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1

Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is produced. Therefore, we have hypothesized the two processes: C1 coal combustion --> nanoquartz in ambient air --> lung cancer excess in non-smoking women. Methods/Design We propose to conduct a retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis above. We will search historical records and compile an inventory of the coal mines in operation during 1930–2009. To estimate the study subjects' retrospective exposure, we will reconstruct the historical exposure scenario by burning the coal samples, collected from operating or deserted coal mines by coal geologists, in a traditional firepit of an old house. Indoor air particulate samples will be collected for nanoquartz and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analyses. Bulk quartz content will be quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Size distribution of quartz will be examined by electron microscopes and by centrifugation techniques. Lifetime cumulative exposure to nanoquartz will be estimated for each subject. Using the epidemiology data, we will examine whether the use of C1 coal and the cumulative exposure to nanoquartz are associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer. Discussion The high incidence rate of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, one of the counties in the current study area, was once attributed to high indoor air concentrations of PAHs. The research results have been cited for qualitative and quantitative cancer risk assessment of PAHs by the World Health Organization and other agencies. If nanoquartz is found to be the main underlying cause of the lung cancer epidemic in the study area, cancer potency estimates for PAHs by the international agencies based on the lung cancer data in this study setting should then be updated.

Tian Linwei; Dai Shifeng; Wang Jianfang; Huang Yunchao; Ho Suzanne C; Zhou Yiping; Lucas Donald; Koshland Catherine P

2008-01-01

2

A comparison of fusible inertinite in Carboniferous and Permian coals  

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It is generally agreed that the demarcation between fusible and infusible macerals does not coincide with the vitrinite/inertinite boundary but is situated within the range of low-reflecting inertinite. In the widely accepted Schapiro-Gray system of coke stability calculations, 1/3 of semifusinite is considered to be fusible, but the imposition of such a rigid fusibility cut-off failed to give correct estimates of coke stability indices in past ICCP ring analyses of Permian and Cretaceous coals. This failure was due to an underestimation of the high degree of fusibility of a considerable percentage of inertinite group macerals. Since the Schapiro-Gray method is based on Carboniferous coals, it is possible that coals of other ages and origins contain different proportions of infusible and fusible inertinite. Alternatively, different coals may have similar proportions of infusible and fusible inertinite, but they could differ in the actual levels of thermoplasticity. Having established a close link between the fusibility of inertinite and its optical properties, we used microfluorescence intensity and reflectance of inertinite as a measure of the degree of fusibility. No significant differences were found in inertinite fluorescence between the two sets of coals when fresh samples were compared. Likewise, the study revealed no difference in the reflectance distribution of inertinite between Carboniferous and Permian coals, which raises the question whether the underestimation of inertinite reactivity by the Schapiro-Gray method applies to Carboniferous coals as much as it does to Permian coals. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Diessel, C.F.K.; Gammidge, L.C. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

1995-12-31

3

Geochemical characteristics of Carboniferous-Permian coal-formed gas in Bohai Bay Basin  

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Coal-formed gas reservoirs have been found in several depressions in Bohai Bay Basin. The gas was mainly generated by the Carboniferous-Permian coal measures, which are good source rocks. The exploration of coal-formed gas has a broad prospect. The main reservoirs of the coal-formed gas are Ordovician, Carboniferous-Permian, and Paleogene stratum. Coal-formed gas in the Bohai Bay Basin is chiefly composed of hydrocarbon gases. The percentage content of carbon dioxide is more than that of the nitrogen gas. The stable carbon isotope values of the hydrocarbon gases of different depressions and different reservoirs usually reversed. The reversed values of gas samples account for 52.1% of all the samples. Reversion values of the carbon isotope are mainly because of the mixing of gases from same source rocks but with different maturity. Among the three main reservoirs, coal-formed gas preserved in Paleogene stratum has the heaviest carbon isotope, the second is the gas in Carboniferous-Permian stratum, and the Ordovician gas possesses the lightest carbon isotope. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of carbon isotope of hydrocarbon gases in well Qishen-1 and the distribution of the Carboniferous-Permian coal measures, the gas of the well is derived from the high-matured Carboniferous-Permian coal measures.

Shipeng Huang; Fengrong Liao; Xiaoqi Wu [PetroChina, Beijing (China). Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development

2010-03-15

4

Physical properties of Permian bituminous coals from the Sydney Basin, New South Wales  

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This laboratory study, as part of a research programme on channel wave propagation in coal seams, looked at the densities and velocities (compressional and shear) of some Permian bituminous coals to elicit information on elastic properties, velocity variability and anisotropy, and dynamic elastic moduli. Resistivities and porosities were investigated also to provide basic information for surface, subsurface, and borehole data analyses in coal exploration and exploitation in the Sydney basin.

Greenhalgh, S.A.; Emerson, D.W.

1982-04-01

5

Comparative petrological analysis between the Permian coals of India and Western Australia: paleoenvironments and thermal history  

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Permian sequences preserved in Western Australian basins (Collie, Perth and Canning) and the Gondwana basins of India (Damodar, Son-Mahanadi, Pench-Kanhan and Godavari Valley) have similar stratigraphic succession, faunal and floral assemblages, coal types and rank, and structure. The type and rank of the Permian coals indicate a similar depositional and thermal histories for the basins studied in India and western Australia. This is consistent with the view that India and Western Australia were in close proximity before the break up of Gondwanaland.

Mishra, H.K. [Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Ltd., Ranchi (India). Division of Exploration

1996-10-01

6

Geology and Permian coal resources of the Collie Basin, Western Australia  

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The Collie Basin is a structure containing approximately 1200 m of generally southwesterly dipping Permian siliciclastics preserved as a consequence of right-lateral shear in a transtensional setting. Gravity and drilling data indicate the basin is 226 km{sup 2} in area and that it comprises two weakly folded grabens striking northwest. The coal-bearing section reaches a maximum thickness of 900 m, of which up to 74 m consist of coal in 60 principal seams between 0.5 and 1.3 m thick. Permian stratigraphy is revised. Significant tectonics in the Permian of Western Australia are inferred from vitrinite reflectance determinations, which indicate that maximum coal-burial depth approached 8 km. Collie coal resources total 2400 Mt. Approximately 37% of the coal lies in the current opencut mining window. Maximum vitrinite reflectance averages 0.43 in the Muja Coal Measures and 0.60 in the deeper Premier and Ewington Coal Measures. The coal rank is subbituminous in the Muja Coal Measures and bituminous in the Ewington and Premier Coal Measures. Tabulated qualities of Collier coal include proximate and specific energy, sulfur, ash fusion temperature, abrasiveness, hardgrove grindability, ultimate, ash, trace element, petrographic and maceral analyses. Coal is mined in four opencut and three underground mines by two companies. The Griffin Coal Mining Company Proprietary Limited and Western Collieries Limited. In the past 100 years over 100 Mt has been produced. About 79% of Collie coal is purchased by the State Energy Commission for power stations; the balance is used for private power generation, cement manufacture, brick making, mineral sands processing and other industrial applications. A demonstrated potential exists for alternative coal utilization technologies including direct reduction of metal ores. There are currently no coal exports. In a pocket with 8 folded plates. 173 refs., 46 figs., 12 tabs.

Le Blanc Smith, G.

1993-12-31

7

Unique organic remains from an upper Permian coal bearing sequence in the Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India  

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The playnological assemblage of coal bearing upper Permian sequence of Talcher Coalfield registers presence of some peculiar organic remains. These are described as Orissiella gen. nov., which is characterized by a vesicle with collar-like structure at the oral end, spines and or corrugations on the body. The affinity and palaeoecological significance of Orissiella is also discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 plates.

Tripathi, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

2004-07-01

8

Trace elemental analysis of permian gondwana coals in Bangladesh by PIXE technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The study of trace elements level in coal arouses much interest days to assess and evaluate the environmental impact related to its benefit and usage in applying it to the problem of mining site. Further, it is more important during the coal combustion in thermal power stations particularly in relation to the emission of air toxic, disposal and utilization of fly ash. The paper describes the level of nineteen environmentally significant trace elements found in recently discovered Permian Gondwana coals in Barapukuria and Khalaspir of Northwestern Bangladesh using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. Both the mineral species and trace elements are expected to be due to sedimentary and aerobic environmental condition where the Permian coals have been generated depending on their degree of evolution. (author)

2004-01-01

9

Petrography and aliphatic hydrocarbon composition of the Barrett Coal Member, Upper Permian Wittingham Coal Measures, northern Sydney Basin  

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The Barrett Coal Member in the Howick Opencut Mine, Hunter Valley, NSW, is a high-volatile bituminous coal that forms the basal seam of the Upper Permian Foybrook Formation of the Wittingham Coal Measures in the Howick area. Detailed petrographic analyses of the coal reveal cycles of peat formation defined by variations in the ratio: structured vitrinite/unstructured vitrinite (= Tissue Preservation Index, or TPI); and the percentage of liptinite macerals. These cycles also correspond to coal plies that are separated invariably by dirtbands. The n-alkane distribution of the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of the Barrett Coal Extracts are similar to other analysed coals of the Sydney Basin, the Lower Carboniferous coals from Nigeria and the Permian East Bokaro coals of India, suggesting commonality of n-alkane distributions for Gondwanan coals of similar rank and depositional setting. The petrographic cyclicity of the Barrett Coal is also manifested by a corresponding stratigraphic cyclicity in the biomarker composition of the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. The cyclic pattern of the TPI within each ply is mirrored by the absolute concentration of triterpanes, steranes, and parameters such as Carbon Preference Index (CPI), Pr/nC{sub 17} and Ph/nC{sub 18}. All these changes are evident in a coal member only 2.2m thick. The petrographic and geochemical evidence suggest that the environmental affinity of the Barrett Coal is that of a delta-plain depositional setting. 27 refs., 4 figs.

Casareo, F.; Batts, B.; Conaghan, P.; George, S.; Jardine, D. [Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

1995-08-01

10

Control of sea-level change to coal accumulation in Carboniferous-Permian, north China  

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According to the results of sequence stratigraphic research, the Carboniferous-Permian depositional formation in North China were formed in a second order sea-level change cycle, which includes 4 cycles in the third order and 26 cycles in the fourth order. Several large scale coal accumulations took place during the turning point between the fall and rise of the third order sea-level, locating at the top of highstand system tracts. The formation of thin coal seams was correlated to the fourth order sea-level change cycle and occurred at the top of the parasequences. The development of coal accumulation was controlled by the sea-level change cycle. The sea-level change supplied the potential accommodate space for the accumulation of organic materials. The developmental range of coal accumulation was controlled by the periodic range of sea-level change, which controlled the evolution of coal accumulation in time and space. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Chen, S. [Petroleum University of China (China). Resource Department

2000-10-01

11

Megaspores from coals of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation (Lower Permian), northeastern Paraná State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a detailed study of megaspores occurring in coal seams of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation at Figueira, Paraná State, Brazil. This coal-bearing sequence accumulated in a marine delta system during the Early Permian. Four species are described and illustrated: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, and Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Of these, the two species of Lagenoisporites are predominant. Relationships to other megaspore species are discussed; and the temporal and spatial distributions of the four species in the Paraná Basin are documented.

RICARDI-BRANCO FRESIA; ARAI MITSURU; RÖSLER OSCAR

2002-01-01

12

Global coal gap between Permian-Triassic extinction and Middle Triassic recovery of peat-forming plants  

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Early Triassic coals are unknown, and Middle Triassic coals are rare and thin. The Early Triassic coal gap began with extinction of peat-forming plants at the end of the Permian (ca. 250 Ma), with no coal known anywhere until Middle Triassic (243 Ma). Permian levels of plant diversity and peat thickness were not recovered until Late Triassic (230 Ma). Tectonic and climatic explanations for the coal gap fail because deposits of fluctuating sea levels and sedimentary facies and paleosols commonly found in coal-bearing sequences are present also in Early Triassic rocks. Nor do we favor explanations involving evolutionary advances in the effectiveness of fungal decomposers, insects or tetrapod herbivores, which became cosmopolitan and much reduced in diversity across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Instead, we favor explanations involving extinction of peat-forming plants at the Permian-Triassic boundary, followed by a hiatus of some 10 m.y. until newly evolved peat-forming plants developed tolerance to the acidic dysaerobic conditions of wetlands. This view is compatible not only with the paleobotanical record of extinction of swamp plants, but also with indications of a terminal Permian productivity crash from {delta}{sup 13}C{sub org} and total organic carbon of both nonmarine and shallow marine shales. 205 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Retallack, G.J. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Veevers, J.J.; Morante, R. [Macquarie Univ., New South Wales (Australia)

1996-02-01

13

The genesis and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with some Permian Australian coals  

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Siderite and calcite are the two forms of carbonate commonly associated with Permian Australian coals. The former occurs as disseminated spherulites and is a product of the early post-depositional environment. Isotopic measurements show that the CO2 fixed as siderite did not result from the direct oxidation of photosynthetically derived materials, but rather from the anaerobic fermentation of these. The higher concentrations of calcite are generally found towards the roofs of coal seams and are characterized by isotopic enrichments to delta13C values of +25% PDB. Isotopic exchange between CO2 and CH4 within the coal seam is postulated as the mechanism which leads to the formation of isotopically heavy CO2. At sites along the seam margins where the CO2 escapes, interaction with circulating metal ions or preexisting calcite results in the deposition of ''heavy'' calcite. With increasing alteration of coal by thermal metamorphism, the 13C content of calcites and finally siderites decreases so that it more nearly approaches that of the associated coal. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

14

Observations on Indian Permian Gondwana coals under fluorescence microscopy: An overview  

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Macerals like sporinite, cutinite, suberinite and resinite of the liptinite group have been insufficiently recorded in Indian Permian Gondwana coals, until the fluorescence microscopy came into existence. With the introduction of this technique, macerals like bituminite, fluorinite and exsudatinite were convincingly recognized and alginite and liptodetrinite, normally mistaken for mineral matter under normal reflected light in routine coal petrographic analysis, were identified with certainty. Thus, fluorescence microscopy has added certain new macerals to the tally of the liptinite group and has increased their overall proportion in Indian Gondwana coals. In addition to the liptinite group, collodetrinite (=desmocollinite) and a certain fraction of collotelinite (=telocollinite) macerals of the vitrinite group were found to be fluorescing with dull reddish-brown to dark brown colours. Certain semifusinite and inertodetrinite macerals of inertinite group were also found to fluoresce with almost identical intensity and colour as that of the associated perhydrous (fluorescing) vitrinite. Contributions of degraded resinite, algal matter and bitumen in the formation of perhydrous vitrinite have been established. The fluorescence behaviour of inertinite appears to be related with its genesis from partial oxidation of resin/bitumen-impregnated cell walls.

Singh, B.D.; Singh, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

2004-01-01

15

Megaspores from coals of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation (Lower Permian), northeastern Paraná State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a detailed study of megaspores occurring in coal seams of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation at Figueira, Paraná State, Brazil. This coal-bearing sequence accumulated in a marine delta system during the Early Permian. Four species are described and illustrated: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, and Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Of these, the two species of Lagenoisporites are predominant. Relationships to other megaspore species are discussed; and the temporal and spatial distributions of the four species in the Paraná Basin are documented.No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos a partir do estudo sistemático detalhado dos megásporos provenientes das camadas de carvão do Membro Triunfo, Formação Rio Bonito, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A seqüência portadora de carvão, foi o resultado do acúmulo de matéria orgânica num de sistema deltaico marinho durante o Eopermiano. Quatro espécies são aqui descritas e ilustradas: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, e Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Destas, as duas espécies de Lagenoisporites são dominantes. São igualmente discutidas as relações existentes com outras espécies de megásporos, assim como documentada a distribuição temporal e espacial das quatro espécies na Bacia do Paraná.

