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1

An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of southern Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coal deposits of southern African countries (Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Nambia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania. Zambia and Zimbabwe) are reviewed. The coal seams formed during two periods, the Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) and the Late Permian (Ufimian-Kazanian). The coals are associated with non-marine terrestrial elastic sedimentary sequences, most commonly mudrock and sandstones, assigned to the Karoo Supergroup. The Early Permian coals are mainly sandstone-hosted while the younger coals typically occur interbedded with mudstones. The sediments were deposited in varying tectono-sedimentary basins such as foreland, intracratonic rifts and intercratonic grabens and half-grabens. The depositional environments that produced the coal-bearing successions were primarily deltaic and fluvial, with sonic minor shoreline and lacustrine settings. Coals vary in rank from high-volatile bituminous to anthracite and characteristically have a relatively high inertinite component, and medium- to high-ash content.

Cairncross, B. [Rand Afrikaans University, Gauteng (South Africa). Dept Geology

2001-07-01

2

Geochemical characteristics of Carboniferous-Permian coal-formed gas in Bohai Bay Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal-formed gas reservoirs have been found in several depressions in Bohai Bay Basin. The gas was mainly generated by the Carboniferous-Permian coal measures, which are good source rocks. The exploration of coal-formed gas has a broad prospect. The main reservoirs of the coal-formed gas are Ordovician, Carboniferous-Permian, and Paleogene stratum. Coal-formed gas in the Bohai Bay Basin is chiefly composed of hydrocarbon gases. The percentage content of carbon dioxide is more than that of the nitrogen gas. The stable carbon isotope values of the hydrocarbon gases of different depressions and different reservoirs usually reversed. The reversed values of gas samples account for 52.1% of all the samples. Reversion values of the carbon isotope are mainly because of the mixing of gases from same source rocks but with different maturity. Among the three main reservoirs, coal-formed gas preserved in Paleogene stratum has the heaviest carbon isotope, the second is the gas in Carboniferous-Permian stratum, and the Ordovician gas possesses the lightest carbon isotope. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of carbon isotope of hydrocarbon gases in well Qishen-1 and the distribution of the Carboniferous-Permian coal measures, the gas of the well is derived from the high-matured Carboniferous-Permian coal measures.

Shipeng Huang; Fengrong Liao; Xiaoqi Wu [PetroChina, Beijing (China). Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development

2010-03-15

3

Petrochemical basis for the rank (maturity) evaluation of Permian coals of the Ramagundan coal belt, Godavari Valley coalfield Andhra Pradesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Permian coals of Ramagundam coalfield are subbituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank on the basis of chemical (carbon, and volatile matter) and petrographic (as kerogen type-III) analysis. Reflectance values suggest maturation temperatures ranging from 46{degree}C and 108{degree}C and depth of burial of coal bearing horizons varies from 1725 to 2175 metres.

Singh, G.P. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Geology

1997-10-01

4

Comparative petrological analysis between the Permian coals of India and Western Australia: paleoenvironments and thermal history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian sequences preserved in Western Australian basins (Collie, Perth and Canning) and the Gondwana basins of India (Damodar, Son-Mahanadi, Pench-Kanhan and Godavari Valley) have similar stratigraphic succession, faunal and floral assemblages, coal types and rank, and structure. The type and rank of the Permian coals indicate a similar depositional and thermal histories for the basins studied in India and western Australia. This is consistent with the view that India and Western Australia were in close proximity before the break up of Gondwanaland.

Mishra, H.K. [Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Ltd., Ranchi (India). Division of Exploration

1996-10-01

5

Unique organic remains from an upper Permian coal bearing sequence in the Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The playnological assemblage of coal bearing upper Permian sequence of Talcher Coalfield registers presence of some peculiar organic remains. These are described as Orissiella gen. nov., which is characterized by a vesicle with collar-like structure at the oral end, spines and or corrugations on the body. The affinity and palaeoecological significance of Orissiella is also discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 plates.

Tripathi, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

2004-07-01

6

Megaspores from coals of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation (Lower Permian), northeastern Paraná State, Brazil  

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This paper presents the results of a detailed study of megaspores occurring in coal seams of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation at Figueira, Paraná State, Brazil. This coal-bearing sequence accumulated in a marine delta system during the Early Permian. Four species are described and illustrated: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, and Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Of these, the two species of Lagenoisporites are predominant. Relationships to othe...

RICARDI-BRANCO FRESIA; ARAI MITSURU; RÖSLER OSCAR

2002-01-01

7

Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica  

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Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest-mire communities dominated by glossopterid and noeggerathiopsid gymnosperms.

Holdgate, G.R. [School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); McLoughlin, S. [School of Natural Resource Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Drinnan, A.N. [School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20092 (United States)

2005-07-20

8

Generation and expulsion of oils from Permian coals of the Sydney Basin, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organic geochemical and petrological assessment of coals/coaly shales and fine grained sediments, coupled with organic geochemical analyses of oil samples, all from Permo-Triassic sections of the Southern Sydney Basin (Australia), have enabled identification of the source for the widely distributed oil shows and oil seeps in this region. The Permian coals have higher hydrogen indices, higher liptinite contents, and much higher total organic matter extract yields than the fine grained sediments. A variety of source specific parameters obtained from n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids, terpanes, steranes and diasteranes indicate that the oil shows and seeps were generated and expelled predominantly from higher plant derived organic matter deposited in oxic environments. The source and maturity related biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions of the oils are similar to those of the coals. The oil-coal relationship also is demonstrated by similarities in the carbon isotopic composition of the total oils, coal extracts, and their individual n-alkanes. Extracts from the Permo-Triassic fine grained sediments, on the other hand, have organic geochemical signatures indicative of mixed terrestrial and prokaryotic organic matter deposited in suboxic environments, which are significantly different from both the oils and coal extracts. The molecular signatures indicating the presence of prokaryotic organic matter in some of the coal extracts and oils may be due to thin sections of possibly calcareous lithologies interbedded within the coal measures. The genetic relationship between the oils and coals provides new evidence for the generation and expulsion of oils from the Permian coals and raises the possibility for commercial oil accumulations in the Permian and Early Triassic sandstones, potentially in the deeper offshore part of the Sydney Basin.

Ahmed, M.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Faiz, M.; Stalker, L. [CSIRO Petrology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2009-07-15

9

Megaspores from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam, Sydney Basin, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 300 megaspore specimens have been recovered from samples from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam of the Wittingham Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin. Only two species are recognised: Singhisporites surangei (Singh) Potonié, emend. and a new species of Singhisporites. Species distribution within the seam is controlled by a major fire event, as recognised by coal petrology and mesofossil content: Singhisporites surangei is dominant before the event, but following it, it is subordinate to the new species.The abundance of megaspores recovered has allowed recognition of the full range of morphologic variation of Singhisporites surangei, which encompasses specimens assigned previously to Singraulispora Pant & Mishra, 1986 and Mammilaespora Pant & Srivastava, 1961; both are regarded as junior synonyms of Singhisporites Potonié, emend. Ultrastructurally, the new species shows affinities with Mesozoic isoetalean megaspores. PMID:10930606

Glasspool

2000-07-01

10

Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian extinction decimated up to 95% of carbonate shell-bearing marine species and 80% of land animals. Isotopic excursions, dissolution of shallow marine carbonates, and the demise of carbonate shell-bearing organisms suggest global warming and ocean acidification. The temporal association of the extinction with the Siberia flood basalts at approximately 250 Ma is well known, and recent evidence suggests these flood basalts may have mobilized carbon in thick deposits of organic-rich sediments. Large isotopic excursions recorded in this period are potentially explained by rapid venting of coal-derived methane, which has primarily been attributed to metamorphism of coal by basaltic intrusion. However, recently discovered contemporaneous deposits of fly ash in northern Canada suggest large-scale combustion of coal as an additional mechanism for rapid release of carbon. This massive coal combustion may have resulted from explosive interaction with basalt sills of the Siberian Traps. Here we present physical analysis of explosive eruption of coal and basalt, demonstrating that it is a viable mechanism for global extinction. We describe and constrain the physics of this process including necessary magnitudes of basaltic intrusion, mixing and mobilization of coal and basalt, ascent to the surface, explosive combustion, and the atmospheric rise necessary for global distribution. PMID:22184229

Ogden, Darcy E.; Sleep, Norman H.

2012-01-01

11

The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)

2010-08-01

12

The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and oloral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

13

Coal petrology of coal seams from the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Lower Permian of the Parana Basin, Brazil - Implications for coal facies interpretations  

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In the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul the coal seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin, Brazil and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. This study is the first detailed investigation on the coal petrographic characterization of the coal-bearing sequence in relation to the depositional settings of the precursor mires, both in terms of whole seam characterization and in-seam variations. The study is based on the analyses of nine coal seams (I2, CI, L4, L3, L2, L1, S3, S2, S1), which were selected from core of borehole D-193, Leao-Butia and represent the entire coal-bearing sequence. The interpretation of coal facies and depositional environment is based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses using different facies-critical petrographic indices, which were displayed in coal facies diagrams. The seams are characterized by the predominance of dull lithotypes (dull, banded dull). The dullness of the coal is attributed to relatively high mineral matter, inertinite and liptinite contents. The petrographic composition is dominated by vitrinite (28-70 vol.% mmf) and inertinite (> 30 vol.% mmf) groups. Liptinite contents range from 7 to 30 vol.% (mmf) and mineral matter from 4-30 vol.%. Microlithotypes associations are dominated by vitrite, duroclarite, carbominerite and inertite. It is suggested that the observed vertical variations in petrographic characteristics (lithotypes, microlithotypes, macerals, vitrinite reflectance) were controlled by groundwater level fluctuations in the ancient mires due to different accommodation/peat accumulation rates. Correlation of the borehole strata with the general sequence-stratigraphical setting suggests that the alluvial fan system and the coal-bearing mudstone succession are linked to a late transgressive systems tract of sequence 2. Based on average compositional values obtained from coal facies diagrams, a deposition in a limno-telmatic to limnic coal facies is suggested. (author)

Silva, M.B. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Geologica, Departamento de Geociencias, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Av. Italia km 08, Campus Carreiros, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2008-02-01

14

Radiometric age determination of tonsteins and stratigraphic constraints for the Lower Permian coal succession in southern Parana Basin, Brazil  

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Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons from tonsteins interbedded with coal seams from the Candiota and Faxinal coalfields (Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil) is presented. The mean ages obtained (290.6 {+-} 1.5 Ma) are more precise than previously published intervals. Calibrations of chronostratigraphic data with radiometric ages show that the main coal succession from the southern Basin is constrained to the Middle Sakmarian. The {+-} 2 Ma time interval of deposition supports the hypothesis that the coal-generating process was quite rapid in terms of geological time. In a general context, Faxinal and Candiota coals are assigned, into the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone, besides some paleocological differences evidenced by palynological studies. This bio-interval does not correspond to a consistent palynostratigraphic tool and more accurate biostratigraphic zonation for the Carboniferous-Permian interval must be delineated. The new results have far-reaching significance for correlations of the Basin with sequences of the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and also with the Karoo Basin, with the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). This new evidence supports the presence of an active and widespread Lower Permian explosive volcanic event in western Gondwana, which is interpreted as the same volcanism which produced the Choiyoi Group in western Argentina. According to this correlation the ash-fall source is located about 1400 km to the southwest of their area of deposition. (author)

Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Hartmann, Leo Afraneo; Formoso, Milton Luis Laquintinie [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, Joao Orestes Schneider [Centre for Global Targeting, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia); Ketzer, Joao Marcelo [Instituto de Meio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Avenida Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

2008-03-03

15

Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The content of trace element in pyrite vein depends upon the content of mosaic pyrite and of trace elements in it. Many environmentally sensitive trace elements are mainly contained in the minerals in coal, and hence the physical coal cleaning techniques can remove minerals from coal and decrease the emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements.

Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang; Liu, Jing [National Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Institute of Energy Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Ren, Deyi [China University of Mining and Technology, 100083 Beijing (China); Zeng, Rongshu [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100029 Beijing (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 East Peabody Drive, 61820 Champaign, IL (United States)

2002-12-01

16

Raman spectroscopy of coal component of Late Permian coals from Southern China  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical structural characterization of four samples (M-1, M-5, VS, and BaS) from Southern China was studied by Raman spectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis. Several Raman parameters, e.g., full width at half maximum (FWHM) and intensity ratio (ID1/IG), were obtained. Vitrinite (VS) and barkinite (BaS) were separated from the same coal sample, separately. The results showed that nine bands were assigned from the Raman spectra. Two typical bands, G and D1, have broad peaks, which showed that all the samples have poor order in chemical structure. Barkinite has higher disorder in chemical structure than vitrinite.

Wang, Shaoqing; Cheng, Hongfei; Jiang, Di; Huang, Fan; Su, Shen; Bai, Haipeng

2014-11-01

17

Centennial annual general meeting of the CIM/CMMI/MIGA. Montreal `98: a vision for the future; Geological setting, organic petrology and geochemistry of Permian coal, Western Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geological setting, petrology, and geochemistry of Collie Basin and Vasse Shelf coal are described. Data is presented based on three studies published 1986 to 1997. Early to Late Permian coal deposits in the Collie Basin, Vasse Shelf, and the Irwin River Sub-Basin contain measured resources of 1500 million tonnes. Current annual coal production from Collie Basin, the only Western Australian site where coal is being mined commercially, is 6 million tonnes. Based on vitrinite reflectance, the coal is subbituminous A to C. The maceral composition varies by seam, with those of the vitrinite and inertinite group predominant. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Sappal, K.K. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). School of Applied Geology

1998-12-31

18

Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the predominance of quartz and kaolinite (also pyrite). Gypsum, gibbsite, jarosite and calcite were also identified in some samples. Feldspar was noted but is rare. The major element distribution in the three seams (coal basis) is dominated by SiO{sub 2} (31.3 wt.%, mean value), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (14.5 wt.%, mean value) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (6.9 wt.%, mean value). Considering the concentrations of trace elements that are of potential environmental hazards the Barro Branco, Bonito and Irapua seams (coal base) are significantly enriched in Co (15.7 ppm), Cr (54.5 ppm), Li (59.3 ppm), Mn (150.4 ppm), Pb (58.0 ppm) and V (99.6 ppm), when compared to average trace elements contents reported for U. S. coals. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified, based on similarity levels, three groups of major elements and seven groups of trace elements. Applying discriminant analyses using trace and major element distribution, it could be demonstrated that the three seams from Santa Catarina show distinct populations in the discriminant analyses plots, and also differ from the coals of Rio Grande do Sul analyzed in a previous study. (author)

Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

2010-12-01

19

Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota) from a Middle Permian permineralised peat within the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fossil record of Peronosporomycetes (water moulds) is rather sparse, though their distinctive ornamentation means they are probably better reported than some true fungal groups. Here we describe a rare Palaeozoic occurrence of this group from a Guadalupian (Middle Permian) silicified peat deposit in the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. Specimens are numerous and comprise two morphologically distinct kinds of ornamented oogonia, of which some are attached to hyphae by a septum. Combresomyces caespitosus sp. nov. consists of spherical oogonia bearing densely spaced, long, hollow, slender, conical papillae with multiple sharply pointed, strongly divergent, apical branches that commonly form a pseudoreticulate pattern under optical microscopy. The oogonia are attached to a parental hypha by a short truncated stalk with a single septum. Combresomyces rarus sp. nov. consists of spherical oogonia bearing widely spaced, hollow, broad, conical papillae that terminate in a single bifurcation producing a pair of acutely divergent sharply pointed branches. The oogonium bears a short truncate extension where it attaches to the parental hypha. We propose that similarities in oogonium shape, size, spine morphology and hyphal attachment between the Permian forms from the Prince Charles Mountains and other reported Peronosporomycetes from Devonian to Triassic strata at widely separated localities elsewhere in the world delimit an extinct but once cosmopolitan Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic branch of the peronosporomycete clade. We name this order Combresomycetales and note that it played an important role in late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic peatland ecosystems worldwide. PMID:23936465

Slater, Ben J; McLoughlin, Stephen; Hilton, Jason

2013-01-01

20

Enrichment of U-Se-Mo-Re-V in coals preserved within marine carbonate successions: geochemical and mineralogical data from the Late Permian Guiding Coalfield, Guizhou, China  

Science.gov (United States)

We present multi-element data on the super-high-organic-sulfur (SHOS; 5.19 % on average) coals of Late Permian age from Guiding, in Guizhou Province, China. The coals, formed on restricted carbonate platforms, are all highly enriched in S, U, Se, Mo, Re, V, and Cr, and, to a lesser extent, Ni and Cd. Although the Guiding coals were subjected to seawater influence, boron is very low and mainly occurs in tourmaline and mixed-layer illite/smectite. Uranium, Mo, and V in the coal are mainly associated with the organic matter. In addition, a small proportion of the U occurs in coffinite and brannerite. The major carrier of Se is pyrite rather than marcasite. Rhenium probably occurs in secondary sulfate and carbonate minerals. The U-bearing coal deposits have the following characteristics: the formation age is limited to Late Permian; concentrations of sulfur and rare metals (U, Se, Mo, Re, V, and in some cases, rare earth elements and Y) are highly elevated; the U-bearing coal beds are intercalated with marine carbonate rocks; organic sulfur and rare metals are uniformly distributed within the coal seams; and the combustion products (e.g., fly and bottom ash) derived from the coal deposits may have potential economic significance for rare metals: U, Se, Mo, Re, V, rare earth elements, and Y.

Dai, Shifeng; Seredin, Vladimir V.; Ward, Colin R.; Hower, James C.; Xing, Yunwei; Zhang, Weiguo; Song, Weijiao; Wang, Peipei

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction  

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The end-Permian extinction decimated up to 95% of carbonate shell-bearing marine species and 80% of land animals. Isotopic excursions, dissolution of shallow marine carbonates, and the demise of carbonate shell-bearing organisms suggest global warming and ocean acidification. The temporal association of the extinction with the Siberia flood basalts at approximately 250 Ma is well known, and recent evidence suggests these flood basalts may have mobilized carbon in thick deposits of organic-ri...

Ogden, Darcy E.; Sleep, Norman H.

2011-01-01

22

Relative sea level control of deposition in the Late Permian Newcastle Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin, Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulation of the 400 m-thick Late Permian Newcastle Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin was controlled by changes in relative sea level. Three 3rd-order sequences, which constitute the coal measures, consist of 4th-order depositional sequences of fluvial conglomerate, coal, and small paralic/lacustrine deltas/crevasse splays, deposited on a coastal plain landward of a marine shoreline. Each 4th-order sequence was deposited during a single 4th-order relative sea level cycle. Following falls in relative sea level alluvial conglomerates derived from the New England Orogen filled incised valleys above sequence boundaries forming lowstand systems tracts. Sigmoidal conglomerates with 'giant crossbeds' were deposited as alluvial fill in compactional moats formed at the toes of abandoned paralic deltas. Alluvial sediments passed through the coastal plain directly to the marine shoreline causing the shoreface to prograde. Rising relative sea level, caused siliciclastic sedimentation to wane. During these hiatuses, in the transgressive systems tract, a rising water table stimulated peat mire growth blanketing the entire non-marine area. When the vertical accumulation of peat was outpaced by increasing rates of rising relative sea level, transgressing lagoons, interdistributary bays and lakes inundated the mires above maximum flooding surfaces. Continuing relative sea level rise in the highstand systems tracts caused paralic/lacustrine crevasse splays, crevasse subdeltas, and small deltas to prograde westwards into the Newcastle half-graben from a volcanic source on the Offshore Uplift. At this time of rising base-levels sediments were trapped on the coastal plain while the marine shoreface was starved. Falling relative sea level terminated paralic/lacustrine delta progradation and initiated exposure and erosion to repeat the cycle and initiate another 4th-order sequence. Two source areas supplied sediment into the Newcastle half-graben. An easterly source on the Offshore Uplift shed volcanic detritus into the Newcastle Coalfield via paralic/lacustrine deltas, and the New England Orogen shed volcano-lithic detritus via braided streams. The supply from the New England Orogen was switched on or increased by a fall in relative sea level while supply from the Offshore Uplift was switched off, reduced, or diverted, and vice versa during a rise in relative sea level. Increasing rates of 2nd-order falling relative sea level resulted in an upward change from predominantly marine shoreface and coastal plain sedimentation to predominantly fluvial sedimentation in the upper Newcastle Coal Measures.

Herbert, Chris

1997-01-01

23

In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal ?in Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

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Full Text Available Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and study in vitro toxicity of naturally occurring silica particles on BEAS-2B. Methods ?Separating the silica particles from combustion products of C1 bituminous coal by physical method, observing the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope, analysis elements by SEM-EDX, observed the single particle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscope, analyed its particle size distribution by Laser particle size analyzer, the surface area of silica particles were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption analysis; ?Cell viability of the experimental group (silica; naturally occurring, control group (silica; industrial produced and crystalline silica was detected by assay used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined after 24 h-72 h exposed to these particles. Results ?The physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal, which have different size, and from 30 nm to 120 nm particles accounted for 86.8%, different morphology, irregular surface area and containing trace of aluminum, calcium and iron and other elements; ?Under the same concentration, the experiment group have higher toxicity on BEAS-2B than control groups. Conclusion ?Physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal and not change the original morphology and containing trace; ?Naturally occurring silica nanoparticles have irregular morphology, surface area, and containing complex trace elements may has greater toxicity than the silica nanoparticle of industrial produced and crystalline silica.

Guangjian LI

2012-10-01

24

Late Permian global coal hiatus linked to {sup 13}C depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere during the final consolidation of Pangea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a time when all continents were finally arrayed in their Pangea supercontinental configuration (250 {+-} 50 Ma), Earth`s stratigraphy records a global and very abrupt coal discontinuity. From the Tartarian stage of the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic, reduced coal productivity and/or preservation overlaps with a period of anomalous oceanic and atmospheric decrease in {sup 13}C, as recorded in marine carbonates and organic matter, and terrestrial plant and animal fossils from the Northern and Southern hemispheres. During the same short period, the peripheral margin of the entire supercontinent Pangea, except for the southern shores of Tethys, was effectively under compressive stress. This unique tectonic state caused deformation and uplift of coal-bearing foreland basins and oxidation of Pangea`s vast peat deposits. The latter resulted in a rapid, massive {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere, which in turn may have forced global warming.

Faure, K.; Dewit, M.J.; Willis, J.P. [University of Cape Town, Rondesbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Geological sciences

1995-06-01

25

Palynology of an Early Permian coal seam from the Karoo Supergroup of Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

Two borehole cores from the south-east area of the Mmamantswe coalfield (Mmamabula area), Botswana, provided 124 samples for palynological analysis. The assemblage is dominated by trilete and alete spores, indicating a parent flora of mostly lower order lycopods, sphenophytes and ferns. Distinctive taxa at Mmamantswe include Brevitriletes levis, Cannanoropollis densus, Gondisporites raniganjensis, Platysaccus radialis, Scheuringipollenites ovatus, and Verrucosisporites naumovae. Saccate pollen is less common, suggesting the assemblage reflects the local vegetation of the coal swamp. The Mmamantswe microflora has been sub-divided into two assemblage zones, with the lower Assemblage Zone 1 correlating with Assemblage Zone 1 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone B of the Waterberg (South Africa) and the Milorgfjella assemblage (Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). The upper Assemblage Zone 2 of Mmamantswe is correlated with Assemblage Zone 2 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone C of the Waterberg (South Africa), and the No. 2 Seam assemblage (Witbank coalfield, South Africa). On the basis of these correlations the Mmamantswe microfloral assemblage is assigned to the Asselian, Sakmarian and Early Artinskian periods.

Barbolini, N.; Bamford, M. K.

2014-12-01

26

Origin and correlation of tuffs in the Permian Newcastle and Wollombi Coal Measures, NSW, Australia, using chemical fingerprinting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Felsic tuffs are common throughout the Late Permian Newcastle and Wollombi Coal Measures (NCM, WCM) of the northern Sydney Basin. Petrographic studies reveal that they are composed of fragmented crystals of plagioclase, quartz, and less common degraded biotite and K-feldspar, together with lithic fragments and relict, altered glass shards. Alteration during burial at T<100 C has resulted in the formation of illite/smectite (I/S; I{sub 62-78}), kaolinite, siderite/ankerite and, in extreme circumstances, tonsteins dominated by I/S. The latter is formed by the alteration of vitric tuffs. Zr/TiO{sub 2} and Nb/Y ratios, and rock-primordial and chondrite-normalised REE patterns (La/Yb=4.05 to 11.37) indicate that the tuffs have been derived from rhyodacitic to dacitic, continental arc, calc-alkaline magmas. The accuracy of a recent lithostratigraphic correlations between the NCM and the WCM has been tested by determining the chemical composition of four stratigraphically well defined tuffs in the NCM and comparing them with those obtained from tuffs of the WCM which are thought to be stratigraphically equivalent. The comparison was carried out using multivariate statistical analysis. The analysis revealed that two of the tuffs (Awaba, Nobbys) in the NCM could be distinguished; the others (Mt. Hutton, Warners Bay) showed considerable scatter. This contrasted with the tonsteins formed from the tuffs, which, apart from the Mt. Hutton Tuff, were able to be separated. In the WCM, three of the tuffs (Nalleen, unnamed tuff equivalent to the Mt. Hutton Tuff, Monkey Place Creek) could be separated; however, the fourth (unnamed tuff equivalent to the Warners Bay Tuff) exhibited some scatter. Treating tuffs in the WCM separately, as unknowns in the discriminant model to determine possible correlatives in the NCM, revealed that the Nalleen Tuff is equivalent to the Awaba Tuff in the NCM, confirming the lithostratigraphic correlation. The remainder of the tuffs in the WCM, however, show moderate to poor correlation with the proposed stratigraphically equivalents in the NCM. Thus, the analysis shows that correlation based on lithostratigraphic grounds may be incorrect.

Kramer, W.; Weatherall, G.; Offler, R. [Discipline of Geology, School of Geosciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

2001-08-01

27

Geochemistry of the late Permian No. 30 coal seam, Zhijin Coalfield of Southwest China: influence of a siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the influence of siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid on the elemental concentrations and mineralogical characteristics of the late Permian anthracitic (Ro,max=3.58%) coal seam (No. 30) from the Zhijin Coalfield in western Guizhou Province, SW China. Coal samples were examined using instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray, and isotope analysis. The modes of occurrence of elements were determined using a sequential chemical extraction procedure. The studies indicate that the No. 30 coal seam has a very high content of veined quartz (vol. 9.4%), whose isotope values of ?30Si and ?18O are 0.6 per mille and 15.4 per mille, respectively, indicating that the quartz originated from siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid (formation temperature 160-220 deg. C) rather than detrital material of terrigenous origin or magmatic hydrothermal inputs. Results of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray and sequential chemical extraction procedure show that the veined quartz is the dominant source of Fe, Cu, U, Pd, Pt and Ir, which are as high as 2.31%, 356, 8, 2.1, 2.43, and 0.006 ?g/g in this coal seam, respectively. The studies have also found that elements, such as Fe and so found that elements, such as Fe and Cu are mainly in the veined quartz and they do not occur as sulfides in this coal seam, in sharp contrast to many other coal seams in China. The geochemical and mineralogical anomalies of the coal are attributed to the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid

28

Trace element geochemistry of altered volcanic ash layers (tonsteins) in late Permian coal-bearing formations of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Trace element compositions were determined (by instrumental neutron activation analysis; INAA) in 30 samples of synsedimentary volcanic ash-derived tonsteins and detrital claystones from coal seams within the late Permian coal-bearing formation of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China. The characteristics of trace-element geochemistry in the tonsteins can be distinguished from those of detrital claystones because of the former's unique volcanic-ash origin. The detrital claystones are characterized by their relatively high content of V, Ti, Sc, Cr, Co and Ni, relatively low content of Th and U, Th/U ratio, and small negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* 0.63-0.93). Overall, these trace element characteristics are consistent with a mafic source similar to the composition of basalt rocks in the erosional region on the western edge of the study area. In contrast, the tonsteins are low in V, Ti, Sc, Cr, Co and Ni contents and have a high Th/U ratio with a distinct negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* normally in the range of 0.2-0.4), consistent with a silicic magmatic source. Within the group of tonsteins, those from the lower section (P2.1) of the coal-bearing formation are relatively high in Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and rare earth elements (REE), as compared to those from the middle and upper sections (P2.2+3). In trace-element discrimination diagrams (scatter plots) of Hf-Ta, Ti-Ta, Ti-V, Hf-Sc, Lu-Hf and Lu-Th, tonsteins from the P2.1 horizon always fall in isolated distribution areas, separate from the tonsteins of the P2.2+3 horizon. These results suggest that the source materials of tonsteins from the two separate horizons were probably derived from volcanic ash falls of two distinctly different natures. Based on a comparison of the concentrations and assemblages of trace elements between various magmatic rocks, the source materials of tonsteins from P2.1 horizon were mostly composed of calc-alkalic, silica-poor volcanic ash (similar to rhyodacitic magma), whereas those from P2.+3 were apparently more siliceous and K-rich (rhyolitic magma). Thus, tonsteins from the two different horizons are characterized by unique geochemical properties, which remain constant over a wide lateral extent. Integration of trace-elemental compositions with mineralogical and textural observations makes possible the establishment of tonstein stratigraphy, thus, facilitating more precise and reliable coal-seam correlations. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Trace element compositions were determined in 30 samples of synsedimentary volcanic ash-derived tonsteins and detrital claystones from coal seams within the late Permian coal-bearing formation of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China. The characteristics of trace-element geochemistry in the tonsteins can be distinguished from those of detrital claystones because of the former's unique volcanic-ash origin. The detrital claystones are characterized by their relatively high content of V, Ti, Sc, CR, Co and Ni, relatively low content of Th and U, Th/U ratio, and small negative Eu anomaly.

Zhou, Y.; Bohor, B.F.; Ren, Y.

2000-01-01

29

Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)  

Science.gov (United States)

This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

2012-01-01

30

Environmental and diagenetic analyses of Lower Permian epiclastic and pyroclastic fan deposits—their role for coal formation and uranium metallogeny in the Stockheim Trough (F.R.G.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Conglomerate-silt/mudstone successions are of widespread occurrence within Permian riftogenic troughs from mid Europe. Commonly these beds are abundant in volcanic detritus which was partly derived by weathering of volcanic cones, and partly from directly related certain eruptive pulses. The volcanic influence on sedimentation processes in the course of basin evolution decreases. The lowermost units contain abundant ignimbrites and lahars, whereas the overlying strata exhibit a gradual change from debris flow into more stream-dominated fan deposits. The outer-fan depositions built up by silty sediments, locally mixed with air-fall tuffs, contain coal seams. The coal-bearing host rocks may be categorized into four classes: (1) grey siltstones made up of prevalently non-volcanic detritus; (2) grey to black layers consisting of epiclastic and pyroclastic components; (3) silicified coal seams; and (4) brick-red petrified wood. Ore concentrations in these carbonaceous rocks result from the mobilization of elements from parent material containing large quantities of labile constituents. Four modes of strata-bound U concentration may be encountered: (1) U-bearing petrified wood remains; (2) U-bearing coal lenses; (3) U-bearing carbonaceous volcaniclastic conglomerates; and (4) U-bearing carbonaceous fine-grained tuffites ("fish eyes"). These U accumulations are produced during the course of early diagenesis of volcaniclastic material and coal-bearing beds. The reason for the very high prospectivity of these Permian mid-European sediments is the close intertongueing of carbonaceous matter-bearing rocks and volcaniclastic rocks necessary for the U supply ("uraniferous dirty coal"), in basins of rapid subsidence, which causes the bimodality of those clastic deposits.

Dill, Harald

1987-04-01

31

Sill-induced evaporite- and coal-metamorphism in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia, and the implications for end-Permian environmental crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. Petrographic investigations of the metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the crisis.

Svensen, Henrik; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

2014-05-01

32

Coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

33

Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2012-01-01

34

Permian potentiometric analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

35

Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arseating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

36

Impacts of Siberian Trap Eruption on NW Pangea during the Latest Permian Extinction (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sverdrup Basin, Canadian High Arctic, was located on the NW margin of Pangea during the Latest Permian Extinction. Strong mid-latitude westerly winds would have transported stratospheric ash clouds from Siberian Trap eruptions to the Sverdrup Basin, making it one of the best localities to examine impacts on marine systems. Three layers of organic rich shale, immediately below the Latest Permian Extinction boundary, are dominated by combustion-derived isotropic chars with optical properties that indicate intense, high temperature carbonization and rapid combustion of organic material that can not be associated with burial-related thermal maturation. These particles are consistent however with coal fly-ash suggesting significant loading of coal ash occurred just prior to the mass extinction. Deposition of coal combustion products could have had multiple deleterious affects including nutrient loading, light limitation, and release of toxic elements to marine systems. Loading events of toxic elements commonly associated with coal (e.g. Cr), are found associated with fly-ash layers. The Sverdrup Basin also records significant Hg anomalies associated with the Latest Permian Extinction, including a breakdown of the normal marine process of organic matter mediated Hg drawdown. High Hg loading rates are interpreted to be associated with the mega-eruption event of the Siberian Traps as volcanoes are the largest source of mercury in the natural Hg cycle.

Grasby, S. E.; Sanei, H.; Beauchamp, B.

2013-12-01

37

A sudden end-Permian mass extinction (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian mass extinction is the largest of the Phanerozoic. In the immediate aftermath the marine ecosystem was dominated by microbial and communities with disaster taxa. Plausible kill mechanism includes an extremely rapid, explosive release of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulfide. Siberian flood volcanism has been suggested as the most possible mechanism to trigger the massive release of greenhouse gases from volcanic eruptions and interaction of magmas with carbon from thick organic-rich deposits or rapid venting of coal-derived methane or massive combustion of coal. A sharp ?13C isotopic excursion, rapid disappearance of carbonate benthic communities and ?18O data from conodont apatite suggest rapid global warming. The end-Permian mass extinction occurred in less than 200,000 years. This extinction interval is constrained by two ash beds (Beds 25 and 28) at the Meishan section. However, the extinction patterns remain controversial largely due to the condensed nature of the Meishan sections. Geochemical signals and their interpretations are also contentious. Thus, the level of achievable stratigraphic resolution becomes crucial to determine the nature of the event and a detailed study of the extinction interval is essential to unravel the extinction pattern, chemostratigraphy, and the causes. However, the extinction interval at Meishan is only 26 cm thick and contains distinct gaps at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and possibly the base of Bed 25. Thus, it is impossible to resolve a detailed extinction pattern. Studying expanded sections is crucial to understand the detailed events before, during and after the main extinction. In this report, we show a highly-expanded Permian-Triassic boundary section in Guangxi Province, South China. The last 4.5 m between beds 22 and 28 of the Meishan sections is represented by a sequence of ~560 m at the section and the extinction interval between beds 24e and 28 at Meishan is represented by an interval about ~95 m which contains abundant benthic fossils. This expanded section reveals a very sudden extinction in a transgressive sequence that is inferred to have occurred within a few thousands of years.

Shen, S.

2013-12-01

38

Mongolian coal-bearing basins: Geological settings, coal characteristics, distribution, and resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents geological settings, stratigraphy, coal quality, petrography, reserves and the tectonic history of the Mongolian coal-bearing basins. This is based on a synthesis of the data from nearly 50 coal deposits. The results of ultimate and proximate analyses, and calorific value, maceral composition and vitrinite reflectance data is given. The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of the coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. The Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic coal-bearing sequences were mainly deposited in foreland basins by compressional tectonic event, whereas Cretaceous coal measures were deposited in rift valleys caused by extensional tectonic event. Petrographically, Mongolian coals are classified as humic type. Vitrinite/huminite groups of Carboniferous, Permian, and Cretaceous coal range from 44.9% to 82.9%. Inertinite group varies between 15.0% and 53.3%, but liptinite group does not exceed more than 7%. Jurassic coals are characterized by high percentages of vitrinite (87.3% to 96.6%) and liptinite groups (up to 11.7%). This might be explained by paleoclimatic conditions. Mongolian coal reserves have been estimated to be 10.2 billion tons, of which a predominant portion is lignite in the Eastern Mongolian province and coking coal in the South Gobi basin. (author)

Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea); Bat-Erdene, Delegiin; Jargal, Luvsanchultem [Faculty of Geosciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

2009-11-01

39

Permian-triassic life crisis on land.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in radiometric dating and isotopic stratigraphy have resulted in a different placement of the Permian-Triassic boundary within the sedimentary sequence of the Sydney Basin of southeastern Australia. This boundary at 251 million years ago was a time of abrupt decline in both diversity and provincialism of floras in southeastern Australia and extinction of the Glossopteris flora. Early Triassic vegetation was low in diversity and dominated by lycopods and voltzialean conifers. The seed fern Dicroidium appeared in the wake of Permian-Triassic boundary floral reorganization, but floras dominated by Dicroidium did not attain Permian levels of diversity and provinciality until the Middle Triassic (244 million years ago). PMID:17840061

Retallack, G J

1995-01-01

40

High precision radiometric ages from the northern Sydney Basin and their implication for the Permian time interval and sedimentation rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three pyroclastic samples that bracket the coal-bearing Permian System of the northern Sydney Basin have been dated using the zircon U/Pb and hornblende K/Ar methods. The Matthews Gap Dacitic Tuff Member, situated 170 m below the base of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 309 ± 3 Ma. Its age correlates well with the Paterson Volcanics which suggests that the immediately overlying clastic sediments are equivalent to the Seaham Formation. The Awaba Tuff, which is located 50 m below the top of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 256 ± 4 Ma. An intervening horizon, the Thornton Claystone of the Tomago Coal Measures, gives a best estimate of 266 ± 0.4 Ma. The ages indicate an earlier beginning ? 299 Ma BP), an earlier termination (? 255 Ma BP) and slightly longer duration (44±13 Ma) of the Permian System in the Hunter Valley than previously suggested. Sedimentation rates of ± 65m/Ma, calculated from proximal sequence thicknesses, are only half the rate calculated from the closest maximum thicknesses. Both are considerably lower than previously quoted rates. The estimated time interval of 10 Ma between the Thornton Claystone and the Awaba Tuff is more than twice the length of time previously attributed to accumulation of the combined Tomago and Newcastle Coal Measures. 38 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

 
 
 
 
41

Permian bivalve mollusks of Northeast Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Bivalve mollusks are very important in the Permian biota of Northeast Asia. During the Permian the bivalves had different distribution patterns both in space and time, and their occurrence was governed by many factors related to water depth and geodynamic conditions. In Northeast Asia there were two main bivalve paleocommunities, shallow and deep sea bivalves. Through the Permian, the bivalves began to dominate benthic assemblages. There are five major stages in their developmental history: Asselian-Artinskian, Kungurian, Roadian-Wordian, Capitanian-Early Wuchiapingian and Late Changhsingian. The mid-Kungurian stage was characterized by a maximum in bivalve diversity, whereas the Late Kungurian, Early Capitanian and latest Permian had the lowest bivalve diversity.

