corresponding to a prominent C-isotope excursion. Ongoing studies will provide a detailed palynological inventory of the Early Triassic coal deposits on an intra-Gondwanic scale, contributing to the interpretation of early Mesozoic palaeoclimates.

  7. Amplitude analyses of the decays ?c1???+?- and ?c1??'?+?-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Pearson, L. J.; Thorndike, E. H.; Ricciardi, S.; Thomas, C.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Mountain, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Lincoln, A.; Smith, M. J.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, J.; Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Randrianarivony, K.; Tatishvili, G.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Sun, W. M.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Libby, J.; Kornicer, M.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Szczepaniak, A.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Hietala, J.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.

    2011-12-01

    Using a data sample of 2.59×107 ?(2S) decays obtained with the CLEO-c detector, we perform amplitude analyses of the complementary decay chains ?(2S)???c1; ?c1???+?- and ?(2S)???c1; ?c1??'?+?-. We find evidence for an exotic P-wave ?'? amplitude, which, if interpreted as a resonance, would have parameters consistent with the ?1(1600) state reported in other production mechanisms. We also make the first observation of the decay a0(980)??'? and measure the ratio of branching fractions B(a0(980)??'?)/B(a0(980)???)=0.064±0.014±0.014. The ?? spectrum produced with a recoiling ? is compared to that with ?' recoil.

  8. Selection of nuclear waste repository sites in the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since late 1977, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting environmental and geologic studies in order to identify potential sites for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste from commercial reactors. The DOE proposes to bury the waste deep underground in conventionally-mined repositories located in stable geologic deposits such as salt formations. Geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic studies led to the identification of two potentially suitable repository sites in the Permian bedded salt formation of west Texas. Detailed multi-disciplinary studies will be required to confirm the ability of these sites to isolate the high-level nuclear waste from the human environment for a period of 10,000 years in an environmentally sound manner. This report provides a description and discussion of the multi-step site selection process that identified the two 9 square mile (23 square kilometer) sites from the 80,000 square mile (26,000 square kilometer) Permian salt formation

  9. Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Kiehl

    This report presents the results of climate modeling research which indicates that elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at the end of the Permian period led to climatic conditions inhospitable to both marine and terrestrial life. The Permian-Triassic boundary (about 251 million years ago) was the time of the largest known mass extinction in Earth's history, when greater than ninety percent of all marine species, and approximately seventy percent of all terrestrial species, died out. The model, which used paleogeography and paleotopography correct for the time period, indicated that warm high-latitude surface air temperatures and elevated carbon dioxide levels may have resulted in slowed circulation and stagnant, anoxic conditions in Earth's oceans. The report also suggests that the excess carbon dioxide (and sulfur dioxide) may have originated from volcanic activity associated with eruption of the Siberian Trap flood basalts, which took place at the same time.

  10. A new species of the marattialean fern Scolecopteris (Zenker) Millay from the uppermost Permian of Guizhou Province, south-western China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X.-Y. He; S.-J. Wang; J. Hilton; Y.-L. Zhou [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Botany

    2006-06-15

    Several isolated marattialean synangia and sporangia are reported from coal balls collected from Coal Seam No.1 (C605) in the uppermost Permian Wangjiazhai Formation in Guizhou Province, south-western China. The synangia are radially symmetrical with diameters between 0.8 and 1.2 mm and are 1.7 mm long, consisting of 3-4 elongate sporangia that are fused basally, free distally and possess a pointed apex. The outer-facing sporangial wall is 4-5 cells thick and conspicuously differentiated. Spores are trilete, have a granular ornamentation and are nearly round equatorially with a diameter of 55-60 {mu}m. Comparisons with other anatomically preserved Palaeozoic marattialean synangia from the Euramerican and Cathaysian floras permit their assignment to the genus of Scolecopteris (Zenker) Millay. In this species the thick, outer-facing sporangial walls and large trilete spores are features consistent with those of the Oliveri Group within Scolecopteris, a group that has previously been considered primitive within this genus. Distinctions from all other previously recognized species within the Oliveri Group lead to the creation of a new species, S. guizhouensis sp. nov. This species is the youngest of the reported species of Scolecopteris recognized from the Euramerican and Cathaysian floras, and provides important evidence on the organization of marattialean ferns from the Upper Permian strata of south China.

  11. The Permian aquifer of Dumfries : groundwater chemistry and age

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, A. M.; Ball, D.F.; Darling, W. G.

    2000-01-01

    The Dumfries aquifer has been studied for over 20 years. However, investigations have been piecemeal and little attempt has been made to bring all the different approaches together. This study, although entirely hydrochemical, aims to help understanding of the groundwater flow within the basin in order to validate (or otherwise) existing hydrogeological conceptual models. The age and hydrochemistry of groundwater in the Permian sediments of the Dumfries Basin was assessed from ...

  12. Uranium mineralization in Broumov Permian System of Lower Silesia basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological characteristics are given of the Broumov Permian. Anomalous uranium accumulations are mainly bound to volcanogenous rocks and volcanoclastic sediments. It was determined mineralogically that uranium mineralization in melaphyre tuffaceous agglomerates consisted of secondary uranium minerals, mainly of tyuyamunite and sengierite, which was confirmed using an electron microanalyzer. The occurrence of other elements (V, Si, Al, Ca, P, Ti, Fe, Cu) on the uranium mineralization site is described from X-ray planar distribution. (E.S.) 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Palynostratigraphic correlation of the Sardhai Formation (Permian) of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Irfan U.; Stephenson, Michael H.; Khan, Fazli R.

    2009-01-01

    Palynological assemblages from the Sardhai Formation shale (Permian), lying between the red-bed Warchha Formation and the Amb Formation limestones in the Salt and Khisor ranges of Pakistan contain abundant bisaccate pollen grains and few spores. In particular, well-preserved specimens of Florinites? balmei, a bilaterally symmetrical monosaccate pollen grain, are common. The presence of this pollen and the stratigraphic context suggest that the Sardhai Formation correlates with the Khuff trans...

  14. Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Polozov, Alexander G.; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Corfu, Fernando; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    The end of the Permian period is marked by global warming and the biggest known mass extinction on Earth. The crisis is commonly attributed to the formation of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province although the causal mechanisms remain disputed. We show that heating of Tunguska Basin sediments by the ascending magma played a key role in triggering the crisis. Our conclusions are based on extensive field work in Siberia in 2004 and 2006. Heating of organic-rich shale and petroleum bearing evaporites around sill intrusions led to greenhouse gas and halocarbon generation in sufficient volumes to cause global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion. Basin scale gas production potential estimates show that metamorphism of organic matter and petroleum could have generated > 100,000 Gt CO 2. The gases were released to the end-Permian atmosphere partly through spectacular pipe structures with kilometre-sized craters. Dating of a sill intrusion by the U-Pb method shows that the gas release occurred at 252.0 ± 0.4 million years ago, overlapping in time with the end-Permian global warming and mass extinction. Heating experiments to 275 °C on petroleum-bearing rock salt from Siberia suggests that methyl chloride and methyl bromide were significant components of the erupted gases. The results indicate that global warming and ozone depletion were the two main drivers for the end-Permian environmental crisis. We demonstrate that the composition of the heated sedimentary rocks below the flood basalts is the most important factor in controlling whether a Large Igneous Provinces causes an environmental crisis or not. We propose that a similar mechanism could have been responsible for the Triassic-Jurassic (~ 200 Ma) global warming and mass extinction, based on the presence of thick sill intrusions in the evaporite deposits of the Amazon Basin in Brazil.

  15. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  16. Effects of late Paleozoic foreland deformation on underground coal mine ground instability, Illinois and Appalachian Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillipson, S.E. [Mine Safety and Health Administration, Roof Control Division, Pittsburgh Safety and Health Technology Center, P.O. Box 18233, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2005-10-17

    Slickensides are commonly associated with potentially hazardous ground conditions in underground coal mines. Investigations by the Mine Safety and Health Administration's Roof Control Division indicate that slickensided drag folds in the immediate roof of Pennsylvanian-age coal seams represent instances of ground instability of various scales, from skin control hazards to roof falls that block travelways and belt entries. The occurrence of features in the roof of the Illinois Basin's Springfield coal seam that are identical to structures interpreted as drag folds in Pennsylvanian-age coal measure rocks of the Appalachian Basin suggests that tectonic stress associated with the late Pennsylvanian-Permian Alleghanian orogeny was transmitted into the mid-continent. This paper relates slickenside occurrences in the Pennsylvanian-age Springfield coal seam to local structural geologic features that are associated with the late Pennsylvanian-Permian Alleghanian orogeny. Because the slickensides discussed are interpreted to have formed in response to regional tectonic stress, small-scale controls on coal mine ground instability can be related to large-scale, regional tectonic processes. Field investigations indicate that mine-wide geologic mapping of structural geologic features can be used to project zones of subtle, yet problematic, structural weakness in advance of face positions. By incorporating this style of structural geologic hazard mapping in mine planning and operation, miners can be prepared to install appropriate supplemental support, or reduce the effects of structural weaknesses with local modifications to mine design. (author)

  17. Coal Rank and Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian Coal and Coaly Shale Samples, Young County, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.

  18. Coal dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kelly [BMA Barney Point Laboratory (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    There are various national and international standards for coal laboratories to use for the dilatation test. The results reported vary depending on which standard is used which causes issues when results are used at an international level and particularly relevant to coal sales contracts. A draft new ISO Dilatometer standard has just been written and this project has tested the ruggedness of this new method against the current standards. This project has developed one single International Standard for dilatation that could be used by laboratories throughout the world. Having one dilatation standard should improve methods for predicting blend dilatation which would help coal suppliers to target the correct coal against specifications for given blend situations and remove potential confusion from having alternative methods.

  19. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract pricsame as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards

  20. Fistulipora Microparallela (Yang and Lu, 1962 from Lower Permian Bryozoans of Lut Block, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yarahmadzahi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fistulipora microparallela (Yang and Lu, 1962 species is described for the first time from the Sakmarian deposits of the Sarab section in Lut Block, Central Iran. This species has been reported only from the Permian (Cisuralian-Guadalupian of the Qilianshan and Kankerin formations, and the Baliqliq Group (Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian of Western Xinjiang, China.

  1. Advanced characterization of physical properties of coals with different coal structures by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Yang, Zi

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the correlation between coal structure and physical property of coal, samples with different coal structures were collected from the Late Permian period coal seams in the Laochang area, Yunnan Province, China. A set of experiments were carried out to quantitatively characterize the physical properties of coals with different coal structures using advanced and nondestructive low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). The experimental results gave us confidence to conclude that the evolution of the coal structures can be divided into five stages with stress increasing: the fractures closing stage, the microfractures development stage, the cracks development stage, the shear deformation stage, and the plastic deformation stage. Each stage corresponds to a different coal structure with unique physical characteristics. The undeformed coal is dominated with pores and a small amount of poorly connected fractures. In the proto-cataclastic stage, the volume of the mesopores, macropores and fractures sharply decreases with stress increasing. The coal rock becomes more compacted. Additionally, the connectivity between fractures and pores becomes worse. The cataclastic coal has well-developed mesopores, macropores and fractures but few micropores and transition pores. The connectivity between fractures and pores is most conducive to the exploitation of coalbed methane. In the mylonitic coal stage, the plastic deformation occurs, resulting in the reduction and discontinuity of mesopores, macropores, and fractures. Moreover, the undeformed coal has the best homogeneity, and the mylonitic coal has the highest heterogeneity, resulted from the uneven distribution of the maceral, pores, fractures, and minerals caused by later stress effect. Furthermore, the CT porosities have a good positive correlation with the permeability; the average CT number, the standard deviation of CT number have a negative correlation with the permeability.

  2. Coal 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimise the env ironmental

  3. Concentration and distribution of sixty-one elements in coals from DPR Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiawen; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.; Wang, B.; Wang, M.; Li, S.; Wu, D.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty coal samples (28 anthracite and 22 lignites) were collected from both main and small coal mines in DPR Korea prioritized by resource distribution and coal production. The concentrations of 61 elements in 50 coal samples were determined by several multielement and element-specific techniques, including inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ion chromatogram (IC), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). The ranges, arithmetic means and geometric means of concentrations of these elements are presented. A comparison with crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that some potentially hazardous elements in the coals of DPR Korea are highly enriched Li, B, S, Cl, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sn, Sb, W, Te, Hg, Ag, Pb, and La, Ce, Dy, Tm, Ge, Mo, Cs, Tl, Bi, Th and U are moderately enriched. A comparison of ranges and means of elemental concentrations in DPR Korea, Chinese, and world coals shows the ranges of most elements in DPR Korea coals are very close to the ranges of world coals. Arithmetic means of most elements in DPR Korea coals are close to that of American coals. Most elements arithmetic means are higher in Jurassic and Paleogene coals than coals of other ages. In DPR Korea coals, only seven elements in early Permian coals are higher than other periods: Li, Zn, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Bi. Only five elements B, As, Sr, Mo, W in Neogene coals have arithmetic means higher than others. SiO2 and Al2O 3 in ashes are more than 70% except six samples. The correlation between ash yields and major elements from high to low is in the order of Si>Al>Ti>K>Mg>Fe>Na>Ca>P>S. Most elements have high positive correlation with ash (r>0.5) and show high inorganic affinity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO2 and NOx as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NOx cleaning system. Most other plants use low NOx burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  5. Development of the Permian Basin beam pump failure database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed Mahbubur

    Artificial Lift Energy Optimization Consortium (ALEOC) was formed by eleven oil companies operating in the Permian Basin with the primary goal of improving oil field operations through sharing experiences. Beam pumping system received special attention because it is the most widely used artificial lift method in the Permian Basin as well as in the world. The combined effort to optimize beam pumping system calls for the creation of a central database, which will hold beam pump related data from diverse sources and will offer ways to analyze the data to obtain valuable insight about the nature, magnitude and trend of beam pump failure. The database mentioned above has been created as part of this work. The database combines beam pump failure data from about 25,000 wells owned by different companies into a single, uniform and consistent format. Moreover, two front-end computer applications have been developed to interact with the database, to run queries, and to make plots form the query results. One application is designed for desktop, while the other one is designed for the Internet. Both applications calculate failure frequencies of pump, rod, and tubing, and summarize the results in various ways. Thus the database and the front-end applications together provide a powerful means for analyzing beam pump failure data. Much useful information can be gathered from the database, such as the most vulnerable component in the system, the best and the worst performers, and the most troublesome operating area. Such information can be used for benchmarking performance, identifying best design/operational practices, design modification, and long term production planning. Results from data analysis show that the pump has the highest probability to fail in a beam pumping system, followed by the rod string and the tubing string. The overall failure in the Permian Basin shows a general decline with time.

  6. Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    Earth’s history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and po¬tentially into the open ocean realm. These events of¬ten coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing from the Siberian Traps. We measured redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, Cu, U) and the speciation of iron [Fe-HR/Fe-T and Fe-PY/ Fe- HR] in marine sediments from Svalbard (Festningen). We compare these data to additional, new, high-lati-tude data from eastern Greenland and the equatorial Tethys realm in Iran. We show that the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary at Svalbard is marked by 2 phases of euxinic (sulfidic) ocean conditions. An initial short phase at the onset of atmospheric carbon release is separated from a subsequent longer phase by a re¬turn to ferruginous ocean conditions (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland and Iran. It sug¬gests a strongly decreased global ocean molybdenum (and possibly also ocean sulfate) inventory by massive molybdenum drawdown (and possibly pyrite buri¬al) at the onset of end-Permian atmospheric carbon release and leading up to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. We compare these oceanographic changes to similar observations for the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction and discuss environmental forcing, poten¬tially inherent to major volcanic events and leading to global environmental change and extinction

  7. Main: C1MOTIFZMBZ2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C1MOTIFZMBZ2 S000237 23-Sep-1999 (last modified) kehi C1-motif; Similar to Myb-box; Found in the ... promoter region of maize (Z.m.) Bronze2 ( glutathione ... S-transferase) gene; C1 binding; C1-motif and R-mo ... z2 promoter; S=C or G; C1-motif; Bronze2; Myb-box; glutathione ... S-transferase; C1; seed; maize (Zea mays) TAACTSAG ...

  8. The Chelyabinsk coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryleev, V.S.; Kornilkov, V.N. (Proizvodstvennoe Obedinenie Chelyabinskugol' (Russian Federation))

    1993-05-01

    Discusses coal mining in the Chelyabinsk coal basin in the Urals. The following aspects are evaluated: position of the Chelyabinsk basin, its coal reserves, properties of brown coal (calorific value of run-of-mine coal ranges from 4,000 to 4,500 kcal, carbon content from 72% to 74%), coal seam thickness, depth, coal seams prone to spontaneous combustion, underground coal mining (10 mines constructed from 1933 to 1969), schemes for coal deposit development and mining (schemes without leaving coal support pillars), coal losses, thin seam mining, problems associated with strata control, prevention of endogenous fires, equipment for underground coal mining. Selected aspects of surface coal mining in 3 surface mines of the Chelyabinsk basin are also discusssed: coal output, mining conditions, economic aspects of surface coal mining.

  9. Mineralogy of the No. 6 coal from the Qinglong Coalfield, Guizhou Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dahua; Tang, Yuegang; Deng, Tao; Chen, Kun; Liu, Dong; Cheng, Fangping

    2008-12-15

    The mineralogy and its geological origin of the Late Permian No. 6 coal seam from the Qinglong Coalfield, western Guizhou Province, were determined by the methods of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). A particular material consists of volcanic ash, detrital materials of terrigenous origin, and organic matter in this coal seam was determined. The results confirmed that the volcanic-derived material exactly exists in coal. Four structure types of the volcanic-derived materials were classified according to their shapes and occurrence modes. It is the first time that the authors found a relative high content of bornite in coal, which was attributed to the basic volcanic ash.

  10. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachat, Sandra R.; Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  11. Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west

  12. Dating of authigenic clays related to igneous intrusions in Hunter Valley Coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sydney Basin is composed mainly of Permian and Triassic marine and non-marine clastic sedimentary strata together with economically significant coal deposits and volumetrically minor igneous rocks. Many of these igneous rocks are also economically significant not only for their use in the construction industry but also for their deleterious effects on coal mining, particularly in underground mines utilising longwall extraction systems. Igneous activity in the Sydney Basin ranges from Early Permian to Tertiary in age and although episodic in nature, activity was unlikely to have ceased for periods of more than approximately 10 million years (Carr and Facer 1980; Embleton et al. 1982). Dating of the time of emplacement of igneous rocks using the K-Ar isotopic system is a relatively straightforward procedure if suitable analytical facilities and samples of appropriate, fresh, primary minerals are available. In the case of intrusions in coal seams, however, the occurrence of fresh, primary minerals is very rare due to widespread alteration produced by interaction between the igneous rock and fluids in the coal seam. This interaction produces a variety of secondary minerals with most primary minerals and glass being altered to clays (mainly kaolinite) and carbonates. Consequently, relatively few isotopic dates for intrusions into coal seams have been determined. A detailed study of several hundred samples of igneous rocks from the Sydney Basin found only six samples ofthe Sydney Basin found only six samples of intrusions into coal seams that were suitable for conventional K-Ar dating (Carr and Facer 1980). Techniques for K-Ar dating of authigenic illite, developed in response to the need by the petroleum industry to understand the timing of diagenesis in petroleum source-rocks and reservoirs, are now well established (Clauer and Chaudhuri 1995). As part of a larger project on the impact of igneous intrusions on coal mining and the alienation of coal reserves, a preliminary investigation of the timing of authigenic illite formation by alteration of intrusions in Dartbrook Mine has been undertaken

  13. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Rane, Milind E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, au...

  14. Origin of banded structure and coal lithotype cycles in Kargali coal seam of East Bokaro sub-basin, Jharkhand, India: Environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Ram Chandra; Khan, Zahid A.

    2015-04-01

    The Kargali seam of Early Permian Barakar cyclothems of East Bokaro sub-basin of Jharkhand, India is 12-30 m thick, splits into two parts, and extends throughout the length of the basin. It is made up of interbedded sequences and variable proportions of Vitrain, Clarain, Durain and Fusain. Application of embedded Markov chain model rejects the phenomenon of randomness in the repetition of coal lithotypes. The preferential upward transition path for coal lithotypes that can be derived for the Kargali top coal seam is: Vitrain ? Clarain ? Durain ? Fusain ? Vitrain, and for the Kargali bottom coal seam is: Clarain ? Vitrain ? Fusain ? Durain ? Clarain. By and large, the cyclic repetition of coal lithotypes is similar in the Kargali bottom and top seams. Among the noteworthy features are two-way transitions between Durain and Fusian in Kargali top and between Clarain and Vitrain in the case of Kargali bottom coal seam. Entropy analysis corroborates Markov chain and indicates the presence of type A-4 asymmetrical cycles of coal lithotypes. It is suggested that the banded structure of a coal seam is not a random feature and follows a definite cyclic pattern in the occurrence of coal lithotypes in vertical order and is similar to that described in Australian and European coal seams. Asymmetrical cyclic sequences are a normal, rather than an unusual condition, within coal seams. It is visualized that a gradual decline of toxic environment and ground water level resulted in the coal lithotype cycles in the Kargali seam of East Bokaro sub-basin. The close interbedding of Vitrain and Clarain is suggestive of seasonal fluctuation in anaerobic and aerobic conditions during peat formation.

  15. Concentrations and occurrences of mercury and arsenic in coals from the Qianxi fault depression area in southwestern Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junying Zhang; Yaqin Qiu; Deyi Ren; Jing Liu; Chuguang Zheng [Huazhong University Of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2003-07-01

    High-arsenic coal combustion has caused extremely harmful on inhabitants and environment in Southwestern Guizhou. Sixty-one coal samples were collected and determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption (CV-AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) for understanding the contents and distributions of mercury and arsenic in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou. And sequential chemical extraction procedures were carried out for understanding the modes of occurrences of mercury and arsenic in the coals. The results show that the concentrations of mercury in coals are between 0.034 to 10.5 mg/kg and the average value is 1.006 mg/kg. The content of arsenic in coal is between 0.2 to 238 mg/kg and the average value is 40.7 mg/kg. The concentrations of mercury and arsenic in Late Triassic coal are higher than in Late Permian coal, mercury is 1.421 mg/kg and 0.891 mg/kg and arsenic is 53.3 mg/kg and 30.7 mg/kg respectively. Compared with average value of World and Chinese coal, the concentrations of mercury and arsenic in QFDA coal are higher. And the concentrations of mercury and arsenic in QFDA coal are also higher than the average value of Guizhou coal. Mercury and arsenic in coal are predominately associated with minerals and the percents of mercury and arsenic with macerals are very low. There are some water extractable and readily exchangeable mercury and arsenic because of the leaching of mercury and arsenic contained rock. Mercury and arsenic are mainly contained in the minerals in coal and hence the physical coal cleaning techniques can remove minerals from coal and decrease the mercury and arsenic emissions. 16 refs., 8 tabs.

  16. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  18. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  19. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  20. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  1. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  2. New evidence for 250 Ma age of halotolerant bacterium from a Permian salt crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Cindy L.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Vreeland, Russell H.; Rosenzweig, William D.; Powers, Dennis W.

    2005-04-01

    The purported oldest living organism, the spore-forming bacterium Virgibacillus sp. Permian strain 2 9-3, was recently cultured from a brine inclusion in halite of the 250 Ma Permian Salado Formation. However, the antiquity of Virgibacillus sp. 2 9-3 has been challenged; it has been argued that the halite crystal and the fluid inclusion from which the bacterial spores were extracted may be younger than the Permian Salado salts. Here we report that brine inclusions from the same layer of salt that housed Virgibacillus sp. 2 9-3 are composed of evaporated Late Permian seawater that was trapped in halite cement crystals precipitated syndepositionally from shallow groundwater brines at temperatures of 17 37 °C. These results support the 250 Ma age of the fluid inclusions, and by inference, the long-term survivability of microorganisms such as Virgibacillus sp. 2 9-3.

  3. Permian biogeography of the Indian subcontinent with special reference to the marine fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Trilochan

    Permian biogeography of the Indian subcontinent is discussed in the light of brachiopods and associated fossils from different localities. The discussion is based primarily on the Permian "biome" concept of Waterhouse and Bonham-Carter (1975), wherein three biomes are proposed: group A of subpolar, group B of temperate, and group C of tropical character. Data on the occurrence of Permian brachiopods and associated fossils are given for the Salt Range, Karakoram, and Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, and Peninsular India with respect to the age of the fauna. Marine Permian localities of the Himalayan region include those of Ladakh, Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti, Kashmir, Bhadarwah-Bhallesh-Chamba, Kinnaur, Garhwal, Kumaun, Darjeeling, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh. Permian marine localities of Peninsular India, which forms a part of central Gondwanaland, include those of Bap, Badhaura, Umaria, Manendragarh, and Daltonganj, where marine transgression occurred in Early Permian time. The faunas of these localities are discussed with respect to their age, which falls into two groups, Early and Late Permian. It is suggested that widespread colder climatic conditions prevailed in the Indian subcontinent during the early Early Permian. Similar conditions continued in most of the localities until the late Early Permian, except at west Karakoram (Shaksgam valley), Zanskar, north Tibet (central and western part), and the Salt Range. However, during the Late Permian, climatic conditions were varied. Cold climatic conditions prevailed in north Tibet (central part), Kumaun Tethyan Himalaya, and south Tibet; temperate conditions occurred in west Karakoram (Shaksgam valley), Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti, Bhadarwah-Bhallesh-Chamba, north Nepal, and north Sikkim; and tropical conditions occurred in the Salt Range, east Karakoram, Ladakh, Kashmir, and north Tibet (western and eastern parts). At a few localities there appear to be some anomalies that might be due to lack of stratigraphical details and/or lack of detailed faunal investigations. An analysis of the Permian fauna of the Indian subcontinent reveals that the fauna belongs to one single biogeographic province, the Gondwana province. The northern boundary of this biogeographic province passes through the Karakoram Pass, Bangong Lake, and the Nujiang River. The Gondwana biogeographic province, further, shows two subprovinces, the Himalayan and the Tibetan.

  4. Geology Resources: The University of Texas of the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Texas of the Permian Basin (UTPB) has a well-regarded geology program, and they have created this engaging site to profile the geology of their unique corner of West Texas. Their geology resources page contains the following sections: "Geological Overview", "West Texas Geology", "Interesting Links", "Road Logs", "Cores & Samples & Topo Maps", and "Presentations". The "Geological Overview" area offers a brief rundown of the geological milieu surrounding the UTPB campus. Moving on, the site really comes alive in "West Texas Geology", with insightful descriptions of the Basin and Range Province, faults, folds, igneous intrusions, and a relief map of Texas. Those with a penchant for travel will be delighted with the "Road Logs" area. Essentially, they are geological tour guides for persons driving from Midland to Van Horn, the Guadalupe Mountains, and other locations. Overall, it's a well-done site, and one that visitors will want to share with friends.

  5. Upper Permian (Changxingian) Radiolarian Cherts within the Clastic Successions of the "Karakaya Complex" in NW Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Go?ncu?og?lu, M. Cemal; Kuwahara, Kiyoko; Turhan, U. Kag?an Teki?n Necati?

    2004-01-01

    The arkosic sandstones with olistostromes within the "Karakaya Complex" in NW Anatolia to the south of Geyve include a thin layer of green chert with radiolaria. Based on the composition of Albaillellids, the radiolarian assemblage corresponds to the Neoalbaillella ornithoformis assemblage, and its age is assigned to the Changxingian (Late Permian). This is the first finding of synsedimentary radiolarian cherts within the Karakaya units and the indication of latest Permian rifting o...

  6. Autochthonous Upper Permian (Midian) Carbonates in the Western Sakarya Composite Terrane, Geyve Area, Turkey: Preliminary Data

    OpenAIRE

    Turhan, Necati?; Go?ncu?og?lu, Cengi?z Okuyucu M. Cemal

    2004-01-01

    Permian limestones occur widely within the clastic units of the "Karakaya Complex" and are interpreted as allochthonous bodies or olistoliths. In the Kadirler area to the south of Geyve, however, Upper Permian (Midian) quartz sandstones and carbonates with a rich foraminifer fauna disconformably overlie a crystalline basement complex. This basement complex comprises metaclastic rocks, recrystallised limestones, metacherts, and metadiabases, and is intruded by granodiorites. The over...

  7. Evolution and extinction of Permian fusulinid fauna in the Khao Tham Yai Limestone in NE Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Shigeki; Khosithanont, Somboon; Goto, Hiroya; Fontaine, Henri; Salyapongse, Sirot

    2015-05-01

    The first detailed biostratigraphic investigation of a single limestone unit within the Khao Tham Yai Limestone shows it was deposited continuously in a shelf setting without any intercalation of clastic beds. It ranges from the Wordian (middle Middle Permian) up to the Wuchiapingian (lower Upper Permian). The limestone unit is divided in ascending order into three fusulinid zones, i.e. Colania, Lepidolina and Codonofusiella zones. The middle zone is characterized by an abundance of large-tested fusulinids characteristic of the Lepidolina Zone. Shell sizes of the fusulinid species in this zone display continuous rapid morphological change along a one-way evolutionary path from small, primitive species with simple structure to large, highly evolved species having a complicated wall structure. Fusulinid biostratigraphy in a single limestone unit elucidates evolution and extinction patterns of Permian fusulinids of the shallow-water Tethyan shelf area in the Indochina Block. Our study reveals that the boundary between the Guadalupian (Middle Permian) and Lopingian (Upper Permian) in the Khao Tham Yai Limestone is clearly defined as an abrupt change in the fusulinid assemblages from the elimination of large-tested Verbeekinids and Schwagerinids to the domination of small-shelled Schubertellids. The Schubertellids underwent slower evolutionary morphological change than earlier fusulinids and were decreasingly dominant through the Permian. A similar pattern of fusulinid evolution and extinction at the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary occurs in shallow-water Tethyan shelf areas and mid-oceanic shallow-water environments in mid-Panthalassa. Eventually, even smaller fusulinids abruptly become extinct. Clastic deposits finally replace previous carbonate formations characterized by algae-foraminifera biota. It starts in the upper Middle Permian in the southern parts and spreads throughout the whole area in the lower Upper Permian in NE Thailand. These observations suggest possible correlation between the turning points of fusulinid evolution and global environmental change such as worldwide sea-level drop and its consequent effects.

  8. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  9. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  10. Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area in southwestern Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junying [National Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ren, Deyi [China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Zhu, Yanming [China University of Mining and Technology (Xuzhou), Xuzhou 221008 (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Zeng, Rongshu [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zheng, Baoshan [Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2004-01-15

    Mineralogy, coal chemistry and 21 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) of 44 coal samples from the Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou province, China have been systematically studied. The major minerals in coals studied are quartz, kaolinite, illite, pyrite, calcite, smectite, marcasite and accessory minerals, including rutile, dolomite, siderite, gypsum, chlorite, melanterite, apatite, collophane and florencite. The SiO{sub 2} content shows a broad variation (0.8-30.7%). A high SiO{sub 2} content in Late Permian coals reflects their enrichment in quartz. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content varies from 0.8% to 13.4%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 0.2% to 14.6%, CaO from <0.1% to 11.9% and the contents of other oxides are relatively low. The relationship between the major oxides and the ash content of coals from high to low is in the order of Si>Al>K>Ti>Na>Mg>Ca>Fe>S. A comparison with World coal averages shows that the Late Permian coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As, Hg, F and U, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Se, Th, V and Zn. The Late Triassic coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As and Hg, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Th and U. The concentrations of As, Hg, Mo, Se, Tl and Zn in the QFDA coal are higher than other Guizhou coal and Liupanshui coal nearby.The QFDA is an area strongly affected by the low-temperature hydrothermal activity during its geologic history (Yanshanian Age, about 189 Ma). The coals in QFDA are enriched in volatile PHTEs, including As, Hg, Se, Sb, Mo, among others. The regions where the coals are enriched in As, Hg and F have been mapped. The regions of coals enriched in volatile PHTEs overlap with the regions of noble metal ore deposits. These coals are located in the cores of anticline and anticlinorium, which are connected with the profound faults through the normal faults. Coals are enriched in volatile PHTEs as a result of the low-temperature hydrothermal activity associated with tectonic faulting.

  11. Fossil Fuels: Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Pratte

    This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

  12. Coal information 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Energy Agency's comprehensive annual reference on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. Contains analysis and country-specific statistics for OECD Member countries and selected non-OECD countries on coal prices, demand, trade, production, and emission standards for coal-fired boilers. In this book essential facts on coal-importing and exporting ports and coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions are included

  13. Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Standard, J C

    2003-01-01

    Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

  14. An Early Permian fusuline fauna from southernmost Peninsular Thailand: Discovery of Early Permian warming spikes in the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Katsumi; Arita, Michiko; Meno, Satomi; Sardsud, Apsorn; Saesaengseerung, Doungrutai

    2015-05-01

    An Early Permian fusuline fauna is reported from the Tarn To Formation of the Yala area in southernmost Peninsular Thailand, which geotectonically belongs to the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block. The fauna consists of Pseudofusulina and Praeskinnerella? species, including forms closely resembling Tethyan and Panthalassan Pseudofusulina fusiformis and Pseudofusulina ex gr. kraffti. A Yakhtashian-Bolorian age is estimated for this fauna. In Sibumasu, shallow-marine biotas showing similar Tethyan affinities, such as the fusulines Misellina and alatoconchid bivalves, also occur in the Early Permian succession of the Kinta Valley area in western Peninsular Malaysia. These unusual Tethyan faunas within Early Permian peri-Gondwanan fossil records suggest episodic influences from paleo-tropical Tethyan biotas. They are here interpreted as showing short-term warming spikes during the late Yakhtashian-Bolorian transgression, which would facilitate sporadic migration and temporal inhabitation of warm-water dwellers into the eastern Cimmerian areas. The Yala and Kinta Valley fusuline and other invertebrate faunas would give us a new insight for the Permian geohistory and environmental change of the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block.

  15. Mobility of some potentially toxic trace elements in the coal of Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; Hong, Y.; Hong, B.; Ni, J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2000-01-01

    The mobility of 10 potentially toxic trace elements (PTTE), As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, and Zn from 32 coals of the Longtan Group formed in Permian Period in Guizhou Province, China was investigated using sequential extraction procedures. The results demonstrate that PTTEs such as Hg, As, Se, Cd, Cu, and Pb have the highest mobility at surface conditions, and the average extractable fractions of them are 86%, 95%, 79%, 76%, 69%, and 69% of the total amount in coal, respectively. The elements in coal with the lowest leachability include Tl, Cr, and Ni, and the average extractable fractions of them are 30%, 20%, and 29% of the total amount in coal, respectively. Zinc has an intermediate behavior, and the average leachable fraction of it accounts for 46% of the total amount in coal. The results demonstrate that mobility of PTTE in coal depends on the speciation of these elements. The elements associated with sulfates, carbonates, sulfides and some organic matter in coal show the highest extraction rates during the weathering process, while elements with silicate affinities are inert at surface conditions. (orig.)

  16. Modes of occurrence of mercury in coals from Guizhou, People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; Hong, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Goechemistry

    1999-08-01

    The modes of occurrence of mercury in coals from Guizhou, P.R. China were investigated using sequential extraction procedures and density separation experiments. The sequential extraction tests were carried out using 32 coals sampled from the Longtan Group of the Permian system in Guizhou Province. Eight coal samples collected from the same area were divided into 10 density fractions between {lt} 1.4 and {gt} 2.8 g/cm{sup 3} by separation in a heavy-liquid mixture. Combining the results of mineral transformation and of the amount of mercury leached during the leaching experiments with the results of the correlation between mercury and mineral phases and organic matter from density separation experiments, the authors concluded that mercury in the coals examined mainly exists in pyrite. The studies also showed that most of mercury in these coals can be brought into the environment easily by acid mine drainage. It is inferred that a rather large part of the Hg in coals from Guizhou may be removed by using conventional coal cleaning techniques. 28 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (?98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for ?98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in ?98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced oxic conditions throughout the LPE event, while anoxic conditions developed in the deep ocean. Hence, anoxic marine waters did not extend globally onto shelf environments and as such ocean anoxia cannot have been the main driver of the extinction event. While global systems were stressed by anoxia, the anoxic conditions may better represent a symptom of Siberian Trap eruptions that had catastrophic impact on the environment, potentially through nutrient loading and deposition of toxic substances into marine and terrestrial systems. Proemse et al., 2013: Molybdenum isotopic evidence for oxic marine conditions during the latest Permian extinction. Geology 41, 967-970.

  18. Clean Coal Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site from the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research explains clean coal technologies, including coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, and carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation explores the benefits and processes of clean coal technologies (gasification, coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, carbon capture & sequestration and integrated gasification combined cycle).

  19. Bituminous coal of the Upper Silesian basin, Czech Republic - relationship between mean vitrinite reflectance Ro, volatile matter Vdaf and content of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinec, Petr; Hon?k, J.; Stan?k, F.