FRESIA RICARDI-BRANCO; MITSURU ARAI; OSCAR RÖSLER

2002-01-01

16

Coal petrology of coal seams from the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Lower Permian of the Parana Basin, Brazil - Implications for coal facies interpretations  

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In the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul the coal seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin, Brazil and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. This study is the first detailed investigation on the coal petrographic characterization of the coal-bearing sequence in relation to the depositional settings of the precursor mires, both in terms of whole seam characterization and in-seam variations. The study is based on the analyses of nine coal seams (I2, CI, L4, L3, L2, L1, S3, S2, S1), which were selected from core of borehole D-193, Leao-Butia and represent the entire coal-bearing sequence. The interpretation of coal facies and depositional environment is based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses using different facies-critical petrographic indices, which were displayed in coal facies diagrams. The seams are characterized by the predominance of dull lithotypes (dull, banded dull). The dullness of the coal is attributed to relatively high mineral matter, inertinite and liptinite contents. The petrographic composition is dominated by vitrinite (28-70 vol.% mmf) and inertinite (> 30 vol.% mmf) groups. Liptinite contents range from 7 to 30 vol.% (mmf) and mineral matter from 4-30 vol.%. Microlithotypes associations are dominated by vitrite, duroclarite, carbominerite and inertite. It is suggested that the observed vertical variations in petrographic characteristics (lithotypes, microlithotypes, macerals, vitrinite reflectance) were controlled by groundwater level fluctuations in the ancient mires due to different accommodation/peat accumulation rates. Correlation of the borehole strata with the general sequence-stratigraphical setting suggests that the alluvial fan system and the coal-bearing mudstone succession are linked to a late transgressive systems tract of sequence 2. Based on average compositional values obtained from coal facies diagrams, a deposition in a limno-telmatic to limnic coal facies is suggested. (author)

Silva, M.B. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Geologica, Departamento de Geociencias, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Av. Italia km 08, Campus Carreiros, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2008-02-01

17

Petrographic composition and sulphur content of coals associated with alluvial fans in the Permian Sydney and Gunnedah Basins, eastern Australia  

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The Sydney and Gunnedah Basins, which formed during the Permian on the eastern margin of Australia, contain restricted marine and terrestrial sediments deposited during two transgressive-regressive cycles. The progradational and aggradational regressive successions include back-barrier, prodelta, lower delta plain, upper delta plain and braided fluvial facies of alluvial-fan systems, the proportion of coarse clastics increasing eastward toward the orogenic hinterland. Coals associated with a 1000 m thick sequence of alluvial-fan dominated sediments deposited during the Early Permian in the Gunnedah Basin are generally vitrinite-rich (75% mmf), with mainly structured inertinite (semifusinite) and low sulphur contents (less than 0.55% daf). The coals were formed from a woody peat facies under consistently high water-table conditions, with access to terrestrial sulphate only. Coals associated with alluvial fans and associated fluvial and deltaic systems deposited during the Late Permian in the Sydney Basin consist of high vitrinite (65% mmf), low to medium sulphur (less than 1.0% daf) seams in the distal facies, and low to high vitrinite (35-65% mmf), low sulphur (less than 0.55% daf) seams in the more proximal facies. Semifusinite is the dominant inertinite in both facies, and the seams were formed from a woody peat. The progressively lower water-table levels and decreasing vitrinite content up the sequence are probably the result of eustatic control and increasing topographic elevation above the water-table. In coals associated with the upper delta plain and fluvial facies, sulphur is mainly organically bound (70-100%), and the proportion of pyritic sulphur increases to greater than 50% in the lower delta plain facies. 56 references.

Hunt, J.W.; Hobday, D.K.

1984-01-01

18

Combined tide and wave influence on sedimentation of Lower Gondwana coal measures of central India: Barakar Formation (Permian), Satpura basin  

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The coal-bearing Barakar succession of the Satpura basin is typical of the Gondwanan coal basins of peninsular India, in that it has previously been interpreted as continental in origin. The succession comprises three main facies associations, which are documented within this paper. Medium- to fine-grained muddy sandstone deposits of 5-75 m thickness are reinterpreted as tidally influenced delta deposits. Mudstone deposits of 3-20 m thickness with subordinate sandstones, coals and carbonaceous shales are reinterpreted as delta top deposits, and medium to coarse sandstones of 3-38 m thickness are interpreted as braided delta-top channels. The evidence for tidal influence arises from documentation of bidirectional cross-strata, tidal bundles, tidal rhythmites and periodic variation in foreset thickness. The recognition of tidal deposits indicates marine depositional conditions and significantly changes existing palaeogeographical models. This in turn has important implications for our understanding of the depositional setting and distribution of the Permian coals that occur across much of the southern supercontinent. Furthermore, coal-bearing tidal-delta deposits have not previously been described from continental interior basins.

Ghosh, S.K.; Chakraborty, C.; Chakraborty, T. [Indian State Inst., Calcutta (India). Geological Studies Unit

2004-01-01

19

Organic petrology, thermal maturity, geology, and petroleum source rock potential of Lower Permian coal, Karoo supersystem, Zambia  

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This paper reports on data concerning organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Karoo coal measures (Lower Permian) which are of considerable importance in determining the hydrocarbon potential of sediments in the rift-valley and half-graben complexes of the Luangwa and Zambezi valleys of eastern and southern Zambia, respectively, and in the extensive sedimentary basin developed on relatively stable Precambrian basement in western Zambia, a total area in excess of 3000 km{sup 2}. Samples from seven outcrop and subsurface localities situated in the northeast (northern Luangwa Valley), east (mid-Luangwa Valley), south (mid-Zambezi Valley), and the Western Province of Zambia were studied. The coal measures are from 9 to 280 m thick, but individual coal seams are generally less than 6 m. The coal macerals contain an average of 60% vitrinite and 9% liptinite, enough to have potential to generate hydrocarbon. A few samples contain twice this amount of liptinite. Reflected-light microscopy and the thermal alteration index of spores were used to determine the thermal maturity. The organic matter in samples studied is within the oil generation zone (thermal alteration index 2{minus} to 2+; %R{sub 0} max = 0.5-0.9). The petrological and palynological data indicate that the organic matter consists of Types II (generally approximately 25% in carbonaceous shale samples), III, and IV, indicating source rock potential. Late Karoo ( ) and post-Karoo fault blocks with differential vertical displacements may have produced structural traps suitable for oil and gas accumulation.

Utting, J. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada)); Wielens, H. (Unocal Canada Exploration Ltd., 150 6th Av. SW, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

1992-10-01

20

Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota) from a Middle Permian Permineralised Peat within the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

The fossil record of Peronosporomycetes (water moulds) is rather sparse, though their distinctive ornamentation means they are probably better reported than some true fungal groups. Here we describe a rare Palaeozoic occurrence of this group from a Guadalupian (Middle Permian) silicified peat deposit in the Bainmedart Coal Measures, Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. Specimens are numerous and comprise two morphologically distinct kinds of ornamented oogonia, of which some are attached to hyphae by a septum. Combresomyces caespitosus sp. nov. consists of spherical oogonia bearing densely spaced, long, hollow, slender, conical papillae with multiple sharply pointed, strongly divergent, apical branches that commonly form a pseudoreticulate pattern under optical microscopy. The oogonia are attached to a parental hypha by a short truncated stalk with a single septum. Combresomyces rarus sp. nov. consists of spherical oogonia bearing widely spaced, hollow, broad, conical papillae that terminate in a single bifurcation producing a pair of acutely divergent sharply pointed branches. The oogonium bears a short truncate extension where it attaches to the parental hypha. We propose that similarities in oogonium shape, size, spine morphology and hyphal attachment between the Permian forms from the Prince Charles Mountains and other reported Peronosporomycetes from Devonian to Triassic strata at widely separated localities elsewhere in the world delimit an extinct but once cosmopolitan Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic branch of the peronosporomycete clade. We name this order Combresomycetales and note that it played an important role in late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic peatland ecosystems worldwide.

Slater, Ben J.; McLoughlin, Stephen; Hilton, Jason

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the predominance of quartz and kaolinite (also pyrite). Gypsum, gibbsite, jarosite and calcite were also identified in some samples. Feldspar was noted but is rare. The major element distribution in the three seams (coal basis) is dominated by SiO{sub 2} (31.3 wt.%, mean value), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (14.5 wt.%, mean value) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (6.9 wt.%, mean value). Considering the concentrations of trace elements that are of potential environmental hazards the Barro Branco, Bonito and Irapua seams (coal base) are significantly enriched in Co (15.7 ppm), Cr (54.5 ppm), Li (59.3 ppm), Mn (150.4 ppm), Pb (58.0 ppm) and V (99.6 ppm), when compared to average trace elements contents reported for U. S. coals. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified, based on similarity levels, three groups of major elements and seven groups of trace elements. Applying discriminant analyses using trace and major element distribution, it could be demonstrated that the three seams from Santa Catarina show distinct populations in the discriminant analyses plots, and also differ from the coals of Rio Grande do Sul analyzed in a previous study. (author)

Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

2010-12-01

22

Occurrence and origin of minerals in a chamosite-bearing coal of Late Permian age, Zhaotong, Yunnan, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The minerals found in the no. 5 coal (Late Permian) from the Zhaotong Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been examined and found to consist mainly of kaolinite, pyrite, chamosite, quartz, and calcite, with trace amounts of illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite. The proportion of chamosite in clay minerals ranges from 32 to 56 wt%, with an average of 46 wt%. Chamosite is distributed not only in collodetrinite, but also occurs as cell fillings in fusinite, semifusinite, and telinite. The high content and mode of occurrence of chamosite in this mine indicate its formation by interaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. Except for a minor amount of terrigenous quartz, most quartz is of authigenic origin and formed from kaolinite desilication. The calcite content of the no. 5 coal is 1.4-6.3% (with an average of 3%) and is distributed in collodetrinite and as cell fillings of coal-forming plants. Calcite originated from seawater invasion during peat accumulation. Pyrite occurs in several ways: as massive, framboidal, isolated enhedral/anhedral, and euhedral forms. In addition, the presence of a large amount of pyritized red algae provides strong evidence of seawater invasion during peat accumulation. The red algae may have played an important role in the enrichment of sulfur in the coal. The characteristic assemblage of minerals in this mine resulted from a unique basinal environment in which the mineral matter was derived from a basaltic source region, volcanic activity, and seawater transgression during coal formation.

Dai, S.; Chou, C.L. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

2007-08-15

23

Petrography and depositional environments of the Permian coal deposits of Deoghar basin, Bihar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt has been made to carry out the petrographic characterization of coals from the Deoghar basin and to reconstruct the palaeo environmental conditions of coal formation using macerals and microlithotypes as tools. For this purpose, a large number of pillar coal samples from the Karharbari and Barakar seams were collected and were subjected to detailed petrographic examination. The results indicate that the Karharbari coals are rich in inertinite while the Barakar coals are comparatively rich in vitrinite. The rank of Deoghar coals (as per ASTM system), on the basis of the mean of random vitrinite reflectance, has been found to range between Sub-Bituminous 'B' and High Volatile 'C' Bituminous. The quantitative relationships of macerals, microlithotypes and mineral matter show that these coals have originated from the transitional plant communities in open to forest moor and under limno-telmatic to limnic conditions. Moreover, the Karharbari coals have evolved under oxic moor conditions with sudden high flooding while the Barakar coals have evolved under comparatively wet moor conditions with intermittent moderate to high flooding. Low values of TPI and GI indicate periodic dryness in the basin. This contention is supported by the dominance of inertodetrinite, particularly in the coals of Karharbari Formation.

Singh, M.P.; Singh, P.K.; Singh, A.K. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Geology

2003-04-01

24

Volcanically induced environmental change at the Permian–Triassic boundary (Xiakou, Hubei Province, South China): Related to West Siberian coal-field methane releases?  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed geochemical investigation of the Permian–Triassic boundary in a carbonate-ramp setting at Xiakou, South China, provides new insights regarding the role of volcanism in the largest mass extinction in Earth history. The Xiakou section records 9 intervals of volcanic activity, some producing up to 25-cm-thick composite ash layers, during the latest Permian and earliest Triassic. Each volcanic episode coincided with major changes in marine environments. The largest changes occurred in conjunction with volcanic interval VI-4, correlative with the latest Permian mass extinction, during which (1) the oceanic oxygen-minimum zone expanded (as shown by framboidal pyrite flux), (2) marine productivity declined sharply (as shown by multiple productivity proxies), and (3) climate conditions became more humid (as shown by increased clay fluxes). The mechanism by which volcanic eruptions forced marine environmental changes may be inferred from the relationship between ash layer thickness and the magnitude of the associated negative C-isotope excursion. The most likely connection is through volcanogenic methane release to the atmosphere, possibly as a result of magmatic intrusions into the West Siberian Coal Basin, triggering increases in global temperature and humidity. These climate changes in turn resulted in stronger oceanic stratification, oxygen-minimum zone expansion, and a decline in marine productivity. The Xiakou section is important in demonstrating links between volcanism and the marine environment during the Permian–Triassic transition interval.

Shen, Jun; Algeo, Thomas J.; Feng, Qinglai; Zhou, Lian; Feng, Lanping; Zhang, Ning; Huang, Junhua

2013-10-01

25

Petrographic characterization and evolution of the Permian coal deposits of the Rajmahal Basin, Bihar, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lower Gondwana rocks are exposed as narrow bands and discontinuous patches along the western edges of the Rajmahal Hills covering a large area of the Bengal Basin, North Bengal and Purnea. Two coalfields - Hura and Chuperbhita - have productive coal mines. Pillar coal samples from the working coal seams of Hura and Chuperbhita coalfields were collected and subjected to a detailed petrographic and geochemical study using refined procedures on a large number of samples. The results of the micropetrographic study reveal that the Rajmahal coals are rich in liptinite and inertinite contents. The fluorescence microscopy indicates that a major part, identified as argillaceous mineral matter under white incident light, is composed of liptinite macerals such as bituminite, fluorinite and exsudatinite. The volatile matter and reflectance suggest these coals are subbituminous to high volatile bituminous B/C in rank. The quantitative relationships among maceral and microlithotype suggest that these coals were deposited in limnic to limno-telmatic conditions under very wet conditions that resulted from undisturbed peat that developed in situ along with subaquatic (limnic) sedimentation in swampy lakes. Further, the GI and TPI values indicate that the Hura coals were formed under oxic moor conditions with sudden episodes of flooding, while the Chuperbhita coals have originated in wet moors with intermittent moderate to high flooding. In addition, GI values suggest the formation of these coals in an upper delta/alluvial valley with braided plains. 33 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Singh, M.P.; Singh, P.K. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

1996-01-01

26

Petrology of the Permian coal, Cardiff Sub-basin, Collie Basin, Western Australia. [Australia - Western Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coal types and maceral composition of coal from the Cardiff Sub-basin, and the plant fossils in the interseam sediments reflect the formation of peat from woody vegetation (pteridophytes). The higher content of inertodetrinite represents fluctuating water table in the water logged ecosystems. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Sappal, K.K. (Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia))

1989-10-01

27

Comparison of hydrocarbon gases (C1–C5) production from Carboniferous Donets (Ukraine) and Cretaceous Sabinas (Mexico) coals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

9 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables.-- Available online Dec 23, 2007. , The main purpose of this contribution is to compare the ability of Carboniferous coals from the Donets Basin of the Ukraine and Cretaceous coal from the Sabinas Basin of the Mexico to generate hydrocarbon gases (C1–C5). Two bituminous coa...

Alsaab, D.; Elie, M.; Izart, A.; Sachsenhoferb, R. F.; Privalov, V. A.; Suárez Ruíz, Isabel; Martinez, L.