Biakov, Alexander S.

2006-03-01

42

Return to Coalsack Bluff and the Permian Triassic boundary in Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Coalsack Bluff was the first discovery site in Antarctica for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic reptile Lystrosaurus. This together with discovery of Permian Glossopteris leaves during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, indicated not only that Antarctica was part of Gondwanaland, but also that Antarctic rocks recorded faunas from the greatest of all mass extinctions at the Permian-Triassic boundary. Pinpointing the exact stratigraphic level of this life crisis has recently become possible using ? 13C values in terrestrial organic matter. Multiple, short-lived events of 13C depletion may reflect carbon cycle crises, with the isotopic change a measure of terrestrial and atmospheric disequilibrium. Additional evidence for ecosystem reorganization came from changes in paleosol types and their root traces. Such studies previously completed at the Antarctic localities of Graphite Peak, Mount Crean, Portal Mountain, Shapeless Mountain and Allan Hills, are here extended to Coalsack Bluff. Carbon isotopic values in Permian rocks at Coalsack Bluff average - 23.08 ± 0.25‰, but begin to decline within the last coal with leaves ( Glossopteris), roots ( Vertebraria) and permineralized stumps ( Araucarioxylon) of glossopterids. The low point in ä 13C values is - 27.19‰ at 5.6 m above the last coal, which is capped by unusually abundant pyrite, and a claystone breccia with common clasts of redeposited clayey soils. Above this are massive quartz-rich sandstones of braided streams, considered a geomorphic response to deforestation and soil erosion following the mass extinction. Distinctive berthierine-bearing paleosols (Dolores pedotype) within these sandstones have unoxidized iron taken as evidence of severe groundwater hypoxia. Other paleosols at this stratigraphic level are like those in other Early Triassic rocks of Antarctica, which indicate unusually warm and humid conditions for such high paleolatitude lowlands. Waterlogging is also indicated by newly discovered kinds of paleosol (Ernest pedotype) with groundwater calcretes. The lack of peat accumulation in such waterlogged lowlands, berthierine in paleosols and large negative carbon isotopic shift at Coalsack Bluff support the idea of atmospheric pollution with methane from submarine and permafrost clathrates as a cause for the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Hypoxic soils would have killed lowland plants by preventing root respiration and hypoxic air would have challenged vertebrates with pulmonary edema. Causes for catastrophic methane release remain unclear. Flood basalt eruptions, dolerite intrusions into coal measures, submarine landslides, tectonic faulting, and bolide impact suggested for episodes of methane release at other times are also plausible for the Permian-Triassic boundary.

Retallack, Gregory J.; Greaver, Tara; Jahren, A. Hope

2007-01-01

43

Modern Pearl River Delta and Permian Huainan coalfield, China: A comparative sedimentary facies study  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedimentary facies types of the Pleistocene deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China and Permian Member D deposits in Huainan coalfield in Anhui Province are exemplified by depositional facies of anastomosing fluvial systems. In both study areas, sand/sandstone and mud/mudstone-dominated facies types formed in diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels laterally juxtaposed with floodplains containing ponds, lakes, and topogenous mires. The mires accumulated thin to thick peat/coal deposits that vary in vertical and lateral distribution between the two study areas. This difference is probably due to attendant sedimentary processes that affected the floodplain environments. The ancestral floodplains of the Modern Pearl River Delta were reworked by combined fluvial and tidal and estuarine processes. In contrast, the floodplains of the Permian Member D were mainly influenced by freshwater fluvial processes. In addition, the thick, laterally extensive coal zones of the Permian Member D may have formed in topogenous mires that developed on abandoned courses of anastomosing fluvial systems. This is typified by Seam 13-1, which is a blanket-like body that thickens to as much as 8 in but also splits into thinner beds. This seam overlies deposits of diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels of the Sandstone D, and associated overbank-floodplain deposits. The limited areal extent of lenticular Pleistocene peat deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta is due to their primary accumulation in topogenous mires in the central floodplains that were restricted by contemporaneous anastomosing channels.

Suping, P.; Flores, R.M.

1996-01-01

44

From wetlands to wet spots: Environmental tracking and the fate of carboniferous elements in early permian tropical fl oras  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverse wetland vegetation flourished at the margins of the Midland Basin in north-central Texas during the Pennsylvanian Period. Extensive coastal swamps and an ever-wet, tropical climate supported lush growth of pteridosperm, marattialean fern, lycopsid, and calamite trees, and a wide array of ground cover and vines. As the Pennsylvanian passed into the Permian, the climate of the area became drier and more seasonal, the great swamps disappeared regionally, and aridity spread. The climatic inferences are based on changes in sedimentary patterns and paleosols as well as the general paleobotanical trends. The lithological patterns include a change from a diverse array of paleosols, including Histosols (ever-wet waterlogged soils), in the late Pennsylvanian to greatly diminished paleosol diversity with poorly developed Vertisols by the Early-Middle Permian transition. In addition, coal seams were present with wide areal distribution in the late Pennsylvanian whereas beds of evaporates were common by the end of the Early Permian. During this climatic transition, wetland plants were confi ned to shrinking "wet spots" found along permanent streams where the vegetation they constituted remained distinct if increasingly depauperate in terms of species richness. By Leonardian (late Early Permian) time, most of the landscape was dominated by plants adapted to seasonal drought and a deep water table. Wetland elements were reduced to scattered pockets, dominated primarily by weedy forms and riparian specialists tolerant of flooding and burial. By the Middle Permian, even these small wetland pockets had disappeared from the region. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

DiMichele, W.A.; Tabor, N.J.; Chaney, D.S.; Nelson, W.J.

2006-01-01

45

Permian Gondwana sedimentation in Yellandu (Singareni) coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India with notes on regional paleogeography and tectonic history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Yellandu coalfield of Andhra Pradesh contains 850 m Permian Gondwana rocks composed of Barakar, Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations. They are characterised by fining upward cycles. The sandstones are channel shaped, sheet-like and multistoried, and planar and trough cross bedded. The shales are massive to laminated and form thin tenses in the Barakar, but moderately thick sheets in the overlying Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations. The coal seams are thin and lensoid. Paleocurrent studies suggest consistently northwesterly dispersal direction areally and temporally. Evidence indicates that initially braided streams at the onset of Early Permian Barakar sedimentation became meandering through into Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations of Middle and Late Permian, respectively. The close similarity in lithofacies depositional environment and dispersal direction of Permian rocks of Yellandu coalfields and those of neighbouring Pranhita-Godavari basin in the east, and their geological and tectonic setting suggest that the Yellandu coalfield was part of the Godavari basin until the Late Permian or Early Triassic.

Tewari, R.C. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Geology

1998-11-01

46

Carbon isotope variations in the upper Carboniferous - Permian Mallemuk Mountain Group, eastern North Greenland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope data from Late Palaeozoic limestones of the Wandel Sea Basin in eastern North Greenland show a variation of ?13C from 0.0 0/00 to 5.7 0/00 vs PDB. Carbonates depleted in 13C occur in the basal part of lower Moscovian, upper Moscovian and middle Gzhelian transgressive sequences. 13C enriched limestones occur later in the cycles. The most 13C enriched limestones occur in the youngest (late Early Permian-early Late Permian) part of the sequence in Amdrup Land. The isotopic data is believed to represent changes in the global carbon cycle. Thus 13C enriched carbonates correlate to periods of burial of organic carbon mostly as coal, while 13C depleted carbonates formed as the result of erosion and oxidation of organic carbon during sea-level low stands. (author)

47

Prolonged Permian Triassic ecological crisis recorded by molluscan dominance in Late Permian offshore assemblages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian mass extinction was the largest biotic crisis in the history of animal life, eliminating as many as 95% of all species and dramatically altering the ecological structure of marine communities. Although the causes of this pronounced ecosystem shift have been widely debated, the broad consensus based on inferences from global taxonomic diversity patterns suggests that the shift from abundant brachiopods to dominant molluscs was abrupt and largely driven by the catastrophic effects of the end-Permian mass extinction. Here we analyze relative abundance counts of >33,000 fossil individuals from 24 silicified Middle and Late Permian paleocommunities, documenting a substantial ecological shift to numerical dominance by molluscs in the Late Permian, before the major taxonomic shift at the end-Permian mass extinction. This ecological change was coincident with the development of fluctuating anoxic conditions in deep marine basins, suggesting that numerical dominance by more tolerant molluscs may have been driven by variably stressful environmental conditions. Recognition of substantial ecological deterioration in the Late Permian also implies that the end-Permian extinction was the climax of a protracted environmental crisis. Although the Late Permian shift to molluscan dominance was a pronounced ecological change, quantitative counts of 847 Carboniferous-Cretaceous collections from the Paleobiology Database indicate that it was only the first stage in a stepwise transition that culminated with the final shift to molluscan dominance in the Late Jurassic. Therefore, the ecological transition from brachiopods to bivalves was more protracted and complex than their simple Permian-Triassic switch in diversity. PMID:17664426

Clapham, Matthew E; Bottjer, David J

2007-08-01

48

Total petroleum systems of the Bonaparte Gulf Basin area, Australia; Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic; Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian; Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province (USGS #3910) of northern Australia contains three important hydrocarbon source-rock intervals. The oldest source-rock interval and associated reservoir rocks is the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system. This petroleum system is located at the southern end of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and includes both onshore and offshore areas within a northwest to southeast trending Paleozoic rift that was initiated in the Devonian. The Milligans Formation is a Carboniferous marine shale that sources accumulations of both oil and gas in Carboniferous and Permian deltaic, marine shelf carbonate, and shallow to deep marine sandstones. The second petroleum system in the Paleozoic rift is the Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian. Source rocks include Lower Permian Keyling Formation delta-plain coals and marginal marine shales combined with Upper Permian Hyland Bay Formation prodelta shales. These source-rock intervals provide gas and condensate for fluvial, deltaic, and shallow marine sandstone reservoirs primarily within several members of the Hyland Bay Formation. The Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian petroleum system is located in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, north of the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system, and may extend northwest under the Vulcan graben sub-basin. The third and youngest petroleum system is the Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic system that is located seaward of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf on the Australian continental shelf, and trends southwest-northeast. Source-rock intervals in the Vulcan graben sub-basin include deltaic mudstones of the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation and organic-rich marine shales of the Upper Jurassic Vulcan Formation and Lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals Formation. These intervals produce gas, oil, and condensate that accumulates in, shallow- to deep-marine sandstone reservoirs of the Challis and Vulcan Formations of Jurassic to Cretaceous age. Organic-rich, marginal marine claystones and coals of the Plover Formation (Lower to Upper Jurassic), combined with marine claystones of the Flamingo Group and Darwin Formation (Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous) comprise the source rocks for the remaining area of the system. These claystones and coals source oil, gas, and condensate accumulations in reservoirs of continental to marine sandstones of the Plover Formation and Flamingo Group. Shales of the regionally distributed Lower Cretaceous Bathurst Island Group and intraformational shales act as seals for hydrocarbons trapped in anticlines and fault blocks, which are the major traps of the province. Production in the Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province began in 1986 using floating production facilities, and had been limited to three offshore fields located in the Vulcan graben sub-basin. Cumulative production from these fields totaled more than 124 million barrels of oil before the facilities were removed after production fell substantially in 1995. Production began in 1998 from three offshore wells in the Zone of Cooperation through floating production facilities. After forty years of exploration, a new infrastructure of pipelines and facilities are planned to tap already discovered offshore reserves and to support additional development.

Bishop, M.G.

1999-01-01

49

Oil generation capacity of coals as a function of coal age and aliphatic structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relative proportions of aliphatic CH{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}, aliphatic hydrogen (H-ali) together with the aliphatic chain length in a series of Carboniferous, Permian, Jurassic and Cenozoic humic coals have been analysed using FTIR and ruthenium tetroxide catalysed oxidation (RTCO) followed by GC-MS analysis of the n-monocarboxylic acids (esterified) to assess their ability to generate oil. Most of the coals contain 2-11 vol% liptinite. Only coals with almost similar Hydrogen Indices (HIs) were compared as they were considered to possess comparable hydrocarbon generation potentials. All contain isolated aromatic hydrogen (H{sub aro}) in the coal structure and a considerable proportion of aliphatic chains in the range C16-18. Cenozoic coals contain the highest proportion of aliphatic CH{sub 2} and H{sub ali}, and the content of longer chain aliphatics ({gt} C{sub 18}) increases considerably from Palaeozoic to Cenozoic coals. Aliphatic chains {gt} C{sub 18} are absent from, or very restricted in, the Carboniferous coals and most of the Permian coals indicate no or a negligible ability to generate oil. Jurassic coals show a slightly better potential, whereas Cenozoic coals contain aliphatic chains up to at least C{sub 35}, demonstrating the greatest capacity to generate oil in addition to significant gas potential. Multivariate data analysis suggests that the aliphatic chains {gt} C{sub 24} are related to the collodetrinite + liptodetrinite matrix, which is a prominent constituent of Cenozoic coals.

Petersen, H.I.; Nytoft, H.P. [Geological Survey of Denmark & Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen (Denmark)

2006-07-01

50

Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and thallium in a Late Permian anthracite from Xingren, Guizhou, Southwest China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mineralogy and geochemistry of nine Late Permian coal-seam channel samples (anthracite) from Xingren, Guizhou, Southwest China were examined. Results showed that As, Sb, Hg, and Tl are significantly enriched in a Late Permian anthracite (sample XR-M1) in the study area, and their contents are as high as 2226 {mu}g/g, 3860 {mu}g/g, 12.1 {mu}g/g, and 7.5 {mu}g/g, respectively. However, the contents of the four elements in other coal-seam channel samples from Xingren, even the two channel samples (samples XR-M2 and XR-M3) that are from the same bed as sample XR-M1, are close to the ordinary coal average, indicating that these four elements varied greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed, and such coals highly enriched in these hazardous elements are very local and restricted. The main carrier of As, Sb, Hg, and Tl in sample XR-M1 is an epigenetic getchellite rather than syngenetic pyrite and clay minerals. Getchellite occurs only in the veined kaolinite of hydrothermal origin. The high As, Sb, Hg, and Tl in coal are derived from an arsenic- and antimony-rich hydrothermal fluid. (author)

Dai, Shifeng; Sun, Yuzhuang [Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province, Handan 056038 (China); Zeng, Rongshu [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

2006-03-03

51

Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

52

Clarification and changes in Permian stratigraphic nomenclature in Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines Permian nomenclature changes to Zeller (1968) that have been adopted by the Kansas Geological Survey. The Permian System/ Period, Cisuralian Series/Epoch, and Asselian Stage/Age are established at the base of the Bennett Shale Member of the Red Eagle Limestone. Series/epoch names Wolfcampian, Leonardian, and Guadalupian are retained and usage of Gearyan, Cimarronian, and Custerian is abandoned. The repositioned Carboniferous-Permian boundary divides the Council Grove Group into Carboniferous (Upper Pennsylvanian Series/Epoch; Virgilian Stage/Age) and Permian (Wolfcampian Series Epoch) segments.

Sawin, R.S.; Franseen, E.K.; West, R.R.; Ludvigson, G.A.; Watney, W.L.

2008-01-01

53

Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito Formation, Early Permian, Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quiteria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The record in some coal palynofloras of Striadopodocarpites fusus, a component of the Hamiapollenites karrooensis subzone, as defined in the palynostratigraphic framework for the Parana Basin, indicates a Kungurian age for the palynoflora.

Jasper, A.; Menegat, R.; Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; de Souza, P.A. [UNIVATES, Lajeado (Brazil)

2006-07-15

54

Phreatomagmatic Pipes of the Tunguska basin (Siberia): Improvement of End-Permian Mass Extinction Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is regarded as key phenomena responsible for the end-Permian mass extinction. Extinct event was accelerating due to release of enormous amount of gases throughout numerous basalt pipes, originated from contact aureoles of dolerite sills intruded into Tunguska Basin. Tunguska sedimentary basin consists of Precambrian and Paleozoic evaporites, carbonates and terrigenous rocks including Late Paleozoic coal-bearing strata. Precambrian and early Paleozoic oil source rocks contain numerous high potential oil and gas fields. Paleozoic evaporites contain rock and potassium salts deposits of commercial grade. Tunguska Basin evaporites are considered as a regional seal for the mineralizing brines. Permian-Triassic volcaniclastic rocks overlie this sequence and intrusive rocks have the numerous evidences of magma-sediment interaction result in basalt pipes formation. Compilation of available Russian literature gives us a chance to make a conclusion that hundreds of basalt pipes occur in the Tunguska Basin. The basalt pipes cross over all known dolerite intrusions and are filled with breccias of magmatic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks altered to varying extents. Pipes from the Tunguska Basin south have a phreatomagmatic origin that is supported by ubiquitous occurrence of altered sedimentary clasts and volcaniclastic lapilli, corroded by brine during initial stages of magma-evaporite (brine) interaction. Corroded lapilli rimmed by diopside, chlorine-bearing hornblende, apatite and magnetite. Our recent study of magnetite-rich coarse lapilli tuffs revealed the garnet lapilli rimmed with magnetite cemented by altered clay groundmass enriched by native metals (Cu, Sn, Zn). This result corroborates our hypothesis about magnetite formation during initial stage of magma-sediment-brine interaction. We suggest that these observations could shed light on end-Permian aerosol flux originated from basalt pipes and could provide new information for improvement of our model.

Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Jerram, Dougal

2014-05-01

55

High influx of carbon in walls of agglutinated foraminifers during the Permian-Triassic transition in global oceans  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian–Triassic mass extinction is postulated to be related to the rapid volcanism that produced the Siberian flood basalt (Traps). Unrelated volcanic eruptions producing several episodes of ash falls synchronous with the Siberian Traps are found in South China and Australia. Such regional eruptions could have caused wildfires, burning of coal deposits, and the dispersion of coal fly ash. These eruptions introduced a major influx of carbon into the atmosphere and oceans that can be recognized in the wallstructure of foraminiferal tests present in survival populations in the boundary interval strata. Analysis of free specimens of foraminifers recovered from residues of conodont samples taken at aPermian–Triassic boundary section at Lung Cam in northern Vietnam has revealed the presence of a significant amount of elemental carbon, along with oxygen and silica, in their test wall structure, but an absence of calcium carbonate. These foraminifers, identified as Rectocornuspira kalhori, Cornuspira mahajeri, and Earlandia spp. and whose tests previously were considered to be calcareous, are confirmed to be agglutinated, and are now referred to as Ammodiscus kalhori and Hyperammina deformis. Measurement of the 207Pb/204Pb ratios in pyrite clusters attached to the foraminiferal tests confirmed that these tests inherited the Pb in their outer layer from carbon-contaminated seawater. We conclude that the source of the carbon could have been either global coal fly ash or forest fire-dispersed carbon, or a combination of both, that was dispersed into the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean immediately after the end-Permian extinction event.

Nestell, Galina P.; Nestell, Merlynd K.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Basu, Asish R.; Ghosh, Nilotpal; Phuong Lan, Luu Thi; Rowe, Harry D.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Ratcliffe, Kenneth T.

2015-01-01

56

Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

The Grassi Detachment Fault is located in the Orobic Alps east of Lake Como and was described by Froitzheim et al. (2008) as an Early Permian extensional structure. Many issues still remained unclear, like the exact timing of faulting and the extension from the well-exposed part of the detachment towards west. The Grassi Detachment Fault separates the Variscan Basement in its footwall from the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Early Permian Collio Formation within its hanging wall, marked by a mylonitic and cataclastic layer whose textures indicate top-to-the-southeast displacement. The footwall basement is formed by the Variscan Morbegno Gneiss and two granitic intrusions, the Val Biandino Quarz Diorite (VBQD) and the Valle Biagio Granite (VBG). The former is syntectonic with respect to the detachment, whereas for the latter, the relation to the detachment is unknown. The age of the VBQD is poorly defined as 312 Ma ± 48 Ma (Thöni et al. 1992); the VBG has not been dated. Volcanic rocks of the Collio Formation in the hanging wall may represent the extrusive part of the magmatic system. In our study area west of Val Biandino, several faults and shear zones are exposed: (1) The Grassi Detachment Fault is represented by mylonites and cataclasites with top-SE shear sense, between basement rocks and the Collio Volcanics. Towards NW, it is truncated by the unconformably overlying Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. This may reflect the eroded culmination of a Permian metamorphic core complex. (2) A steeply NW-dipping, brittle normal fault is found further west in the footwall between VBQD and VBG. It is sealed by the basal unconformity of the Verrucano Lombardo and therefore should also be of Early Permian age (Sciunnach, 2001). It may represent an antithetic fault with respect to the detachment, accommodating the uplift of the magmatically inflated core complex. (3) The Biandino Fault is a steeply SE-dipping reverse fault, affecting also the Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

2014-05-01

57

Coal geopolitics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

58

Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental changes during the continental Middle-Late Permian transition at the SE Iberian Ranges, Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

The Middle and Late Permian are characterized by a pair of mass-extinction events that are recorded in both marine and continental environments. Here, we present the first continental western peri-Tethyan record of an extinction event located in the Middle-Late interval. In the SE Iberian Ranges, Central Spain, the transition between the Lower and Middle subunits of the Middle Permian Alcotas Formation indicates a significant paleoclimatic change from arid and semiarid conditions towards more humid conditions. Coincident with the onset of humid conditions there were changes in the sedimentology, mineralogy, and geochemistry that indicate significant environmental changes including a shift in weathering intensity and a change of fluvial style from braided to meandering systems. Near the top of the Middle Subunit, a local biotic crisis is recorded by palynomorph assemblages. Following this crisis, there is a total absence of coal beds, plant remains, and microflora that defines a barren zone in the uppermost part of the Alcotas Formation which is recorded throughout the basin. The barren zone is accompanied by a shift back to braided stream systems, but not by a return to carbonate-bearing paleosols indicative of arid or semi-arid conditions. This combination of features is consistent with other Middle-Late continental basins related with mass extinctions, so the barren zone is interpreted as the extinction interval. The regional character of the extinction interval and its proximity with the Middle-Late Permian transition could be related with the global mid-Capitanian biotic turnover described in this period of time in other marine basins. However, the common difficulties of dating with precision non-marine rocks make this relationship difficult to probe in the Iberian Basin and in other Middle-Late Permian basins. Further work, including high resolution carbon-isotope analyses and complete studies of the magnetostratigraphy, should be desirable in order to obtain a better age constraint and to produce reliable comparisons with marine sections.

De la Horra, R.; Galán-Abellán, A. B.; López-Gómez, J.; Sheldon, N. D.; Barrenechea, J. F.; Luque, F. J.; Arche, A.; Benito, M. I.

2012-08-01

59

Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Permian Basin locatd in the western part of Texas. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

60

Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F-T plant development in the U.S. is in the Alaskan oil fields.

Gerald P. Huffman

2000-10-27

 
 
 
 
61

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid gas hydrate release (the “clathrate gun” hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ?400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2‰ negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

2014-05-01

62

The late Paleozoic oxygen pulse and accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent geophysical and geochemical data and theoretical modeling indicate high levels of atmospheric O2 (up to 35% during the Carboniferous-Permian. I suggest that this O2 pulse had a substantial impact on global accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal during this geological period.

PAVLE I. PREMOVIC

2006-02-01

63

The late Paleozoic oxygen pulse and accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent geophysical and geochemical data and theoretical modeling indicate high levels of atmospheric O{sub 2} (up to 35%) during the Carboniferous-Permian. I suggest that this O{sub 2} pulse had a substantial impact on global accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal during this geological period.

Pavle I. Premovi [University of Nis, Nis (Serbia and Montenegro). Laboratory for Geochemistry, Cosmochemistry and Astrochemistry, Faculty of Science

2006-07-01

64

Palynological dating of a coal seam in Ayyanapalem area, Khamman District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A palynological study of five subsurface samples of a coal seam near Ayyanapalem, Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari valley, Andhra Pradesh, was carried out. Twenty-five genera, including monosaccate, striate and nonstriate bisaccate, and trilete sporomorphs were identified; striate bisaccates predominate. Based on occurrence of {ital Rhizomaspora, Microbaculispora, Indotriradites, Crucisaccites ital} and {ital Corisaccites}, the coal seam is inferred to be similar in age to the Permian age Barakar Formation of the Lower Gondwana. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Rao, M.R.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Ramanujam, C.G.K. (Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad (India). Southern Region)

1990-05-25

65

Petrological and geochemical characterization of Candiota coal seams, Brazil - Implication for coal facies interpretations and coal rank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seven coal seams, from cores of the borehole M-IV-C-101, Candiota Coalfield located in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern part of the Parana Basin were analyzed by coal petrographical and organic geochemical methods. The seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. The composition, rank, coal facies and depositional environment characterization were made based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses. The data were then used in the definition of different types of facies-critical petrographical indices and were displayed in diagrams of coal facies. In addition, coal seams samples from Candiota Mine were analyzed by proximate, total moisture and gross calorific values and were classified using the United Nations-Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE) classification. In addition, Rock-Eval Pyrolysis, Liquid Chromatography, GC and GC-MS analyses were made to obtain independent parameters on coal rank and organic matter composition and environment of deposition. The results suggest deposition in open mires, with elevated contents of detrital macerals and clay minerals and also limno-telmatic coal facies. Coal-bearing sequence of coal seams represent a back-barrier setting. According to the International Classification (UN-ECE), Candiota coals are in the subbituminous (or low rank coal A) stage. Results from geochemical analyses showed that terrestrial organic matter is predominant as indicated by hydrogen and oxygen indices, carbon preference indices and the sterane distribution. Geochemical maturity parameters such as the 20 S/(20 S+20 R) and {alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) ratios for C{sub 29} regular steranes support the low level of rank (maturity) as indicated by the vitrinite reflectance measurements (0.41-0.45%) and gross calorific values (<24 MJ/kg, m, af). (author)

Silva, M.B.; Kalkreuth, W. [Laboratorio de Analises de Carvao e de Rochas Geradoras de Petroleo, Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP.: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2005-11-10

66

Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Charcoal fóssil foi encontrado na Mina do Faxinal, Permiano Inferior, Formação Rio Bonito, na porção sul da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Foram descritos três tipos de lenhos gimnospérmicos picnoxílicos originários de um único nível de tonstein, o que confirma a ocorrência de paleoincêndios vegetacionais [...] nesta área. Uma redução da concentração de charcoal da base para o topo no nível de tonstein indica que a quantidade de combustível diminuiu durante a deposição, provavelmente devido ao consumo da vegetação existente pelo fogo. A presença de inertinita na camada de carvão, em níveis sobrepostos e sotopostos ao tonstein , indica que incêndios não estavam restritos ao intervalo de deposição da cinza vulcânica. A integração dos novos dados aqui apresentados com outros publicados anteriormente acerca da Mina do Faxinal, demonstra que eventos vulcânicos ocorridos nas áreas circunvizinhas podem ser identificados como potenciais fatores de ignição para os incêndios. A presença de chacoal em sedimentos associados a níveis de carvão em diferentes localidades no Permiano, demonstra que incêndios vegetacionais foram relativamente comuns nos ambientes formadores dos depósitos de carvão da Bacia do Paraná. Abstract in english Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in t [...] his area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumption of vegetation by the fire. The presence of inertinite in coals overlying and underlying the tonstein layer indicates that fire-events were not restricted to the ash fall interval. The integration of the new data presented in the current study with previously published data for the Faxinal Coalfield demonstrates that volcanic events that occurred in the surrounding areas can be identified as one potential source of ignition for the wildfires. The presence of charcoal in Permian sediments associated with coal levels at different localities demonstrates that wildfires have been relatively common events in the peat-forming environments in which the coal formation took place in the Paraná Basin.

André, Jasper; Dieter, Uhl; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Abdalla M. B, Abu Hamad; Neli T. G, Machado.

2011-06-01

67

Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in this area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumption of vegetation by the fire. The presence of inertinite in coals overlying and underlying the tonstein layer indicates that fire-events were not restricted to the ash fall interval. The integration of the new data presented in the current study with previously published data for the Faxinal Coalfield demonstrates that volcanic events that occurred in the surrounding areas can be identified as one potential source of ignition for the wildfires. The presence of charcoal in Permian sediments associated with coal levels at different localities demonstrates that wildfires have been relatively common events in the peat-forming environments in which the coal formation took place in the Paraná Basin.Charcoal fóssil foi encontrado na Mina do Faxinal, Permiano Inferior, Formação Rio Bonito, na porção sul da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Foram descritos três tipos de lenhos gimnospérmicos picnoxílicos originários de um único nível de tonstein, o que confirma a ocorrência de paleoincêndios vegetacionais nesta área. Uma redução da concentração de charcoal da base para o topo no nível de tonstein indica que a quantidade de combustível diminuiu durante a deposição, provavelmente devido ao consumo da vegetação existente pelo fogo. A presença de inertinita na camada de carvão, em níveis sobrepostos e sotopostos ao tonstein , indica que incêndios não estavam restritos ao intervalo de deposição da cinza vulcânica. A integração dos novos dados aqui apresentados com outros publicados anteriormente acerca da Mina do Faxinal, demonstra que eventos vulcânicos ocorridos nas áreas circunvizinhas podem ser identificados como potenciais fatores de ignição para os incêndios. A presença de chacoal em sedimentos associados a níveis de carvão em diferentes localidades no Permiano, demonstra que incêndios vegetacionais foram relativamente comuns nos ambientes formadores dos depósitos de carvão da Bacia do Paraná.

André Jasper

2011-06-01

68

The Permian mega floras of Uruguay.A synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Permian megafloras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the microfloral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called ''transition xilotaphofloras'' as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

69

Characteristics and formation mechanism of Permian Shanxi tight gas reservoir of Changbei gas field, Ordos Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the lithological characteristics of tight gas reservoirs, including the diagenetic characteristics, diagenetic environment and diagenetic sequence. The link between porosity, the sedimentary environment, lithology, diagenesis and basin tectonics was examined in order to determine how tight reservoirs were formed. The study focused on the Changbei gas field located in Yishan Slope of the Ordos Basin in China. The main pay zone reservoir is the Upper Paleozoic Lower Permian Shanxi sandstone which lies at a depth of 2700-2950 m. This low porosity, low permeability tight gas reservoir was deposited in a coal bearing acid environment which controlled the diagenesis sequence. The early carbonate cement was not well developed because the original pore water was acidic with non saturated calcium carbonate. However, compaction has significantly reduced the original pore and pore volume. The acidic environment caused large amounts of secondary quartz cementation to fill the pores during compaction. This was the main cause for the low porosity and low permeability. Thin sections show that calcium carbonate cementation did not develop in the pores of the sandstone reservoir, particularly in the earlier stage, but autogenetic kaolinite cementation is well developed. Tectonic studies indicate that the Changbei gas field was stable when the Lower Permian Shanxi Formation was deposited. The formation layers are flat and with few faults and folds. Buried history analysis also indicates that there was no apparent uplift and subsidence after the P1S2 Shanxi Formation was deposited. Underground water, particularly organic acid and carbon dioxide acid water is not active, and pores are reduced by compaction and silicon dioxide cementation. Dissolvable components such as feldspar limited the amount of secondary pores generated, which also contributed to low porosity and low permeability. tabs., figs.

Zhong, D. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting; Zhang, X. [PetroChina, Beijing (China). Foreign Cooperation Administration Dept.

2010-07-01

70

Coal Fires  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anumpa

71

Chronological constraints on the Permian geodynamic evolution of eastern Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The New England Orogen in eastern Australia developed as a subduction-related orogen in the Late Devonian to Carboniferous, and was modified in the Permian by deformation, magmatism and oroclinal bending. The geodynamics associated with the development of the New England oroclines and the exact timing of major tectonic events is still enigmatic. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar results from metasedimentary and volcanic rocks from the southern New England Orogen. Eight grains from four metasedimentary samples (Texas beds) that originated in the Late Devonian to Carboniferous accretionary wedge yielded reproducible plateau ages of ~ 293, ~ 280, ~ 270 and ~ 260 Ma. These results suggest a complex thermal history associated with multiple thermal events, possibly due to the proximity to Permian intrusions. Two samples from mafic volcanic rocks in the southernmost New England Orogen (Alum Mountain Volcanics and Werrie Basalt) yielded eruption ages of 271.8 ± 1.8 and 266.4 ± 3.0 Ma. The origin of these rocks was previously attributed to slab breakoff, following a period of widespread extension in the early Permian. We suggest that this phase of volcanism marked the transition from backarc extension assisted by trench retreat to overriding-plate contraction. The main phase of oroclinal bending has likely occurred during backarc extension in the early Permian, and terminated at 271-266 Ma with the processes of slab segmentation and breakoff.

Li, Pengfei; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Vasconcelos, Paulo

2014-03-01

72

Permian palynostratigraphy and palaeoclimate of Lingala-Koyagudem coalbelt, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Godavari Graben, one of the biggest basins among several Gondwana basins of India, holds a unique position not only because of its geographical location in South India, but also due to the presence of almost complete succession from Permian to Cretaceous sediments. The Graben is traversed by many small faults due to which the dating and correlation of coal bearing horizons is difficult in this area. As palynology is one of the most reliable parameter for dating, correlation and characterization of continental deposits, palynological studies have been carried out in order to date and correlate the coal bearing horizons of Gundala, Mamakannu and Kachinapalli areas from Lingala-Koyagudem coalbelt of Godavari Graben.The distributional pattern of various palynotaxa has suggested the occurrence of eight distinct palynozones in five borecores of Gundala (MLG-23, MLG-24, and MLG-28), Mamakannu (MMK-19) and Kachinapalli (MGK-6) areas. These palynozones are comparable to Talchir, Lower Karharbari, Upper Karharbari, Barakar and Raniganj palynoflora of Indian Lower Gondwana. Palynozone-1 is equivalent to Parasaccites Assemblage of Talchir Palynoflora; Palynozone-2 is correlatable with Callumispora + Parasaccites Assemblage of Lower Karharbari palynoflora; Palynozone-3 corresponds well with Parasaccites + Scheuringipollenites Assemblage of Upper Karharbari palynoflora; Palynozone-4 is comparable to Scheuringipollenites Assemblage of Barakar palynoflora; Palynozone-5 is correlatable with Faunipollenites + Striatopodocarpites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora; Palynozone-6 is comparable with Striasulcites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora; Palynozone-7 shows its equivalence with Parasaccites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora and Palynozone-8 corresponds well with the Crescentipollenites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora. On the basis of palynofloral evidences, it has been suggested that palaeoclimate during Palynozone 1-3 was cool but humidity was more in Palynozone-3 in comparison to Palynozone-2. Warmer phase started during Palynozone-4 with thick coal deposits, while Palynozones 5-8 representing Raniganj palynoflora indicate warm climate with very high humidity.

Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

2013-03-01

73

The Great End Permian Tsunamis: Recognition, Extent and Generation  

Science.gov (United States)

At least three coarse intrabioclastic limestones at the base of the Khunamuh Formation (latest Permian to early Triassic) in Kashmir show features typical features of wave reworking of sediments too deep to be affected by storm waves. These are now interpreted as the deposits of large tsunamis by inferring the wavelengths and amplitudes of the waves from basic wave theory. The same three beds are found in latest Permian shallow marine to moderately deep slope environments throughout the southern Neotethy, as well as further afield in the Alps, East Greenland, and possibly even in the lowland deposits of the European Buntsandstein. Such tsunamis can also account for the contemporary marine erosion surfaces in China and elsewhere in shelf and slope environments. Tsunami waves, unlike storm waves, can also cause reworking of fine sediment and ventilation in deep-sea deposits, and there is some evidence for this in latest Permian oceanic sediments in Japan, New Zealand and western North America. The inferred huge size of the tsunami waves requires marine extraterrestrial impacts or large slumps into and/or under the sea, to generate them. The lack of good evidence for marine extraterrestrial impacts in the latest Permian, and the presence of seismically disturbed beds below the tsunami deposits in some sections suggest that large earthquakes preceded the formation of the tsunamis. These earthquakes might have triggered tsunami-generating large submarine landslides, such as are seen in Quaternary deposits at continental margins and around the Hawaiian and other oceanic volcanic islands. Large slumps of the appropriate age occur in some latest Permian sections in East Greenland and New Zealand.