    Calgary : Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, 2002 - (Hills, L.), s. 902-909 - (Memoir. 19). [Carboniferous and permian of the world/14./. Calgary (CA), 17.08.1999-21.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA3013903; GA ?R GA205/97/0307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : Upper Silesian basin * bituminous coal Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  20. The Alashan Terrane did not amalgamate with North China block by the Late Permian: Evidence from Carboniferous and Permian paleomagnetic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-05-01

    Rock magnetic and paleomagnetic studies have been carried out on the early Carboniferous limestones and the Late Permian purple sandstones sampled in the eastern Alashan Terrane (ALT), northwest of China. Two components were isolated from the Early Carboniferous limestone by thermal progressive demagnetisation: a low unblocking temperature component (LTC) of recent origin; a pre-folding medium temperature component (MTC) (the paleomagnetic pole is ? = 13.1°N, ? = 11.0°E, A95 = 7.0°) that is probably the result of the hydrothermal fluids from the Qilian Orgenic Belt acquired during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. Also, two components were separated from the Late Permian purple sandstone by thermal progressive demagnetisation: the LTC with the recent viscous remanent magnetisation, and the higher temperature component (HTC) revealed from three sections which has passed a regional fold test at the 95% probability level and reversal test, suggesting a primary characteristic magnetisation. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole is ? = 27.2° N, ? = 18.8° E, A95 = 12.0°. The apparent polar wander path (including early Carboniferous, late Carboniferous-Early Permian, Late Permian and Early-middle Triassic poles) of the ALT is significantly different with those of the NCB. Comparison of the APWPs between the ALT and NCB shows a strong similarity. If the APWP of Hexi Corridor-Alashan rotated counterclockwise around an Euler pole at 44°N, 84°E by 32°, then the coeval APW path of the ALT overlaps to that of the NCB. This result indicates that the ALT migrated to the NCB after the Early-Middle Triassic along a tectonic boundary located between Helanshan Mountain and Zhuozishan Mountain, and finally amalgamated to the NCB before the Early Cretaceous.

  1. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  2. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawit, Enkurie L.

    2014-11-01

    Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.

  3. Bioessential element-depleted ocean following the euxinic maximum of the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kaiho, Kunio; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2014-05-01

    We describe variations in trace element compositions that occurred on the deep seafloor of palaeo-superocean Panthalassa during the end-Permian mass extinction based on samples of sedimentary rock from one of the most continuous Permian-Triassic boundary sections of the pelagic deep sea exposed in north-eastern Japan. Our measurements revealed low manganese (Mn) enrichment factor (normalised by the composition of the average upper continental crust) and high cerium anomaly values throughout the section, suggesting that a reducing condition already existed in the depositional environment in the Changhsingian (Late Permian). Other redox-sensitive trace-element (vanadium [V], chromium [Cr], molybdenum [Mo], and uranium [U]) enrichment factors provide a detailed redox history ranging from the upper Permian to the end of the Permian. A single V increase (representing the first reduction state of a two-step V reduction process) detected in uppermost Changhsingian chert beds suggests development into a mildly reducing deep-sea condition less than 1 million years before the end-Permian mass extinction. Subsequently, a more reducing condition, inferred from increases in Cr, V, and Mo, developed in overlying Changhsingian grey siliceous claystone beds. The most reducing sulphidic condition is recognised by the highest peaks of Mo and V (second reduction state) in the uppermost siliceous claystone and overlying lowermost black claystone beds, in accordance with the end-Permian mass extinction event. This significant increase in Mo in the upper Changhsingian led to a high Mo/U ratio, much larger than that of modern sulphidic ocean regions. This trend suggests that sulphidic water conditions developed both at the sediment-water interface and in the water column. Above the end-Permian mass extinction horizon, Mo, V and Cr decrease significantly. On this trend, we provide an interpretation of drawdown of these elements in seawater after the massive element precipitation event during the end-Permian maximum development of the reducing water column. A decrease in the Mo/U ratio despite enrichment of Mo and U also supports that of Mo. Calculations of the total amounts of these elements precipitated compared with the global seawater inventory suggest that when more than 6-10% of the global ocean became euxinic as much as the study section, most of the dissolved elements would precipitate into sediments, resulting in a global element-depleted seawater condition. Mo, V, and Cr act as bioessential elements for both primary producers and animals. The continuing reducing water column and the lack of bioessential elements could have had a considerable effect on primary producer turnover and marine life metabolism not only in the pelagic environment, but also in surrounding marine environments.

  4. Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabel Suarez-Ruiz; John Crelling [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This book is an integrated approach towards the applications of coal (organic) petrology and discusses the role of this science in the field of coal and coal-related topics. Contents are: Introduction 2. Basic factors controlling coal quality and technological behaviour of coal 3. Mining and benefication 4. Coal combustion 5. Coal gasification 6. Coal liquefaction 7. Coal carbonisation 8. Coal-derived carbons 9. Coal as a Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock 10. Environmental and health aspects 11. Other applications of coal petrology.

  5. Sequence stratigraphy of a lagoonal estuarine system—an example from the lower Permian Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis of the Early Permian (Artinskian/Kungurian) succession of the intracratonic Paraná Basin in southernmost Brazil has revealed that the study region, previously interpreted as formed by a barrier island system in a shallow, wave-dominated sea, actually originated mainly in a mixed (tide and wave) influenced estuary setting. Four main depositional systems have been recognized: alluvial fan, fluvial-dominated delta, lagoonal estuary and barrier/shoreface. The regional correlation of the lithofacies within the different depositional systems has led to a high-resolution-stratigraphic framework, with three third-order depositional sequences. Sequence boundary SB1 marks the base of the Permian succession above the crystalline basement, sequence boundary SB2 is characterized by fluvial sediments overlying marine shales and sandstones. Sequence boundary 3 (SB3) has a different signature reflecting differential subsidence: some areas clearly experienced temporary regression and basinward shift of facies, while in others the transgression rapidly reworked the regressive sediments and left only a thin veneer of pebbly sandstone, the typical signature of a transgressive surface coinciding with a sequence boundary. Within depositional sequence 2, the main target of the study because it has economically important coal seams, seven parasequences are recognized, two forming the lowstand systems tract of the sequence, four forming the transgressive systems tract and one parasequence forming the highstand systems tract. Two parasequence limits are erosional transgressive surfaces, as indicated by the occurrence of a substrate-controlled ichnofacies ( Glossifungites) and a veneer of intraclasts composed of nodules (chert?), shell fragments and muddy rip-up clasts. The base-level variations had a strong tectonic component, as indicated by (1) the shift in shoreline configuration from east-west to a north-south direction after unconformity SB3 formation, (2) the transgressive reworking of regressive sediments in the southern part of the study area indicating differential subsidence and consequent differential accommodation available for the sediments and (3) the angularity displayed by the strata adjacent to the sequence boundary SB3.

  6. 77 FR 47921 - Watco Holdings, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ...Exemption--Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos...control of Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos...outstanding stock of PVR, a Texas limited liability company...exemption in Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a...

  7. Late Permian brachiopoda fauna in north-western Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yousefirad, Mostafa; Khamooshi, Touran; Shaabanian, Rahim.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La secuencia marina del Pérmico superior en el noroeste de Irán y el este de Azerbaiyán, sección estatigráfica de Zal, fue seleccionada para este estudio de braquiópodos. Las muestras fueron tomadas en las formaciones Ali Bashi y Jolfa. Se reconocieron 27 especies de 13 géneros de braquiópodos en es [...] te análisis. Las muestras recolectadas fueron comparadas con sus similares de otras regiones de Irán y de la región del Tetis, lo que sugirió el período de tardío de Dzhulfan como la proveniencia de estos depósitos. Los braquiópodos reconocidos en este trabajo pertenecen a las familias de Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida y Strophomenida. Abstract in english The Late Permian marine sequence in the north- west of Iran, in eastern Azerbaijan province in the Zal stratigraphic section, was selected for studying brachiopods. Samples were collected from the Ali Bashi and Jolfa Formation.S. Twenty-seven species from 13 brachiopoda genera were recognised in thi [...] s study.The recognised fossil community was compared to brachiopod communities in some regions of Iran and the Tethyan region, suggesting the Late Dzhulfian period as the age for the deposits being studied. Recognized brachiopods belonge to the orders Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida and Strophomenida.

  8. Recrystallized microbial trace fossils from metamorphosed Permian basalt, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, H.; Sakakibara, M.; Ikehara, M.

    2014-05-01

    Microbial trace fossils on terrestrial basalts can be used as an analogue in the search for traces of life on other terrestrial planets. This study reports on microbial trace fossils within Permian greenstones in the Maizuru Terrane, southwest Japan, which is recognized as back-arc basin oceanic crust that consists mainly of metabasalt and metagabbro. The trace fossils have been studied by means of morphology, mineralogy, elemental mapping, and carbon isotope analysis. Although minute original textures of trace fossils are recrystallized in these rocks, Granulohyalichnus vulgaris isp., Tubulohyalichnus spiralis isp., and Tubulohyalichnus annularis isp. were identified. Significant concentration of C within the trace fossils implies these are organic remnants from microbes. The ?13CPDB values support that microbial trace fossils within low-grade metamorphic basalt can be reliably identified based on their morphology and chemical composition, as reveled by elemental mapping. In this context, glassy Martian basalt may be the best rock type to investigate in terms of searching for signs of microbial activity on Earth and other planets.

  9. Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

    2001-05-01

    During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

  10. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  11. Microbial growth on C1 compounds: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains individual papers prepared for the 4th International Symposium on Microbial Growth on One Carbon Compounds. Individual reports were abstracted and indexed for EDB. Topics presented were in the areas of the physiology and biochemistry of autotraps, physiology and biochemistry of methylotrophs and methanotrops, physiology and biochemistry of methanogens, genetics of microbes that use C1 compounds, taxonomy and ecology of microbes tht grow on C1 compounds, applied aspects of microbes that grow on C1 compounds, and new directions in C1 metabolism. (DT)

  12. Conditions for the formation and atmospheric dispersion of a toxic, heavy gas layer during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits by sill intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Michael; Hankin, Robin K. S.

    2010-05-01

    There is compelling evidence for massive discharge of volatiles, including toxic species, into the atmosphere at the end of the Permian. It has been argued that most of the gases were produced during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits in the East Siberia Tunguska basin following sill intrusion (Retallack and Jahren, 2008; Svensen et al., 2009). The release of the volatiles has been proposed as a major cause of environmental and extinction events at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009) Here we consider the conditions required for the formation and dispersion of toxic, heavier than air, gas plumes, made up of a mixture of CO2, CH4, H2S and SO2 and formed during the thermal metamorphism of C- and S- rich sediments. Dispersion models and density considerations within a range of CO2/CH4 ratios and volatile fluxes and temperatures, for gas discharge by both seepage and from vents, allow the possibility that following sill emplacement much of the vast East Siberia Tunguska basin was - at least intermittently - covered by a heavy, toxic gas layer that was unfavorable for life. Dispersion scenarios for a heavy gas layer beyond the Siberian region during end-Permian times will be presented. REFERENCES G. J. Retallack and A. H. Jahren, Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events, Journal of Geology, volume 116, 1-20, 2008 H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 2009

  13. Coal briquettes from coal washings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, G.C.; Kamineck, J.F.; Kretchman, J.R. Jr.

    1983-09-30

    In working to find an economical way to make wet coal fines (silt) into a marketable briquette product, several mixes utilizing different binders were worked with. Our studies show that the sodium chloride binder worked the best. The briquettes were strong and economical to produce. Briquettes made with other binders are much more expensive because of high binder cost and also the need to cure the briquettes in an oven after processing. These briquettes, in our study, did not require curing, and the per ton cost for binder was less than $0.20. More information on sodium chloride binder can be found in the L. Robert Kimball and Associates, Department of Energy ET 14303, Briquetting of Fine Coal Using a Sodium Chloride Binder, Final Report, October, 1981. Many positive things were observed during the test burn at Maryland Correctional Institute. These observations are mentioned in that section of the report. We believe a size briquette midway between the two test sizes would be better, and that stocking the product outdoors would produce less chemical runoff and less deterioration of the size and Btu content. We also feel there would be less wear and tear on the burning and handling systems. A larger scale test would be most beneficial and should last at least 24 hours. In conclusion, we feel a marketable briquette can be made from silt but before one would make the large investment in equipment, there should be a larger scale test done and a contract in hand for a large portion of the briquettes.

  14. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  15. From rift to drift in South Pamir (Tajikistan): Permian evolution of a Cimmerian terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolini, L.; Zanchi, A.; Zanchetta, S.; Nicora, A.; Vuolo, I.; Berra, F.; Henderson, C.; Malaspina, N.; Rettori, R.; Vachard, D.; Vezzoli, G.

    2015-04-01

    Here, we describe the Permian-Lower Triassic sedimentary succession of South Pamir and the associated biota of conodonts, foraminifers and brachiopods. The studied succession comprises the Carboniferous-Lower Permian siliciclastic Uruzbulak and Tashkazyk formations (Bazar Dara Group), which are unconformably covered by upper Lower to Upper Permian units, deposited both in platform settings (Kurteke Formation), and on the slope and basin (Kochusu Formation, Shindy Formation, Kubergandy Formation, Gan Formation, and Takhtabulak Formation). These formations comprise bioclastic limestones, cherty limestones, shales, volcaniclastic rocks, basalts, sandstones and conglomerates, and are locally very rich in fossils (fusulinids, ammonoids, brachiopods, corals and conodonts). The Permian succession is then overlain by shallow water carbonates of the Induan to Anisian Karatash Group. Subsidence analysis and volcanics of the Permian and overlying Triassic successions constrains the timing of rifting of South Pamir from Gondwana in the Early Permian (=Cisuralian), and its docking to Central Pamir, the Eurasian margin and the interposed volcanic arcs at the end of the Triassic. The sedimentary successions of the Pamirs represent a key-point to refine the correlations between the Tethyan regional scale and the International Time Scale. The analyses of the fusulinids and conodonts of the Kubergandian and Murgabian stratotypes of SE Pamir suggest that: (1) the upper Bolorian and the lower part of the Kubergandian correlate to the upper Kungurian; (2) the upper Kubergandian and the lower Murgabian correlate to the Roadian; (3) the mid-upper Murgabian correlates to the Wordian; (4) possibly the uppermost Murgabian and the lower Midian correlate to the lower Capitanian. The Kubergandian is thus a defined regional stage, based on fusulinids, ammonoids and conodonts and can be correlated to the Kungurian and the Roadian; still problematic remains the Murgabian correlation which needs to be investigated and resolved in other Tethyan sections.

  16. Terrestrial paleoenvironment characterization across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Cui, Ying; Forel, Marie-Béatrice; Yu, Jianxin; Vajda, Vivi

    2015-02-01

    Well-preserved marine fossils in carbonate rocks permit detailed studies of the end-Permian extinction event in the marine realm. However, the rarity of fossils in terrestrial depositional environments makes it more challenging to attain a satisfactory degree of resolution to describe the biotic turnover on land. Here we present new sedimentological, paleontological and geochemical (X-ray fluorescence) analysis from the study of four terrestrial sections (Chahe, Zhejue, Mide and Jiucaichong) in Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan (Yangtze Platform, South China) to evaluate paleoenvironmental changes through the Permian-Triassic transition. Our results show major differences in the depositional environments between the Permian Xuanwei and the Triassic Kayitou formations with a change from fluvial-lacustrine to coastal marine settings. This change is associated with a drastic modification of the preservation mode of the fossil plants, from large compressions to small comminuted debris. Plant fossils spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary show the existence of two distinct assemblages: In the Xuanwei Formation, a Late Permian (Changhsingian) assemblage with characteristic Cathaysian wetland plants (mainly Gigantopteris dictyophylloides, Gigantonoclea guizhouensis, G. nicotianaefolia, G. plumosa, G. hallei, Lobatannularia heinanensis, L. cathaysiana, L. multifolia, Annularia pingloensis, A. shirakii, Paracalamites stenocostatus, Cordaites sp.) is identified. In the lowermost Kayitou Formation, an Early Triassic (Induan) Annalepis-Peltaspermum assemblage is shown, associated with very rare, relictual gigantopterids. Palynological samples are poor, and low yield samples show assemblages almost exclusively represented by spores. A ?1 m thick zone enriched in putative fungal spores was identified near the top of the Xuanwei Formation, including diverse multicellular forms, such as Reduviasporonites sp. This interval likely corresponds to the PTB "fungal spike" conventionally associated with land denudation and ecosystem collapse. While the floral turnover is evident, further studies based on plant diversity would be required in order to assess contribution linked to the end-Permian mass extinction versus local paleoenvironmental changes associated with the transition between the Xuanwei and Kayitou formations.

  17. Shallow marine ecosystem feedback to the Permian/Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbiao; Meng, Zheng; Liao, Wei; Weng, Zeting; Yang, Hao

    2011-03-01

    Late Permian reefs developed widely on shallow marine carbonate platforms in South China but disappeared far below the main mass extinction level of the latest Permian. The collapse of reef ecosystem may be related to the enhanced volcanism at the end of Late Permian. Notably, some colony corals and reef-building sponges were found to occur near the mass extinction boundary, inferring the eclipse of reef ecosystem is ahead of the disappearance of reef-building organisms, and the triggers would be present long before the main mass extinction. As the primary producers, the calcareous algae are rich in platform limestones of Late Permian and played a very important role in maintaining the shallow benthic ecosystems. The calcareous algae were found to disappear synchronously with the great reduction of foraminifers, which were ecologically associated with these algae. The extinction of Late Permian calcareous algae greatly reduced the biodiversity of primary producers in the shallow marine environment and destroyed in part the structure and the base of the shallow marine ecosystems, which in turn cause the extinction of ecologically associated metazoan. Microbialites developed on carbonate platforms immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction, representing a simple and unique microbial ecosystem. Widespread occurrence of microbialites symbolized the deterioration of marine environmental conditions and the dramatic revolution of marine ecosystems. As the new primary producers instead of the extinguished calcareous algae, cyanobacteria in the microbialites were an important base of this peculiar ecosystem and contributed greatly to the survival of the remnant faunas after the mass extinction. Widespread occurrence of microbialites in shallow marine environment is suggested to be related to the elevated level of volcanism-induced greenhouse gases and enhanced evaporation and hypersaline condition in addition to the decrease of metazoan grazing pressure. The change from calcareous algae and reef ecosystem to the cyanobacteria-dominated microbial ecosystem documented in the shallow marine sequences in South china is the ecological feedback to the deterioration of the marine environmental conditions probably induced by volcanism.

  18. The first record of Upper Permian and Lower Triassic scorpions from Russia (Chelicerata: Scorpiones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fet, V.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several small fragments of fossil scorpions are reported from two localities in Vologda Province, Russia, representing the Upper Permian (Severodvinian, correlated to Wuchiapingian (Isady and Lower Triassic just above the Permian-Triassic boundary (Induan (Nedubrovo. Most observed structures are not diagnostic at genus or family level. The Isady leg fragment possesses ungues (claws, which are both denticulated and setaceous, and resembles a Carboniferous Eobuthus sp. (Eobuthidae. It is the latest record of this type of ungues, which are known in some Paleozoic scorpions (extinct suborder Mesoscorpiones; all extant scorpions have smooth claws without enticulation or setation.

  19. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  20. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

  1. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe: Chapter U in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Oszczepalski, S?awomir; Parks, Heather L.; Bliss, James D.; Borg, Gregor; Box, Stephen E.; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Spieth, Volker; Taylor, Cliff D.

    2015-01-01

    This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits could occur within 2.5 kilometers of the surface, (2) provide a database of known reduced-facies-type sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and significant prospects, and (3) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of undiscovered copper that could be present within each tract. This assessment is a contribution to a global assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  3. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  4. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ra?enovi? A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  6. Clean coal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    The different commercially available clean coal technologies are introduced with particular emphasis on their efficiency and environmental performance. The technologies in question are: pulverized fuel combustion with flue gas desulphurization; circulating fluidized bed combustion; integrated coal gasification combined cycle; pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Consideration is also be given to emerging coal combustion technologies.

  7. Prediction of coal hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuschagne, B.C.J. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Div. of Energy Technology; Wheelock, T.D.; Guo, R.K.; David, H.T. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States); Markuszewski, R. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1988-12-31

    Many coals exhibit a certain degree of native hydrophobicity. The more hydrophobic coals (the higher-rank coals) are easily beneficiated by froth flotation or oil agglomeration, while the more hydrophilic coals (the lower-rank coals) are floated or agglomerated with difficulty. Coals of different ranks and often even of the same rank sometimes differ greatly in hydrophobicity as measured by contact angle or natural floatability. Although the degree of hydrophobicity of a coal is related to its rank and has been correlated with other surface properties of the coal , the known information is still not sufficient to allow a good estimation to be made of the hydrophobicity of a given coal and does not explain the variation of coal hydrophobicity as a function of rank. A statistical analysis of previously published data, as well as newly acquired data, shows that coal hydrophobicity correlates better with moisture content than with carbon content, and better with the moisture/carbon molar ratio than with the hydrogen/carbon or oxygen/carbon atomic ratios. These findings indicate that there is a strong association between hydrophobicity and coal moisture content.

  8. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  9. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  10. Permian continental paleoenvironments in Southeastern Asia: New insights from the Luang Prabang Basin (Laos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Bourquin, Sylvie; Broutin, Jean; Steyer, Jean-Sébastien; Battail, Bernard; Véran, Monette; Vacant, Renaud; Khenthavong, Bounxou; Vongphamany, Sotsy

    2012-10-01

    In Laos (Southeastern Asia), Late Paleozoic sediments were identified by early French explorations across Indochina during the late 19th century (Pavie missions), but little work was undertaken to characterize the sedimentological and stratigraphical context until now. From detailed sedimentological and paleontological studies, we propose an interpretation of the depositional environment and of the stratigraphic context of series located on the right bank of the Mekong River in the Luang Prabang Basin where three main formations were described. The silicoclastic Red Claystone Formation, attributed to alluvial plain environment, contains large fragments of unidentified dicynodonts. The Limestones and Sandstones Formation preserves a new macrofloral assemblage displaying affinities with Middle to Late Permian Cathaysian floras of South China. This assemblage occurs as an intercalation within marine calcareous sandstones that have yielded a marine fauna, including the ammonoid Pseudotirolites sp. which indicates a Late Permian (Changhsingian) age. The well-developed Purple Claystones Formation yielded an abundant and well preserved Late Permian fauna composed of a carnivorous amphibian and numerous Dicynodon cranial and postcranial elements. This formation shows a vertical evolution from braided river to alluvial plain with sheet-flood sand bed and bed-load rivers, with a constant supply of volcanic clasts. Results from the analysis of the paleontological associations in the Luang Prabang Basin suggest that a continental communication between Laurussia and the Indochina Block existed during the Permian, allowing for migration of the terrestrial Dicynodon fauna.

  11. Phosphatic Permian rocks of the Adobe Range, Nevada, and their environment of deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith Brindley

    1979-01-01

    Permian sedimentary rocks in the Adobe range, northern Nevada, are phosphatic, and although the particles of phosphate are relatively more disseminated, they closely resemble the rocks of the Phosphoria Formation. In the northern Adobe Range, where the entire Permian sequence is approximately correlative with the Phosphoria Formation, it is 200 m thick and averages 1.7 percent P2O5 . In the southern Adobe Range, the Permian sequence is more than 1,700 m thick, and the upper half which is roughly correlative with the Phosphoria Formation averages more than 2 percent P2O5. Some thin beds in rocks of Permian age contain more than 20 percent P2O5. Phosphatic rocks of the Adobe Range were deposited in shallow water among islands in the western part of the epicontinental Phosphoria sea. The continental margin and the open ocean lay far to the west. At the same time, the Phosphoria Formation was being deposited in the eastern and central parts of the Phosphoria sea. Theories based on the work of Kasakov done in 1937 relating phosphate deposition directly to sites of upwelling oceanic waters are questioned. Nondeposition of diluent materials such as detritus and carbonate is probably of more importance in producing phosphate in economic concentrations than is geographic position with respect to upwelling waters.

  12. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  13. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.; Tverdokhlebova, Galina I.; Minikh, Alla V.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Benton, Michael J.

    2005-02-01

    Fossil fishes and tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have been discovered at 81 localities in the Upper Permian of the Southern Urals area of European Russia. The first sites were found in the 1940s, and subsequent surveys have revealed many more. Broad-scale stratigraphic schemes have been published, but full documentation of the rich tetrapod faunas has not been presented before. The area of richest deposits covers some 900,000 km 2 of territory between Samara on the River Volga in the NW, and Orenburg and Sakmara in the SW. A continental succession, some 3 km thick, of mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones, deposited on mudflats and in small rivers flowing off the Ural Mountain chain, span the last two stages of the Permian (Kazanian, Tatarian). The succession is divided into seven successive units of Kazanian (Kalinovskaya, Osinovskaya, and Belebey svitas, in succession) and Tatarian age, which is further subdivided into the early Tatatian Urzhumian Gorizont (Bolshekinelskaya and Amanakskaya svitas, in succession), and the late Tatarian Severodvinian (Vyazovskaya and Malokinelskaya svitas, of equivalent age) and Vyatkian gorizonts (Kulchumovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas, of equivalent age). This succession documents major climatic changes, with increasing aridity through the Late Permian. The climate changes are manifested in changing sedimentation and the spread of dryland plants, and peak aridity was achieved right at the Permo-Triassic (PTr) boundary, coincident with global warming. Uplift of the Urals and extinction of land plants led to stripping of soils and massive run-off from the mountains; these phenomena have been identified at the PTr boundary elsewhere (South Africa, Australia) and this may be a key part of the end-Permian mass extinction. The succession of Late Permian fish and tetrapod faunas in Russia documents their richness and diversity before the mass extinction. The terminal Permian Kulchomovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas have yielded respectively some 6 and 13 species of fishes (sharks, bony fishes, lungfishes) and 11 and 14 species of tetrapods (aquatic amphibians, herbivorous and carnivorous reptiles of all sizes up to the hippo-sized pareiasaurs and sabre-toothed gorgonopsians). Immediately following the end-Permian environmental catastrophe, earliest Triassic faunas consisted only of a few fish taxa and small, aquatic tetrapods, in low-diversity, low-abundance assemblages.

  14. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul

    This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area and causes rotation of older probably Paleozoic sediments and creates syn-tectonic sediment wedges. The syn-tectonic wedges most probably contain volcaniclastic sediments of the Karl Formation or sandstones of the Auk Formation, but it cannot be excluded that the earliest late Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment of the E-W striking fault system are generally planar and strike parallel to the fault with a southward dip geometrically similar to antithetic faults. In contrast, the intrusions in the footwall segment show a much more complex pattern striking at a high angle to the E-W basement fault and outlining a sill complex, which in certain areas resembles a poorly outlined composite cone. The intrusions are not observed in the syn-tectonic sedimentary wedges and this combined with the general age of the intrusions suggests that the syn-tectonic wedges are of latest early Permian or earliest late Permian age. The study demonstrates Paleozoic intrusions with a systematic orientation and geometry that most likely was directly controlled by the basement faulting. Syn-tectonic hanging-wall deformation represented by antithetic fractures is suggested to be the most important controlling factor for the intrusions at the hanging-wall. At the footwall a more composite geometry of the intrusions is observed, resulting in a much more complex compartmentalization of the Paleozoic sediments due to intrusions compared to the hanging-wall segment. The intrusions and especially the compartmentalization must be taken into account during evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Paleozoic.

  15. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  16. Using conodont elements to distinguish Permian-Triassic boundary disconformity near Haftad Gholleh, central Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mostafa, Yousefirad; Somayeh, Ghanbari; Mahnaz, Parvanehnejad Shirazi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se enfoca en la estatigrafía del Límite Pérmico-Triásico en el área de Haftad Gholleh, al este de Arak y al norte de Mahallat, centro de Irán. Este límite de discordancia erosiva, al igual que en otras secuencias iraníes relacionadas al período Pérmico, contiene calizas dolomías, [...] esquistos y areniscas discordantes localizadas debajo de la secuencia Triásica. En una medida estratigráfica detallada del área de estudio se encontraron conodontas del Límite Pérmico-Triásico (PTB, por sus siglas en inglés). Se reconocieron tres áreas de conodontas, lo que ubica esta sección del PTB como bioestatigráfica precisa. Una de las secuencias superiores del Pérmico pertenece al período Guadalupiense. La secuencia Triásica consiste en calizas con capas vermiculitas coloreadas de esquisto que pertenecen al período Triásico temprano. La discordancia del Límite Pérmico Triásico, entonces, representa un lapso cercano a los 10 millones de años. Abstract in english The present study focuses on the stratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Haftad Gholleh area in eastern Arak and north of Mahallat,located in central Iran. This boundary of erosional unconformity or disconformity and as in other Iranian sequences related to the Permian period, contains [...] dolomitic limestone and shale and sandstone disconformably located below the Triassic sequence. A detailed measured stratigraphic section has provided conodonts from the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sequences in the area being studied. Three conodont areas have been recognied which place the PTB in this section by precise biostratigraphy. One of the most upper Permian sequences belongs to the Guadalupian period. The Triassic sequence consists of vermiculate limestone layers with coloured shale inter beds belonging to the Early Triassic period; unconformity at the Permian-Triassic boundary therefore represents a hiatus of about 10 million years.

  17. Paleomagnetism of Late Permian volcanic rocks from South Transbaikalia: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tamir volcano-tectonic structure (VTS) is one of the largest Late Paleozoic rift related features within Selengin-Vitim volcano-plutonic belt. The belt was formed in the back area of Siberian continent active margin (Gordienko et al., 2010). Igneous-sedimentary rocks within Tamir VTS are presented by contrastive volcanites more than 5 km thick. The deposits are subdivided into three suits: Ungurkuy (mostly basaltic), Tamir (acidic volcanics and tuffs) and Chernoyar (presented mostly by basalts, andesites and tuffs, sandstones and conglomerates). The age of youngest suits (Tamir and Chernoyar) is Late Permian, Middle-late Triassic accordingly. The age of Ungurkuy suit is deemed to be between Late Carboniferous and Late Permian (Gordienko et al., 1998; Popeko et al., 2005). Volcanic deposits of the three suits were studied to create APWP for the Siberian craton. 200 oriented samples from 31 sites were collected from the Tamir, Shazaga, Kiret, Ungurkuy and Ara-Kiret river valleys within South Transbaikalia. A number of samples were characterized by interpretable paleomagnetic signal. Tamir and Chernoyar rocks were collected from monoclinal structure within Tamir river valley. 5 sites show direction of magnetization similar to directions revealed from Early Cretaceous volcanites from nearby area (Metelkin et al., 2004). The magnetization is metachronous. In the other 8 sites the directions of magnetization are bipolar. The magnetization direction is well-correlated with Triassic APWP of Europe (Torsvik, Cocks, 2005). The volcanites of Ungurkuy suite show mostly monopolar (normal polarity) magnetization direction (formed before crustal folding) between Early Permian and Permian-Triassic Siberian poles, which indicates its Late Permian age. The normal polarity of the deposits indicates its formation in the period between Kiama superchron, characterized by reversal polarity, and Illavara hyperchron with mixed polarity - 265 Ma. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 13-05-12030.

  18. Strontium and sulfur isotope study of well-preserved Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ?34S, 87Sr/86Sr ratio, and strontium concentrations for 50 well-preserved samples of Permian marine anhydrite have been determined. The samples were collected from two continuous cores drilled through cyclic Permian evaporites, The Department of Energy drilled the samples in its search for a permanent storage facility for high-level nuclear waste. Primary depositional fabrics (selenite pseudomorphs) and high strontium concentrations (average 1,850 ppm), in association with published bromide and fluid inclusion data from associated halite, suggest primary seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios may be recorded in many of the samples. The general shape of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio curve through the Permian is in accord with previously published observations. However, the increased stratigraphic detail from this unique set of cores constrains the abrupt charge in 87Sr/86Sr during the Permian at a precision previously available only in Deep Sea Drilling Project material. Interpretation of the more complex portions of the curve is limited by poor biostratigraphic control, the specter of provincial early diagenetic effects, and interpretation of the time significance of hiatal surfaces in cyclic strata. Age relationships are constrained by a K-Ar date on an interbedded volcanic ash in the Ochoan strata, and fusulinid age determinations of a well-documented regional transgression during the eented regional transgression during the earliest Guadalupe. Sulfur isotopes yield typical Permian values of 12 per-thousand during the marine portion of the basin fill phase, and abruptly shift to 10 per-thousand in those cycles with a significant component of siliciclastic sediment

  19. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  20. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UC? s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  1. Coal-magma interaction - an integrated model for the emplacement of cylindrical intrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, R.W.; Ghose, N.C.; Paul, P.R.; Hassan, M.J.; Saunders, A.D. (Leicester University, Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-11-01

    Olivine-bearing lamproite magmas intruded into Permian coal seams in northeast India occur as root-like cylinder stockworks, extending for up to several kilometres up-dip along the bedding planes of their sedimentary host. Clusters of eight or more conduits are typical, linked by thin tubular cross-branches. Cylindrical geometry may arise by injection of hot, low-viscosity fluid through a slot, with the development of multiple tube-like instabilities at the interface between the moving fluid and a higher-viscosity host. Surface and subsurface exposures of the cylinders reveal the presence of a carbonate-chlorite-clay halo surrounding each intrusion, resulting from the alteration of mafic mineral phases by fugitive volatiles released from the protective vapour jacket. The coal seams proximal to intrusion clusters are relatively underformed, with no evidence of assimilation by the invading melts. The coals have experienced extensive carbonization, probably as a result of slow conductive heating from the cooling lamproite bodies, or fluids derived therefrom. Field observations indicate that these thermal effects are not merely confined to the coal-melt interface, but occur for some considerable distance away from the intrusions, producing large areas of naturally coked coal.

  2. 77 FR 49863 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Continuance in Control Exemption-Santa Cruz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ...and Monterey Bay Railway Company Iowa Pacific...and Permian Basin Railways (IPH/PBR), noncarriers...to continue in control of Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company (SCMB...Acquis. & Operation...

  3. Structure and depositional environments of Permian-Triassic terrigeneous complex of the Barents Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norina, Daria; Stoupakova, Antonina

    2014-05-01

    Permian-Triassic complex of the Barents Sea shelf composed of up to 8-12 km of clastic sediments has a great interest for geology as it contains hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs and source rocks. It is drilled on shelf margins and structural highs; it outcrops in adjoining archipelagos. However within depositional centers like the South-Barents basin where Permian-Triassic reaches maximum thickness and burial, its structure can only be understood from seismic data. We present an evaluation of structure, depositional environments and cyclicity of Permian-Triassic terrigeneous complex based on interpretation of 18 000 km of regional seismic profiles with record length of 10-12 s acquired by MAGE in 2007-09 in the south-east shelf. Transgressive-regressive sequences were identified and correlated using well log analysis for 17 wells, descriptions of well sections and outcrops in Franz Josef Land, Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya archipelagos. Cooling of the climate throughout Sakmarian-Artinskian (Lower Permian), marine transgression, and Ural orogeny in the south-east had interrupted carbonate deposition and initiated the deposition of terrigeneous (East Barents) and spiculite, siliceous-carbonate, and siliciclastic (West Barents) sediments (Geological history, 2009). Triassic is represented by clastic lithologies all over the basin. On seismic data lower boundary of Permian-Triassic complex is a high-amplitude reflector (Ia) and downlap surface corresponding to the top of Lower Permian carbonates. Upper boundary is related to Rhaetian erosional unconformity best pronounced in the pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep, Kola monocline and Pechora Sea. Permian is represented by 5 transgressive-regressive sequences with upward regressive trend and total thickness of 100-800 m. Low-angle clinoforms prograding from south-east (Ural provenance) and east were interpreted on seismic. Increasing thickness of Permian towards Novaya Zemlya is consistent with up to 4 km of sediments in the archipelago's outcrops and indicates Kara provenance. In the south-eastern basin margin Permian-Triassic boundary is well-traced due to its erosional origin and downlapping of overlaying Induan clinoforms. Triassic sediments were formed in deltaic, shallow-marine to deep shelf environments in the large epicontinental basin with vast transgressions and significant lateral shift of the shoreline during sea level changes. Interpreted Triassic horizons correspond to Induan/Olenekian (top Havert), Lower/Upper Olenekian, Olenekian/Anisian (top Klappmyss) and Ladinian/Carnian boundaries. These relatively continuous reflectors were formed as transgressive shaly packages overlaid sequence boundaries. During Induan clinoforms (height ~100 s) had prograded to the north-west and west compensating the steady subsidence of the South- and North Barents depressions and pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep. We traced migration of the clinoform break (platform margin) of several Induan prograding sequences across the South-Barents basin towards Norwegian Barents Sea, where the area of non-compensated deposition in deep shelf environments was delineated (Glorstad-Clark, 2010). During Olenekian and Middle Triassic the clinoform break persisted in the western shelf, thus no clinoforms are observed in the south-east of the Barents Sea where deltaic environments had prevailed. Late Triassic was characterized by shallowing of the basin, spreading of deltas and filling of previously non-compensated area in the north-west. Maximum thickness of Triassic is related to Lower Triassic within South Barents basin and Lower-Middle Triassic within the pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep.