28

Studies on char morphology in relation to petrographic characteristics of some Permian coals of India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chars from four overall raw coal samples are obtained by devolatilising them at 900{sup o}C in a controlled condition. The char morphology study and pore size measurements are carried out, using reflected light optical microscopy.

Nandita Choudhury; S.G. Chaudhuri; C.C. Chakraborty; P. Boral

2004-04-01

29

Anatomically preserved lepidodendralean plants from Lower Permian coal balls of northern China: Achlamydocarpon intermedium sp nov.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lepidodendralean lycopsids, a dominant component in Late Palaeozoic wetland plant communities, possess a diversity of reproductive structures that are primarily known from the Late Palaeozoic floras of Europe and North America. Here we document an anatomically preserved lepidodendralean lycopsid sporophyll with attached megasporangium from the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation in Shanxi Province, northern China. The sporophyll has a pedicel onto which the sporangium is attached, and the sporangium is dorsiventrally flattened, proximally dehiscent and longitudinal ridged. The megasporangial wall comprises three zones: an outer uniseriate layer of columnar cells, a middle layer 1-3 cells thick comprising isodiametric parenchymatous cells, and an inner zone 1-3 cells thick of thick-walled cells. The vascular system comprises a single xylem strand surrounded by zone of parenchyma that continues through the pedicel into the lamina. Within the megasporangium a single functional megaspore and three abortive megaspores occur. Features of this specimen conform to Achlamydocarpon Schumacher-Lambry, and comparisons with other species show it shares similarities with A. takhtajanii (Sni.) Schumacher-Lambry and A. varius Taylor and Brack-Hanes. Although the morphology and anatomy of the specimen we describe overlaps with these two species, it is distinct from both leading to the erection of the new species A. intermedium sp. nov. The evolutionary significance of A. intermedium sp. nov. and the identity of its parent plant are considered, and the status and systematic position of 'Oriental lepidophytes' from the Cathaysian floras are discussed.

Zhou, Y.L.; Wang, S.J.; Hilton, J.; Tian, B.L. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

2008-06-15

30

Petrographic characteristics and depositional conditions of Permian coals of Pench, Kanhan, and Tawa Valley Coalfields of Satpura Basin, Madhya Pradesh, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper attempts to characterize the coals of Satpura Gondwana basin using a large number of pillar coal samples drawn from the working coal mines of Pench, Kanhan, and Tawa (Pathakhera) Valley Coalfields of this basin. This westernmost Gondwana basin of Peninsular India is graben/half-graben type and occupies an area of 12000 km{sup 2} with sedimentary fills (>5000 m) ranging in age from Permian to Cretaceous. The Barakar Formation (Permian) is exclusively coal-bearing with a total coal reserve of nearly 2000 Mt. The results show that the coals of this basin are equally rich in inertinite (22.8-58.7%, 24.5-62.0% mmf basis) and vitrinite (24.4-52.4%, 24.4-56.0% mmf basis). The concentration of liptinite ranges from 8.8% to 23.2% (9.0-26.0% mmf basis). The dominant microlithotypes of these coals are inertite and vitrite with comparatively low concentrations of vitrinertite and clarite. The vitrinite reflectance (Rom% values) suggests that the Pench Valley (0.30-0.58%) coals are subbituminous C to high volatile C bituminous in rank, while the Kanhan and Tawa Valley coals (0.52-0.92%) are subbituminous A to high volatile A bituminous in rank. The localized enhancement of rank in the latter two basins has been attributed to the extraneous heat flow from deep-seated igneous intrusions in the basin. The microlithotype composition of these coals is suggestive of their evolution in limno-telmatic zones, under fluvio-lacustrine control with the development of upper deltaic and lower deltaic conditions near the fresh water lacustrines. The floral input is characteristic of forest swamps with intermittent floods, leading to the development of reed moor and open moor facies, particularly in the Pench Valley basin. The Gelification Index (GI) and Tissue Preservation Index (TPI) are suggestive of terrestrial origin with high tree density. Further, moderately high GI and exceedingly high telovitrinite based TPI along with high ash content, particularly for the coals of Kanhan and Tawa Valley Coalfields, are indicative of the recurrence of drier conditions in the forested swamps. Furthermore, lateral variation in TPI values is indicative of increase in the rate of subsidence vis-a-vis depth of the basin from east to west (Pench to Tawa Valley Coalfield). The Ground Water Index (GWI) suggests that these coals have evolved in mires under ombotrophic to mesotrophic hydrological conditions. The Vegetation Index (VI) values are indicative of the dominance of herbaceous plants in the formation of Pench Valley coals and comparatively better forest input in the formation of Kanhan and Tawa Valley coals.

Singh, Mahendra P.; Shukla, R. Rakesh [Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- 221 005 (India)

2004-08-10

31

Petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 1. Santa Terezinha, Leao-Butia and Candiota Coalfields, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper presents results on petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization in Permian coal-bearing strata from the Parana Basin, southern Brazil. Sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that peat accumulation in Permian time was closely linked to transgressive/regressive cycles, with peat accumulation occurring in a predominantly back barrier/lagoonal setting. Coal petrographic analysis indicates subbituminous coals at Candiota and Leao-Butia and high volatile bituminous coals at Santa Terezinha, where locally the coal seams are thermally altered by volcanic intrusions. Petrographic composition is highly variable, with seams at Candiota and Santa Terezinha frequently enriched in inertinite. Chemical analyses indicate that all coals are mineral matter-rich (mean 49.09 wt.%), with SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dominating as determined by ICP-AES. Quartz is also the predominant mineral detected by X-ray diffraction, where it is associated with feldspar, kaolinite and hematite and iron-rich carbonates. The results from Scanning Electron Microscopy are broadly consistent with the bulk chemical and mineralogical analysis. Quartz and clays are common in all samples analyzed. Other minerals observed were, amongst others, carbonates (calcite, siderite, ankerite), pyrite, monazite, kaolinite, barite, sphalerite, rutile and quartz of volcanic origin. The distribution of trace elements is well within the range typical for coal basins of other areas despite the fact that the Parana Basin coals are very high in ash yields. The average concentrations for elements of environmental concern (As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn) are similar to or less than the mean values for U.S. coal. However, considered on an equal energy basis, Parana Basin coals will produce in combustion 5 to 10 times the amount of most elements compared to an equal weight US coal. Concentrations of major and trace elements, such as Fe, B and S, appear to be controlled by depositional setting, with increasing values in coal seams overlain by brackish/marine strata. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified three groups of major minerals and seven groups of trace elements based on similarity levels. On a regional scale, the coalfields can be separated by the differences in rank (Candiota and Leao-Butia versus Santa Terezinha) and by applying discriminant analysis based on 4 trace elements (Li, As, Sr, Sb). Highest Rb and Sr values occur at Candiota and are linked to syngenetic volcanism of the area, whereas high Y and Sr values at Santa Terezinha can be related to the frequent diabase intrusions in that area. (author)

Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Kern, M.; Mexias, A.; Silva, M.B. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Machado, G. [Instituto de Quimica, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin-Geoinformatik-Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

2006-08-01

32

Late Permian global coal hiatus linked to {sup 13}C depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere during the final consolidation of Pangea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a time when all continents were finally arrayed in their Pangea supercontinental configuration (250 {+-} 50 Ma), Earth`s stratigraphy records a global and very abrupt coal discontinuity. From the Tartarian stage of the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic, reduced coal productivity and/or preservation overlaps with a period of anomalous oceanic and atmospheric decrease in {sup 13}C, as recorded in marine carbonates and organic matter, and terrestrial plant and animal fossils from the Northern and Southern hemispheres. During the same short period, the peripheral margin of the entire supercontinent Pangea, except for the southern shores of Tethys, was effectively under compressive stress. This unique tectonic state caused deformation and uplift of coal-bearing foreland basins and oxidation of Pangea`s vast peat deposits. The latter resulted in a rapid, massive {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere, which in turn may have forced global warming.

Faure, K.; Dewit, M.J.; Willis, J.P. [University of Cape Town, Rondesbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Geological sciences

1995-06-01

33

Petrographic characteristics and palaeoenvironment of the Permian coal resources of the Barapukuria and Dighipara Basins, Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven coal samples from the Barapukuria and Dighipara Coal Basins of Bangladesh were analysed for their maceral content, petrographic characteristics and vitrinite reflectance. The most predominant maceral was the inertinite group (mean 40%), followed by vitrinite (mean 31%) and liptinite (mean 22%), with considerable amounts of mineral matter (mean 7%). Semifusinite, fusinite and inertodetrinite were the most common macerals of the inertinite group. Collotelinite, collodetrinite and vitrodetrinite were the most frequently found macerals of the vitrinite group, while sporinite and cutinite were the most common in the liptinite group. Clay minerals occurred in higher concentrations than other minerals. The measured vitrinite reflectance values (%Ro) ranged from 0.71 to 0.80, indicating a high volatile bituminous B ranking.Facies modelling using maceral composition and maceral indices suggested an environment of forest swamps with alternating oxic-anoxic depositional conditions. Microlithotype-dependent depositional modelling indicated evolution in limno-telmatic zones under fluvio-lacustrine control, accompanied by the development of upper to lower deltaic plain conditions. A terrestrial origin with dry forest to piedmont plain conditions was suggested by the Gelification Index (GI) and Tissue Preservation Index (TPI). The lateral variation of the measured TPI values indicated an increase in the rate of basin subsidence. A cross-plot of the Ground Water Index (GWI) vs. the Vegetation Index (VI) suggested mires under ombotrophic to mesotrophic hydrogeological conditions containing herbaceous plants.

Farhaduzzaman, Md.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Islam, Md. Aminul

2013-03-01

34

Carboniferous and Permian stratigraphy in Guizhou  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A guide book prepared for Excursion 5 to southern Guizhou during the 11 International Congress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology. The excursion was aimed at examining some type sections of Carboniferous and Lower Permian, including the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary and the Carboniferous-Permian boundary. Mineral deposits of great economic significance are bauxite, manganese and coal.

Wei Jiayong; Xiao Weimin; Wang Hongdi; Dong Wenlan; Feng Rulin; Wu Xianghe; Zheng Shufang

1987-01-01

35

Non-hydrocarbon components of Carboniferous-sourced gas in the southern Permian basin, northwest Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural gas sourced from Carboniferous coal-bearing strata is produced from Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic reservoirs in the Southern Permian Basin in northwest Europe. The composition of this gas has been reviewed.

Gras, R.; Clayton, C.J. [Schlumberger Geoquest, Montrouge (France). Africa Mediterranean Region

1998-05-01

36

Depositional record of tidal-flat sedimentation in the Permian coal measures of Central India: Barakar Formation, Mohpani coalfield, Satpura Gondwana basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Permian Barakar Formation in the Mohpani coalfield, Satpura Gondwana basin, is composed of three broad lithologies that occur repetitively and are iterdigitated: (1) several metres thick coarse- to medium-grained sandstone bodies with scoured bases, (2) 5-20 m thick medium- to fine-grained sandstone bodies and (3) 5-20 m thick mudstone-dominated packages with variable proportions of centimetre- to decimetre-scale, fine- to medium-grained sandstone, carbonaceous shale and coal. The Barakar strata were previously interpreted as deposits of braided rivers and associated inter-channel flood basin in a continental setting. However, this study recognizes signatures of tidal current from the mudstone-dominated packages implying marine influence during Barakar sedimentation. The mudstone-dominated sediment bodies are the focus of this paper and comprise of three lithofacies that bear imprints of tidal processes during Barakar sedimentation: (1) heterolith, (2) sandstone, and (3) coal-carbonaceous shale, which alternate with one another within individual bodies. The coal-carbonaceous shale facies represent supratidal marsh environment.

Chakraborty, C.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chakraborty, T. [Indian State Institute, Kolkata (India). Geological Studies Unit

2003-10-01

37

Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were recognized early on to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. Different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, throughout the region represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are not found in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in large numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

Fontaine, H.

2002-07-01

38

XII international congress on Carboniferous and Permian geology and stratigraphy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contains abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 12th international congress. Various aspects of Carboniferous and Permian geology and stratigraphy throughout the world are covered, including coal seams and oil shales.

1991-01-01

39

Implications of variations in petrography on the aliphatic hydrocarbon composition within the Barrett Coal Member, Upper Permian Wittingham Coal Measures, northern Sydney Basin, New South Wales (NSW), Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed petrographic analyses revealed cycles of peat formation defined by the relationship between vitrinite and inertinite. These cycles also correspond to coal plies that are separated invariably by dirtbands. The petrographic cyclicity of the Barrett coal is also manifested by a stratigraphic cyclicity in the biomarker composition of the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. A delta-plain depositional setting is suggested for this coal. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Casareo, F.E.; Batts, B.D.; Conaghan, P.J.; George, S.C.; Jardine, D.R. [Macquarie University, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

1995-12-31

40

Studies on brown coal liquefaction. 14. ; Behavior of chlorine in brown coal during liquefaction. Kattan ekika hanno no kenkyu. 14. ; Kattanchu no C1 no hanno kyodo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to elucidate production behavior of sodium chloride in from a preheater to a reactor in a 50t/d brown coal liquefaction pilot plant built in Australia, an autoclave disposed with an image furnace capable of fast temperature raising was used to perform liquefaction reaction to discuss reaction behavior of chlorine in brown coal during the initial state of the liquefaction. Dried Yallourn brown coal that h been used in the pilot plant operation was used for the experiment. The solvent was the equilibrium solvent obtained from the pilot plant, and the catalysts were iron oxide, iron ores produced in, Robe River and natural pyrite. Yallourn coal contains chlorine at about 640 ppm and sodium at 520 ppm, with about 90 % of the chlorine being insoluble to water, and about 80 % of the sodium being soluble to water. Most of the chlorine contained in Yallourn coal is organic chlorine. It was made clear that about 90% of the water-insoluble chlorine has been changed soluble to water after the liquefaction (350[degree]C for 10 minutes, with conversion at 45%), which is considered because NaCl is produced from chlorine compounds and sodium compounds in the brown coal during the initial stage of the liquefaction process. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kaneko, T.; Tazawa, K. (Mitsubishi Kasei Co., Tokyo (Japan)); Kageyama, Y. (Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1992-11-05

 
 
 
 
41

Permian chronostratigraphy in Kansas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Correlations between the type Permian System of Russia and North American strata have been difficult for decades because of biostratigraphic and nomenclatural confusion. Consequently, a standard Permian section was established in west Texas that is widely accepted throughout North America. Series of the North American standard section are, in ascending order, Wolfcampian, Leonardian, Guadalupian, and Ochoan. This nomenclature was adopted for usage in Kansas in 1951, but was later abandoned in favor of local terminology. However, direct biostratigraphic correlations between Kansas and the west Texas standard section have now been firmly established, and local chronostratigraphic names, i.e., Big Blue, Lyon, Geary, Cimarron, and Custer, have not been widely accepted. The Kansas Geological Survey has now readopted usage of the Wolfcampian Series for rocks of the Admire, Council Grove, and Chase Groups; the Leonardian Series for rocks of the Summer and Nippewalla Groups; and the Guadalupian Series for rocks of the Whitehorse, Day Creek, and Big Basin Formations. The Wolfcampian Series in Kansas (and elsewhere in North America) contains post-Virgilian (latest Carboniferous) strata that predate the classical Permian System of the Russian type section. Consequently, the Pennsylvanian/Permian boundary will probably have to be raised stratigraphically to conform to global usage.