Brookfield, M. E.; Algeo, T. J.; Hannigan, R.; Williams, J. C.; Bhat, G. M.

2013-12-01

74

The elemental and isotopic composition of sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal combustion is an important atmospheric pollution source in most Chinese cities, so systematic studies on sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese coals are needed. The sulfur contents in Chinese coals average 0.9 {+-} 1.0%, indicating that most Chinese coals are low in sulfur. A nearly constant mean {delta}{sup 34}S value is observed in low sulfur (TS < 1) Chinese coals of different ages (D, P-1, T-3 and J{sup 3}). High sulfur Chinese coals (OS > 0.8%), often found at late Carboniferous and late Permian in southern China, had two main sulfur sources (original plant sulfur and secondary sulfur). The wide variety of {delta}{sup 34}S values of Chinese coals (-15 parts per thousand to +50 parts per thousand) is a result of a complex sulfur origin. The delta N-15 values of Chinese coals ranged from -6 parts per thousand to +4 parts per thousand, showing a lack of correlation with coal ages, whereas nitrogen contents are higher in Paleozoic coals than in Mesozoic coals. This may be related to their original precursor plant species: high nitrogen pteridophytes for the Paleozoic coals and low nitrogen gymnosperms for the Mesozoic coals. Different to {delta}{sup 34}S values, Chinese coals showed higher {delta} {sup 15}N values in marine environments than in freshwater environments.

Xiao, H.Y.; Liu, C.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

2011-01-15

75

Influence of palaeotopography on the distribution of coal in the Western Coalfield, Sydney basin, Australia: comparison with South African coals  

Science.gov (United States)

The Western Coalfield of New South Wales, centred on the town of Lithgow, is one of several areas of the Sydney Basin (Australia) that produces Permian coals for export and for domestic: use. The lowermost seam of the Illawarra Coal Measures, the Lithgow seam, was deposited in an alluvial fan to proximal braidplain complex. The style of clastic sedimentation and coal seam development was strongly influenced by the palaeotopography, especially basement highs which represent erosional remnants of the pre-Permian erosional cycle. The influence of the palaeotopography is seen in the distribution of the basal conglomerate, the thickness of the basal Shoalhaven Group (which is thinnest on and near the basement highs), the location of the alluvial fan facies of the Illawarra Coal Measures (which are adjacent to the highs and received a large proportion of the clastic detritus from these highs) and the development of the coal seams (which are distal to the basement highs). Of great significance is the location of economic sections of the Lithgow seam with respect to palaeotopographic highs. Adjacent to the highs the Lithgow seam is either too thin or contains too many claystone bands to allow mining. Between the highs: and further to the east and north of the highs, where the precursor peats formed on the floodplain and interfan areas, the seam is of significantly better quality and has been mined.

Hutton, A. C.; Feldtmann, R.

1996-07-01

76

The Permian Whitehill Formation (Karoo Basin, South Africa): deciphering the complexity and potential of an unconventional gas resource  

Science.gov (United States)

A key energy policy objective of the South African government is to diversify its energy mix from coal which constitutes 85% of the current mix. Gas will play a key role in the future South African economy with demand coming from electricity generation and gas-to-liquids projects. A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2011 concluded that there could be as much as 485 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the South African Karoo Basin. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. The present study compiles existing data from literature review and new data from outcrop analogue studies on the Permian Whitehill Formation, the main target formation for future shale gas production, including thickness, depth, maturity, TOC, lithologies, sedimentary and organic facies, and dolerite occurrence to provide a first reference dataset for further investigations and resource estimates.

Götz, Annette E.

2014-05-01

77

Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C1) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C1 to C5), while only C1 and C2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C2-C3, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presencetions from confined coals and the presence of C2 was detected in all samples while C3-C5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

78

Coal desulfurization  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

79

A first record of late Middle Permian actinopterygian fish from Anatolia, Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The Middle-Upper Permian of the Gomaniibrik Formation, of the Tanin Group, in south-east Anatolia, close to the Iraq border, yielded moderately preserved fish remains. Two species, Palaeoniscum freieslebeni and Pygopterus cf. nielseni, known so far only from the Upper Permian deposits of the Zechstein Basin in western Central Europe, were recognised. This late Middle Permian Anatolian record significantly widens the geographical range of these actinopterygians into the equatorial Palaeotethys Realm.

Ho?gör, Izzet; Štamberg, Stanislav

2014-06-01

80

Injection technology increases oil recovery at Permian Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article provided a brief overview of the positive field results of the Powerwave injection technology at an oil field in the Permian Basin. The patented injection technology uses pulses of fluid pressure to create momentary elastic flexure of the pore structure to improve the flow of fluids in sedimentary soils and fractured rock, thereby optimizing the performance of chemical enhanced oil recovery technologies, liquid carbon dioxide injection, water injection, and surfactant/polymer flooding to effectively increase oil recovery. In the example of the West Texas waterflood, the Powerwave technology generated an overall production increase of nearly 50 percent. The significant improvements in production and the increased profitability that resulted from the installation of the Powerwave equipment are expected generate interest in the technology from other operators seeking to maximize oil recovery in their fields. The Edmonton-based company is actively pursuing other contracts in the Permian Basin. 1 fig., 1 ref.

Anon.

2010-09-15

 
 
 
 
81

Selection of nuclear waste repository sites in the Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since late 1977, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting environmental and geologic studies in order to identify potential sites for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste from commercial reactors. The DOE proposes to bury the waste deep underground in conventionally-mined repositories located in stable geologic deposits such as salt formations. Geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic studies led to the identification of two potentially suitable repository sites in the Permian bedded salt formation of west Texas. Detailed multi-disciplinary studies will be required to confirm the ability of these sites to isolate the high-level nuclear waste from the human environment for a period of 10,000 years in an environmentally sound manner. This report provides a description and discussion of the multi-step site selection process that identified the two 9 square mile (23 square kilometer) sites from the 80,000 square mile (26,000 square kilometer) Permian salt formation

82

Cyclic diaryl ethers in a Late Permian sediment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abundant cyclic diaryl ethers, such as dibenzofuran and its alkyl derivatives are found in solvent extracts and kerogen pyrolysates of a Late Permian organic-rich marl from northern Italy. These organic compounds are distinguishable from biphenyl and its alkyl derivatives by high resolution GC±MS. Bulk geochemical (Rock-Eval) and transmitted/re¯ected light microscopic analyses indicate that the dominant source of organic matter in the sediment is from partially decomposed land p...

Sephton, M. A.; Looy, C. V.; Veefkind, R. J.; Visscher, H.; Brinkhuis, H.; Leeuw, J. W.

1999-01-01

83

Palynostratigraphic correlation of the Sardhai Formation (Permian) of Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palynological assemblages from the Sardhai Formation shale (Permian), lying between the red-bed Warchha Formation and the Amb Formation limestones in the Salt and Khisor ranges of Pakistan contain abundant bisaccate pollen grains and few spores. In particular, well-preserved specimens of Florinites? balmei, a bilaterally symmetrical monosaccate pollen grain, are common. The presence of this pollen and the stratigraphic context suggest that the Sardhai Formation correlates with the Khuff trans...

Jan, Irfan U.; Stephenson, Michael H.; Khan, Fazli R.

2009-01-01

84

Clean coal  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuels such as coal can be powerful polluters of the environment. This article, part of site on the future of energy, introduces students to methods being implemented to make burning coal a cleaner process. Students read about the 1986 creation of the Clean Coal Technology Program and the coal-burning improvements it generated. Definitions of key terms are available, and a link is provided to an ABC News article about bacteria that have been bioengineered to clean coal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

85

Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale. PMID:23876495

Farooqui, Anjum; Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

2014-02-01

86

c=1 from c<1: Bulk and boundary correlators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the c_L=25 limit, which corresponds to c=1 string theory, of bulk and boundary correlation functions of Liouville theory with FZZT boundary conditions. This limit is singular and requires a renormalization of vertex operators. We formulate a regularization procedure which allows to extract finite physical results. A particular attention is paid to c=1 string theory compactified at the self-dual radius R=1. In this case, the boundary correlation functions diverge eve...

Alexandrov, Sergei; Imeroni, Emiliano

2005-01-01

87

Permian U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages from Australia and China: Constraining the time scale of environmental and biotic change  

Science.gov (United States)

In eastern Australia, the interconnected Bowen and Sydney Basins are filled with terrestrial sediments of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. These sedimentary units record significant evolutionary events of eastern Gondwana during the time interval between two major mass extinctions (end Middle Permian and Permian-Triassic), and also provide lithological evidence for the Carboniferous-Permian Late Paleozoic Ice Age of southern Pangea, considered to be divisible into up to seven discrete glaciation events in Australia [e.g., 1]. These glaciations are currently assigned ages that indicate that the last of the glaciations predate the end Middle Permian mass extinction at ca. 260 Ma. However, the estimates for the time and durations are largely based on biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy that, in the absence of robust and precise radioisotopic ages, are unacceptably fragile for providing an accurate high-resolution framework. Interbedded with the sediments are numerous tuff layers that contain zircon, many of which are associated with extensive coal measures in the Sydney and Bowen Basins. Published SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages [2, 3] have been shown to be less precise and inaccurate when compared to ages applying the CA-TIMS method to the same horizons. Also within the late Middle Permian, the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts in SW China has been proposed to have caused the end Middle Permian mass extinction [e.g., 4], though a causal link between these events demands a rigorous test that can only be provided by high-resolution geochronology. We present new U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages on tuff layers from the Sydney and Bowen Basins, with the purpose of generating a timescale for the Upper Permian of Australia to allow correlation with different parts of the world. Initial results, with permil precision, date a tuff layer within the uppermost Bandanna Fm. to ca. 252 Ma, a tuff within the Moranbah Coal Measures to ca. 256 Ma, and a tuff within the Ingelara Fm. to ca. 257 Ma, the latter two units lying stratigraphically below the latest identified glacial deposits. U-Pb (CA-TIMS) results on zircons from the Emeishan flood basalts and related volcanic products confirm the end-Guadalupian age (ca. 260 Ma) of the magmatism, and based on present data, place the Emeishan volcanic event (and its possibly associated mass extinction) within the occurrence of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. This study’s primary goal is the establishment of a chronostratigraphic framework that would allow the integration of calibrated records from both terrestrial and marine units from different parts of the world in order to constrain the timing and rates of extinctions and recoveries in different locations and physical environments. [1] Fielding et al. (2008), J. Geol Soc. Lon., v. 165, pp. 129-140 [2] Michaelsen et al. (2001), Aus. J. Earth Sci., v. 48, pp. 183-192 [3] Roberts et al. (1996), Aus. J. Earth Sci., v. 43, pp. 401-421 [4] He et al. (2007), EPSL, v. 255, pp. 306-323

Denyszyn, S. W.; Mundil, R.; Metcalfe, I.; He, B.

2010-12-01

88

Phreatomagmatic Pipes of the Tunguska basin (Siberia): Aerosols Flux into End-Permian atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequence consists of Precambrian and Paleozoic evaporites, carbonates and terrigenous rocks including Late Paleozoic coal-bearing strata. Precambrian and early Paleozoic oil source rocks contain numerous high potential oil and gas fields. Paleozoic evaporites contain rock and potassium salts deposits of commercial grade. Tunguska Basin evaporites are considered as a regional seal for the mineralizing brines. Permian-Triassic volcaniclastic rocks overlie this sequence and intrusive rocks have the numerous evidences of magma-sediment interaction. The Siberian Traps dolerites have intruded the Tunguska Basin sequence at different levels of emplacement and magma-sediment-brine interaction result in basalt pipes formation. Intrusions are surrounded by contact aureoles of thicknesses dependent upon sediment composition, dolerite thickness, depth of emplacement and the number of intrusive bodies. The basalt pipes cutting all intrusive bodies are filled with breccias of magmatic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks altered to varying extents. The age of the pipes is geologically well constrained and related to Siberian Traps intrusion emplacement. A dolerite sill intruded into rock salt sequences of the Nepa potash deposit has a U-Pb zircon age of 252 × 0.4 Ma. Basalt pipe cutting all known dolerite intrusions, revealed here during prospecting survey. The phreatomagmatic origin of the basalt pipes is supported by ubiquitous occurrence of altered sedimentary clasts and volcaniclastic lapilli, corroded by brine during initial stages of magma-evaporite (brine) interaction. Corroded lapilli have rims of diopside, chlorine-bearing hornblende, apatite and magnetite. Iron rich garnet is present on the tuff and glass fragments. Our recent study of magnetite-rich coarse lapilli tuffs revealed the specific garnet lapilli rimmed with magnetite cemented by altered clay groundmass. This result corroborates our hypothesis about magnetite formation during initial stage of magma-sediment-brine interaction. We suggest that such conclusion requires a re-examination of lapilli tuff size and composition from basalt pipes of the Tunguska Basin. We suppose that this study could shed light on our understanding of aerosols flux from the Siberian phreatomagmatic pipes and its influence on End-Permian atmosphere.

Polozov, A. G.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Jerram, D. A.

2013-12-01

89

77 FR 65446 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Control Exemption-Cape Rail, Inc. and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Permian Basin Railways--Control Exemption--Cape Rail...Permian to acquire indirect control of Mass Coastal, a Class...acquisition of an 80% stock interest in Cape, the...Permian will indirectly control Mass Coastal. Podgurski...the transaction is to improve the revenue base of...

2012-10-26

90

Fistulipora Microparallela (Yang and Lu, 1962 from Lower Permian Bryozoans of Lut Block, Central Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Fistulipora microparallela (Yang and Lu, 1962 species is described for the first time from the Sakmarian deposits of the Sarab section in Lut Block, Central Iran. This species has been reported only from the Permian (Cisuralian-Guadalupian of the Qilianshan and Kankerin formations, and the Baliqliq Group (Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian of Western Xinjiang, China.

H. Yarahmadzahi

2012-10-01

91

Permian and uranium metallogeny. Le Permien et la metallogenie de l'uranium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Europe, many uranium deposits are of Permian age and the following models are discussed: (1) Formation of uranium deposits during the Permian. Many granite-associated uranium deposits in France, Portugal and Czechoslovakia are dated at between 290 and 260 Ma. Stable isotopic data have shown that sedimentary formation waters and meteoric waters are important in the mineralisation process. (2) Uranium preconcentration during the Permian. Sedimentation is favourable to uranium concentration, especially in organic-rich environments. The presence of zirconium in pitchblende indicates leaching of cinerites during the mineralisation process. (3) Formation of uranium deposits in the Permian host rocks. Two major periods (170-185 Ma and 100-110 Ma) were identified that correspond to phases of extension related to oceanic openings. For the 180 Ma mineralisation, the role of sedimentary brines has been demonstrated. Some mineralisation of Alpine age are also known. (4) Spatial association of uranium deposits with Permian formations. The Mullenbach uranium deposit (FRG) located in Upper Carboniferous sediments beneath sediments of Permian age has been dated at 240 Ma. This corresponds to the tectonic phase between the Permian and the Triassic periods. Fluid circulation along a vertical redox front (oxidised Permian - reduced Carboniferous) is responsible for the deposition of pitchblende.

Pagel, M. (Centre de Recherches sur la Geologie de l' Uranium (CREGU), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (FR))

1990-06-01

92

Evolution of the Early Permian volcanic-plutonic complex in the western part of the Permian Gobi-Altay Rift (Khar Argalant Mts., SW Mongolia)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Lower Permian volcano-sedimentary complexes of the Khar Argalant and Delger Khangay formations in the Khar Argalant Mts. in south-western Mongolia are products of postorogenic within-plate magmatic activity. They consist of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic flows with local intercalations of clastic sedimentary rocks. Vascular plants in volcano-clastic layers correspond to typical Lower to Middle Permian terrestrial associations formed under dry to intermediate conditions of temperate to ...

Buriánek D; Hanžl P; Budil P; Gerdes A

2012-01-01

93

Development of the Permian Basin beam pump failure database  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial Lift Energy Optimization Consortium (ALEOC) was formed by eleven oil companies operating in the Permian Basin with the primary goal of improving oil field operations through sharing experiences. Beam pumping system received special attention because it is the most widely used artificial lift method in the Permian Basin as well as in the world. The combined effort to optimize beam pumping system calls for the creation of a central database, which will hold beam pump related data from diverse sources and will offer ways to analyze the data to obtain valuable insight about the nature, magnitude and trend of beam pump failure. The database mentioned above has been created as part of this work. The database combines beam pump failure data from about 25,000 wells owned by different companies into a single, uniform and consistent format. Moreover, two front-end computer applications have been developed to interact with the database, to run queries, and to make plots form the query results. One application is designed for desktop, while the other one is designed for the Internet. Both applications calculate failure frequencies of pump, rod, and tubing, and summarize the results in various ways. Thus the database and the front-end applications together provide a powerful means for analyzing beam pump failure data. Much useful information can be gathered from the database, such as the most vulnerable component in the system, the best and the worst performers, and the most troublesome operating area. Such information can be used for benchmarking performance, identifying best design/operational practices, design modification, and long term production planning. Results from data analysis show that the pump has the highest probability to fail in a beam pumping system, followed by the rod string and the tubing string. The overall failure in the Permian Basin shows a general decline with time.

Rahman, Mohammed Mahbubur

94

C1 lateral mass screw fixation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available C1 lateral mass screw placement is a powerful technique for segmental control of the C1 vertebra. In this report, we describe surgical technique for placement of C1 lateral mass screws, on our C1 specimen. C1 lateral mass is anatomically ideally suited for screw fixation to achieve C1-C2 arthrodesis. C1 lateral mass screw fixation is a safe technique and can be performed to achieve rigid and immediate stabilization.

Senoglu M

2009-01-01

95

Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earth’s history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and po¬tentially into the open ocean realm. These events of¬ten coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing from the Siberian Traps. We measured redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, Cu, U) and the speciation of iron [Fe-HR/Fe-T and Fe-PY/ Fe- HR] in marine sediments from Svalbard (Festningen). We compare these data to additional, new, high-lati-tude data from eastern Greenland and the equatorial Tethys realm in Iran. We show that the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary at Svalbard is marked by 2 phases of euxinic (sulfidic) ocean conditions. An initial short phase at the onset of atmospheric carbon release is separated from a subsequent longer phase by a re¬turn to ferruginous ocean conditions (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland and Iran. It sug¬gests a strongly decreased global ocean molybdenum (and possibly also ocean sulfate) inventory by massive molybdenum drawdown (and possibly pyrite buri¬al) at the onset of end-Permian atmospheric carbon release and leading up to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. We compare these oceanographic changes to similar observations for the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction and discuss environmental forcing, poten¬tially inherent to major volcanic events and leading to global environmental change and extinction

Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.

2013-01-01

96

Permian dust in Oklahoma: Source and origin for Middle Permian (Flowerpot-Blaine) redbeds in Western Tropical Pangaea  

Science.gov (United States)

Analogous to many Permian units globally, the Middle Permian of Oklahoma (Flowerpot Shale and Blaine Formation) contains voluminous fine-grained redbeds. These units have long been interpreted to record marine to marginal-marine deposition owing to minor evaporite/dolomite strata; this interpretation, however, disregards the predominant siliciclastic material. Siltstone predominates, and all siliciclastic material is of inferred aeolian origin owing to the fine and remarkably uniform grain size, internally massive structure, blanket-like geometry, and common palaeosols, especially in the Flowerpot Shale. Previously suggested alternative environments for such abundant fine-grained material, such as distal deltaic deposition, are inconsistent with the absence of key sedimentary structures (e.g., graded beds), associated facies (e.g., channelised units), and vertical or lateral trends (e.g., upward coarsening). The minor claystone and associated evaporite and dolomite facies of the Blaine Formation exhibit evidence for subaqueous deposition, but with aeolian delivery of the siliciclastic component. An aeolian dust origin for the siliciclastic material reinforces the interpretation of generally semiarid conditions for this equatorial region of western Pangaea. Whole-rock geochemical and detrital-zircon geochronological data on the siliciclastic units indicate a mixed provenance that includes a mafic component exhibiting a composition similar to reference populations from the Ouachita orogen. The dominant zircon populations reflect transport from easterly/southeasterly directions, with fewer grains likely derived from basement located to the west. Combining an aeolian delivery with the provenance signal indicates predominant equatorial easterlies during deposition of the study units, and subordinate westerlies, consistent with Pangaean monsoonal circulation. Permian redbeds preserved in many parts of former low-latitude Pangaea bear attributes similar to those of the units documented here, suggesting a possible greater role for dust deposition during this time than previously appreciated.

Sweet, Alisan C.; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Sweet, Dustin E.; Soreghan, Michael J.; Madden, Andrew S.

2013-02-01

97

Palaeobotanical evidence of wildfires in the Late Palaeozoic of South America - Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil charcoal, as direct evidence of palaeowildfires, has repeatedly been reported from several plant-bearing deposits from the Late Palaeozoic of the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast charcoal reports from the Late Palaeozoic deposits of the Southern Hemisphere are relatively rare in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere. Although the presence of pyrogenic coal macerals has repeatedly been reported from Late Palaeozoic coals from South America, no detailed anatomical investigations of such material have been published so far. Here is presented an anatomical analysis of charcoal originating from Early Permian sediments of the Quitéria Outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, located in the central-eastern portion of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This charcoal comes from two different coaly facies, and it was possible to scrutinize between three types, based on anatomical characters of the charcoal. Two of these charcoal types can be correlated to gymnosperm woods, and the other type corresponds to strongly permineralized bark with characteristic features of lycopsids. The presence of charcoal in different facies, ranging from parautochtonous to allochtonous origin, indicates that different vegetation types, i.e. plants which grew under wet conditions in the lowland as well as in the more dry hinterland, have experienced wildfires. Taking into account previous petrographic and lithological analyses from the facies in which the charcoal occurs and from the conditions of the wood and bark fragments, it was possible to speculate that the intensity of such wildfires most probably corresponds to forest-crown fires. Moreover, it is possible to state that wildfires have been a more or less common element in distinct Late Palaeozoic terrestrial ecosystems in the South American part of Gondwana. The data support previous assumptions on the occurrence of wildfires in the Early Permian of the Paraná Basin which were based solely on coal-petrographic data.

Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Mosbrugger, Volker

2008-12-01

98

Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

Ross, D.S.

1989-12-21

99

c=1 from c<1: Bulk and boundary correlators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the cL=25 limit, which corresponds to c=1 string theory, of bulk and boundary correlation functions of Liouville theory with FZZT boundary conditions. This limit is singular and requires a renormalization of vertex operators. We formulate a regularization procedure which allows to extract finite physical results. A particular attention is paid to c=1 string theory compactified at the self-dual radius R=1. In this case, the boundary correlation functions diverge even after the multiplicative renormalization. We show that all infinite contributions can be interpreted as contact terms arising from degenerate world sheet configurations. After their subtraction, one gets a well defined set of correlation functions. We also obtain several new results for correlation functions in Liouville theory at generic central charge

100

c=1 from c<1: Bulk and boundary correlators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the c{sub L}=25 limit, which corresponds to c=1 string theory, of bulk and boundary correlation functions of Liouville theory with FZZT boundary conditions. This limit is singular and requires a renormalization of vertex operators. We formulate a regularization procedure which allows to extract finite physical results. A particular attention is paid to c=1 string theory compactified at the self-dual radius R=1. In this case, the boundary correlation functions diverge even after the multiplicative renormalization. We show that all infinite contributions can be interpreted as contact terms arising from degenerate world sheet configurations. After their subtraction, one gets a well defined set of correlation functions. We also obtain several new results for correlation functions in Liouville theory at generic central charge.

Alexandrov, Sergei [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.alexandrov@phys.uu.nl; Imeroni, Emiliano [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.imeroni@phys.uu.nl

2005-12-26

 
 
 
 
101

Panjal Paleomagnetism: Implications for Early Permian Gondwana break-up  

Science.gov (United States)

The mid-Early Permian represents an important phase in Pangaea's development marking the time when the >13,000 km-long string of terranes that are collectively known as 'Cimmeria' separated from Gondwana's Tethyan margin (northern Africa-NE Arabia-northern India-NW and northern Australia). The ~289 Ma Panjal Traps of NW India (Kashmir) are one of a number of mafic suites (Abor, Sikkim etc.) that were erupted onto the Indian block possibly during the separation of the Lhasa/SE Qiangtang block. Herein, we report data from the first modern paleomagnetic study of the unit. Results from four quarry sections (15 individual cooling units) from a locality close to Srinagar together form a tectonically coherent sequence spanning 2-3 km of stratigraphy. The derived direction and paleopole yield key new information concerning (1) the Early Permian location of India, and by inference that of central Gondwana, and (2) inform debates related to Cimmeria's breakup from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, they provide a new independent control for assessing NW Greater India's extent prior to its collision with Asia and the amount of vertical-axis rotation this sector of the Himalayan range experienced in the mid to late Cenozoic.

Stojanovic, D.; Aitchison, J.; Ali, J. R.; Ahmad, T.; Ahmad Dar, R.; Agarwal, A.; Roeder, T.

2013-12-01

102

Coal petrography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The term maceral describes the shape and the nature of the microscopically recognizable (organic) constituents of the coal. The rock types in coal are called lithotypes. Microlithotypes are maceral constituents used mainly to interpret paleodepositional environments. The term lithotype is used for megascopic observations, but the terms microlithotype and maceral are used for microscopic observations. The ICCP classification recognise the macerals: vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite. Coal commonly contains ash in the form of clays, silica, carbonates and sulfides. Other methods of classification include the recognition of microlithotypes, and the use of reflectance and fluorescence in analysis. 33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Toprak, S. [Mineral Research and Exploration Institute, Ankara (Turkey)

1994-12-31

103

Regional structural cross sections, mid-permian to quaternary strata, Texas Panhandle and Eastern New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twelve regional cross sections (with text) of the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko Basins illustrating the tabular geometry of Permian evaporite beds, areas where salt has been lost by dissolution, and the effects of dissolution-induced subsidence on Permian and post-Permian strata. The authors identify areas of dissolution beneath the High Plains, the Caprock Escarpment, the Rolling Plains, the Pecos Plains, and along the Canadian River valley. The cross sections are printed at a vertical scale of 1 inch equals 400 feet and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals approximately 8 miles and were constructed using geophysical logs, sample logs, and surficial geologic data.

McGookey, D.A.; Gustavson, T.C.; Hoadley, A.D.

1989-01-01

104

Coalbed methane (CBM) potential in Brazil: coal characteristics and associated gas volumes in test well CBM001-ST- RS, Santa Terezinha Coal field, RS, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Santa Terezinha coal field in Rio Grande do Sul, a coal occurrence assigned to the Early Permian Rio Bonito Formation of the Parana Basin, has been target of a research project focusing on the CBM potential of that area. Sequence stratigraphic analysis has shown that peat accumulation was closely linked to transgressive / regressive cycles, with peat accumulation occurring in a predominantly back barrier type setting. To make an assessment of the CBM potential of the coal-bearing strata, computer-aided 3 D modeling of the main coal-bearing para sequences of the Terezinha coal field, and data from a pioneer test well were used for the evaluation of the CBM potential for an area of approximately 20 x 40 km in size. Based on coal volume and averaged methane desorption values it is suggested that in excess of 5 Billion m3 methane are contained in the coal seams of the study area and as such will contribute significantly to Brazil's known natural gas resources. Preliminary results from CO 2 adsorption experiments show that the adsorption capacities of the Parana Basin coals are 3-4 times higher than the adsorption capacities determined for methane, suggesting that the coal seams may serve as storage reservoirs for CO 2. (author)

Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Holz, Michael; Levandowski, Janaina; Casagrande, Junia; Oliveira, Tiago Agne de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Kern, Marcio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernd [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal

2008-07-01

105

Shaping coal`s future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Energy Agency was established in 1974 following the first oil crisis with the aim of ensuring the security and diversity of energy supplies. The Executive Director of the IEA assesses the important role of coal in a strategy of energy diversification and evaluates the challenges for coal in a carbon constrained future. Following the liberalisation of the energy market, the IEA provides advice to governments on achieving economic efficiency. It has a commitment to coal as an element of energy security and energy diversity. The article draws on last October CIAB`s debate on the future role of coal, on the IEA statement on the `Energy dimension of climate change`, and the IEA`s `World energy outlook`. To meet the Kyoto Commitments for CO{sub 2} reduction without use of flexible mechanisms could wipe out coal use in power generation in OECD Europe and Pacific. The IEA is engaged in helping to develop policy tools to achieve the Kyoto targets most effectively, in the case of coal through more efficient clean coal technologies. The Clean Development Mechanism could entice technological assistance from the developed world. 1 ref., 8 figs.

Priddle, R. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

1999-07-01

106

Coal Sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.; Simon, Frederick Otto, 1939-

2011-03-29

107

Concentration and distribution of sixty-one elements in coals from DPR Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty coal samples (28 anthracite and 22 lignites) were collected from both main and small coal mines in DPR Korea prioritized by resource distribution and coal production. The concentrations of 61 elements in 50 coal samples were determined by several multielement and element-specific techniques, including inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ion chromatogram (IC), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). The ranges, arithmetic means and geometric means of concentrations of these elements are presented. A comparison with crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that some potentially hazardous elements in the coals of DPR Korea are highly enriched Li, B, S, Cl, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sn, Sb, W, Te, Hg, Ag, Pb, and La, Ce, Dy, Tm, Ge, Mo, Cs, Tl, Bi, Th and U are moderately enriched. A comparison of ranges and means of elemental concentrations in DPR Korea, Chinese, and world coals shows the ranges of most elements in DPR Korea coals are very close to the ranges of world coals. Arithmetic means of most elements in DPR Korea coals are close to that of American coals. Most elements arithmetic means are higher in Jurassic and Paleogene coals than coals of other ages. In DPR Korea coals, only seven elements in early Permian coals are higher than other periods: Li, Zn, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Bi. Only five elements B, As, Sr, Mo, W in Neogene coals have arithmetic means higher than others. SiO2 and Al2O 3 in ashes are more than 70% except six samples. The correlation between ash yields and major elements from high to low is in the order of Si>Al>Ti>K>Mg>Fe>Na>Ca>P>S. Most elements have high positive correlation with ash (r>0.5) and show high inorganic affinity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hu, J.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.; Wang, B.; Wang, M.; Li, S.; Wu, D.

2006-01-01

108

Late Permian palaeomagnetic data east and west of the Urals  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied Upper Permian redbeds from two areas, one between the Urals and the Volga River in the southeastern part of Baltica and the other in north Kazakhstan within the Ural-Mongol belt, which are about 900 km apart; a limited collection of Lower-Middle Triassic volcanics from north Kazakhstan was also studied. A high-temperature component that shows rectilinear decay to the origin was isolated from most samples of all three collections. For the Late Permian of north Kazakhstan, the area-mean direction of this component is D = 224.3°, I = -56.8°, k = 161, ?95 = 2.7°, N = 18 sites, palaeopole at 53.4°N, 161.3°E the fold test is positive. The Triassic result (D = 55.9°, I = +69.1°, k = 208, ?95 = 4.2°, N = 7 sites, pole at 57.0°N, 134.1°E) is confirmed by a positive reversal test. The corresponding palaeomagnetic poles from north Kazakhstan show good agreement with the APWP for Baltica, thus indicating no substantial motion between the two areas that are separated by the Urals. Our new mean Late Permian direction for SE Baltica (D = 42.2°, I = 39.2°, k = 94, ?95 = 3.5°, N = 17 sites; palaeopole at 45.6°N, 170.2°E) is confirmed as near-primary by a positive tilt test and the presence of dual-polarity directions. The corresponding pole also falls on the APWP of Baltica, but is far-sided with respect to the coeval reference poles, as the observed mean inclination is shallower than expected by 13° +/- 4°. In principle, lower-than-expected inclinations may be attributed to one or more of the following causes: relative tectonic displacements, quadrupole and octupole terms in the geomagnetic field, higher-order harmonics (incl. secular variation) of the same field, random scatter, non-removed overprints, or inclination error during remanence acquisition and/or diagenetic compaction. Our analysis shows that most mechanisms from the above list cannot explain the observed pattern, leaving as the most likely option that it must be accounted for by inclination shallowing. Comparison with selected coeval results from eastern Baltica (all within Russia) shows that all of them are biased in the same way. This implies that they cannot be used for analysis of geomagnetic field characteristics, such as non-dipole contributions, without a more adequate knowledge of the required correction for inclination shallowing.

Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Grishanov, Alexander N.; Van der Voo, Rob; Levashova, Natalia M.

2008-05-01

109

Distribution and mode of occurrence of As, Hg and Se and Sulfur in coal Seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation,Yanzhou Coalfield, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Yanzhou mining area in the west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. A total of 21 bench coal samples were collected from coal seam 3 of the Permian Shanxi Formation, Xinglongzhuang coal mine, Yanzhou Coalfield, China. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. Organic sulfur content was determined by substraction and it is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Hg, As and Se and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements are enriched in the roof and floor rocks of the coal bed and that the concentrations are also relatively high in the clay partings within the coal bed. In the studied samples, Hg and Se have an even higher concentration than that in the world coals. The concentrations of Hg and Se in the seam studied are greater than the global mean of these elements in coals. Se content in the studied coal is 5 times as high as the world coal value and Hg is about one to two orders of magnitude above World Clarke value. Hg is also more enriched compared to the average concentration in Chinese coals. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the roof rock, floor rock and clay parting of the coal bed. The concentrations of the trace elements As, Hg and Se are closely related to sulfur. Hg correlates more with pyritic sulfur than organic sulfur. Se relates more to organic sulfur than to pyritic sulfur. As is almost equally related to organic sulfur and pyritic sulfur. Therefore three trace elements may be mainly associated with sulfides and other inorganic matter, also occur in organic forms, especially for Se, already sard this. (author)

Liu, Guijian; Zheng, Liugen; Zhang, Ying; Qi, Cuicui; Chen, Yiwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Peng, Zicheng [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shaanxi (China)

2007-07-02

110

The Permian-Triassic mass extinction: Ostracods (Crustacea) and microbialites  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian mass extinction (EPE), about 252 Myr ago, eradicated more than 90% of marine species. Following this event, microbial formations colonised the space left vacant after extinction of skeletonised metazoans. These post-extinction microbialites dominated shallow marine environments and were usually considered as devoid of associated fauna. Recently, several fossil groups were discovered together with these deposits and allow discussing the palaeoenvironmental conditions following the EPE. At the very base of the Triassic, abundant Ostracods (Crustacea) are systematically present, only in association with microbialites. Bacterial communities building the microbial mats should have served as an unlimited food supply. Photosynthetic cyanobacteria may also have locally provided oxygen to the supposedly anoxic environment: microbialites would have been refuges in the immediate aftermath of the EPE. Ostracods temporarily disappear together with microbialites during the Griesbachian.

Forel, Marie-Béatrice

2013-04-01

111

The Formation and Structure Evolution of Zechstein (Upper Permian) Salt in Northeast German Basin: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Zechstein (Upper Permian) salts are extensively distributed in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). Their formation and movements have attracted great attention to discovering the accumulation and exploration of hydrocarbon sources, as well as the salt production. But ...

Yanqiu Zhang; Michael Krause; Maria Mutti

2013-01-01

112

Coal -98  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replac Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx-burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the environmental influence will lead to more efficient power generatio

113

Coal 99  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimise the env ironmental

114

Main: C1MOTIFZMBZ2 [PLACE  

Full Text Available C1MOTIFZMBZ2 S 000237 23-S ep-1999 (las t modified) kehi C1-motif; S imilar to Myb-box; Found in the ... moter region of maize (Z.m.) Bronze2 ( glutathione S -trans feras e) gene; C1 binding; C1-motif and R-moti ... f were s hown to be important for full R and C1 activation o ... f the Bz2 promoter; S =C or G; C1-motif; Bronze2; Myb-box; glutathione S - ... trans feras e; C1; s eed; maize (Zea mays ) TAACTS AGTTA ...

115

Permian biogeography of the Indian subcontinent with special reference to the marine fauna  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian biogeography of the Indian subcontinent is discussed in the light of brachiopods and associated fossils from different localities. The discussion is based primarily on the Permian "biome" concept of Waterhouse and Bonham-Carter (1975), wherein three biomes are proposed: group A of subpolar, group B of temperate, and group C of tropical character. Data on the occurrence of Permian brachiopods and associated fossils are given for the Salt Range, Karakoram, and Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, and Peninsular India with respect to the age of the fauna. Marine Permian localities of the Himalayan region include those of Ladakh, Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti, Kashmir, Bhadarwah-Bhallesh-Chamba, Kinnaur, Garhwal, Kumaun, Darjeeling, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh. Permian marine localities of Peninsular India, which forms a part of central Gondwanaland, include those of Bap, Badhaura, Umaria, Manendragarh, and Daltonganj, where marine transgression occurred in Early Permian time. The faunas of these localities are discussed with respect to their age, which falls into two groups, Early and Late Permian. It is suggested that widespread colder climatic conditions prevailed in the Indian subcontinent during the early Early Permian. Similar conditions continued in most of the localities until the late Early Permian, except at west Karakoram (Shaksgam valley), Zanskar, north Tibet (central and western part), and the Salt Range. However, during the Late Permian, climatic conditions were varied. Cold climatic conditions prevailed in north Tibet (central part), Kumaun Tethyan Himalaya, and south Tibet; temperate conditions occurred in west Karakoram (Shaksgam valley), Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti, Bhadarwah-Bhallesh-Chamba, north Nepal, and north Sikkim; and tropical conditions occurred in the Salt Range, east Karakoram, Ladakh, Kashmir, and north Tibet (western and eastern parts). At a few localities there appear to be some anomalies that might be due to lack of stratigraphical details and/or lack of detailed faunal investigations. An analysis of the Permian fauna of the Indian subcontinent reveals that the fauna belongs to one single biogeographic province, the Gondwana province. The northern boundary of this biogeographic province passes through the Karakoram Pass, Bangong Lake, and the Nujiang River. The Gondwana biogeographic province, further, shows two subprovinces, the Himalayan and the Tibetan.