  4. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  5. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  6. Coal in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, C. P.; Botha, W. J.

    1993-02-01

    South Africa has more than 70 per cent of the coal resources of Africa, and coal forms the back-bone of the South African industry. In terms of the norms generally accepted for the Carboniferous coals of the Northern Hemisphere, South African coal has long been regarded as "abnormal". However, these apparent abnormalities can be adequately explained in terms of the petrography which in turn reflects the conditions of peat formation and the subsequent metamorphism under a steep palaeogeothermal gradient. In common with other Gondwana coals South African coals are generally rich in material transitional between vitrinite and inertinite ( sensu stricto). This transition material is partly reactive during technological processes like carbonisation, and is therefore regarded as semi-reactive. South African coals are generally low in sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus, and in the case of the first two the contents are dependent on maceral composition and rank. On account of the low basisity of the coal ash the ash fusion temperatures are generally high and this is an advantage in most areas of coal utilisation. A review is given of adverse geological conditions affecting coal exploitation, and of methods that can possibly be used to recognise and predict of even eliminate these conditions for purposes of mine planning.

  7. Late Permian continental sediments in the SE Iberian Ranges, eastern Spain: Petrological and mineralogical characteristics and palaeoenvironmental significance

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Fernández Barrenechea, José María, ed. lit; López Gómez, José; Rodas , Magdalena; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Arche, Alfredo; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mineralogical and petrological study and the analysis of paleosol profiles in continental alluvial sediments of the Late Permian in the SE Iberian Ranges (Spain) allow us to infer the significant environmental changes that occurred during this time period. Three parts have been distinguished in the Late Permian sediments (Alcotas Formation). The lower part includes abundant and well-preserved carbonate paleosol profiles and fine-grained sediments made up by quartz, feldspa...

  8. Late Permian-early Middle Triassic back-arc basin development in West Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Meng, Qingren; Pullen, Alex; Garzione, Carmala N.; Wu, Guoli; Wang, Yanling; Ma, Shouxian; Duan, Liang

    2014-06-01

    The Late Permian-early Middle Triassic strata of the northern West Qinling area, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, are composed of sediment gravity flow deposits. Detailed sedimentary facies analysis indicates these strata were deposited in three successive deep-marine environments. The Late Permian-early Early Triassic strata of the Maomaolong Formation and the lowest part of the Longwuhe Formation define a NW-SE trending proximal slope environment. Facies of the Early Triassic strata composing the middle and upper Longwuhe Formation are consistent with deposition in a base-of-slope apron environment, whereas facies of the Middle Triassic Anisian age Gulangdi Formation are more closely associated with a base-of-slope fan depositional environment. The lithofacies and the spatial-temporal changes in paleocurrent data from these strata suggest the opening of a continental margin back-arc basin system during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the northern West Qinling. U-Pb zircon ages for geochemically varied igneous rocks with diabasic through granitic compositions intruded into these deep-marine strata range from 250 to 234 Ma. These observations are consistent with extensional back-arc basin development and rifting between the Permian-Triassic Eastern Kunlun arc and North China block during the continent-continent collision and underthrusting of the South China block northward beneath the Qinling terrane of the North China block. Deep-marine sedimentation ended in the northern West Qinling by the Middle Triassic Ladinian age, but started in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi to the south. We attribute these observations to southward directed rollback of Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere, continued attenuation of the West Qinling on the upper plate, local post-rift isostatic compensation in the northern West Qinling area, and continued opening of a back-arc basin in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi. Rollback and back-arc basin development during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the West Qinling area explains: the truncated map pattern of the Eastern Kunlun arc, the age difference of deep-marine sediment gravity flow deposits between the Late Permian-early Middle Triassic northern West Qinling and the late Middle Triassic-Late Triassic southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi, and the discontinuous trace of ophiolitic rocks associated with the Anyemaqen-Kunlun suture.

  9. Episodic euxinia in the Changhsingian (late Permian) of South China: Evidence from framboidal pyrite and geochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hengye; Algeo, Thomas J.; Yu, Hao; Wang, Jiangguo; Guo, Chuan; Shi, Guo

    2015-04-01

    A multiproxy study of a new Upper Permian-Lower Triassic section (Xiaojiaba) in Sichuan Province, China, documents large changes in marine productivity, redox conditions and detrital input prior to the latest Permian mass extinction. Marine productivity, as proxied by total organic carbon content (TOC), biogenic SiO2, and excess barium, displays a long-term decline through most of the Changhsingian stage (late late Permian), culminating in very low values around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Concurrently, redox proxies including pyrite framboid, ?34Spy, Moauth and Uauth, and Corg/P document a shift from suboxic to dysoxic/oxic conditions that was interrupted by several episodes of benthic euxinia, and detrital siliciclastic proxies (Al, Hf, Nb, and REEs) suggest an increased flux of weathered material from land areas. The long-term changes in productivity, redox conditions, and terrigenous detrital fluxes were probably caused by a regional sea-level fall across the South China Craton. On the other hand, the brief euxinic episodes occurring during the late Permian had oceanographic causes, probably related to the transient upward expansion of the chemocline at the top of the oceanic oxygen-minimum zone. These euxinic episodes may have been harbingers of the more widespread anoxia that developed concurrently with the latest Permian mass extinction and that may have played a major role in triggering the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic.

  10. Palynological assemblages of non-marine rocks at the Permian Triassic boundary, western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanqiao; Yu, Jianxin; Gao, Yongqun; Yang, Fengqing

    2006-12-01

    Marine and non-marine facies of the Permian-Triassic boundary stratigraphic set (PTBST) are well developed in South China. Palynological assemblages enable subdivision and correlation of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) rocks. Three palynological assemblages are recognized across the PTBST in two terrestrial PTB sections in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, South China. Assemblage 1 (Xuanwei Formation) is a Late Permian palynological assemblage dominated by ferns and pteridosperms, with minor gymnosperms. Most taxa are typical long-ranging Paleozoic forms, but the appearance of Lueckisporites confirms a Late Permian age for this assemblage. Assemblage 2 (PTBST) is marked by an abrupt decrease in palynomorph abundance and diversity, and thriving fungal/algal(?) spores. Assemblage 2 is still dominated by ferns and pteridosperms, with a few gymnosperms, but is characterized by a mixed palynoflora containing both Late Permian and Early Triassic elements. Most taxa are typical Late Permian ones also found in Assemblage 1, however, some taxa of Early Triassic aspect, e.g. Lundbladispora and Taeniaesporites, appeared for the first time. In Assemblage 3 (top Xuanwei Formation and Kayitou Formation), the proportion of gymnosperm pollen increases rapidly, exceeding that of ferns and pteridosperms, but the abundance of palynomorphs is still low. Typical Early Triassic taxa (such as Lundbladispora, Aratrisporites and Taeniaesporites) are present in greater abundance and confirms an Early Triassic age for this assemblage.

  11. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  12. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  13. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal represents the most abundant and wide distributed solid fuel. On worldwide level coal represents 27 % of primary energy resources. It is expected that the role of coal in electricity production will maintain. Romanian steam coal reserves, representing more than 80 % lignite from Oltenia basin are low grade quality (low heat value and high specific sulfur content). Need of clean coal technologies (CCT) is obvious in order to respect European environmental regulations. Criteria determining the choice of one or other CCT are well known - emissions reduction, efficiency, fuel flexibility and costs - but the option for a suitable alternative is difficult to make, because it depends on real conditions of each case. It is very important to identify and develop the most economically viable and environmentally sound coal technology in Romanian specific condition. (author). 7 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

  14. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of difficulties, coal will keep an increasing global participation, although in some geographic areas it will keep practically stable. The environmental constraints related to energy use are made each day more unavoidable, especially for coal; this is being translated in compulsory legislation which becomes more and more strict. Necessity dictates the equilibrium between economic development and environmental protection, and that leads us to the implementation of a 'sustainable development' as the only way to avoid the 'energy environmental crisis'. Europe is keeping at the lead of coal technological development, and this offers good hopes for the use of European coal. With the use of new clean coal technologies, all kinds of coal can be used within the limits of the environmental constraints. These lead to more expensive energy; if we want the energy to be progressively cleaner, it will be progressively more expensive. (author) figs., tabs., 9 refs

  15. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  16. Sampling the coal chain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.E., Hand.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is a complex heterogeneous commodity that can be mined in a number of ways and needs to be processed to a homogeneous quality that satisfies the customer's requirements, while attempting to maximize revenues. Only a small proportion of coal is suitable for metallurgical use. Export coals cover [...] a wide range of qualities and some coals can be used optimally in the raw state for energy production. Critical quality parameters vary and can be a combination of heat value, ash, volatiles, sulphur, phosphorus, sizing, amongst others. The level of beneficiation is generally dictated by the washability of the coal, mining contamination, and the target product quality. The steps in the coal chain covered in this paper comprise exploration, mining selections, production, the washing process, and product delivery. Many points of sampling are needed to maximize yield at the correct quality, and some of these will be described in the paper.

  17. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  18. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  19. Coal and our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet describes how coal is important for economic development and how it can be used without environmental damage. Aspects covered include: improved air quality; Clean Air Act; controlling emissions from coal; flue gas desulfurization; acid rain; the greenhouse effect and climatic change; the cost of clean air; surface coal mining and land reclamation; underground mining and subsidence; and mining and water pollution including acid mine drainage

  20. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  1. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  2. Thermoradiation steam coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoradiation processes of coal gasification by steam under the effect of 1.75 MeV electron beam of 80 kW power were studied under flow conditions. Novomoskovsk brown coal and birch activated carbon with 1-3 mn particle size were used as objects of investigation. It is shown that gas liberation rate achieves the stationary value and remains constant, until the coal layer thickness exceeds electron path. The use of high-power electron accelerator beams enables coal gasification be performed with high efficiency

  3. Effects of Igneous Intrusion on Microporosity and Gas Adsorption Capacity of Coals in the Haizi Mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120?m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054?cm3/g to a maximum of 0.0146?cm3/g and then decreased to 0.0079?cm3/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60–160?m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine. PMID:24723841

  4. Effects of igneous intrusion on microporosity and gas adsorption capacity of coals in the Haizi Mine, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120?m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (R(o)) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054?cm(3)/g to a maximum of 0.0146?cm(3)/g and then decreased to 0.0079?cm(3)/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60-160?m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine. PMID:24723841

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  6. Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymon Baud

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI. A great attention has been given to the negative ?13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1 and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.

  7. Imbricate structure of the Permian Yoshii Group in the Otakeyama area, Okayama Prefecture, southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Matsuoka, Atsushi

    2015-03-01

    The Yoshii Group of the Akiyoshi terrane is distributed over the Otakeyama area, Okayama Prefecture, southwest Japan. The Yoshii Group is composed of siliceous rocks and clastics, comprising chert-clastic sequences. The Yoshii Group is divided into four structural units (Units Ot 1, Ot 2, Ot 3, and Ot 4) in structurally ascending order. Lithological similarities and radiolarian age suggest that these units exhibit almost identical ocean plate stratigraphy. These units are structurally-repeated to form an imbricate structure. This structure was possibly formed by off-scrape accretion at a toe of an accretionary complex. Additionally, a review of previous studies indicates that an imbricate structure is common in the Akiyoshi terrane. The presence of an imbricate structure in the Akiyoshi terrane, Permian accretionary complex, indicates the possibility that a specific horizon of Permian pelagic sequences acted as a décollement zone.

  8. Coal rank, coal type, and marine influence in the north Taranaki coalfields, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suggate, R.P. [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2006-06-15

    A few coal seams in the thin early Miocene Maryville Coal Measures have been mined in the relatively minor north Taranaki coalfields: Mokau, Ohura, Tangarakau, Waitewhena, and Aria. Generally accepted as sub-bituminous, the coals are discussed in terms of the Rank (S{sub r}) classification to identify more closely the variations of coal type and coal rank. The range of volatile matter is 15%, and of calorific value is 1500 Btu/lb (= 3.5 MJ/kg specific energy). In the most closely explored coalfield, Mokau, c. 450 coal analyses from up to 5 seams in 130 drillholes over an area of c. 65 km{sup 2} have been used. Analyses from 27 seam sections in Tatu Mine (Tangarakau Coalfield) come from an area of c. 2.5 km{sup 2}. Analyses from a few mines in Waitewhena and Aria Coalfields, and from widely spaced drillholes in Waitewhena, Ohura, and Tangarakau Coalfields, provide additional data. In Mokau Coalfield, a detailed pattern of lateral rank variation is demonstrated within a Rank (S{sup r}) range from 6.6 to 8.1. The rate of lateral rank variation, up to 1.5 Rank (S{sup r})/km, is too rapid to result from depth of burial variation. The rank variation is tentatively ascribed to localised differential heating as a result of fluid movement up faults during minor disruption of the downwarping basin at the end of Miocene sedimentation when the coal ranks were imprinted. The lower ranks over most of the region are considered to indicate the general depth of burial, c. 1.7 km.

  9. Improvements on Pozzolanic Reactivity of Coal Refuse by Thermal Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, coal refuse as industrial solid waste stockpiled on the ground is one of the greatest threats to the environment. One of the practical solutions to utilize this huge amount of solid waste is to activate the coal refuse and utilize it as substitution for portion of ordinary Portland cement. The key purpose of activation is to enhance the pozzolanic property of the coal refuse.Many scientists and engineers found that thermal activation is a practical approach on increasing pozzolanic property. For thermal activation, temperature and time are two important parameters which significantly determine the activation effect. In this paper, a systematic research has been conducted to seek for anoptimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economy benefit forconstruction and building materials.The mechanical property analysis shows that coal refusethat activated at 700°C to 800°C with 1 hour to 1.5 hours has much higher reactivity when compared with coal refuse activated at 500°C to 600 °C with 1 hour to 1.5 hours. And 28-dayscompressive strength value of prepared blended cementitious material containing 25% of the 700°C 1h activated coal refuse based pozzolanareaches 43.4MPa, which is higher than 28-days strength of OPC group as control.

  10. A high resolution palynozonation for the Al Khlata Formation (Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian), South Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Penney, Randall A.; Al Barram, Issam; Stephenson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Palynology is the main method of correlating the subsurface glaciogenic Al Khlata Formation (Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian) of Oman due to the extreme lateral variability of facies and poor seismic resolution. The chief operating company in Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), has developed a robust in-house palynozonation during almost 40 years of exploration and production based on thousands of samples and hundreds of well sections. In this paper, the formal definitions of the biozones ...

  11. Sedimentology of a Permian playa lake: the Boda Claystone Formation, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Konrád, Gyula; Sebe, Krisztina; Halász, Amadé; Babinszki, Edit

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Permian Boda Claystone Formation (BCF) in SW Hungary has been previously been identified as a saline lake deposit. A country-wide screening found this 800–1000 m thick succession the most suitable for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Hungary, and research into this formation has consequently been intensified since. The investigations included a detailed study of the sedimentological characteristics. Data obtained by mapping of the 25 km2 outcrop area of the formatio...

  12. Stratigraphy and paleontology of Lower Permian rocks north of Cananea, northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gray, Floyd

    2002-09-01

    Lower Permian carbonate and overlying red bed clastic rocks are present in a 2 km 2 stratigraphic window in the vicinity of Rancho La Cueva, Santa Cruz sheet (scale 1:50,000), northern Sonora, Mexico. This exposure lies unconformably beneath predominantly intermediate Upper Cretaceous volcanics yielding 40Ar/ 39Ar ages of 73.4±0.18 and 71.1±0.35 Ma. The lower part of the Permian succession consists of light- to medium-gray colored limestones of the Colina Limestone, with a minimum thickness of 235 m. Sedimentary features suggest shallow water, slightly restricted depositional environments. Although lacking observable fossils for the most part, two intervals of richly fossiliferous, silicified shell beds are present near the base and top of the Colina Limestone. The lower fauna consist mostly of gastropods and bivalves. The presence of a new microdomatid gastropod species, Glyptospira sonorensis n. sp., close to Glytospira arelela Plas, suggests a late Wolfcampian age for this horizon. The upper fauna are predominantly molluscan dominated (gastropods and bivalves), but some brachiopods (productids and the rhynchonellid genus Pontisia) are also present. Gastropod genera include Bellerophon, Warthia, Euomphalus (represented by the species, Euomphalus kaibabensis Chronic), Baylea, Worthenia, Naticopsis, Goniasma, Kinishbia, Cibecuia, and Glyptospira. The gastropods suggest a Leonardian (late Early Permian) age for this horizon, and many of the species have previously been recorded from the Supai Group and Kaibab Formation of northern and central Arizona. The Colina Limestone is conformably overlain by 11.2 m of light-gray lime mudstone and dolostone, assigned here to the Epitaph Dolomite, which in turn is succeeded by 58.8 m of red-colored sandstone and gray lime mudstone, assigned here to the Scherrer Formation. This Lower Permian succession is significant because it further strengthens the stratigraphic ties of southeastern Arizona rocks with those of northern Sonora and confirms the presence of North American cratonal stratigraphy in the northern part of the state of Sonora, Mexico.

  13. Abrupt environmental and climatic change during the deposition of the Early Permian Haushi limestone, Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Michael; Angiolini, Lucia; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; Berra, F.; Jadoul, F.; Gambacorta, G.; Verna, V.; Al Beloushi, B.

    2008-01-01

    During the late Sakmarian (Early Permian), the Haushi limestone was deposited in a shallow embayment of the Neotethys Ocean covering what is now north Oman and parts of southeast Saudi Arabia. The sea persisted through the late Sakmarian, but by the time of the deposition of the ?Artinskian Middle Gharif Member, limestone deposition had ceased and generally arid fluvial and minor lacustrine palaeonvironments in a low accommodation space setting had become established. Analysis of three subsur...

  14. Three New Species of Deltoblastus Fay from the Permian of Timor

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Ryan FitzGerald

    2015-01-01

    Deltoblastus is a genus of Permian blastoid comprised of 15 species, each differing based on subtle thecal morphology differences. Three new species are introduced here, based on characteristics present which distinguish individuals from established morphotypes. In order to guarantee a more complete understanding of the genus, a complex character matrix containing all 15 named and three new species was created, defining all species based on the presence or absence of 30 unique traits. Differe...

  15. Diagenetic and Detrial Origin of Moretane Anomalies through the Permian-Triassic Boundary

    OpenAIRE

    French, Katherine L.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger Everett

    2011-01-01

    Many biogeochemical anomalies coincide with the Late Permian Extinction (LPE; 252.28 Ma). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the moretane/hopane anomaly that has been identified in samples from Meishan GSSP section in southeastern China. Here, we report homohopane, 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopane and lithological data for a drill core from the Meishan section in southeastern China. Three intervals of elevated C30 moretane/hopane ratios are recorded in the Lungtan, Yinkeng and Helo...

  16. Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    André Jasper; Dieter Uhl; Margot Guerra-Sommer; Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Machado, Neli T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in this area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumpti...

  17. The problems of Paleozoic beds and reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin in western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mlakar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of paper geologic data from smaller outcrops of Val Gardena Formation in west Slovenia are assembled. Together with the already published information from larger outcrops they permit the reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin on which the accent of paper is based. Attention is drawn to general problems of Upper Paleozoic beds, and conclusions regarding lithologic, stratigraphic and structural control of uranium and copper deposits in this part of Slovenia are given.

  18. Permian non-marine bivalves of the Falkland Islands and their palaeoenvironmental significance

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Marcello G.; Quaglio, Fernanda; Warren, Lucas V.; Anelli, Luiz E.; Stone, Philip; Riccomini, Claudio; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Chamani, Marlei A.C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the occurrence of non-marine bivalves in exposures of the Middle Permian (Capitanian) Brenton Loch Formation on the southern shore of Choiseul Sound, East Falklands. The bivalves are associated with ichnofossils and were collected from a bed in the upper part of the formation, within a 25 cm thick interval of dark siltstones and mudstones with planar lamination, overlain by massive sandstones. The shells are articulated, with the valves either splayed open or closed. At the top of...

  19. The building limestones of the Upper Permian, Cadeby Formation (Magnesian Limestone) of Yorkshire

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, G.K.; Cooper, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    The late Permian dolomitic limestones (dolostones), which form an almost continuous outcrop from north Nottinghamshire to the Northumberland coast at Teeside, have been an important source of industrial minerals for many centuries. They have been quarried extensively for building stone, aggregate and lime for agricultural, industrial and chemical processes (see Buist & Ineson 1992) The limestones, because of their magnesium-rich carbonate mineralogy are perhaps still best known...

  20. The Late Permian herbivore Suminia and the early evolution of arboreality in terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Fro?bisch, Jo?rg; Reisz, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrates have repeatedly filled and partitioned the terrestrial ecosystem, and have been able to occupy new, previously unexplored habitats throughout their history on land. The arboreal ecospace is particularly important in vertebrate evolution because it provides new food resources and protection from large ground-dwelling predators. We investigated the skeletal anatomy of the Late Permian (approx. 260 Ma) herbivorous synapsid Suminia getmanovi and performed a morphometric analysis of th...

  1. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Béatrice Forel; Pierre-Yves Collin; Yue Li; Stephen Kershaw; Sylvie Crasquin

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1) problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, wh...

  2. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  3. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  4. Trace elements in Swiss coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb and Lu in Swiss anthracitic coals and brown or lignitic coals were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In general, the ranges and mean values for the anthracitic coals were close to those for North American anthracites and for Australian bituminous coals. For the brown or lignite coals the ranges and mean values for La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Eu were similar to those for the anthracitic coals and Australian bitumous coals, whereas Tb, Dy, Yb and Lu had lower values. It is postulated that the REE are predominantly associated with the mineral matter in Swiss coals

  5. Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

  6. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  7. Coal: the lively cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddock, K.W.J.

    1981-07-01

    The move towards the increased use of coal means that the size of the coal carrier fleet should increase from 357 vessels in 1978 to approx 559 vessels in 1985. Most of the new tonnage will be the larger sized vessels.

  8. The case for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four sections, with 7 chapters present the CCC case against Hinkley Point C PWR reactor in relation to the future of the U.K. coal industry. Economics of nuclear power generation, compared to coal-fired power stations and the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are considered. (UK)

  9. Biodesulphurisation of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Prayuenyong, P.

    2001-01-01

    The emission of sulphur oxides during the combustion of coal is one of the causes of an environmental problem known as acid rain. Biodesulphurisation technology applied as a method to remove sulphur before coal combustion was investigated in this work. The desulphurisation abilities of three specific bacterial strains including Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8, R. erythropolis X309 and Shewanella putrefaciens strain NCIMB 8...

  10. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows data of current and projected SO2 emissions, ambient pollution in major Asian cities; Benefits of natural gas Use in Power Generation; Efficiency of thermal power plants in India and China. It discusses Coal Benefitiation meaning use of high efficiency coal technologies i.e. reducing particulate emissions

  11. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  12. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  13. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO2 emissions by more than 90% and NOx emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  14. Clean coal opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conjunction with the Canadian Clean Power Coalition (CCPC), work is nearing completion of Phase II of a detailed analysis of technology options to control air emissions, including CO2, which result from coal use. A brief summary of the Phase I results will be presented for background information. These feasibility studies addressed three technologies for CO2 removal; i.e. amine scrubbing, CO2/O2 combustion and gasification. Phase II was undertaken to optimize the technology issues identified in Phase I. The main issue was the lack of gasification technologies that were suitable for low rank coals. This was important as the vast majority of coal used in western Canada for power generation is sub-bituminous and lignite, both of which are deemed to be low rank coals. Phase II has led to spin-off projects that will execute full scale demonstrations. Potential other examples for a clean coal future, such as polygeneration, will be discussed. (author)

  15. Further paleomagnetic results for lower Permian basalts of the Baoshan Terrane, southwestern China, and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingchao; Yang, Zhenyu; Tong, Ya-Bo; Wang, Heng; Gao, Liang; An, Chunzhi

    2015-05-01

    The Baoshan Terrane of southwestern China is considered to have been part of the Cimmerian block during the late Paleozoic; consequently, knowledge of its paleoposition and geological evolution can provide constraints on the Permian breakup of northern East Gondwana. Therefore, we conducted paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic studies on lower Permian basalts from four localities in the Baoshan Terrane. The basalts hold a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) at high temperatures (300-680 °C) that is carried by magnetite, maghemite, and hematite with both pseudo-single and multiple domains. To test the reliability of data from these volcanic rocks, we analyzed the geomagnetic secular variation (GSV) and reliability of both the present data and previous paleomagnetic data. The results from 23 sites yield a single reversed polarity directed downwards to the southwest, giving a site-mean direction of Dg/Ig = 156.7°/56.6° (kg = 8.0, ?95 = 11.4°) before tilt correction, and Ds/Is = 218.3°/60.1° (ks = 14.1, ?95 = 8.4°) after tilt correction. The result passed the fold test, but the GSV was able to be averaged out in only two sections. All available data were examined section-by-section using the angular dispersion (SB) of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) to ensure that the GSV was completely averaged out. Because the dispersion in declinations is likely to have been affectedby subsequent tectonic deformation, the paleosecular variation (PSV) could not be evaluated from all the data amassed from different sections, and the PSV was able to be removed from only four (combined) sections. A small-circle fit of these VGPs gives an averaged paleocolatitude of 51.9° ± 3.7° (N = 31 sites) centered on 24°N, 99°E. The result indicates that the sampled area of the Baoshan Terrane was located at a latitude of 38°S ± 3.7° during the late early Permian. A comparison of this result with early Permian data from Gondwanan blocks suggests that the Baoshan Terrane was situated near the junction of northern India and northwestern Australia, and that it broke away from western Australia after the early Permian.

  16. High-resolution stable carbon isotope record of the Permian to earliest Triassic from East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson Barrera, Anna; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Meier, Maximiliano; Schneebeli Hermann, Elke; Weissert, Helmut; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

    2013-04-01

    The Late Permian and Early Triassic organic carbon isotope records show global major excursions probably triggered by episodic volcanic degasing of the Siberian Large Igneous Province. Important and rapid fluctuations of the global carbon cycle are also reflected in the biosphere. The geological record seems to comprise several major floral and marine faunal turnovers indicating short-lived biotic recoveries. In northwest Pangea, the active Early Triassic Greenland - Norway rifting system led to the accommodation of thick sedimentary sequences. This basin has a great potential for detailed studies of regional and global biotic and climatic changes with high temporal resolution during this critical interval in Earth's history. The western part of this basin is exposed in north-eastern Greenland and is represented by a succession of deltaic sediments organized in a general regressive trend ranging throughout the Griesbachian and the onset of the Dienerian. On the eastern side of the basin the succession has been drilled off the Norwegian coast. On Hold with Hope (East Greenland, 74°N) up to ca. 800m thick sections of the ammonoid-bearing Early Triassic Wordie Creek Formation have been logged and sampled. Here we present a high-resolution organic carbon isotope record and preliminary palynofacies data of a 500m thick composite section ranging from the Permian into the earliest Triassic. The organic carbon isotope record is closely comparable to the coeval section from the Trøndelag platform in Mid-Norway. The two records show a first major negative shift (ca. -6‰) representing the unconformity between the Ravnefjeld and the Wordie Creek formations, regionally known as the lithological Permian-Triassic boundary. Higher up, a second negative shift of ca. -4‰ correlates with the carbon shift associated with the GSSP Permian-Triassic boundary as defined at Meishan (China), represented by carbon isotope values around -30‰. This negative shift is followed by a steady positive trend, which is interrupted by two striking events, (a) a positive shift reaching values of ca. -22‰, comparable to the values of the Permian Ravnefjeld Formation, and (b) another negative shift of ca. -7‰ bringing the carbon record back to values around -31‰. Our data from north-eastern Greenland indicate multiple and major events recorded by the carbon cycle within less than a million years at the onset of the Triassic.

  17. A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: 'quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our 'quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints

  18. $C^1$-triangulations of semialgebraic sets

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmoto, Toru; Shiota, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We show that any semialgebraic set admits a semialgebraic triangulation such that each closed simplex is $C^1$ differentiable. As an application, we give a straightforward definition of the integration $\\int_X \\omega$ over a compact semialgebraic subset $X$ of a differential form $\\omega$ on an ambient algebraic manifold, that provides a significant simplification of the theory of semialgebraic singular chains and integrations. Our results hold over any (possibly non-archime...

  19. Multicritical Behavior of $c=1$ Matrix Model

    OpenAIRE

    Itoyama, H.; Koike, M.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss multicritical behavior of $c=1$ matrix model, extending the recent work of ref. \\cite{CIO} on a nonperturbative completion of the density of states function. For the odd orders of multicriticality, we are able to determine the higher genus contributions and a nonperturbative completion from the WKB wave function of the multicritical periodic potential. The expression for the contributions as a function of the scaled chemical potential is found to be the same as t...

  20. Timing of Emeishan magmatic activity and implications for the end-Middle Permian biotic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundil, R.; Denyszyn, S. W.; Shellnutt, J. G.; Jost, A. B.; Payne, J. L.; Renne, P. R.; He, B.; Zhong, Y.; Xu, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Evidence from high-resolution geochronology combined with fossil records and proxies for changes in the paleoenvironment suggest that there is a link between large-scale (but short-term) volcanic events and mass extinctions. Synchroneity has been shown between large-scale volcanic events and three of the five most severe mass extinctions: the end-Permian extinction (P-T) coincides with Siberian Traps LIP; the end-Triassic extinction (Tr-J) with Central Atlantic Magmatic Province; and the end-Cretaceous (K-P) with the Deccan Traps LIP. Recent studies also show that the magnitude of the extinction is not a simple function of the size (volume) of the igneous event; rather, the eruption rate and nature of the host rock that is intruded exert important controls on the rate and magnitude of the release of gases that affect climate and ocean chemistry. Consequently, high-resolution geochronological constraints on LIP volcanism, biotic extinctions, and climatic change are essential to understanding the role of magmatism in these evolutionary catastrophes. The end-Guadalupian (latest Middle Permian) extinction event shows a selectivity pattern similar to the better-studied end-Permian extinction. Single zircon U-Pb ages from intrusions related to the late Middle Permian ca 260 Ma Emeishan LIP (central and southwest China) have recently been shown to have intruded within a very narrow time interval between 260 and 257 Ma, broadly overlapping the timing of end-Guadalupian biotic change. New zircon U-Pb ages from felsic volcanic rocks overlying the youngest Emeishan related basalts show that effusive volcanism was terminated between 258 and 259 Ma, suggesting that the main stage of volcanism was very short. Unfortunately, 40Ar/39Ar analyses applied to minerals extracted from basalts have proven notoriously difficult because of thermal overprint in the studied area. Whereas the timing of Emeishan related magmatic activity is now better constrained by our new U-Pb zircon analyses, there are so far only few robust geochronologic data from biostratigraphically constrained sedimentary sequences across the Middle to Late Permian boundary. The volume of intrusive and effusive rocks related to the Emeishan LIP is difficult to reconstruct, but is thought to be significantly smaller than the three LIPs mentioned above. Consequently, the volume of gas release and its effects on the atmosphere and hydrosphere may have been not as devastating as during the following three major extinctions (P-T, Tr-J, K-P). Initial results from stable calcium isotope records in marine carbonates and conodont microfossils across the Middle to Late Permian boundary indicate the magnitude of changes in ocean carbonate and redox chemistry was much smaller than those associated with the subsequent end-Permian mass extinction. Ongoing research is aimed at corroborating this finding but compromised by the scarcity of marine sedimentary archives of this age. In addition, our current efforts concentrate on constructing a robust chronostratigraphic framework for this time interval.

  1. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous link between them. Post-Variscan, Late Carboniferous-Early Permian wrench tectonics is the oldest and main identified cause for regional basin formation in Central Europe. This relatively short-lived tectonic regime cannot explain the observed common history of subsidence of the Permian Basins during the 200 My that followed. Our analysis demonstrates that transfer faults that both follow and cross rheological transitions and inherited fault zones continued to be active after the early Permian. We therefore suggests that crustal-scale transfer faults may be the missing link that explains the common subsidence history of basins with a fundamentally different crustal architecture and structural history.

  2. High arsenic coals related to sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposition in southwestern Guizhou Province, People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, H.E.; Warwick, P.D.; Finkelman, R.B. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Zheng, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhou, D. [Autonomous Prefecture Anti-Epidemic Station of Southwest Guizhou Province (China)

    1998-12-31

    The rural population of southwestern Guizhou Province, China uses locally derived coal for domestic heating, cooking, and drying of various food stuffs by un-vented stoves. Coal became the dominant fuel source after deforestation earlier this century. Approximately 40 years ago, symptoms of arsenic poisoning, in some cases extreme, appeared in isolated, rural populations. More than 3,000 cases of arsenosis have been documented, whereas the affected population exceeds 10,000. Chemical analyses show that selected coals are extremely enriched in As and contain high concentrations of other trace elements deleterious to health. Southwestern Guizhou Province is underlain by an extensive thickness of Upper Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The Permian, although aerially much less extensive, contains coal-bearing argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Longtan Formation. The predominantly rural population in this mountainous region obtains most of their coal from many, very small mines operated locally. Southwestern Guizhou Province is also the site of extensive, mostly small-scale, gold mining from discontinuous sedimentary rock-hosted, Carlin-type gold deposits. Gold is currently being mined from areas that contact high-arsenic coals. The structural complexity of the area as well as the gold-As- rich coal association suggests that coal zones containing high As are probably as irregular and discontinuous as the gold deposits. The local public health officials have instituted a program of testing the coal being mined for its high As concentration. A collaborative study between the US Geological Survey and the Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry in Guiyang, Chinese Academy of Science is investigating the origin, occurrence, and distribution of arsenic in these coals. The goal is to be able to understand the petrogenesis in order to be able to predict and delineate arsenic-rich coals or zones.

  3. Influence of coal fluidity on coal blend and coke quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.P.; Barman, S.C.; Singh, S.; Ranjan, M. [JSW Steel Ltd., Toranagallu (India)

    2008-08-15

    The blast furnace coke quality depends on the characteristics of coal blend, precarbonisation techniques adopted such as stamping, vibrocompaction etc., and coking conditions. Of the above, coal blend plays a significant role in the production of quality coke. Furthermore, the quality of the blend depends on the quality of individual coals and their interaction making up the blend. Coal, being a highly heterogeneous material, requires special care for determination of its properties and blending of individual coals for coke making. Coal fluidity is one such important coking property which highly influences the coke quality. The hard coking coals having good fluidity, which yield good coke, however are not only very expensive, but also are limited in reserves. Unlike, other properties, coal loses its fluidity on weathering, i.e. oxidation in presence of air on long storage in the yard, and the fluidity value changes on blending with different coals. To understand the effect of coal fluidity on coal blending and there by the coke quality, studies have been conducted using the industrial scale coals and coal blends. An empirical relation has been developed between actual blend fluidity and calculated fluidity using logarithmic weighted average from fluidity of individual coals. Blending of non-coking coals above 20% with the hard coking coals used in this research decreases the blend fluidity and impairs the coke quality. It was seen that the coals lose their fluidity on weathering, and the value becomes less than half after a two months of storage at site. Weathering appears to be more rapid in case of semisoft than hard coking coals. The present paper discusses the influence of coal fluidity on coal blend fluidity and changes on weathering.

  4. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  5. Gallium accumulation and geological controls in coal seam and its floor from Liangshan Formation, Kaili, Eastern Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Tong-sheng; Qin Yong; Wu Yan-yan; Li Zhuang-fu [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Resources and Earth Science

    2007-07-01

    Using the method of instrument testing and identification in combination with geological analysis, the distribution, occurrence and geological controls of the gallium in the coal seam column profile from Lower Permian Liangshan formation, Kali, eastern Guizhou, were studied. It was discovered that the gallium is more than marginal grade in content and enriched in lower coal seam and floor, and occurs mainly in diaspore. It was suggested that the gallium was derived from the supergene weathering products from the Carboniferous rocks in the ancient Xuefeng land where located at the eastern side of the Kaili district, which was transported into the ancient peat bog or sedimentary water body with the aluminum hydroxide in the weathering crust as a colloid. The sedimentary water medium with higher salinity, alkalinity and deoxidizing degree could be propitious to the relative accumulation of the gallium. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The Carboniferous - Permian basins of Central and Western Bohemia, the Krkonoše Mt. foreland and the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic : part I.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opluštil, S.; Martínek, K.; Lojka, R.; Rosenau, N.; Zajíc, Jaroslav; Šim?nek, Z.; Drábková, J.; Štamberg, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 46, ?. 1 (2014), s. 14-54. ISSN 1433-1284. [Field Meeting on Carboniferous and Permian Nonmarine – Marine Correlation. Freiberg, 21.07.2014-27.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Carboniferous * Permian * excursion guide Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  7. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  8. Modeling of coal drying

    OpenAIRE

    Kolani, Damintode; Blond, Eric; Gasser, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the modeling of coal pyrolysis to coke for blast furnace which corresponds to the thermal decomposition process of organic substances in the absence of air. The final aim of the European project (SPRITCO) which includes this work is the prediction of the coal pushing on the heating wall in the coke oven battery to prevent their damage and then to increase their lifetime. The goal of this work is to develop a thermo-chemo-mechanical model of the coal paste which emphasis t...