Baars, D.L. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (USA))

1990-08-01

42

Permian and uranium metallogeny  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In Europe, many uranium deposits are of Permian age and the following models are discussed: (1) Formation of uranium deposits during the Permian. Many granite-associated uranium deposits in France, Portugal and Czechoslovakia are dated at between 290 and 260 Ma. Stable isotopic data have shown that sedimentary formation waters and meteoric waters are important in the mineralisation process. (2) Uranium preconcentration during the Permian. Sedimentation is favourable to uranium concentration, especially in organic-rich environments. The presence of zirconium in pitchblende indicates leaching of cinerites during the mineralisation process. (3) Formation of uranium deposits in the Permian host rocks. Two major periods (170-185 Ma and 100-110 Ma) were identified that correspond to phases of extension related to oceanic openings. For the 180 Ma mineralisation, the role of sedimentary brines has been demonstrated. Some mineralisation of Alpine age are also known. (4) Spatial association of uranium deposits with Permian formations. The Mullenbach uranium deposit (FRG) located in Upper Carboniferous sediments beneath sediments of Permian age has been dated at 240 Ma. This corresponds to the tectonic phase between the Permian and the Triassic periods. Fluid circulation along a vertical redox front (oxidised Permian - reduced Carboniferous) is responsible for the deposition of pitchblende[fr] En Europe, de nombreux gisements d'uranium sont d'age permien et les modeles suivants sont discutes: (1) Formation de gisements d'uranium durant le Permien. De nombreux gisements d'uranium intragranitiques en France mais aussi au Portugal et en Tchecoslovaquie sont dates entre 290 et 260 Ma. Les donnees des isotopes stables ont montre que les eaux de formation des bassins sedimentaires et les eaux meteoriques ont joue un role important dans le processus mineralisateur. (2) Preconcentration d'uranium durant le Permien. La sedimentation est favorable a des preconcentrations d'uranium, en particulier dans les environnements riches en matieres organiques. La presence de zirconium dans la pechblende est interpretee comme l'indice du lessivage des cinerites durant le processus mineralisateur. (3) Formation de gisements d'uranium dans les formations sedimentaires permiennes. Deux periodes majeures sont reconnues (170-185 Ma et 100-110 Ma) qui correspondent a des phases d'extension liees a des ouvertures oceaniques. Pour les mineralisations jurassiques, le role des saumures sedimentaires a ete mis en evidence. Des mineralisations d'age alpin sont egalement connues. (4) Association spatiale de gisements d'uranium avec les formations permiennes. Le gisement d'uranium de Mullenbach (R.F.A.) localise dans des sediments carboniferes immediatement sous des sediments permiens a ete date a 240 Ma. Cet age correspond a la phase tectonique (palatine) entre le Permien et le Trias. La circulation verticale des solutions mineralisatrices le long d'un front redox (Permien oxyde et Carbonifere reduit) est responsable du depot de la pechblende

1990-01-01

43

Early Permian bipedal reptile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 290-million-year-old reptilian skeleton from the Lower Permian (Asselian) of Germany provides evidence of abilities for cursorial bipedal locomotion, employing a parasagittal digitigrade posture. The skeleton is of a small bolosaurid, Eudibamus cursoris, gen. et sp. nov. and confirms the widespread distribution of Bolosauridae across Laurasia during this early stage of amniote evolution. E. cursoris is the oldest known representative of Parareptilia, a major clade of reptiles.

Berman DS; Reisz RR; Scott D; Henrici AC; Sumida SS; Martens T

2000-11-01

44

Early Permian bipedal reptile.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 290-million-year-old reptilian skeleton from the Lower Permian (Asselian) of Germany provides evidence of abilities for cursorial bipedal locomotion, employing a parasagittal digitigrade posture. The skeleton is of a small bolosaurid, Eudibamus cursoris, gen. et sp. nov. and confirms the widespread distribution of Bolosauridae across Laurasia during this early stage of amniote evolution. E. cursoris is the oldest known representative of Parareptilia, a major clade of reptiles. PMID:11062126

Berman, D S; Reisz, R R; Scott, D; Henrici, A C; Sumida, S S; Martens, T

2000-11-01

45

Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The end-Permian mass extinction has been envisaged as the nadir of biodiversity decline due to increasing volcanic gas emissions over some 9 million years. We propose a different tempo and mechanism of extinction because we recognize two separate but geologically abrupt mass extinctions on land, one terminating the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) at 260.4 Ma and a later one ending the Permian Period at 251 Ma. Our evidence comes from new paleobotanical, paleopedological, and carbon isotopic studies of Portal Mountain, Antarctica, and comparable studies in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Extinctions have long been apparent among marine invertebrates at both the end of the Guadalupian and end of the Permian, which were also times of warm-wet greenhouse climatic transients, marked soil erosion, transition from high- to low-sinuosity and braided streams, soil stagnation in wetlands, and profound negative carbon isotope anomalies. Both mass extinctions may have resulted from catastrophic methane outbursts to the atmosphere from coal intruded by feeder dikes to flood basalts, such as the end-Guadalupian Emeishan Basalt and end-Permian Siberian Traps.

Retallack, G.J.; Metzger, C.A.; Greaver, T.; Jahren, A.H.; Smith, R.M.H.; Sheldon, N.D. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

2006-11-15

46

Permian potentiometric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties.

Devary, J.L.

1983-09-01

47

Permian potentiometric analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

1983-01-01

48

Early Permian Pangea `B' to Late Permian Pangea `A'  

Science.gov (United States)

The pre-drift Wegenerian model of Pangea is almost universally accepted, but debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configuration since Ted Irving introduced Pangea 'B' by placing Gondwana farther to the east by ˜3000 km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. New paleomagnetic data from radiometrically dated Early Permian volcanic rocks from parts of Adria that are tectonically coherent with Africa (Gondwana), integrated with published coeval data from Gondwana and Laurasia, again only from igneous rocks, fully support a Pangea 'B' configuration in the Early Permian. The use of paleomagnetic data strictly from igneous rocks excludes artifacts from sedimentary inclination error as a contributing explanation for Pangea 'B'. The ultimate option to reject Pangea 'B' is to abandon the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis by introducing a significant non-dipole (zonal octupole) component in the Late Paleozoic time-averaged geomagnetic field. We demonstrate, however, by using a dataset consisting entirely of paleomagnetic directions with low inclinations from sampling sites confined to one hemisphere from Gondwana as well as Laurasia that the effects of a zonal octupole field contribution would not explain away the paleomagnetic evidence for Pangea 'B' in the Early Permian. We therefore regard the paleomagnetic evidence for an Early Permian Pangea 'B' as robust. The transformation from Pangea 'B' to Pangea 'A' took place during the Permian because Late Permian paleomagnetic data allow a Pangea 'A' configuration. We therefore review geological evidence from the literature in support of an intra-Pangea dextral megashear system. The transformation occurred after the cooling of the Variscan mega-suture and lasted ˜20 Myr. In this interval, the Neotethys Ocean opened between India/Arabia and the Cimmerian microcontinents in the east, while widespread lithospheric wrenching and magmatism took place in the west around the Adriatic promontory. The general distribution of plate boundaries and resulting driving forces are qualitatively consistent with a right-lateral shear couple between Gondwana and Laurasia during the Permian. Transcurrent plate boundaries associated with the Pangea transformation reactivated Variscan shear zones and were subsequently exploited by the opening of western Neotethyan seaways in the Jurassic.

Muttoni, Giovanni; Kent, Dennis V.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Brack, Peter; Abrahamsen, Niels; Gaetani, Maurizio

2003-10-01

49

Influences of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids on the re-distributions and occurrences of associated elements in coal - A case study from the Late Permian coals in the Zhijin coalfield, Guizhou Province, Southern China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The occurrences of associated elements and their genetic factors in the No. 30 coal seam in the Zhijin Coalfield were studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. A microscope photometer system (Leitz MPV-III) was used to observe the characteristics of coal petrology. According to the influence degree by the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids, the organic matter is divided into four types: A, B, C, and D of the hydrothermally-altered organic matter (HAOM). The study shows that the high content of Fe (2.31%) is not from pyrite, but mostly from the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids. The occurrences of the associated elements in the four organic matter types are different. The contents of Fe, Si, and Al are decreasing, but S and Cu are increasing in the order of the HAOM-A, HAOM-B, HAOM-C, and HAOM-D. The losing rate of sulfur in organic matter is 0.35% and the content of Fe taken from the low-temperature hydrothermal fluids into the organic matter is 0.794% during the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids invading the coal seam. The above facts indicate that the low-temperature hydrothermal fluids play a crucial role in the re-distributions and occurrences of associated elements in coal.

Dai, S.F.; Ren, D.Y.; Tang, Y.G.; Shao, L.Y.; Hao, L.M. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China)

2002-07-01

50

Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of coal resources and the factors affecting coal development in the Yukon is provided. There are more than one hundred known occurrences of coal in the Yukon. Efforts have been made to develop deposits in four areas: Division Mountain, southwest of Whitehorse, the Bonnet Plume Basin in the north where the largest reserves are found, and the Rock River area. Information is provided on coal properties, economic issues and markets, competing resources, mining costs, regulatory issues, coal production and use in neighbouring areas, history of coal development, environmental impacts of mining and burning coal, and the estimated cost of coal-fired power. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

51

Species of the medullosan ovule Stephanospermum from the Lopingian (late Permian) floras of China  

Science.gov (United States)

The medullosan pteridosperm ovule Stephanospermum Brongniart is a well-known component of Carboniferous aged coal-ball and siderite nodule floras from North America and Europe but also occurs in the Permian floras of Cathaysia where it is represented by the Lopingian (late Permian) aged species Stephanospermum trunctatum (Li) Wang et al. (2009) from coal-balls in the Wangjiazhai Formation in Southern China. We provide a detailed emendation of S. trunctatum and illustrate it comprehensively for the first time, and document an additional specimen from the Wangjiazhai Formation coal-ball assemblage that we assign to Stephanospermum shuichengensis sp. nov. S. shuichengensis is distinguished from S. trunctatum by the absence of apical teeth in the sclerotesta and non-obovate base. The two species of Stephanospermum from the Wangjiazhai Formation are important as they extend the stratigraphic and geographical range of the genus from the Pennsylvanian of Euramerica into the Lopingian of Southern China, and demonstrate that the genus persisted in wetland, peat forming environments in the run up to the end-Permian mass extinction event. The 44 MY stratigraphic discontinuity between the Euramerican and the Cathaysian species, here named the Stephanospermum gap, leads us to infer that the genus was likely to have occurred in the Pennsylvanian-Permian successions of southern Russia and northern China that are geographically and stratigraphically intermediate to the known occurrences but from which the genus has yet to be discovered. Medullosan pteridosperms appear to have become extinct at or immediately prior to the Permian-Triassic boundary that coincides with the Permo-Trias mass extinction event; although the exact causes of this loss in plant diversity remains unknown, a response to regional climatic drying is likely to have been a contributing factor.

Spencer, Alan R. T.; Wang, Shi-Jun; Dunn, Michael T.; Hilton, Jason

2013-10-01

52

Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general report of the international coal trade. The Chinese coal export is grinding to a halt due to diesel shortage. Japan has settled import deals with Australia and South Africa. Spain has brought forth orders for four new coal power stations; but Denmark has announced that the country is intending to phase out coal as a power station fuel.

1989-03-01

53

Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle to bedding-parallel, have been identified along low-dipping limbs of the folds. They can be recognized due to the high colour contrast between the red-coloured Permian beds and the concentration of calcite veins in the decollements. The development of the structures above described has to be linked to the Alpine compressional tectonics. This interpretation is supported by the good correlation in geometry and orientation between the structures observed in the Permian basin and in southernmost areas of the South Pyrenean Zone, where the deformation is imprinted in Cretaceous to Tertiary rocks. In this regard, the southern border of the Anayet basin, at least in the western part, can be interpreted as a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the Alpine Orogeny. Bixel, F., 1987. Le volcanisme stephano-permien des Pyrenees petrographie, mineralogie, geochimie. Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica 11, 41-55. Gisbert, J., 1984. Las molasas tardihercínicas del Pirineo, in: Geología de España. Libro Jubilar de J. M. Ríos, Comba, J.A. (Ed.), IGME, Madrid, 168-186.

Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

2012-04-01

54

Permian Basin as a radioactive waste repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Permian Basin comprises portions of many structural basins in which halite was deposited close together aerially during the Permian Period of time. It contains at least five areas where salt beds within a formation cumulatively total greater than 200 feet, and are overlain by between 1,000 and 5,000 feet of strata: the Colorado-Kansas, Kansas, Oklahoma-Texas, Clovis and Carlsbad areas. A few other areas within the Permian Basin may contain salt beds collectively greater than 200 feet thick. The Carlsbad area contains a great thickness of salt and covers a very large area. For the Clovis and Oklahoma-Texas areas there is little data available for the Texas portions. The Kansas area has the only halite mines with rooms comparable to those of the proposed waste repository facility. There is little data available for the Colorado-Kansas area, especially for the Colorado portion. The Permian Basin major tectonic elements were formed before deposition of Permian salt beds, and only minor igneous activity and possible fault movement is along the periphery. The greatest seismic activity is associated with the Nemaha Ridge along the northeast side of the Permian Basin, and there is no proven movement, only a suggestion of movement in the form of lineaments to have caused earthquakes. All of the Permian Basin is in zone 1 of Coffman and Cloud (1970) where only distant earthquakes may cause damage to structures; therefore, ground rupture is not anticipated in the Permian Basin during the time that the radioactive waste is dangerous

1975-01-01

55

Coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

2001-01-01

56

High precision radiometric ages from the northern Sydney Basin and their implication for the Permian time interval and sedimentation rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Three pyroclastic samples that bracket the coal-bearing Permian System of the northern Sydney Basin have been dated using the zircon U/Pb and hornblende K/Ar methods. The Matthews Gap Dacitic Tuff Member, situated 170 m below the base of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 309 ± 3 Ma. Its age correlates well with the Paterson Volcanics which suggests that the immediately overlying clastic sediments are equivalent to the Seaham Formation. The Awaba Tuff, which is located 50 m below the top of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 256 ± 4 Ma. An intervening horizon, the Thornton Claystone of the Tomago Coal Measures, gives a best estimate of 266 ± 0.4 Ma. The ages indicate an earlier beginning ? 299 Ma BP), an earlier termination (? 255 Ma BP) and slightly longer duration (44±13 Ma) of the Permian System in the Hunter Valley than previously suggested. Sedimentation rates of ± 65m/Ma, calculated from proximal sequence thicknesses, are only half the rate calculated from the closest maximum thicknesses. Both are considerably lower than previously quoted rates. The estimated time interval of 10 Ma between the Thornton Claystone and the Awaba Tuff is more than twice the length of time previously attributed to accumulation of the combined Tomago and Newcastle Coal Measures. 38 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

1990-01-01

57

Total petroleum systems of the Bonaparte Gulf Basin area, Australia; Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic; Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian; Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province (USGS #3910) of northern Australia contains three important hydrocarbon source-rock intervals. The oldest source-rock interval and associated reservoir rocks is the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system. This petroleum system is located at the southern end of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and includes both onshore and offshore areas within a northwest to southeast trending Paleozoic rift that was initiated in the Devonian. The Milligans Formation is a Carboniferous marine shale that sources accumulations of both oil and gas in Carboniferous and Permian deltaic, marine shelf carbonate, and shallow to deep marine sandstones. The second petroleum system in the Paleozoic rift is the Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian. Source rocks include Lower Permian Keyling Formation delta-plain coals and marginal marine shales combined with Upper Permian Hyland Bay Formation prodelta shales. These source-rock intervals provide gas and condensate for fluvial, deltaic, and shallow marine sandstone reservoirs primarily within several members of the Hyland Bay Formation. The Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian petroleum system is located in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, north of the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system, and may extend northwest under the Vulcan graben sub-basin. The third and youngest petroleum system is the Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic system that is located seaward of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf on the Australian continental shelf, and trends southwest-northeast. Source-rock intervals in the Vulcan graben sub-basin include deltaic mudstones of the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation and organic-rich marine shales of the Upper Jurassic Vulcan Formation and Lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals Formation. These intervals produce gas, oil, and condensate that accumulates in, shallow- to deep-marine sandstone reservoirs of the Challis and Vulcan Formations of Jurassic to Cretaceous age. Organic-rich, marginal marine claystones and coals of the Plover Formation (Lower to Upper Jurassic), combined with marine claystones of the Flamingo Group and Darwin Formation (Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous) comprise the source rocks for the remaining area of the system. These claystones and coals source oil, gas, and condensate accumulations in reservoirs of continental to marine sandstones of the Plover Formation and Flamingo Group. Shales of the regionally distributed Lower Cretaceous Bathurst Island Group and intraformational shales act as seals for hydrocarbons trapped in anticlines and fault blocks, which are the major traps of the province. Production in the Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province began in 1986 using floating production facilities, and had been limited to three offshore fields located in the Vulcan graben sub-basin. Cumulative production from these fields totaled more than 124 million barrels of oil before the facilities were removed after production fell substantially in 1995. Production began in 1998 from three offshore wells in the Zone of Cooperation through floating production facilities. After forty years of exploration, a new infrastructure of pipelines and facilities are planned to tap already discovered offshore reserves and to support additional development.