Singh, Trilochan

116

Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The medial Permian (?270–260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permia...

Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-gu?ven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; S?engo?r, A. M. Cela?l; Schultz, Cesar L.

2012-01-01

117

The first record of Upper Permian and Lower Triassic scorpions from Russia (Chelicerata: Scorpiones).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several small fragments of fossil scorpions are reported from two localities in Vologda Province, Russia, representing the Upper Permian (Severodvinian, correlated to Wuchiapingian) (Isady) and Lower Triassic just above the Permian-Triassic boundary (Induan) (Nedubrovo). Most observed structures are not diagnostic at genus or family level. The Isady leg fragment possesses ungues (claws), which are both denticulated and setaceous, and resembles a Carboniferous Eobuthus sp. (Eobuthidae). It is ...

Fet, V.; Shcherbakov, D. E.; Soleglad, M. E.

2011-01-01

118

Palaeogeografical and palaeoecological significance of the Uppermost Carboniferous and Permian rugose corals of Spitsbergen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Carboniferous and Permian rugose corals of the Cordilleran-Arctic-Uralian (C-A-U) Realm, belong to the best known group of animals of those periods. Spitsbergen, situated at that time on the northern margin of the drifting supercontinent Pangea, stands out from the entire C-A-U Realm for its exceptionally large accumulation of their fossils. The climate obtaining in the Carboniferous and Early Permian was favourable to their development. At that time today’s Svalbard Archipelago lay ...

Chwieduk, Edward

2013-01-01

119

The Mont Collon mafic complex (Austroalpine Dent Blanche nappe): permian evolution of the Western European mantle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The early Permian Mont Collon mafic complex (Dent Blanche nappe, Austroalpine nappe system) is one of the best preserved examples of the Permian mafic magmatism in the Western Alps. It is composed of discontinuous exposures and a well-preserved magmatic layering (the Dents de Bertol cliff) crops out in the center part of the complex. It mainly consists of cumulative mafic rocks, which represent 95 vol-% of the mafic complex (ol- and cpx-bearing gabbros and rare anorthositic layers, troctolite...

Monjoie, Philippe; Lapierre, Henriette; Pfeifer, Hans-rudolf

2005-01-01

120

Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI). A great attention has been given to the negative ?13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1) and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE) data are reporte...

Aymon Baud

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Absence of Extraterrestrial 3He in Permian–Triassic Age Sedimentary Rocks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Helium concentration and isotopic composition were measured in a suite of samples across the Permian–Triassic boundary at Opal Creek, Canada, to determine whether high extraterrestrial helium concentrations are associated with a possible extinction-inducing impact event at this time. No extraterrestrial [super]3He was detected, implying that neither fullerene-hosted nor IDP-hosted He is present at or near the boundary. This observation is consistent with similar studies of some Permian–Tr...

Garrison, G.; Ward, P.; Farley, K. A.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

2005-01-01

122

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

123

Distribution, Mineralogy, Petrography, Provenance and Significance of Permian Ash-Carrying Deposits in the Paraná Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of thin sections taken from drill core samples and outcrops in southern Brazil has demonstrated the occurrenceof repeated ash fall episodes during the Permian period between 280 and 245 Ma. Scattered or concentrated altered volcanicglass shards were detected in strata of Permian sedimentary rocks of the Rio Bonito and Tatui Formations. The shardcarryingsediment is usually a silty or cherty mudstone with variable amounts of calcrete calcite. Burial and alteration ofunstable glass debris led to the development of analcite and less commonly, calcite, silica minerals, zeolites or montmorillonite.Sources of explosive Permian volcanism, responsible for ample ash falls have been sought in South Africa, in the AndeanCordillera and along the Paraná Basin margin. A swarm of rhyolitic centers described in the Cordillera Frontal and in theCentral Argentinian Provincia de La Pampa (Patagonia is here proposed as the most adequate Permian source. In that area,volcanoes must have expelled ashes that traveled thousands of kilometers before settling in deltaic or shallow marineenvironments. Twenty-three occurrences of Permian shard-carrying sediments have been plotted in a Paraná Basin map. Thenumber of ash-carrying sediments decreases northeastward. The authors envisage dense clouds originated in Patagoniatraveling NE, depositing progressively smaller quantities of ashes but reaching Australia in pre-drift Gondwana. Shardcarrying sediments must be distinguished from “tonstein”, ash fall or ash flow tuffs, also recorded in the Permian Gondwana,which would indicate closer ash source area.

José Moacyr Vianna Coutinho

124

Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

2008-03-15

125

Dating of authigenic clays related to igneous intrusions in Hunter Valley Coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sydney Basin is composed mainly of Permian and Triassic marine and non-marine clastic sedimentary strata together with economically significant coal deposits and volumetrically minor igneous rocks. Many of these igneous rocks are also economically significant not only for their use in the construction industry but also for their deleterious effects on coal mining, particularly in underground mines utilising longwall extraction systems. Igneous activity in the Sydney Basin ranges from Early Permian to Tertiary in age and although episodic in nature, activity was unlikely to have ceased for periods of more than approximately 10 million years (Carr and Facer 1980; Embleton et al. 1982). Dating of the time of emplacement of igneous rocks using the K-Ar isotopic system is a relatively straightforward procedure if suitable analytical facilities and samples of appropriate, fresh, primary minerals are available. In the case of intrusions in coal seams, however, the occurrence of fresh, primary minerals is very rare due to widespread alteration produced by interaction between the igneous rock and fluids in the coal seam. This interaction produces a variety of secondary minerals with most primary minerals and glass being altered to clays (mainly kaolinite) and carbonates. Consequently, relatively few isotopic dates for intrusions into coal seams have been determined. A detailed study of several hundred samples of igneous rocks from the Sydney Basin found only six samples ofthe Sydney Basin found only six samples of intrusions into coal seams that were suitable for conventional K-Ar dating (Carr and Facer 1980). Techniques for K-Ar dating of authigenic illite, developed in response to the need by the petroleum industry to understand the timing of diagenesis in petroleum source-rocks and reservoirs, are now well established (Clauer and Chaudhuri 1995). As part of a larger project on the impact of igneous intrusions on coal mining and the alienation of coal reserves, a preliminary investigation of the timing of authigenic illite formation by alteration of intrusions in Dartbrook Mine has been undertaken

126

Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction  

CERN Document Server

Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

Standard, J C

2003-01-01

127

Coal Mines Security System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, au...

Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Rane, Milind E.

2012-01-01

128

Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (?98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for ?98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in ?98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced oxic conditions throughout the LPE event, while anoxic conditions developed in the deep ocean. Hence, anoxic marine waters did not extend globally onto shelf environments and as such ocean anoxia cannot have been the main driver of the extinction event. While global systems were stressed by anoxia, the anoxic conditions may better represent a symptom of Siberian Trap eruptions that had catastrophic impact on the environment, potentially through nutrient loading and deposition of toxic substances into marine and terrestrial systems. Proemse et al., 2013: Molybdenum isotopic evidence for oxic marine conditions during the latest Permian extinction. Geology 41, 967-970.

Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

2014-05-01

129

Roadian-Wordian (Guadalupian, Middle Permian) global palaeobiogeography of brachiopods  

Science.gov (United States)

A database of 4471 Roadian-Wordian (Guadalupian, Middle Permian) occurrences of 381 brachiopod genera in 44 different operational geographical units (stations) was analyzed by both Q-mode and R-mode quantitative methods. Four distinct brachiopod biogeographical realms and nine provinces, and 11 brachiopod associations are recognized. The Boreal Realm in the Northern Hemisphere includes the Verkolyman Province in the northern and northeastern Siberian Platform and the eastern European Province in the Ural seaway between the European and Siberian platforms. Both provinces are characterized by containing typical Boreal cold-water brachiopod associations. The Gondwanan Realm in the south also includes two provinces. The Austrazean Province in eastern Australia and New Zealand is probably the most stable province throughout the Permian and characterized by typical Gondwanan brachiopod associations. The Westralian Province centered in Western Australia is also characterized by typical Gondwanan brachiopods, but also demonstrates biogeographical links with the Tethyan stations. The Palaeoequatorial Realm located mainly in the palaeotropical zone contains highly diverse and abundant brachiopod faunas. Two regions/subrealms and four provinces are recognized within this realm. The North America Subrealm contains a distinct Grandian Province characterized by many endemic brachiopod genera and a few cold-water genera. East-central Alaska and Yukon Territory may constitute another brachiopod province. All the stations in the Tethyan Ocean (both Palaeotethys and Neotethys) constitute a distinct Asian-Tethyan Region/Subrealm and incorporate three different provinces. The Cathaysian Province is comprised of the stations in South China and its surrounding terranes/blocks and a few stations in the northern and western margin of the Palaeotethys. Two transitional provinces (Sino-Mongolian-Japanese Province and Cimmerian Province) in the northern and southern temperate zones are also recognizable. The brachiopod fauna from the Mino Belt in Japan is well distinguished from those from other regions, and is hence assigned to the palaeoceanic Panthalassan Realm. Principal coordinates analysis and minimum spanning tree analysis suggest that a latitude-related thermal gradient was the major control for the palaeobiogeography of Roadian-Wordian global brachiopod faunas and for the latitudinal of pattern of decreasing brachiopod generic diversities from the equator to the poles. In addition, geographic separation and oceanic currents may also have played some role in the spatial distribution of brachiopods during Roadian-Wordian times.

Shen, Shu-zhong; Xie, Jun-fang; Zhang, Hua; Shi, G. R.

2009-02-01

130

Evolution of the Early Permian volcanic-plutonic complex in the western part of the Permian Gobi-Altay Rift (Khar Argalant Mts., SW Mongolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lower Permian volcano-sedimentary complexes of the Khar Argalant and Delger Khangay formations in the Khar Argalant Mts. in south-western Mongolia are products of postorogenic within-plate magmatic activity. They consist of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic flows with local intercalations of clastic sedimentary rocks. Vascular plants in volcano-clastic layers correspond to typical Lower to Middle Permian terrestrial associations formed under dry to intermediate conditions of temperate to colder climatic zones. The plant communities of all three formations show affinities to the Siberia (Angara “Cordaitean taiga”.
Relationships of volcanic rocks suggest simultaneous eruptions of mafic (basalt to trachyandesite and felsic (trachyte to rhyolite lavas. The rocks of both formations have similar major- and trace-element contents as well as volcanological character. The granite of the Shar Oroy Massif, with zircon concordia age of 285 ± 1 Ma, was roughly contemporaneous with the volcanic rocks of the Delger Khangay Fm. The Early/Late Permian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Butnaa Khudag Fm. in the hanging wall of the Delger Khangay Fm. postdated the terrestrial volcanic events. Geochemical and structural characteristics suggest that the Shar Oroy Massif and the surrounding Permian volcanic suite represent an eroded, shallow-level plutonic centre and its eruptive cover, which evolved during a crustal extension.

Buriánek D

2012-07-01

131

Late Permian topography at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin: Paleogeography inferred from 3D seismic analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Top Pre Zechstein (TPZ) surface in the North Sea Basin is often mapped because it reveals the total basement tectonics in the area. In areas where Zechstein salt is present halokinetic processes, differential subsidence, and Mesozoic faulting however significantly alter the TPZ surface. The study area is located at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin in the eastern North Sea at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. This area occurs approximately at the pinch-out line of the late Permian Zechstein salt and constitutes an excellent theater illustrating a range of salt-related problems. The TPZ surface is characterized by an overall NNW-ward dip defining the northern flank of the RFH and is transected by a set of NNW-SSE striking faults, and a E-W striking set of minor faults. Salt structures in the northern part of the study area introduce velocity pull-up (artefacts) at the TPZ surface and furthermore cause intense faulting of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover sediments. Pronounced isolated topographic highs similar to hills can be observed in the southern part of the study area where no to very little Zechstein evaporites are present. In the central part where Zechstein evaporites are present, small topographic highs similar to ridges can be observed at the footwall crest of minor faults. The Zechstein evaporites generally onlap towards the south in the study area but in the transitional zone around the hills, onlap from all directions onto the hills is observed. This suggests that the hills reflect paleo-topography developed during sub-aerial exposure before and perhaps during the deposition of the Zechstein sediments. The internal reflections within the hills show that they are composed of southward dipping sediments and very evident erosional truncations can be observed. The hills are aligned parallel to the major E-W striking basement fault, but are not directly associated to faults offsetting the TPZ surface. However, the alignment, the dipping of the strata which are exposed in the hills, and the similar seismic signature of the strata exposed in the hills indicate that the hills are remnants of a footwall high which is progressively eroded from the north. The ridges are associated with minor faults offsetting the TPZ surface, but more importantly the internal reflections within the ridges resemble those of Zechstein carbonate reefs observed in the southern Permian Basin. The lateral distribution of the Zechstein facies and the adjacent land topography show that the topography at the TPZ surface was generated before and during the Zechstein due to faulting and relative uplift of footwalls. The footwall crests of minor faults constituted when flooded, areas with lesser water depth and consequently display different sediment facies. The study thus demonstrates a unique and detailed insight into the TPZ paleogeography which has significant implications for the understanding of the geological development in the eastern North Sea Basin, and may be of importance during the evaluation of the future hydrocarbon potential of the eastern North Sea Basin.

Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Rasmussen, Jens A.

2013-04-01

132

Coal industry annual 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

133

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

134

Coal industry annual 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

135

Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

2001-05-01

136

Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m{sup -3}) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m{sup -3} in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m{sup -3}). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system.

Gillmore, G.K. E-mail: g.k.gillmore@bradford.ac.uk; Phillips, P.S.; Denman, A.R.; Gilbertson, D.D

2002-07-01

137

Petrographic studies of Permian carbonates in southern Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed petrographic studies were conducted on Permian carbonates from four areas: Ratburi, Prachuab Khirikhan, Ko Ang Thong, and Surat Thani-Phang Nga. Six carbonate facies were identified in these areas—mudstone, wackestone, packstone, grainstone, algal boundstone, and intramicrite. The allochems of these carbonates are similar and composed of bioclastic and non-bioclastic grains. The bioclastic grains are blue-green algae (stromatolite), green algae (dasycladacean), tabulate corals, solitary corals, crinoids, foraminiferas ( Shanita sp. and Hemigordius sp.), brachiopods, bryozoan, gastropods and unidentified skeletal fragments. The non-bioclastic grains are ooids, peloids, and intraclasts. Three phases of paragenesis were observed: micritization and neomorphism, dolomitization and non-ferroan/ferroan calcite fractures and veinlets. Micritization, neomorphism, and dolomitization are extensive. Rhombic and mosaic-crystalline dolomites had replaced carbonate mud, sparry calcite cement as well as the allochems. Abundant non-ferroan calcite veinlets cross cut allochems, mud matrix, and dolomite rhombs which suggests they postdate dolomitization. These carbonate facies were interpreted as interior-platform carbonate with a generally well developed shoaling-upward sequence starting from mudstone to wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. Local algal boundstone or algal mound and intramicrite could indicate low energy, regressive cycles.

Chinoroje, Owas

138

Eolian permian deposits in west and northwest Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

The sedimentary and stratigraphic characteristics of eolian Permian deposits exposed in Mendoza, La Rioja and San Juan Provinces (west and northwest Argentina) are described in this paper. The eolianites are fine and medium sandstones with large-scale cross-bedding, multiple parallel truncation planes and some asymmetrical ripples. Three genetic types of deposits have been identified: dune facies, eolian sand-sheet facies and mixed fluvial-eolian facies. Fine and medium sandstones with large-scale cross-bedding and multiple parallel truncation planes are here interpreted as dune deposits (mainly crescentic dunes), and unstratified or flat-bedded sandstones as eolian sand-sheet deposits. Mixed fluvial and eolian sequences, composed of sandstones, mudstones and some matrix-supported conglomerates, represent a transitional facies between those formed in eolian and fluvial environments. This considerable deposition of eolian sediments was probably brought about by the existence of an extensive, medium to low-latitude continent and the withdrawal of marine environments. The environments with highest aridity occurred towards the south and west of the region. The eolian circulation pattern was controlled by a long ensialic volcanic arc emerging towards the west of the basin.

Limarino, C. O.; Spalletti, L. A.

1986-08-01

139

Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a significant reduction in osteichthyan body size. Neopterygii, the clade that encompasses the vast majority of extant fishes, underwent another diversification phase in the Late Triassic. The Triassic radiation of Osteichthyes, predominantly of Actinopterygii, which only occurred after severe extinctions among Chondrichthyes during the Middle-Late Permian, resulted in a profound change within global fish communities, from chondrichthyan-rich faunas of the Permo-Carboniferous to typical Mesozoic and Cenozoic associations dominated by actinopterygians. This turnover was not sudden but followed a stepwise pattern, with leaps during extinction events. PMID:25431138

Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen

2014-11-27

140

Bioessential element-depleted ocean following the euxinic maximum of the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe variations in trace element compositions that occurred on the deep seafloor of palaeo-superocean Panthalassa during the end-Permian mass extinction based on samples of sedimentary rock from one of the most continuous Permian-Triassic boundary sections of the pelagic deep sea exposed in north-eastern Japan. Our measurements revealed low manganese (Mn) enrichment factor (normalised by the composition of the average upper continental crust) and high cerium anomaly values throughout the section, suggesting that a reducing condition already existed in the depositional environment in the Changhsingian (Late Permian). Other redox-sensitive trace-element (vanadium [V], chromium [Cr], molybdenum [Mo], and uranium [U]) enrichment factors provide a detailed redox history ranging from the upper Permian to the end of the Permian. A single V increase (representing the first reduction state of a two-step V reduction process) detected in uppermost Changhsingian chert beds suggests development into a mildly reducing deep-sea condition less than 1 million years before the end-Permian mass extinction. Subsequently, a more reducing condition, inferred from increases in Cr, V, and Mo, developed in overlying Changhsingian grey siliceous claystone beds. The most reducing sulphidic condition is recognised by the highest peaks of Mo and V (second reduction state) in the uppermost siliceous claystone and overlying lowermost black claystone beds, in accordance with the end-Permian mass extinction event. This significant increase in Mo in the upper Changhsingian led to a high Mo/U ratio, much larger than that of modern sulphidic ocean regions. This trend suggests that sulphidic water conditions developed both at the sediment-water interface and in the water column. Above the end-Permian mass extinction horizon, Mo, V and Cr decrease significantly. On this trend, we provide an interpretation of drawdown of these elements in seawater after the massive element precipitation event during the end-Permian maximum development of the reducing water column. A decrease in the Mo/U ratio despite enrichment of Mo and U also supports that of Mo. Calculations of the total amounts of these elements precipitated compared with the global seawater inventory suggest that when more than 6-10% of the global ocean became euxinic as much as the study section, most of the dissolved elements would precipitate into sediments, resulting in a global element-depleted seawater condition. Mo, V, and Cr act as bioessential elements for both primary producers and animals. The continuing reducing water column and the lack of bioessential elements could have had a considerable effect on primary producer turnover and marine life metabolism not only in the pelagic environment, but also in surrounding marine environments.

Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kaiho, Kunio; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Silicified wood from the Permian and Triassic of Antarctica: Tree rings from polar paleolatitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

The mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary produced a floral turnover in Gondwana in which Paleozoic seed ferns belonging to the Glossopteridales were replaced by corystosperm seed ferns and other seed plant groups in the Mesozoic. Secondary growth (wood production) in both plant groups provides information on plant growth in relation to environment in the form of permineralized tree rings. Techniques utilized to analyze extant wood can be used on fossil specimens to better understand the climate from both of these periods. Late Permian and early Middle Triassic tree rings from the Beardmore Glacier area indicate an environment where extensive plant growth occurred at polar latitudes (~80–85°S, Permian; ~75°S, Triassic). A rapid transition to dormancy in both the Permian and Triassic woods suggests a strong influence of the annual light/dark cycle within the Antarctic Circle on ring production. Latewood production in each ring was most likely triggered by the movement of the already low-angled sun below the horizon. The plants which produced the wood have been reconstructed as seasonally deciduous, based on structural and sedimentologic evidence. Although the Late Permian climate has been reconstructed as cold temperate and the Middle Triassic as a greenhouse, these differences are not reflected in tree ring anatomy or wood production in these plant fossils from the central Transantarctic Mountains.

Ryberg, P.E.; Taylor, E.L.

2007-01-01

142

A new captorhinid reptile, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Permian of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Captorhinids, a clade of Paleozoic reptiles, are represented by a rich fossil record that extends from the Late Carboniferous into the Late Permian. Representatives of this clade dispersed from the equatorial regions of Laurasia into the temperate regions of Pangea during the Middle and Late Permian. This rich fossil record shows that there was an evolutionary trend from faunivorous to omnivorous and herbivorous feeding habits within this clade. The discovery of well-preserved captorhinid materials in the Middle Permian of China allows us to determine that the new taxon, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov, is a member of Moradisaurinae, a clade of captorhinids with multiple tooth rows arranged in parallel. The presence of this moradisaurine in the Middle Permian of south central Asia leads us to suggest that paleogeographic changes during the Permian, with part of what is today China becoming a large peninsula of Pangea, allowed these early reptiles as well as other terrestrial vertebrates to extend their geographic ranges to this region of the Late Paleozoic supercontinent. PMID:21484260

Reisz, Robert R; Liu, Jun; Li, Jin-Ling; Müller, Johannes

2011-05-01

143

Mechanisms of C1-inhibitor deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1 inhibitor (C1-Inh) is a protease inhibitor of the serpin family. It interacts and forms complexes with several serine proteases although not all these interactions were proved to be relevant in vivo. Based on studies in deficient patients, C1-Inh appears pivotal in regulating the activation of complement classical pathway and of contact system. The best recognized consequence of defective C1-Inh function is predisposition to episodes of self-limited, increased vascular permeability (angioedema) that is restricted to three specific sites, which include the subcutaneous space, the gut and the upper airway. Candidate mediator of angioedema is bradykinin, a potent vasoactive peptide, released upon contact system activation. Mutations in C1-Inh structural gene are the most common cause of C1-Inh deficiency and lead to hereditary angioedema. Recurrent angioedema are also seen in the acquired defect of C1-Inh that is due to autoantibodies against this protein or to an associated disease causing accelerated catabolism of C1-Inh. Apart from the profound deficiency of C1-Inh characteristic of angioedema, it has been suggested that, in specific pathologic settings, C1-Inh levels in the low normal range could still represent a significant functional deficiency. Such conditions, as extensively investigated in sepsis, are of great relevance because they open the possibility of using C1-Inh as therapeutic agent in several different diseases. PMID:12396014

Pappalardo, Emanuela; Zingale, Lorenza C; Terlizzi, Adelaide; Zanichelli, Andrea; Folcioni, Anna; Cicardi, Marco

2002-09-01

144

Sequence stratigraphy of a lagoonal estuarine system—an example from the lower Permian Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed stratigraphic analysis of the Early Permian (Artinskian/Kungurian) succession of the intracratonic Paraná Basin in southernmost Brazil has revealed that the study region, previously interpreted as formed by a barrier island system in a shallow, wave-dominated sea, actually originated mainly in a mixed (tide and wave) influenced estuary setting. Four main depositional systems have been recognized: alluvial fan, fluvial-dominated delta, lagoonal estuary and barrier/shoreface. The regional correlation of the lithofacies within the different depositional systems has led to a high-resolution-stratigraphic framework, with three third-order depositional sequences. Sequence boundary SB1 marks the base of the Permian succession above the crystalline basement, sequence boundary SB2 is characterized by fluvial sediments overlying marine shales and sandstones. Sequence boundary 3 (SB3) has a different signature reflecting differential subsidence: some areas clearly experienced temporary regression and basinward shift of facies, while in others the transgression rapidly reworked the regressive sediments and left only a thin veneer of pebbly sandstone, the typical signature of a transgressive surface coinciding with a sequence boundary. Within depositional sequence 2, the main target of the study because it has economically important coal seams, seven parasequences are recognized, two forming the lowstand systems tract of the sequence, four forming the transgressive systems tract and one parasequence forming the highstand systems tract. Two parasequence limits are erosional transgressive surfaces, as indicated by the occurrence of a substrate-controlled ichnofacies ( Glossifungites) and a veneer of intraclasts composed of nodules (chert?), shell fragments and muddy rip-up clasts. The base-level variations had a strong tectonic component, as indicated by (1) the shift in shoreline configuration from east-west to a north-south direction after unconformity SB3 formation, (2) the transgressive reworking of regressive sediments in the southern part of the study area indicating differential subsidence and consequent differential accommodation available for the sediments and (3) the angularity displayed by the strata adjacent to the sequence boundary SB3.

Holz, Michael

2003-12-01

145

Coal-93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1992. Some information about technics, environmental questions and markets are also given. The use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced by about 10 percent during 1992 to the level of 1.1 million ton. This is the case for both heat generating boilers and co-generation boilers. On the other hand, the electricity production in the cogeneration plants have increased, mainly for tax reasons. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. During 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 cogeneration plants. For 1992 these figures are 5 and 9. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The industry has reduced its use of steamcoal by 140 000 tons to about 700 000 tons. The reason is a cut down of production in particularly the cement industry and the mineral wool industry. The steamcoal import was 1.2 million tons during 1992, the same as the year before. The import has been lower than the consumption during the last years. The companies have reduced their stocks because of changed laws about emergency stocks. The average price of steamcoal imported in Sweden in 1992 was 272 SEK/ton or 25 SEK/ton lower than in 1991. The coal market during 1992 was affected by smaller consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. Among other things independent mines in Russia and Poland have dumped low quality coals. A structuring of both process and quality has now begun. Western companies have for instance started joint ventures with Russian companies and supplied washing- and classifying equipments. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. 13 tabs

146

Coal purification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Please read the abstract in the section 00front of this document © 2003 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Mthembi PM, 2003, Coal purification, MSc dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, vi...

Mthembi, Pabalala Meshack

2005-01-01

147

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

Science.gov (United States)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01

148

Coal industry annual 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

149

Coal -94  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx. Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO2-removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 40% reduction

150

Polish permian basin: Lithofacies traps for gas within the Rotliegende deposits as a new exploration potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rotliegende deposits are the most prospective reservoir gas rocks in the Polish Permian basin. Thirty years of their exploration have led to location of numerous gas fields in the upper-most part of these series, particularly in the area of the Fore-Sudetic monocline. Up to this time, exploration studies concentrated mainly on structural objects, and most of the structures were positive gas traps. Well and seismic data also indicate an occurrence of lithofacies gas traps; they occur mainly in the sandstone zones within the fanglomerates surrounding the Wolsztyn Ridge. When comparing the facies regularities in the known gas fields in the German Permian basin (interfingering sandstones and claystones) to the facies patterns of the Polish Permian basin, one may suspect similar exploration possibilities. These are the first promising results. Advances in analysis of the Rotliegende depositional systems will enable us to create a new exploration potential.

Karnkowski, P.H. (Warsaw Univ., Warsaw (Poland))

1993-09-01

151

Fossil Fuels: Coal  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

Pratte, John

152

Terrestrial paleoenvironment characterization across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China  

Science.gov (United States)

Well-preserved marine fossils in carbonate rocks permit detailed studies of the end-Permian extinction event in the marine realm. However, the rarity of fossils in terrestrial depositional environments makes it more challenging to attain a satisfactory degree of resolution to describe the biotic turnover on land. Here we present new sedimentological, paleontological and geochemical (X-ray fluorescence) analysis from the study of four terrestrial sections (Chahe, Zhejue, Mide and Jiucaichong) in Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan (Yangtze Platform, South China) to evaluate paleoenvironmental changes through the Permian-Triassic transition. Our results show major differences in the depositional environments between the Permian Xuanwei and the Triassic Kayitou formations with a change from fluvial-lacustrine to coastal marine settings. This change is associated with a drastic modification of the preservation mode of the fossil plants, from large compressions to small comminuted debris. Plant fossils spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary show the existence of two distinct assemblages: In the Xuanwei Formation, a Late Permian (Changhsingian) assemblage with characteristic Cathaysian wetland plants (mainly Gigantopteris dictyophylloides, Gigantonoclea guizhouensis, G. nicotianaefolia, G. plumosa, G. hallei, Lobatannularia heinanensis, L. cathaysiana, L. multifolia, Annularia pingloensis, A. shirakii, Paracalamites stenocostatus, Cordaites sp.) is identified. In the lowermost Kayitou Formation, an Early Triassic (Induan) Annalepis-Peltaspermum assemblage is shown, associated with very rare, relictual gigantopterids. Palynological samples are poor, and low yield samples show assemblages almost exclusively represented by spores. A ?1 m thick zone enriched in putative fungal spores was identified near the top of the Xuanwei Formation, including diverse multicellular forms, such as Reduviasporonites sp. This interval likely corresponds to the PTB 'fungal spike' conventionally associated with land denudation and ecosystem collapse. While the floral turnover is evident, further studies based on plant diversity would be required in order to assess contribution linked to the end-Permian mass extinction versus local paleoenvironmental changes associated with the transition between the Xuanwei and Kayitou formations.

Bercovici, Antoine; Cui, Ying; Forel, Marie-Béatrice; Yu, Jianxin; Vajda, Vivi

2015-02-01

153

Shallow marine ecosystem feedback to the Permian/Triassic mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

Late Permian reefs developed widely on shallow marine carbonate platforms in South China but disappeared far below the main mass extinction level of the latest Permian. The collapse of reef ecosystem may be related to the enhanced volcanism at the end of Late Permian. Notably, some colony corals and reef-building sponges were found to occur near the mass extinction boundary, inferring the eclipse of reef ecosystem is ahead of the disappearance of reef-building organisms, and the triggers would be present long before the main mass extinction. As the primary producers, the calcareous algae are rich in platform limestones of Late Permian and played a very important role in maintaining the shallow benthic ecosystems. The calcareous algae were found to disappear synchronously with the great reduction of foraminifers, which were ecologically associated with these algae. The extinction of Late Permian calcareous algae greatly reduced the biodiversity of primary producers in the shallow marine environment and destroyed in part the structure and the base of the shallow marine ecosystems, which in turn cause the extinction of ecologically associated metazoan. Microbialites developed on carbonate platforms immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction, representing a simple and unique microbial ecosystem. Widespread occurrence of microbialites symbolized the deterioration of marine environmental conditions and the dramatic revolution of marine ecosystems. As the new primary producers instead of the extinguished calcareous algae, cyanobacteria in the microbialites were an important base of this peculiar ecosystem and contributed greatly to the survival of the remnant faunas after the mass extinction. Widespread occurrence of microbialites in shallow marine environment is suggested to be related to the elevated level of volcanism-induced greenhouse gases and enhanced evaporation and hypersaline condition in addition to the decrease of metazoan grazing pressure. The change from calcareous algae and reef ecosystem to the cyanobacteria-dominated microbial ecosystem documented in the shallow marine sequences in South china is the ecological feedback to the deterioration of the marine environmental conditions probably induced by volcanism.

Wang, Yongbiao; Meng, Zheng; Liao, Wei; Weng, Zeting; Yang, Hao

2011-03-01

154

The first record of Upper Permian and Lower Triassic scorpions from Russia (Chelicerata: Scorpiones.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several small fragments of fossil scorpions are reported from two localities in Vologda Province, Russia, representing the Upper Permian (Severodvinian, correlated to Wuchiapingian (Isady and Lower Triassic just above the Permian-Triassic boundary (Induan (Nedubrovo. Most observed structures are not diagnostic at genus or family level. The Isady leg fragment possesses ungues (claws, which are both denticulated and setaceous, and resembles a Carboniferous Eobuthus sp. (Eobuthidae. It is the latest record of this type of ungues, which are known in some Paleozoic scorpions (extinct suborder Mesoscorpiones; all extant scorpions have smooth claws without enticulation or setation.

Fet, V.

2011-08-01

155

Coal liquefaction  

Science.gov (United States)

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01

156

Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe: Chapter U in Global mineral resource assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits could occur within 2.5 kilometers of the surface, (2) provide a database of known reduced-facies-type sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and significant prospects, and (3) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of undiscovered copper that could be present within each tract. This assessment is a contribution to a global assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Zientek, Michael L.; Oszczepalski, S?awomir; Parks, Heather L.; Bliss, James D.; Borg, Gregor; Box, Stephen E.; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Spieth, Volker; Taylor, Cliff D.

2015-01-01

157

Coal gasification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities for the construction of a coal gasification plant according to the example of Saarland have been examined in a study, taking the energy market as well as the market development for the products produced into account. Factors for the site selection are discussed. Based on the investigation which shows clear advantages for sites close to mines, the following concept is suggested for the plant: Heat supplier is a HTGR with 3000 MW thermal power and 9500C helium exit temperature. The plant produces as main product 1.22 Mrd. Nm3 SNG/a and 870 MW electricity in the base-load region. Yield deviation on the gas side are compensated for by a parallel production of methanol which has an average annual SNG production of 0.8 Mrd Nm3 420.000 t. The by-products per year are about 0.4 million t of tar and oil so that one needs a total amount of 2.1 million t/a coal. (HPH)

158

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

159

C1Q nephropathy in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1q nephropathy (C1qNP) is a peculiar form of glomerulonephritis characterized by mesangial immunoglobulin and complement deposits, predominantly C1q, with no evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus. We describe the incidence, manifestation, histopathologic findings, follow-up, treatment and outcome of C1qNP. Twelve C1qNP patients were identified among 131 children who had undergone renal biopsy, accounting for a 9.16% incidence of C1qNP. Light microscopy examination showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) with or without diffuse mesangial proliferation (n=6), minimal change disease (MCD) (n=4) or focal glomerulonephritis (n=2). C1q deposits were found in all, while electron microscopy revealed visible deposits in nine cases. Eight children presented with nephrotic syndrome, while one had nephrotic proteinuria and renal insufficiency that progressed to end-stage renal failure. The remaining three patients presented with nonnephrotic proteinuria associated with microhematuria, hypertension or renal insufficiency. Only one nephrotic syndrome patient responded excellently to corticosteroids, while four became corticosteroid dependent, and three were corticosteroid resistant, showing a very poor response to other immunosuppressive therapy as well. Patients with non-nephrotic proteinuria demonstrated fixed laboratory findings. Most C1qNP patients had FSGS or MCD, the majority of them presenting with corticosteroid-dependent or corticosteroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The latter showed a very poor response to any immunosuppressive therapy and high risk for progressive renal insufficiency. PMID:16247648

Kersnik Levart, Tanja; Kenda, Rajko B; Avgustin Cavi?, Mojca; Ferluga, Dusan; Hvala, Anastazija; Vizjak, Alenka

2005-12-01

160

Identification of the C1q-binding Sites of Human C1r and C1s: A REFINED THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF THE C1 COMPLEX OF COMPLEMENT*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The C1 complex of complement is assembled from a recognition protein C1q and C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s, a Ca2+-dependent tetramer of two modular proteases C1r and C1s. Resolution of the x-ray structure of the N-terminal CUB1-epidermal growth factor (EGF) C1s segment has led to a model of the C1q/C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s interaction where the C1q collagen stem binds at the C1r/C1s interface through ionic bonds involving acidic residues contributed by the C1r EGF module (Gregory, L. A., Thielens, N. M., Arlaud, G...

Bally, Isabelle; Rossi, Ve?ronique; Lunardi, Thomas; Thielens, Nicole M.; Gaboriaud, Christine; Arlaud, Ge?rard J.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Coal systems analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

2005-07-01

162

Clean Coal Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research explains clean coal technologies, including coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, and carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation explores the benefits and processes of clean coal technologies (gasification, coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, carbon capture & sequestration and integrated gasification combined cycle).

163

Ichnological analysis in San Gregorio deposits (Lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area Uruguayan north basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ichnological analysis in deposits corresponding to San Gregorio Fm.(lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area (Cerro Largo Department, Uruguay) was made.Trace fossils in sandstones and mud stones outcrops were studied.The ichnofossil assemblage studied allows to propose a shallow marine environment. (author)

164

Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four components, we detected increased provincialism between our Permian and Triassic datasets. In southern Pangea, a more homogeneous and broadly distributed fauna in the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian, ?257 Ma) was replaced by a provincial and biogeographically fragmented fauna by Middle Triassic times (Anisian, ?242 Ma). Importantly in the Triassic, lower latitude basins in Tanzania and Zambia included dinosaur predecessors and other archosaurs unknown elsewhere. The recognition of heterogeneous tetrapod communities in the Triassic implies that the end-Permian mass extinction afforded ecologically marginalized lineages the ecospace to diversify, and that biotic controls (i.e., evolutionary incumbency) were fundamentally reset. Archosaurs, which began diversifying in the Early Triassic, were likely beneficiaries of this ecological release and remained dominant for much of the later Mesozoic. PMID:23630295

Sidor, Christian A; Vilhena, Daril A; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Huttenlocker, Adam K; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Peecook, Brandon R; Steyer, J Sébastien; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A

2013-05-14

165

Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four components, we detected increased provincialism between our Permian and Triassic datasets. In southern Pangea, a more homogeneous and broadly distributed fauna in the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian, ?257 Ma) was replaced by a provincial and biogeographically fragmented fauna by Middle Triassic times (Anisian, ?242 Ma). Importantly in the Triassic, lower latitude basins in Tanzania and Zambia included dinosaur predecessors and other archosaurs unknown elsewhere. The recognition of heterogeneous tetrapod communities in the Triassic implies that the end-Permian mass extinction afforded ecologically marginalized lineages the ecospace to diversify, and that biotic controls (i.e., evolutionary incumbency) were fundamentally reset. Archosaurs, which began diversifying in the Early Triassic, were likely beneficiaries of this ecological release and remained dominant for much of the later Mesozoic. PMID:23630295

Sidor, Christian A.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Huttenlocker, Adam K.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Peecook, Brandon R.; Steyer, J. Sébastien; Smith, Roger M. H.; Tsuji, Linda A.