  9. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  10. Multicritical behavior of c = 1 matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Itoyama, H

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: We discuss multicritical behavior of c=1 matrix model, extending the recent work of ref. \\cite{CIO} on a nonperturbative completion of the density of states function. For the odd orders of multicriticality, we are able to determine the higher genus contributions and a nonperturbative completion from the WKB wave function of the multicritical periodic potential. The expression for the contributions as a function of the scaled chemical potential is found to be the same as the one at the lowest critical point. We point out a strange scaling behavior.

  11. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  12. End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan L.; Clapham, Matthew E.

    2012-05-01

    The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (˜252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread ocean anoxia and the eruption of one of Earth's largest continental flood basalt provinces, the Siberian Traps. Volatile release from basaltic magma and sedimentary strata during emplacement of the Siberian Traps can account for most end-Permian paleontological and geochemical observations. Climate change and, perhaps, destruction of the ozone layer can explain extinctions on land, whereas changes in ocean oxygen levels, CO2, pH, and temperature can account for extinction selectivity across marine animals. These emerging insights from geology, geochemistry, and paleobiology suggest that the end-Permian extinction may serve as an important ancient analog for twenty-first century oceans.

  13. Indonesian coal industry - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, A. [P.T. Adarno Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1995-09-01

    The history of the Indonesian coal industry, and its structure, present operations, potential expansion and new operations, infrastructure, costs and financing, potential markets, and possible coal prices are discussed. Data are presented for 1992 and 1993 coal exports by country of destination, planned Asian coal fired power and coal demand (1990-2000), domestic power station coal demand for 2000, major coal deposits, distribution of coal reserves, coal resources by rank, coal terminals, coal contractor agreement areas in Kalimantan, and development schedule to 2003 for coal fired power stations. 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  15. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  16. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  17. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  18. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  19. Improvements in monitoring coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrument for determining a first characteristic of a material, eg ash in coal, by X-radiation comprises a turntable with material feeding means. An X-radiation source and detector unit determines the first characteristic, and a microwave source and detector unit, determine a second characteristic of the material, eg moisture in coal. The turntable is transparent to microwaves in at least the region traversed by the microwaves. (author)

  20. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  1. Methane production from coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafargue, E.; Espitalie, J.; Marquis, F. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison)

    1989-09-01

    Coal samples coming from different geographic and stratigraphic horizons have been pyrolyzed in an apparatus that allows continuous analysis and quantification of methane and other gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons produced during kerogen thermal cracking. Routine geochemical analyses (Rock-Eval, bitumen extraction), were carried out together with optical analysis (maceral composition) on each sample. The results indicate that methane production from coals is very dependent on two parameters: source rock maturity and maceral composition. The amount of methane produced by each coal sample distinguishes between potentially oil-producing and gas-producing coals. A compositional kinetic model has been applied to simulate the experimental observations. The predictions of the model were in good accordance with the experiments. This allows the determination of a complete set of kinetic parameters for CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-5}, C{sub 6-15}, and C{sub 15+} generation through kerogen thermal cracking. With this set of parameters, they reconstructed oil and gas production during the burial history of some North Sea coals. The position of oil and gas windows predicted by the model are in good accordance with observations, which leads to fair predictions of amount and type of hydrocarbons produced in this area. Finally, differences between coals and the other types of source rock in terms of oil and/or gas generation are discussed.

  2. Upper Permian magnetic stratigraphy of the lower Beaufort Group, Karoo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanci, L.; Tohver, E.; Wilson, A.; Flint, S.

    2013-08-01

    We carried out a magnetostratigraphic and geochronological study of late Permian sediments in the Karoo Basin of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A continuous, ~700 m thick section of deltaic sediments of the upper Waterford Formation (uppermost Ecca Group) and the fluvial sediments of the Abrahamskraal Formation (lowermost Beaufort Group) were sampled at the meter scale. U-Pb dating of zircons from interbedded volcanic ash beds by ion microprobe (SHRIMP) provided absolute age constraints on the age of the sedimentary rocks. Paleomagnetic analysis reveals a partial overprint of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) that is tentatively ascribed to the emplacement of the Karoo Large Igneous Province in the Western Cape region during the middle Jurassic. A stable component of the NRM was found at temperatures higher than 450 °C and was interpreted as a Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) acquired during deposition, supported by a positive reversals test for this dual polarity ChRM. The virtual geomagnetic pole position for the Waterford and Abrahamskraal Formations computed from the average ChRM direction is in general agreement with the late Permian directions for stable Gondwana. A significantly different average inclination, and thus paleomagnetic pole position, is obtained by correcting the inclination shallowing error by the Elongation-Inclination method (Tauxe and Kent, 2004). The presence of both normal and reversed polarity zones indicate deposition after the end of the Kiaman Superchron, moreover the polarity sequence is in good agreement with the Illawarra sequence of Steiner (2006). Our results indicate a Capitanian (late Guadalupian) age for the Abrahamskraal Fm., in agreement with the Late Permian age, based on presence of Glossopteris flora and Dicynodont fauna, traditionally assigned to the fluvial-lacustrine sediments of the Beaufort Group. However, the U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 264-268 Ma suggest an age of 269 Ma for the top of the Kiaman superchron.

  3. Cyclic sedimentation in the shallow marine Upper Permian Kennedy Group, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Helen

    2004-11-01

    The Upper Permian Kennedy Group of the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, was deposited while the Merlinleigh Sub-basin was undergoing thermal subsidence, and the global climate was warming from the Carboniferous-Permian glaciation to the Mesozoic Greenhouse conditions. The Kennedy Group comprises siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, dominated by sandstones in the lower part, with coarsening-up cycles from mudstones to very coarse sandstones and granule conglomerates in the upper part. Cycles were observed and logged in the field, and although many types of cycles were found, three main motifs describe most of the cycles. Cycle motifs are defined based on the dominance of the various facies: Mooka motif cycles are dominated by fine-grained and bioturbated facies (interpreted as deposition during relative sea-level highstand) with only thin laminated or cross-bedded sandstones (interpreted as deposited during relative sea-level fall); Binthalya motif cycles are dominated by laminated and cross-bedded sandstones; and Coolkilya motif cycles consist of alternating laminated and bioturbated beds. A hierarchy of cycles was observed in the field, and this correlated well with spectral analysis of logged parameters. Spectral analysis of section log data and data sets corrected for the effects of compaction and sedimentation rates detected regular cyclicity. Geochronology of the Kennedy Group is not well enough constrained to allow the cycle periods in time to be calculated, but ratios of the different scale cycle thicknesses correlate well with ratios of the Milankovitch orbital cycles that have been calculated for the Permian. The presence of regular cyclicity and even bed thicknesses across large distances are not consistent with tectonic or autocyclic models of cycle formation. The cycles are more likely to have been caused by fluctuating eustatic sea levels, perhaps enhanced by changing amounts or seasonality of precipitation. Both sea levels and climatic fluctuations would ultimately be controlled by the Milankovitch orbital cycles.

  4. The origin and formation model of Permian dolostones on the northwestern margin of Junggar Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinchuan; Shi, Ji'an; Zhang, Shuncun; Zou, Niuniu; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhang, Shengyin

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the mechanism of dolostone formation and establishes a dolomitization model in the Permian strata on the northwestern margin of Junggar Basin, China. Dolomitic rock samples are collected from the Permian Fengcheng Formation in Urho area and then characterized by petrological, mineralogical, carbon and oxygen isotope, and trace element geochemical analyses. Results show that the major types of dolomitic rocks include dolomitic mudstone, dolomitic siltstone, dolomitized tuffaceous siltstone, and dolomitized tuffaceous mudstone. The dolomitized rocks are dominated by euhedral or subhedral powder- and fine-crystal dolomites formed by replacement lacustrine argilla-calcareous and siliceous (tuffaceous) components and commonly filled with residual and late calcite cements. The parameters of dolomitic rocks show great variations, including the V/Ni ratio (1.02-4.88), Sr content (95.9-783.6 ?g/g), Mg/Ca ratio (0.68-5.13), degree of ordering (0.39-1.00), ?18OPDB (-14.8‰ to 3.2‰), and ?13CPDB (-1‰ to 5.2‰). The dolomitic rocks have multi-stage origins and were formed in a semi-closed continental brackish-saltwater bay with weak hydrodynamic processes, deep water bodies, and relatively quiet conditions. In the Permian depositional stage, a combination of complex tectonic activities, fault development, hot subtropical climate, and frequent volcanic activities provided not only Mg2+ source for dolomitization but also channels for rapid flow and seepage of Mg-rich fluids. The origins of dolostones in the study area include penecontemporaneous dolomitization, burial dolomitization, and hydrothermal dolomitization. This study lays a foundation for further studies on dolomite formation and dolomite reservoir, and provides effective methods for researching complex dolostone (tuffaceous, shale and silty dolomite) formation.

  5. Evolution of calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism through Carboniferous convergence to Permian transcurrent tectonics, western Chinese Tianshan

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Shu, Liangshu S.; Faure, Michel; Charvet, Jacques; Chen, Yan; Meffre, Se?bastien; Jong, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Continuous magmatic activity occurred in the western Chinese Tianshan, Central Asia, from the Carboniferous to the Permian, i.e. before and after the Late Carboniferous amalgamation of Junggar and the Yili Blocks. Zircon U–Pb LA-ICPMS and Ar–Ar data reveal a coincidence in time between regional wrench faulting and granitoid emplacement. Permian post-collisional granitoids crop out within or at the margins of large-scale dextral strike-slip shear zones, some of them show synkinematic fabri...

  6. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  7. Coal systems - A gateway to predictive assessments of coal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, R.

    2004-01-01

    Current federal and State coal assessments estimate resources in the ground, resources available for mining, and economically recoverable resources. None of these assessments predict the amount of coal that may be produced from an assessed area in the near future (???20 years). Predictive assessments of coal production would be based on an understanding of the regional coal geology (coal systems), potential demand, and knowledge of the mining history of the region. The output of the predictive assessment would be a supply curve - a probability distribution of the amount of coal expected to be produced from current and new mines during the assessment period.

  8. Timing of recovery from the end-Permian extinction: Geochronologic and biostratigraphic constraints from south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrmann, Daniel J.; Ramezani, Jahandar; Bowring, Samuel A.; Martin, Mark W.; Montgomery, Paul; Enos, Paul; Payne, Jonathan L.; Orchard, Michael J.; Hongmei, Wang; Jiayong, Wei

    2006-12-01

    Four volcanic-ash beds bracket the Early-Middle Triassic boundary, as defined by conodont biostratigraphy, in a stratigraphic section in south China. High-precision U-Pb dates of single zircons allow us to place the Early to Middle Triassic (Olenekian-Anisian) boundary at 247.2 Ma. Magnetic-reversal stratigraphy allows global correlation. The new dates constrain the Early Triassic interval characterized by delayed biotic recovery and carbon-cycle instability to ˜5 m.y. This time constraint must be considered in any model for the end-Permian extinction and subsequent recovery.

  9. The Paleomagnetic record of Uppermost Permian, Lower Triassic rocks from the South China Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, R. J.; Courtillot, V.; Leloup, Ph.; Yang, Z.; Xing, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhuang, Z.

    1992-11-01

    Paleomagnetic samples were collected from Uppermost Permian to Middle Triassic limestones from two localities in the Sichuan Basin in order to better constrain the paleography of the blocks now comprising China. Corresponding remanences found in other studies of the Permo-Triassic rocks from the Sichuan Basin are reviewed, and it is shown that the component is probably characteristic of the Lower Triassic. The difference between the Emeishan Basalts and the Sichuan Basin poles is interpreted to be the result of motion of the whole South China Block around the time of the Permo-Triassic boundary rather than that of strain within the block.

  10. Facies and sedimentary environment of the Permian carbonates (Khuff Formation) in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharhan, A. S.

    1993-04-01

    The Late Permian to Early Triassic Khuff Formation of the United Arab Emirates is a 625-970 m thick sequence of shallow water carbonates (dolomites, limestones and dolomitic limestones with subordinate anhydrite). It can be subdivided into ten facies units distinguished on the basis of their depositional textures, that represent an overall regressive carbonate—evaporite sequence. Based on the paleoecology, sedimentary structures and lithology, four distinct depositional settings can be recognized: supratidal (sabkha), lagoon, shoal and shallow shelf. The Khuff Formation has both primary (interparticle) and secondary (dissolution vugs and intercrystalline) porosities.

  11. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, M.; Ueno, Y.; Nishizawa, M.; Isozaki, Y.; Takai, K.; Yao, J.; Ji, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian, Sichuan, China, to clarify changes in the oceanic N cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation is composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils, such as calcareous algae, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high TOC contents, and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic conditions. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15N values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15N values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15N shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15N values suggest the enhanced N fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced N fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed N is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to the shallow-marine biota.

  12. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B.; Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Sequence stratigraphic analysis can be done on black shales, however it requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach. Sea-level cycles are expressed even in the middle of a shale basin and are expressed in lithofacies, mineralogy, geochemistry and well logs. The cycles are important for shale gas, impacting gas generation, storage and fracture development. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, located in the Permian Basin of west Texas were discussed in this presentation. Specifically, the presentation discussed the stratigraphy in a black shale, motivation for rock properties research, and factor analysis results. It was concluded that cycles affect gas generation capacity and rock properties. tabs., figs.

  13. Coal market outlook in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  14. Policy initiatives for coal conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, S.K. [TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2001-07-01

    There is in India an absence of a legal and regulatory framework for consation on of coal. Factors to consider include the choice between opencast and underground coal extraction, security of supplies, and use of other fuel sources. The author sees an urgent need for defining national policy on conservation and for reviewing the composition of the Coal Conservation and Development Advisory Committee. The Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Act and Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Rules and The Coal Bearing Areas Act all need revision, and a proper mechanism for mine reclamation should be developed.

  15. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  16. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  17. Conodont biostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at the Dawen section, Great Bank of Guizhou, Guizhou Province, South China: Implications for the Late Permian extinction and correlation with Meishan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Beatty, Tyler W.; Henderson, Charles M.; Rowe, Harry

    2009-11-01

    Several continuous Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections are well exposed in the interior of the Great Bank of Guizhou (GBG) on the east limb of the Bianyang syncline, Luodian County, Guizhou Province, South China. Fourteen conodont taxa are identified, including Clarkina kazi, Clarkina lehrmanni n. sp., Clarkina taylorae, Clarkina zhejiangensis, Hindeodus eurypyge, Hindeodus inflatus, Hindeodus sxlatidentatus, Hindeodus parvus erectus, Hindeodus parvus parvus, Hindeodus postparvus, Hindeodus praeparvus, Hindeodus typicalis, Isarcicella staeschei, and Merrillina ultima based on a detailed study of the Permian-Triassic interval at the Dawen section. The first occurrence (FO) of H. parvus parvus in the lower Daye Formation, at about 7.45 m above the contact surface between the Upper Permian skeletal packstone and a calcimicrobial framestone unit, is correlated with the Permian-Triassic boundary; the occurrence of H. eurypyge, H. praeparvus and M. ultima immediately below and H. postparvus above the interval supports this interpretation. A morphometric analysis of 31 Hindeodus specimens helped distinguish H. parvus erectus from H. parvus parvus and H. postparvus. Correlation with the Meishan section (PTB GSSP) using both conodont biostratigraphy and carbon isotopes, indicates that the major extinction at the two localities is simultaneous and coincides with the top of the skeletal packstone at Dawen. The contact between the skeletal packstone and the calcimicrobialite is very irregular and has previously been interpreted as a dissolution surface and correlated with a surface in the lower part of bed 27 at Meishan. Our results confirm this interpretation and reveal that the dissolution event postdated the extinction.

  18. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  19. Coal combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  20. Mining coal seam rests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksmanski, E.; Cyrek, A.

    1986-11-01

    The Czerwona Gwardia black coal mine was founded in 1973 by merging 3 coal mines with coal reseves reduced due to resource depletion. The 3 mines had been founded in 1822, 1860 and 1885. From 1981 to 1985 about 4 Mt of coal were mined in safety pillars around mine shafts and pillars left under structures at the ground surfaces as well as in coal seam sections left in fault areas. Special schemes for underground mining in safety pillars as well as in seam sections characterized by complicated conditions were developed by the Central Mining Institute, the Silesia Technical University or by the Association of Mining Engineers (SITG). Mining in safety pillars was characterized by increased hazards but efficient safety engineering measures prevented increase in the accident rate. In general, the mine's accident rate was low. Number of occupational accidents in the mine was 130 in 1981, 114 in 1982, 109 in 1983, 48 in 1984, 27 in 1985. Analysis of accident causes showed that complicated mining conditions in safety pillars did not cause excessive accident rates.

  1. Coal fire interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

  2. Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Joachimski, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction has been associated with severe global warming. Main stage volcanism of the Siberian Traps occurred at or near the extinction interval and has been proposed as a likely greenhouse catalyst. In this study, a high-resolution ?18O record is established using diagenetically resistant apatite of conodonts and low-Mg calcite of brachiopods from stratigraphically well-constrained Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) boundary successions in northwestern Iran. A new evaluation is made for previously published conodont ?18O values from South China and revised palaeotemperatures are presented together with new data from Wuchiapingian to Griesbachian sections in Iran. ?18O data from P–Tr sections in Iran document tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) of 27–33 °C during the Changhsingian with a negative shift in ?18O starting at the extinction horizon, translating into a warming of SSTs to over 35 °C. The results are consistent with re-calculated SSTs of the South Chinese sections. Warming was associated with an enhanced hydrological cycle involving increased tropical precipitation and monsoonal activity in the Tethys Sea. Global warming, intensification of the hydrological cycle and associated processes, vertical water column stratification, eutrophication and subsequent local anoxia may all have facilitated an extinction event.

  3. Research on genesis of pyrite near the Permian-Triassic boundary in meishan, Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.-F.; Tang, Y.-G.; Chou, C.-L.

    2006-01-01

    The content and crystal forms of pyrite and sulfur isotope composition of pyrite sulfur as well as its vertical distribution near the Permian-Triassic (P/T) boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing county, Zhejiang province, China were studied using geological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical methods (techniques). The result showed that the genesis of abundant pyrites in bed 24e2 at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation in the Meishan section may be related to volcanic activity. In bed 24e2 of the Meishan section, pyrite has its highest content of 1.84% and the sulfur isotope composition has the highest ??34S value at + 2.2??? which is very similar to that of the average value of volcanic gas. There are some volcanic products such as ??-quartz, siliceous cylinders and siliceous spherules which coexisted with pyrites in beds 24e2 and 24f. It can be concluded that a large quantity of volcanic ash fell into the South China Sea and was incorporated into marine sediments during the formation of limestone at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation. The volcanic eruption with massive amounts of H2S and S02 gas at the end of the Permian period resulted in the enrichment of H2S in the South China Sea areas. The reaction of H2S with reactive iron minerals formed the mass of abundant pyrites.

  4. Palaeobiogeography of Kazanian-Midian (Late Permian) western Pacific Brachiopod faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G. R.; Archbold, N. W.

    A data matrix of the presence/absence occurrence data of 129 genera from 16 faunal stations (selected from 19 initially compiled faunal stations on the basis of sampling and study adequacies) is analysed by cluster analysis, nonmetric multidimensional scaling, principal coordinate analysis and minimum spanning tree. Three core faunal groups are revealed and interpreted as representing three biotic provinces. They are the Verkolyma Province embracing the Kolyma Massif, Verchoyan Mountains, east Zabaikal and northern Mongolia; the Cathaysian Province of Japan, northern and southern China and the Indo-China block; and the Austrazean Province of eastern Australia and New Zealand. The overall evolving pattern of Permian marine provincialism of the western Pacific is summarized from our previous, as well as current studies, on the basis of three discrete time slices: Asselian-Tastubian, Baigendzhinian-Early Kungurian and Kazanian-Midian. An attempt is also made to explain the marked change of marine provinciality during the Permian in the western Pacific in the context of plate tectonics, transgression/regression and climatic amelioration.

  5. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  6. Siberian glaciation as a constraint on Permian Carboniferous CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, William T.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Pollard, David; Scotese, Christopher R.

    2006-06-01

    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic CO2 levels have generally relied on geochemical modeling or proxy data. Because the uncertainty inherent in such reconstructions is large enough to be climatically significant, inverse climate modeling may help to constrain paleo-CO2 estimates. In particular, we test the plausibility of this technique by focusing on the climate from 360 to 260 Ma, a time in which the Siberian landmass was in middle to high latitudes, yet had little or no permanent land ice. Our climate model simulations predict a lower limit for CO2—the value beneath which Siberia acquires “excess” ice. Simulations provide little new information for the period in which Siberia was at a relatively low paleoaltitude (360 340 Ma), but model results imply that paleo-CO2 levels had to be greater than 2 4× modern values to be consistent with an apparently ice-free Siberia in the late Permian. These results for the later period in general agree with soil CO2 proxies and the timing of Gondwanan deglaciation, thus providing support for a significant CO2 increase before the end-Permian boundary event. Our technique may be applicable to other time intervals of unipolar glaciation.

  7. Biostratigraphic correlation in the Karoo: The case of the Middle Permian parareptile Eunotosaurus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mike, Day; Bruce, Rubidge; John, Almond; Sifelani, Jirah.

    Full Text Available The richness of fossil tetrapods from the Beaufort Group of South Africa has enabled biostratigraphic subdivision of this Permo-Triassic succession, with global applicability. Despite being the thickest of the seven biozones recognised, attempts at further subdivision of the Middle Permian Tapinocep [...] halus Assemblage Zone (Abrahamskraal Formation) have not been successful, largely because the exact stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa are unknown. This gap in knowledge has limited stratigraphic correlation of the Abrahamskraal Formation and hindered understanding of Middle Permian Karoo basin development. Currently, the lowermost Beaufort Group is split between an eastern and a western stratigraphic scheme and, because of poor outcrop and the relative paucity of fossils in the east, stratigraphic correlation between the two areas has been uncertain. Recent fossil discoveries of the parareptile Eunotosaurus africanus in the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces have extended its known geographic range in the east. An additional specimen from the lower Middleton Formation in the Eastern Cape has, for the first time, enabled the biostratigraphic correlation of this unit with the Poortjie Member of the Teekloof Formation in the west. These finds confirm the diachroneity of the boundary between the marine Ecca Group and the terrestrial Beaufort Group.

  8. Geochemistry and alteration of a Siberian crater lake coeval with the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, Kirsten; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Polozov, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Hundreds of phreatomagmatic breccia pipes formed contemporaneously with the Siberian Traps are located in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia. These pipes are believed to be formed by sill intrusions into organic rich sediments, which caused the violent release of gigatonnes of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere with serious implications for the end-Permian environment (Svensen et al., EPSL, 2009). Crater lake deposits overlying the pipes are preserved in some cases and contain a record of the local biology and sedimentation during formation of the Siberian Traps. We are studying the upper 550m of a core drilled through the center of a former crater lake and underlying brecciated pipe in the southern reaches of the Tunguska Basin. The core consists of fine to coarse-grained volcanoclastic sediments cemented by calcite and interspersed with tuff. We report on the bulk geochemistry and the nature of alteration throughout the sequence of crater lake sediments. We propose a model for lake formation, subsequent diagenesis, and the influence of degassing from the underlying breccia pipe. The development of the crater lake is explored in the context of the Siberian Trap flood basalts, phreatomagmatic deposits and the end-Permian environmental crisis.

  9. Organic matter in a coal ball: Peat or coal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lyons, P.C.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical analyses of morphologically preserved organic matter in a Carboniferous coal ball reveal that the material is coalified to a rank approximately equal to that of the surrounding coal. Hence, the plant tissues in the coal ball were chemically altered by coalification processes and were not preserved as peat. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  10. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  11. Sequence stratigraphy, organic petrology and chemistry applied to the upper and lower coal seams in the Candiota Coalfield, Parana Basin, RS, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.S. de; Kalkreuth, W. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    The Permian age coal seams in the Candiota Coalfield represent the largest coal deposit of the country. Currently two seams are mined, called ''Camada Candiota Superior'' and ''Camada Candiota Inferior''. The other coal seams of the coalfield, seams S1-S9 (upper seams) and I1-I5 (lower seams) have as yet not been exploited. The objective of this paper is to perform a detailed sequence stratigraphic, petrologic and chemical study of the upper and lower coal seams, thereby generating data for assisting in the development and better use of the coal-bearing interval. The methodology includes application of the concepts of sequence stratigraphy, which includes the lithological interpretation of the core to establish the depositional environments and genetic correlation between facies associations to define parasequences and bounding surfaces; coal petrology (analysis of the reflectance of vitrinite, determination of the petrographic composition of the coals by maceral analyses), and chemical analyses such as sulphur determination, proximate analyses (ash, moisture, volatile matter, and fixed carbon), and elemental analyses. Three main depositional systems were so far identified: alluvial fan, fluvial system, lagoonal estuary system. This study shows that coal development was controlled by accommodation/accumulation rates, with coal seams with greater thickness and lateral continuity being formed within the transgressive systems tract (lagoonal depositional system) of parasequence 2 (PS2), indicating that the accumulation rates of the peat and distribution of the coal seams were controlled by stratigraphic setting. Vitrinite reflectances for the upper and lower coal seams are indicative of subbituminous rank (Rrandom = 0.36-0.47%), with evidence that anomalously low reflectance values are related to high mineral-matter contents. Maceral composition is highly variable, with some coal seams being extremely rich in inertinite (up to 65 vol.%). The upper and lower coal seams are ash-rich, ranging from 22.4 to 62.3 wt.%, with the majority being classified as carbonaceous rocks very low grade coal. Sulphur contents in the upper and lower seams range from 0.41 to 8.08 wt.%, with the majority below 1 wt.%. The high amounts of sulphur (> 3 wt.%) in some of the coal seams may indicate coastal flooding during the lifetime of the mire or shortly after. (author)

  12. A mid-Permian chert event: widespread deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchey, B.L.; Jones, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radiolarian and conodont of Permian siliceous rocks from twenty-three areas in teh the circum-Pacific and Mediterranean regions reveal a widespread Permian Chert Event during the middle Leonardian to Wordian. Radiolarian- and (or) sponge spicule-rich siliceous sediments accumulated beneath high productivity zones in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins. Most of these deposits now crop out in fault-bounded accreted terranes. Biogenic siliceous sediments did not accumulate in terranes lying beneath infertile waters including the marine sequences in terranes of northern and central Alaska. The Permian Chert Event is coeval with major phosphorite deposition along the western margin of Pangea (Phosphoria Formation and related deposits). A well-known analogue for this event is middle Miocene deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments beneath high productivity zones in many parts of the Pacific and concurrent deposition of phosphatic as well as siliceous sediments in basins along the coast of California. Interrelated factors associated with both the Miocene and Permian depositional events include plate reorientations, small sea-level rises and cool polar waters. ?? 1992.

  13. 77 FR 57188 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Continuance in Control Exemption-Rusk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...Permian Basin Railways (PBR), have filed...to continue in control of Rusk, Palestine...American Heritage Railways of Texas, LLC...Pacific R.R.--Operation Exemption--Tex...Saratoga & North Creek Railway, located in New...authority to continue in control of a new...

  14. Climatic and biotic changes around the Carboniferous/Permian boundary recorded in the continental basins of the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opluštil, S.; Šim?nek, Z.; Zajíc, Jaroslav; Mencl, V.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 119, ?. 1 (2013), s. 114-151. ISSN 0166-5162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biotic change * Bohemian Massif * Carboniferous-Permian transition * continental basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2013

  15. New data on Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian deposits of Bol'shevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria B. Ershova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present here a detailed study of the Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian stratigraphy of Bol'shevik Island in the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, consisting of the analysis of sedimentary structures and lithostratigraphy, U/Pb detrital zircon dating and structural studies. The preserved sedimentary structures suggest that the studied strata were deposited in a relatively small meandering fluvial system. U/Pb dating of detrital zircons reveals that the Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian sandstones contain a primary age population ranging from 450 to 570 millions of years, with a predominance of Early–Middle Ordovician zircons. This detrital zircon distribution indicates that the studied formations were derived locally from the erosion of Lower Ordovician deposits of Bol'shevik Island or elsewhere in the archipelago. Our structural studies suggest that Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian deposits are deformed into a series of west–north-west verging open asymmetric folds, suggesting a west–north-west direction of tectonic transport and that deformation across the island is post-Early Permian in age.

  16. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  17. Restudy of conodont biostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary section in Zhongzhai, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Shi, G. R.; He, Wei-Hong; Yuan, Dong-Xun; Yue, Ming-Liang; Yang, Ting-Lu

    2014-02-01

    New conodont samples have been systematically collected at high stratigraphic resolution from the upper part of the Longtan Formation through to the lower part of the Yelang Formation at the Zhongzhai section, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China, in an effort to verify the first local occurrence of Hindeodus parvus in relation to the Permian-Triassic boundary at this section. The resampled conodont fauna from the Permian-Triassic boundary interval comprises five identified species and two undetermined species in Hindeodus and Clarkina. Most importantly, the first local occurrence of Hindeodus parvus is found for the first time from the bottom of Bed 28a, 18 cm lower than the previously reported first local occurrence of this species at this section. Considering the previously accepted PTB at the Zhongzhai section, well calibrated by conodont biostratigraphy, geochronology and carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, this lower (earlier) occurrence of H. parvus suggests that this critical species could occur below the Permian-Triassic boundary. As such, this paper provides evidence that (1) the first local occurrences of H. parvus are diachronous in different sections with respect to the PTB defined by the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of this species at its GSSP section in Meishan, China and that (2) the lower stratigraphic range of H. parvus should now be extended to latest Permian.

  18. Geochemistry of End-Permian Crater Lake Sediments in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia, and the Implications for Extinction Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, K. E.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Polozov, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    The end of the Permian period is marked by global warming and the largest known mass extinction on Earth. The crisis is commonly attributed to the formation of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province although the causal mechanisms remain disputed. One of the proposed mechanisms is the generation of carbon gases and halocarbons in contact aureoles in the Tunguska Basin and subsequent gas venting to the atmosphere. We are testing this hypothesis by performing detailed geochemistry and biostratigraphy on crater lake deposits overlying an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the southern parts of the Tunguska Basin. During an expedition to the Bratsk region in 2006 we sampled a 1300 meter long core drilled through the center of a crater lake and the underlying brecciated pipe. The core consists of 550 meters of fine to coarse grained clastic lake deposits and 750 meters of sedimentary and volcanic breccias. Preliminary biostratigraphy results show that the sediments contain abundant and exceptionally well preserved end- Permian and early-Triassic palynomorphs, supporting a causal link between the formation of the breccia pipe and the crater lake and the end-Permian extinction. Ongoing isotope stratigraphy aims at documenting the exact timing between the crater lake formation and the initial Triassic carbon isotope excursion.

  19. TEKO returns to coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

  20. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    OpenAIRE

    Be?ovská Mária; Èurillová Dana; Machajová Zlatica

    2002-01-01

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - th...

  1. Brown coal mining in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data on brown coal exploitation in Poland in 1995 are given and discussed. In that year 63.4 mln ton of brown coal was excavated and 62.2 mln ton was sent to power plants. 40.1% of electric power generated in public utilities were produced using brown coal as the fuel. The results of all 5 brown coal mines are shortly described

  2. Natural radioactivity in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

  3. Coal -- Energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings are grouped into the following 31 sessions: Coal processing and utilization; Ash use interactions in soils and plants; Coal preparation I; Coal preparation II - reconstitution processes; Ash use in mine reclamation; Pre/post utilization; Direct liquefaction catalysts; Coal conversion retrospective; Coal characterization and its significance to utilization; Integrated gasification combined cycle; Non-fuel use of coal; Conversion technologies; Expert systems, advanced controls and instrumentation for coal combustion systems; Combustion 2000; Fluidized beds/co-firing; Coal technology from an international perspective; Computer methodologies and software applied to the use of coal; Combustion systems in power plants; Clean Coal Technology Program; Combustion systems; Design of scrubbers for CAAA Round One; Effects of reauthorization of Clean Water Act and regulations of 1990 CAAA; Air toxics; SOx and NOx emission control; Environmental/regulatory issues related to ash use in mine reclamation; Global climate change -- Scientific, economic and policy perspectives; Environmental systems and policies; Coal storage and handling; Coal characterization and its significance to utilization; Slurry technology; and Special topics. 248 papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base

  4. Brighter prospects for thermal coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    The longer term outlook for thermal coal is promising, with a rapid growth forecast for India's imports. There is also a lot of bullish sentiment with respect to coking coal prices, as explained in the article. Recent reports from Deutsche Bank and KPMG highlighted the bright future for coal and projected growth in India's thermal imports.

  5. Coal gold agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, I.; Townsend, I.; Veal, C. (BP Research Centre, Sunbury-on-Thames (UK))

    1988-09-01

    The British oil and minerals company, BP, is developing a new gold recovery process which offers commercial advantages for low grade ores, avoids cyanidation and is environmentally acceptable. Hydrophobic gold particles are recovered from ore slurries into agglomerates formed from coal and oil. The agglomerates are recycled to increase gold loading, then separated from the slurry, burnt, and the resultant ash smelted to produce gold bullion. The process has been laboratory tested on many gold ores and has operated successfully at pilot plant (1 tph) scale. Coal gold agglomeration has many technical and cost advantages over existing technology, BP's work has indicated. 4 figs.

  6. Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

  7. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  8. Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor for the treatment of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Geetika; Craig, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    The lack of C1 inhibitor function that results in excessive production of bradykinin causing the angioedema seen in hereditary angioedema (HAE) is well established. Several drugs have been developed to treat and prevent attacks in patients suffering from HAE due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE). Plasma-derived C1INH has been used to replace the deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1INH) and has been approved for both treatment of attacks and for prophylactic therapy to prevent attacks. Plasma kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide) and bradykinin receptor antagonist (icatibant) are both effective for treatment of acute attacks, but their short half-life limits the use for prophylaxis. Androgens, in particular danazol, are effective for long-term prophylaxis, but adverse event profile can limit its use. Recombinant C1 inhibitor derived from transgenic rabbits has recently been approved for use in treatment of C1-INH-HAE attacks and is effective and appears safe with minimal adverse event profile. PMID:25669442

  9. The mechanism of phospholipase C?1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawe? Krawczyk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase C is an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2 into second messengers inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins(1,4,5P3 and diacylglycerol (DAG. These messengers then promote the activation of protein kinase C and release of Ca2 from intracellular stores, initiating numerous cellular events including proliferation, differentiation, signal transduction, endocytosis, cytoskeletal reorganization or activation of ion channels. There have been identified 14 isozymes of PLC among which PLC?1 and PLC?2 are of particular interest. PLC? contains catalytic region XY and a few regulatory domains: PH, EF and C2. The most unique features of these two enzymes are the Src homology domains (SH2, SH3 and split PH domain within the catalytic barrel. PLC?1 and PLC?2 have an identical domain structure, but they differ in their function and occurrence. Phospholipase C?1 is expressed ubiquitously, especially in the brain, thymus and lungs.PLC?1 can be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (i.e.: PDGFR, EGFR, FGFR, Trk, as well as non-receptor protein kinases (Src, Syk, Tec or phosphatidic acid, tau protein and its analogue.The molecular mechanism of PLC?1 activation includes membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, rearrangements and activation in the presence of growth factors.In reference to PLC?1 regulation, a number of positive and negative modulators have been considered. The most important positive modulator is phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5P2. Protein kinase A and C, tyrosine phosphatases (SHP-1, PTP-1B and Cbl, Grb2, Jak2/PTP-1B complex proteins have been described as negative regulators of PLC?1 activation.

  10. Dry beneficiation of Slovakian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Link, T.A.; Schoffstall, M.R.; Gray, M.L.; Fauth, D.J.; Knoer, J.P.; Jones, J.R.; Gamwo, I.K. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, 15236-0940 Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-09-19

    The dry beneficiation of three types of Slovakian brown coal, namely Ci'gel, Handlova', and Nova'ky coal was conducted via triboelectrostatic separation. Three different types of separators-parallel plate, cylindrical and louvered plate-were used for this study. It was found that a parallel plate separator could reduce the ash contents of Ci'gel and Handlova' coals. The poor quality of separation for the Nova'ky coal studied is probably due to the particle-particle interactions and surface oxidation states of the coal.

  11. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  12. World coking coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  14. Update: Clean coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an update on the current clean coal technology programs and their commercialization. The topics of the article include the DOE's challenge, program objectives, funding the demonstrations, technology demonstration, and the solicitation for bids for the next round of demonstration and commercialization projects

  15. World coking coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G. [Merlin Trade and Consultancy Ltd., Petersfield (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iannuzzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii Rohn and Rösler (ver Vieira et al. 2004, foi previamente assinalada para estratos do Permiano Superior da Bacia do Paraná (formações Estrada Nova e Rio do Rasto. Portanto, uma idade neopermiana é tentativamente proposta para os níveis da Formação Chutani que contém a associação estudada. As implicações fitogeográficas deste novo achado são brevemente analisadas.