Bishop, M. G.

1999-01-01

58

Morphological and structural features of tectonic coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Significant differences between normal coal and tectonic coal in both morphology and microstructure were observed when 114 specimens taken from the Upper Permian system in South China and the Perm-Carboniferous system in North China were studied using MPV-3, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance. Optical and microcrystalline properties were observed. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Zhang, Y.G.; Cao, Y.X.; Xie, H.B.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Shanxi Key Lab. of Coal Science and Technology

1999-07-01

59

Distribution of arsenic in southwest coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arsenic content of 297 coal samples which were taken from twenty six Province of China, was analyzed and the distribution of arsenic in China with different geological ages, different coal ranks, different coal-cumulating area was established. The results showed that the coals with moderate and low arsenic content are primary in our country. The average mean of arsenic is 6.4 mg/kg and the geometric mean of arsenic is 3.96 mg/kg. The arsenic content of Chinese coals is low in comparison with coal in the Czech Republic and it is close to the arsenic contents of USA, U.K. and Australian coals. Based on the coal-forming period, arsenic content decreases gradually from Tertiary through Late Triassic, Middle Carboniferous, Early Carboniferous, Early Jurassic, Late Jurassic-early Cretaceous, Middle Jurassic, Late Permian, Late Carboniferous to Early Permian. Based on the coal rank, arsenic content decreases gradually from lignite through fat coal, merger coal, long flame coal, anthracite, lean coal, coking coal to gas coal. But all of them have no notable effect on the arsenic content of coal. 26 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Wang Ming-shi; Zheng Bao-shan; Hu Jun; Li She-hong; Wang Bin-bin [Institute of Geochemistry China Academy of Science, Guiyang (China). State Key Lab of Environmental Geochemistry

2005-06-15

60

Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The coal resources and prospecting techniques of China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most important coal forming periods in China are late Carboniferous-early Permian, late Permian, early Jurassic and early Cretaceous. The article describes the major coal basins, the geological features of coal seams, the distribution of coal rank amongst the various coal fields, and the level of resource exploration. Environmental concerns about coal mining (outlined in the `21st century agenda for China`) are mentioned. Prospecting techniques utilized for China`s coal resources are described - these include the GEORECTEUR PLUS digital seismic data processing system, the GEOQUEST digital data interpreting system, and the Coal Geological Remote Sensing Information System which integrates a Geological Information System with a digital image processing system. International cooperation in the field of exploration and coal fires is mentioned.

Ni Bin [China National Administration of Coal Geology (China)

1996-12-31

62

Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F-T plant development in the U.S. is in the Alaskan oil fields.

Gerald P. Huffman

2000-10-27

63

Paleosalinity of permian nonmarine deposits in antarctica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Argillites of the Permian Mount Glossopteris Formation were analyzed for clay minerals, trace elements, and phosphate paleosalinity. Mainly degraded and stripped illites occur. The determined salinity range, 29 to 33 parts per mille is designated the "paleosalinity signature" of the formation. Analysis of trace elements supports phosphate paleosalinity determinations. Data from Leaia-bearing beds indicate a salinity range of 30 to 31 parts per mille that persisted some 137 years. Subsequent increase to 33 parts per mille corresponded to termination of leaiid occupancy of the area. These findings confirm and extend Nelson's study of phasphate paleosalinity.

Tasch P; Gafford EL

1968-06-01

64

Floras of Australian coal measures with notes on their associated Mesozoic faunas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reconstructing the vegetation of coal swamps and nearby environments is fraught with uncertainty. Ascertaining which plants actually contributed to the coal is never easy and becomes progressively more difficult with increasing geological age. Both palynological and macrofossil evidence is used to reconstruct the vegetation of the Permian and Mesozoic coal deposits in Australia. 129 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Balme, B.E.; Kershaw, A.P.; Webb, J.A. [University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia). Dept. of Geology

1995-05-01

65

Geology of principal Australia coals and coal basins: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bituminous or subbituminous coals are known from nearly all parts of Australia. Those of greatest economic importance today are found in the Permian and Triassic Bowen and Galilee basins of Queensland and the Sydney-Bowen basin of New South Wales, with some coalfields of lesser significance in the Clarence-Moreton basin in Queensland and New South Wales. Structural, sedimentary, and paleobiologic features of the coal-bearing strata and regional trends of various coal characteristics of some of the principal economic or geologically interesting basins and coals are reviewed and illustrated. These include the Hail Creek syncline, Goonyella, Peak Downs, German Creek, Blackwater, Baralaba, Tolmeis and Moura Mines of the Bowen basin. In New South Wales these include the Hunter Valley area Singleton Coal Measures represented by the Foyebrook-Liddell Seam and Ravensworth mines; the Newcastle area; the Ulan Seam of the Goulburn Valley area; the western shelf area and Sydney-Wollongong region represented by the Illawarra (Permian) Coal Measures which are overlain by the thick Triassic Narrabean Series, Hawksbury Sandstone, and Wianamatta Group. A paleobiologic analysis of the thick brown coal sequences in the Yallourn, Latrobe Valley, and Bacchus Marsh areas of Victoria, and the significance of tectonics in the development of these great coal swamps will be reviewed.

Cross, A.T.

1983-09-01

66

Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly rele...

Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.

67

Synecology of lower Permian Qixia Formation in Hunan and Guangxi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fossils found in lower Permian Qixia Formation in Hunan and Guangxi often appear in typical associations. Each of these associations indicates the ecological factors of the environments in which they were formed. This paper describes the organic compositions and ecological character of these associations and discusses their significance in environmental analysis. According to the synecological analysis of these associations, some paleogeographic inferences of Hunan and Guangxi in Lower Permian Qixia stage have been drawn. 7 refs., 8 figs.

Liu, Z. (Xiangtan Mining Institute (China). Geology Department)

1992-06-01

68

THE ENZYMATIC NATURE OF C'1r : CONVERSION OF C'1s TO C'1 ESTERASE AND DIGESTION OF AMINO ACID ESTERS BY C'1r  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human C'1, a macromolecular complex composed of three subunits, is the zymogen for at least two distinct enzymes. Preparations of one subunit, C'1r, functioned as a protease which converted another subunit, C'1s, to C'1 esterase. The conversion of C'1s to C'1 esterase by C'1r was blocked by Liquoid...

Naff, George B.; Ratnoff, Oscar D.

69

Experimental seismic reflection investigation of coal. ESRIC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report outlines work carried out on the application of high resolution seismic techniques to Australian coal exploration and mine development. Specific technical achievements include the systematic evaluation of MINISOSIE profiling methods, the development of novel refraction surveying procedures, assessment of the elastic parameters of Permian coals, a comprehensive study of high resolution VSP techniques, and the adaptation of in-seam seismic methods to meet Australian mining conditions.

King, D.W.; Greenhalgh, S.A.; Philip, G.M.; Mason, I.M.

1985-05-01

70

77 FR 65446 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Control Exemption-Cape Rail, Inc. and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Permian Basin Railways--Control Exemption--Cape Rail, Inc. and Massachusetts Coastal Railroad, LLC...owned subsidiary, Permian Basin Railways (Permian), Cape Rail, Inc. (Cape), P. Christopher Podgurski (Podgurski),...

2012-10-26

71

Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito Formation, Early Permian, Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quiteria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The record in some coal palynofloras of Striadopodocarpites fusus, a component of the Hamiapollenites karrooensis subzone, as defined in the palynostratigraphic framework for the Parana Basin, indicates a Kungurian age for the palynoflora.

Jasper, A.; Menegat, R.; Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; de Souza, P.A. [UNIVATES, Lajeado (Brazil)

2006-07-15

72

Stable carbon and oxygen isotope shifts in Permian seas of West Spitsbergen-Global change or diagenetic artifact?  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed petrographic, cathodoluminescence, electron-microprobe, and isotopic analyses of brachiopod shells from the Permian Kapp Starostin Formation in West Spitsbergen to reevaluate the >9‰ negative shift in ?13C and ?18O values reported in 1989 by M. Gruszczynski, S. Halas, A. Hoffman, and K. Malkowski. The ?13C and ?18O values within shells typically decrease with increasing luminescence, indicating diagenesis. Nonluminescent (NL) shell ?13C and ?18O values are 4.3‰ and 6.2‰ higher, respectively, than those of associated cements and matrix. For the same stratigraphic interval, ?13C and ?18O values of the NL shells are equal to, or substantially greater than, those reported by Gruszczynski et al. For the interval where those authors saw a 10‰ ?13C shift, our mostly NL Spiriferella polaris shells only yield a 1.5‰ shift. Gruszczynski et al. reported a 9‰ ?18O shift, whereas we observe almost none. Our results strongly suggest that the >9‰ isotopic shifts reported in Gruszczynski et al. are diagenetic artifacts. On the other hand, their Kazanian-Tatarian ?13C maximum of 7.5‰ is substantiated by our data. This Late Permian 13C maximum represents the highest spiriferid brachiopod ?13C values in the Phanerozoic and, within stratigraphic uncertainty, correlates with the whole-rock ?13C maximum in East Greenland and northwestern Europe. The ?13C shift may reflect changes in global storage of organic carbon indicated by coal-volume changes in the Late Permian.

Mii, Horng-Sheng; Grossman, Ethan L.; Yancey, Thomas E.

1997-03-01

73

Provenance evolution recorded by fine-grained Permian clastics, central Transantarctic Mountains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During austral summer 1985-1986, the authors collected approximately 310 samples of fine-grained clastics from 24 measured sections in the Permian sequence of the central Transantarctic Mountains. The objective is to extract provenance and paleoclimatic information from these fine-grained sediments, using their mineral and chemical compositions as well as principles established by other workers. Because the Permian sequence in the central Transantarctic Mountains records the transition from a glacial regime (Pagoda Formation), through subaqueous clastic (deltaic) deposits (Mackellar Formation), to fluvial sequences (Fairchild Formation) with coals (Buckley Formation), such an examination promises to provide valuable insight into the timing and nature of this paleoenvironmental change. Samples that have experienced minimal post-depositional alteration have been recognized on the basis of five criteria: presence of kaolinite; low illite crystallinity index, indicating relatively abundant less-ordered illites; low illite polytype parameter, indicting relatively abundant less-ordered (i.e., low temperature) 1Md illites; low vitrinite reflectance value, indicating limited heating of organic components; and high organic carbon content.

Krissek, L.A.; Horner, T.C. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1987-01-01

74

Nest algebras in $c_1$  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we address some basic questions of the Banach space structure of the nest algebras in the trace class; in particular, we study whether any two of them are isomorphic to each other, and show that the nest algebras in the trace class have bases. We construct three non-isomorphic examples of nest algebras in $c_1$; present a new proof of the primarity of $c_1$ (Arazy, [Ar1], [Ar2]), and prove that $K(H)$, and the nest algebras in $B(H)$ are primary.

Arias, A A

1994-01-01

75

Open Descendants at c = 1  

CERN Multimedia

The algebraic construction of open descendants is reviewed and extended. The procedure is applied to c=1 models. Chiral data for the case of extended free boson orbifolds is presented, in the form of fusing and brading matrices for the untwisted sector. For this sector the pentagon and hexagon identities are checked. Some chiral data concerning the mixed and twisted sectors is also presented.

Sousa, N

2005-01-01

76

C1-inhibitor and transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Excessive activation of the protein cascade systems has been associated with post-transplantation inflammatory disorders. There is increasing evidence that complement not only significantly contributes to ischemia/reperfusion injury upon cold storage of the organ but also, although to a different degree, to allograft rejection. Complement activation is most fulminant in hyperacute rejection but seems also to contribute to acute transplant rejection. Therapeutic substitution of appropriate regulators, therefore, appears to be a reasonable approach to reduce undesirable inflammatory reactions in the grafted organ. C1-inhibitor, a multifunctional regulator of the various kinin-generating cascade systems (for review see: E. Hack, chapter in this issue), is frequently reduced in patients suffering from severe inflammatory disorders. Studies applying pathophysiologically relevant animal models of allo- and xenotransplantation as well as promising first clinical results from successful allotransplantation now provide evidence that C1-inhibitor may also serve as an effective means to protect the grafted organ against inflammatory tissue injury. In xenotransplantation, complement inhibition by specific regulators such as C1-inhibitor may help to overcome hyperacute graft rejection. After a brief introduction on the significance of complement to allo- and xenotransplantation the following review will focus on the impact of C1-inhibitor treatment on transplantation-associated inflammatory disorders, where complement contributes to the pathogenesis.

Kirschfink M

2002-09-01

77

Rayn formation, a new name for the permian khuff formation (s. S.) In saudi arabia ????? ????? ? ??? ???? ?????? ???? (?????? ) ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rank of the Khuff Formation (late Carboniferous-late Permian) in Saudi Arabia is raised to group status and it is divided into Unayzah (late Carboniferous-early Permian) and Rayn (middle-late Permian) Formations. The name Rayn Formation is suggested as a new term to replace the Khuff Formation s...

El Nakhal, Hamed A. [???? ???? ??????