2013-01-01

166

Correlation of tuffs in the Newcastle and Wollombi coal Measures based on geochemical fingerprinting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Permian Newcastle (NCM) and Wollombi Coal Measures (WCM) contain many tuffaceous horizons. Major and trace element X-ray fluorescence analysis of four stratigraphically well defined interseam tuffs combined with stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that Y, La, V, Cl and Cu have different concentrations between the four tuffs and were the most powerful group of discriminating elements for the NCM and WCM. Results suggest that each of the tuffs is distinctive and geochemically unique, and can be used to correlate the Newcastle and Hunter coalfields. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kramer, W.; Weatherall, G.; Offler, R.; Wadsworth, J. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Department of Geology

1999-07-01

167

Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fishes and tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have been discovered at 81 localities in the Upper Permian of the Southern Urals area of European Russia. The first sites were found in the 1940s, and subsequent surveys have revealed many more. Broad-scale stratigraphic schemes have been published, but full documentation of the rich tetrapod faunas has not been presented before. The area of richest deposits covers some 900,000 km 2 of territory between Samara on the River Volga in the NW, and Orenburg and Sakmara in the SW. A continental succession, some 3 km thick, of mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones, deposited on mudflats and in small rivers flowing off the Ural Mountain chain, span the last two stages of the Permian (Kazanian, Tatarian). The succession is divided into seven successive units of Kazanian (Kalinovskaya, Osinovskaya, and Belebey svitas, in succession) and Tatarian age, which is further subdivided into the early Tatatian Urzhumian Gorizont (Bolshekinelskaya and Amanakskaya svitas, in succession), and the late Tatarian Severodvinian (Vyazovskaya and Malokinelskaya svitas, of equivalent age) and Vyatkian gorizonts (Kulchumovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas, of equivalent age). This succession documents major climatic changes, with increasing aridity through the Late Permian. The climate changes are manifested in changing sedimentation and the spread of dryland plants, and peak aridity was achieved right at the Permo-Triassic (PTr) boundary, coincident with global warming. Uplift of the Urals and extinction of land plants led to stripping of soils and massive run-off from the mountains; these phenomena have been identified at the PTr boundary elsewhere (South Africa, Australia) and this may be a key part of the end-Permian mass extinction. The succession of Late Permian fish and tetrapod faunas in Russia documents their richness and diversity before the mass extinction. The terminal Permian Kulchomovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas have yielded respectively some 6 and 13 species of fishes (sharks, bony fishes, lungfishes) and 11 and 14 species of tetrapods (aquatic amphibians, herbivorous and carnivorous reptiles of all sizes up to the hippo-sized pareiasaurs and sabre-toothed gorgonopsians). Immediately following the end-Permian environmental catastrophe, earliest Triassic faunas consisted only of a few fish taxa and small, aquatic tetrapods, in low-diversity, low-abundance assemblages.

Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.; Tverdokhlebova, Galina I.; Minikh, Alla V.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Benton, Michael J.

2005-02-01

168

Inorganic Constituents in Coal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

Ra?enovi? A.

2006-01-01

169

Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area and causes rotation of older probably Paleozoic sediments and creates syn-tectonic sediment wedges. The syn-tectonic wedges most probably contain volcaniclastic sediments of the Karl Formation or sandstones of the Auk Formation, but it cannot be excluded that the earliest late Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment of the E-W striking fault system are generally planar and strike parallel to the fault with a southward dip geometrically similar to antithetic faults. In contrast, the intrusions in the footwall segment show a much more complex pattern striking at a high angle to the E-W basement fault and outlining a sill complex, which in certain areas resembles a poorly outlined composite cone. The intrusions are not observed in the syn-tectonic sedimentary wedges and this combined with the general age of the intrusions suggests that the syn-tectonic wedges are of latest early Permian or earliest late Permian age. The study demonstrates Paleozoic intrusions with a systematic orientation and geometry that most likely was directly controlled by the basement faulting. Syn-tectonic hanging-wall deformation represented by antithetic fractures is suggested to be the most important controlling factor for the intrusions at the hanging-wall. At the footwall a more composite geometry of the intrusions is observed, resulting in a much more complex compartmentalization of the Paleozoic sediments due to intrusions compared to the hanging-wall segment. The intrusions and especially the compartmentalization must be taken into account during evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Paleozoic.

Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul

170

Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

Marie-Beatrice FOREL

2012-08-01

171

The structure and processes of the Siberian Traps sub-volcanic complex and consequences for end-Permian environmental crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the key processes that initiated the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses varies considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (30-80 meters) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was in the 103 to 104 Gt range.

Svensen, H.; Polozov, A. G.; Planke, S.

2013-12-01

172

Coal data: A reference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

1995-02-01

173

Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito formation, Early Permian, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quitéria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The basal section of this outcrop represents a coastal lagoon depositional system protected by barriers in microtide conditions, where peat-forming conditions developed in lowlands with ingression of distal alluvial fan deposits. The upper clastic section represents different environmental conditions, originated by the barrier sectioning brought by washover fans. The palynoflora identified in the basal section present a dominance of spores produced by arborescent and herbaceous lycophytes, as well as by sphenophytes and filicophytes, complementary forms of gymnosperm pollen grains. Algae or algae-elements, indicative of fresh, brackish, or marine water, are recorded together with terrestrial spores and pollen grains. The palynological content of matrix-supported conglomerates suggests a close, qualitative similarity with the coaly facies; however, the increase in gymnosperm pollen grains accompanied by a decrease in spores produced by pteridophyte vegetation is remarkable. The autochthonous roof-shale flora related to the clastic upper section is composed of basal stumps of arborescent cormose lycophytes ( Brasilodendron pedroanum), understory vegetation ( Botrychiopsis valida, Lycopodites sp.), small trees ( Coricladus quiteriensis), undetermined filicoid rodheopterid fronds, and parautochthonous elements ( Rubidgea sp., Cordaites sp.). Palynofloras point to floristic similarity between the roof-shale floras and the subjacent coal-forming parautochthonous floras. Correlations between the floristic data and those from high-resolution sequence stratigraphic methods indicate that this interval is associated with the final parasequences of the transgressive tract of Rio Bonito Formation, where coal levels are thin. The record in some coal palynofloras of Striadopodocarpites fusus, a component of the Hamiapollenites karrooensis subzone, as defined in the palynostratigraphic framework for the Paraná Basin, indicates a Kungurian age for the palynoflora.

Jasper, André; Menegat, Rualdo; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; de Souza, Paulo Alves

2006-07-01

174

Using conodont elements to distinguish Permian-Triassic boundary disconformity near Haftad Gholleh, central Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente estudio se enfoca en la estatigrafía del Límite Pérmico-Triásico en el área de Haftad Gholleh, al este de Arak y al norte de Mahallat, centro de Irán. Este límite de discordancia erosiva, al igual que en otras secuencias iraníes relacionadas al período Pérmico, contiene calizas dolomías, [...] esquistos y areniscas discordantes localizadas debajo de la secuencia Triásica. En una medida estratigráfica detallada del área de estudio se encontraron conodontas del Límite Pérmico-Triásico (PTB, por sus siglas en inglés). Se reconocieron tres áreas de conodontas, lo que ubica esta sección del PTB como bioestatigráfica precisa. Una de las secuencias superiores del Pérmico pertenece al período Guadalupiense. La secuencia Triásica consiste en calizas con capas vermiculitas coloreadas de esquisto que pertenecen al período Triásico temprano. La discordancia del Límite Pérmico Triásico, entonces, representa un lapso cercano a los 10 millones de años. Abstract in english The present study focuses on the stratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Haftad Gholleh area in eastern Arak and north of Mahallat,located in central Iran. This boundary of erosional unconformity or disconformity and as in other Iranian sequences related to the Permian period, contains [...] dolomitic limestone and shale and sandstone disconformably located below the Triassic sequence. A detailed measured stratigraphic section has provided conodonts from the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sequences in the area being studied. Three conodont areas have been recognied which place the PTB in this section by precise biostratigraphy. One of the most upper Permian sequences belongs to the Guadalupian period. The Triassic sequence consists of vermiculate limestone layers with coloured shale inter beds belonging to the Early Triassic period; unconformity at the Permian-Triassic boundary therefore represents a hiatus of about 10 million years.

Mostafa, Yousefirad; Somayeh, Ghanbari; Mahnaz, Parvanehnejad Shirazi.

2013-06-01

175

Strontium and sulfur isotope study of well-preserved Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro basin, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?34S, 87Sr/86Sr ratio, and strontium concentrations for 50 well-preserved samples of Permian marine anhydrite have been determined. The samples were collected from two continuous cores drilled through cyclic Permian evaporites, The Department of Energy drilled the samples in its search for a permanent storage facility for high-level nuclear waste. Primary depositional fabrics (selenite pseudomorphs) and high strontium concentrations (average 1,850 ppm), in association with published bromide and fluid inclusion data from associated halite, suggest primary seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios may be recorded in many of the samples. The general shape of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio curve through the Permian is in accord with previously published observations. However, the increased stratigraphic detail from this unique set of cores constrains the abrupt charge in 87Sr/86Sr during the Permian at a precision previously available only in Deep Sea Drilling Project material. Interpretation of the more complex portions of the curve is limited by poor biostratigraphic control, the specter of provincial early diagenetic effects, and interpretation of the time significance of hiatal surfaces in cyclic strata. Age relationships are constrained by a K-Ar date on an interbedded volcanic ash in the Ochoan strata, and fusulinid age determinations of a well-documented regional transgression during the eented regional transgression during the earliest Guadalupe. Sulfur isotopes yield typical Permian values of 12 per-thousand during the marine portion of the basin fill phase, and abruptly shift to 10 per-thousand in those cycles with a significant component of siliciclastic sediment

176

Tectonic rotations south of the Bohemian Massif from palaeomagnetic directions of Permian red beds in Hungary  

Science.gov (United States)

Palaeomagnetic studies were carried out in Permian red beds of the Balaton Highlands, the Mecsek Mountains and the Bu??kk Mountains of Hungary. Statistically well defined directions were obtained from six localities in the Balaton Highlands and two localities in the Mecsek Mountains. No meaningful results were obtained from the Bu??kk Mountains. Three magnetic components were identified from red beds of the Balaton Highlands: (1) in haematite with a very high unblocking temperature (700??C), interpreted as a Permian magnetization (Dc= 79??, Ic=-11??, k = 24, ??95 = 13.6 ??), in six samples from three beds in a single locality (2) a secondary but ancient component residing mainly inmaghemite (D = 314??, I = 49??, k = 48, ??95 = 10.0??), in 84 samples from six localities with a within-locality scatter increasing on unfolding; and (3) a direction parallel to the present field (D = 7??, I = 62??, k = 46, ??95 = 7.7 ??), in nine samples from a single locality. For the Balaton Highlands, the component 1 direction agrees with directions obtained from Permian red beds and volcanics in the eastern part of the Southern and Eastern Alps and the Inner West Carpathians. All show large, apparent rotations relative to stable Europe since the Permian. Component 2 is of post-folding (post-Aptian) age. Its direction agrees with known Late Cretaceous directions from the Transdanubian Central Mountains, which also show significant counterclockwise rotation relative to stable Europe. The characteristic magnetization for the Mecsek Mountains resides in haematite and may be primary. The directions indicate only a slight net counterclockwise rotation of the Mecsek Mountains with respect to stable Europe since the Permian. ?? 1987.

Marton, E.; Elston, D.P.

1987-01-01

177

Changes in reservoir properties from injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} into coal seams - A laboratory study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Australian Permian coals of similar rank but different texture, one predominantly dull and the other predominantly bright, were investigated in laboratory experiments to assess changes in reservoir properties following exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) and water. Both powdered coal (0.180-0.220 mm) and small cubes (15 mm to a side) were tested in a high-pressure (HP) batch reactor for up to 120 h. Two reaction fluids were used, each on separate sister coal samples: de-ionised water (DH{sub 2}O) only, and a SCCO{sub 2} and DH{sub 2}O mixture. Properties were measured before and after treatment with: high-pressure CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms (storage capacity); helium pycnometry, mercury porosimetry and low-pressure (LP) CO{sub 2} adsorption (density, porosity and PSD effects); leachate chemical analysis for dissolved mineral matter; and water and CO{sub 2} permeabilities at in situ conditions during core flood experiments on an 80 mm cube. Micro and meso porosities for both coals showed significant increases after reactions with the SCCO{sub 2} and DH{sub 2}O mixture. The macroporosity decreased significantly for the dull coal, but increased marginally for the bright coal. Total accessible porosity for dull coal showed virtually no change (0.5%); the bright coal exhibited 3.4% increase from a pre-treatment total porosity of 11.0%. On powdered samples reacted with the mixture, 80%+ increases in internal surface areas, measured using LP CO{sub 2} sorption at 0 C, were noted for both coals. The HP CO{sub 2} excess adsorption isotherms on both coals increased after treatment, varying with pressure level, coal type and coal texture. The core flood tests indicated the permeability to CO{sub 2}, after a waterflood stage, increased significantly. The second stage waterflood exhibited an over 600% increase on the pre-CO{sub 2} first stage waterflood permeability. These combined results indicate that mineral matter in Permian coals is dissolved and mobilized by the carbonic acid formed during CO{sub 2} dissolution in water, leading to increased porosity, permeability and HP CO{sub 2} excess adsorption. (author)

Massarotto, P.; Bae, J.-S.; Iyer, R.; Rudolph, V. [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Golding, S.D. [School of Earth Sciences, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia)

2010-06-01

178

The Cannery Formation--Devonian to Early Permian arc-marginal deposits within the Alexander Terrane, Southeastern Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cannery Formation consists of green, red, and gray ribbon chert, siliceous siltstone, graywacke-chert turbidites, and volcaniclastic sandstone. Because it contains early Permian fossils at and near its type area in Cannery Cove, on Admiralty Island in southeastern Alaska, the formation was originally defined as a Permian stratigraphic unit. Similar rocks exposed in Windfall Harbor on Admiralty Island contain early Permian bryozoans and brachiopods, as well as Mississippian through Permian radiolarians. Black and green bedded chert with subordinate lenses of limestone, basalt, and graywacke near Kake on Kupreanof Island was initially correlated with the Cannery Formation on the basis of similar lithology but was later determined to contain Late Devonian conodonts. Permian conglomerate in Keku Strait contains chert cobbles inferred to be derived from the Cannery Formation that yielded Devonian and Mississippian radiolarians. On the basis of fossils recovered from a limestone lens near Kake and chert cobbles in the Keku Strait area, the age of the Cannery Formation was revised to Devonian and Mississippian, but this revision excludes rocks in the type locality, in addition to excluding bedded chert on Kupreanof Island east of Kake that contains radiolarians of Late Pennsylvanian and early Permian age. The black chert near Kake that yielded Late Devonian conodonts is nearly contemporaneous with black chert interbedded with limestone that also contains Late Devonian conodonts in the Saginaw Bay Formation on Kuiu Island. The chert cobbles in the conglomerate in Keku Strait may be derived from either the Cannery Formation or the Saginaw Bay Formation and need not restrict the age of the Cannery Formation, regardless of their source. The minimum age of the Cannery Formation on both Admiralty Island and Kupreanof Island is constrained by the stratigraphically overlying fossiliferous Pybus Formation, of late early and early late Permian age. Because bedded radiolarian cherts on both Admiralty and Kupreanof Islands contain radiolarians as young as Permian, the age of the Cannery Formation is herein extended to Late Devonian through early Permian, to include the early Permian rocks exposed in its type locality. The Cannery Formation is folded and faulted, and its stratigraphic thickness is unknown but inferred to be several hundred meters. The Cannery Formation represents an extended period of marine deposition in moderately deep water, with slow rates of deposition and limited clastic input during Devonian through Pennsylvanian time and increasing argillaceous, volcaniclastic, and bioclastic input during the Permian. The Cannery Formation comprises upper Paleozoic rocks in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. In the pre-Permian upper Paleozoic, the tectonic setting of the Alexander terrane consisted of two or more evolved oceanic arcs. The lower Permian section is represented by a distinctive suite of rocks in the Alexander terrane, which includes sedimentary and volcanic rocks containing early Permian fossils, metamorphosed rocks with early Permian cooling ages, and intrusive rocks with early Permian cooling ages, that form discrete northwest-trending belts. After restoration of 180 km of dextral displacement of the Chilkat-Chichagof block on the Chatham Strait Fault, these belts consist, from northeast to southwest, of (1) bedded chert, siliceous argillite, volcaniclastic turbidites, pillow basalt, and limestone of the Cannery Formation and the Porcupine Slate of Gilbert and others (1987); (2) greenschist-facies Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that have Permian cooling ages; (3) silty limestone and calcareous argillite interbedded with pillow basalt and volcaniclastic rocks of the Halleck Formation and the William Henry Bay area; and (4) intermediate-composition and syenitic plutons. These belts correspond to components of an accretionary complex, contemporary metamorphic rocks, forearc-basin deposits,

Karl, Susan M.; Layer, Paul W.; Harris, Anita G.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Murchey, Benita L.

2011-01-01

179

16 CFR Appendix C1 to Part 305 - Compact Dishwashers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Compact Dishwashers C1 Appendix C1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. C1 Appendix C1 to Part 305—Compact Dishwashers Range Information...

2010-01-01

180

Coal information 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions te based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

 
 
 
 
181

A sulfur and strontium isotopic investigation of Lower Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lower Permian Wolfcamp and Wichita carbonates and anhydrites, Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle, record a change from a normal marine evaporite depositional environment. Isotopic compositions of S and Sr in anhydrite were determined to investigate the age of Wolfcamp and Wichita strata and the paragenesis of eight anhydrite forms. Bedded nodular mosaic (Wichita) and replacive nodular (Wolfcamp) anhydrites have S and Sr isotopic compositions that record precipitation from Early Permian (Wolfcampian to Leonardian) seawater. Silicified nodular, coarsely crystalline nodular, fossil-filling, and vein-filling anhydrites have enriched S isotopic compositions relative to Permian seawater, whereas euhedral and anhedral replacive anhydrites have depleted S. The Sr isotopic composition of most anhydrite forms indicates an Early Permain marine origin, however, Sr in anhydrite veins is slightly radiogenic compared to Permian seawater. The Sr isotopic composition of bedded nodular mosaic anhydrite indicates a Leonardian seawater source of material. (author)

182

Coal desulfurization process  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

1978-01-01

183

Clean coal technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

184

Research needs for coal gasification and coal liquefaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of coal-gasification and coal-liquefaction technologies is discussed. Consideration is given to applications of coal-gasification technologies, the principal coal-gasification systems, and process-research recommendations. Processing steps in direct and indirect coal liquefaction are outlined, with emphasis placed on past, current, and projected unit sizes of direct coal-liquefaction plants.

Penner, S. S.; Alpert, S. B.; Bendanillo, V.; Clardy, J.; Furlong, L. E.; Leder, F.; Lees, L.; Reichl, E.; Ross, J.; Sieg, R. P.

1980-11-01

185

Stratigraphic implications of late Carboniferous and early Permian megafloras in Lérida, south-central Pyrenees; Comparison with the Cantabrian Mountains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparison is made between the stratigraphic development of Carboniferous and Permian strata in the Cantabrian Mountains and the central Pyrenees, the latter being markedly less complete. Both belong te the same general palaeogeographical area. Elements of the upper Carboniferous and lower Permian succession in the Pyrenees are dated by means of plant megafossil assemblages which are listed and discussed with regard to stratigraphic age. Records in the literature are complemented by hither...

Talens, Jacinto; Wagner, Robert H.

1995-01-01

186

Bivalves and brachiopods in the Carboniferous - Early Permian of Argentine Precordillera: Diversification and faunal turnover in Southwestern Gondwana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diversification patterns and faunistic turnovers of bivalves and brachiopods through the Carboniferous – Early Permian interval in the central western Argentinian basins are analyzed and compared with the global events proposed in former studies. This study reveals a generalized increase of bivalves, at familiar and generic levels, through three time intervals, i.e., Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian-Visean), Late Carboniferous (Bashkirian-Kasimovian) and Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian), ...

Fabiana Sterren, Andrea

2010-01-01

187

Sensitivity of Late Permian climate to bathymetric features and implications for the mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from stratigraphic sections of the Panthalassa, Paleo-Tethys and Neo-Tethys suggests that the oceans experienced widespread anoxia during the Late Permian, which likely contributed to the extinction of ~ 90% of marine and ~ 70% of terrestrial species. The Late Permian and Early Triassic were also characterized by significant carbon isotope excursions implying that considerable perturbations in the carbon cycle occurred. Bathymetric features of the Panthalassa during this period are not well known since most of the ocean floor has been subducted; however, tectonic reconstructions suggest that active marine subduction zones surrounded Pangea. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that there was an active mid-ocean ridge system located in Panthalassa during the Late Permian. In this study, the impact of such a spreading center within Panthalassa on the climate and carbon cycle is investigated using a comprehensive climate system model for the end-Permian. This is a novel approach because a majority of previous simulations assumed a flat bottom for the Panthalassa deep-sea. The mid-ocean ridge (MOR) simulation enhanced vertical mixing and topographic steering of the currents near the ridge-axis but in comparison with the simulation using a flat bottom, changes in the global distribution of water masses and circulation in the Panthalassa were insignificant. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were not considerably affected by the implementation of the mid-ocean ridge. Thus the approximation of using a flat-bottom topography in ocean models for the Late Permian remains valid. In a second sensitivity study, the effect of a sill between the deep Paleo-Tethys and Panthalassa on water mass distribution and oxygen content has been investigated. Model results suggest that the introduction of a sill led to enhanced stratification, as well as an increase in salinity and temperature in the Paleo-Tethys. An associated reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration to dysoxic to near-anoxic conditions below 1800 m suggests that the changes in sill height between the Paleo-Tethys and Panthalassa may have been a contributing factor of regional importance to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction.

Osen, Angela K.; Winguth, Arne M. E.; Winguth, Cornelia; Scotese, Christopher R.

2013-06-01

188

Late Permian-early Middle Triassic back-arc basin development in West Qinling, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Late Permian-early Middle Triassic strata of the northern West Qinling area, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, are composed of sediment gravity flow deposits. Detailed sedimentary facies analysis indicates these strata were deposited in three successive deep-marine environments. The Late Permian-early Early Triassic strata of the Maomaolong Formation and the lowest part of the Longwuhe Formation define a NW-SE trending proximal slope environment. Facies of the Early Triassic strata composing the middle and upper Longwuhe Formation are consistent with deposition in a base-of-slope apron environment, whereas facies of the Middle Triassic Anisian age Gulangdi Formation are more closely associated with a base-of-slope fan depositional environment. The lithofacies and the spatial-temporal changes in paleocurrent data from these strata suggest the opening of a continental margin back-arc basin system during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the northern West Qinling. U-Pb zircon ages for geochemically varied igneous rocks with diabasic through granitic compositions intruded into these deep-marine strata range from 250 to 234 Ma. These observations are consistent with extensional back-arc basin development and rifting between the Permian-Triassic Eastern Kunlun arc and North China block during the continent-continent collision and underthrusting of the South China block northward beneath the Qinling terrane of the North China block. Deep-marine sedimentation ended in the northern West Qinling by the Middle Triassic Ladinian age, but started in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi to the south. We attribute these observations to southward directed rollback of Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere, continued attenuation of the West Qinling on the upper plate, local post-rift isostatic compensation in the northern West Qinling area, and continued opening of a back-arc basin in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi. Rollback and back-arc basin development during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the West Qinling area explains: the truncated map pattern of the Eastern Kunlun arc, the age difference of deep-marine sediment gravity flow deposits between the Late Permian-early Middle Triassic northern West Qinling and the late Middle Triassic-Late Triassic southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi, and the discontinuous trace of ophiolitic rocks associated with the Anyemaqen-Kunlun suture.

Li, Lin; Meng, Qingren; Pullen, Alex; Garzione, Carmala N.; Wu, Guoli; Wang, Yanling; Ma, Shouxian; Duan, Liang

2014-06-01

189

No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Multiple observations have revealed that environmental disturbances may have been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and delayed biotic recovery. Biogeochemical constraints on the temporal and spatial changes of oceanic redox chemistry during the Permian–Triassic interval are essential to evaluate global significance of previous hypotheses and to improve our understanding of extinction and recovery processes. To investigate redox ocean chemistry change associated with the end-Permian extinction and subsequent delayed biotic recovery, we examine framboidal pyrites as well as sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrites from the East Greenland Basin. The size distributions of framboidal pyrites in sediments from a continuous section across the Permian–Triassic boundary reveal that sulfidic conditions in water columns were established about 0.7 m above the extinction event in the East Greenland Basin. Our detailed examination of framboidal pyrites challenges a leading hypothesis that euxinia in the photic zonecaused the end-Permian ecosystem collapse. We identify several positive and negative S-isotopic shifts before and after the extinction event and demonstrate that a positive S-isotopic shift is not indicative of an abrupt change of redox chemistry in water columns, in contrast to previous claims. The integration of isotope and framboidal pyrite data provides a nearly continuous record of ocean chemistry evolution and new insights into the end-Permian extinction and delayed biotic recovery in the East Greenland Basin.

Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y

2010-01-01

190

Origin of Permian gabbroic intrusions in the southern margin of the Altai Orogenic belt: A possible link to the Permian Tarim mantle plume?  

Science.gov (United States)

Zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions, whole-rock and mineral geochemistry, as well as field and petrographic observations, are reported for the Permian gabbroic intrusions in the southern margin of the Altai orogenic belt. Similar zircon ages (~ 280 Ma) of these intrusions to that of the Permian Tarim mantle plume suggest a possible link to the Tarim plume. Olivine grains from the intrusions have Fo contents ranging from 69 to 81 and NiO from 0.05 to 0.21 wt.%, indicating the crystallization from evolved mafic magmas. Clinopyroxene grains from the intrusions have 0.3 to 1.5 wt.% TiO2 and display a rift- to arc-like affinity. The intrusions are tholeiitic and have slightly LREE-depleted to LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns. Zircons from the intrusions have ?Hf(t) values higher than + 8.0, whereas the whole-rock ?Nd(t) values range from + 2.7 to + 7.0. Rocks from the intrusions have Nb/La of 0.2 to 0.8, consistent with the derivation from a depleted sub-lithospheric mantle with variable degrees of crustal contamination. The presence of primary hornblende and/or biotite in the rocks indicates metasomatism by slab-derived fluids/melts in the mantle source. We propose that upwelling of asthenospheric mantle in the Permian Tarim mantle plume along the Irtish suture zone, resulted in partial melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Based on a comparison between the Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing Kalatongke complex and un-mineralized intrusions, we suggest that Ni-Cu sulfide mineralized intrusions in the Altai orogenic belt are characterized by the enrichments of LREEs and LILEs and by the presence of primary water-bearing minerals.

Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Zou, Hai-Bo; Yao, Chun-Yan; Dong, Yong-Guan

2014-09-01

191

International perspectives on coal preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

NONE

1997-12-31

192

Contraction of coals and coal blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As equipment ages, prolonging battery life is a priority for many cokemakers. The choice of coal blends to be coked is an important part of the strategy adopted. Coking pressure limits have been reduced in recent years and some cokemakers are guided by the coal blend contraction determined in a sole-heated oven (ASTM D 2014-97) to ensure smooth pushes. Contraction limits vary somewhat from company to company but sufficient contraction is necessary to provide wall clearance for but not large enough to compromise coke cake integrity. The contraction of a blend is found not to be an additive property of the coals it contains therefore making blend formulations more difficult. As an example, for the two coals investigated here, a 50/50 blend of a low-volatile coal that expands 5% and a high-volatile coal that contracts 27% would be expected to have a contraction of 11% rather than the measured 4.7%. Work involved coking a high-volatile coal, a low-volatile coal and three of their blends in the sole-heated oven and carefully measuring the yield and porosity of the cokes obtained. It is determined the coke yield of the three blends is higher than expected and coal interaction is confirmed by coke microscopy which shows changes in coke texture. However, the primary reason for the smaller than expected contraction of the blends is their higher than expected porosity. It is argued that porosity is greater because it is determined by the flow of gases from the plastic coal layer to cracks in the semi-coke and that cracking is reduced as low-volatile coal is added to the blend. 16 refs., 7 figs. 3 tabs.

J.F. Gransden; L. Giroux; J.A. MacPhee; J.T. Price [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2003-07-01

193

Coal Production 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29

194

Coal Tech 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) discussed clean coal, the Otway project, carbon capture and storage, the Munmorah post combustion capture project, oxyfuel technology and the Callide Oxyfuel Project, gasification technology, global developments in coal-to-liquids, FuturGas project, coal-to-liquids in South Australia, Arckaringa coal-to-liquids and power project, Latrobe urea project, Salmon Gums lignite to liquids project, Felton hybrid energy project, and transport fuels alternatives.

NONE

2008-07-01

195

Inorganic Constituents in Coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

Ra?enovi? A.

2006-02-01

196

Polish brown coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general information about brown coal genesis and occurrence is given. The brown coal deposits in Poland as well as their industrial utilization are described in detail. The descriptions of all Polish brown coal collieries are presented together with basic technical data. The influence of collieries on the environment is described, too. The role of brown coal in energy balance of Poland is assessed. The development perspectives of this energy sector are given. 1 fig., 29 ills, 7 tabs

197

Self-scrubbing coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are per examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

198

Sulfur and oxygen isotopes in Italian marine sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaporitic sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from Italian occurrences were analyzed for sulfur and oxygen isotopes in order to supplement the corresponding isotope-age curves and to use isotopic data to trace the origin of the sulfate in hydrologic systems. The sulfur-isotopic composition-age relationships obtained in this study generally agree with those found throughout the world. In two cases, i.e. in samples from the Carniola di Bovegno Formation (Bergamo and Brescia Alps) and from the lower part of the Gracilis Formation (Recoaro, Vicenza), sulfur isotopes suggest different ages for the rocks than the formerly ascribed ones. Oxygen-isotopic compositions show the same range from approximately +10.5 to +18.5per thousand, without any consistent relationship with sulfur. These ranges of values are almost identical to those published previously for sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from other locations. (Auth.)

199

Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI. A great attention has been given to the negative ?13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1 and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.

Aymon Baud

2005-10-01

200

U-Th-Geochemistry of Permian and Triassic sediments of the Drauzug, Carinthia, Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical analysis of samples of Triassic and Permian rocks from the Drauzug, Carinthia and Austria was carried out. U concentration was measured by flurimetry, Th and Cu by spectrophotometry using Thoronol method or Arsenazo III method for Th, Fe by titrimetry and V, Ba, Sr by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average U concentration ranged from 0.8 to 4.6 ppm and the Th concentration from 3.2 to 15.6 ppm depending upon the mineral material. The quartzporphyries contained the highest concentration of both. It was concluded that the Permian-Triassic series are very similar to the equivalent deposits in Northern Italy. Assuming a lateral displacement, the former represent the Northern marginal part of the latter and therefore are inferior in thickness and thus not favourable for larger U mineralization

 
 
 
 
201

Coal production 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29

202

The Late Permian herbivore Suminia and the early evolution of arboreality in terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vertebrates have repeatedly filled and partitioned the terrestrial ecosystem, and have been able to occupy new, previously unexplored habitats throughout their history on land. The arboreal ecospace is particularly important in vertebrate evolution because it provides new food resources and protection from large ground-dwelling predators. We investigated the skeletal anatomy of the Late Permian (approx. 260 Ma) herbivorous synapsid Suminia getmanovi and performed a morphometric analysis of th...

Fro?bisch, Jo?rg; Reisz, Robert R.

2009-01-01

203

Taphonomy of Bivalve Mollusks in Oolitic Limestones from Teresina Formation (Paraná Basin, Middle Permian, Prudentópolis, PR)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herein, it is presented the first detailed taphonomic study on bivalve mollusk shells preserved in the oolitic limestonesof the Teresina Formation (probably Kungurian-Roadian, Lower-Middle Permian) in the eastern margin of the Paranábasin. The selected beds are located in two quarries (informally named PRU 1 and PRU 2) in Prudentópolis municipality(Center-South Paraná State), and positioned approximately in the middle of the formation and probably in the Pinzonellaillusa Zone. The PRU 1 li...

Jacqueline Peixoto Neves; Rosemarie Rohn; Marcello Guimarães Simões

2010-01-01

204

Organic geochemistry across the Permian-Triassic transition at the Idrijca Valley, Western Slovenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bulk and molecular stable C isotopic compositions and biomarker distributions provide evidence for a diverse community of algal and bacterial organisms in the sedimentary organic matter of a carbonate section throughout the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) transition at the Idrijca Valley, Western Slovenia. The input of algae and bacteria in all the Upper Permian and Lower Scythian samples is represented by the predominance of C15-C22 n-alkanes, odd C-number alkylcyclohexanes, C27 steranes and substantial contents of C21-C30 acyclic isoprenoids. The occurrence of odd long-chain n-alkanes (C22-C30) and C29 steranes in all the samples indicate a contribution of continental material. The decrease of Corg and Ccarb contents, increase of Rock-Eval oxygen indices, and 13C-enrichment of the kerogen suggest a decrease in anoxia of the uppermost Permian bottom water. The predominance of odd C-number alkylcycloalkanes, C27 steranes, and C17 n-alkanes with ?13C values ?-30%o, and 13C-enrichment of the kerogens in the lowermost Scythian samples are evidence of greater algal productivity. This increased productivity was probably sustained by a high nutrient availability and changes of dissolved CO2 speciation associated to the earliest Triassic transgression. A decrease of Corg content in the uppermost sub>org content in the uppermost Scythian samples, associated to a 13C-depletetion in the carbonates (up to 4%o) and individual n-alkanes (up to 3.4%o) compared to the Upper Permian samples, indicate lowering of the primary productivity (algae, cyanobacteria) and/or higher degradation of the organic matter

205

Subsidence hazards caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England : geology, investigation and remediation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

About every three years natural catastrophic subsidence, caused by gypsum dissolution, occurs in the vicinity of Ripon, North Yorkshire, England. Holes up to 35 m across and 20 m deep have appeared without warning. In the past 150 years, 30 major collapses have occurred, and in the last ten years the resulting damage to property is estimated at about £1000000. Subsidence, associated with the collapse of caves resulting from gypsum dissolution in the Permian rocks of eastern England, occurs i...

Cooper, A. H.

1998-01-01

206

A first Late Permian fish fauna from Baghuk Mountain (Neo-Tethyan shelf, central Iran)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A diverse Late Permian assemblage of chondrichthyan and actinopterygian micro- and macroremains is presented from the central Iranian locality of Baghuk Mountain for the first time. The vertebrate remains were found in sediments containing mainly pelagic organisms such as nautiloids, ammonoids, and conodonts. Their habitat is interpreted as a deep shelf area with well-oxygenated bottom water conditions below the storm wave base. The chondrichthyans are represented by various dermal denticles,...

Hampe O; Hairapetian V; Dorka M; Witzmann F; Akbari A M; Korn D

2012-01-01

207

Evidence for a western extension of the Angaran phytogeographic province in the Early Permian  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A newly described Early Permian fossil plant assemblage in the Mt. Dall conglomerate in the Farewell terrane (Alaska Range, USA) is analyzed from a paleobiogeographic perspective. These data constitute the youngest paleontological dataset yet discovered in this terrane, represent the terrane's only predominantly terrestrial fossil assemblage, and are the only plant macrofossil remains of Early Permian age within a > 1500 km radius today. A suite of multivariate statistical analyses comparing the Mt. Dall paleoflora to similar age (Asselian-Artinskian) collections from the Angaran, Euramerican, and Cathaysian Permian phytogeographic provinces reveals that the Mt. Dall paleoflora has a paleobiogeographic affinity with Sub-Angaran plant fossil assemblages collected from Mongolia and the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. The paleoflora has dual importance in the construction and testing of hypotheses for which there are geographically and temporally few controls. First, these data may be used in association with other faunal and floral remains to test models of the assembly of Alaska, which seek, in part, an understanding of the paleogeographic and lithological origins of accreted terranes. That the Mt. Dall paleoflora indicates mixed Eurasia-North America paleobiogeographic affinity among individual taxa and plots in multivariate space with mid-latitude assemblages on northern Pangea may suggest deposition in that latitudinal belt. Second, contrary to the well-sampled fossil plant-bearing Permo-Carboniferous of the paleotropics and the northeastern temperate Pangean regions (Angaraland), terrestrial biome structure and vegetation type of northwestern Pangea are poorly known. This lack of understanding is due to the paucity of paleofloral collections from this region in this time period and the paleogeographic uncertainty of their position along the ancient active margin of Laurentia. The Mt. Dall paleoflora's phytogeographic affinity to paleobotanical collections from the northeastern Pangea therefore suggests that the Angaran province extended meridionally westward in the Early Permian into what is now northern North America. (author)

Sunderlin, David [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)

2010-08-01

208

Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four ...