  17. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia): II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Iannuzzi; Carlos E. L., Vieira; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Enrique, Díaz-Martínez; George W., Grader.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia). Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descr [...] ição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii Rohn and Rösler (ver Vieira et al. 2004), foi previamente assinalada para estratos do Permiano Superior da Bacia do Paraná (formações Estrada Nova e Rio do Rasto). Portanto, uma idade neopermiana é tentativamente proposta para os níveis da Formação Chutani que contém a associação estudada. As implicações fitogeográficas deste novo achado são brevemente analisadas. Abstract in english Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group), near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). This paper presents the [...] first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004), was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil). Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.

  18. Lipid Biomarker Records Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary from Kap Stosch, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, L. E.; Love, G. D.; Foster, C. B.; Grice, K.; Summons, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    The end-Permian extinction was the most severe in the past 500 million years of the Earth's history and evidence that an oceanic anoxic event (OAE) occurred contemporaneously has been presented previously [1,2]. OAEs have, therefore, been proposed as responsible for the mass mortality, and if the anoxic ocean was also euxinic, the release of hydrogen sulfide during upwelling and/or transgression provides an extinction agent in the ocean as well as on land. Chlorobiaceae, as indicators of photic zone euxinia (PZE), utilize hydrogen sulfide as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The detection of isorenieratane and a series of short-chain monoaromatic aryl isoprenoids, biomarkers for Chlorobiaceae, in sediments indicates the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the photic zone of the water column during sediment deposition. The Kap Stosch area in Eastern Greenland was identified as a Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) outcrop of homogeneous shale, silty shale, and siltstone facies [3]. Another late Permian section in Eastern Greenland, the Ravnefjeld Formation, has framboidal pyrites indicative of sulfidic deep water [4]. A sample suite from the Kap Stosch region was studied using standard organic geochemistry methods including stable isotopic analyses of organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and biomarker hydrocarbon analysis. Aryl isoprenoids, including isorenieratane, were present in all samples studied and the concentrations were observed to fluctuate in tandem with TOC, similar to other Mesozoic OAEs. The molecular ratios of pristane/phytane and hopanes/steranes as well as the 2-methyl-hopane index (2-MHI) fluctuated dramatically through this section as they do at the type section at Meishan and in the Perth Basin [5]. The 2-MHI shows an inverse pattern to the total aryl isoprenoids, perhaps indicative of instability in the form of primary productivity in the water column during euxinic episodes. This can result in nitrogen limitation and a competitive advantage of cyanobacteria over microalgae for nutrient resources [6]. Overall, the biomarker patterns in these samples indicate the presence of PZE at this location leading up to and continuing through the PTB. 1. Isozaki Y., 1997. Science 276, 235. 2. Wignall P. and R. Twichett, 1996. Science 272, 1155. 3. Teichert C. and B. Kummel, 1972. Bull. Canadian Petrol. Geol. 20, 659. 4. Nielsen J. and Y. Shen, 2004. Geology 32, 1037. 5. Grice K., et al., 2005. Science 307, 706. 6. Kuypers M., et al., 2004. Geology 32, 853.

  19. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  20. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  1. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  2. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  3. Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Parana Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric U-Pb dating and palynostratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Menegat, R.; Formoso, M.L.L.; Basei, M.A.; Barboza, E.; Simas, M.W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    A radiometric zircon age of 285.4 {+-} 8.6 Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Parana Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part of the basin should lie at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, not within the Sakmarian as previously considered. The new results are significant for correlations between the Parana Basin and the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and with the Karoo Basin, specifically with the top of the Dwyka Tillite (302 {+-} 3 Ma and 299.2 {+-} 3.2 Ma) and the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). The evidence signifies widespread latest Carboniferous volcanic activity in western Gondwana.

  4. Buckets of money for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revival of coal prices is providing record profits for Australian coal producers. As the world's largest coal exporter, any move in coal prices has significant ramifications for the Australian economy. The coal boom of the mid-1980s resulted in a massive increase in mine capacity and subsequently excess supply. This resulted in the decade between 1990 and 2000 seeing benchmark prices for coking coal in Japan plummeting to $US 39 a tonne (down from around the $US 52 mark) and a price of $US 28 for a tonne of steaming coal. Asia's financial problems, late in the decade coupled with a rapid fall in Asian steel making, also added to our coal export woes. As a result for most of the 1990s, Australia's coal sector delivered inadequate returns, was seen as over-capitalised and suffered from a profound investor indifference. But the sector is now seeing a definite turnaround in fortunes. Prices for thermal coal are on the rise and the benchmark coking coal prices to Asia have also jumped. Market analysts reported the price for contract deliveries of thermal coal in April this year were $US 34.50 ($AUD 69.35) up by $US 5.75 from the same time last year. The increased production is expected on the back of a continued rise in export demand, further improvement in prices, significant improvements in mine productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of new projects and mine extensions going into operation. The improved returns have also flowed into rising valuatiturns have also flowed into rising valuations for listed coal miners. Over the last year, coal miners such as MIM and Gympie Gold, have delighted in share price gains of 12 per cent and 55 per cent respectively. These sort of performances are being repeated across the Australian industry

  5. Coal resources availability in Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Southern Africa, and Botswana in particular, is well-endowed with relatively large reserves of coal. The existence of coal in Botswana has been known since the end of the last century. Exploration activities by the Geological Survey and the private sector led to the discovery of major deposits and by the late 1960s reserves capable of supporting a mine at Morupule for the domestic market has been confirmed. The oil crises of 1973-74 and 1978-79 stimulated increased interest in coal exploration the world over and Botswana attracted several private sector companies looking for coal that could be traded on the international market. As a result vast resources and reserves of low to medium quality bituminous coal, suitable for the export market, were proved. Resources amounting to 21,680 million tonnes of in situ coal had been revealed by 1987. Reserves of possible economic exploitation are estimated at 10,180 million tonnes in two coal field areas, namely the Morupule Coal Field and the Mmamabula Coal Field. Since the collapse of oil prices and consequently coal prices in the mid-1980s, enthusiasm for coal exploration has plummeted and relatively little prospecting has taken place. The coal occurs within the Upper Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup which underlies some 60 percent of the country's land surface. The western part of the country is mantled by the Kalahari beds, a top layer of unconsolidated sands masking bedrock geology. Althouated sands masking bedrock geology. Although coal seams have been intersected in boreholes in this western area, most exploration activity has taken place in the eastern part of the country where the Morupule and Mmamabula coal fields are located. It is in the east that most of the population is concentrated and infrastructure has been developed

  6. Direct interaction between CD91 and C1q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Karen; Hansen, Erik W

    2010-01-01

    C1q-mediated removal of immune complexes and apoptotic cells plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune conditions. It has been suggested that C1q mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells through a receptor complex assembled from CD91 (alpha-2- macroglobulin receptor, or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein) and calreticulin, with CD91 being the transmembrane part and calreticulin acting as the C1q-binding molecule. In the present study, we observe that C1q binds cells from a CD91 expressing monocytic cell line as well as monocytes from human blood. C1q binding to monocytes was shown to be correlated with CD91 expression and could be inhibited by the CD91 chaperone, receptor-associated protein. We also report data showing a direct interaction between CD91 and C1q. The interaction was investigated using various protein interaction assays. A direct interaction between purified C1q and CD91 was observed both by ELISA and a surface plasmon resonance assay, with either C1q or CD91 immobilized. The interaction showed characteristics of specificity because it was time-dependent, saturable and could be inhibited by known ligands of both CD91 and C1q. The results obtained show for the first time that CD91 recognizes C1q directly. On the basis of these findings, we propose that CD91 is a receptor for C1q and that this multifunctional scavenger receptor uses a subset of its ligand-binding sites for clearance of C1q and C1q bound material.

  7. Polyhomologation. A living C1 polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Shea, Kenneth J

    2010-11-16

    The physical properties of synthetic macromolecules are strongly coupled to their molecular weight (MW), topology, and polydispersity index (PDI). Factors that contribute to their utility include the control of functionality at the macromolecule termini and copolymer composition. Conventional polymerization reactions that produce carbon backbone polymers (ionic, free radical, and coordination) provide little opportunity for controlling these variables. Living polymerizations, sometimes referred to as controlled polymerizations, have provided the means for achieving these goals. Not surprisingly, these reactions have had a profound impact on polymer and materials science. Three basic reaction types are used for the synthesis of most carbon backbone polymers. The first examples of "living" polymerizations were developed for ionic polymerizations (cationic and anionic). These reactions, which can be technically challenging to perform, can yield excellent control of molecular weight with very low polydispersity. The second reaction type, free radical polymerization, is one of the most widely used polymerizations for the commercial production of high molecular weight carbon backbone polymers. Nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) have emerged as three of the more successful approaches for controlling these reactions. The third type, transition metal mediated coordination polymerization, is the most important method for large-scale commercial polyolefin production. Simple nonfunctional hydrocarbon polymers such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene, poly-?-olefins, and their copolymers are synthesized by high pressure-high temperature free radical polymerization, Ziegler-Natta or metallocene catalysts. Although these catalysts of exceptional efficiency that produce polymers on a huge scale are in common use, control that approaches a "living polymerization" is rare. Although the controlled synthesis of linear "polyethylene" described in this Account is not competitive with existing commercial processes for bulk polymer production, they can provide quantities of specialized materials for the study of structure-property relationships. This information can guide the production of polymers for new commercial applications. We initiated a search for novel polymerization reactions that would produce simple hydrocarbon polymers with the potential for molecular weight and topological control. Our research focused on polymerization reactions that employ nonolefin monomers, more specifically the polymerization of ylides and diazoalkanes. In this reaction, the carbon backbone is built one carbon at a time (C1 polymerization). These studies draw upon earlier investigations of the Lewis acid catalyzed polymerization of diazoalkanes and build upon our discovery of the trialkylborane initiated living polymerization of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide 1. PMID:20825177

  8. The stratigraphic significance of the Solenoid Complex in the Permian of Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Guerra-Sommer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Solenoid Complex comprises a fossil wood assemblage with stratigraphic distribution restricted to the middle-late Kungurian, present in Western (Irati Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil and Eastern (Upper Barakar Interval of the Indian basins Gondwana. Its occurrence seems to be related to the adaptation of certain plant groups to paleoenvironmental stress in lowland niches of coastal areas subject to salinity variation. The disappearance of these forms in the latest Kungurian is probably linked to the cessation of these conditions, which is confirmed by the sedimentary record. The here designated “Solenoid Complex Zone” correlates with the acme in diversification of striate and taeniate patterns especially in bisacatte pollen grains, but also in monosacatte ones, reflecting important tectonically and climatically driven changes in the vegetational pattern. The waning icehouse stage during the Permian was an important factor to the development of similar vegetation patterns in Western and Eastern Gondwana in the latitudinal belt of 40° – 55°.

  9. On the REE across the permian-triassic boundary in south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the INAA results of REE in clays at and near some Permian/Triassic boundaries of South China,. It shows that the REE patterns of boundary clays differ from those of non-boundary clays. One difference is that the boundary clays are more enriched in LREE, with steeper slope of REE and a smaller Eu negative anomaly than the non-boundary clays. Another difference is that the boundary clays show a small Ce negative anomaly, but no Ce anomaly occurs in the non-boundary clays. From these REE patterns and some other experimental facts, it is proposed that the P/T boundary clay may be a mixed product consisting of the acidic-intermediate ash and the upper crust substance representing sputtering component, and the calculated fraction of the former and latter is 7/3

  10. Geochronological studies on clay minerals in carboniferous and permian strata of Cangcan well No.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author deals with studies on clay minerals in Carboniferous (C) and Permian (P) strata of Cangcan Well No.1 and geochronological determination on those clay minerals in different depths by K-Ar, 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr methods. The results show that illite were formed in at least three different stages: Clastic illite was formed at about 400 Ma and disturbed by heat at the ages between 214-234 Ma. High temperature illite has ages between 214-233 Ma, corresponding to Late Hercynian-Early Indosinian Periods, and was disturbed by heat at the age of 145 Ma. Widely distributed illite was formed in Early Jurassic Period, 180 Ma. All of these results are undoubtedly helpful to further study on regional heat evolution history and oil-gas bearing and producing abilities of the relevant strata

  11. Conodont survival and low iridium abundances across the Permian-Triassic boundary in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. L.; Wang, C.-Y.; Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Permian-Triassic sedimentary sequence of China includes one of the most complete and fossiliferous Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundaries known. Closely spaced sampling across the boundary, which is an important extinction event for most organisms, has produced good conodont faunas that show little diversity change. A drop in conodont abundance is the only apparent response to the extinction event. A low concentration of iridium in the boundary clay (0.002 part per billion + or - 20 percent), as well as in samples immediately below and above, that range from 0.004 to 0.034 part per billion do not support the proposal of an extraterrestrial impact event at this boundary in China.

  12. Section of Permian deposits and fusulinids in the Halvan Mountains, Yazd province, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, E. Ya.; Gorgij, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    The Permian section situated northwest of Tabas in the Halvan Mountains is studied and fusulinids occurring in the section are described. The Chili, Sartakht, and Hermez formations distinguished in the section are separated by horizons of bauxitic laterite and belong to the Khan Group formerly ranked as a synonymous formation. Fusulinids occur at two levels in the section. The lower one confined to the Chili Formation yields the so-called Kalaktash fusulinid assemblage of the late Sakmarian age. The second late Asselian assemblage has been discovered in pebbles from conglomerate-breccia in the basal laterite of the Sartakht Formation. A brief characterization of fusulinids is presented and three new species are described. The new Benshiella genus is discriminated from the Rugosofusulinidae family. As Skinner and Wilde (1965, 1966) changed the original diagnosis of the Pseudofusulina genus, we suggest, regarding all species, which have been attributed to this genus but do not satisfy the new diagnosis, as representing the new Nonpseudofusulina genus.

  13. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  14. The Pattern and Timing of Biotic Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction on the Great Bank of Guizhou, Guizhou Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Andrew; Wei, Jiayong; Lehrmann, Daniel J.; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2006-01-01

    Microfacies analysis and point Counts of thin sections from 608 hand samples were used to track changes in the abundance and diversity of fossil grains through the extended recovery interval following end-Permian mass extinction on the Great Bank of Guizhou (GBG)-an isolated Late Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platform in south China. Exposure of a two-dimensional cross-section of the platform permits the comparison of faunal patterns along an environmental gradient front shallow to deep ...

  15. Late Permian cycle-stratigraphy in the continental deposits of the Karoo basin (South Africa) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanci, L.; Tohver, E.; Wilson, A.; Ratcliffe, K. T.; Flint, S.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphic and geochronological studies of late Permian Waterford and Abrahamskraal Formations (uppermost Ecca Group and lowermost Beaufort Group, respectively) in the Karoo Basin of South Africa yielded age-constrained magnetostratigraphy that can be correlated with the most recent reference geomagnetic polarity time scale. This precise chronological framework provides the basis for a chemostratigraphic analysis of cyclicity based on the measured major and trace element composition of these fluvial mudstones and sandstones. Our multi-taper spectral power analysis was computed using the concentration of major oxides, showing clear peaks at frequencies that are compatible with the expected orbital periodicities according to the magnetostratigraphic chronology. Given the length of the studied section (~500 m) and the relatively high sedimentation rate (~100m/Myr), we consider that the short hiatuses that are to be expected in river deposits are not likely to obliterate long-period cyclicity such as orbital eccentricity. We interpret long period cyclicity as reflecting orbital eccentricity (ca. 400 kyr), with even shorter period orbital frequencies observed in the record. Statistical analysis suggests that the chemical composition does not correlate with the sediments grain size but is related to the lithology through their relative abundance of clays and SiO2-rich clastic material. Although chemical changes might partly reflect stochastic fluctuation due to fluvial hydrodynamics, their orbital periodicity suggests that they are mainly paced by environmental changes that in turn may control the sediment weathering and/or fluvial dynamics. Recognition of the orbitally controlled sedimentation allows very precise dating of the time involved in the deposition of these sedimentary rocks. Astronomical tuning provides an improved calibration of this portion of the polarity time scale and give hints on the variability of the environmental conditions during the Late Permian.

  16. Cadmium-isotopic evidence for increasing primary productivity during the Late Permian anoxic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Horner, Tristan J.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Bingen, Bernard; Rehkämper, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Earth's most extreme extinction event near the end of the Late Permian decimated more than 90% of all extant marine species. Widespread and intensive oceanic anoxia almost certainly contributed to the catastrophe, though the driving mechanisms that sustained such conditions are still debated. Of particular interest is whether water column anoxia was a consequence of a 'stagnant ocean', or if it was controlled by increases in nutrient supply, primary productivity, and subsequent heterotrophic respiration. Testing these competing hypotheses requires deconvolving sedimentary/bottom water redox conditions from changes in surface water productivity in marine sediments. We address this issue by studying marine shales from East Greenland and the mid-Norwegian shelf and combining sedimentary redox proxies with cadmium-isotopic analyses. Sedimentary nitrogen-isotopic data, pyrite framboid analyses, and organic and inorganic shale geochemistry reveal sulfidic conditions with vigorous upwelling, and increasingly anoxic conditions with a strengthening upwelling in the Greenland and Norwegian sections, respectively. Detailed analysis of sedimentary metal budgets illustrates that Cd is primarily associated with organic carbon and records primary geochemical signatures, thus enabling reconstruction of surface water nutrient utilization. Cadmium-isotopic analyses of the authigenic shale fraction released by inverse aqua regia digestion yield an average ?114Cd110 of + 0.15 ± 0.01 ‰ (2 SE, n = 12; rel. NIST SRM 3108), indicative of incomplete surface water nutrient utilization up-section. The constant degree of nutrient utilization combined with strong upwelling requires increasing primary productivity - and not oceanic stagnation - to balance the larger nutrient fluxes to both study sites during the development of the Late Permian water column anoxia. Overall, our data illustrate that if bottom water redox and upwelling can be adequately constrained, Cd-isotopic analyses of organic-rich sediments can be used to provide valuable information on nutrient utilization and therefore past productivity.

  17. An Earth-system perspective on ocean deoxygenation during the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Global ocean anoxia has been proposed to be the cause of the end-Permian (252 Ma) marine extinction event. Evidence for global-scale anoxia mainly comes from the study of organic geochemistry, framboidal pyrite, and redox-sensitive elements, although disagreement exists with respect to the interpretation of the observed patterns. Climate models with biogeochemical components often fail to generate global-scale anoxia induced by warming alone, unless increased phosphate level is invoked. Here, I use the carbon isotope inversion approach in an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (GENIE) with modern phosphate levels to investigate ocean deoxygenation due to global warming through continuous CO­2 emission. I evaluate the temporal and spatial extent of ocean deoxygenation for a best-fit scenario that represents contact metamorphism of organic-rich sediments (?13C = -25‰) during Siberian Traps volcanism eruption. This scenario is characterized by total peak amount of ~30,000 Gt of carbon and global sea surface temperature increase of 5 oC (Cui et al., 2014). The global surface ocean oxygen concentration shows only a modest decrease (from 230 to 215 µmol kg-1) during peak C emission, whereas the global deep ocean oxygen concentration shows a 70% decrease (from 160 to 50 µmol kg-1). During peak C emission, the oxygen minimum zone (~800 m depth) expands vertically and horizontally, and vast regions in the deep northern Panthalassa becomes hypoxic (press). Spatial and temporal patterns of ocean acidification during the end-Permian mass extinction - An Earth system model evaluation. Volcanism and Global Environmental Change. L. T. elkins-Tanton, Fristad, K. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

  18. Eopolydiexodina (Middle Permian giant fusulinids) from Afghanistan: Biometry, morphometry, paleobiogeography, and end-Guadalupian events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpaert, Clémentine; Monnet, Claude; Vachard, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The most spectacular macroevolutionary trend presented by the genera of schwagerinoid fusulinids, during the Pennsylvanian -Permian, is an enormous increase in size, which culminated in the Middle Permian with Eopolydiexodina. However, this potential major biogeographic marker, during the Kubergandian-early Midian time interval, is as yet hampered by its poor taxonomic characterization. Hence, Eopolydiexodina is revised here using biometric and morphometric methods applied to large collections from Afghanistan and selected taxa in the literature. These multivariate analyses consist of classical linear test parameters, as well as new area parameters acquired by computer image analysis. The Afghan species are re-defined, and some other species, occasionally described as Cimmerian, are re-discussed. These methods, combined with classical morphological analyses, also permit to conclude that the largest Eopolydiexodina of Afghanistan are microspheric specimens (probably agamonts) of E. afghanensis and E. bithynica. Two megalospheric groups of individuals (probably gamonts and schizonts) are represented in both species, as well as in E. persica and E. darvasica. Due to this presence of gamonts, agamonts and schizonts in several species, Eopolydiexodina is probably the oldest identified trimorphic genus among the large benthic foraminifers. Biostratigraphically, Eopolydiexodina appears restricted to the late Kubergandian to early Midian. The associated Afghan fusulinids (Dunbarula, Kahlerina, Afghanella, Yangchienia, Sumatrina, and Codonofusiella) allow proposing an accurate biostratigraphy of the Eopolydiexodina species in the Murgabian-Midian boundary interval. Paleobiogeographically, Eopolydiexodina was essentially located in the Laurentian and Perigondwanan borders of the Tethys. The possible presence of Eopolydiexodina in the Cimmerian Continent and in some regions of China has never been irrefutably demonstrated. This paleobiological revision of Eopolydiexodina and the biostratigraphic revision of other large Capitanian fusulinids, permit to suggest that the end-Guadalupian event is most probably a protracted succession of last appearance data of giant genera rather than an instantaneous Lilliput effect at the Capitanian/Wuchiapingian boundary.

  19. Changhsingian conodont succession and the end-Permian mass extinction event at the Daijiagou section in Chongqing, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dong-xun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yi-chun; Zheng, Quan-feng; Shen, Shu-zhong

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies suggested rapid evolution of conodonts across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), and the end-Permian mass extinction pattern varies in different sections in South China. Here we document a high-resolution conodont succession from a carbonate facies of the Changhsingian Stage and across the PTB at the Daijiagou section, about 35 km north to Chongqing City, Southwest China. Two genera and twelve species are identified. Seven conodont zones are recognized from the uppermost part of the Lungtan Formation to the lowest Feixianguan Formation. They are the Clarkina liangshanensis, C. wangi, C. subcarinata, C. changxingensis, C. yini, C. meishanensis, and Hindeodus parvus zones in ascending order. Based on the high-resolution biostratigraphical framework at Daijiagou, the end-Permian mass extinction was rapid and it began in the base of the Clarkina meishanensis Zone. Associated with the extinction, a negative excursion of ?13Ccarb started in the middle part of Clarkina yini Zone with a progressive shift of 1.6‰ to the middle part of the Clarkina meishanensis, followed by a sharp shift of 3.51‰ from the Clarkina meishanensis Zone to the Hindeodus parvus Zone. Our study also suggests that the Triassic index species Hindeodus parvus co-occurred with Hindeodus changxingensis and Clarkina zhejiangensis and directly overlies the Clarkina meishanensis Zone at the Daijiagou section. All these data from the Daijiagou section and some previous studies of other sections in Sichuan, Guizhou provinces and Chongqing City suggest that the first occurrences of Hindeodus parvus are slightly earlier than the sharp negative excursion of ?13Ccarb and the FAD at the Meishan GSSP section. We consider that the slight difference of the end-Permian mass extinction, chemostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy at Daijiagou and its adjacent areas is most likely subject to different lithofacies, fossil preservation, and the constraint on the stratigraphic resolution rather than a different tempo of the end-Permian mass extinction in a global sense. The whole Changhsingian conodont succession at Daijiagou provides a high-resolution correlation with other equivalent sections in the Palaeotethys. The controversial results of biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy between the sections investigated in this paper and the Meishan GSSP section also provide some important implications that accurate chronocorrelation requires the evaluation of multiple, varied stratigraphcal signals rather than relying solely on the FAD of the Triassic index species Hindeodus parvus for recognizing the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). Growth series of abundant specimens for each species are figured. The taxonomy of some Hindeodus species in the PTB interval is updated.

  20. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires. Finally, coal fire geomorphology helps to explain landscape features whose occurrence would otherwise not be understood. Although coal fire-induced thermal anomalies and gas release are also indications of coal fire activity, as addressed by many investigators, no assessment is complete without sound geomorphologic mapping of the fire-induced geomorphologic features.

  1. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  2. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Be?ovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  3. Proceedings of the 1978 coal chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radding, S. B.; Peters, H. M. [eds.

    1978-11-01

    Ten papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. They deal with the structural chemical analysis of coal and the chemistry of coal gasification and coal liquefaction. DOE's Fossil Energy Program is discussed in detail and recommendations for further research in coal gasification and coal liquefaction are made. (LTN)

  4. Production of dry coal and briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.

    1988-07-01

    Dry coal is the basic product from which all other brown coal products are produced. Its properties are therefore particularly important. The coal drying process is described, and the production of briquettes from this dry brown coal is gone into. Particular regard must be given to the deterioration of coal quality with greater mining depths. (MOS).

  5. Underground coal gasification studies on Chakwal coal, Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) experimentation was carried out on low-rank lignite coal of Eastern Salt Range. Chakwal, Punjab Province, Pakistan. A simulation reactor was designed in laboratory environments and gas input volume, type of gas input, gasification linkage and mode of combustion were investigated. Geological characteristics of the coal were also studied. The composition of emitted gases was evaluated and the syngas having calorific value of 2.42 MJ/m/sup 3/ was produced. (author)

  6. Bulk analysis of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques used in the coal industry to determine specific energy, ash and moisture are outlined. Ash analysis by radioisotope X-ray techniques include a single X-ray measurement using a transmission or backscatter geometry and techniques with compensation for iron variations. Neutron techniques can be used to measure the concentration of some specific elements in coal. The measurement of specific energy, ash and moisture then depends on the correlation of the particular parameter with the measured elemental composition. Carbon can be determined by a combination of a measurement of 4.43 MeV 12C gamma-rays from neutron inelastic scattering with a separate 60Co gamma-ray scattering measurement. Sulphur meters are based on the measurement of 5.42 MeV neutron capture of gamma rays

  7. Fusibility of coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unuma, H.; Takeda, S.; Sayama, S.; Itoh, S.

    1985-01-01

    The physical and chemical changes occurring in coal ash in the vicinity of its melting point have been inferred from the results of differential thermal analysis of ashes derived from 24 different coals (both Japanese and non-Japanese) and various ash model compounds. The authors also propose an equation for obtaining an index which enables ash melting points to be correlated with mineral fractions. The correlation coefficient here is 0.85, which is a better result than that obtained in the conventional correlation of melting point with basicity. As an additional assessment of the soundness of this new index, previously quoted melting points are plotted alongside the results obtained by the authors. 4 references, 5 figures.

  8. Clean coal and high ash coal utilisation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is endowed with nearly 202 billion tonnes of coal compared to 765 million tonnes of oil and 707 billion cubic metre of natural gas. At the present rate of consumption, coal will last for 200 years compared to 24 years in case of oil and 23 years in case of natural gas. With environmental restriction on use of nuclear power, India will have to depend on coal as a primary source of energy for its sustainable growth even beyond 2020. This paper deals with the prospect of utilising indigenous coal with due consideration to environment friendliness. (author). 3 tabs

  9. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  10. Electricity from Coal Combustion: Improving the hydrophobicity of oxidized coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehra, Mohindar; Singh, Vivek

    2011-03-01

    To reduce pollution and improve efficiency, undesirable mineral impurities in coals are usually removed in coal preparation plants prior to combustion first by crushing and grinding coals followed by gravity separation using surfactant aided water flotation. However certain coals in the US are not amendable to this process because of their poor flotation characteristics resulting in a major loss of an energy resource. This problem has been linked to surface oxidation of mined coals which make these coals hydrophilic. In this project, we are investigating the surface and water flotation properties of the eight Argonne Premium (AP) coals using x-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The role of the surface functional groups, (phenolic -OH and carboxylic -COOH), produced as a result of chemisorptions of O2 on coals in determining their flotation behavior is being explored. The isoelectric point (IEP) in zeta potential measurements of good vs. poor floaters is being examined in order to improved the hydrophobicity of poor floating coals (e.g. Illinois #6). Results from XRD and IR will be presented along with recent findings from zeta potential measurements, and use of additives to improve hydrophobicity. Supported by USDOE/CAST, Contract #DE-FC26-05NT42457.

  11. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  12. The Future of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Across both the developed and developing worlds, the continued use of coal as an energy source has been of some concern as an agent in the process of global warming. Recently, a group of scholars at MIT convened to create an ambitious and forward-looking report titled "The Future of Coal". The report was made possible through financial support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Pew Charitable Trusts, and a number of other organizations. Released in March 2007, the report emphatically states that carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the "critical enabling technology" which will help reduce CO2 emissions. The report also suggests that a significant charge on carbon emissions is needed in the near term and that the U.S. government should provide assistance only to coal projects with CO2 capture in order to demonstrate technical, economic and environmental performance. Visitors to this site can read the report in its entirety, along with a complete glossary and appendices.

  13. Clean coal growth prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why the need to develop clean coal technologies? Because by 2030, the demand for electrical energy will double, and that according to the LEA's reference scenario, coal will be the main primary source, at approx. 40 %. The catastrophic consequence of this need for energy is that, far from the path leading to the goal of dividing world GES emissions by two by 2050 (and rather by four in developed countries), we are getting off to a bad start and clearly that type of development is not sustainable if CO2 emissions are not captured and stored. The most popular means to improve coal cleanness is yield increase from .3 to .2 tC/MWh. All the most direct technologies for capturing CO2 downstream or upstream from combustion deteriorate yield and add 1 or 2 euros on to the KWh cost. None of those technologies is mature, and they will be of no interest unless capturing technologies become economically, environmentally and socially acceptable. The success of the challenge in a few decades requires a global research and development effort. The various aspects of the issue were described by Messrs Philippe Jaud, Francois Moisan and Antoine-Tristan Mocilnikar during a seminar held in May in Grenoble. A debate hosted by Chairman Gilbert Ruelle followed the presentation, which this text attempts to extract a summary from. (author)

  14. Zero emission coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  15. Synthesis of 1-13C-1-indanone and 2-13C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 2-13C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (5) via 1-13C-3-phenylpropanoic acid (1), 1-13C-1-indanone (2), 1-13C-1-indanone hydrazone (3) and 2-13C-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone (4) proceeded in 78, 96, 95, 79, and 85% individual yields respectively for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 61% overall yield of the latter from 1. (author)

  16. C1-extension and C1-reflection of subharmonic functions from Lyapunov-Dini domains into RN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If D is a Lyapunov-Dini domain in RN, N element of {2,3,...}, the possibility of C1-extension and C1-reflection of subharmonic functions in D lying in the class C1(D-bar) across the boundary of D to the whole of RN is investigated. In particular, it is shown that extensions and reflections of this kind are always possible for an arbitrary Lyapunov domain with connected complement. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  17. Thermal analysis of oxidised coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak, R.; Wachowska, H. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2004-09-10

    The study has been performed on samples of high sulphur content Spanish brown coal Mequinenza and Polish flame coal Czeczot. The samples of raw coals and the coals oxidised by four different oxidising agents have been subjected to derivative thermogravimetry analysis (DTG). The results have shown that demineralisation has no effect on the temperature range of the maximum mass loss. The Czeczot flame coal has been shown to be characterised by a narrower temperature range of the main devolatilisation peak (380-500C) than that of Mequinenza (320-500C). The most pronounced structural changes in coal have been found to occur as a result of its oxidation by 5% nitric acid. After such a process of oxidation a new peak of devolatilisation appears with a maximum at 265C, which can be assigned to the compounds having nitric groups in their structure.

  18. Coal science: basic research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbaty, M L; Wright, F J; Lyon, R K; Long, R B; Schlosberg, R H; Baset, Z; Liotta, R; Silbernagel, B G; Neskora, D R

    1979-11-30

    More fundamental knowledge of coal (knowledge of its structure and its behavior during conversion processes) is essential before we can generate new technologies necessary for the efficient use of coal in the future. Herein are suggested specific basic research opportunities in the areas of coal characterization, gasification, combustion, and liquefaction, along with an assessment of the impact such research programs could have. Critical characterization needs include qualitative and quantitative determination of the chemical forms of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur and reliable methods for the measurement of surface area, pore volume, and weight-average molecular weights. Mechanistic studies aimed at increasing understanding of the thermal breakdown of the functionalities in coal, the behavior of coal in the presence of molecular and donor hydrogen environments, and carbon gasification and hydrocarbon synthesis reactions starting from carbon monoxide and hydrogen will lay the scientific foundation for the development of new processes for converting coal into clean usable fuels and chemicals. PMID:17787468

  19. The determination of 210Pb in coal, coal ash, coal cinder and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical method is described for the determination of 210Pb in coal, coal ash, coal cinder and soil. The procedure includes sample dry ashing, leaching with HCl (1+1), separation with anion-exchange resin, purification as PbS precipitate and 210Bi beta counting. This method provides a good separation of 210Pb from other natural and artificial beta emitters. The half-life of 210Bi determined from the sample sources is 5.50d, which is close to the published value (5.01d). The lower limits of detection are 7.6 x 10-4 Bq/g for 10 g coal sample and 1.5 x 10-3 Bq/g for each and every 5 g of coal ash, coal cinder and soil samples. The 210Pb contents in the analyzed coal, coal ash, coal cinder and soil samples are 0.0316 +- 0.0097, 0.0712 +- 0.0760, 0.0109 +- 0.0035 and 0.0355 +- 0.0173 Bq/g and the chemical yields are 95.1% +- 2.5%, 97.2% +- 2.0%, 93.5% +- 1.6% and 95.7% +- 1.5% respectively. The enrichment factors (Ef) of 210Pb in coal ash, defined as the ratio of the content of 210Pb in coal ash to that in coal, range from 1.60 to 11.8 the method gives precision results. Four samples can be analyzed within 12 h (not including the time for counting). The technique is suitable for sample analysis on the environmental impact assessment of the coal-fuel power plant

  20. Stratigraphic sections and chemical analyses of phosphatic rocks of Permian and Mississippian age in Weber County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Elmer M.; Moore, K.P.

    1970-01-01

    Stratigraphic sections and chemical analyses of phosphatic rocks from five trench localities in Weber County, Utah, are presented. Four of the trenches are in Mississippian rocks, and one is in Permian rocks. Of the Mississippian rocks, the highest grade phosphatic interval is at the Wheat Grass Creek locality. Here the phosphatic rocks are 14.9 feet thick, and a 5.8-foot-thick zone has an average of 22.1 percent P2O5. Three localities of Mississippian rocks have 1.1 or less feet of phosphate rock that contains 24+ percent P2O5. The Permian Park City Formation and related strata, Where measured in Hardy Hollow, are 675 feet thick and consist of a 10.9-foot-thick phosphatic interval in the Grandeur Member of the Park City; the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Tongue of the Phosphoria Formation is 171 feet thick, but it is cut by numerous faults.

  1. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

  2. Permian depositional age of metaturbidites of the Duque de York Complex, southern Chile: U-Pb SHRIMP data and palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Duque de York Complex (DYC) is part of the low grade metamorphic accretionary complexes of the pre-Andean Patagonian 'basement'. It is a sedimentary succession exposed along the western margin of southernmost South America. New U-Pb zircon ages and palynological data restrict the maximum depositional age of the DYC to the limit between the early Permian (Kungurian) and the middle Permian (Roadian). The palynological association recorded in the DYC, characterized mainly by Gymnospermopsida pollen, indicates a humid environment of forest with an under-growth of ferns. Regional paleogeographic correlations point out that an interpretation of DYC as an autochthonous terrane cannot be discarded, contrasting with previous hypotheses which suggest an allochthonous character for this complex

  3. Flutamide influences placental aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1) expression in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, M; Knapczyk-Stwora, K; Wieciech, I; Golas, A; Slomczynska, M

    2014-02-01

    Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1) catalyses the conversion of progesterone into inactive 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone. It is suggested that AKR1C1 expression in the placenta prevents from the cytotoxic effect of progesterone on foetuses during late pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anti-androgen flutamide administered during late pregnancy (83-89 days of gestation) or before parturition (101-107 days of gestation) influences AKR1C1 expression in the porcine placenta. AKR1C1 mRNA and protein levels were measured using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunolocalization of AKR1C1 within placentas was also performed. Flutamide significantly increased AKR1C1 mRNA (p = 0.008) and protein (p = 0.019) expression only during the pre-parturient period in pigs. AKR1C1 protein was immunolocalized in the epithelial and stromal cells of foetal and maternal part of placenta at both stages of gestation. Following flutamide treatment, the intensity of staining was higher (p = 0.045) on day 108 of gestation. In conclusion, porcine placental AKR1C1 expression seems to be regulated by an androgen signalling pathway and may be involved in foetal survival by preventing the detrimental effect of progesterone. PMID:24303814

  4. An Exceptionally Preserved Transitional Lungfish from the Lower Permian of Nebraska, USA, and the Origin of Modern Lungfishes

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Jason D.; Huttenlocker, Adam K.; Small, Bryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Complete, exceptionally-preserved skulls of the Permian lungfish Persephonichthys chthonica gen. et sp. nov. are described. Persephonichthys chthonica is unique among post-Devonian lungfishes in preserving portions of the neurocranium, permitting description of the braincase of a stem-ceratodontiform for the first time. The completeness of P. chthonica permits robust phylogenetic analysis of the relationships of the extant lungfish lineage within the Devonian lungfish diversification for the ...