78

Paleoenvironments of lacustrine coals - the occurrence of algae in humic coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to previous studies, there is a significant difference in the thickness and number of coal seams from the foredeep and the intermontane coal basins (or basins situated on platforms and cratons). Recent petrographic and geochemical investigations on selected coal samples from foredeep and intermontane basins of Europe (Carboniferous and Tertiary) and South American (Permian) show that the coal seams in each of these coal basins have significant differences in their petrographic and geochemical compositions. Many intermontane coals are characterized by more liptinite than foredeep coals. Fluorescence studies show that up to 75% of the liptinite macerals of these humic coals can be attributed to alginite and/or degradation products of algae. This indicates that generally subaquatic conditions occurred more often in the peats that formed within intermontane basins. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Hagemann, H.W.; Wold, M. (Aachen University of Technology (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle)

1989-06-01

79

The Permian mega floras of Uruguay.A synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Permian megafloras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the microfloral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called ''transition xilotaphofloras'' as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

2007-01-01

80

Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. (Texas Christian Univ., Ft. Worth, TX (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

ON DISCOVERY OF THE GENUS CAULOPTERIS FROM THE LOWER PERMIAN IN WESTERN HENAN,CHINA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Genus Caulopteris represents the fossil imprints remained on the trunk surface of the ferir tree after the fronds fell down .The fern trees are important coal making plants .Their fossil fronds are very wide-spread and abundant in the Late Paleozoic coal-fields .Their relic species still live in Indonesia and Guizhou Province of China?and are designated as the living fossils .It is clear now that almost all of them belong to the Filicopsida such as the genera Asterotheca?Acitheca or Ptychocarpus?Cyathea?etc .This does not rule out a few of them belonging to the Pteridospermopsida. On the contrary?fossils of the scars remained on the trunk surface of the ferir tree are very rare in the world.In China?specialists have only discovered 6 specimens of this kind.One of them was foundby Ha tae ,in 1931 ,from the?Wuhuzui Coal Field of Benxi City?Liaoning Province .The second was discovered from the Kaipin Basin of Hebei Province by Gunthner in 1936 and was known as C. manchuriensis Hatae .The third was found from Daqingshan of Inner Mongolia by Lee in 1963 and erected as a new species C.sinensis.Lee corrected Gunthner' s error and placed the his specimen in thenew species in Lee' s monograph .The fourth was discovered from the Junlian Coal-Field of Sichuan Province ,China and was described by Zhu et al .as C.sichuanensis.The fifth was found from East Hill of Taiyuan City by He et al who published it in their monograph( 1995) :this specimen belongs toC .sinensis Lee .The sixth occurred from the Jurassic?which is not discussed in this paper. At present ,the authors have found another complete specimen belonging to the genus Caulopteris from the Shanxi Formation of the Lower Permian in Shanyuan Village?Dengfeng County?western Henan Province of China .This new species is described as follows:

HeXilin; Sun Banian

1998-01-01

82

Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Charcoal fóssil foi encontrado na Mina do Faxinal, Permiano Inferior, Formação Rio Bonito, na porção sul da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Foram descritos três tipos de lenhos gimnospérmicos picnoxílicos originários de um único nível de tonstein, o que confirma a ocorrência de paleoincêndios vegetacionais nesta área. Uma redução da concentração de charcoal da base para o topo no nível de tonstein indica que a quantidade de combustível diminuiu durante a dep (more) osição, provavelmente devido ao consumo da vegetação existente pelo fogo. A presença de inertinita na camada de carvão, em níveis sobrepostos e sotopostos ao tonstein , indica que incêndios não estavam restritos ao intervalo de deposição da cinza vulcânica. A integração dos novos dados aqui apresentados com outros publicados anteriormente acerca da Mina do Faxinal, demonstra que eventos vulcânicos ocorridos nas áreas circunvizinhas podem ser identificados como potenciais fatores de ignição para os incêndios. A presença de chacoal em sedimentos associados a níveis de carvão em diferentes localidades no Permiano, demonstra que incêndios vegetacionais foram relativamente comuns nos ambientes formadores dos depósitos de carvão da Bacia do Paraná. Abstract in english Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in this area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably (more) due to the consumption of vegetation by the fire. The presence of inertinite in coals overlying and underlying the tonstein layer indicates that fire-events were not restricted to the ash fall interval. The integration of the new data presented in the current study with previously published data for the Faxinal Coalfield demonstrates that volcanic events that occurred in the surrounding areas can be identified as one potential source of ignition for the wildfires. The presence of charcoal in Permian sediments associated with coal levels at different localities demonstrates that wildfires have been relatively common events in the peat-forming environments in which the coal formation took place in the Paraná Basin.

Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B; Machado, Neli T. G

2011-06-01

83

The South African coal industry today  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The South African coal industry has existed since the early nineteenth century, but it is only fairly recently that it has become an important national industry. Eskom and SASOL were important in the early stages of growth, and in the 1970s Witbank coal started to be exported to Japan via the Richards Bay coal terminal. The mining houses control coal production. Coals are Permian in age, those easily mined and prepared are used for exports. Productivity must be improved, as wages are rising. Industrial relations are fairly good, and the relationship with organized labour extends beyond collective bargaining into social and economic issues. The safety record is worse than in the west, although better than in Asia, but improving. Rand coal is one of the three major producers, running a mix of underground and surface mines. Training is given high priority, as are other employee benefits. 17 figs.

Cook, A.B. (Randcoal Limited (South Africa))

1993-01-01

84

Permo-Carboniferous paleogeography and coal accumulation and their tectonic control in the North and South China continental plates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permo-Carboniferous strata in China were controlled by paleogeography, paleoclimate and plate tectonics. The north and south China plates lay on opposite sides of the equator. Their coal deposits differ substantially. In the North coal deposition started in the Middle Carboniferous. By the middle Late Permian, formation shifted from north to south because of uplift to the north. In low northern latitudes, moist tropical climate and geography let Late Carboniferous and earliest Permian peat swamps develop on the northern plain and central regimes. Two thick coal sequences formed between the plain and shore. With northward drift, the plate entered the subtropic arid belt during the Middle Permian. Coal became restricted to the delta plain with an oceanic climate and high watertable. Subduction of the Paleo-Tethys beneath the sourthern margin of North China led to upwarp, and the delta system grew vertically in pace with shoreline fluctuations to the south. Multi-cycle deltaic coals developed. In the South coal formed in the coastal zone of a sea connecting marinal basins influenced by plate-marginal tectonic movements and rifting. Sea-level fluctuations interrupted formation and Early Carboniferous coal formed during short regressions. In the Middle and Late Carboniferous no coal formed. Early Permian coal accumulated to the northeast then in the southwest. In the Late Permian, it was thick and extensive. Coal seam geometry and quality (particularly ash and sulfur) was controlled by geography and depositional environment. Fluctuations in formation were controlled by paleoclimate and sea-level changes, in response to plate-tectonics. 62 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

Guanghua Liu (China University of Geosciences, Beijing (China))

1990-12-01

85

Permian-Triassic mafites of Sette-Daban  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describe the ores which form the Permian-Triassic dike zones of the Southern part of the Sette-Daban fold-blowing structure adjacent to the Siberian platform. The data are presented on K-Ar age of gabbro-diabase dike in the basin of Ariavkan River: the age of plagioclase is 276 ± 1 million years and that of kali feldspar - 222 ± 30 million years. It agrees with potassium - argon dating of mafites with similar compositions in the Northern part of the region. It is shown that the Permian-Triassic dikes can be of interest for the prospecting of the deposits of lead, zinc, phosphates and other minerals. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab,.

1995-01-01

86

Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

The end of the Permian period is marked by global warming and the biggest known mass extinction on Earth. The crisis is commonly attributed to the formation of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province although the causal mechanisms remain disputed. We show that heating of Tunguska Basin sediments by the ascending magma played a key role in triggering the crisis. Our conclusions are based on extensive field work in Siberia in 2004 and 2006. Heating of organic-rich shale and petroleum bearing evaporites around sill intrusions led to greenhouse gas and halocarbon generation in sufficient volumes to cause global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion. Basin scale gas production potential estimates show that metamorphism of organic matter and petroleum could have generated > 100,000 Gt CO2. The gases were released to the end-Permian atmosphere partly through spectacular pipe structures with kilometre-sized craters. Dating of a sill intrusion by the U Pb method shows that the gas release occurred at 252.0 ± 0.4 million years ago, overlapping in time with the end-Permian global warming and mass extinction. Heating experiments to 275 °C on petroleum-bearing rock salt from Siberia suggests that methyl chloride and methyl bromide were significant components of the erupted gases. The results indicate that global warming and ozone depletion were the two main drivers for the end-Permian environmental crisis. We demonstrate that the composition of the heated sedimentary rocks below the flood basalts is the most important factor in controlling whether a Large Igneous Provinces causes an environmental crisis or not. We propose that a similar mechanism could have been responsible for the Triassic-Jurassic (~ 200 Ma) global warming and mass extinction, based on the presence of thick sill intrusions in the evaporite deposits of the Amazon Basin in Brazil.

Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Polozov, Alexander G.; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Corfu, Fernando; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

2009-01-01

87

Spiral-shaped graphoglyptids from an Early Permian intertidal flat  

Science.gov (United States)

Spiral-shaped foraging trace fossils, assigned to the grapho glyptid cf. Spirorhaphe azteca, are reported from an Early Permian intertidal flat in the Robledo Mountains of southern New Mexico, USA. Remarkably similar spiral-shaped structures are produced in modern intertidal flats by the paraonid polychaete Paraonis fulgens, and function as traps to capture mobile microorganisms migrating in the sediment in response to tides. We envisage a similar function for the Early Permian trace fossils. Previous studies have suggested that the lack of P. fulgens type traces from ancient intertidal deposits indicates that such behavior only evolved geologically recently in such settings. However, this report demonstrates that such specialized foraging behavior was present in intertidal settings by at least the Early Permian. Graphoglyptids are typical of deep-marine settings, and characteristic of the Nereites ichnofacies. This represents their first undoubted occurrence in intertidal facies in the geological record. We postulate that the occurrence of graphoglyptids in deep-marine and intertidal settings is related to the predictability of resources. The scarcity of intertidal graphoglyptids in the geological record is most likely a preservational effect.

Minter, Nicholas J.; Buatois, Luis A.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Braddy, Simon J.; Smith, Joshua A.

2006-12-01

88

Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, eastern Nevada: preliminary basin analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) is one of several basins that developed during the Late Pennsylvanian to Permian along the western edge of the North American continent. A tectonic mechanism has been suggested for the subsidence of the DMT, possibly due to reactivation of the Antler orogenic belt during the waning stages of Ancestral Rocky Mountain deformation. The DMT records marked subsidence with the appearance during the Artinskian (latest Wolfcampian) of a deeper water facies that consists of thin-bedded silty micrites and micritic mudstones rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, characterized by a relative abundance of ammonoids, and rarer conodonts and Nereites ichnofacies trace fossils. Taxa recovered from a distinctive concretionary horizon at various locations provide an Artinskian datum on which to palinspastically reconstruct the DMT paleogeography. These taxa include ammonoids: Uraloceras, Medlicottia, Marathonites, Crimites, Metalegoceras, properrinitids; and conodonts: Neogondolella bisselli, Sweetognathus whitei, S. behnkeni, and Diplognathodus stevensi. The western margin facies of the DMT consists of Permian Carbon Ridge/Garden Valley Formations. Here, lowermost black Artinskianage euxinic micrites, considered a potential source rock for petroleum generation, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by a thick, eastwardly prograding conglomerate wedge. Seismic profiles across Diamond Valley indicate a 3.0-4.6-km thick Tertiary sequence above the Paleozoic strata.

Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.

1987-08-01

89

Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale.

Farooqui A; Aggarwal N; Jha N

2013-07-01

90

Trace fossils in coal-bearing sequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past decade trace fossils have been recorded extensively from coal-bearing sediments, differing widely in facies, age and location. Westphalian or Stephanian 'coal-measures' in Britain, Europe and Eastern Canada contain an ichnofauna produced by invertebrates and/or vertebrates in upper delta plain sediments. This contrasts with the marine-related lower delta plain ichnofaunas known from Pennsylvanian rocks of the United States and Permian Gondwana 'coal-measures' of South Africa. Deltaic complexes of Middle Jurassic age in the North Sea basin and Upper Cretaceous age in North America contain marine trace fossils and dinosaur footprints in coastal coal- bearing facies. These case histories illustrate the importance of trace fossils both in facies analysis of coal-bearing sequences and in recording the presence of animals rarely known as body fossils in such clastic sediments. 80 refs., 5 figs.

Pollard, J.E.

1988-03-01

91

Elevated C1rC1sC1inh levels independently predict atherosclerotic coronary heart disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Clinical studies as well as animal models emphasized the importance of the complement system in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to examine the extent and clinical implication of complement system activation in patients with stable atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (ACHD). Seventy-six patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) scheduled for elective coronary angiography were enrolled into the study. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed in 24 patients, in 27 patients (NOPCI group) the coronary angiography showed significant stenosis and bypass surgery (CABG) or optimal medical therapy (OMT) were advised, whereas in 25 patients the coronary angiography was negative (NC group). 115 volunteers served as healthy controls (HC). In all individuals, the plasma level of several complement activation products - C1rC1sC1inh, C3bBbP and SC5b-9 - were determined on admission, strictly before the coronary angiography. In patients with angiographically proven ACHD (PCI and NOPCI groups), the baseline C1rC1sC1inh levels were significantly higher compared to NC group and HC (p<0.0001, for both comparisons). According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, high C1rC1sC1inh level proved to be an independent biomarker of coronary heart disease (p<0.026, OR: 65.3, CI: 1.628-2616.284). CONCLUSION: Activation of the classical complement pathway can be observed in angiographically proven coronary atherosclerosis. Elevated C1rC1sC1inh levels might represent an useful biomarker for coronary artery disease.

Horváth Z; Csuka D; Vargova K; Kovács A; Molnár AÁ; Gulácsi-Bárdos P; Leé S; Varga L; Kiss RG; Préda I; Füst G

2013-05-01

92

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is presented of the world coal industry in 1997, which looks at fuel and energy consumption, coal reserves, coal mining, coal production and trade. Tables are given (by country) for world coal reserves, world coal production, world coal exports, world coal consumption, and coal`s share of primary energy use in 1997. 2 refs., 5 tabs.

Chadwick, J.; Payne, M.

1998-09-01

93

Blair Athol Coal Pty. Ltd. - a company profile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Blair Athol Coal Project is a joint venture managed by Pacific Pty. Ltd. (a wholly owned subsidiary of CRA Ltd.). This paper reviews the mine management, coal extraction, materials transport and handling, and the marketing of the coal. The Blair Athol mine is a large open cut, fuel coal, mine in Central Queensland with a current capacity of 5 million tonnes per year, with the provision for expansion up to 8 million tonnes per year. The type, quality and age of the coal is bituminous, low ash/sulfur and Permian respectively. The coal is transported to the coast by rail to the Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal, a distance of 278 km. The facilities there include stockpiling of over 500,000 tonnes, deep water berths and rapid loading equipment.

1987-06-01

94

C1-inhibitor deficiency and angioedema.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1-inhibitor deficiency can be inherited or acquired; both conditions lead to recurrent angioedema that can be life threatening when the larynx is involved (hereditary angioedema, HAE; acquired angioedema, AAE). The genetic defect is due to the heterozygous deficiency of C1-Inh that is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Mutations causing HAE have been found distributed over all exons and splice sites of C1-Inh structural gene: only a few of them have been found more than once. Depending on DNA defect, C1-Inh is not transcribed, or not translated or not secreted. Finally, in 15% of HAE patients, an antigenically normal, but non-functional C1-Inh is present in serum (HAE type II). C1-Inh deficiency can be acquired, due to an accelerated consumption. Such an accelerated consumption can depend on circulating autoantibodies that bind C1-Inh causing its inactivation and catabolism; or to associated diseases, usually lymphoproliferative diseases, that consume C1-Inh with different mechanisms. Effective therapies can prevent or revert angioedema symptoms in C1-Inh deficiency, the main problem of this condition remaining misdiagnosis. The common knowledge that angioedema is an allergic symptom frequently prevents a correct diagnostic approach: C1-Inh deficiency goes unrecognized and the disease can still be lethal. Correct prophylactic treatment is based on attenuated androgens in HAE and on antifibrinolytic agents in AAE. Life threatening laryngeal attacks and severe abdominal attacks are effectively reverted, in both conditions, with C1-Inh plasma concentrate. A special remark to this treatment should be made for autoantibody-mediated AAE where very high doses can be needed depending on the rate of C1-Inh consumption. PMID:11532278

Carugati, A; Pappalardo, E; Zingale, L C; Cicardi, M

2001-08-01

95

C1-inhibitor deficiency and angioedema.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

C1-inhibitor deficiency can be inherited or acquired; both conditions lead to recurrent angioedema that can be life threatening when the larynx is involved (hereditary angioedema, HAE; acquired angioedema, AAE). The genetic defect is due to the heterozygous deficiency of C1-Inh that is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Mutations causing HAE have been found distributed over all exons and splice sites of C1-Inh structural gene: only a few of them have been found more than once. Depending on DNA defect, C1-Inh is not transcribed, or not translated or not secreted. Finally, in 15% of HAE patients, an antigenically normal, but non-functional C1-Inh is present in serum (HAE type II). C1-Inh deficiency can be acquired, due to an accelerated consumption. Such an accelerated consumption can depend on circulating autoantibodies that bind C1-Inh causing its inactivation and catabolism; or to associated diseases, usually lymphoproliferative diseases, that consume C1-Inh with different mechanisms. Effective therapies can prevent or revert angioedema symptoms in C1-Inh deficiency, the main problem of this condition remaining misdiagnosis. The common knowledge that angioedema is an allergic symptom frequently prevents a correct diagnostic approach: C1-Inh deficiency goes unrecognized and the disease can still be lethal. Correct prophylactic treatment is based on attenuated androgens in HAE and on antifibrinolytic agents in AAE. Life threatening laryngeal attacks and severe abdominal attacks are effectively reverted, in both conditions, with C1-Inh plasma concentrate. A special remark to this treatment should be made for autoantibody-mediated AAE where very high doses can be needed depending on the rate of C1-Inh consumption.