Sidor, Christian A.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Huttenlocker, Adam K.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Peecook, Brandon R.; Steyer, J. Se?bastien; Smith, Roger M. H.; Tsuji, Linda A.

2013-01-01

209

Study of association of fossil levels in the Mangrullo Formation (Terminal Permian age) Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution makes reference to new findings, product of paleontological surveys performed in the Mangrullo Formation in the NE region of the country. The presence of a new group of vertebrates associated to mesosaurid remains was confirmed , in strata where only the latter where recorded until this moment. Palynological analysis were carried out in fossil bearing levels confirming a Terminal Permian Age and a possibly non marine acuatic depostional environment under an arid climate. (author)

210

Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in this area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumpti...

André Jasper; Dieter Uhl; Margot Guerra-Sommer; Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Machado, Neli T. G.

2011-01-01

211

A high resolution palynozonation for the Al Khlata Formation (Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian), South Oman  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palynology is the main method of correlating the subsurface glaciogenic Al Khlata Formation (Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian) of Oman due to the extreme lateral variability of facies and poor seismic resolution. The chief operating company in Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), has developed a robust in-house palynozonation during almost 40 years of exploration and production based on thousands of samples and hundreds of well sections. In this paper, the formal definitions of the biozones ...

Penney, Randall A.; Al Barram, Issam; Stephenson, Michael

2008-01-01

212

A precise late Permian 40Ar/ 39Ar age for Central Iberian camptonitic lamprophyres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Avila batholith of central Spain is composed, predominantly, of crustal-melt peraluminous granites cut by small-scale mafic alkaline bodies. Dating of the Gredos sector mafic camptonitic lamprophyre dykes was undertaken to constrain the Late Variscan tectonomagmatic evolution of the region. A well constrained late Permian, Capitanian, age of 264.5 ± 0.9 Ma was obtained by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology using amphibole separates. This new age clearly distinguishes the dykes from othe...

Scarrow, J. H.

2006-01-01

213

Impact of Siberian Trap volcanism on the end-Permian and Early Triassic carbon cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

The Siberian Traps are the largest of the large igneous provinces, covering approximately 5 million km2. The timing of this volcanic episode is indistinguishable from the end-Permian mass extinction, and the event likely both directly and indirectly impacted marine ecosystems, leading to the largest extinction of Earth history. Recent studies suggest record volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases were released from both lava degassing and degassing due to heating of Tunguska Basin sediments. In this study, we use Genie-1, an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (http://wwww.genie.ac.uk), to examine the impact of volcanic volatile release on the sedimentary carbon isotope record and end-Permian carbonate system under a wide range of volumes, rates, and isotope compositions of CO2 input. These model experiments place quantitative constraints on the magnitude and rates of CO2 addition that can account for the sedimentary and C isotope records of the end-Permian and Early Triassic.

Meyer, K. M.; Kump, L.; Cui, Y.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Payne, J.

2011-12-01

214

Provenance of Permian Malužiná Formation sandstones (Hronicum, Western Carpathians): evidence from monazite geochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian Malužiná Formation and the Pennsylvanian Nižná Boca Formation are Upper Paleozoic volcano- sedimentary complexes in the Hronicum nappe system. Sandstones, shales and conglomerates are the dominant lithological members of the Malužiná Formation sequence. Detrital monazites were analysed by electron microprobe, to obtain Th-U-Pb ages of the source areas. The majority of detrital monazites showed Devonian-Mississippian ages, ranging from 330 to 380 Ma with a weighted average of 351 ± 3.3 (2?), that correspond well with the main phase of arcrelated magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians. Only a small portion of detrital monazites displayed Permian ages in the range of 250-280 Ma, with a significant maximum around 255 Ma. The weighted average corresponds to 255 ± 6.2 Ma. These monazites may have been partially derived from the synsedimentary acid volcanism that was situated on the margins of the original depositional basin. However, some of the Triassic ages (230-240 Ma), reflect, most likely, the genetic relationship with the overheating connected with Permian and subsequent Triassic extensional regime. Detrital monazite ages document the Variscan age of the source area and also reflect a gradual development of the Hronicum terrestrial rift, accompanied by the heterogeneous cooling of the lithosphere.

Vozárová, Anna; Kone?ný, Patrik; V?a?ný, Marek; Vozár, Jozef; Šarinová, Katarína

2014-10-01

215

Refined stratigraphy of the Middle Permian Abrahamskraal Formation (Beaufort Group) in the southern Karoo Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluvially deposited rocks of the Abrahamskraal Formation of the lower Beaufort Group in the South African Karoo record sediment deposition during the Middle Permian, the earliest terrestrial environment of Gondwana. A rich diversity of fossil tetrapods from this Formation provides a unique opportunity for understanding Middle Permian biodiversity changes in Gondwanan terrestrial ecosystems, but this is dependent on the existence of a robust stratigraphic framework that has been hampered by lack of lateral continuity of lithological markers combined with structural complexities relating to formation of the Cape Fold Belt. Because the Abrahamskraal Formation covers a large geographic area of the main Karoo Basin previous stratigraphic studies have been undertaken over large areas. This study combines geology and palaeontology to refine the stratigraphy of the Abrahamskraal Formation in a part of the southwestern Karoo Basin and revealed mappable lithological units with lateral continuity throughout the study area. The measured stratigraphic section manifests a total thickness of 2565 m for the Formation (the thickest occurrence of the Abrahamskraal Formation in the Beaufort Group). For the first time stratigraphic ranges of biostratigraphically important Middle Permian index taxa which have restricted stratigraphic ranges have been determined and, apart from dicynodonts, include the parareptile Eunotosaurus and the biarmosuchid therapsid Hipposaurus. The Abrahamskraal Formation comprises a 1104 m thick basal Eodicynodon Assemblage Zone, overlain by a 1441 m thick Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone whose upper limit is 20 m below the Poortjie Member of the Teekloof Formation.

Jirah, Sifelani; Rubidge, Bruce S.

2014-12-01

216

Radionuclides in US coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

1984-03-01

217

Coal Data: A reference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

218

Coal and public perceptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

219

Coal: the new black  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15

220

Coal; Le charbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

2001-12-15

 
 
 
 
221

Coal to gas substitution using coal?!  

Science.gov (United States)

Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UC? s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

2010-05-01

222

Late Permian Tsunamites in Guryul Ravine (Kashmir, India) - revisited and rejected  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent claims for tsunami-related event beds induced by the Siberian Trap basalts in this section (Brookfield et al., 2013) have to be questioned. Identical storm generated carbonate beds occur not only during a short interval close to the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary but through a major part of the late Permian (Changhsingian) succession there - as low as 26 m below the so-called tsunami beds. Moreover, during our recent study in a closely neighbouring place called Mandakpal (less than 10 km to the southeast), no signs of tsunamites have been detected in time-correlative finegrained sediments. Based on sedimentary and trace fossil evidence we interpret the late Permian of Guryul as relatively shallow, neritic and delta-influenced. The so-called tsunamites are shelly-enriched discontinuous carbonate lenses fed downslope through local channels. Judging from the distinct facies change from the storm related "tsunamites" to thinly bedded mud turbidites above, the sudden deepening may be explained by local and still rift-related tectonics along the NIM (North-Indian Gondwana Margin) which led to episodic seismic induced sediment redeposition in the area of Guryul. Synsedimentary tectonic activity with tilting and eventual Horst and Graben structure building along the large NIM is indicated by margin inversion during the P-T boundary interval leading to sedimentary breaks and 20 times thinner, condensed limestone deposits far offshore from Guryul in Spiti (Krystyn et al., 2004) and Tibet (Orchard et al., 1994). Thus, local seismic activity seems to be a far more logic explanation of the Guryul "tsunamites" than the eruption of the Siberian Traps more than 6000 km away. References Brookfield, M. E., Algeo, T. J., Hannigan, R., Williams, J and Bhat, G. M., 2013: Shaken and Stirred: Seismites and Tsunamites at the Permian-Triassic boundary, Guryul Ravine, Kashmir, India. Palaios, v. 28, 568-582. Krystyn, L., Balini, M. and Nicora, A., 2004: Lower and Middle Triassic stage boundaries in Spiti. Albertiana, v. 30, 40-53. Orchard, M.J., Nassichuk, W.W., Rui Lin, 1994: Conodonts from the lower Griesbachian Otoceras latilobatum Bed of Selong, Tibet and the position of the Permian-Triassic boundary. In: Pangea: Global Environments and Resources, Memoirs of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, vol. 17, 823-843.

Krystyn, Leopold; Horacek, Micha; Brandner, Rainer; Parcha, Suraj

2014-05-01

223

High-resolution stable carbon isotope record of the Permian to earliest Triassic from East Greenland  

Science.gov (United States)

The Late Permian and Early Triassic organic carbon isotope records show global major excursions probably triggered by episodic volcanic degasing of the Siberian Large Igneous Province. Important and rapid fluctuations of the global carbon cycle are also reflected in the biosphere. The geological record seems to comprise several major floral and marine faunal turnovers indicating short-lived biotic recoveries. In northwest Pangea, the active Early Triassic Greenland - Norway rifting system led to the accommodation of thick sedimentary sequences. This basin has a great potential for detailed studies of regional and global biotic and climatic changes with high temporal resolution during this critical interval in Earth's history. The western part of this basin is exposed in north-eastern Greenland and is represented by a succession of deltaic sediments organized in a general regressive trend ranging throughout the Griesbachian and the onset of the Dienerian. On the eastern side of the basin the succession has been drilled off the Norwegian coast. On Hold with Hope (East Greenland, 74°N) up to ca. 800m thick sections of the ammonoid-bearing Early Triassic Wordie Creek Formation have been logged and sampled. Here we present a high-resolution organic carbon isotope record and preliminary palynofacies data of a 500m thick composite section ranging from the Permian into the earliest Triassic. The organic carbon isotope record is closely comparable to the coeval section from the Trøndelag platform in Mid-Norway. The two records show a first major negative shift (ca. -6‰) representing the unconformity between the Ravnefjeld and the Wordie Creek formations, regionally known as the lithological Permian-Triassic boundary. Higher up, a second negative shift of ca. -4‰ correlates with the carbon shift associated with the GSSP Permian-Triassic boundary as defined at Meishan (China), represented by carbon isotope values around -30‰. This negative shift is followed by a steady positive trend, which is interrupted by two striking events, (a) a positive shift reaching values of ca. -22‰, comparable to the values of the Permian Ravnefjeld Formation, and (b) another negative shift of ca. -7‰ bringing the carbon record back to values around -31‰. Our data from north-eastern Greenland indicate multiple and major events recorded by the carbon cycle within less than a million years at the onset of the Triassic.

Sanson Barrera, Anna; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Meier, Maximiliano; Schneebeli Hermann, Elke; Weissert, Helmut; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

2013-04-01

224

Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as sporinite and cutinite with an oil generation potential typical of type II kerogen contribute to the source rock potential of the Um Irna Formation which is equivalent to the Khuff Formation in the oil provinces of Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (thermal maturity of dispersed OM ranges between 0.48 and 0.55% R{sub r} giving rise to the mature stage of oil generation). Additionally, Botryococcus-type algae point towards the presence of type I kerogen. Moreover the presence of solid bitumen and oil droplets (petroleum fluid expulsions) in the sediments of the Um Irna Formation indicates formation of hydrocarbons. Organic chemistry not only supported the coal petrographic findings but also indicated inhospitable aquatic conditions near the P/Tr boundary evidenced by PAHs present in the sample and by lots of charcoal. The tropical areas were affected by vast wildfires raging in the forest and swamps during the late Permian. They contributed to a highly toxic atmosphere, a decrease of the oxygen contents speeded up by dead OM spilled into the water and creating anoxia approaching the P/Tr boundary. The elevated geothermal gradient sparking hydrothermal alteration in the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation during the Late Permian may be accounted for as related to a precursor stage of the Dead Sea Rift, which is still active today in terms of migration of hot brines and hydrocarbons. (author)

Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

2010-01-07

225

16 CFR Appendix C1 to Part 305 - Compact Dishwashers  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Compact Dishwashers C1 Appendix C1 to Part 305 Commercial... Appendix C1 to Part 305—Compact Dishwashers Range Information “Compact” includes countertop dishwasher models with a capacity of...

2010-01-01

226

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30

227

Structural basis of the C1q/C1s interaction and its central role in assembly of the C1 complex of complement activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complement component C1, the complex that initiates the classical pathway of complement activation, is a 790-kDa assembly formed from the target-recognition subcomponent C1q and the modular proteases C1r and C1s. The proteases are elongated tetramers that become more compact when they bind to the collagen-like domains of C1q. Here, we describe a series of structures that reveal how the subcomponents associate to form C1. A complex between C1s and a collagen-like peptide containing the C1r/C1s-binding motif of C1q shows that the collagen binds to a shallow groove via a critical lysine side chain that contacts Ca(2+)-coordinating residues. The data explain the Ca(2+)-dependent binding mechanism, which is conserved in C1r and also in mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases, the serine proteases of the lectin pathway activation complexes. In an accompanying structure, C1s forms a compact ring-shaped tetramer featuring a unique head-to-tail interaction at its center that replicates the likely arrangement of C1r/C1s polypeptides in the C1 complex. Additional structures reveal how C1s polypeptides are positioned to enable activation by C1r and interaction with the substrate C4 inside the cage-like assembly formed by the collagenous stems of C1q. Together with previously determined structures of C1r fragments, the results reported here provide a structural basis for understanding the early steps of complement activation via the classical pathway. PMID:23922389

Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Gingras, Alexandre R; Marshall, Jamie E; Panchal, Roshni; Sheikh, Md Arif; Gál, Péter; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Mitchell, Daniel A; Moody, Peter C E; Wallis, Russell

2013-08-20

228

Tuffaceous deposition in the Newcastle Coal Measures. Challenging existing concepts of peat formation in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Late Permian Newcastle Coal Measures of the northern Sydney Basin, Australia, contain numerous volcanic ash deposits occurring as both interseam tuffs and intraseam tonsteins. These tuffaceous units have been used to correlate seams of the Newcastle Coal Measures with the stratigraphically equivalent Wollombi Coal Measures in the adjacent Hunter Coalfield. Such correlations across the width of the northern Sydney Basin are based not on only tuffaceous markers, but also on chemical and maceral profiles within individual coal plies and carbonaceous shales. These correlations imply a lateral continuity of the peat-forming environment previously unrecognised in the Sydney Basin, and have led directly to the discovery of a new open-cut coal resource in the Hunter Coalfield. The uniform distribution of tonsteins and coal plies also challenges many existing concepts of peat formation. It is proposed that the peat surface was predominantly below the water table, and the term 'lowered mire' is proposed to describe this environment. A subaqueous peat surface would protect thin volcanic ash deposits from subsequent redistribution by rainfall and surface runoff, and is consistent with a lack of tree preservation within the intraseam tonsteins. It is envisaged that trees were generally restricted to the peat margins, and to specific horizons where the peat surface was exposed by a fall in the water table. Long-distance correlations of tonsteins also contradict models of coal formation incorporating lateral peat migration, where time constant horizons such as tonsteins should transgress the coal seam profile over large distances.

Creech, Michael [Powercoal Pty Limited, PO Box 1000, NSW, Charlestown (Australia)

2002-08-01

229

The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous link between them. Post-Variscan, Late Carboniferous-Early Permian wrench tectonics is the oldest and main identified cause for regional basin formation in Central Europe. This relatively short-lived tectonic regime cannot explain the observed common history of subsidence of the Permian Basins during the 200 My that followed. Our analysis demonstrates that transfer faults that both follow and cross rheological transitions and inherited fault zones continued to be active after the early Permian. We therefore suggests that crustal-scale transfer faults may be the missing link that explains the common subsidence history of basins with a fundamentally different crustal architecture and structural history.

Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

2014-05-01

230

Clean coal technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

231

Coal and its mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal is a national asset but public sector coal industry has become a liability. Mine safety requires systematic supervision, hard, regular work. Prosperity in the UK grew up around coal and some time later in Germany and USA. Coal also stimulated invention. As the surface deposits were soon exhausted in UK, miners had to dig deeper and face flooding. The necessity to pump out water mothered Newcomen's invention of steam pump that may be regarded as the forerunner of steam engine. Raw materials were moved to coal fields where various industries grew. In UK coal fields are situated around the coast so British people brought their raw materials by sea. This choice of locating factories around the coal field still persists in that country. As the age of electricity came, power stations were erected in coal fields and power was transmitted over a wider area. A similar trend is noticable in India. Many industries including power stations have sprung up in coal fields continually from Durgapur in West Bengal to Hazaribagh in Bihar and in adjoining Ranchi area of the same state. An industrial complex is rising also in Talcher Coalfield in Orissa State. Three countries - Russia, Poland, Australia - have built up industry based on their coal, the first in between the Two World Wars and the second two countries after 2nd World War. Italy and Sweden have become highly industrialised even though these countries own little or no coal.Still the possession of coal is an asset as in India because coal is a cheap source of both energy and chemicals. India has become nearly a major steel producer whose requirement of hard coke is being met indigenously.

Ghose, P.C.

1978-10-01

232

Coal sector profile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

1990-06-05

233

Expression of recombinant human complement C1q allows identification of the C1r/C1s-binding sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complement C1q is a hexameric molecule assembled from 18 polypeptide chains of three different types encoded by three genes. This versatile recognition protein senses a wide variety of immune and nonimmune ligands, including pathogens and altered self components, and triggers the classical complement pathway through activation of its associated proteases C1r and C1s. We report a method for expression of recombinant full-length human C1q involving stable transfection of HEK 293-F mammalian cells and fusion of an affinity tag to the C-terminal end of the C chain. The resulting recombinant (r) C1q molecule is similar to serum C1q as judged from biochemical and structural analyses and exhibits the characteristic shape of a bunch of flowers. Analysis of its interaction properties by surface plasmon resonance shows that rC1q retains the ability of serum C1q to associate with the C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer, to recognize physiological C1q ligands such as IgG and pentraxin 3, and to trigger C1r and C1s activation. Functional analysis of rC1q variants carrying mutations of LysA59, LysB61, and/or LysC58, in the collagen-like stems, demonstrates that LysB61 and LysC58 each play a key role in the interaction with C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s, with LysA59 being involved to a lesser degree. We propose that LysB61 and LysC58 both form salt bridges with outer acidic Ca(2+) ligands of the C1r and C1s CUB (complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, bone morphogenetic protein) domains. The expression method reported here opens the way for deciphering the molecular basis of the unusual binding versatility of C1q by mapping the residues involved in the sensing of its targets and the binding of its receptors. PMID:23650384

Bally, Isabelle; Ancelet, Sarah; Moriscot, Christine; Gonnet, Florence; Mantovani, Alberto; Daniel, Régis; Schoehn, Guy; Arlaud, Gérard J; Thielens, Nicole M

2013-05-21

234

A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: 'quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our 'quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints

235

Effects of igneous intrusion on microporosity and gas adsorption capacity of coals in the Haizi Mine, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120?m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (R(o)) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054?cm(3)/g to a maximum of 0.0146?cm(3)/g and then decreased to 0.0079?cm(3)/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60-160?m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine. PMID:24723841

Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping

2014-01-01

236

Mechanism of action of anti-C1-inhibitor autoantibodies: prevention of the formation of stable C1s-C1-inh complexes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Acquired C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) deficiency is usually associated with the presence of circulating C1-inh autoantibodies. These autoantibodies have been shown previously to bind to two synthetic peptides corresponding to C1-inh amino acid residues 438-449 (peptide 2) and 448-459 (peptide 3) but not to peptide 1 (residues 428-440). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Affinity-purified C1-inh autoantibodies from two patients with acquired C1-inh deficiency were studied for their effects on the inh...

He, S.; Sim, R. B.; Whaley, K.

1998-01-01

237

Clean coal technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal represents the most abundant and wide distributed solid fuel. On worldwide level coal represents 27 % of primary energy resources. It is expected that the role of coal in electricity production will maintain. Romanian steam coal reserves, representing more than 80 % lignite from Oltenia basin are low grade quality (low heat value and high specific sulfur content). Need of clean coal technologies (CCT) is obvious in order to respect European environmental regulations. Criteria determining the choice of one or other CCT are well known - emissions reduction, efficiency, fuel flexibility and costs - but the option for a suitable alternative is difficult to make, because it depends on real conditions of each case. It is very important to identify and develop the most economically viable and environmentally sound coal technology in Romanian specific condition. (author). 7 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

238

Clean coal technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spite of difficulties, coal will keep an increasing global participation, although in some geographic areas it will keep practically stable. The environmental constraints related to energy use are made each day more unavoidable, especially for coal; this is being translated in compulsory legislation which becomes more and more strict. Necessity dictates the equilibrium between economic development and environmental protection, and that leads us to the implementation of a 'sustainable development' as the only way to avoid the 'energy environmental crisis'. Europe is keeping at the lead of coal technological development, and this offers good hopes for the use of European coal. With the use of new clean coal technologies, all kinds of coal can be used within the limits of the environmental constraints. These lead to more expensive energy; if we want the energy to be progressively cleaner, it will be progressively more expensive. (author) figs., tabs., 9 refs

239

Sampling the coal chain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Coal is a complex heterogeneous commodity that can be mined in a number of ways and needs to be processed to a homogeneous quality that satisfies the customer's requirements, while attempting to maximize revenues. Only a small proportion of coal is suitable for metallurgical use. Export coals cover [...] a wide range of qualities and some coals can be used optimally in the raw state for energy production. Critical quality parameters vary and can be a combination of heat value, ash, volatiles, sulphur, phosphorus, sizing, amongst others. The level of beneficiation is generally dictated by the washability of the coal, mining contamination, and the target product quality. The steps in the coal chain covered in this paper comprise exploration, mining selections, production, the washing process, and product delivery. Many points of sampling are needed to maximize yield at the correct quality, and some of these will be described in the paper.

P.E., Hand.

2014-01-01

240

Microbial desulfurization of coal  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Clean coal technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

242

Coal gasification for MHD application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The various gasification processes of coal and feasibility of using combustion product gases obtained from coal, as fuel in MHD generators are discussed with special reference to coal found in India. (M.G.B.)

243

Thermoradiation steam coal gasification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoradiation processes of coal gasification by steam under the effect of 1.75 MeV electron beam of 80 kW power were studied under flow conditions. Novomoskovsk brown coal and birch activated carbon with 1-3 mn particle size were used as objects of investigation. It is shown that gas liberation rate achieves the stationary value and remains constant, until the coal layer thickness exceeds electron path. The use of high-power electron accelerator beams enables coal gasification be performed with high efficiency

244

Fluidized bed coal desulfurization  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

Ravindram, M.

1983-01-01

245

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

Science.gov (United States)

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01

246

Coal rank, coal type, and marine influence in the north Taranaki coalfields, New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A few coal seams in the thin early Miocene Maryville Coal Measures have been mined in the relatively minor north Taranaki coalfields: Mokau, Ohura, Tangarakau, Waitewhena, and Aria. Generally accepted as sub-bituminous, the coals are discussed in terms of the Rank (S{sub r}) classification to identify more closely the variations of coal type and coal rank. The range of volatile matter is 15%, and of calorific value is 1500 Btu/lb (= 3.5 MJ/kg specific energy). In the most closely explored coalfield, Mokau, c. 450 coal analyses from up to 5 seams in 130 drillholes over an area of c. 65 km{sup 2} have been used. Analyses from 27 seam sections in Tatu Mine (Tangarakau Coalfield) come from an area of c. 2.5 km{sup 2}. Analyses from a few mines in Waitewhena and Aria Coalfields, and from widely spaced drillholes in Waitewhena, Ohura, and Tangarakau Coalfields, provide additional data. In Mokau Coalfield, a detailed pattern of lateral rank variation is demonstrated within a Rank (S{sup r}) range from 6.6 to 8.1. The rate of lateral rank variation, up to 1.5 Rank (S{sup r})/km, is too rapid to result from depth of burial variation. The rank variation is tentatively ascribed to localised differential heating as a result of fluid movement up faults during minor disruption of the downwarping basin at the end of Miocene sedimentation when the coal ranks were imprinted. The lower ranks over most of the region are considered to indicate the general depth of burial, c. 1.7 km.

Suggate, R.P. [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

2006-06-15

247

Improvements on Pozzolanic Reactivity of Coal Refuse by Thermal Activation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, coal refuse as industrial solid waste stockpiled on the ground is one of the greatest threats to the environment. One of the practical solutions to utilize this huge amount of solid waste is to activate the coal refuse and utilize it as substitution for portion of ordinary Portland cement. The key purpose of activation is to enhance the pozzolanic property of the coal refuse.Many scientists and engineers found that thermal activation is a practical approach on increasing pozzolanic property. For thermal activation, temperature and time are two important parameters which significantly determine the activation effect. In this paper, a systematic research has been conducted to seek for anoptimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economy benefit forconstruction and building materials.The mechanical property analysis shows that coal refusethat activated at 700°C to 800°C with 1 hour to 1.5 hours has much higher reactivity when compared with coal refuse activated at 500°C to 600 °C with 1 hour to 1.5 hours. And 28-dayscompressive strength value of prepared blended cementitious material containing 25% of the 700°C 1h activated coal refuse based pozzolanareaches 43.4MPa, which is higher than 28-days strength of OPC group as control.

Yuan Yao

2012-04-01

248

Assembly of subcomponents C1r and C1s of first component of complement: electron microscopic and ultracentrifugal studies.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monomeric C1s (Mr, 85,000; s20,w, 4.3S), a subcomponent of first component of complement (C1), the dimer (Mr, 170,000; s20,w, 6.7 S) of C1r, another subcomponent, and the tetrameric complex (C1r,C1s)2 (Mr, 340,000; s20,w, 8.7 S) are elongated molecules. Hydrodynamic equivalents of cylindrical shape have a diameter of 3.3 nm and lengths of 20 nm for C1s, 36 nm for (C1r)2, and 64 nm for (C1r,C1s)2. In electron micrographs the C1r,C1s complex appears as a chain composed of six to eight globular ...

Tschopp, J.; Villiger, W.; Fuchs, H.; Kilchherr, E.; Engel, J.

1980-01-01

249

The origin and early evolution of Sauria: reassessing the permian Saurian fossil record and the timing of the crocodile-lizard divergence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sauria is the crown-group of Diapsida and is subdivided into Lepidosauromorpha and Archosauromorpha, comprising a high percentage of the diversity of living and fossil tetrapods. The split between lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs (the crocodile-lizard, or bird-lizard, divergence) is considered one of the key calibration points for molecular analyses of tetrapod phylogeny. Saurians have a very rich Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil record, but their late Paleozoic (Permian) record is problematic. Several Permian specimens have been referred to Sauria, but the phylogenetic affinity of some of these records remains questionable. We reexamine and review all of these specimens here, providing new data on early saurian evolution including osteohistology, and present a new morphological phylogenetic dataset. We support previous studies that find that no valid Permian record for Lepidosauromorpha, and we also reject some of the previous referrals of Permian specimens to Archosauromorpha. The most informative Permian archosauromorph is Protorosaurus speneri from the middle Late Permian of Western Europe. A historically problematic specimen from the Late Permian of Tanzania is redescribed and reidentified as a new genus and species of basal archosauromorph: Aenigmastropheus parringtoni. The supposed protorosaur Eorasaurus olsoni from the Late Permian of Russia is recovered among Archosauriformes and may be the oldest known member of the group but the phylogenetic support for this position is low. The assignment of Archosaurus rossicus from the latest Permian of Russia to the archosauromorph clade Proterosuchidae is supported. Our revision suggests a minimum fossil calibration date for the crocodile-lizard split of 254.7 Ma. The occurrences of basal archosauromorphs in the northern (30°N) and southern (55°S) parts of Pangea imply a wider paleobiogeographic distribution for the group during the Late Permian than previously appreciated. Early archosauromorph growth strategies appear to be more diverse than previously suggested based on new data on the osteohistology of Aenigmastropheus. PMID:24586565

Ezcurra, Martín D; Scheyer, Torsten M; Butler, Richard J

2014-01-01

250

Size-frequency distributions along a latitudinal gradient in Middle Permian fusulinoideans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geographic gradients in body size within and among living species are commonly used to identify controls on the long-term evolution of organism size. However, the persistence of these gradients over evolutionary time remains largely unknown because ancient biogeographic variation in organism size is poorly documented. Middle Permian fusulinoidean foraminifera are ideal for investigating the temporal persistence of geographic gradients in organism size because they were diverse and abundant along a broad range of paleo-latitudes during this interval (~275-260 million years ago). In this study, we determined the sizes of Middle Permian fusulinoidean fossils from three different paleo-latitudinal zones in order to examine the relationship between the size of foraminifers and regional environment. We recovered the following results: keriothecal fusulinoideans are substantially larger than nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans; fusulinoideans from the equatorial zone are typically larger than those from the north and south transitional zones; neoschwagerinid specimens within a single species are generally larger in the equatorial zone than those in both transitional zones; and the nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans Staffellidae and Schubertellidae have smaller size in the north transitional zone. Fusulinoidean foraminifers differ from most other marine taxa in exhibiting larger sizes closer to the equator, contrary to Bergmann's rule. Meridional variation in seasonality, water temperature, nutrient availability, and carbonate saturation level are all likely to have favored or enabled larger sizes in equatorial regions. Temporal variation in atmospheric oxygen concentrations have been shown to account for temporal variation in fusulinoidean size during Carboniferous and Permian time, but oxygen availability appears unlikely to explain biogeographic variation in fusulinoidean sizes, because dissolved oxygen concentrations in seawater typically increase away from the equator due to declining seawater temperatures. Consequently, our findings highlight the fact that spatial gradients in organism size are not always controlled by the same factors that govern temporal trends within the same clade. PMID:22685590

Zhang, Yichun; Payne, Jonathan L

2012-01-01

251

A calcium isotope test of end-Permian ocean acidification using biogenic apatite  

Science.gov (United States)

Submarine erosional truncation of uppermost Permian carbonate strata has been interpreted to reflect ocean acidification coincident with the end-Permian mass extinction. Although this scenario is consistent with carbon isotope and paleontological data, several alternative scenarios, such as ocean overturn or collapse of the biological pump, can also account for the carbon isotope and paleontological evidence. Calcium isotopes provide a geochemical proxy to test between acidification and alternative scenarios. Specifically, a negative shift in the calcium isotope composition (?44/40Ca) of seawater is predicted under the acidification scenario but not the alternatives. The ?44/40Ca of carbonate rocks from south China exhibits a negative excursion of approximately 0.3%, but this shift could result from either a change in the ?44/40Ca of seawater or a change in carbonate mineralogy because calcite and aragonite exhibit substantially different fractionation factors relative to seawater. To test whether the negative shift in ?44/40Ca reflects seawater ?44/40Ca or carbonate mineralogy, we measured the ?44/40Ca of conodont microfossils (calcium hydroxyapatite) from the global stratotype section for the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan, China. The conodont ?44/40Ca record shows a negative excursion similar in stratigraphic position and magnitude to that previously observed in carbonate rocks. Parallel negative excursions in the ?44/40Ca of carbonate rocks and conodont microfossils cannot be accounted for by a change in carbonate mineralogy but are consistent with a negative shift in the ?44/40Ca of seawater. These data add further support for the ocean acidification scenario, pointing toward strong similarities between the greatest catastrophe in the history of animal life and anticipated global change during the 21st century.

Hinojosa, J.; Brown, S. T.; DePaolo, D. J.; Paytan, A.; Shen, S.; Chen, J.; Payne, J.

2011-12-01

252

Blastoid Body Size - Changes from the Carboniferous to the End-Permian  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate, known for affecting biodiversity within genera of animal species, is often addressed as a major variable of geological systems. The Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous was noted for its lush, tropical climate that sustained a variety of biological life. In contrast, the Permian era was marked primarily by an ice age that had started earlier during the Pennsylvanian. The blastoids, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, were in existence from the Silurian (443.4 Ma) to the end of the Permian (252.28 Ma). This study focused on whether climate affected blastoid theca size over the span of those one hundred million years between the Mississippian and the Permian or if was simply a negligible factor. We analyzed size data from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology and correlated it to both Cope's Rule, which states that size increases with geologic time, and Bergmann's Rule, which states that latitude and temperature are catalysts for size change. CO2 levels from known records served as a proxy for global temperature. Our results indicated that the blastoids increased in size by 59% over geologic time. The size of the blastoids increased over geologic time, following Cope's Rule. According to our graphs in R, there was an inverse relationship between volume and climate. Size decreased as temperature increased, which follows Bergmann's Rule. However, we also wanted to observe spatial factors regarding Bergmann's Rule such as paleolatitude and paleolongitude. This info was taken from the Paleobiology Database and showed that a majority of the blastoids were found near the equator, which, according to the other part of Bergmann's Rule, suggests that they would therefore increase in size. Further tests implied strong correlations between temperature, volume, and paleolocation. We ultimately believe that although Cope's Rule is in effect, Bergmann's mechanisms for size may not apply to the blastoids due to the environments that the blastoids lived in or their anatomical compositions.

Nguyen, L.; Tolosa, R.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

2013-12-01

253

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

Gerald P. Huffman

2001-04-30

254

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1991-01-01

255

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1992-01-01

256

Reactions of C1 Building Blocks  

Science.gov (United States)

The chapter “Reactions of C1 Building Blocks” covers the direct conversion of methane to aromatics, the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTHC) conversion with respect to gasoline (methanol to gasoline) and olefins (methanol to olefins, methanol-to-propene) as well as some combinations like the TIGAS and Mobil's olefin-to-gasoline and distillate processes. The main focus within this chapter will be on the industrial processes, especially concerning the MTHC reactions - including catalytic systems, reaction conditions, process - and to a minor extent related to the mechanistic aspects and kinetic considerations.

Stöcker, Michael

257

Multicritical behavior of c = 1 matrix model  

CERN Document Server

Abstract: We discuss multicritical behavior of c=1 matrix model, extending the recent work of ref. \\cite{CIO} on a nonperturbative completion of the density of states function. For the odd orders of multicriticality, we are able to determine the higher genus contributions and a nonperturbative completion from the WKB wave function of the multicritical periodic potential. The expression for the contributions as a function of the scaled chemical potential is found to be the same as the one at the lowest critical point. We point out a strange scaling behavior.

Itoyama, H

1994-01-01

258

Clean coal technologies market potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30

259

Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sequence stratigraphic analysis can be done on black shales, however it requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach. Sea-level cycles are expressed even in the middle of a shale basin and are expressed in lithofacies, mineralogy, geochemistry and well logs. The cycles are important for shale gas, impacting gas generation, storage and fracture development. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, located in the Permian Basin of west Texas were discussed in this presentation. Specifically, the presentation discussed the stratigraphy in a black shale, motivation for rock properties research, and factor analysis results. It was concluded that cycles affect gas generation capacity and rock properties. tabs., figs.

Harris, N.B.; Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

2009-07-01

260

Palynology and stratigraphy preliminary study and the perforation 313/1, lower Permian. Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The palynomorphs in the bore 313/1 of the Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia are analyzed. Twenty three samples were processed, and only 9 were fertile. The lithologies correspond to sandstones of variable grain size, to mudstone and to diamictite, all of them assigned to the San Gregorio and Tres Islas Fms. The most abundant genera of sporare are essentially represented by monosaccate grains. Bisaccate and striated grains are very scare. The palynoflora is comparable with those studied in Brazil in the Fm Rio Bonito. Therefore, it is proposed that the sediments studied were deposited in the early Permian. (author)

 
 
 
 
261

The uranium deposits of the Bourbon-l'Archambault Permian basin (northern Massif Central, France)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1970 and 1988 significant economic uranium concentrations were discovered by CEA-COGEMA in the Bourbon-l'Archambault Permian continental basin in the northern part of the Massif Central between Moulins and Montlucon. The recent formation of some of these stratabound mineralisations in the form of vertical or slightly dipping oxidation-reduction fronts (rollfront type) in upper Autunian redbeds is particularly unusual. The geometry of the orebodies, their present depth and by their structural localisation directly beneath the Triassic unconformity are characteristic. In the same region, north of Montlucon, towards Vallon-en-Sully (in the valley of the Cher), similar deposits have been discovered in older Stephanian strata

262

Late Pennsylvanian and early permian chondrichthyan microremains from San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla, Mexico)  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Salvador Patlanoaya section (Puebla State, Mexico) is known for its richness of many fossil groups. Among them, the calcareous shells have been principally investigated. This paper deals with Missourian-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) and Leonardian (late Early Permian) Mexican fish remains. A discussion about Helicoprion and related genera, is followed by the systematic description of the revised or discovered taxa: Cooperella typicalis, Moreyella cf. M. typicalis, M. (?) sp., "Sturgeonella" quinqueloba, Hybodontidae gen. sp. 1 and 2, scale indet. Palaeobiogeographic implications are suggested. ?? 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

Derycke-Khatir, C.; Vachard, D.; Degardin, J.-M.; Flores de Dios, A.; Buitron, B.; Hansen, M.

2005-01-01

263

Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.

Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

2014-10-01

264

Biostratigraphy and structural setting of the Permian Coyote Butte Formation of central Oregon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Larger isolated outcrops of the limestones of the Coyote Butte Formation consistently contain younger over older faunas that range through most of the Leonardian Series of the Early Permian. The outcrops of the Coyote Butte Formation are interpreted as right- side up blocks probably introduced into the area as one massive exotic unit. The Coyote Butte Formation is very similar to the Lower Permain limestone near Quinn River Crossing, Nevada, and both are suggested to have a similar origin. The Coyote Butte Formation was probably introduced during a late-stage event to deforming Mesozoic oceanic sediments in Mesozoic time. -Authors

Wardlaw, B.R.; Nestell, M.K.; Dutro, J.T., Jr.

1982-01-01

265

Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

266

Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls

267

Coking property of the upgraded coal from low rank coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effective utilization of low rank coal for the production of clean solid fuel and chemicals is considered to be the most promising topics from the environmental point of view. In this study, upgrading of low rank coals (Taiheiyo and Buckskin subbituminous coals, Kansk-Achinsk, Yallourn and Fortuna brown coals), which are rich in oxygen, having low heating value, was investigated using 200 ml autoclave at 380-440{sup o}C in the presence of decalin and coal tar as solvent under 2MPa of initial nitrogen atmosphere. The yield of the upgraded coal, separated by vacuum distillation from oil product and solvent, decreased with temperature and were 74-78wt% for subbituminous coal and 64-74wt% for brown coal by the use of decalin as a solvent at 440{sup o}C. Obvious decrease of oxygen atom, increase of heating value and highly improved ignition behavior of the upgraded coals were observed. The distribution of aromatic stacking layers, measured by X-ray diffraction, for the raw coals changed drastically by upgrading and the upgraded coals, treated at 440{sup o}C with decalin and coal tar, showed similar patterns with bituminous coal. The fly ash value for the upgraded coal, measured by 13C-NMR also increased from 0.5 to 0.9 with the elevated reaction temperature in all coals. This indicates that the effective carbonization takes place in the reaction with solvent. Maximum fluidity, measured using Gieseler-plastometer for the subbituminous raw coal showed considerable decrease by 5-15wt% mixing to Goonyella coking coal. However the upgraded coal, treated at 440{sup o}C showed no or minor decrease in fluidity. This suggests that some of the upgraded coal from the subbituminou coal is possible to utilize as a coke material. However the upgraded coal from the brown coal could not show enough fluidity in the present upgrading conditions. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Yoshiki Sato; Satoshi Kushiyama; Yasuhiko Kondo; Mu Hailin; Katsuhisa Maruyama; Yoshio Yamada [Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

2003-07-01

268

Development of coal resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

NONE

1995-09-01

269

Method for coal liquefaction  

Science.gov (United States)

A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1994-01-01

270

Coal liquefaction process  

Science.gov (United States)

A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1983-01-01

271

Abrasion characteristics of coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The silica content and ash level of the various fractions of an abrasive coal from the Talcher coalfield, Orissa state, India, are reported. Free silica, to which the abrasion of the coal is attributed, appears to be relatively evenly distributed among the size fractions, occurring at levels of 9.02-10.55 wt%. (5 refs.)

Sinha, N.C.; Sinha, B.K.; Roy, T.K.; Krishnan, S.R.

1982-12-01

272

The Geology of Coal  

Science.gov (United States)

In this video, a geologist describes how coal, a sedimentary rock, was formed when organic materials piled up in swamps millions of years ago. Over time, heat and pressure transformed the buried materials into forms of coal that cause acid mine drainage when exposed to oxygen.

Ket

2011-01-11

273

Biodesulphurisation of coal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emission of sulphur oxides during the combustion of coal is one of the causes of an environmental problem known as acid rain. Biodesulphurisation technology applied as a method to remove sulphur before coal combustion was investigated in this work. The desulphurisation abilities of three specific bacterial strains including Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8, R. erythropolis X309 and Shewanella putrefaciens strain NCIMB 8...

Prayuenyong, P.

2001-01-01

274

Clean coal technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows data of current and projected SO2 emissions, ambient pollution in major Asian cities; Benefits of natural gas Use in Power Generation; Efficiency of thermal power plants in India and China. It discusses Coal Benefitiation meaning use of high efficiency coal technologies i.e. reducing particulate emissions

275

Methane of the coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

276

(Coal utilization in India)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

Krishnan, R.P.

1991-01-15

277

Clean coal opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In conjunction with the Canadian Clean Power Coalition (CCPC), work is nearing completion of Phase II of a detailed analysis of technology options to control air emissions, including CO2, which result from coal use. A brief summary of the Phase I results will be presented for background information. These feasibility studies addressed three technologies for CO2 removal; i.e. amine scrubbing, CO2/O2 combustion and gasification. Phase II was undertaken to optimize the technology issues identified in Phase I. The main issue was the lack of gasification technologies that were suitable for low rank coals. This was important as the vast majority of coal used in western Canada for power generation is sub-bituminous and lignite, both of which are deemed to be low rank coals. Phase II has led to spin-off projects that will execute full scale demonstrations. Potential other examples for a clean coal future, such as polygeneration, will be discussed. (author)

278

Clean coal technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO2 emissions by more than 90% and NOx emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

279

The renaissance of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

280

Clean coal technologies roadmaps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of clean coal technology (CCT) roadmaps have emerged recently because of increased interest and concern regarding future energy supplies. This report by the IEA Clean Coal Centre is the second in a series of three reviewing the way forward for coal. It considers the probable costs of the main technologies and compares their economics with those of natural gas combined cycle power generation. It reviews existing roadmaps and other strategic programmes to develop CCTs and makes suggestions for outline roadmaps, taking into account barriers. In an annex to the report, the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (IEA CIAB) presents a commentary from industry on how the roadmaps respond to the issues affecting coal's crucial role of bringing balance and security to global energy markets, both now and in the future. 85 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

Henderson, C.

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

Enzymatic desulfurization of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

1991-05-16

282

Evidence of a new narrow resonance decaying to ?(c1)? in B??(c1)?K.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurements of B??(c1)?K and ?(c2)?K decays using 772×10(6) BB[over ¯] events collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e(+)e(-) collider. Evidence of a new resonance in the ?(c1)? final state is found with a statistical significance of 3.8?. This state has a mass of 3823.1±1.8(stat)±0.7(syst) MeV/c(2), a value that is consistent with theoretical expectations for the previously unseen 1(3)D(2) cc[over ¯] meson. We find no other narrow resonance and set upper limits on the branching fractions of the X(3872)??(c1)? and ?(c2)? decays. PMID:23909309

Bhardwaj, V; Miyabayashi, K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Bhuyan, B; Bischofberger, M; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bra?ko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S-K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, D; Dutta, K; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Frey, A; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwashita, T; Julius, T; Kah, D H; Kang, J H; Kato, E; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y-J; Lange, J S; Lee, S-H; Li, J; Li, Y; Liu, C; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Panzenböck, E; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petri?, M; Piilonen, L E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rostomyan, A; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Seidl, R; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T-A; Shiu, J-G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y-S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stari?, M; Steder, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Urquijo, P; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M-Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, C C; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

2013-07-19

283

Application of isotopic analyses to study the influence of exploitation of brown coal on the pollution of groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulfur in sulfates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO42- samples from numerous wells and piezometers in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO42- concentration and sulfur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed the recognition of three groups of sulfates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome; (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulfates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulfides in water-bearing rocks. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

284

The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO42- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO42- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

285

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-03-31

286

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

287

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2005-03-31

288

Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

289

Biostratigraphic correlation in the Karoo: The case of the Middle Permian parareptile Eunotosaurus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The richness of fossil tetrapods from the Beaufort Group of South Africa has enabled biostratigraphic subdivision of this Permo-Triassic succession, with global applicability. Despite being the thickest of the seven biozones recognised, attempts at further subdivision of the Middle Permian Tapinocep [...] halus Assemblage Zone (Abrahamskraal Formation) have not been successful, largely because the exact stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa are unknown. This gap in knowledge has limited stratigraphic correlation of the Abrahamskraal Formation and hindered understanding of Middle Permian Karoo basin development. Currently, the lowermost Beaufort Group is split between an eastern and a western stratigraphic scheme and, because of poor outcrop and the relative paucity of fossils in the east, stratigraphic correlation between the two areas has been uncertain. Recent fossil discoveries of the parareptile Eunotosaurus africanus in the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces have extended its known geographic range in the east. An additional specimen from the lower Middleton Formation in the Eastern Cape has, for the first time, enabled the biostratigraphic correlation of this unit with the Poortjie Member of the Teekloof Formation in the west. These finds confirm the diachroneity of the boundary between the marine Ecca Group and the terrestrial Beaufort Group.

Mike, Day; Bruce, Rubidge; John, Almond; Sifelani, Jirah.

290

Leaiid conchostracans from the uppermost Permian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil: Chronostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Conchostracan fossils are abundant and relatively diversified in the Rio do Rasto Formation (Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil), but leaiids (' Leaia pruvosti' [Reed, F.R.C., 1929. Novos Phyllopodos Fósseis do Brasil. Boletim do Serviço Geológico e Mineralógico do Brasil 34, 2-16]) were previously found at only one locality of the formation in the northern Santa Catarina State. New specimens of the Family Leaiidae, collected from two outcrops in central Paraná State near the top of the formation, stimulated a revision of related taxa. Both the new and the previously known leaiids are herein assigned to Hemicycloleaia mitchelli [Etheridge Jr., R., 1892. On Leaia mitchelli Etheridge. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 7, 307-310] based on the presence of three carinae and subovate shape. This species was originally recorded in the upper Tatarian (Wuchiapingian, Late Permian) of Sydney Basin, eastern Australia and therefore corroborates the interpretation that the leaiid bearing strata of the Rio do Rasto Formation cannot be younger than Permian. H. mitchelli possibly was one of the most widespread, eurytopic and conservative Late Paleozoic conchostracans of Gondwana (although records from Africa, India and Antarctica must still be confirmed) and it was also found in the Tatarian of Russia. The sudden disappearance of leaiids after their apparent success is consistent with the hypothesis about the biotic crisis around the Permo-Triassic boundary.

Ferreira-Oliveira, Luis Gustavo; Rohn, Rosemarie

2010-03-01

291

Permian-Triassic palynostratigraphy in Mailaram area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynological investigations of five borecores, viz., GAM-3, GAM-6, GAM-7, GAM-8 and GAM-10 from Mailaram area have suggested the occurrence of complete Lower Gondwana succession in Mailaram area. Total nine palynozones have been identified on the basis of dominance, sub-dominance and appearance of various palynotaxa. These palynozones belong to Talchir, Upper Karharbari and Barakar (Early Permian), Raniganj (Late Permian) and Panchet (Early Triassic) palynofloras of Indian Gondwana. The oldest Palynozone-1 demonstrated in borecore GAM-6 (331.4-500 m) and borecore GAM-10 (505.66-581.55 m), is characterized by the dominance of Parasaccites and sub-dominance of Plicatipollenites belongs to Talchir Palynoflora; Palynozone-2 identified in borecore GAM-7 (667-749 m) and borecore GAM-8 (89.75 m) is characterized by the dominance of Parasaccites and sub-dominance of Scheuringipollenites which belongs to Upper Karharbari Palynoflora. Palynozone-3, identified in borecore GAM-6 (149.7-240.05 m) and borecore GAM-8 (84.95 m), is characterized by the dominance of Scheuringipollenites akin to Scheuringipollenites zone of Barakar palynoflora; Palynozone-4, recorded in borecores GAM-3 (294-437.98 m), GAM-7 (453-640.5 m) and GAM-8 (35.35 m) is characterized by the dominance of Faunipollenites and sub-dominance of Striatopodocarpites along with certain stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Weylandites, Guttulapollenites, Corisaccites, Aurangapollenites and Osmundacidites. Palynozone-5, demarcated in borecore GAM-3 (144.86-221.3 m) and borecore GAM-10 (35.35 m), is distinguished by the dominance of striate disaccates along with at least 30% pollen assigned to Striasulcites; Palynozone-6, identified in borecore GAM-3 (35.1-73.08 m) and borecore GAM-7 (231-423 m), is characterized by the dominance of striate disaccates along with 20-30% of Densipollenites; Palynozone-7, recorded in borecore GAM-7 (206 m), is distinguished by the dominance of Crescentipollenites along with striate disaccates; Palynozone-8, identified in borecore GAM-7 (178.4 m), is characterized by the distinguished presence of taeniate pollen Guttulapollenites. Palynozones 4-8 belong to Raniganj Palynoflora. Palynozone-9, identified in borecore GAM-7 (166 m), is discriminated by the dominance of trilete spore Verrucosisporites and sub-dominance of taeniate pollen Lunatisporites which belongs to Triassic palynoflora. On the basis of palynological data Palynozone-1 (= Talchir palynoflora), Palynozone-2 and Palynozone-3 have been assigned to Early Permian age; Palynozones 4-8 (= Raniganj palynoflora) have been assigned to Late Permian age and Palynozone-9 (= Triassic palynoflora) has been assigned to Early Triassic age. With the aim of correlating the Permian and Triassic sediments of Mailaram area palynological investigations of five borecores were carried out.

Jha, Neerja; Aggarwal, Neha

2012-10-01

292

A mid-Permian chert event: widespread deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiolarian and conodont of Permian siliceous rocks from twenty-three areas in teh the circum-Pacific and Mediterranean regions reveal a widespread Permian Chert Event during the middle Leonardian to Wordian. Radiolarian- and (or) sponge spicule-rich siliceous sediments accumulated beneath high productivity zones in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins. Most of these deposits now crop out in fault-bounded accreted terranes. Biogenic siliceous sediments did not accumulate in terranes lying beneath infertile waters including the marine sequences in terranes of northern and central Alaska. The Permian Chert Event is coeval with major phosphorite deposition along the western margin of Pangea (Phosphoria Formation and related deposits). A well-known analogue for this event is middle Miocene deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments beneath high productivity zones in many parts of the Pacific and concurrent deposition of phosphatic as well as siliceous sediments in basins along the coast of California. Interrelated factors associated with both the Miocene and Permian depositional events include plate reorientations, small sea-level rises and cool polar waters. ?? 1992.

Murchey, B.L.; Jones, D.L.

1992-01-01

293

Restudy of conodont biostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary section in Zhongzhai, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China  

Science.gov (United States)

New conodont samples have been systematically collected at high stratigraphic resolution from the upper part of the Longtan Formation through to the lower part of the Yelang Formation at the Zhongzhai section, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China, in an effort to verify the first local occurrence of Hindeodus parvus in relation to the Permian-Triassic boundary at this section. The resampled conodont fauna from the Permian-Triassic boundary interval comprises five identified species and two undetermined species in Hindeodus and Clarkina. Most importantly, the first local occurrence of Hindeodus parvus is found for the first time from the bottom of Bed 28a, 18 cm lower than the previously reported first local occurrence of this species at this section. Considering the previously accepted PTB at the Zhongzhai section, well calibrated by conodont biostratigraphy, geochronology and carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, this lower (earlier) occurrence of H. parvus suggests that this critical species could occur below the Permian-Triassic boundary. As such, this paper provides evidence that (1) the first local occurrences of H. parvus are diachronous in different sections with respect to the PTB defined by the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of this species at its GSSP section in Meishan, China and that (2) the lower stratigraphic range of H. parvus should now be extended to latest Permian.

Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Shi, G. R.; He, Wei-Hong; Yuan, Dong-Xun; Yue, Ming-Liang; Yang, Ting-Lu

2014-02-01

294

Coal Mines Security System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

Ankita Guhe

2012-05-01

295

Sedimentary conditions of Upper Permian volcano-clastic rocks of Ayan-Yrahskiy anticlinorium (Verhoyansk-Kolyma orogen)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedimentation conditions of upper Permian volcano-clastic rocks of Ayan-Yurakhsky anticlinorium are the reason of discussions between researchers. It is important to correctly solve this problem. Investigation allows us to conclude that upper Permian sediments was formed due to high rate deltaic sedimentation on shelf and continental slope of epicontinental sea basin. More than 45 outcrops of upper Permian sediments were described within Ayan-Yurakhsky anticlinorium. Termochemical and X-ray phase, lithological facies, stadial, paleogeographic and others were applied. Investigation allows to classify following types: tuffs, tuffites of andesites, andesi-dacites, sandstone tuffs, siltstone tuffs and claystone tuffs. Two facies were deliniated in the research area: 1) delta channel facies 2) epicontinental sea shelf edge and continental slope. Delta channel facies are located on the south-west part of Aian-Yrahskiy anticlinorium. It is composed of silty packsand and psammitic tuff-siltstone alternation and gravel-psammitic andesi-dacitic tuffute and tuff-breccia bands. Sediments have cross-bedding, through cross-bedding, curvilinear lamination structures. Facies occurred during high rate deltaic sedimentation on the shelf of epicontinental sea. Epicontinental sea shelf edge and continental slope facies are located on the south-west part. Sediments are represented by large thickness tuff-siltstone with tuff-sandstone, tuff-madstone, tuff, tuffite bands and lenses. Large number of submarine landslides sediments provide evidence that there was high angle sea floore environment. 30-50 m diametr eruption centers were described by authors during geological traverses. They are located in Kulu river basin. Their locations are limited by deep-seated pre-ore fault which extended along Ayan-Yurakhsky anticlinorium. U-Pb SHRIMP method showed that the average age of circons, taken from eruption centers, is Permian (256,3±3,7 ma). This fact confirms our emphasis that eruption centers were the centre of underwater effusive explosions which had been occurred in late Permian time. Gold ore deposits mainly localized in the south of Ayan-Yurakhsky anticlinorium and associated with upper Permian deltaic facies sediments. Taking into account lithological facies feature and volcanoclastic origin of sediments it is reasonable to suggest expelled-catagenesis model of gold mineralization. Gold was entered in sedimentary basin with piroclastic material. During catagenesis stage gold migrated from complex of shelf edge and continental slope to fan delta front complex in conjunction with expelled water. The emplacement of ore gold deposits related with upper Permian sediments can be successfully predicted, using this model and associated techniques.

Astakhova, Anna; Khardikov, Aleksandr

2013-04-01

296

Coal liquefaction process  

Science.gov (United States)

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11

297

When coal was king  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The history of the coal-mining industry on Vancouver Island is examined with particular attention to the mining community at Ladysmith during the early twentieth century. The development of the coal industry on Vancouver Island, establishment of the town of Ladysmith, work in the mines, and safety are described. The factors leading up to the 1912-14 strike are examined in detail. The subsequent decline of the coal industry in Ladysmith, the effects on the community, and the final closure of the Extension mine in 1931 are described. 250 refs., 22 figs., 3 maps., 741 notes.

Hinde, J.R.

2003-07-01

298

On ultrahot coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is discussed how improvement of the electric efficiency of coal-fired power plants can contribute to a reduction of the CO2 emission. Next to global aspects, attention is paid to the impact of efficiency improvement on the Dutch situation. It is concluded that worldwide replacement of low-efficient coal-fired power plants by ultra-supercritical fine coal-fired power plants can result in a considerable reduction (-50%) of CO2, and also of SOx, NOx and particulates. In the Netherlands emission can be reduced by 20% and in the future even more. 3 refs

299

A contribution to petrology of dark grey to black interbeds within Upper Permian and Triassic carbonate rocks in the area between Ljubljana and Bloke, Central Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of macroscopic, microscopic, chemical, and isotopic investigations of 12 samples ofdark grey to black coloured interbeds occurring within Upper Permian and Triassic lime-, dolo- and marlstones inan area of Outer Dinarides between Ljubljana and Bloke in Central Slovenia. An additional sample is anthracite ofthe Carnian age from the Orle locality. Concentration of Corg in four samples is below 1 %, and in seven samples itvaries between 1 and 2.3 %. Only in one sample, in the black Carnian limestone of the Lesno Brdo area, it is somewhathigher than 5 %. The highest Corg content, 30.61 %, was analysed in the Orle anthracite.Chemical analysis of major elements (as oxides showed that four samples are clearly siliciclastic mudrocks,with 65–80 % SiO2 + Al2O3. Three samples are typical calcite rich – dolomite poor rocks, with high loss on ignition(LOI about 40 % derived from calcite decomposition. Four samples are calcite – dolomite characterized rocks withLOI of 34–43 %. One sample, from the Slugovo quarry, is composed of quartz, dolomite and calcite. The anthracitesample from Orle has inorganic matter composed almost exclusively of SiO2 + Al2O3 (clays, and some iron and sulphurwhich form pyrite.Isotopic composition of the calcite carbon ranges from ?13CCaCO3 -5.7 to 1.9 ‰, whereas isotopic composition ofthe organic carbon varies between ?13Corg -34.7 and -21.6 ‰. The most negative ?13Corg value of -34.7 ‰ was analysedin a sample, which is the most organic-rich limestone. Isotopic investigations of nitrogen, expressed by ?15N values,also did not express notable differences in respect to lithology. They vary between 4.6 and 9.1 ‰.Microscopy of polished surface samples showed clearly fine grained siliciclastic, carbonate and coal compositionof the treated rocks.

Stevo Dozet

2012-06-01

300

Raman and cathodoluminescence spectroscopic investigations on Permian fossil wood from Chemnitz—a contribution to the study of the permineralisation process  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of different three-dimensionally preserved fossil plants ( Medullosa sp., Dadoxylon sp., Calamodendron striatum, Psaronius sp.) from the Lower Permian petrified forest of Chemnitz were examined with regard to their chemical composition and structural order. Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence microscopy are shown to be powerful tools for such investigations. Silicified wood from Chemnitz-Hilbersdorf generally shows yellow cathodoluminescence (CL) of the cell walls and only weak yellow-brownish CL of the cell lumina. By time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, a secondary mineralisation of hydrothermal origin was recognized. The latter is shown by short-lived blue CL at the cell walls extinguishing the yellow signal. Therefore, after the primary silicification step a secondary mineralisation step initiated by hydrothermal processes, seems to have taken place at probably slightly higher temperatures. The resulting silica matrix consists of phanerocrystalline and microcrystalline ?-quartz as well as microcrystalline moganite, both partially associated with iron oxides. Dadoxylon sp. is a prominent example for parallel permineralisation by ?-quartz and fluorspar, which is outstanding for the Chemnitz Petrified Forest. CL on this samples shows parallel silicification and fluoritisation, followed by infiltration of iron oxides. Permineralised samples show very low percentage of original organic remains. The seed fern Medullosa, for example, shows dispersed carbon, which is mainly restricted to the centres of the typical star-shaped vascular bundles. Raman spectroscopy revealed that these carbonaceous particles are of an anthracite structure. For experimental confirmation coal samples of different rank, especially anthracite from different geological times and localities, were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The remaining pith of the vascular bundles is white-coloured and consists of ?-quartz and moganite, whereas surrounding tracheides exhibit white and reddish coloured parts. The reddish parts, mainly found in the rays, additionally contain ?-Fe 2O 3 and Fe 3O 4 among the SiO 2 polymorphs of ?-quartz and moganite. Sometimes iron oxides could have dominated permineralisation processes as the peak intensities of distinct parts of the samples suggest.

Witke, Klaus; Götze, Jens; Rößler, Ronny; Dietrich, Dagmar; Marx, Günter

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Clean coal day in Japan 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papers or presentations discussed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), coal policy and infrastructure, promotion of clean coal technology, environment technology, and advanced clean coal technology.

NONE

2007-07-01

302

Clean coal initiatives in Indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, M.; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

2007-01-01

303

Platelet C1- inhibitor. A secreted alpha-granule protein.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to characterize which proteins of the contact phase of coagulation interact with platelets, human platelets were studied immunochemically and functionally to determine if they contain C1- inhibitor. By means of monospecific antibody to C1- inhibitor, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) was developed to measure directly platelet C1- inhibitor. With the CELISA, from 33 to 115 ng of C1- inhibitor antigen per 10(8) platelets from 15 normal donors was quantified in ly...

Schmaier, A. H.; Smith, P. M.; Colman, R. W.

1985-01-01

304

Black coal in Australia. Sustainable coal resource management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To endorse the Sustainable Management of Coal Resources (SMCR) in Australia the Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD) in cooperation with the State Agencies, is promoting a multi-year effort to identify, characterise and assess the coal resources that will supply a major part of the Nation's energy needs in the 21st Century. Sustainable Management of Coal Resources requires the development of guidelines, codes of practice, evaluation tools, indicators and policies for long term secure access to coal resources of specific quality for specific applications, including Clean Coal Technologies, underground coal gasification, and potential sites for CO{sub 2} storage into unmineable coal seams. The research in CCSD provides unique, world class facilities and tools to evaluate performance of Australian coals in new advanced technologies such as pressurised-entrained flow reactor (PEFR) and a bench-scale PFBC (Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion) facility. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Gurba, L.W.; van Schagen, F.

2003-07-01

305

Quarterly coal report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Young, P.

1996-05-01

306

Coal Liquefaction Processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

Yen, T. F.

1979-01-01

307

Coal terminal directory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

NONE

2008-06-15

308

Plankton and productivity during the Permian-Triassic boundary crisis: An analysis of organic carbon fluxes  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in marine primary productivity following the latest Permian mass extinction (LPME) have been debated at length, with little resolution to date owing to a paucity of quantitative data. Herein, we report total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and organic carbon accumulation rates (OCAR) for 40 Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections with a near-global distribution and consider their implications for changes in marine productivity during the boundary crisis. Many sections in South China exhibit abrupt declines in TOC and OCAR from the Changhsingian (latest Permian) to the Griesbachian (earliest Triassic), a pattern not observed for sections in other regions. This pattern cannot be explained through secular changes in sedimentation rates, sedimentary facies, or redox conditions, all of which would have favored higher (rather than lower) TOCs and OCARs during the Griesbachian. Further, back-calculation of OC fluxes demonstrate that this pattern cannot be attributed to diagenetic loss of OC in the sediment or, possibly, to OC remineralization in the water column. The most likely explanation is a collapse of marine primary productivity across the South China region concurrently with the LPME and continuing for an extended interval into the Early Triassic. The productivity crash as well as the coeval decimation of benthic marine fauna coincided with deposition of the "boundary clay" at Meishan D, suggesting that both events were related to a large explosive volcanic eruption of uncertain provenance. In other PTB sections having a wide geographic distribution, OCARs increased on average by a factor of ~ 4 × across the LPME, largely owing to a concurrent increase in bulk accumulation rates (BARs). Radiometric dating uncertainties can account at most for only a fraction of the secular change in BARs, which are likely to reflect an increase in subaerial weathering rates and elevated fluxes of detrital material to Early Triassic marine systems. Intensification of chemical weathering relative to physical weathering may have increased the flux of nutrients to the Early Triassic ocean, enhancing marine productivity and contributing to the widespread development of marine dysoxia-anoxia.

Algeo, Thomas J.; Henderson, Charles M.; Tong, Jinnan; Feng, Qinglai; Yin, Hongfu; Tyson, Richard V.

2013-06-01

309

Improving coal transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes how advances in the design of haulage systems have improved the transport of coal between the continuous miner and belt conveyor system. Oldenburg Stamler's equipment is described. The company produces battery-powdered coal haulers (the BH10 and BH20 series), feeders and feeder breakers for use in surface and underground operations, and continuous haulage systems (that can be regarded as between the continuous miner and panel belt conveyor). 2 figs., 7 photos.

Lovitz, J. [Oldenburg Stamler Corp. (United States)

2002-08-01

310

Coal utilization and environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper attempts at presenting a database on environmental pollution due to coal-fired power plants and coal-mining, according to regional and national bibliography available to the authors. Data on air, water and soil pollution in Rio Grande do Sul and Pollution due to mining in Santa Catarina are presented. The paper consists of a bibliographic compilation, with the quantification of polluting factors. (author)

311

Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

Science.gov (United States)

In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01

312

Political economy of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a book on applied energy economics. Coal is the principal topic, but the reader will also find self-contained and thorough surveys of the world oil market, nuclear energy and uranium, and natural gas. A chapter on electricity is especially designed for teaching purposes. The final chapter contains a short summary of the book in the form of an up-to-date analysis of the world coal market

313

Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input ob...

Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

2006-01-01

314

Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input ob...

Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

2005-01-01

315

Coal facies studies in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2004-04-23

316

Coal and safety. No. 11  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present journal includes an introduction of newly established institution, Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) as special topics. It also includes an evaluation method for thermal coal quality (Part 2) as topics, the present status of respirable dust control technologies in Japanese coal mines as environmental protection, use of diesel motor driven vehicles in underground work sites (a survey of underground vehicles used in overseas coal mines) as safety technology, and development of new longwall plants for the 1SD (one-face continuously operation) system as production technology. On July 1, 1997, Japan Coal Association, Coal Mining Research Centre, and Japan Technical Cooperation Center for Coal Resources Development were reorganized and merged into JCOAL. Focusing on advancing the structure of coal energy supply and demand, JCOAL intends to advance the security of stable coal supply and solve global environmental issues in Japan and Asia-Pacific region. 3 refs., 9 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1998-09-01

317

Complement, c1q, and c1q-related molecules regulate macrophage polarization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complement is a critical system of enzymes, regulatory proteins, and receptors that regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Natural mutations in complement molecules highlight their requirement in regulation of a variety of human conditions including infectious disease and autoimmunity. As sentinels of the immune system, macrophages are specialized to respond to infectious microbes, as well as normal and altered self, and dictate appropriate immune responses. Complement components such as anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and opsonins [C3b, C1q, mannan binding lectin (MBL)] influence macrophage responses. While anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a trigger inflammasome activation, opsonins such as C1q and related molecules (MBL and adiponectin) downregulate inflammasome activation and inflammation, and upregulate engulfment of apoptotic cells consistent with a pro-resolving or M2 macrophage phenotype. This review summarizes our current understanding of the influence of the complement system on macrophage polarization with an emphasis on C1q and related molecules. PMID:25191325

Bohlson, Suzanne S; O'Conner, Sean D; Hulsebus, Holly Jo; Ho, Minh-Minh; Fraser, Deborah A

2014-01-01

318

A Review of h_c(1P1), eta_c(1S) and eta_c(2S)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent experimental results on charmonium $h_c(^1P_1)$, $\\eta_c(1S)$ and $\\eta_c(2S)$ from Belle, BaBar, CLEO and BESIII are reviewed. $h_c$ production and properties, the $\\eta_c(1S)$ lineshape and the observation of $\\eta_c(2S)$ in $\\psi'$ decays are discussed.

Bian, Jianming

2012-01-01

319

Recombinant human C1-inhibitor produced in Pichia pastoris has the same inhibitory capacity as plasma C1-inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Therapeutic application of the serpin C1-inhibitor (C1-Inh) in inflammatory diseases like sepsis, acute myocardial infarction and vascular leakage syndrome seems promising, but large doses may be required. Therefore, a high-yield recombinant expression system for C1-Inh is very interesting. Earlier attempts to produce high levels of C1-Inh resulted in predominantly inactive C1-Inh. We describe the high yield expression of rhC1-Inh in Pichia pastoris, with 180 mg/l active C1-Inh at maximum. On average, 30 mg/l of 80-100% active C1-Inh was obtained. Progress curves were used to study the interaction with C1s, kallikrein, coagulation factor XIIa and XIa, and demonstrated that rhC1-Inh had the same inhibitory capacity as plasma C1-Inh. Structural integrity, as monitored via heat stability, was comparable despite differences in extent and nature of glycosylation. We conclude that the P. pastoris system is capable of high-level production of functionally and structurally intact human C1 inhibitor. PMID:12758149

Bos, Ineke G A; de Bruin, Eric C; Karuntu, Yani A; Modderman, Piet W; Eldering, Eric; Hack, C Erik

2003-05-30

320

Evidence for Cape Fold Belt overprinting of the Groot Haelkraal granite during the Upper Permian  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Groot Haelkraal granite crops out along the coast between Danger Point and Quoin Point, South Africa, and occupies an area of 120 sq. km offshore. Cape Peninsula granites have been dated at around 550 m.y. and the original formation of the groot Haelklraal granite is assumed to be a similar age. However, age spectrum analysis of biotite from a dredged sample from station 1824 (34 degrees 48 minutes South, 19 degrees 29 minutes East) has shown that the granite was involved in a tectonic event around 248 plus minus 2 m.y. in upper Permian times. This event is considered to have been of major importance and to represent Cape Fold Belt overprinting of the basement

 
 
 
 
321

Illitization of Smectite in Sandstones - The Permian Unayzah Reservoir, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The transformation of smectite to illite through an illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer is a major clay mineral reaction that occurs in a range of diagenetic environments and is commonly observed in siliciclastic sedimentary basins worldwide. This reaction is controlled by several chemical and physical factors, the two most important of which are temperature and potassium availability within the sediments. Diagenetic illite is a major factor affecting reservoir quality in all pre-Khuff clastic reservoirs in Saudi Arabia. Illite coating in the Permian Unayzah reservoir has two main morphologies: the platelet-like and fibrous illite. The former morphology is interpreted to form by transformation of infiltrated smectite during burial. This work shows that understanding the type and distribution of early diagenesis in clastic sequences is of paramount importance for the prediction of deep burial alterations and their related reservoir properties.

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi; Al-Ramadan, Khalid

2014-05-01

322

Geochronological studies on clay minerals in carboniferous and permian strata of Cangcan well No.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author deals with studies on clay minerals in Carboniferous (C) and Permian (P) strata of Cangcan Well No.1 and geochronological determination on those clay minerals in different depths by K-Ar, 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr methods. The results show that illite were formed in at least three different stages: Clastic illite was formed at about 400 Ma and disturbed by heat at the ages between 214-234 Ma. High temperature illite has ages between 214-233 Ma, corresponding to Late Hercynian-Early Indosinian Periods, and was disturbed by heat at the age of 145 Ma. Widely distributed illite was formed in Early Jurassic Period, 180 Ma. All of these results are undoubtedly helpful to further study on regional heat evolution history and oil-gas bearing and producing abilities of the relevant strata

323

Stratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy of the uppermost Carboniferous and Lower Permian from the North American Midcontinent  

Science.gov (United States)

Part A The uppermost Wabaunsee, Admire, Council Grove, and lower Chase Groups of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska are placed into three third-order depositional sequences: a Gzhelian late-highstand sequence set, a Council Grove transgressive and highstand sequence set, and a Chase transgressive sequence set. Sequences are defined by bounding maximum-exposure surfaces and are placed within the zone of exposure surfaces (typically, stacked paleosols). Conodonts are abundant in open-marine deposits and most marine units have a differing and characteristic faunal make-up. Eleven species are described as new: Streptognathodus binodosus, S. denticulatus, S. elongianus, S. florensis, S. lineatus, S. nevaensis, S. postconstrictus, S. postelongatus, S. robustus, S. translinearis, and S. trimilus. Part B Maximum-marine flooding levels and marine-condensed sections from uppermost Carboniferous and Lower Permian fourth-order (0.1-1 m.y.) depositional sequences of the North American midcontinent reveal a rich stratigraphic succession of species of Streptognathodus and Sweetognathus conodonts that permits high-precision correlation of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary as well as the Asselian-Sakmarian and Sakmarian-Artinskian boundaries. Eleven new species of Streptognathodus are described: Streptognathodus binodosus, S. denticulatus, S. elongianus, S. florensis, S. lineatus, S. nevaensis, S. postconstrictus, S. postelongatus, S. robustus, S. translinearis, and S. trimilus. Seventeen species are redescribed and clarified and include Streptognathodus alius, S. barskovi, S. bellus, S. brownvillensis, S. conjunctus, S. constrictus, S. elongatus, S. farmeri, S. flexuosus, S. fuchengensis, S. fusus, S. invaginatus, S. isolatus, S. longissimus, S. minacutus, S. nodulinearis, and S. wabaunsensis. The correlated level of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary is recognized in the lower part of the Red Eagle Depositional Sequence based on the introduction of Streptognathodus isolatus Chernykh, Ritter, and Wardlaw; Streptognathodus minacutus Barskov and Reimers; Streptognathodus invaginatus Reshetkova and Chernykh; Streptognathodus fuchengensis Zhao; and Streptognathodus nodulinearis Reshetkova and Chernykh. The correlated Carboniferous-Permian boundary occurs in the depositional sequence that represents the maximum-marine highstand of the Council Grove Composite Third Order Sequence. This level represents a significant marine-flooding event that should be correlatable in numerous shelfal sections throughout the world. Although the Asselian-Sakmarian boundary has not been rigorously defined, Sweetognathus merrilli has been informally utilized as a Sakmarian indicator. Due to the ecologically controlled distribution of species of Sweetognathus, we prefer to use a species of Streptognathodus as a defining species. We propose that Streptognathodus barskovi (Kozur) Reshetkova be considered as a potentially defining or ancillary defining species for the Sakmarian Stage. In the North American midcontinent, Streptognathodus barskovi appears in the same depositional sequence with Sweetognathus merrilli in the Eiss (Lower Bader) Depositional Sequence. Historically, Sweetognathus whitei has been used to mark the Sakmarian-Artinskian boundary. In our succession Sweetognathus whitei and Streptognathodus florensis appear in the basal part of the Barneston Depositional Sequence. We suggest that Streptognathodus florensis be further investigated as a possible defining or ancillary defining taxon for the base of the Artinskian Stage. This depositional sequence also forms the maximum-marine highstand of the Chase Third-Order Composite Depositional Sequence suggesting that this level is a significant marine-flooding event that should be widely traceable in numerous shelfal sections.

Boardman, Darwin R., II; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Nestell, Merlynd K.