  5. Ostracods (Crustacea) associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China)

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-01-01

    26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian) - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian) interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aft...

  6. Representation of coal and coal derivatives in process modelling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A., Theron; E., le Roux.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on performing mass and energy balance modelling involving coal and coal derivatives. Usually, the inputs to a pyrometallurgical process would be specified in terms of elements and compounds. Reliable thermochemical data is more widely available for species involving un [...] iquely defined, relatively smaller molecules. However, in the case of coal, the molecules are extremely large and not uniquely defined. Consequently, modelling processes involving coal and its derivatives involve several potential pitfalls. These are outlined in the present paper. It was found that coal proximate analysis should not be regarded as absolute; it could vary with several parameters, including heating rate. For modelling, the use of ultimate analyses should be considered a preferable option to proximate analyses, where 'fixed carbon' and 'volatiles' are not defined in terms of chemical composition. Significant errors could be incurred if the larger molecules are neglected during calculation of the calorific value (CV) of coal gas (the gas liberated when coal is heated in the absence of oxygen). For elemental analysis determination, the oxygen content (which is calculated by balance) should be checked to ensure it is within the expected range. For representation of sulphur in coal, one should avoid double-counting due to SO3 in the ash analysis. Potentially, oxygen in coal could be represented as O2, H2O, CO, or CO2. However, use of some of these species without considering the experimentally determined gross CV leads to significant errors in the energy balance. If coal enthalpy is calculated from elemental analyses without correction, representation of coal oxygen as H2O(1) gives reasonable accuracy. Coal volatiles could be represented by a complex mixture of compounds, even using different oxygen-containing species than these four, provided the enthalpy is corrected. It is recommended that an 'enthalpy correction value' be incorporated in energy balances involving combustion, devolatilization, or conversion of coal and coal derivatives, e.g. coke, char, or tar. That would imply that proximate analysis, elemental analysis, as well as the gross CV would be required for all solid or liquid coal-derived substances being modelled. No other correction due to carbon being present in a form other than graphite should be used, as that would imply double-counting some effects.

  7. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships betwan region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  8. World coal perspectives to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Summer 2004, The World Energy Council published a Study on 'Sustainable Global Energy Development: the Case of Coal'. The Study aims at developing an internationally consistent reply to the question whether and to what extent coal use could be economic and sustainable in meeting global energy demand to 2030 and beyond. It covers markets, trade and demand, mining and combustion technologies, restructuring and international policies, and perspectives. It considers both, the contribution that coal could make to economic development as well as the need for coal adapt to the exigencies of security of supply, local environmental protection and mitigation of climate change. (Author)

  9. The Global Value of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal plays an essential role in our global energy mix, particularly for power generation; and through that to the alleviation of energy poverty. The use of coal continues to grow rapidly and will continue, together with other fuels, to support world economic and social development particularly in rapidly developing world economies such as China and India. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for policy makers the value of coal to world economic and social development and so encourage development of a policy environment that will allow the coal and electricity industries to make the necessary investments in production capacity and CO2 emissions reduction technologies.

  10. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H., Jr.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  11. Coal gasification: an environmental viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of coal gasification a number of substances which cause environmental pollution are produced. They are tars, oils, phenols, sulphur, NOx, particulate matter, ash, and carbon dioxide. Measures to deal with them are pointed out. Coal gas can be used to produce high temperature plasma required for MHD generators and to produce hydrogen for fuel cells. Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. has commissioned a coal gasification plant based on a moving bed gasifier coupled to wet gas clean up system and a pressurised fluidized bed gasifier plant designed for Indian coals. Their features are described. (M.G.B.)

  12. Coal pre-feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It examines the feasibility of using coal from the Delbi-Moya reserve for domestic or institutional cooking, industrial process heating and electricity generation. It indicates as coal can be mined from the Delbi reserve at a cost of EB110/tonne, can be processed for EB400/tonne and transported to Addis Ababa for 150/tonne. The wholesale price of coal briquettes in Addis Ababa would be EB750/tonne. Domestic users can save EB475 per year by switching from charcoal to coal briquettes. And for a 50MW plant annual saving would be of the order of EB30 million per year. 11 tab. 4 figs. 6 appendex

  13. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  14. Coal today, electricity tomorrow: a look at clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Zero Emission Coal Alliance, a consortium that includes Canadian coal suppliers and utilities and researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy , is currently involved in research into clean coal technology. The research effort is focused on generating electricity from coal and magnesium oxide from serpentine rock. The process would create hydrogen from a coal-water mixture and produce pure carbon dioxide. A fuel cell would convert hydrogen to electricity, while the carbon dioxide would react with he magnesium oxide to form a solid mineral carbonate that can be permanently and safely contained. This project, combined with existing clean coal technology projects could provide the answer to what to do with the carbon dioxide produced by the combustion of coal. Since carbon dioxide is the most significant of all greenhouse gases, preventing it from being released into the atmosphere would go a long way to make coal more attractive as a fuel for power generation. As matters currently stand, by discharging tonnes of smog-causing nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxode, and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, the five Ontario coal-fired generating plants produce as much air pollution as five million cars, according to the Ontario Clean Air Alliance. The Alliance is calling for a complete phaseout of coal in the electricity sector, starting with the conversion of these five plants to natural gas. Clean coal technology could prove to be an alternative to complete overhaul, whil an alternative to complete overhaul, while at the same time help Canada to meet its Kyoto obligations

  15. The Universal Askey-Wilson Algebra and DAHA of Type (C_1^?,C_1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Terwilliger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Around 1992 A. Zhedanov introduced the Askey-Wilson algebra AW(3. Recently we introduced a central extension $Delta_q$ of AW(3 called the universal Askey-Wilson algebra. In this paper we discuss how $Delta_q$ is related to the universal DAHA $hat H_q$ of type$(C^vee_1, C_1$. Our main result is an algebra injection $psi: Delta_q o hat H_q$. We compute the image under $psi$ of various central elements in $Delta_q$. We describe how the Artin braid group $B_3$ acts on $Delta_q$ and $hat H_q$. We show that $psi$ commutes with these $B_3$ actions.

  16. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral Resources...OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted...

  17. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  18. Massive volcanism at the Permian-Triassic boundary and its impact on the isotopic composition of the ocean and atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Pande, P.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk carbonate and conodonts from three Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary sections at Guryul Ravine (Kashmir), Abadeh (central Iran) and Pufels/Bula/Bulla (Italy) were investigated for d13C and d18O. Carbon isotope data highlight environmental changes across the P-T boundary and show the following features: (1) a gradual decrease of 4‰ to more than 7‰ starting in the Late Permian (Changhsingian) C. bachmanni Zone, with two superimposed transient positive excursions in the C. meishanensis-H. praeparvus and the M. ultima-S. ? mostleri Zones; (2) two d13C minima, the first at the P-T boundary and a higher, occasionally double-minimum in the lower I. isarcica Zone. It is unlikely that the short-lived phenomena, such as a breakdown in biological productivity due to catastrophic mass extinction, a sudden release of oceanic methane hydrates or meteorite impact(s), could have been the main control on the latest Permian carbon isotope curve because of its prolonged (0.5 Ma) duration, gradual decrease and the existenceof a >1‰ positive shift at the main extinction horizon. The P-T boundary d13C trend matches in time and magnitude the eruption of the Siberian Traps and other contemporaneous volcanism, suggesting that volcanogenic effects, such as outgassed CO2 from volcanism and, even more, thermal metamorphism of organic-rich sediments, as the likely cause of the negative trend.

  19. Australian-derived detrital zircons in the Permian-Triassic Gympie terrane (eastern Australia): Evidence for an autochthonous origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Yang, Jin-Hui; Hoy, Derek

    2015-05-01

    The Tasmanides in eastern Australia record accretionary processes along the eastern Gondwana margin during the Phanerozoic. The Gympie terrane is the easternmost segment of the Tasmanides, but whether its origin was autochthonous or allochthonous is a matter of debate. We present U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Gympie terrane with the aim of tracing the source of the sediments and constraining their tectonic relationships with the Tasmanides. Our results show that the Permian stratigraphic units from the Gympie terrane mainly contain Carboniferous and Permian detrital zircons with dominant age peaks at ~263 Ma, ~300 Ma, ~310 Ma, and ~330 Ma. The provenance ages of the Triassic sedimentary units are similar (~256 Ma, ~295 Ma, and ~328 Ma) with an additional younger age peak of ~240 Ma. This pattern of provenance ages from the Gympie terrane is correlative to episodes of magmatism in the adjacent component of the Tasmanides (New England Orogen), indicating that the detrital zircons were dominantly derived from the Australian continent. Given the widespread input of detrital zircons from the Tasmanides, we think that the sedimentary sequence of the Gympie terrane was deposited along the margin of the eastern Australian continent, possibly in association with a Permo-Triassic continental arc system. Our results do not show evidence for an exotic origin of the Gympie terrane, indicating that similarly to the vast majority of the Tasmanides, the Gympie terrane was genetically linked to the Australian continent.

  20. An Introduction and Virtual Field Trip to the Permian Reef Complex, Guadalupe and Delaware Mountains, New Mexico-West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peter Scholle, a professor of geology at New Mexico Tech, oversees this site showcasing the geology of the Permian reefs of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The Salado Formation, part of this sequence, has been in the spotlight lately because it contains the newly discovered, 250 million-year-old, salt-dwelling bacteria (see this week's Scout Report's In the News). The classic sedimentary sections of the Guadalupe and Delaware mountains have been well studied because of their magnificent exposures of Permian aged carbonate platform and slope deposits. Each year, geology students flock to the region to learn about sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology, and tectonic history, among other things. At this information-rich, well-illustrated site, everyone gets a chance to see and learn about these rocks. Sections of the virtual guidebook feature text with links to the bibliography, and color diagrams and photographs. The site is divided into the following sections: General Settings, Previous Studies, Structural History, Stratigraphic Setting and Nomenclature, Depositional Patterns, Diagenetic Patterns, Recent Models, Oil and Gas Production, and Field Trip and Safety Notes. Especially useful to those planning a field trip are road logs and field stop descriptions of road cuts between El Paso and Carlsbad, McKittrick Canyon, Walnut Canyon, and Dark Canyon-Sitting Bull Falls-Rocky Arroyo. Take a moment to discover the beauty and amazing geology of these classic Permian Reefs.

  1. Chinese coal into India - review and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhari, A. [Coal and Oil Company LLC, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2002-07-01

    The Coal and Oil Company is strategically placed to import coal into India. The market for coal from China to India is expected to increase to about 5 M tons by 2005, and is cheaper than Australia or South African coal. The Coal and Oil Co.'s experience in dealing with Chinese coal is outlined. The seven slides/overheads on which the talk was based are included on the CD-ROM.

  2. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoshi Li; Yiwen Ju; Quanlin Hou; Zhuo Li; Mingming Wei; Junjia Fan

    2014-01-01

    The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM) and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation) are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5?nm) and supermicropores ( 4?m2/g, with pore sizes

  3. Merit Pila coal basin, Malaysia - geology and coal petrology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Osvald, P.

    Bandung : Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 2006. s. 16-17. [International Symposium on Lower Rank Coal. 07.09.2006-08.09.2006, Bandung] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300460510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : sub-bituminous coal * rank Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  4. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur coal, Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan, China: Evidence for a volcanic ash component and influence by submarine exhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, X.

    2008-01-01

    The mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur (SHOS) coal of Late Permian age from the Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a sequential chemical extraction procedure, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The M9 Coal from the Yanshan Coalfield is a SHOS coal that has a total sulfur content of 10.12%-11.30% and an organic sulfur content of 8.77%-10.30%. The minerals in the coal consist mainly of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite, illite, pyrite, and trace amounts of kaolinite, plagioclase, akermanite, rutile, and dawsonite. As compared with ordinary worldwide (bituminous coals and anthracite) and Chinese coals, the M9 Coal is remarkably enriched in B (268????g/g), F (841????g/g), V (567????g/g), Cr (329????g/g), Ni (73.9????g/g), Mo (204????g/g), and U (153????g/g). In addition, elements including Se (25.2????g/g), Zr (262????g/g), Nb (20.1????g/g), Cd (2.07????g/g), and Tl (2.03????g/g) are also enriched in the coal. Occurrence of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, muscovite, and illite in the M9 Coal is evidence that there is a volcanic ash component in the coal that was derived from acid volcanic ashes fallen into the swamp during peat accumulation. Occurrence of albite and dawsonite in the coal and strong enrichment of some elements, including F, S, V, Cr, Ni, Mo and U, are attributed to the influence by submarine exhalation which invaded along with seawater into the anoxic peat swamp. Abundances of lithophile elements, including rare earth elements, Nb, Y, Zr, and TiO2, indicate that the silicate minerals in the coal were derived from the northern Vietnam Upland to the south of the basin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 17 CFR 270.3c-1 - Definition of beneficial ownership for certain 3(c)(1) funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2) On the date of any acquisition of securities of the Section 3(c)(1) Company by the Covered Company, the value of all securities owned by the Covered Company of all issuers that are Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7)...

  6. Evaluating the temporal link between Siberian Traps magmatism and the end-Permian mass extinction (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, S. D.; Bowring, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Interest in Large Igneous Provinces as agents for massive climatic and biological change is steadily increasing, though the temporal constraints on both are seldom precise enough to allow detailed testing of a causal relationship. The end-Permian mass extinction is one of the most biologically important and intensely studied events in Earth history and has been linked to many possible trigger mechanisms, from voluminous volcanism to bolide impact. Proposed kill mechanisms range from acidic and/or anoxic oceans to a cocktail of toxic gases, although the link between trigger and kill mechanisms is unconstrained due to the lack of a high-precision timeline. Critical to assessing the plausibility of different trigger and kill mechanisms is an accurate age model for the biotic crisis and the perturbations to the global carbon cycle and ocean chemistry. Recent work using the EARTHTIME U/Pb tracer solution has refined the timing of the onset and duration of the marine mass extinction event and the earliest Triassic recovery at the GSSP for the Permian-Triassic boundary in Meishan, China. This work constrains the mass extinction duration to less than 100 kyr and provides an accurate and precise time point for the onset of extinction, against which the timing of potential trigger mechanisms may be compared. For more than two decades, eruption and emplacement of the Siberian traps has been implicated as a potential trigger of the end-Permian extinction. In this scenario, magmatism drives the biotic crisis through mobilization of volatiles from the sedimentary rock with which intruding and erupting magmas interact. Massive volatile release is believed to trigger major changes in atmospheric chemistry and temperature, both of which have been proposed as kill mechanisms. Current temporal constrains on the timing and duration of the Siberian magmatism are an order of magnitude less precise than those for the mass extinction event and associated environmental perturbations, limiting detailed testing of a causal relationship. We present new high-precision U/Pb geochronology on zircon crystals isolated from a suite of shallowly intruded dolerites in the Noril'sk region and two welded tuffs in the Maymecha river-valley. These two sections are the most extensively studied in the magmatic province and although there are thick exposures of lava and volcaniclastic rock elsewhere, the Noril'sk and Maymecha-Kotuy sections are thought to be representative of the entire extrusive stratigraphy. Our dates suggest that intrusive and extrusive magmatism began within analytical uncertainty of the onset of mass extinction, permitting a causal connection with age precision at the ~ × 0.06 Ma level. The new dates also allow projection of the extinction interval and associated chemostratigraphy onto the Siberian trap stratigraphy, which suggests that ~300m of volcanicalstic rocks and ~1800m of lavas in the Maymecha-Kotuy section were erupted just prior to the onset of mass extinction. Comparison of a detailed eruption history to biological and chemical records over the extinction and recovery intervals allows for better evaluation of plausible kill mechanisms.

  7. Elemental analysis of coal and coal ASH by PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, K.C. [Dept. of Physics, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla (India); Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar - 751005 (India); Rautray, Tapash R., E-mail: tapash.rautray@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar - 751005 (India); Centre of Excellence in Theoretical and Math Sciences, SOA University, Bhubaneswar - 751030 (India); Tripathy, B.B. [Dept. of Physics, Silicon Institute of Technology, Patia, Bhubaneswar - 751024 (India); Nayak, P. [Dept. of Physics, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla (India)

    2012-04-15

    Coal and coal ash samples were characterized by particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopic technique. Sixteen elements, namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y and Pb were quantified in this study. Elements like K, Ca, Ti and Fe were present as major elements, whereas, other elements like V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb were present in trace level. The enrichment ratio of different ash samples with respect to coal were also estimated and discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental analysis of coal and coal ash including pond ash is the first of its kind. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enrichment ratio has been exclusively explained in the study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-destructive PIXE analysis has been employed in this study and both major and trace elements has been estimated.

  8. Coal mine greenhouse gas mitigation through utilisation of waste coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, M.; Mallett, C. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    The sustainability of the coal mining industry is under threat from both the public and government because of the poor perception of the industry as a major greenhouse producer. TO help overcome this problem, a program is underway to develop a hybrid waste coal and waste gas power generation system that has the potential not only to significantly reduce greenhouse emissions from coal mines but also to generate electrical energy at an efficiency greater than contentional coal systems. The use of waste coal as a supplementary fuel provides complete mitigation of mine methane because it allows combustion of the low concentration methane from mine ventilation systems and evens out the variation in the flowrate. Future developments of the new power generation system include conversion of other solid waste materials, such as municipal waste, bagasse and other biomass to energy. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Reactivity of coal fractions as a probe of coal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown coal has been fractionated by two different methods. Firstly, extraction of the coal with decalin at 320 deg C to separate loosely bound guest material from the macromolecular matrix and secondly, the extraction with 1% caustic soda at 80 deg C to separate humic acid from the insoluble residue of the coal (humin). The various fractions have been reacted under CO and H2 in the presence of promoters previously used in coal liquefaction experiments. The products have been analyzed by a range of techniques, principally proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gas cromatography-mass spectrometry and the results used to gain further insight into brown coal structure. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01

    Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

  11. Origins of microspherules from the Permian-Triassic boundary event layers in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zheng, Quan-feng

    2014-09-01

    Volcanism and impact scenarios are two of the most plausible ways of interpreting the causes of the largest biological mass extinction at the end-Permian. Microspherules have previously been widely reported from tens of different Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections in South China and some other regions. These microspherules have been interpreted as either the product of volcanic eruptions or an impact event. In order to test these scenarios, we collected 60 samples from 12 intensively-studied PTB sections in South China. In addition, four soil samples close to these PTB layers were also collected for comparison. Our investigation indicates that abundant microspherules with mosaic or dot shape crystals on rounded surface are present in the surface samples in the PTB layers at Meishan, Meili, and Shatian sections and most soil background samples in South China. Those microspherules consist of four different types based on their main chemical composition, surface features, and internal structure including iron, magnetite-silicate, glassy, pyrite microspherules and framboids. In contrast, microspherules have not been found in a few sections in remote areas such as the Selong Xishan section in Tibet and the Dalongkou section in Xinjiang, Northwest China, in the deeply-excavated samples at the Shangsi section and the hard tuff layers around the PTB at the Xiaochehe Section in Guiyang. Microspherules decrease in abundance with depth in PTB clay beds. All these microspherules except the pyrite microspherules and framboids are found in both the PTB layers and the nearby soil background samples. The iron microspherules are pure iron oxides such as magnetite, hematite or maghemite and contain low concentrations of nickel and chromium, and lack an Ni-Fe core and general extraterrestrial mineral wüstite. All these external and chemical characteristics suggest that most of iron microspherules previously reported from PTB sections in South China are modern industrial fly ashes. A low ratio of Fe3 +/FeTotal in crystals of magnetite-silicate microspherules and high ZnO contents can identify them as industrial contaminants. The pyrite microspherules and framboidal pyrite found from bed 24e and bed 26 at the Meishan sections are of depositional or/and diagenetic origins, and only the rounded quartz and the fragments containing extremely high SiO2 and TiO2 are possibly of volcanic origin.

  12. Volatile Release from The Siberian Traps and the End-Permian Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B. A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Rowe, M. C.; Ukstins Peate, I.

    2010-12-01

    The Siberian Traps (ca. 252 Ma) is one of the most voluminous known eruptions of continental basaltic magma, and has been invoked as a trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction: the single largest loss of biological diversity in the Phanerozoic. Constraining the degassing of volatiles such as sulfur, chlorine, fluorine, and carbon dioxide is critical to understanding the environmental consequences of flood basalt emplacement. We measured concentrations of these volatiles in melt inclusions in olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystals from Siberian Traps lavas, sills, and tuffs. New ion probe analysis results provide insight into the volatile budget of the earliest pyroclastic and later flow-dominated periods of flood volcanism. In particular, melt inclusions from four flows and tuffs belonging to the stratigraphically lowest extrusive suites provide the first estimates of dissolved volatiles within early-erupted Siberian Traps magmas. Comparison with studies of melt inclusions from Iceland’s Laki eruption, the Deccan Traps and the Columbia River flood basalts suggests that Cl, F, and S concentrations in some Siberian Traps magmas were anomalously high. Measured concentrations reach 0.75 wt % Cl and 1.95 wt % F in one sample. In other samples, we also measure significant concentrations of S, Cl, F, and C. We hypothesize that assimilation of evaporites and other sedimentary rocks from the Tunguska basin might have contributed to the volatile budget of Siberian magmatism. Our melt inclusion data, in conjunction with the present-day volumes of the associated flows, sills, and tuffs, indicate that even individual Siberian Traps eruption events probably carried massive volatile loads. We observe tuff sequences tens to hundreds of meters thick near the base of the volcanic sequence in the Maymecha-Kotuy and Angara regions; these volcaniclastic deposits may reach 700 meters in thickness in the central Tunguska basin. Locally well-preserved accretionary lapilli provide evidence that many of these deposits are primary pyroclastic rocks. These explosive episodes may have enhanced the efficiency with which degassing volatiles were entrained into an ascending thermal plume. The high volatile contents we observe in many Siberian Traps rocks, if injected into the stratosphere, may have significantly contributed to ozone depletion and a drastic deterioration in global environmental conditions at the time of the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  13. Parent brine of the castile evaporites (Upper Permian), Texas and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Douglas W.; Denison, Rodger E.; Dean, Walter E.

    2000-01-01

    The Upper Permian (lower Ochoan) Castile Formation is a major evaporite sequence (?10,000 km3) of calcite, anhydrite, and halite in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Traditionally the Castile brine has been considered to have been derived from seawater. This tradition has recently been challenged by two versions of the closed-basin drawdown model. They call for deposition from a mixed brine, in part marine and in large part nonmarine. They propose drawdown of as much as 500 m to form a major sink for ground water issuing from the surrounding Capitan reef complex. A large fraction of the solute in the brine body is inferred to have been recycled from older Permian evaporites on the surrounding shelf. Strontium-isotope analyses show no evidence that meteoric ground water was contributed to the Castile brine. From a stratigraphic, geographic, and lithologic array of 65 samples of anhydrite, gypsum, and calcite, 59 have an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.706923 (?sw of -225.0), a ratio that is the same as that of strontium in early Ochoan ocean water. If considerable (>15%) influx of meteoric water had occurred, enough continental strontium would have been introduced to have resulted in higher ratios. Low bromide values (20-40 ppm) in Castile halite, which have been used to argue for meteoric influx and for recycled salt, probably resulted from diagenesis. During shallow burial by halite, centimeter-size, bottom-grown crystals of gypsum were altered to nodular anhydrite. The rising water of dehydration caused the halite to recrystallize. During the recrystallization, some bromide was expelled. Despite the large volume of water that evaporated annually from its surface (?52 km3/yr, assuming an evaporation rate of 2 m/yr), the Castile brine body never completely desiccated. The surrounding shelf was flat, hot, and generally dry. It probably could not have supplied a significant volume of meteoric spring water to the basin over tens of thousands of years. More likely, during the entire history of the evaporite sequence, influx was dominantly marine. Marine ground water flowed through the Capitan Formation into the evaporite basin along its southern and possibly western margin probably with a rate of flow that was usually fast enough to prevent major drawdown of the brine surface.

  14. Astronomical forcing of a Middle Permian chert sequence in Chaohu, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xu; Zhou, Yaoqi; Hinnov, Linda A.

    2015-07-01

    Astronomical forcing has been shown to be a fundamental driver of climate change through geological time. Pelagic, bedded cherts deposited in Mesozoic ocean basins with chert-mudstone cycles have been shown to contain the imprint of Milankovitch astronomical climate forcing. In the Chaohu region, South China, we studied a Middle Permian radiolarian chert sequence (Gufeng Formation) with chert-mudstone couplets reminiscent of the Mesozoic cherts, but deposited on a continental shelf. Spectral analysis of lithologic bed thickness data from two sections of this chert sequence reveals that 13 cm to 20 cm chert-mudstone cycles in the stratigraphic domain match theoretical 32-kyr Middle Permian obliquity cycling, together with a hierarchy of other cycles with 12 cm, 9 cm, 7 cm, 6.6 cm and 5.4 cm wavelengths. Tuning the 13 cm to 20 cm stratigraphic cycles to Earth's obliquity cycle periodicity indicates that the cm-scale cycles are precession-scale variations with a strong ?400 kyr amplitude modulation. Tuning to theoretical precession terms provides further support for the astronomical forcing of the chert sequence. We propose that monsoon-controlled upwelling contributed to the development of the chert-mudstone cycles. A seasonal monsoon controlled by astronomical forcing (i.e., insolation) influenced the intensity of upwelling. Stronger upwelling increased radiolarian productivity in the surface ocean, increasing silica deposition. Glacio-eustatic oscillations from ice sheet dynamics in southern Gondwana modulated terrigenous mud flux to the basin. The two processes jointly contributed to the astronomical rhythms of these tropical chert-mudstone sequences, which are characterized by comparably strong obliquity and precession responses. Subsequent diagenesis distorted the chert and mudstone layering, but not enough to destroy the original stratigraphic patterns. The resulting astronomical time scale (ATS) assumes a Roadian/Wordian boundary age of 268.8 Ma for the onset of the first chert layer at the base of the sequence and ends at 264.1 Ma, for a total duration of 4.7 myr.

  15. Rare-earth elements in the Permian Phosphoria Formation: Paleo proxies of ocean geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Perkins, R.B.; Rowe, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    The geochemistry of deposition of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation (MPM) in southeast Idaho, USA, a world-class sedimentary phosphate deposit of Permian age that extends over 300,000 km2, is ascertained from its rare earth element (REE) composition. Ratios of REE:Al2O3 suggest two sources-seawater and terrigenous debris. The seawater-derived marine fraction identifies bottom water in the Phosphoria Sea as O2-depleted, denitrifying (suboxic) most of the time, and seldom sulfate-reducing (anoxic). This interpretation is supported by earlier research that showed progressively greater ratios in the marine sediment fraction of Cr:Ni>V:Ni???Mo:Ni, relative to their ratios in seawater; for which marine Cr, V, and Mo can have a dominantly O2-depleted bottom-water source and Ni a photic-zone, largely algal, source. The water chemistry was maintained by a balance between bacterial oxidation of organic matter settling through the water column, determined largely by primary productivity in the photic zone, and the flux of oxidants into the bottom water via advection of seawater from the open ocean. Samples strongly enriched in carbonate fluorapatite, the dominant REE host mineral, have variable Er/Sm, Tm/Sm, and Yb/Sm ratios. Their distribution may represent greater advection of seawater between the Phosphoria Sea and open ocean during deposition of two ore zones than a center waste and greater upwelling of nutrient-enriched water into the photic zone. However, the mean rate of deposition of marine Ni, a trace nutrient of algae, and PO43-, a limiting nutrient, indicate that primary productivity was probably high throughout the depositional history. An alternative interpretation of the variable enrichments of Er, Tm, and Yb, relative to Sm, is that they may reflect temporally variable carbonate alkalinity of open-ocean seawater in Permian time. A more strongly negative Ce anomaly for all phosphatic units than the Ce anomaly of modern pelletal phosphate is further indicative of an elevated O2 concentration in the Permo-Carboniferous open ocean, as proposed by others, in contrast to the depletion of O2 in the bottom water of the Phosphoria Sea itself. The oceanographic conditions under which the deposit accumulated were likely similar to conditions under which many sedimentary phosphate deposits have accumulated and to conditions under which many black shales that are commonly phosphate poor have accumulated. A shortcoming of several earlier studies of these deposits has resulted from a failure to examine the marine fraction of elements separate from the terrigenous fraction. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The revolutionary importance of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan.

    2004-01-01

    Alan Macfarlane discusses the coal revolution, the change from energy harvested from the sun through plants and animals, to the stored carbon energy of millions of years of sunlight. Filmed on a coal heap in Coalbrookdale, where the industrial revolution in England began.

  17. Thermography in the coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, maintenance in the coal industry was using the 'run-to-failure' philosophy. This mindset is not only costly; it can also be dangerous. Today, some of the more progressive coal companies are trying to find ways to be more cost effective in their maintenance practices including adding infrared thermography for to their maintenance process. (author)

  18. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  19. Nuclear energy, coal, and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the view point of environmental protection, nuclear plants are superior to coal-fired ones. Coal-fired plants and other uses of burning create serious environmental problems, whereas no noticeable impacts are identified for nuclear plants. Even with respect to radiation risk, with equal energy output, a coal-fired plant is one order of magnitude higher than a nuclear station. Energy is a prerequisite for the development of a national economy and the improvement of living standards. Economic growth must be coordinated with the exploitation of energy resources. The worsening shortage of energy has made it imperative that China step up its energy development and pay full attention to the development of nuclear energy. Among direct energy sources, about 70% came from coal in the past. The public has been greatly concerned over the pollution caused by coal-fired power stations and/or other industrial and domestic use of coal burning. With increasing mining of coal, the issues related to pollution from the use of coal will become more serious and prominent. 17 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  1. COAL DESULFURIZATION USING MICROWAVE ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the use of microwave energy and NaOH to remove pyritic and organic sulfur from several U.S. coals. Exposure times on the order of 1 minute at 1 atmosphere of inert gas can remove up to 85% of the sulfur with little or no loss in heating value of the coal. Dat...

  2. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  3. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  4. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  5. Why Schools Should Consider Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Coal has great potential for use in many school systems. Domestic supplies are abundant with relatively stable prices. Equipment is available for clean and efficient combustion of coal with little or no impact on environmental quality. Cost estimates are provided. (Author/MLF)

  6. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that in the United States will be drawn.

  7. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  8. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  9. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwall coal mining in southern Illinois occurs beneath some of the best agricultural land in the U.S. This region is characterized by highly productive, nearly level, and somewhat poorly drained soils. Subsidence from longwall mining causes changes in surface topography which alters surface and subsurface hydrology. These changes can adversely affect agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas that can be deleterious to crop production. While most subsided areas show little impact from subsidence, some areas experience total crop failure. Coal companies are required by law to mitigate subsidence damage to cropland. The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring grain yields to their pre-mined levels. The research was conducted on sites selected to represent conventional mitigation techniques on the predominate soils in the area. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max.(L.) Merr] yields in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 from mitigated areas were compared to yields from nearby undisturbed areas

  10. Two episodes of 13C-depletion in organic carbon in the latest Permian: Evidence from the terrestrial sequences in northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changqun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lujun; Shen, Shuzhong; Summons, Roger E.

    2008-06-01

    New analyses reveal two intervals of distinctly lower ?13C values in the terrestrial organic matter of Permian-Triassic sequences in northern Xinjiang, China. The younger negative ?13C org spike can be correlated to the conspicuous and sharp ?13C drops both in carbonate carbon and organic carbon near the Permian-Triassic event boundary (PTEB) in the marine section at Meishan. The geochemical correlation criteria are accompanied by a magnetic susceptibility pulse and higher abundances of distinctive, chain-like organic fossil remains of Reduviasporonites. The older negative ?13C org spike originates within a latest Permian regression. Significant changes in organic geochemical proxies are recorded in the equivalent interval of the marine section at Meishan. These include relatively higher concentrations of total organic carbon, isorenieratane, C 14-C 30 aryl isoprenoids and lower ratios of pristane/phytane that, together, indicate the onset of anoxic, euxinic and restricted environments within the photic zone. The massive and widespread oxidation of buried organic matter that induced these euxinic conditions in the ocean would also result in increased concentrations of 13C-depleted atmospheric CO 2. The latest Permian environmental stress marked by the older negative ?13C org episode can be correlated with the distinct changeover of ostracod assemblages and the occurrences of morphological abnormalities of pollen grains. These observations imply that biogeochemical disturbance was manifested on the land at the end of the Permian and that terrestrial organisms responded to it before the main extinction of the marine fauna.

  11. Catalytic hydroliquefaction of coal macerals: comparison with raw coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djega-Mariadassou, G.; Brodzki, D.; Akar, A.A.; Cagniant, D.; Miga, K. (Universite P M Curie, Paris (France). Laboratoire Reactivite de Surface et Structure)

    1994-03-01

    Catalytic hydroliquefactions (HL) of two coals (Freyming, France and Point of Ayr, United Kingdom) and their macerals were studied in a microautoclave in the presence of an H-donor solvent (tetralin). The main results of the study were related to (i) a comparison between the behaviours of such coals or macerals in the HL process; the two raw coals showed the same total conversion, and similar wt% of oil, asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions, (ii) the contribution of each maceral to the global coal liquid; the additive effect was checked, but no synergetic effect was found (using HL and the present type of liquid phase analysis) for a synthetic coal. Raw coals, vitrite and exinite had the same total conversion, whereas that for fusite was much lower, and (iii) a detailed identification of some individual compounds or of series of homologous compounds; this was made for oil fractions. 25% of these fractions were able to be investigated by GC/MS, i.e. 5-10 wt% of the initial coal. Concentrations of a large number of compounds were determined and compared from one maceral to another, and general tendencies could be deduced. 9 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Catalytic hydroliquefaction of coal macerals: comparison with raw coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzki, D.; Abou Akar, A.; Djega-Mariadassou, G. (Universite P M Curie, Paris (France). Lab. Reactivite de Surface et Structure)

    1992-01-01

    Catalytic hydroliquefaction (HL) of two coals, Freyming-France and Point of Ayr UK, and their macerals were studied in a microautoclave in the presence of a H-donor solvent (tetralin). The main results of the study were related to: (i) comparison between the behaviours of such coals or macerals in the HL process; the two raw coals showed the same total conversion and similar wt% of oil, asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions; (ii) the contribution of each maceral to the global coal liquid; no synergetic effect was found (using HL and the present type of liquid phase analysis) for a synthetic coal; raw coals, vitrinite and exinite had the same total conversion, whereas the fusite was significantly lower; (iii) a detailed identification of some individual compounds or of series of homologous compounds; this was made for oil fractions. 25% of these fractions could be investigated by GC/MS, or 5 to 10 wt% of the initial coal. Concentrations of a large number of compounds were determined and compared from one maceral to another and general tendencies could be deduced.

  13. of Coal Seams with Severe Coal and Gas Outburst Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For coal seams susceptible to serious coal and gas outburst, numerous problems and issues, such as the low excavation speed and serious security risks, exist during the process of outburst prevention. Through on-site examinations, this study analyzes the effect of hydraulic slotting measures on changes in the coal-bearing assemblages and gas status and reveals the involved mechanisms that hydraulic slotting measures are applied to deal with coal and gas outburst. This study further proposes the rapid excavation technology with supporting equipment designed and integrated and establishes a comprehensive security system with hydraulic slotting as the core of the entire system. Therefore, the goals of achieving hydraulic slotting operated unattended to avoid personnel injury, implementing coal and gas control technology are achieved. The results of on-site examination indicate that the excavation speed using the proposed method could be two times faster than the excavation speed when boring and drilling method is applied and thus the goal of safely and efficiently carrying out excavation work in coal seams with severe coal and gas outburst potentials is realized.

  14. Evidence of a therapsid scavenger in the Late Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicholas, Fordyce; Roger, Smith; Anusuya, Chinsamy.

    Full Text Available Dicynodonts are an extinct group of herbivorous non-mammalian therapsids ('mammal-like' reptiles) that are widely known from terrestrial Permo-Triassic strata throughout Pangaea. Dicynodont fossil remains are common within the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin in South Africa. A large, [...] partially articulated dicynodont skeleton recovered from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone is taphonomically important in having an unusual disarticulation pattern, bone surface punctures and a broken tooth of an unidentified carnivore associated with it. Here we report on the nature of the bone damage, and the identity of the carnivore that lost a canine tooth whilst scavenging the dicynodont carcass. The morphological characteristics of the serrations on the unidentified tooth were compared with those of contemporaneous carnivores, the gorgonopsians and therocephalians. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of a silicone cast of the unidentified tooth revealed distinctive 0.5-mm square-shaped serrations. Our comparative assessment of the tooth size, curvature, cross-sectional shape and morphology of the serrations revealed that the unidentified canine most closely matched Aelurognathus, a gorgonopsian known from the same assemblage zone.