Carugati A; Pappalardo E; Zingale LC; Cicardi M

2001-08-01

96

Organic petrology and geochemistry of coal in the Muja Coal Measures, Collie Basin, Western Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Permian coal in the Muja Coal Measures of Collie Basin of Western Australia has a subdued lustre because of the fine laminations of lithotypes, and the dominance of dull and dull banded lithotypes with minor bright, bright banded and fusinous types. The maceral composition of the coal is variable; however the macerals of vitrinite and inertinite groups dominate and the exinite and mineral matter contents are low. The lithotypes have low concentrations of trace elements and the boron concentration is between 10-100 ppm recorded only from the dull lithotypes. On the basis of organic petrology, the inter-seam sediments, flora and the very low concentration of boron, the depositional environment postulated for the coal is braided, fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine with marked fluctuations in the water table. The low water table in the environment accounts for fusain and inertodetrinite in the coal. 17 refs. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Sappal, K.K. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). School of Applied Geology

1996-12-31

97

A lysorophid amphibian from the Coal Measures of northern England  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description is given of the presacral vertebrae and ribs of a lysorophid amphibian from the Middle Coal Measures (Westphalian B) of Northumberland. The specimen is the earliest lysorophid yet described and is the first certainly identifiable member of the group to be recorded from any horizon outside North America. An isolated presacral vertebrae from an unknown Coal Measures horizon at Low Moor, West Yorkshire, may present additional evidence of lysorophids in the British Carboniferous. Lysorophids appear to have been present in both lacustrine and coal swamp pool environments in the Upper Carboniferous as well as survivng in 'red bed' environments in the Lower Permian in North America.

Boyd, M.J.

1980-12-01

98

Forward stratigraphic modeling of the Permian of the Delaware Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian platform-to-basin strata of the Delaware Basin In west Texas and New Mexico represent one of the world`s most complete, best studied, and most hydrocarbon productive records of this geologic period in the world. This superb marriage of a refined stratigraphic framework and active exploration provided impetus to develop a forward stratigraphic model of this section to better predict the distribution of reservoir and seal relationships. The approximately 30 m.y. interval modeled is composed of 2 km of platform strata and 3 km of basinal strata divided into 8 composite sequences (average 3 m.y. duration) and 45 high-frequency sequences (400 ky m.y. duration). A 130 km dip section through the basin margin Guadalupe/Deleware Mountain outcrop is inversely modeled to derive local tectonic subsidence and a sea level curve for the Permian. In this process, the highest and lowest shoreline positions of each sequence are interpreted based on facies description which are assumed to approximate the highest and lowest relative sea level. A eustatic sea level curve is calculated by restoring these shoreline positions and removing local tectonic subsidence using a polynomial fit to the derived relative sea level curve. The quantitatively constrained curve for the Permian contains 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order 180m. This quantitatively constrained accommodation history (calculated eustatic curve and subsidence history) are input into the PHIL forward modeling program. Model variables of sediment supply are depositional system are adjusted to match known outcrop relations. The resulting model is potentially capable of predicting stratigraphy elsewhere in the basin using only subsidence history data from the inverse model.

Qiucheng, Ye; Kerans, C.; Bowman, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

99

The Himalayan Lopingian Series (Late Permian) in Southern Tibet, China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigations into three Permian-Triassic sections (the Selong Xishan, Qubu and Tulong sections) suggest the widespread distribution of the Lopingian Series (Late Permian) and the continuous Permian-Triassic boundary in southern Tibet. The Lopingian series in southern Tibet is characterized by containing typical Gondwanatype brachiopods such as Taeniothaerus, Fusispirifer, Neospirifer (neopirifer) kubeiensis, Retimarginifera xizangensis and Spiriferella rajah, which suggest a correlation with those known from the upper part of the Wargal and Chhidru Formations in the Salt Range, Pakistan, the Zewan Formation in Kashmir, the Basleo Bed in West Timor, the Senja Formation in Northwest Nepal and the Hardman Formation in Western Australia. According to the occurrences of the conodont Clarkina dukouensis zone in the middle part of the Wargal Formation and the Clarkina longicuspidata zone in the lower part of the Chhidru Formation, and the association with the ammonoid Cyclolobus and the foraminifer Colaniella fauna in the Salt Range, the Selong Group in the Himalayan region, as a whole, is considered to be Lopingian in age. The Himalayan Lopingian Series represents a third-order sequence and can be divided roughly into two different sedimentary types. The Qubu-type Lopingian represents deposits developed in restricted coastal envionments along the northern peri-Gondwana continental margin. The Qubu Formation in the lower part consists mainly of quartzose sandstone interbedde with black shale containing the Glossopteris flora. The Qubuerga Formation in the upper part is composed of a siltstone- and bioclastic limestone-dominated member in the lower part with abundant brachiopods and a shale- and siltstone-dominated member in the upper part with the Atomodesma fauna and abundant terrestrial palynomorphs and acritarchs. The Selong-type Lopingian represents a sequence developed on the inner shelf and is composed of the Selong Group dominated by carbonates with numerous brachipods and a Waagenites bed in the lowest Kangshare Formation.

Shen Shuzhong; Cao Changqun; Wang Xiangdong; Mei Shilong; Jin Yugan

2002-01-01

100

C1 neurons: the body's EMTs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension.

Guyenet PG; Stornetta RL; Bochorishvili G; Depuy SD; Burke PG; Abbott SB

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

C1 neurons: the body's EMTs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension. PMID:23697799

Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Depuy, Seth D; Burke, Peter G R; Abbott, Stephen B G

2013-05-22

102

Palynology of Permian Gondwana sequence of Umrer coalfield, Maharashtra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantitative and qualitative palynological analysis of Early Permian sediments, Umrer Coalfield, Wardha Basin has been carried out. The microspore assemblage consists of 22 genera and 40 species. It is characterized by dominance of radial monosaccates chiefly, Parasacciles and subdominance of non-striate disaccates chiefly, Scheuringipollenites. Presence of Crucisaccites and Caheniasaccites suggests Upper Karharbari (Late Sakmarian-Early Artinskian) affinity. The presence of the Karharbari palynozone has been demarcated in lithologically designated Barakar Formation. The present finding corroborates the earlier studies by Bharadwaj and Anand Prakash (1974).

Jha, N.; Tewari, R.; Rajanikanth, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

2007-04-15

103

Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earth’s history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and po¬tentially into the open ocean realm. These events of¬ten coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing from the Siberian Traps. We measured redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, Cu, U) and the speciation of iron [Fe-HR/Fe-T and Fe-PY/ Fe- HR] in marine sediments from Svalbard (Festningen). We compare these data to additional, new, high-lati-tude data from eastern Greenland and the equatorial Tethys realm in Iran. We show that the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary at Svalbard is marked by 2 phases of euxinic (sulfidic) ocean conditions. An initial short phase at the onset of atmospheric carbon release is separated from a subsequent longer phase by a re¬turn to ferruginous ocean conditions (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland and Iran. It sug¬gests a strongly decreased global ocean molybdenum (and possibly also ocean sulfate) inventory by massive molybdenum drawdown (and possibly pyrite buri¬al) at the onset of end-Permian atmospheric carbon release and leading up to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. We compare these oceanographic changes to similar observations for the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction and discuss environmental forcing, poten¬tially inherent to major volcanic events and leading to global environmental change and extinction.

Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.

104

The late Paleozoic oxygen pulse and accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent geophysical and geochemical data and theoretical modeling indicate high levels of atmospheric O2 (up to 35%) during the Carboniferous-Permian. I suggest that this O2 pulse had a substantial impact on global accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal during this geological period.

PAVLE I. PREMOVIC

2006-01-01

105

Influence of an intrusion on the extent of isomerism in acyclic isoprenoids in the Permian Kupferschiefer of the Lower Rhine Basin, N. W. Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intrusive body near Krefeld, North-West Germany, the so-called Krefeld High, is known to have increased the coalification of the Carboniferous coal seams in the western part of the Ruhr coal mining district. However, no evidence of its influence on the partly overlying Permian sediments has been given to date. Therefore, organic geochemical investigations on the extractable organic matter from 30 core samples of the Permian Kupferschiefer covering an area of about 600km{sup 2} were undertaken. The determination of selected molecular maturation parameters reveals a low average maturation of the Kupferschiefer within the area investigated. Locally varying thermal effects could be measured by the extent of isomerism of pristane and phytane. In an area not affected by the intrusive body the extent of isomerism is shown to be influenced only by the burial depth and by some minor tectonic events. In the proximity of the Krefeld High, the extent of isomerism is significantly higher than expected from the actual burial depth. The extent of pristane and phytane epimerisation have been used to deduce isolines for the characterisation of thermal effects in the area investigated. 32 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Puettmann, W.; Eckhardt, C.B. (Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, Aachen (Germany, F.R.))

1989-01-01

106

Tectono-metamorphic map of the Mont Morion Permian metaintrusives (Mont Morion - Mont Collon - Matterhorn Complex, Dent Blanche Unit), Valpelline - Western Italian Alps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presented map displays the structural and metamorphic evolution of lithotypes from pre-Permian to present. We distinguish pre-Permian rocks (e.g., amphibolite, biotite-bearing gneiss and acid granulite) preserved as roof pendants (i.e., xenoliths) within Permian intrusives. Permian intrusives an...

ZUCALI, MICHELE

107

A potential biomarker for the Permian Triassic ecological crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

A unique biomarker, a C 33n-alkylcyclohexane ( n-heptacosylcyclohexane), which strongly increases in abundance within the extinction interval of the end-Permian ecological crisis, is here reported from the key Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) marine section in Greenland. Prior to this study, this compound had been known from Early Triassic organic-rich marine rocks and oils from the northern Perth Basin, Western Australia for two decades. We have identified the compound in high relative abundance in 29 samples from P-Tr marine sections from two separate paleogeographic localities, from Laurasia and Gondwana. Relative concentrations of the C 33n-alkylcyclohexane show similar changes to the relative abundances of extinct spinose acritarchs ( Veryhachium and Micrhystridium) indicating that the source organism of the C 33n-alkylcyclohexane is associated with the depositional environments/facies in which the acritarchs are identified. These organisms probably formed the cornerstone of the unique marine ecosystem that thrived in the extinction aftermath in the Early Triassic Ocean.

Grice, Kliti; Twitchett, Richard J.; Alexander, Robert; Foster, C. B.; Looy, Cindy

2005-07-01

108

Identification of the C1q-binding Sites of Human C1r and C1s: A REFINED THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF THE C1 COMPLEX OF COMPLEMENT*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The C1 complex of complement is assembled from a recognition protein C1q and C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s, a Ca2+-dependent tetramer of two modular proteases C1r and C1s. Resolution of the x-ray structure of the N-terminal CUB1-epidermal growth factor (EGF) C1s segment has led to a model of the C1q/C1s-C1r-C1r-C...

Bally, Isabelle; Rossi, Véronique; Lunardi, Thomas; Thielens, Nicole M.; Gaboriaud, Christine; Arlaud, Gérard J.

109

Nonuniform hyperbolicity for C^1-generic diffeomorphisms  

CERN Document Server

We study the ergodic theory of non-conservative C^1-generic diffeomorphisms. First, we show that homoclinic classes of arbitrary diffeomorphisms exhibit ergodic measures whose supports coincide with the homoclinic class. Second, we show that generic (for the weak topology) ergodic measures of C^1-generic diffeomorphisms are nonuniformly hyperbolic: they exhibit no zero Lyapunov exponents. Third, we extend a theorem by Sigmund on hyperbolic basic sets: every isolated transitive set L of any C^1-generic diffeomorphism f exhibits many ergodic hyperbolic measures whose supports coincide with the whole set L. In addition, confirming a claim made by R. Man\\'e in 1982, we show that hyperbolic measures whose Oseledets splittings are dominated satisfy Pesin's Stable Manifold Theorem, even if the diffeomorphism is only C^1.

Abdenur, Flavio; Crovisier, Sylvain

2008-01-01

110

The effects of varying tissue preservation on the aliphatic hydrocarbons within a high-volatile bituminous coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed petrographic analyses of the Barrett Coal, an Upper Permian high-volatile bituminous coal in the Hunter Coalfield, Australia, reveal cycles of peat formation defined by the Tissue Preservation Index. These cycles correspond to coal plies that are separated by dirtbands. The petrographic cyclicity is also manifested by a corresponding stratigraphic cyclicity in the biomarker composition of the extracted aliphatic hydrocarbons. The biomarker distributions discussed are syndepositional features of the coal precursor and therefore are controlled by the environmental conditions during the peat accumulation stage and its subsequent coalification. The petrographic and geochemical evidence suggest that the environmental affinity of the Barrett Coal, is that of a delta-plain depositional setting.

Casareo, F.E.; George, S.C.; Batts, B.D.; Conaghan, P.J. [Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

1996-08-01

111

Coal refinement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After an outline of the West German energy situation, principles of coal upgrading, coal combustion, coal gasification processes, the coal gas substitution potential, and the strategic situation of coal gasification are reviewed.

Oehme, H.; Schueller, K.H.

1981-01-01

112

RAGE binds C1q and enhances C1q-mediated phagocytosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RAGE, the multiligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, is implicated in innate and adaptive immunity. Complement component C1q serves roles in complement activation and antibody-independent opsonization. Using soluble forms of RAGE (sRAGE) and RAGE-expressing cells, we determined that RAGE is a native C1q globular domain receptor. Direct C1q-sRAGE interaction was demonstrated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR), with minimum K(d) 5.6 ?M, and stronger binding affinity seen in ELISA-like experiments involving multivalent binding. Pull-down experiments suggested formation of a receptor complex of RAGE and Mac-1 to further enhance affinity for C1q. C1q induced U937 cell adhesion and phagocytosis was inhibited by antibodies to RAGE or Mac-1. These data link C1q and RAGE to the recruitment of leukocytes and phagocytosis of C1q-coated material.

Ma W; Rai V; Hudson BI; Song F; Schmidt AM; Barile GR

2012-01-01

113

RAGE binds C1q and enhances C1q-mediated phagocytosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

RAGE, the multiligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, is implicated in innate and adaptive immunity. Complement component C1q serves roles in complement activation and antibody-independent opsonization. Using soluble forms of RAGE (sRAGE) and RAGE-expressing cells, we determined that RAGE is a native C1q globular domain receptor. Direct C1q-sRAGE interaction was demonstrated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR), with minimum K(d) 5.6 ?M, and stronger binding affinity seen in ELISA-like experiments involving multivalent binding. Pull-down experiments suggested formation of a receptor complex of RAGE and Mac-1 to further enhance affinity for C1q. C1q induced U937 cell adhesion and phagocytosis was inhibited by antibodies to RAGE or Mac-1. These data link C1q and RAGE to the recruitment of leukocytes and phagocytosis of C1q-coated material. PMID:22386596

Ma, Wanchao; Rai, Vivek; Hudson, Barry I; Song, Fei; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Barile, Gaetano R

2012-02-13

114

Coal`s challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenges facing the United States coal industry are explored. Coal and electricity are hand-in-glove. Fifty-seven percent of US electricity generation is coal-fired. For coops and municipal utilities, that figure is closer to 80%. And it is not mere coincidence that the boom in coal-fired electric generation coincides with increased electricity demand and growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). US coal production rose over 9%, last year, to just over one billion tons. Electric utility coal consumption was up 3% at about 835,000,000 tons. That is roughly 80% of US coal production. With only isolated exceptions in western low sulfur fields, delivered prices for coal were stable or in decline. Its price stability and its availability make coal the United States best energy bargain. It is a resource upon which electric utilities and electricity consumers can rely for decades.