2009-01-01

324

Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

1999-09-23

325

Coal gel chemistry. (2) Coal liquefaction by binary solvent system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the importance of the accessibility of hydrogen donor solvents into the coal matrix has long been emphasized for the primary coal liquefaction of coal, not many efforts have been devoted to the study on the penetration mechanism of penetrants into coal, and developing practical devices for improving the accessibility. Recently, the authors developed a new method for accurately measuring both the dynamic and equilibrium solvent swelling behaviors of coal, and revealed that the coal behaved as a molecular sieve which discriminated among molecules diffusing into the pore system of coal on the basis of size, shape, and functionality. Based on their observations, tetralin is one of the penetrants which show a significantly low degree of penetration rate into coal matrix, probably because of its steric hindrance. Meanwhile during the investigation of the synergistic effect on the solvent swelling of coal in the binary solvent system, of which one component was less bulky than other, they also found that the steric requirement of coal could be released by forming Coal Gel under such a condition. Here they report the results of the study on the improvement of the accessibility of hydrogen donor like a tetralin into the coal matrix, and the primary liquefaction of coal by using binary solvent systems.

Aida, T.; Satoh, M.; Shimoura, Y.; Fujii, M.

1988-01-01

326

Geochemical Identification of Windblown Dust Deposits in the Upper Permian Brushy Canyon Formation, Southern New Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Windblown dust is a potentially important but difficult-to-quantify source of siliciclastics for sedimentary basins worldwide. Positively identifying windblown deposits requires distinguishing them from other low density suspension transport deposits. For instance, laminated very fine grained sandstones and siltstones of the Upper Permian Brushy Canyon Formation have been variously interpreted as 1) the deposits of slow-moving, low-density turbidity currents, 2) distal overbank deposits of turbidity currents, 3) the deposits of turbulent suspensions transported across a pycnocline (interflows), and 4) windblown dust. This facies forms the bulk of Brushy Canyon Formation slope deposits, so understanding its origin is critical to understanding the evolution of the basin as a whole. We use a geochemical mapping technique (x-ray fluorescence microscopy) to show that these rocks are up to two times enriched in very fine sand sized zircon and rutile grains relative to Bouma A divisions of interbedded turbidites, suggesting substantial turbulence during transport. However, in contrast with the A divisions, the laminated sandstones and siltstones never show evidence of scour or amalgamation, implying that flow turbulence did not interact with underlying beds. Moreover, proximal loess deposits are often characterized by elevated Zr/Al2O3. These observations are most consistent with windblown interpretations for Brushy Canyon Formation slope sediments, and suggest that evolution of this early deepwater slope system was controlled largely by short-distance aeolian transport of very fine sand and silt from the coast. Heavy mineral incorporation into Brushy Canyon Formation slope deposits as reflected in laminae-scale bulk Zr and Ti abundances may preserve a long-term record of local wind intensity during the Upper Permian.

Tice, M. M.; Motanated, K.; Weiss, R.

2009-12-01

327

Anomalous carbonate precipitates: is the Precambrian the key to the Permian?  

Science.gov (United States)

Late Permian reefs of the Capitan complex, west Texas; the Magnesian Limestone, England; Chuenmuping reef, south China; and elsewhere contain anomalously large volumes of aragonite and calcite marine cements and sea-floor crusts, as well as abundant microbial precipitates. These components strongly influenced reef growth and may have been responsible for the construction of rigid, open reefal frames in which bryozoans and sponges became encrusted and structurally reinforced. In some cases, such as the upper biostrome of the Magnesian Limestone, precipitated microbialites and inorganic crusts were the primary constituents of the reef core. These microbial and inorganic reefs do not have modern marine counterparts; on the contrary, their textures and genesis are best understood through comparison with the older rock record, particularly that of the early Precambrian. Early Precambrian reefal facies are interpreted to have formed in a stratified ocean with anoxic deep waters enriched in carbonate alkalinity. Upwelling mixed deep and surface waters, resulting in massive seafloor precipitation of aragonite and calcite. During Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic time, the ocean became more fully oxidized, and seafloor carbonate precipitation was significantly reduced. However, during the late Neoproterozoic, sizeable volumes of deep ocean water once again became anoxic for protracted intervals; the distinctive "cap carbonates" found above Neoproterozoic tillites attest to renewed upwelling of anoxic bottom water enriched in carbonate alkalinity and 12C. Anomalous late Permian seafloor precipitates are interpreted as the product, at least in part, of similar processes. Massive carbonate precipitation was favored by: 1) reduced shelf space for carbonate precipitation, 2) increased flux of Ca to the oceans during increased continental erosion, 3) deep basinal anoxia that generated upwelling waters with elevated alkalinities, and 4) further evolution of ocean water in the restricted Delaware, Zechstein, and other basins. Temporal coincidence of these processes resulted in surface seawater that was greatly supersaturated by Phanerozoic standards and whose only precedents occurred in Precambrian oceans.

Grotzinger, J. P.; Knoll, A. H.

1995-01-01

328

Cadmium-isotopic evidence for increasing primary productivity during the Late Permian anoxic event  

Science.gov (United States)

Earth's most extreme extinction event near the end of the Late Permian decimated more than 90% of all extant marine species. Widespread and intensive oceanic anoxia almost certainly contributed to the catastrophe, though the driving mechanisms that sustained such conditions are still debated. Of particular interest is whether water column anoxia was a consequence of a 'stagnant ocean', or if it was controlled by increases in nutrient supply, primary productivity, and subsequent heterotrophic respiration. Testing these competing hypotheses requires deconvolving sedimentary/bottom water redox conditions from changes in surface water productivity in marine sediments. We address this issue by studying marine shales from East Greenland and the mid-Norwegian shelf and combining sedimentary redox proxies with cadmium-isotopic analyses. Sedimentary nitrogen-isotopic data, pyrite framboid analyses, and organic and inorganic shale geochemistry reveal sulfidic conditions with vigorous upwelling, and increasingly anoxic conditions with a strengthening upwelling in the Greenland and Norwegian sections, respectively. Detailed analysis of sedimentary metal budgets illustrates that Cd is primarily associated with organic carbon and records primary geochemical signatures, thus enabling reconstruction of surface water nutrient utilization. Cadmium-isotopic analyses of the authigenic shale fraction released by inverse aqua regia digestion yield an average ?114Cd110 of + 0.15 ± 0.01 ‰ (2 SE, n = 12; rel. NIST SRM 3108), indicative of incomplete surface water nutrient utilization up-section. The constant degree of nutrient utilization combined with strong upwelling requires increasing primary productivity - and not oceanic stagnation - to balance the larger nutrient fluxes to both study sites during the development of the Late Permian water column anoxia. Overall, our data illustrate that if bottom water redox and upwelling can be adequately constrained, Cd-isotopic analyses of organic-rich sediments can be used to provide valuable information on nutrient utilization and therefore past productivity.

Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Horner, Tristan J.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Bingen, Bernard; Rehkämper, Mark

2015-01-01

329

Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The entire 606 m-thick sedimentary sequence in borecore MCP-7 from Chintalapudi area, Chintalapudi sub-basin has been lithologically designated as Kamthi Formation. However, the palynological investigation revealed five distinct palynoassemblages, which essentially fall under two groups, one group (Palynoassemblage-I, II and III) having dominance of striate disaccates along with presence of some stratigraphically significant taxa, belongs to Late Permian (Raniganj) palynoflora, while the other group (Palynoassemblages IV and V) shows sharp decline in percentage of characteristic taxa of first group, i.e., striate disaccates, and consequent rise or dominance of taeniate and cingulate cavate spores, belongs to Early Triassic (Panchet) palynoflora. Palynoassemblage-I, II and III (Group I) are characterized by dominance of striate disaccates chiefly, Striatopodocarpites spp. and Faunipollenites spp. along with presence of rare but stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Gondisporites raniganjensis, Falcisporites nuthaliensis, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Chordasporites sp., Striomonosaccites, ovatus, Crescentipollenites multistriatus, Verticipollenites debiles, Strotersporites crassiletus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, G. gondwanensis, Hamiapollenites insolitus, Corisaccites alutus, Lunatisporites ovatus, Weylandites spp. and Vitreisporites pallidus. Palynoassemblage-I is distinguished by significant presence of Densipollenites spp. while Palynoassemblage-II shows significant presence of Crescentipollenites spp. and Palynoassemblage-III differs from the above two assemblages in having significant presence of Guttulapollenites hannonicus. Palynoassemblage-IV (Group II) is characterized by high percentage of taeniate disaccates chiefly Lunatisporites spp., while Palynoassemblage-V (Group II) is characterized by cingulate-cavate trilete spores chiefly, Lundbladispora spp. and Densoisporites spp. Striate disaccates show a sharp decline in these two assemblages. In Chintalapudi area Late Permian and Early Triassic palynoflora has been recorded for the first time indicating existence of Raniganj and Panchet sediments as well. The study further supports the earlier studies of Jha and Srivastava (1996) that Kamthi Formation represents Early Triassic (=Panchet Formation) overlying Raniganj equivalent sediments with a gradational contact.

Jha, Neerja; Chary, M. Basava; Aggarwal, Neha

2012-10-01

330

Paleoceanographic conditions following the end-Permian mass extinction recorded by giant ooids (Moyang, South China)  

Science.gov (United States)

Early Triassic oceans were characterized by deposition of a number of "anachronistic facies", including microbialites, seafloor carbonate cement fans, and giant ooids. Giant ooids were particularly prevalent in Lower Triassic sections across South China and exhibit unusual features that may provide insights into marine environmental conditions following the end-Permian mass extinction. The section at Moyang (Guizhou Province) contains abundant giant ooids ranging in size between 2 and 6 mm (maximum 12 mm) and exhibiting various cortical structures, including regular, deformed, compound, regenerated and "domed". Preservation of ooid cortical structure is generally good as indicated by petrographic observations, and trace element and carbon isotope analyses suggest that diagenesis occurred in a closed diagenetic system. All ooids exhibit fine concentric laminae, frequently alternating between light-colored coarsely crystalline and dark-colored finely crystalline layers probably reflecting variation in organic content or original mineralogy. Under scanning electron microscope, biomineralized filaments or biofilms and tiny carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) crystals are commonly found in the finely crystalline layers. We infer that the precipitation of CFA was related to adsorption of P via microbial activity on the surfaces of ooids following episodic incursions of deep waters rich in CO2, H2S and phosphate into shallow-marine environments. Giant ooid precipitation may have been promoted in shallow ramp settings during these events by increased watermass agitation and supersaturation with respect to CaCO3, as well as reduced carbonate removal rates through biotic skeletal formation. Spatio-temporal distribution data reveal that giant ooids were widespread in the Tethyan region during the Early Triassic, and that they were most abundant immediately after the end-Permian crisis and disappeared gradually as metazoans repopulated marine environments.

Li, Fei; Yan, Jiaxin; Algeo, Thomas; Wu, Xia

2013-06-01

331

Coal 99; Kol 99  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO{sub 2}-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NO{sub x}-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO{sub x}- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO{sub x}-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater ef

Sparre, C.

2000-07-01

332

The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most important climatic and biological crises of the history of the Earth occurred 250 m.a. ago, during the transition from the Permian to the Triassic. During the Permian, all of the continental blocks were covering one hemisphere forming the Pangea supercontinent, while the other was covered by the Panthalasa ocean. General conditions for living on land were very precarious. The exuberant vegetation of the Carboniferous period had disappeared almost completely, as well as the ...

Virgili, C.

2008-01-01

333

The Carboniferous-Permian boundary in the central western Argentinean basins: paleontological evidences El límite Carbonífero-Pérmico en las cuencas del centro oeste de Argentina: evidencias paleontológicas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The central western Argentinean basins of Río Blanco, Calingasta-Uspallata and western Paganzo, enclose the most complete marine successions used for examining the Carboniferous-Permian boundary in Gondwana. A detailed review of the key stratigraphical sections has allowed the identification of the latest Carboniferous assemblages; NBG, Interval megafloristic Zone and DM (Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata) Palynological Zone in the lower part, and the earliest Permian T-S (Tiverton...

Cisterna, Gabriela A.; Sterren, Andrea F.; Gutie?rrez, Pedro R.

2011-01-01

334

Palynofacies analysis of the Permian-Triassic transition in the Amb section (Salt Range, Pakistan): implications for the anoxia on the South Tethyan Margin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The uppermost Chhidru Formation and the lower part of the Mianwali Formation were sampled in the Amb Valley, Salt Range, Pakistan for the study of the particulate organic matter (POM) content in order to evaluate the depositional environment during the Permian–Triassic transition. The POM content was assigned to four distinct palynofacies (palynofacies A–D). Palynofacies A recovered from siltstone within the white sandstone unit of the Upper Permian Chhidru Formation indicates...

Schneebeli-hermann, E.; Ku?rschner, W. M.; Hochuli, P. A.; Bucher, H.; Ware, D.; Goudemand, N.; Roohi, G.

2012-01-01

335

Coal fires in Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as demonstrations to the Indonesian Government. Successful demonstrations obtained visible benefits for a large number of local interests and received overwhelmingly favorable public response. This built the public and political support needed to continue this work.These successes encouraged the Ministry to officially assume the responsibility for coal fire management by Decree 1539/20/MPE/1999. The Ministry reallocated internal funds to support portions of the immediate suppression projects and committed a portion of the Coal Royalty Fund to provide long-term support for coal fire suppression activities. Coal fires continue to present a serious risk to Indonesia's ecosystems, population and forest resources. The Ministry and local governments in East Kalimantan are still working on the coal fire inventory. It presently contains 164 coal fires, but it is far from complete. Unless these coal fires are managed or extinguished, they will add to the already catastrophic cycle of anthropogenic forest fires that further reduce Indonesia's forest resources and endangered species while contributing unnecessarily to global carbon emissions.

Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

2004-07-12

336

Definition of rehabilitation strategies for pre-strip tertiary spoil at coal mines in central Queensland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the open-cut coal mines of central Queensland, the conventional dragline removal of overburden results in a spoil surface dominated by Permian sediments. In recent years, however, a number of mines have changed their coal exposure methods to include a pre-stripping operation to create a bench for the dragline up to 50 m below the surface. This approach has allowed economic coal recovery from greater depths, but, since this pre-strip material is being deposited on existing spoil piles, it has resulted in a major change in the type of spoil material on the surface. The aims of this project were, firstly, to define the characteristics of this pre-strip material that could cause problems for the establishment and growth of both introduced pasture grasses and native tree species, and secondly, to explore possible spoil amendments which could ameliorate some or all of these limitations. Analyses on the range of spoils included pH, EC and sodicity. Straw mulch also reduced the crust strength and was an effective means of improving vegetative establishment. A complementary field trial was established at Saraji mine in April 1991, and after 4 months, treatments which involved a 30 cm capping of soil on the spoil resulted in the highest densities of tree seedling

337

Coal 95; Kol - 95  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

Sparre, C.

1995-12-31

338

Polyhomologation. A living C1 polymerization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical properties of synthetic macromolecules are strongly coupled to their molecular weight (MW), topology, and polydispersity index (PDI). Factors that contribute to their utility include the control of functionality at the macromolecule termini and copolymer composition. Conventional polymerization reactions that produce carbon backbone polymers (ionic, free radical, and coordination) provide little opportunity for controlling these variables. Living polymerizations, sometimes referred to as controlled polymerizations, have provided the means for achieving these goals. Not surprisingly, these reactions have had a profound impact on polymer and materials science. Three basic reaction types are used for the synthesis of most carbon backbone polymers. The first examples of "living" polymerizations were developed for ionic polymerizations (cationic and anionic). These reactions, which can be technically challenging to perform, can yield excellent control of molecular weight with very low polydispersity. The second reaction type, free radical polymerization, is one of the most widely used polymerizations for the commercial production of high molecular weight carbon backbone polymers. Nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) have emerged as three of the more successful approaches for controlling these reactions. The third type, transition metal mediated coordination polymerization, is the most important method for large-scale commercial polyolefin production. Simple nonfunctional hydrocarbon polymers such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene, poly-?-olefins, and their copolymers are synthesized by high pressure-high temperature free radical polymerization, Ziegler-Natta or metallocene catalysts. Although these catalysts of exceptional efficiency that produce polymers on a huge scale are in common use, control that approaches a "living polymerization" is rare. Although the controlled synthesis of linear "polyethylene" described in this Account is not competitive with existing commercial processes for bulk polymer production, they can provide quantities of specialized materials for the study of structure-property relationships. This information can guide the production of polymers for new commercial applications. We initiated a search for novel polymerization reactions that would produce simple hydrocarbon polymers with the potential for molecular weight and topological control. Our research focused on polymerization reactions that employ nonolefin monomers, more specifically the polymerization of ylides and diazoalkanes. In this reaction, the carbon backbone is built one carbon at a time (C1 polymerization). These studies draw upon earlier investigations of the Lewis acid catalyzed polymerization of diazoalkanes and build upon our discovery of the trialkylborane initiated living polymerization of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide 1. PMID:20825177

Luo, Jun; Shea, Kenneth J

2010-11-16

339

Leachability of trace elements in coal and coal combustion wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaching of trace elements from coal and coal combustion waste (CCW) products from a coal-fired power plant, burning coal from the Appalachian and Illinois basins, was studied using deionized (DI) water as a lixiviant to resemble natural conditions in waste disposal sites exposed to dilute meteoric water infiltration. Samples of bottom ash, fly ash, and feed coal were collected from two combustion units at monthly intervals, along with a bulk sample of wastes deposited in an on-site disposal pond. The units burn different coals, one a high-sulfur coal (2.65 to 3.5 weight percent S) and the other, a low-sulfur coal (0.6--0.9 eight percent S). Short-term batch leaches with DI water were performed for times varying from a few minutes to 18 hours. Select fly ash samples were also placed in long-term (> 1 year) flow-through columns

340

Market, trading and coal price  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coal world experienced a true upheaval in the past five years World coal consumption went up 28 % between 2000 and 2005, as a result of the strong growth in Chinese demand. The growth should continue in the coming years: electrical plant builders' orders are mainly for coal. The regained interest in coal is based on the constraints experienced by competing energies (increase in oil and natural gas prices, geopolitical uncertainties, supply difficulties) and by the abundant reserves of coal in the world and the competitiveness of its price. The strong growth in world coal demand comes with a change in rules governing steam coal trading. While long term bilateral agreements were most common until the late nineties, there has been a true revolution in coal marketing since 2000: spot contracts, stock exchange emergence and futures contracts, price indexes. In a few years, the steam coal market has become a true commodities market, overtaking many more goods. The price of coal has also gone through strong variations since 2003. Whereas the price had been stable for decades, in 2004 the strong increase in China' s demand for coal and iron ore resulting in transport shortage, caused a strong increase in CAF coal prices. Since then, prices have gone down, but remain higher than the Eighties and Nineties levels. In spite of the increase, coal remains available at more competitive prices than its competing energies. (authors)

 
 
 
 
341

Direct interaction between CD91 and C1q  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

C1q-mediated removal of immune complexes and apoptotic cells plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune conditions. It has been suggested that C1q mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells through a receptor complex assembled from CD91 (alpha-2- macroglobulin receptor, or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein) and calreticulin, with CD91 being the transmembrane part and calreticulin acting as the C1q-binding molecule. In the present study, we observe that C1q binds cells from a CD91 expressing monocytic cell line as well as monocytes from human blood. C1q binding to monocytes was shown to be correlated with CD91 expression and could be inhibited by the CD91 chaperone, receptor-associated protein. We also report data showing a direct interaction between CD91 and C1q. The interaction was investigated using various protein interaction assays. A direct interaction between purified C1q and CD91 was observed both by ELISA and a surface plasmon resonance assay, with either C1q or CD91 immobilized. The interaction showed characteristics of specificity because it was time-dependent, saturable and could be inhibited by known ligands of both CD91 and C1q. The results obtained show for the first time that CD91 recognizes C1q directly. On the basis of these findings, we propose that CD91 is a receptor for C1q and that this multifunctional scavenger receptor uses a subset of its ligand-binding sites for clearance of C1q and C1q bound material.

Duus, Karen; Hansen, Erik W

2010-01-01

342

Monocyte Expressed Macromolecular C1 and C1q Receptors as Molecular Sensors of Danger: Implications in SLE.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of circulating blood monocytes to express C1q receptors (cC1qR and gC1qR) as well as to synthesize and secrete the classical pathway proteins C1q, C1r, and C1s and their regulator, C1-INH is very well established. What is intriguing, however, is that, in addition to secretion of the individual C1 proteins monocytes are also able to display macromolecular C1 on their surface in a manner that is stable and functional. The cell surface C1 complex is presumably formed by a Ca(2+)-dependent association of the C1r2?C1s2 tetramer to C1q, which in turn is anchored via a membrane-binding domain located in the N-terminus of its A-chain as shown previously. Monocytes, which circulate in the blood for 1-3?days before they move into tissues throughout the body, not only serve as precursors of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), but also fulfill three main functions in the immune system: phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. Since the globular heads of C1q within the membrane associated C1 are displayed outwardly, we hypothesize that their main function - especially in circulating monocytes - is to recognize and capture circulating immune complexes or pathogen-associated molecular patterns in the blood. This in turn may give crucial signal, which drives the monocytes to migrate into tissues, differentiate into macrophages or DCs, and initiate the process of antigen elimination. Unoccupied C1q on the other hand may serve to keep monocytes in a pre-dendritic phenotype by silencing key molecular players thus ensuring that unwarranted DC-driven immune response does not occur. In this paper, we will discuss the role of monocyte/DC-associated C1q receptors, macromolecular C1 as well as secreted C1q in both innate and acquired immune responses. PMID:25018754

Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Hosszu, Kinga K; Valentino, Alisa; Ji, Yan; Peerschke, Ellinor I B

2014-01-01

343

Coal production, 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

344

Coal fire interferometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

345

Coal liquefaction processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

1979-07-01

346

Summary of breakout Session C1: C1, chemical countermeasures; dispersants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discussions in breakout session C1 are summarized. The topics discussed include the pros and cons of dispersant use. Many of the positions which have been heard for the last twenty years were restated. Neither group convinced the other of the advisability of easing the use of dispersants. There was better agreement on the need for research and development programs to get a better handle on some of the questions being raised. The R ampersand D needs on which the participants could agree are summarized

347

Solvent refined coal - relevant technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technologies under development for producing solvent-refined coal and related products, with special emphasis on potential metallurgical applications are analysed. The suitability of coals for conversion is also investigated. Finally, process design is considered.

Smith, G.B.; Callcott, T.G.

1981-01-01

348

Low-rank coal research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

1989-01-01

349

Sustainable development with clean coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

NONE

1997-08-01

350

Utilisation of chemically treated coal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - th...

Be?ovská Mária; Èurillová Dana; Machajová Zlatica

2002-01-01

351

Brown coal mining in 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical data on brown coal exploitation in Poland in 1995 are given and discussed. In that year 63.4 mln ton of brown coal was excavated and 62.2 mln ton was sent to power plants. 40.1% of electric power generated in public utilities were produced using brown coal as the fuel. The results of all 5 brown coal mines are shortly described

352

Oil, gas, coal, and electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication provides up-to-date and detailed quarterly statistics on oil, coal, natural gas and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected oil product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas, hard coal and brown coal show supply and trade. Import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis

353

Integrated coal gasification combined cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

354

Coal: the dinosaur wakes up  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

355

C1-inhibitor: more than a serine protease inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) is a crucial regulator of the activation of plasmatic cascade systems involved in inflammation contributing to the homeostasis in the generation of proinflammatory mediators. The importance of C1-inh is illustrated by patients with hereditary angioedema where decreased levels of C1-inh lead to an uncontrolled generation of vasoactive peptides resulting in potential life-threatening subcutaneous edema. Recent publications, however, suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of C1-inh do not strictly depend on its capacity to regulate the complement and contact phase system. This review summarizes the biochemical characteristics of C1-inh and its role in the regulation of plasmatic cascade systems as well as the role of the nonserpin domain. PMID:21805442

Zeerleder, Sacha

2011-06-01

356

The acquired deficiency of C1-inhibitor: lymphoproliferation and angioedema.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquired deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) with angioedema symptoms (acquired angioedema, AAE) is characterized by local increase in vascular permeability (angioedema) of the skin and the gastrointestinal and oro-pharyngo-laryngeal mucosa. The mediator of symptoms is bradykinin, a potent vasoactive peptide, released from high molecular weight kininogen when it is cleaved by plasma kallikrein a serine protease controlled by C1-INH. Autoantibodies inactivating C1-INH are detected in the majority of patients and account for the deficiency. Irrespectively to the presence of anti-C1-INH autoantibodies lymphoproliferative diseases, ranging from benign monoclonal gammopathies to malignant lymphoma, are frequently associated with AAE. Demonstration that monoclonal components correspond to anti-C1-INH autoantibodies and correlation between course of lymphoma and course of AAE provide strong support to consider the two diseases expression of the same pathologic process. PMID:20455857

Cicardi, M; Zanichelli, A

2010-06-01

357

Implications from zircon-saturation temperatures and lithological assemblages for Early Permian thermal anomaly in northwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite considerable efforts, the Paleozoic tectonic setting (subduction vs. post-collision vs. mantle plume) in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) remains controversial. With aims of solving this issue, we examined zircon saturation temperatures of granitoids emplaced in different settings, and demonstrated that zircon saturation thermometry of felsic igneous rocks, especially when integrated with their lithology and geochemistry, can be a simple and powerful tool for tectonic discrimination. This method is then applied in northern Xinjiang where the Early Permian granitoids have higher saturation temperatures (> 800 °C) than the Silurian-Carboniferous granitoids (mainly flood basalts, and associated mafic dykes and ultramafic complex in Tarim. Therefore, the temporal variation in temperature and geochemistry of Paleozoic granitoids in northern Xinjiang mirrors a significant change in tectonic setting from a subduction-collision setting during Silurian-Carboniferous to an intra-plate setting since Early Permian.

Liu, Hai-Quan; Xu, Yi-Gang; He, Bin

2013-12-01

358

Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

2008-01-01

359

Pathology, Clinical Presentations, and Outcomes of C1q Nephropathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

C1q nephropathy is an uncommon glomerular disease with characteristic features on immunofluorescence microscopy. In this report, clinicopathologic correlations and outcomes are presented for 72 patients with C1q nephropathy. The study comprised 82 kidney biopsies from 28 children and 54 adults with male preponderance (68%). Immunofluorescence microscopy showed dominant or co-dominant staining for C1q in the mesangium and occasional glomerular capillary walls. Electron-dense deposits were obse...

Vizjak, Alenka; Ferluga, Dus?an; Roz?ic?, Mojca; Hvala, Anastazija; Lindic?, Jelka; Levart, Tanja Kersnik; Jurc?ic?, Vesna; Jennette, J. Charles

2008-01-01

360

Human genes for complement components C1r and C1s in a close tail-to-tail arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complementary DNA clones for human C1s were isolated from cDNA libraries that were prepared with poly(A)+ RNAs of human liver and HepG2 cells. A clone with the largest cDNA insert of 2,664 base pairs (bp) was analyzed for its complete nucleotide sequence. It contained 202 bp of a 5' untranslated region, 45 bp of coding for a signal peptide (15 amino acid residues), 2,019 bp for complement component C1s zymogen (673 amino acid residues), 378 bp for a 3' untranslated region, a stop codon, and 17 bp of a poly(A) tail. The amino acid sequence of C1s was 40.5% identical to that of C1r, with excellent matches of tentative disulfide bond locations conserving the overall domain structure of C1r. DNA blotting and sequencing analyses of genomic DNA and of an isolated genomic DNA clone clearly showed that the human genes for C1r and C1s are closely located in a tail-to-tail arrangement at a distance of about 9.5 kilobases. Furthermore, RNA blot analyses showed that both C1r and C1s genes are primarily expressed in liver, whereas most other tissues expressed both C1r and C1s genes at much lower levels (less than 10% of that in liver). Multiple molecular sizes of specific mRNAs were observed in the RNA blot analyses for both C1r and C1s, indicating that alternative RNA processing(s), likely an alternative polyadenylylation, might take place for both genes

 
 
 
 
361

Natural radioactivity in coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

362

Coal -- Energy and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings are grouped into the following 31 sessions: Coal processing and utilization; Ash use interactions in soils and plants; Coal preparation I; Coal preparation II - reconstitution processes; Ash use in mine reclamation; Pre/post utilization; Direct liquefaction catalysts; Coal conversion retrospective; Coal characterization and its significance to utilization; Integrated gasification combined cycle; Non-fuel use of coal; Conversion technologies; Expert systems, advanced controls and instrumentation for coal combustion systems; Combustion 2000; Fluidized beds/co-firing; Coal technology from an international perspective; Computer methodologies and software applied to the use of coal; Combustion systems in power plants; Clean Coal Technology Program; Combustion systems; Design of scrubbers for CAAA Round One; Effects of reauthorization of Clean Water Act and regulations of 1990 CAAA; Air toxics; SOx and NOx emission control; Environmental/regulatory issues related to ash use in mine reclamation; Global climate change -- Scientific, economic and policy perspectives; Environmental systems and policies; Coal storage and handling; Coal characterization and its significance to utilization; Slurry technology; and Special topics. 248 papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base

363

Coal ash utilization in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan is one of the major coal-importing countries in the world, importing more than 100 types of coal every year, with some of the electric power plants using as many as 20 types of coal per year. The major sources are Australia, U.S., China, and Indonesia. Japan's dependency on coal is expected to keep the same level in future, under to diversify energy resources in our country. In order to use the coal stably, it is important to expand effective utilization of coal as well as to use coal cleanly and effectively. JCOAL investigates the data of coal ash production & utilization every year. In 2003 fiscal year, about 9.9 million tons of coal ash was produced in coal combustion, of which 85% was effectively used and the rest was disposed. The utilization rate of cement raw material (alternative for clay) is 70% and cement/concrete admixture 5%, civil engineering field 10%, and construction field 5%, agriculture field 2%, others 8%. Using the coal ash as a cement raw material has little room for increasing the amount any further, therefore it is required to expand the effective utilization in cement admixture or in the civil engineering field. This paper describes the situation of coal ash production and the trend of utilization in Japan.

Yuko Yamazaki; Yoshiaki Sakai; Akemitsu Akimoto; Atsushi Kobari [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

2005-07-01

364

Was the Valaisan basin floored by oceanic crust? Evidence of Permian magmatism in the Versoyen unit (Valaisan domain, NW Alps)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Versoyen Unit (Western Alps) and its mafic rocks have been long considered the remnants of the oceanic crust that supposedly floored the Valaisan basin during the Cretaceous. Here we present U-Pb dating of zircons from a metaleucogabbro and a metagranite from the Versoyen Unit challenging this view. Magmatic zircon cores yield Permian ages of 267±1 and 272±2 Ma, respectively, which are interpreted as dating the crystallization of the magmas. Older inherited crystals and rare Cretaceous ...

Compagnoni, Roberto; Beltrando, Marco

2007-01-01

365

Identification of the Early Permian (Autunian) in the subsurface of the Ebro Basin, NE Spain, and its paleogeographic consequences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] The Early Permian (Autunian) has not been identifi ed up to now in the subsurface of the Tertiary Ebro Basin because of the scarcity of oil well boreholes reaching the Variscan basement and the systematic attribution of a Carboniferous age, without any paleontological data, to the unmetamorfosed siliciclastic sediments found at the base of some of them, clearly above the Early Paleozoic basement. Grey and black shale samples recovered from cores preserved in the REPSOL-YPF archi...

Arche, A.; Di?ez, J. B.; Lo?pez-go?mez, Jose?

2007-01-01

366

Implications of paleomagnetic results from the Permian Rodez basin for the late Variscan tectonics in the southern French massif Central.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A paleomagnetic study has been carried out on three sedimentary formations of the Permian Rodez basin in the southern France. Two of them yield paleomagnetic poles of Saxonian and Thuringian age showing counterclockwise rotation of moderate amplitude, during or after the Thuringian deposition. For the French Massif Central, contrary to its stable southern (Lodève basin) and eastern (Largentière basin) borders, on its southwestern border, in a large area including the Rodez, Saint-Affrique a...

Diego-orozco, Arturo; Chen, Yan; Henry, Bernard; Becq-giraudon, Jean-franc?ois

2002-01-01

367

Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-06-01

368

Replication and inheritance of Nocardia plasmid pC1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nocardia sp. C-14-1, isolated from acrylic fiber wastewater, can degrade long-chain alkanes and succinonitrile efficiently. Here we report the characterization of an indigenous plasmid pC1. The overall nucleotide sequence of pC1 consisted of 5841 bp. The five ORFs, encoding a DNA recombinase, replication protein (Rep(pC1)) and three proteins of unknown function, were predicted on pC1. The Rep(pC1) displayed its homology with the Rep of Rhodococcus large plasmid p33701, suggesting a theta type of replication. An Escherichia coli plasmid (containing the single rep(pC1) gene) propagated autonomously in low copy number in Nocardia or Rhodococcus, suggesting that rep(pC1) was an essential gene for plasmid replication. The plasmid (containing the single rep(pC1) gene) presented as inheritance unstable hints that other pC1 loci were required for the stable inheritance of plasmids. By comparison of the plasmid-borne Rep proteins, we classify Rhodococcus or Nocardia plasmids into four groups. PMID:16842357

Shen, Meijuan; Fang, Ping; Xu, Deqiang; Zhang, Yalei; Cao, Weihuan; Zhu, Yingmin; Zhao, Jianfu; Qin, Zhongjun

2006-08-01

369

Hydrogasification of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogasification of coal is a key process in SNG production. The hydrogen required for the process can be produced by steam gasification of the residual coke obtained in hydrogasification as well as by a HTR reactor. Messrs. Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke in Cologne have operated a semi-industrial test plant for coal hydrogasification since 1976. So far, operation of this plant has yielded important information on the correlation between gasifier performance and the main process parameters. A pilot plant on this basis is being planned which will take up operation in 1981. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

370

National Coal Resource Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) is a project of the US Geological Survey Energy Program. The project's homepage has lots of information and documents about the five main regions that were the focus of the study. Many professional papers, executive summaries, and factsheets are free for download. There are area maps of each region, as well as photographs that show current and historical views of mining practices. The Mining Info/Videos section has a link to an interesting paper -- Surface Mining and Reclamation Operations for Fort Union Coal; it could take a while to download on a slow connection, though.

371

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

2006-03-31

372

The armoured dissorophid Cacops from the Early Permian of Oklahoma and the exploitation of the terrestrial realm by amphibians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cacops, one of the most distinctive Paleozoic amphibians, is part of a clade of dissorophoid temnospondyls that diversified in the equatorial region of Pangea during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, persisting into the Late Permian in Central Russia and China. Dissorophids were a successful group of fully terrestrial, often spectacularly armoured predators, the only amphibians apparently able to coexist with amniotes when the latter started to dominate terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, we describe excellent new skulls from the Early Permian of Oklahoma attributed to Cacops, Cacops morrisi sp. nov. and provide for the first time detailed information about this iconic dissorophid. These specimens show anatomical and ontogenetic features that will impact on future studies on the evolution of terrestriality in tetrapods. For example, the large, posteriorly closed tympanic embayment has fine striations on an otherwise smooth surface, documenting the oldest known clear evidence for the presence of a tympanic membrane in the fossil record, a structure that is used for hearing airborne sound in extant tetrapods. The skull of C. morrisi also has several features associated with predatory behaviour, indicating that this dissorophid may have been one of the top terrestrial predators of its time. PMID:19347261

Reisz, Robert R; Schoch, Rainer R; Anderson, Jason S

2009-07-01

373

Massive volcanism at the Permian-Triassic boundary and its impact on the isotopic composition of the ocean and atmosphere  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bulk carbonate and conodonts from three Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary sections at Guryul Ravine (Kashmir), Abadeh (central Iran) and Pufels/Bula/Bulla (Italy) were investigated for d13C and d18O. Carbon isotope data highlight environmental changes across the P-T boundary and show the following features: (1) a gradual decrease of 4‰ to more than 7‰ starting in the Late Permian (Changhsingian) C. bachmanni Zone, with two superimposed transient positive excursions in the C. meishanensis-H. praeparvus and the M. ultima-S. ? mostleri Zones; (2) two d13C minima, the first at the P-T boundary and a higher, occasionally double-minimum in the lower I. isarcica Zone. It is unlikely that the short-lived phenomena, such as a breakdown in biological productivity due to catastrophic mass extinction, a sudden release of oceanic methane hydrates or meteorite impact(s), could have been the main control on the latest Permian carbon isotope curve because of its prolonged (0.5 Ma) duration, gradual decrease and the existenceof a >1‰ positive shift at the main extinction horizon. The P-T boundary d13C trend matches in time and magnitude the eruption of the Siberian Traps and other contemporaneous volcanism, suggesting that volcanogenic effects, such as outgassed CO2 from volcanism and, even more, thermal metamorphism of organic-rich sediments, as the likely cause of the negative trend.

Korte, Christoph; Pande, P.

2010-01-01

374

Kerogen morphology and geochemistry at the Permian-Triassic transition in the Meishan section, South China: Implication for paleoenvironmental variation  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed fluorescent microscopic observations and organic geochemical analyses for insoluble sedimentary organic matter (kerogens) are conducted on the end-Permian to earliest Triassic sediments in the Meishan section A of South China. The main objectives of the present study are to reconstruct variations of marine and terrestrial environments, and to evaluate bulk characteristics of terrestrial input in the palaeo-Tethys ocean for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). Most of kerogens in the Meishan section are mainly composed of marine algae-derived amorphous organic matter, while terrestrial plant-derived amorphous organic matter is remarkably dominant in the mass extinction horizon reported previously. The relative abundances of marine organic matter may vary depending on marine production rather than terrestrial input in the palaeo-Tethys associa