  15. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of Permian Basin bedded salt at elevated pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity were made on five core samples of bedded rock salt from the Permian Basin in Texas to determine its suitability as an underground nuclear waste repository. The sample size was 100 mm in diameter by 250 mm in length. Measurements were conducted under confining pressures ranging from 3.8 to 31.0 MPa and temperatures from room temperature to 473 K. Conductivity showed no dependence on confining pressure but evidenced a monotonic, negative temperature dependence. Four of the five samples showed conductivities clustered in a range of 5.6 +- 0.5 W/m.K at room temperature, falling to 3.6 +- 0.3 W/m.K at 473 K. These values are approximately 20% below those for pure halite, reflecting perhaps the 5 to 20%-nonhalite component of the samples. Diffusivity also showed a monotonic, negative temperature dependence, with four of the five samples clustered in a range of 2.7 +- 0.4 x 10-6 m2/s at room temperature, and 1.5 +- 0.3 x 10-6 m2/s at 473 K, all roughly 33% below the values for pure halite. One sample showed an unusually high conductivity (it also had the highest diffusivity), about 20% higher than the others; and one sample showed an unusually low diffusivity (it also had the lowest conductivity), roughly a factor of 2 lower than the others. 27 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  16. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Azman A.; Hazad, Fatin Izzani; Jamil, Azmiah; Xiang, Quek Long; Atiqah Wan Ismail, Wan Nur; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lai, Yu-Ming; Roselee, Muhammad Hatta; Islami, Nur; Nyein, Kyaw Kyaw; Amir Hassan, Meor Hakif; Abu Bakar, Mohd Farid; Umor, Mohd Rozi

    2014-12-01

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2-97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK =1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09-2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32-8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793 ? to 806 ?C is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian.

  17. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2-97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK =1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09-2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32-8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806? is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian. (author)

  18. Terrestrial events across the Permian Triassic boundary along the Yunnan Guizhou border, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxin, Yu; Yuanqiao, Peng; Suxin, Zhang; Fengqing, Yang; Quanming, Zhao; Qisheng, Huang

    2007-01-01

    The border area between western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan Provinces in SW China is an ideal place to undertake research considering the terrestrial-ecological system evolution across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). The study of plant and palynomorph fossils, clay minerals, inorganic geochemistry and sedimentary facies in this area enable us to interpret the events occurring at that time. The extinction pattern of the flora interpreted from megafloral and palynomorph data is demonstrated by a sudden decline of species numbers at the PTB after a long-term of gradual changes, followed by a delayed extinction in the basal Triassic. The two boundary claybeds (Beds 66 and 68 in the Chahe Section, beds 47 and 49 in the Zhejue Section) are considered to be volcanogenic. The inorganic geochemical anomalies occurred between Beds 63 and 69, Chahe Section and Beds 45 and 50, Zhejue Section. Sedimentary facies changed from channels of braided rivers, into flood plains of braided rivers, then to shallow lakes, reflecting a gradual transgression by lakes across the area. Our conclusions are that the mass extinction across the PTB in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan was probably caused by the Siberian basaltic eruption episode and the siliceous volcanism in South China. These lithospheric events represented by volcanisms heralded a series of climatic and environmental events, giving rise to a catastrophe for the biosphere.

  19. Aeolian Delivery of Organic Matter to a Middle Permian Deepwater Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, S.; Herbert, B. E.; Tice, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Windblown dust is a significant source of sediment and nutrients for many basins, but its influence on ancient basins can be difficult to detect and quantify. Quantification of organic biological markers, including biomarker ratios and n-alkane distributions, were used to demonstrate the significance of windblown dust in delivery of sediment and terrestrial organic matter to the Middle Permian Delaware Basin. Ramp siltstones of the basin have been interpreted as either the deposits of unconfined low-density turbidity currents or aeolo-marine sediments. We analyzed the organic contents of five samples of channel-confined turbiditic sandstones and siltstones and of five samples of ramp siltstones outcropping in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park, west Texas to estimate the relative proportions of terrestrial and marine organic matter in the two types of host rocks. The total organic carbon content of all samples varied from 0.1% - 2.04%. The abundunce of high molecular weight n-alkanes (n-C27 and greater) suggests that terrestrial organic matter was present in nearly all samples. Terrestrial organic content was quantified using a crossplot of pristane/n-C17 versus phytane/n-C18. Ramp siltstones showed ~10-fold greater variation in terrestrial content than did turbiditic sandstones and siltstones. This observation is more consistent with the aeolo-marine interpretation of ramp siltstones, and suggests that terrestrial organic matter was delivered to the Delaware Basin by wind transport during deposition of the Brushy Canyon Formation.

  20. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Béatrice Forel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1 problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, where proposed marine dissolution surfaces may be subaerial. Sedimentary evidence that the extinction was partly due to ocean acidification is therefore inconclusive; (2 Fossils of marine animals potentially affected by ocean acidification are imperfect records of past conditions; selective extinction of hypercalcifying organisms is uncertain evidence for acidification; (3 The current high rates of acidification may not reflect past rates, which cannot be measured directly, and whose temporal resolution decreases in older rocks. Thus large increases in CO2 in the past may have occurred over a long enough time to have allowed assimilation into the oceans, and acidification may not have stressed ocean biota to the present extent. Although we acknowledge the very likely occurrence of past ocean acidification, obtaining support presents a continuing challenge for the Earth science community.

  1. An Exact Bosonization Rule for c=1 Noncritical String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ishibashi, N.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2007-01-01

    We construct a string field theory for c=1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields.

  2. On C1-robust transitivity of volume-preserving flows

    OpenAIRE

    Bessa, M.; Rocha, J.

    2007-01-01

    We prove that a divergence-free and C1-robustly transitive vector field has no singularities. Moreover, if the vector field is C4 then the linear Poincare flow associated to it admits a dominated splitting over M.

  3. Asia's coal and clean coal technology market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian region is unique in the world in having the highest economic growth rate, the highest share of coal in total primary energy consumption and the highest growth rate in electricity generation capacity. The outlook for the next two decades is for accelerated efforts to control coal related emissions of particulates and SO2 and to a lessor extent NOx and CO2. Only Japan has widespread use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) however a number of economies have plans to install CCTs in future power plants. Only CCTs for electricity generation are discussed, and are defined for the purpose of this paper as technologies that substantially reduce SO2 and/or NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The main theses of this paper are that major increases in coal consumption will occur over the 1990-2010 period, and this will be caccompanied by major increases in coal related pollution in some Asian economies. Coal fired electricity generation is projected to grow at a high rate of about 6.9 percent per year over the 1990-2010 period. CCTs are projected to account for about 150 GW of new coal-fired capacity over the 1990-2010 period of about one-third of all new coal-fired capacity. A speculative conclusion is that China will account for the largest share of CCT additions over the 1990-2010 period. Both the US and Japan have comparative advantages that might be combined through cooperation and joint ventures to gain gh cooperation and joint ventures to gain a larger share of the evolving CCT market in Asia. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multicenter study. METHODS: Information and blood samples were obtained in a cross-sectional study from patients with SLE (n?=?308) and other rheumatologic diseases (n?=?389) from 25 clinical sites (84% female, 68% Caucasian, 17% African descent, 8% Asian, 7% other). IgG anti-C1q against the collagen-like region was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Prevalence of anti-C1q was 28% (86/308) in patients with SLE and 13% (49/389) in controls (OR?=?2.7, 95% CI: 1.8-4, p?C1q was associated with proteinuria (OR?=?3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.1, p?C1q was independently associated with renal involvement after adjustment for demographics, ANA, anti-dsDNA and low complement (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2, p?C1q, anti-dsDNA and low complement was strongly associated with renal involvement (OR?=?14.9, 95% CI: 5.8-38.4, p?C1q was more common in patients with SLE and those of Asian race/ethnicity. We confirmed a significant association of anti-C1q with renal involvement, independent of demographics and other serologies. Anti-C1q in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement was the strongest serological association with renal involvement. These data support the usefulness of anti-C1q in SLE, especially in lupus nephritis.

  5. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-02-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Apolipoprotein C1 Association with Hepatitis C Virus ?

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Jean-christophe; Russell, Rodney S.; Engle, Ronald E.; Faulk, Kristina N.; Purcell, Robert H.; Emerson, Suzanne U.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cellular lipoprotein components are involved in hepatitis C virus (HCV) morphogenesis, but the precise contribution of these components remains unclear. We investigated the involvement of apolipoprotein C1 (ApoC1) in HCV infection in the HCV pseudotyped particle system (HCVpp), in the recently developed cell culture infection model (HCVcc), and in authentic HCV isolated from viremic chimpanzees. Viral genomes associated with HCVcc or authentic HCV were effi...

  7. Australia's export coal industry: a project of the Coal Australia Promotion Program. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet presents an overview of the Australian coal industry, emphasises the advantages of using Australian coal and outlines government policies, both Commonwealth and State, which impact on coal mine development, mine ownership and coal exports. It also provides information on the operations and products of each producer supplying coal and coke to export markets and gives contact details for each. The emphasis is on black coal, but information on coal briquettes and coke is also provided. Basic information on the rail networks used for the haulage of export coal and on each of the bulk coal loading terminals is also included.(Author). 3 figs., photos

  8. Coal resources, production, and quality in the Eastern kentucky coal field: Perspectives on the future of steam coal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Hiett, J.K.; Wild, G.D.; Eble, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Eastern Kentucky coal field, along with adjacent portions of Virginia and southern West Virginia, is part of the greatest production concentration of high-heating-value, low-sulfur coal in the United States, accounting for over 27% of the 1993 U.S. production of coal of all ranks. Eastern Kentucky's production is spread among many coal beds but is particularly concentrated in a limited number of highquality coals, notably the Pond Creek coal bed and its correlatives, and the Fire Clay coal bed and its correlatives. Both coals are relatively low ash and low sulfur through the areas of the heaviest concentration of mining activity. We discuss production trends, resources, and the quality of in-place and clean coal for those and other major coals in the region. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  9. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  10. Coal supply and transportation model (CSTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coal Supply and Transportation Model (CSTM) forecasts annual coal supply and distribution to domestic and foreign markets. The model describes US coal production, national and international coal transportation industries. The objective of this work is to provide a technical description of the current version of the model

  11. Coal: a burning issue for the diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    Paper discusses the possible medium-to-long term requirement to burn liquidised coal, coal-oil-water mixtures or coal dust in diesel engines. Initial interest is centred on stationary power applications. However diesel engines can accept coal-based fuels.

  12. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  13. Coal ash utilisation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal based thermal power stations have been the major source of power generation in our country in the past and would continue for decades to come. In India, thermal generation which contributes about 72% of the overall power generation of 2,45,000 MU (1989-90) is the main source of power and mainly based on coal firing. Total ash generation in India presently is to the tune of 38 million tonnes per annum. India is fourth in the world as far as coal ash generation is concerned. USSR is first, (100 million tonnes), then come USA (45 million tonnes) and China (41 million tonnes). The basic problem of thermal power station fired with high ash content coal is the generation of huge quantity of coal ash which would pose serious environmental and other related problems. The present paper analyses the extensive scope of utilisation of coal ash and enlightens the strategies to be adopted to overcome the related problems for proper utilisation of coal ash. (author). 9 tabs

  14. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  15. Clean Coal Initiatives in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of, and access to, coal is a crucial element of modern economies and it helps pave the way for human development. Accordingly, the thermal power sector and steel industries have been given a high priority in the national planning processes in India and a concerted focus on enhancing these sectors have resulted in significant gain in generation and availability of electricity and steel in the years since independence. To meet the need of huge demand of power coal is excavated. The process of excavation to the use of coal is potential enough to degrade the environment. Coal Mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities directly and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coal field in India have become derelict due to abandoned and active opencast and underground mines. The study is pursued to illustrate the facts which show the urgent need to clean coal mining in India.

  16. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  17. Remaking the World's Largest Coal Market

    OpenAIRE

    Rui, Huaichuan; Morse, Richard, K; He, Gang

    2010-01-01

    China's coal market is now in the midst of a radical restructuring that has the potential to change how coal is produced, traded and consumed both in China and the rest of the world. The restructuring aims to integrate the coal and power sectors at giant "coal-power bases" that combined would churn out more coal annually than all the coal produced in the entire United States. Coal-power integration is now a focal point of the Chinese government's energy policy, driven by the dram...

  18. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  19. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  20. Pyrolysis of coal with nitric acid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soneda, Y.; Makino, M.; Kaiho, M. [National Institute of Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Four coal samples, Wandoan, Datong, Taiheiyo and Mequinenza, were treated with nitric acid and the inorganic sulfur compounds in coal were removed. The amount of hydrogen sulfide liberated from the coal by the nitric acid treatment during pyrolysis in hydrogen increased in comparison with raw coals and its liberation curves plotted against temperature also changed. It is suggested from {sup 13}C-NMR and FT-IR measurement of raw and treated coal samples that the oxidation of coals by nitric acid treatment was not remarkable, while the amounts of aliphatic carbons in treated coals were slightly decreased. 3 figs.

  1. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  2. Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash - SEM and Moessbauer Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion processes, and to determine the changes that occur in these phases during weathering. Iron in coal is mainly associated with sulphur in the minerals pyrite and jarosite, whilst other iron-bearing minerals such as illite and ankerite also occur, but also occurs as a trace element in kaolinite, a major clay mineral present in coal. The amounts of these minerals vary considerably in coals from diverse origins and thus coal samples from six coal-producing areas in South Africa were studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and SEM analyses. With the aid of Moessbauer spectroscopy, the iron-bearing minerals were identified in the coal, coal ash and weathered coal, whereas in the SEM analyses, apart from these minerals, the non-iron-bearing minerals were identified and found to be mainly quartz, clay minerals and carbonates. Differences in mineral composition were found between the coals from the different regions. Ash samples, obtained from the Lethabo electricity power plant, South Africa, were investigated and laboratory simulations were performed to obtain a comparable analysis of the industrial ash samples. At the high temperatures (?1400oC) of combustion in the power plant, fly ash and agglomerates are produced and the Moessbauer spectra resulted in twnd the Moessbauer spectra resulted in two poorly developed doublets, typical of glass. In the laboratory simulation, carried out at temperatures ranging from 200o to 1200oC it was clearly observed how the pyrite changed to hematite and finally was taken up in the glass in addition to the hematite that formed. The high amount of calcium present, identified by SEM analyses, resulted in the agglomeration occurring of the fly ash. The weathering products were also identified using the same techniques and it was noticed that the pyrite changed to a sulphate when the wet coal was exposed to air drying.

  3. Late Permian paleomagnetic results from the Lodève, Le Luc, and Bas-Argens Basins (southern France): Magnetostratigraphy and geomagnetic field morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. E.; Pavlov, V.; Veselovsky, R.; Fetisova, A.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetic results are presented from 271 stratigraphically-ordered horizons at four locations in southern France. Our focus is mainly on the Late Permian (258 horizons), but results from 13 horizons in the Triassic Buntsandstein are also reported. We argue that the Permian results extend magnetostratigraphic coverage up to the upper Capitanian Stage, some 6 million years after the end of the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron defined by the Illawarra Reversal in the Wordian Stage. When combined with published data, an overall mean paleopole at 49°N, 161°E (A95 = 4°, N = 9) is obtained. This is virtually identical to the upper Permian pole obtained by Bazhenov and Shatsillo (2010) using the intersecting great-circle method. Agreement between the two procedures, which are based on entirely independent data, supports the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) model.

  4. Analytical support for coal technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Valá?ek Václav; Pìgøímek Rastislav

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of success in the selection negotiation The Brown Coal Research Institute j.s.c. Most was authorized to process the project Phare D5/93 with the title "Analytical support to clean coal technologies". The elaboration of the task run in 1997 in a close cooperation with the Mining University - TU Ostrava; DBI - AUA GmbH, Freiberg, Germany; DMT mbH, Essen, Germany and Cerchar, Mazingarbe, France. In the work the available reserves of brown and hard coal and from them following possib...

  5. Clean coal technology: coal's link to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal, the world's most abundant fossil fuel, is very important to the world's economy. It represents about 70% of the world's fossil energy reserves. It produces about 27% of the world's primary energy, 33% of the world's electricity, and it is responsible for about $21 billion in coal trade - in 1990, 424 million tons were traded on the international market. And, most importantly, because of its wide and even distribution throughout the world, and because of its availability, coal is not subject to the monopolistic practices of other energy options. How coal can meet future fuel demand in an economical, efficient and environmentally responsive fashion, with particular reference to the new technologies and their US applications is discussed. (author). 6 figs

  6. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1989-12-14

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds., In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  7. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  8. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  9. Making coal clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As coal is available in large quantities and is cheap, but polluting, the authors describe the various processes developed for its capturing and storing. Their aim is to capture or trap carbon dioxide before it is released in the atmosphere, either before combustion (fuel de-carbonation) or after combustion (in smokes). One can also use oxy-combustion to produce a very concentrated and easily recoverable carbon dioxide flow. Then comes carbon dioxide sequestration for which several methods have been tested, but for which geological sequestration is the most common. As international agreements call for a stabilisation of carbon dioxide atmospheric concentration, capture and sequestration are only a part of the solution. Their consequences and uncertainties are also discussed, as well as available technologies in existing power plants which use either the conventional steam cycle, or the more recent integrated gasification combined cycle. But implementing these capturing technologies need incentives

  10. Nuclear energy versus coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is given of the consequences resulting from the Dutch government's decision to use both coal and uranium for electricity production. The energy yields are calculated for the total conversion processes, from the mine to the processing of waste and the demolition of the installations. The ecological aspects considered include the nature and quantity of the waste produced and its effect on the biosphere. The processing of waste is also considered here. Attention is given to the safety aspects of nuclear energy and the certainties and uncertainties attached to nuclear energy provision, including the value of risk-analyses. Employment opportunities, the economy, nuclear serfdom and other social aspects are discussed. The author concludes that both sources have grave disadvantages and that neither can become the energy carrier of the future. (C.F.)

  11. Coal gasification vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  12. Primer caso registrado en Cuba de nefropatía C1q / First case of C1q nephropathy in Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neri Georgina, Campañá Cobas; Agustín, Chong López; Sandalio, Durán Álvarez; Severino, Hernández Hernández; Mario, Valdés Mesa.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La nefropatía C1q es una glomerulopatía no comprendida completamente y con algunas controversias conceptuales, pero con característica inmunológica distintiva (depósito dominante o co-dominante de C1q) y no evidencia clínica ni serológica de lupus eritematoso sistémico. Se presenta paciente masculin [...] o que comienza a los 10 meses de edad con un síndrome nefrótico con hematuria, hipertensión arterial e insuficiencia renal. Se realiza una primera biopsia renal y se plantea una esclerosis mesangial difusa, pero su evolución posterior con respuesta parcial a la prednisona y el mantenimiento de proteinuria en rango nefrótico con normalización de los parámetros humorales, nos lleva a realizar una segunda biopsia renal que arroja, por la inmunofluorescencia, una nefropatía C1q. Abstract in english C1q nephropathy is a poorly understood glomerulopathy with some conceptual controversies, but with a distinctive immunologic characteristic (dominant or co-dominant deposit of C1q) and neither clinical nor serological evidence of systemic erythematous lupus. This is the case of a male patient who be [...] gan suffering nephritic syndrome with hematuria, blood hypertension and renal failure at 10 months of age. A first renal biopsy was performed to detect diffuse mesangeal sclerosis; however after partial response of the patient to prednisone therapy and to maintenance treatment of proteinuria in nephritic range, with normalization of humoral parameters, then a second renal biopsy was performed with immunofluorescence. The final result was C1q nephropathy.

  13. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  14. Clean coal technologies - problems and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachdev, R.K.

    2001-07-01

    The increasing use of coal in developing countries with its accompanying negative environmental impacts is discussed. The problems associated with the use of high ash coal used by power stations in India are outlined. Progress so far regarding the setting up of washeries in India to improve coal quality is reported and technologies for clean combustion and post-combustion of coal are listed, along with drivers for clean coal technologies.

  15. Inorganic Matter in Coal Particles of Coal Waste Piles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Z.; Fojtíková, M.; Mat?jka, V.; Kolomazník, I.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Trejtnarová, Hana; Martinec, Petr; Šulc, Alexandr

    Freiberg : TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 2010, s. 404-405. ISBN 978-3-86012-397-3. [Second International Conference on Coal Fire Research ICCFR2. Berlin (DE), 19.05.2010-21.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : coal wastes * inorganic matter * phase analysis Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling

  16. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  17. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessars that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  18. [Study of coupling mechanism between hydrocarbon generation and structure evolution in low rank coal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Zhu, Yan-Ming; Chen, Shang-Bin; Si, Qing-Hong

    2013-04-01

    The structure evolution in the process of low rank coal hydrocarbon generation was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Gaseous hydrocarbon yield and change law of functional groups were obtained. The results show that: the coal pyrolysis products are mainly gaseous hydrocarbon C1-5. Methane generation instantaneous yield curve contains four peak of hydrocarbon pyrolysis. Oxygen-containing functional group and alkyl side chain of low rank coal chemical structure reduced while aromatization degree increased along with coal rank. The characteristic absorption peak of coal structure of aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbon, methyl C=O base C=C of alkanes and aromatic structure of methyl and methylene were characterized by 2 950, 2 920, 2 860, 1 730, 1 705, 1 600 and 1 380-1 460 cm(-1) selected in FTIR spectra. Temperature 420 degrees C is the turning point, before the absorption peak intensity gradually decreases, and then increases slightly. Three major structural evolution stages of coalification mechanism were revealed. Finally, the low rank coal hydrocarbon structure evolution pattern was put forward. PMID:23841427

  19. Depositional setting and paleoenvironment of an alatoconchid-bearing Middle Permian carbonate ramp sequence in the Indochina Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udchachon, Mongkol; Burrett, Clive; Thassanapak, Hathaithip; Chonglakmani, Chongpan; Campbell, Hamish; Feng, Qinglai

    2014-06-01

    A Middle Permian carbonate sequence at Khao Somphot in the south of the Khao Khwang Platform has been measured and analyzed. This sequence is characterized by prolific fossil content and large, bizarre alatoconchid bivalves. Nine major microfacies types are differentiated and consist of: algal-foram facies, fusuline facies, alatoconchid facies, lime mudstone/wackestone facies, laminated bindstone facies, fine-grained cortoid grainstone facies, coral biostrome facies, crinoidal packstone facies and carbonate breccia/conglomerate facies. Laminated bindstone, lime mudstone with fenestral fabric and algal foram facies represent loferites deposited in a restricted intertidal zone of an inner ramp. Fusuline grainstone and cortoid grainstone facies indicate sand shoals of an inner ramp. The fusuline wackestone/packstone and alatoconchid facies were deposited in a subtidal, below fair-weather wave base environment in the mid-ramp. The crinoidal facies, which overlies collapse breccia, possibly accumulated during transgression in the deeper part of the mid-ramp. Storm deposits are prevalent throughout as thin accumulates and as alatoconchid floatstone/rudstone (coquinite) layers and are common in mid-ramp setting. The Khao Khwang Platform probably evolved from a rimmed platform in the Early Permian to a ramp in the Middle Permian. The general trend of ? 13C composition from both brachiopod shell and rock matrix from the lower part of the study section (Wordian) is significantly high. Moreover, the ? 13C signature from this interval is up to 8 VPDB‰, which suggests high productivity on the tropical Tethyan shelf of the Indochina Terrane. An abrupt negative shift in ? 13C in the late Wordian and late Capitanian indicating significant changes in paleoenvironment, productivity and the carbon cycle is probably contemporaneous with the Kamura event recorded from sediments of the mid-Panthalassa Ocean in Japan and elsewhere related to global cooling and a sea-level lowstand.

  20. High precision time calibration of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction event in a deep marine context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Brosse, Morgane; Bagherpour, Borhan; Schaltegger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    To construct a revised and high resolution calibrated time scale for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) we use (1) high-precision U-Pb zircon age determinations of a unique succession of volcanic ash layers interbedded with deep water fossiliferous sediments in the Nanpanjiang Basin (South China) combined with (2) accurate quantitative biochronology based on ammonoids, conodonts, radiolarians, and foraminifera and (3) tracers of marine bioproductivity (carbon isotopes) across the PTB. The unprecedented precision of the single grain chemical abrasion isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) dating technique at sub-per mil level (radio-isotopic calibration of the PTB at the biological timescales at resolution adequate for both groups of processes. Using these alignments allows (1) positioning the PTB in different depositional setting and (2) solving the age contradictions generated by the misleading use of the first occurrence (FO) of the conodont Hindeodus parvus, whose diachronous first occurrences are arbitrarily used for placing the base of the Triassic. This new age framework provides the basis for a combined calibration of chemostratigraphic records with high-resolution biochronozones of the Late Permian and Early Triassic. Here, we present new single grain U-Pb zircon data of volcanic ash layers from two deep marine sections (Dongpan and Penglaitan) revealing stratigraphic consistent dates over several volcanic ash layers bracketing the PTB. These analyses define weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 251.956±0.033 Ma (Dongpan) and 252.062±0.043 Ma (Penglaitan) for the last Permian ash bed. By calibration with detailed litho- and biostratigraphy new U-Pb ages of 251.953±0.038 Ma (Dongpan) and 251.907±0.033 Ma (Penglaitan) are established for the onset of the Triassic.

  1. Post-Middle Oligocene origin of paleomagnetic rotations in Upper Permian to Lower Jurassic rocks from northern and southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, Stuart; Rousse, Sonia; Farber, Daniel; McNulty, Brendan; Sempere, Thierry; Torres, Victor; Palacios, Oscar

    2003-05-01

    We report paleomagnetic data from 28 sites of Upper Permian to Lower Jurassic strata from northern and southern Peru. In northern Peru (6°S), a stable magnetic component from six Permo-Triassic sites passes fold and reversal tests. The overall mean pole agrees well with Late Permian to Triassic poles from cratonal South America, suggesting this part of Peru has experienced neither significant rotation nor latitudinal transport since the Permo-Triassic. In southern Peru (13 to 16°S), thermal demagnetization isolates stable magnetic components in 16 of 22 Upper Permian to Lower Jurassic sites collected along the transition between the Altiplano and the Eastern Cordillera. These 16 sites are rotated 14 to 147° counterclockwise and pass an inclinations-only fold test. Within the same structural zone, three other Permo-Triassic sites as well as 10 Paleocene sites also show important counterclockwise rotations [Roperch and Carlier, J. Geophys. Res. 97 (1992) 17233-17249; Butler et al., Geology 23 (1995) 799-802]. The large magnitude and exclusively counterclockwise sense of rotation suggest that the tectonic regime included an important sinistral shear component. No correlation exists between rotation amount and rock age, suggesting the rotations are post-Paleocene in age. Because the rotations occur along the fringe of the Eastern Cordillera, they were likely produced during its structural formation, hence from the Late Oligocene to Present. Sinistral shear acting in the northern part of the Bolivian Orocline appears much more pronounced than that north of the Abancay Deflection, which likely arises from differences in convergence obliquity.

  2. The fabrics and origins of peloids immediately after the end-Permian extinction, Guizhou Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Natsuko; Ezaki, Yoichi; Liu, Jianbo

    2004-02-01

    Peloids are major contributors to modern and ancient limestones, although their origins are not yet comprehensively understood. Upper Permian to Lower Triassic carbonate successions are well preserved at the Bangeng area in Guizhou Province, South China, where microbialites (thrombolites), coccoidal microbes and peloids are preserved together. These peloids are classified into three types (Peloid-A, B, C) that typically occur together along with coccoidal microbes and restricted bioclasts in a variety of microenvironments. Peloid-A is most common and exhibits close relationship with coccoidal microbes. Peloid-A1 has spherical grain and a size range typical for coccoidal microbes (10-60 ?m in diameter), whereas Peloid-A2 is marked by larger spherical and subrounded grains with diffuse margins, ranging from 70 to 200 ?m in diameter. Peloid-A1 is in part produced by the complete micritic filling in coccoidal microbes by their metabolic activities, whereas Peloid-A2 is related to the calcification of a colony of coccoidal microbes by their metabolic activities, or simply to the aggregation of individual peloids and coccoidal microbes. Peloids of this type might also originate from other carbonate precipitation processes. Peloid-B is derived merely by micrite filling in ostracodes and gastropods skeletons, whereas Peloid-C is of micritized-bioclast origin. These peloidal origins do not explain those of all environments and ages. Peloids are polygenetic in origin, irrespective of the presence of coccoidal microbes. However, it is emphasized that the peloids formed after the end-Permian extinction are dominated by microbes related ones. Those kinds of peloids might have occurred repeatedly and predominantly, especially in severely deteriorated environments such as those after the end-Permian mass extinction.

  3. Characteristics of claystones across the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary: Evidence from the Chahe section, western Guizhou, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suxin; Peng, Yuanqiao; Yu, Jianxin; Lei, Xinrong; Gao, Yongqun

    2006-08-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS) studies were undertaken for claystones and/or mudstones from the Chahe section—a terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (TPTB) section. Our results indicate that the compositions of claystones in the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) interval (Beds 66f-68) outlined by biostratigraphy are different from claystones and/or mudstones found either below or above the interval of the same section. The clay minerals in the claystones of the PTB interval are mainly composed of illite-montmorillonite interlayers, with a few montmorillonites and chlorites. The other claystones and/or mudstones underlying and overlying the PTB consist of chlorites and/or kaolinites. Some authigenic clastic minerals, such as hexagonal dipyramid quartz and zircons, are only found in claystones in the PTB interval from the Chahe section and some marine PTB sections in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, southwestern China. In addition, some elements are present in abnormal concentrations in the claystones of the PTB interval as well. Most important is that we found no spherules in all the claystones studied, indicating no evidence of an extraterrestrial impact during the Permian-Triassic transition. The particular characteristics of the TPTB claystones at the Chahe section indicate their volcanic origin and thus provide a reliable auxiliary event marker for high-resolution demarcation of the TPTB in South China. They are also indicative in the marine PTB claystones in South China. Thus, the PTB claystones can be used as auxiliary markers for high-resolution correlation of the PTB from marine facies to land in South China when direct fossil evidence in the PTB sequence is lacking.

  4. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

  5. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  6. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  7. Status of nuclear coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the utilization of thermal energy from high-temperature nuclear reactors, the energy requirements of a gasification plant can be met thus enabling the coal to be converted fully into utlizable gas. For the first time gasification is being carried out on pilot plant scale in a fluidized bed coupled with heat from a helium cycle under pressure and temperatures relevant for the high temperature nuclear reactor. The gas generator is a flat-bottomed internally bricked pressure vessel. The feed coal input is adjusted by pressure locks. Caking coal is injected in by means of jets. The helium in the heat exchanger is heated up electrically and then flows through the immersion heater-heat exchanger in the fluidized bed. The use of heat from a nuclear reactor leads to a reduction in carbon dioxides emissions since less coal is combusted. (KHH)

  8. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  9. Ash Microspheres for Coal Burning

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Estimation of perspectives for ash microspheres production at coal burning thermal power stations , development of methods for their quality certification. Creation of a database for ash microspheres in Russian Federation.

  10. Recent developments in coal petrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973 a major programme of coal exploration was initiated by Shell Companies operating in various parts of the world. While it was recognized that Coal Petrophysics was still a fairly new and inexact science, a policy decision was made at the outset to log every bore hole. Requirements are given for a suitable package of wireline instrumentation. Qualitative and quantitative use and interpretation of the logs are discussed. These include control on coring, correlation, determination of ash content, calorific value, rank, and identification of and characterising of overburden lithologies for mining engineering purposes. An integrated computer system is described to handle coal core analysis and petrophysical evaluation. This is based on a data bank of coal core measurements 'COGEO', on an interpretation system 'COPLA' and a data bank of interpreted values 'COPET'. A number of application subroutines generate Pseudo-Washability curves and vertical selection for mining feasibility studies

  11. Evidence of fossil and recent diffusive element migration in reduction haloes from Permian red-beds of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduction haloes are small, diffusion controlled redox systems involving the mobility of many elements and are common occurrences in Permian red beds in N. Switzerland. They can be regarded as sensitive indicators of recent water/rock interactions concentration profiles of 238U and 232Th are plotted as a function of distance from the centre of the halo and isotope ratios for 234U/238U and 230Th/234Th are given. Migration mechanisms and accumulation rates of uranium and thorium may yield important parameters for safety assessment modelling for radioactive waste disposal. (UK)

  12. Progress on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata in Rio Grande do Sul State, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of published papers and results of analysis of new material have allowed improvements on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata of the Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul State. Based on first and last occurrences of certain species of pollen taxa, two palynozones are formalized, these are the Vittatina costabilis and Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zones, in ascending order. The Vittatina costabilis Interval Zone is subdivided into two units, in ascending order the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis and the Hamiapollenites karrooensis Subzones, and is recognized from the glacial (Itararé Group and post-glacial sequence (Rio Bonito Formation and the base of the Palermo Formation. The Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zone occurs from the uppermost Rio Bonito Formation, through the Palermo and Irati formations, and into the Serra Alta and Teresina formations. The main characteristics and reference sections are established, as well as additional criteria to recognize biostratigraphical units, in accordance with the International Stratigraphic Guide. Palynostratigraphical correlation suggests that the Vittatina costabilis Zone concerns the Early Permian (early Cisuralian, while the Lueckisporites virkkiae is regarded as late Early Permian to early Middle Permian (late Cisularian to early Guadalupian.Com base na distribuição de grãos de pólen, duas unidades palinobioestratigráficas são formalisadas para o Permiano da Bacia do Paraná no Rio Grande do Sul. As unidades correspondem, da base para o topo, às zonas de intervalo Vittatina costabilis e Lueckisporites virkkiae, sendo a primeira subdividida em duas subzonas: Protohaploxypinus goraiensis e Hamiapollenites karrooensis. A primeira zona é considerada eopermiana (Eo a Mesocisuraliano, tendo sido detectada junto à seqüência glacial e pós-glacial referente ao Grupo Itararé e Formação Rio Bonito, abrangendo ainda porções inferiores da Formação Palermo. A Zona Lueckisporites virkkiae, considerada neo-eopermiana a mesopermiana (neocisuraliana a eoguadalupiana, ocorre nas formações Palermo e Irati, podendo ainda ser estendida a estratos mais superiores da bacia (formações Serra Alta e Teresina. Suas principais características e seções de referência são apresentadas, bem como outros critérios requeridos pelo Código Estratigráfico Internacional na proposição de unidades bioestratigráficas.

  13. Permian 40Ar/39Ar ages for post-Variscan minor intrusions in the Iberian Range and Spanish Central System

    OpenAIRE

    Perini, Giulia

    2008-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite from a calc-alkaline gabbro stock NW of Loscos in the Iberian Range yielded a slightly disturbed gas release spectrum. It has an early Permian, 288.5 ± 1.4 Ma total gas age, interpreted as the minimum emplacement age. The 40Ar/39Ar apparent age of the gabbro agrees with the Autunian stratigraphic age of related volcanic rocks. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating of amphibole phenocrysts from an alkaline camptonite dyke ca. 4 km SE of El Hoyo de Pinares in the Sierra Gua...

  14. Study of microspherules in the Permian-Triassic boundary of Wanmo section, Guizhou province, China, by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Chengzhi [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Fac. of Science, Dept. of Physical Sciences

    1998-03-01

    Many microspherules were extracted from the shale of the Permian-Triassic boundary of Wanmo section in the Guizhou province of China. Their number abruptly increased at one place leading to an interesting pattern similar to previous studies. The chemical patterns of these microspherules determined by PIXE analysis were compared with previous results from magnetic components of shale and meteorites. In contention with previous studies illustrating the intrusion of microspherules into the Solar System, it is postulated that the Solar System encountered the giant molecular clouds and the microspherules of the present study came from there.

  15. Study of microspherules in the Permian-Triassic boundary of Wanmo section, Guizhou province, China, by PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many microspherules were extracted from the shale of the Permian-Triassic boundary of Wanmo section in the Guizhou province of China. Their number abruptly increased at one place leading to an interesting pattern similar to previous studies. The chemical patterns of these microspherules determined by PIXE analysis were compared with previous results from magnetic components of shale and meteorites. In contention with previous studies illustrating the intrusion of microspherules into the Solar System, it is postulated that the Solar System encountered the giant molecular clouds and the microspherules of the present study came from there

  16. Why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important : an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States); Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This presentation explained why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important. The presentation provided an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, located in western Texas. Several illustrations were presented to demonstrate a stratigraphic sequence in black shale. Other topics that were discussed included geologic settings; paleogeography; silled basins; motivation for rock properties research; and factor analysis results. It was concluded that sequence stratigraphic analyses in black shales requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach. The presentation showed that third and fourth order stratigraphic cycles are indicated by the repetition of exotic beds whose composition vary regionally. tabs., figs.

  17. Paleotectonic reconstruction of the central Tethys domain since the Late Permian: the DARIUS Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, Eric; Vrielynck, Bruno; Brunet, Marie-Françoise; Robertson, Alastair; Sosson, Marc; Zanchi, Andrea; Brouillet, Jean-françois; Kaveh, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    The DARIUS Programme is a 4-years consortium sponsored by Major Oil Companies and Research Organizations. DARIUS drive together a group of academic scientific teams whose expertise includes several domains of tectonics (structural analysis, paleotectonic reconstructions, basin analysis, subsidence modeling), stratigraphy (paleontology, sequence stratigraphy, organic matter analysis), modeling, kinematics, and geophysics. The main objective is characterizing the tecto-stratigraphic evolution of a vast domain around Central Tethys extending from Black-Sea Anatolia in the west to western Central Asia in the east. One of the final products of the DARIUS Programme is a set of 20 paleotectonic maps of the DARIUS domain ranging in age from the Late Permian to Pliocene. In these maps we propose paleotectonic reconstructions of the south-central Eurasian and north African-Arabian plates starting after the Late Paleozoic Hercynian orogeny. These palinspastic maps are based on an up-to-date kinematics reconstruction of the African, Indian and Arabian plates with respect to Eurasia. For each map we depict the major tectonic-geodynamic features (i.e. the rifts, different types of basins, major orogens and fold belts, main transcurrent faults, subduction zones, accretionary prisms...) as well as the main paleofacies. Our reconstructions are based on an accurate timing of the tectonic events that have succeeded in the central Tethyan margins since the Late Paleozoic. These events include both the main orogenies resulting from collisions of major plates and blocks and the series of openings and inversions of basins that developed in the northern and southern Tethyan margins between the main collisions. Following the Variscian orogeny that ended in the Early Permian, the Mid to Late Triassic Eo- and Mid-Cimmerian orogenies are related to the collision of Gondwanian blocs with the Pangea margin after closure of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic domain. Then, for the rest of the Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic mainly developed: (1) a northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere beneath the southern Eurasian margin, and (2) a passive margin bordering the African-Arabian plate to the North. In this latter plate, riftings and basins developed until Late Cretaceous when the Neo-tethys ophiolites were obducted onto the Arabian passive margin. On the contrary, the North Tethys active margin recorded a complex tectonic evolution characterized by: (1) the opening of back-arc and marginal basins during the Triassic to Early-Mid Cretaceous times (e.g. Black Sea, Great Caucasus, South Caspian, Central Iran, Amu-Darya and Tadjik basins), and (2) regional compressions associated with the inversions and/or closure of these basins. The main inversions are Mid-Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, and uppermost Cretaceous-Paleogene in age. The first collision between major plates began in the Early Eocene when the northern Indian and southern Eurasian margins collided. The second one is the Arabia-Eurasia collision, which initiated in the Late Eocene. Both developed until Present, originating the Himalaya and Tien-Shan ranges and the Alpine chains respectively. After the complete closure of the remnant Tethyan oceanic domain, at the beginning of Neogene, the continent-continent collisions were developing all along the southern Eurasian active margin.

  18. Environmental impacts of coal mining and coal utilization in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Mamurekli

    2010-01-01

    Coal has remained the main source of energy in the UK from 1700 to the end of 1970s, and it still plays an important rolein the power generation. The paper discusses the current coal consumption in the UK together with environmental impacts of coalmining, coal processing and coal utilisation for power generation. Since coal remains the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gasesworldwide, methods for minimising environmental impacts of coal combustion are described in this paper including ...

  19. Comparison Analysis of Coal Biodesulfurization and Coal's Pyrite Bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    OpenAIRE

    Fen-Fen Hong; Huan He; Jin-Yan Liu; Xiu-Xiang Tao; Lei Zheng; Yi-Dong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) was applied in coal biodesulfurization and coal's pyrite bioleaching. The result showed that A. ferrooxidans had significantly promoted the biodesulfurization of coal and bioleaching of coal's pyrite. After 16 days of processing, the total sulfur removal rate of coal was 50.6%, and among them the removal of pyritic sulfur was up to 69.9%. On the contrary, after 12 days of processing, the coal's pyrite bioleaching rate was 72.0%. SEM micrographs...

  20. Storage and feeding of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  1. ORIGIN OF QUARTZ IN COAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Cecil, C. Blaine; Stanton, Ronald W.

    1984-01-01

    Both a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe (EMP) were used in this study to analyze the cathodoluminescence properties of quartz grains in samples of the Upper Freeport coal bed because quartz grains in coal are small (silt sized) and below the resolution capabilities of a standard luminoscope. Quartz grains were identified by the detection of silicon alone with energy dispersive X-ray units attached to both the SEM and the EMP.

  2. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  3. Black coal. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.)

  4. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen Daten. Ziele dieser `Erdgas-Inventur` waren, die Gasqualitaeten in ihrer raeumlichen Verteilung von der suedlichen Nordsee im Westen bis nahezu an die Ostgrenze Polens darzustellen, sie genetisch zu charakterisieren und eine Beziehung zu den geologischen Rahmenbedingungen herzustellen. (orig.)

  5. Thermal properties of Permian Basin evaporites to 493 K temperature and 30 MPa confining pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory measurements of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas, were made in conditions ranging from 303 to 473 K in temperature and 0.1 to 31.0 MPa in hydrostatic confining pressure. Within the +-5% measurement resolution neither conductivity nor diffusivity showed a dependence upon pressure in any of the rocks. Conductivity and diffusivity in all rocks had a negative temperature dependence. For the Cycle 4 salt samples, conductivity fell from 5.5 to 3.75 W/m . K, and diffusivity fell from about 2.7 to 1.7 x 10-6 m2/s. One Cycle 5 salt was a single crystal with anomalous results, but the other had a low conductivity with very weak temperature dependence and a high diffusivity. In the nonsalts, conductivity and diffusivity decreased 10 to 20% over the temperature range explored. In measurements of the coefficient of thermal linear expansion for Cycle 5 salt and nonsalts, the coefficient typically varied from about 12 x 10-6 K-1 at P = 3.0 MPa to 4 x 10-6 K-1 at P = 30 MPa for both nonsalt rocks. In anhydrite, it decreased with increasing temperature. In dolomite, the coefficient increased at roughly the same rate. Expansion of the salt ranged from 33 to 38 x 10-6 K-1 and was independent of pressure and temperature

  6. New palaeomagnetic results from the Oslo Graben, a Permian Superchron lava province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldan, M. M.; Meijers, M. J. M.; Langereis, C. G.; Larsen, B. T.; Heyer, H.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed an extended palaeomagnetic study of the Oslo Graben volcanics, compared to the study of half a century ago by van Everdingen, using modern techniques and a four times larger amount of sites, plus additional rock magnetic experiments. We conclude that the average direction (D = 204.0, I = -37.9, k = 46.9, ?95 = 2.0) and associated palaeomagnetic pole (? = 48.3, ? = 155.5, K = 52.2, A95 = 1.9) of the Krokskogen and Vestfold volcanics together are statistically identical to those of the earlier study. This gives confidence in the fact that older palaeomagnetic studies can be reliable and robust, even though methods have improved. Our larger number of samples, and better age constraints, enable us to separate the data into two major intervals: the younger, on average, Krokskogen area and the older Vestfold area. The results show firstly that palaeolatitudes are slightly higher than predicted by the latest apparent polar wander path (APWP) for Eurasia by Torsvik et al. These data support an early Permian Pangaea A configuration and do not necessitate a Pangaea B configuration. The larger data set also allows us to assess the distribution of the characteristic remanent magnetization directions of the Oslo Graben in terms of geomagnetic field behaviour, which were acquired during a long period of dominantly single polarity the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron (PCRS). The distributions show a significantly lower virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) scatter at the observed (low) latitudes than expected from a compilation from lavas of the last 5 Myr. The data do however show excellent agreement with the scatter observed both during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron and the PCRS. A comparison of the directional distributions in terms of elongation is less discriminating, since the large errors in all cases allow a fit to the predicted elongation/inclination behaviour of the TK03.GAD model.

  7. Thermal properties of Permian Basin evaporites to 493 K and 30 MPa confining pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering the Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Measurement conditions ranged from 303 to 473 K in temperature, and 0.1 to 31.0 MPa in hydrostatic confining pressure. Within the +-5% measurement resolution neither conductivity nor diffusivity showed a dependence upon pressure in any of the rocks. Conductivity and diffusivity in all rocks had a negative temperature dependence. For the two Cycle 4 salt samples, conductivity over the temperature range explored fell from 5.5 to 3.75 W/m.K, and diffusivity fell from about 2.7 to 1.7 x 10-6 m2/s. One of the Cycle 5 salts was a single crystal which had anomalous results, but the other had a low conductivity, about 3.4 W/m.K, with very weak temperature dependence, and a high diffusivity, 3.8 to 2.5 x 10-6 m2/s over the temperature range. In the nonsalts, conductivity and diffusivity decreased 10 to 20% over the temperature range explored, which was 308 -6 m2/s for the anhydrites and 1.4 x 10-6 m2/s for both the dolomites. The coefficient of thermal linear expansion was measured for the Cycle 5 salt and nonsalts over 308 -6 K-1 at P = 3.0 MPa to 4 x 10-6 K-1 at P = 30 MPa for both nonsalt rocks. In anhydrite, it decreased with increasing temperature at a rate of roughly 5 x 10-8 K-2 at all pressures. In dolomite, the coefficient increased at roughly the same rate. Expansion of the salt ranged from 33 to 38 x 10-6 K-1 and was independent of pressure and temperature

  8. Bone-conduction hearing and seismic sensitivity of the Late Permian anomodont Kawingasaurus fossilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaß, Michael

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of the internal cranial anatomy of the anomodont Kawingasaurus from the Upper Permian Usili Formation in Tanzania by means of neutron tomography revealed an unusual inner and middle ear anatomy such as extraordinarily inflated vestibules, lateroventrally orientated stapes with large footplates, and a small angle between the planes of the anterior and lateral semicircular canals. The vestibule has a volume, which is about 25 times larger than the human vestibule, although Kawingasaurus has only a skull length of approximately 40 mm. Vestibule inflation and enlarged stapes footplates are thought to be functionally correlated with bone-conduction hearing; both morphologies have been observed in fossorial vertebrates using seismic signals for communication. The firmly fused triangular head with spatulate snout was probably used for digging and preadapted to seismic signal detection. The quadrate-quadratojugal complex was able to transmit sound from the articular to the stapes by small vibrations of the quadrate process, which formed a ball and socket joint with the squamosal. Mechanical considerations suggest that the ventrolaterally orientated stapes of Kawingasaurus was mechanically better suited to transmit seismic sound from the ground to the fenestra vestibuli than a horizontal orientated stapes. The low sound pressure level transformer ratio of 2-3 in Kawingasaurus points to a seismic sensitivity of the middle ear and a vestigial or reduced sensitivity to airborne sound. Three hypothetical pathways of bone conduction in Kawingasaurus are discussed: 1) sound transmission via the spatulate snout and skull roof to the otic capsules, 2) relative movements resulting from the inertia of the mandible if sound is percepted with the skull, and 3) bone conduction from the substrate via mandible, jaw articulation, and stapes to the inner ear. PMID:25284624

  9. Depositional facies and environments in the Permian Umm Irna formation, Dead Sea area, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, I. M.; Turner, B. R.; Abed, A. M.

    1991-09-01

    The Permian Umm Irna Formation in central Jordan consists of a 60 m thick sequence of clastic sediments which can be divided into two fluvial sedimentary facies. The lowermost facies (1) is characterized by the presence of five sandstone-dominated fining-upward sequences, each sequence comprising an erosively based coarse- to fine-grained, trough cross-bedded sandstone, overlain and laterally intertonguing with maroon siltstone and silty-shale, containing locally abundant carbonaceous plant material. The overlying facies (2) also consists of up to five fining-upward sequences, each comprising an erosively based coarse-grained pebbly sandstone grading up through fine-grained sandstone and siltstone into silty-shale. The sandstones are tabular, and laterally persistent, internally complex units structured by erosively bounded trough cosets. The thickness and grain size of the sandstones and the proportion of siltstone and silty-shale is much greater than in facies (1); it also contains abundant ferruginous concretions (glaebules). Deposition occurred on an unconfined braidplain sloping northwestwards away from an elevated provenance (Arabo-Nubian Shield) in the south and east. The lowermost facies (1) is regarded as a distal environmental equivalent of the overlying facies (2). Deposition was largely controlled by period c shifts of the active channel tract, influenced by a gradual increase in the elevation of the source area, thereby promoting basinwide progradation and vertical stacking of the two major facies components. The ferruginous concretions (glaebules) in facies (2) are thought to have resulted from diagenetic processes in the vadose zone of a humid, possibly tropical climate, characterized by alternating wet and dry seasons and strong leaching. The fluvial depositional system drained basinwards into a shallow-water marine depository along the southern margin of the Tethys Ocean. The ocean may have exerted a maritime influence on the climate of the alluvial plain.

  10. The Shell coal gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Future Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and unmatched efficiency. Efficiency depends on many factors including the type of coal, the gasification process, the gas turbine, the steam cycle. NOx reduction measures and the degree and manner of integration. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an IGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for feeds ranging from bituminous coals to lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is ideally suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV). The excellent environmental capabilities of IGCC systems are based on well established treating processes for removing sulphur and nitrogen species form the syngas. IGCC processes produce modest volumes of environmentally acceptable effluents. Gas turbine burner developments imply lower NOx emissions. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology is being built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The plant is scheduled to start up in 1993

  11. Power Generation from Coal 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Coal is the biggest single source of energy for electricity production and its share is growing. The efficiency of converting coal into electricity matters: more efficient power plants use less fuel and emit less climate-damaging carbon dioxide. This book explores how efficiency is measured and reported at coal-fired power plants. With many different methods used to express efficiency performance, it is often difficult to compare plants, even before accounting for any fixed constraints such as coal quality and cooling-water temperature. Practical guidelines are presented that allow the efficiency and emissions of any plant to be reported on a common basis and compared against best practice. A global database of plant performance is proposed that would allow under-performing plants to be identified for improvement. Armed with this information, policy makers would be in a better position to monitor and, if necessary, regulate how coal is used for power generation. The tools and techniques described will be of value to anyone with an interest in the more sustainable use of coal.

  12. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  13. Panorama 2010: World coal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time when the international community must face the key challenges posed by global warming as well as sustainability in general and many of our fellow citizens have come to look unfavorably upon fossil energies, the world is still heavily dependent on these energies to cover growing global energy demand. With proved reserves equivalent to more than 120 years at the present rate of extraction, with a better worldwide geographical distribution than petroleum, coal seems like an especially secure energy. While the renewable energies are showing rapid growth but still only represent a small proportion of the world energy mix, coal was the energy whose consumption grew at the fastest rate and for the sixth consecutive year. This gives cause for concern when one realizes that coal is also the most environmentally harmful energy at local level (its extraction generates pollution) and globally (its combustion emits CO2). So how is it possible to reconcile the apparently irreconcilable, especially when, in some countries, coal represents the bulk of the energy resources? Since it is impossible to do without coal, the solution is to develop new 'clean coal' technologies, among which the capture and storage of CO2 looks like a promising pathway. In the process, it will be necessary to overcome major technical, economic and social challenges. (author)

  14. Experience from coal industry restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2001-07-01

    The second half of the 20th century was a period of crisis for the Western European coal industry. Throughout the region, hard coal production fell in response to changing energy and geopolitical conditions, with lower demand in both domestic and export markets. As a result, the number of working mines decreased substantially, and coal industry employment reduced drastically as greater investment was made in mechanisation while overall output continued to fall. Over the 50-year period, employment in Western European hard coal mining fell from around 1.8 million to less than 100,000. Employment in the region's lignite mines has also been cut substantially. This report looks at the measures taken by the authorities in six countries affected by coal industry restructuring in the last 40 years: Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Each highlights different aspects of the programmes put in place to try to offset the social and economic consequences of the loss of a major employer on the worst affected communities and regions. Having reviewed the different approaches taken by individual governments, within the regional assistance framework established by the European Union, the report evaluates the experience that has been gained. The aim is to assist decision-makers in countries with developing or transitional economies, where the restructuring of the coal or other major industries has yet to take place, by suggesting key aspects for consideration, based on this experience. 34 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  16. Ten questions on the future of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author comments data and information on the main uses of coal, the evolution of the coal share in the world energy consumption, the amounts and locations of coal reserves in comparison with oil and gas, the coal reserves left in the European Union, the world coal market characteristics with respect to those of oil and gas, the reason of the bad environmental reputation of coal, the internal cost of a KWh produced by a coal power station, the external cost resulting from its environmental pollution, the possibility of reducing those defects by 2020, 2040, 2060, the way of transforming coal into oil and to which cost, in order to expand its use to modern transports, the role of coal during the 21. century and the possibilities of CO2 sequestration

  17. Topological Cigar and the c=1 String : Open and Closed

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok, Sujay K.; Murthy, Sameer; Troost, Jan(Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte du CRNS et de l’ École Normale Supérieure, associée à l’Université Pierre et Marie Curie 6, UMR 8549 École Normale Supérieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, Paris, 75005, France)

    2005-01-01

    We clarify some aspects of the map between the c=1 string theory at self-dual radius and the topologically twisted cigar at level one. We map the ZZ and FZZT D-branes in the c=1 string theory at self dual radius to the localized and extended branes in the topological theory on the cigar. We show that the open string spectrum on the branes in the two theories are in correspondence with each other, and their two point correlators are equal. We also find a representation of an ...

  18. Topological cigar and the c = 1 string: open and closed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We clarify some aspects of the map between the c = 1 string theory at self-dual radius and the topologically twisted cigar at level one. We map the ZZ and FZZT D-branes in the c = 1 string theory at self dual radius to the localized and extended branes in the topological theory on the cigar. We show that the open string spectrum on the branes in the two theories are in correspondence with each other, and their two point correlators are equal. We also find a representation of an extended N = 2 algebra on the worldsheet which incorporates higher spin currents in terms of asymptotic variables on the cigar

  19. Draft genome sequence of Arthrospira platensis C1 (PCC9438)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee; Prommeenate, Peerada; Kaewngam, Warunee; Musigkain, Apiluck; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tabata, Satoshi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chanprasert, Juntima; Tongsima, Sissades; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Jeamton, Wattana

    2012-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium that is extensively cultivated outdoors on a large commercial scale for consumption as a food for humans and animals. It can be grown in monoculture under highly alkaline conditions, making it attractive for industrial production. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of A. platensis C1 strain and its annotation. The A. platensis C1 genome contains 6,089,210 bp including 6,108 protein-coding genes and 45 RNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome ...

  20. Draft genome sequence of Arthrospira platensis C1 (PCC9438)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee; Prommeenate, Peerada; Kaewngam, Warunee; Musigkain, Apiluck; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tabata, Satoshi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chanprasert, Juntima; Tongsima, Sissades; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Jeamton, Wattana; Dulsawat, Sudarat; Klanchui, Amornpan; Vorapreeda, Tayvich; Chumchua, Vasunun; Khannapho, Chiraphan; Thammarongtham, Chinae; Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Hongsthong, Apiradee; Ruengjitchatchawalya, Marasri; Meechai, Asawin; Senachak, Jittisak; Tanticharoen, Morakot

    2012-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium that is extensively cultivated outdoors on a large commercial scale for consumption as a food for humans and animals. It can be grown in monoculture under highly alkaline conditions, making it attractive for industrial production. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of A. platensis C1 strain and its annotation. The A. platensis C1 genome contains 6,089,210 bp including 6,108 protein-coding genes and 45 RNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome information has been used for further comparative analysis, particularly of metabolic pathways, photosynthetic efficiency and barriers to gene transfer. PMID:22675597

  1. C1-approximation and extension of subharmonic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria for the uniform approximability in RN, N?2, of the gradients of C1-subharmonic functions by the gradients of similar functions that are harmonic in neighbourhoods of a fixed compact set are obtained. The semiadditivity of the capacity related to the problem is proved and several metric conditions for the approximation are found. An estimate of the flux of the gradient of a subharmonic function in terms of the capacity of its 'sources' and a theorem on the possibility of a C1-extension of a subharmonic function in a ball to a subharmonic function on the whole of RN are established

  2. Novel C-1 Substituted Cocaine Analogs Unlike Cocaine or Benztropine

    OpenAIRE

    Reith, Maarten E. A.; Ali, Solav; Hashim, Audrey; Sheikh, Imran S.; Theddu, Naresh; Gaddiraju, Narendra V.; Mehrotra, Suneet; Schmitt, Kyle C.; Murray, Thomas F.; Sershen, Henry; Unterwald, Ellen M.; Davis, Franklin A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on cocaine-like compounds, there is no information on cocaine analogs with substitutions at C-1. Here, we report on (R)-(?)-cocaine analogs with various C-1 substituents: methyl (2), ethyl (3), n-propyl (4), n-pentyl (5), and phenyl (6). Analog 2 was equipotent to cocaine as an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas 3 and 6 were 3- and 10-fold more potent, respectively. None of the analogs, however, stimulated mouse locomotor activity, in contra...

  3. c < 1 string from two dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a topological string description of the c < 1 non-critical string whose matter part is defined by the time-like linear dilaton CFT. We show that the topologically twisted N = 2 SL(2,R)/U(1) model (or supersymmetric 2D black hole) is equivalent to the c < 1 non-critical string compactified at a specific radius by comparing their physical spectra and correlation functions. We examine another equivalent description in the topological Landau-Ginzburg model and check that it reproduces the same scattering amplitudes. We also discuss its matrix model dual description

  4. Topological cigar and the c=1 string: Open and closed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We clarify some aspects of the map between the c=1 string theory at self-dual radius and the topologically twisted cigar at level one. We map the ZZ and FZZT D-branes in the c=1 string theory at self dual radius to the localized and extended branes in the topological theory on the cigar. We show that the open string spectrum on the branes in the two theories are in correspondence with each other, and their two point correlators are equal. We also find a representation of an extended N = 2 algebra on the worldsheet which incorporates higher spin currents in terms of asymptotic variables on the cigar. (author)

  5. Gold, coal and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio U

    2010-03-01

    Jared Diamond has hypothesized that guns, germs and steel account for the fate of human societies. Here I propose an extension of Diamond's hypothesis and put it in other terms and dimensions: gold, coal and oil account not only for the fate of human societies but also for the fate of mankind through the bodily accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic, an invisible weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change. The background is clear; arsenic species fulfill seven criteria for a weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change: (i) bioavailability to all living organisms; (ii) imperceptibility; (iii) acute toxicity; (iv) bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity; (v) adverse impact on reproductive fitness and reproductive outcomes and early-age development and growth in a wide range of microbial, plant and animal species including man; (vi) widespread geographical distribution, mobility and ecological persistence on a centennial to millennial basis and (vii) availability in necessary and sufficient amounts to exert evolutionarily meaningful effects. The proof is becoming increasingly feasible as human exploitation of gold, coal and oil deposits cause sustainable rises of arsenic concentrations in the biosphere. Paradoxically, humans are among the least arsenic-resistant organisms because humans are long-lived, encephalized and complex social metazoans. An arsenic accumulation model is presented here to describe how arsenic accumulates in the human body with increasing age and at different provisionally safe exposure levels. Arsenic accumulates in the human body even at daily exposure levels which are within the lowest possible WHO provisional tolerance limits, yielding bodily arsenic concentrations which are above WHO provisional limits. Ongoing consequences of global scale arsenic poisoning of mankind include age-specific rises in morbidity and mortality followed by adaptive changes. The potential rise of successful forms of inborn resistance to arsenic in humans will make it certain that a number of other hardly won, nicely balanced human-specific adaptednesses will decline. These include a decline of encephalization and life-span, and consequentially intelligence and longevity. These changes are likely to have far-reaching impacts on biological and cultural evolution of mankind. The only efficient way of reducing chronic global exposure to arsenic and avoiding further human losses is the inactivation of important sources of anthropogenic arsenic such as hard rock mining and burning of fossil fuels. PMID:19846256

  6. Clean coal technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is found in huge amounts throughout the world and is expected to play a crucial role as an abundant energy source. However, one critical issue in promoting coal utilization is controlling environmental pollution. Clean coal technologies are needed to utilize coal in an environmentally acceptable way and to improve coal utilization efficiency. This paper describes coal's role in China's energy system and the environmental issues related to coal use. Coal is responsible for 90% of the SO2 emissions, 70% of the dust emissions, 67% of the NOx emissions, and 70% of the CO2 emissions. But as the most abundant energy resource, it will continue to be the dominant energy supply for a long time. Therefore, the development and deployment of clean coal technologies are crucial to promote sustainable development in China. Clean coal technologies currently being developed in China are described including high efficiency combustion and advanced power generation technologies, coal transformation technologies, IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Although China only recently began developing clean coal technologies, there have been many successes. Most recent orders of coal-fired power plants are units larger than 600 MW and new orders for supercritical and ultra supercritical systems are increasing rapidly. Many national research programs, industrial research programs and international collaboration programs and international collaboration projects have been launched to develop on IGCC and CCS systems in China. Finally, suggestions are given on how to further promote clean coal technologies in China.

  7. Perspective on coal waste management in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Hu, Z. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Inst. of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration

    2009-07-01

    Coal is China's most important energy resource. However in the process of coal mining and processing, coal wastes are generated, which is the main environmental pollution source in mining areas. The management of coal wastes has becomes an important priority in China. This paper discussed the current situation regarding coal waste management in China. The paper focused on the problems in coal waste management, and particularly on the characteristics and status of the environmental pollution resulting from coal waste piles. The successes and failures of reclaiming coal waste piles through afforestation were also discussed. The topics that were addressed included the volume of coal waste produced; the structure of coal gangue flows; risks from coal waste piles and the impact on air, water, soil and public safety; the current regulatory framework; status of current research; restoration practice of coal waste pile; and the weakness of current work. The focus and future efforts of research activities for coal waste management were also identified. It was concluded that much work remains to be done in coal waste management in China and that there is a need to further improve the regulatory and institutional management. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  8. Basinal analysis of the Ecca and Lowermost Beaufort Beds and associated coal, uranium and heavy mineral beach sand occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional sediment transport directions, major provenance areas and the controlling palaeotectonic and palaeogeographic frameworks of sedimentation have been reconstructed for the Great Karoo Basin during the Permian. Analyses of this magnitude can be useful in regional exploration programmes for coal, uranium and fossil heavy mineral beach sand deposits. The strong palaeogeographic control on coal deposition is demonstrated by the fact that some of the most important deposits accumulated in topographically low lying areas on the pre-Karoo surface. Such areas formed sheltered environments ideal for the growth and accumulation of organic material. Elsewhere relatively slow rates of subsidence of a broad, protected, low lying delta plain controlled the deposition of coal. North of the main Karoo Basin many of the coal deposits are confined to structurally controlled linear basins. Hundreds of sedimentary uranium occurrences of varying grade and size occur within a broad, discontinuous belt in the Lower Beaufort of the southwestern portion of the Karoo Basin. The uranium mineralization occurs in a variety of fluvial deposits usually rich in carbonaceous material. Minute tuffaceous fragments, reflecting contemporaneous vulcanism, form a minor but significant constituent in some of the uraniferous sandstones. The uranium occurrences are confined largely to the Southern and Western Facies of the Lower Beaufort, and occur mainly within the confines of the Karoo Trough. Coithin the confines of the Karoo Trough. Consolidated heavy mineral beach deposits have been found in the predominantly fluvio-deltaic Middle Ecca Group of the Northern Facies at a number of widely separated locations. These deposits were formed by shore line processes, such as the reworking of delta-front sands, during periods of temporary marine regression

  9. The coal resources of Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Martirossian, A. [United States Geological Survey, Yerevan (Armenia); Amazaspian, H.; Kochinian, G. [Ministry of Environment and Interior Resources, Yerevan (Armenia)

    1997-12-31

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a program of coal exploration and resource assessment in Armenia. The project is funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) as part of USAID`s emphasis on energy resources in the former Soviet Union. Relatively little is known about the coal resources of Armenia because the Soviet Union had many other sources for fuel. As part of the Soviet Union, Armenia relied on nuclear power, hydropower, or imported power for their electricity and heating needs. Within the Soviet Union, there was a universal centralized system for providing electricity and thus there was little reason to explore for fuel in Armenia. However, with the breakup of the Soviet Union, emphasis has been placed on finding and utilizing indigenous, non-nuclear resources for power generation. The USGS program is conducting exploratory drilling to expand the areas of known resources, characterize the quality of those resources, and estimate the resources in each geographic locality. Armenia`s coal resources are quite variable in terms of age (ranging from Triassic to Oligocene/Miocene), rank (apparent rank ranging from lignite to high volatile A/B bituminous coal), quality, and resource tonnages. Past work previously carried out by the Soviet Ministry of Geology on coal exploration and some early work by the USGS during the current program on the coal resources of Armenia are contained in this report. It is well known that the Soviet system (developed by the USSR Ministry of Geology) and the American system (developed at the USGS) of classifying coal resources are quite similar. Throughout this report, both classifications will be used together. Within the Soviet system, only those coal beds deemed economically viable have official resource estimates (that is, resource estimates approved by the State Committee on Reserves). Only one coal field in Armenia, the Djadjur field, has official estimates. Resource estimates have been calculated for other coal fields in Armenia by the USSR Ministry of Geology (now the Armenian Ministry of Environment and Interior Resources [MEI]) and are contained in this report, but they are not officially approved. All resource estimates contained in this report are from MEI; USGS does not yet have enough new data from the exploration drilling program to calculate new resources. As drilling progresses, new resource estimates will be provided.

  10. Study on pyrolytic behavior of coking coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, M.; Kidena, K.; Yamamoto, A. [Osaka Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In Japan, carbonization is playing a major role in coal utilization processes, tile technical history of which has been summarized by Miyazu. Therefore this industry has very sophisticated measurements in evaluating coal. Gieseler fluidity and vitrinite reflectance of coal are generally used as indices for blending to make high quality cokes. Gieseler fluidity seems to be a good parameter to represent polymeric properties of coal at high temperature while vitrinite reflectance is considered to be the parameter related to the orientation of aromatic moieties in coal. We, however, consider that these two parameters seem to lack molecular information about chemical reactivity of coal. Recently, understanding coal plasticity at molecular level is now requested in coal carbonization industry. Two major theories have been proposed so far for chemical concept of thermal plasticity. One is the metaplast theory and the other is hydrogen transfer theory. The former theory was supported by Ouchi et al.. Neavel had proposed that transferable hydrogen could stabilize radicals generated from thermal bond cleavage reaction during heating of coal. Yokono and Sanada had developed the method to evaluate amounts of transferable hydrogen in coal by using reaction of coal with anthracene at 400{degrees}C. Clemens et al. had reported that oxidation of coal leads to loss of coal plasticity and addition of a solvent-soluble fraction of coal to the oxidized coal resulted in recovering coal plasticity. In this study we carried out a detailed analysis of hydrogen transfer reaction from coal to several polyaromatic compounds like naphthacene and pyrene along with anthracene and tried to find out what parts of coal organic material play an actual role as hydrogen donor sites based on measurements of MAS {sup 13}C-NMR.

  11. Coal resources of selected coal beds and zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Ruppert; Susan Tewalt; Linda Bragg

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is completing a National Coal Resource Assessment of five coal-producing regions of the United States, including the Appalachian Basin. The USGS, in cooperation with the State geological surveys of Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, has completed a digital coal resource assessment of five of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions -- the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal zones, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. Of the 93 billion short tons of original coal in these units, about 66 billion short tons remain. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Coal and the Industrial Revolution, 1700 - 1869

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Gregory; Jacks, David S.

    2006-01-01

    How important was coal to the Industrial Revolution? Despite the huge growth of output, and the grip of coal and steam on the popular image of the Industrial Revolution, recent cliometric accounts have assumed coal mining mattered little to the Industrial Revolution. In contrast both E. A. Wrigley and Kenneth Pomeranz have made coal central to the story. This paper constructs new series on coal rents, the price of coal at pithead and at market, and the price of firewood, and uses them to exam...

  13. Behavior of sulphur during combustion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different type coals with varying sulphur content have been subjected to burning test in a laboratory size stove. So2 emissions have been determined by online detection and calculation from sulphur in ash. Lime added coal and briquettes have also been tested. Experimental results indicated that almost 90% of the sulphur is emitted during coal burning. In the case of lime added coal and briquettes 50% of the total sulphur was retained in the coal ash. This paper describes the apparatus used for combustion tests and chemical characteristics of the coal under investigation. Experimental results are given in the tables and presented in graphical forms. The results and estimations are discussed

  14. The Influencing Factors of Coal Reservoir Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jun-shan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of coal reservoir is the most important influencing factor for choosing favorable area and production of coalbed methane, this article takes a detailed analysis of coal rank, thickness of coal seam, coal structure, construct curvature, effective stress, Klingberg effect and matrix shrinkage effect on reservoir permeability with comprehensive information consulting, literature review methods. The results show that coal reservoir is dual pore structure; the degree of development of fracture directly influences the size of the coal seam permeability. The growth of natural fracture density and lithotype band or negatively correlate to the layer thickness.

  15. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  16. AUthigenic feldspar as an indicator of paleo-rock/water interactions in Permian carbonates of the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotl, C.; Kralik, M.; Kunk, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Dolostones interbedded with Upper Permian evaporites at the base of the Northern Calcareous Alps contain abundant authigenic K-feldspar. Two petrographically, structurally, and isotopically distinct generations of K-feldspar can be distinguished: crystals composed of an inclusion-rich core and a clear rim, and optically unzoned, transparent crystals. Both feldspar types have essentially identical K-feldspar end-member compositions with ??? 99.5 mole % Or component. Low oxygen isotope ratios (+16.1??? to +18.1??? SMOW) suggest precipitation from 18O-enriched, saline fluids at temperatures in excess of ??? 140??C. 40Ar/39Ar plateau-age spectra of five samples range from 145 ?? 1 to 144 ?? 1 Ma (Early Berriasian) and suggest that both types of feldspar were formed within an interval that did not exceed ??? 2 m.y. Rb/Sr model ages range from 152 to 140 Ma, assuming that the burial diagenetic regime was buffered with respect to strontium by the associated marine Permian evaporites. Authigenic K-feldspar records two distinct events of hot brine flow, most likely triggered by tectonic movements (detachment) and by an increase in the subsurface temperature in response to thrust loading.

  17. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas panhandle portion of the Permian Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, proved to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study

  18. Authigenic feldspar as an indicator of paleo-rock/water interactions in Permian carbonates of the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoetl, C. [Univ. Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie; Kralik, M. [Bundesforschungs-und Pruefzentrum Arsenal, Vienna (Austria). Geotechnisches Inst.; Kunk, M.J. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Dolostones interbedded with Upper Permian evaporites at the base of the Northern Calcareous alps contain abundant authigenic K-feldspar. Two petrographically, structurally, and isotopically distinct generations of K-feldspar can be distinguished: crystals composed of an inclusion-rich core and a clear rim, and optically unzoned, transparent crystals. Both feldspar types have essentially identical K-feldspar end-member compositions with {ge} 99.5 mole % Or component. Low oxygen isotope ratios (+16.1{per_thousand} to + 18.1{per_thousand} SMOW) suggest precipitation from {sup 18}O-enriched, saline fluids at temperatures in excess of {approximately} 140 C. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar plateau-age spectra of five samples range from 145 {+-} 1 to 144 {+-} 1 Ma (Early Berriasian) and suggest that both types of feldspar were formed within an interval that did not exceed {approximately} 2 m.y. Rb/Sr model ages range from 152 to 140 Ma, assuming that the burial diagenetic regime was buffered with respect to strontium by the associated marine Permian evaporites. Authigenic K-feldspar records two distinct events of hot brine flow, most likely triggered by tectonic movements (detachment) and by an increase in the subsurface temperature in response to thrust loading.

  19. Irradiation of quartz grains - a new method of sedimentological analysis applied to Permian - Carboniferous arenites in the Maranhao Basin - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quartz grains of sediments and sedimentary rocks change their colour in variable intensity to smoky-quartz by X-ray irradiation, Co60 or in reactors, dependent on their temperature of cristallization. The quantity of quartz grains which were stained and which were not stained after being irradiated are related to rock types from the source areas. This method was applied for selected sandstones of different stratigraphical levels of the Permian-Carboniferous in the Maranhao Basin of Brazil. Studeis on heavy minerals of these sandstones have been done before. The heavy mineral associations of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation corroborate the results of the analysis of quartz grains which indicate a predominance of the metamorphic rocks in the source area. However, the heavy mineral parageneses of the Carboniferous Piaui Formation are different. This may be because the frequency of those heavy minerals depend directly on the stage of the weathering of the sandstones. It should be mentioned that heavy minerals occur in paleozoic sediments only in a small quantity, sometimes below 1% of the rock constitution. The irradiation analysis, which is applied for the predominant mineral in sandstones, appears to be most reliable. It is used here as the basis for the interpretations presented. (Author)