Leonard, N.

1995-10-01

115

The Permian-Triassic mass extinction: Ostracods (Crustacea) and microbialites  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian mass extinction (EPE), about 252 Myr ago, eradicated more than 90% of marine species. Following this event, microbial formations colonised the space left vacant after extinction of skeletonised metazoans. These post-extinction microbialites dominated shallow marine environments and were usually considered as devoid of associated fauna. Recently, several fossil groups were discovered together with these deposits and allow discussing the palaeoenvironmental conditions following the EPE. At the very base of the Triassic, abundant Ostracods (Crustacea) are systematically present, only in association with microbialites. Bacterial communities building the microbial mats should have served as an unlimited food supply. Photosynthetic cyanobacteria may also have locally provided oxygen to the supposedly anoxic environment: microbialites would have been refuges in the immediate aftermath of the EPE. Ostracods temporarily disappear together with microbialites during the Griesbachian.

Forel, Marie-Béatrice

2013-04-01

116

A new coil-stemmed camerate crinoid from the Permian of Eastern Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new dichocrinid camerate Neocamptrocrinus is proposed for a number of coiled stem species from the Permian of eastern Australia. As its name reflects, the genus closely resembles Camptrocrinus Wachsmuth and Springer from the Carboniferous of North America.

Willink, R.J.

1980-01-01

117

Modular transformations of c ? 1 Virasoro characters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the action of the modular group on the unitary Virasoro characters when c?1. In the case of a discrete distribution of primary fields, the characters cannot transform linearly unless pathological convergence properties are allowed. In the continuous case, a unique linear transformation exists, but the vacuum character falls outside the transformed spectrum except at c=1; in this case we explicitly construct a continuous modular-invariant partition function, identified with that of a free uncompactified boson. We discuss possible physical implications of our findings. (orig.).

1990-01-01

118

On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections

2004-10-25

119

On Orientifolds of c=1 Orbifolds  

CERN Multimedia

The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

Dijkstra, T P T; Riccioni, F; Schellekens, Adrian Norbert

2003-01-01

120

On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

Dijkstra, T.P.T. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Riccioni, F. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: f.riccioni@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2004-10-25

 
 
 
 
121

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

1993-01-01

122

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

1993-05-01

123

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

1993-05-01

124

Macerals and physico-chemical properties of Loping bark coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thorough and systematic investigation has been made on the macerals, properties and use of Late Permian bark coal from Loping mine area. It is found that the original coal-forming plant structure is suberic layer. The macerals are mainly suberinite. Its microhardness, grindability and true specific gravity are evidently lower than those of humic coal of the same degree of carbonization, while its volatile matter, hydrogen content, tar yield, viscosity, dilatation and fluidity of gelatinous layer are obviously greater than those of the humic coal. The viscosity of products from liquefaction is high and the products contain a lot of benzene insoluble. It is concluded that the bark coal is neither suitable for liquefaction nor for gasification, but suitable for producing coke oven gas by high temperature carbonization.

Dai, H.; Chen, N.; Liu, E.; Chen, W.

1984-01-01

125

Macerals and physico-chemical properties of Loping bark coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thorough and systematic investigation has been made on the macerals, properties and use of Late Permian bark coal from Loping mine area. It is found that the original coal-forming plant structure is suberic layer. The macerals are mainly suberinite. Its microhardness, grindability and true specific gravity are evidently lower than those of humic coal of same degree of carbonization, while its volatile matter, hydrogen content, tar yield, viscosity, dilatation and fluidity of gelatinous layer are obviously greater than those of the humic coal. The viscosity of products from liquefaction is high and the products contain a lot of benzene insoluble. It is concluded that the bark coal is neither suitable for liquefaction nor for gasification, but suitable for producing coke oven gas by high temperature carbonization.

Dai Hewu; Chen Nisheng; Liu Enqing; Chen Wenmin

1984-01-01

126

Predicting methane accumulations generated from humic Carboniferous coals in the Donbas fold belt (Ukraine)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The numerical modeling of the Ukrainian part of the Donbas fold belt indicates that the coalification pattern was controlled mainly by the maximum burial depth of coal seams and the heat flow (HF) (40-75 mW/m{sup 2}) during the Permian. The coalification pattern was overprinted by magmatic events during the Late Permian in the south syncline (150 mW/m{sup 2}) and during the Permian-Triassic in the north of the Krasnoarmeisk region (120 mW/m{sup 2}). The coalification pattern shows a strong increase in vitrinite reflectance values toward the east and southeastern parts of the study area likely caused by (1) an eastward increase in burial depth, (2) a probable eastward increase in HF, and, (3) probable magmatic activity. An increase in total erosion toward the eastern and southeastern parts was also observed with a maximum erosional amount of approximately 8 km (5 mi) in the southeastern part of the study area. The basin modeling of this area predicts that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred during the Carboniferous-Early Permian subsidence. The magmatic events that occurred during the Permian-Triassic caused renewed pulses of hydrocarbon generation. A large amount of the generated hydrocarbons was lost to the surface because of a lack of seals. However, the numerical simulation predicts accumulations of about 2 tcf (57 billion m{sup 3}) of methane generated from Carboniferous coals in the south and main synclines, where Lower Permian seal rocks are preserved. Finally, this study provides data on methane resources along the northern flank

Alsaab, D.; Elie, M.; Izart, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Privalov, V.A. [Paradigm Co., Nancy (France)

2008-08-15

127

Coal geopolitics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs.

1991-01-01

128

Integrable flows in c=1 string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we review the method of constructing integrable deformations of the compactified c=1 bosonic string theory by primary fields (momentum or winding modes), developed recently in collaboration with S Alexandrov and V Kazakov. The method is based on the formulation of the string theory as a matrix model. The flows generated by either momentum or winding modes (but not both) are integrable and satisfy the Toda lattice hierarchy.

2003-03-28

129

A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: `quenched` matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our `quenched` matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints.

Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong

1990-12-01

130

Coal microlithotypes related to sedimentary environments in the Cooper Basin, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal microlithotypes in seams from the Permian Gidgealpa Group in the Patchawarra Trough of the Cooper Basin are related to the depositional environments prevailing at the time of peat accumulation. Formations which include more than one depositional environment contain coals whose microlithotypes are concentrated into a corresponding number of groups. Using petrographic analyses, coals which accumulated in a lake environment can be distinguished from those of the lower coastal plain and the area dominated by coal swamps. Channel belt coals can be distinguished from those of the lower coastal plain, upper coastal plain and area dominated by coal swamps. Lower coastal plain coals can be differentiated from those of the upper coastal plains. 10 references.

Smyth, M.

1984-01-01

131

Mechanism of action of anti-C1-inhibitor autoantibodies: prevention of the formation of stable C1s-C1-inh complexes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Acquired C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) deficiency is usually associated with the presence of circulating C1-inh autoantibodies. These autoantibodies have been shown previously to bind to two synthetic peptides corresponding to C1-inh amino acid residues 438-449 (peptide 2) and 448-459 (peptide 3...

He, S.; Sim, R. B.; Whaley, K.

132

A paleomagnetic study of Permian and Triassic rocks from the Toulon-Cuers Basin, SE France: Evidence for intra-Pangea block rotations in the Permian  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of a massive shear zone separating Gondwana from Laurasia during late Palaeozoic times is one of the prerequisites for the controversial Pangea B to A transition. Here we present new paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic sediments and volcanic rocks from the Toulon-Cuers basin, SE France, likely to be situated within this intra-Pangea shear zone. A total of 150 samples from 14 sites were collected in the field; 108 samples yielded reliable paleomagnetic component directions based on stepwise thermal demagnetization up to maximum temperatures of 690°C. After removal of an initial viscous magnetic component from room temperature up to 200°C, a second component of reverse polarity, oriented to the south-and-up, was identified in almost all samples of Permian age. The Triassic samples behave similarly, with the notable difference that here, two polarities of magnetization are present. Positive field tests suggest the primary character of this characteristic magnetization. The latitudes of the resulting Early to Mid Permian paleopoles agree well with the corresponding segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) for Europe, whereas the longitudes are strung out along a small circle segment, indicating relative rotations between the sampled regions and stable Europe. The Triassic poles, instead, plot close to the Triassic segment of the European APWP and provide an upper time limit for the observed rotations. These results suggest a wrench faulting event associated with intra-Pangea crustal instability and transformation during the Permian.

Aubele, K.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.; Ronchi, A.; Durand, M.

2012-06-01

133

Evolution of the Early Permian volcanic-plutonic complex in the western part of the Permian Gobi-Altay Rift (Khar Argalant Mts., SW Mongolia)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lower Permian volcano-sedimentary complexes of the Khar Argalant and Delger Khangay formations in the Khar Argalant Mts. in south-western Mongolia are products of postorogenic within-plate magmatic activity. They consist of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic flows with local intercalations of clastic sedimentary rocks. Vascular plants in volcano-clastic layers correspond to typical Lower to Middle Permian terrestrial associations formed under dry to intermediate conditions of temperate to colder climatic zones. The plant communities of all three formations show affinities to the Siberia (Angara) “Cordaitean taiga”. Relationships of volcanic rocks suggest simultaneous eruptions of mafic (basalt to trachyandesite) and felsic (trachyte to rhyolite) lavas. The rocks of both formations have similar major- and trace-element contents as well as volcanological character. The granite of the Shar Oroy Massif, with zircon concordia age of 285 ± 1 Ma, was roughly contemporaneous with the volcanic rocks of the Delger Khangay Fm. The Early/Late Permian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Butnaa Khudag Fm. in the hanging wall of the Delger Khangay Fm. postdated the terrestrial volcanic events. Geochemical and structural characteristics suggest that the Shar Oroy Massif and the surrounding Permian volcanic suite represent an eroded, shallow-level plutonic centre and its eruptive cover, which evolved during a crustal extension.

Buriánek D; Hanžl P; Budil P; Gerdes A

2012-01-01

134

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

135

Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

2001-05-01

136

Depositional environment of Lower Permian Stone Corral Formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lower Permian Stone Corral Formation is a 5-8 ft thick unit of dolomitic limestone and shale in a sequence of red beds that crops out in south-central Kansas. It forms a good stratigraphic marker bed in the subsurface, where it consists mainly of anhydrite (the Cimmaron anhydrite) up to 100 ft thick. At outcrop, the formation is weathered and consists of 2 interfingering facies - a crinoidal-echinoidal grainstone (in the north) and a laminated mudstone (in the south). Both the grainstone and mudstone exhibit diagenetic alteration. The grainstone is composed of well-rounded allochems of crinoid and echinoid fragments with scattered ooids, sponge spicules, peloids, and possible foraminifers and ostracods. Layers of sponge spicules alternate with peloid or ooid layers. The mudstone facies has a clotted texture and has laminations defined by the occurrence of fenestral fabric and peloids. Dolomite occurring in the Stone Corral Formation is of secondary origin. The grainstone is interpreted as being lagoonal in origin, whereas the mudstone facies is interpreted as supratidal. The grumous (clotted) texture may indicate phreatic diagenesis. The absence of anhydrite on outcrop, where it was presumably leached by surface waters leaving the less soluble dolomite, is additional evidence for a regional disconformity above the unit on the eastern side of a large, shallow, evaporitic basin.

Hylton, A.K.; Merriam, D.F.

1985-02-01

137

Time-calibrated Milankovitch cycles for the late Permian.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An important innovation in the geosciences is the astronomical time scale. The astronomical time scale is based on the Milankovitch-forced stratigraphy that has been calibrated to astronomical models of paleoclimate forcing; it is defined for much of Cenozoic-Mesozoic. For the Palaeozoic era, however, astronomical forcing has not been widely explored because of lack of high-precision geochronology or astronomical modelling. Here we report Milankovitch cycles from late Permian (Lopingian) strata at Meishan and Shangsi, South China, time calibrated by recent high-precision U-Pb dating. The evidence extends empirical knowledge of Earth's astronomical parameters before 250 million years ago. Observed obliquity and precession terms support a 22-h length-of-day. The reconstructed astronomical time scale indicates a 7.793-million year duration for the Lopingian epoch, when strong 405-kyr cycles constrain astronomical modelling. This is the first significant advance in defining the Palaeozoic astronomical time scale, anchored to absolute time, bridging the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic transition.

Wu H; Zhang S; Hinnov LA; Jiang G; Feng Q; Li H; Yang T

2013-09-01

138

Complete tylosis formation in a latest Permian conifer stem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our knowledge of tylosis formation is mainly based on observations of extant plants; however, its developmental and functional significance are less well understood in fossil plants. This study, for the first time, describes a complete tylosis formation in a fossil woody conifer and discusses its ecophysiological implications. METHODS: The permineralized stem of Shenoxylon mirabile was collected from the upper Permian (Changhsingian) Sunjiagou Formation of Shitanjing coalfield, northern China. Samples from different portions of the stem were prepared by using the standard thin-sectioning technique and studied in transmitted light. KEY RESULTS: The outgrowth of ray parenchyma cells protruded into adjacent tracheids through pits initially forming small pyriform or balloon-shaped structures, which became globular or slightly elongated when they reached their maximum size. The tracheid luminae were gradually occluded by densely spaced tyloses. The host tracheids are arranged in distinct concentric zones representing different growth phases of tylosis formation within a single growth ring. CONCLUSIONS: The extensive development of tyloses from the innermost heartwood (metaxylem) tracheids to the outermost sapwood tracheids suggests that the plant was highly vulnerable and reacted strongly to environmental stress. Based on the evidence available, the tyloses were probably not produced in response to wound reaction or pathogenic infection, since evidence of wood traumatic events or fungal invasion are not recognizable. Rather, they may represent an ecophysiological response to the constant environmental stimuli.

Feng Z; Wang J; Rößler R; Kerp H; Wei HB

2013-06-01

139

The origin of the top surface of Carboniferous in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Upper Silesian coal basin, the upper boundary of the coal-bearing Carboniferous strata is an erosive surface covered by patches of deposits of different age. Locally, this surface and its overburden are cut by post-Carboniferous faults. The study of this top surface of Carboniferous is important for recognition of the extent of coal seam outcrops at this surface, for studying the nature of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary and of the origin of this discordant surface. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Jura, D.

1988-01-01

140

A C^1 -Generic dichotomy for diffeomorphisms  

CERN Document Server

We show that, for every compact n-dimensional manifold, n\\geq 1, there is a residual subset of Diff^1(M) of diffeomorphisms for which the homoclinic class of any periodic saddle of f verifies one of the following two possibilities: Either it is contained in the closure of an infinite set of sinks or sources (Newhouse phenomenon), or it presents some weak form of hyperbolicity called dominated splitting (this is a generalization of a bidimensional result of Mane [Ma3}). In particular, we show that any C^1 -robustly transitive diffeomorphism admits a dominated splitting.

Bonatti, C; Pujals, E R

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Quantization of string theory for c?1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the canonical quantization scheme for c ? 1 ((p,q)-) string theories and compare it with what is known from matrix model approach. We derive explicitly a trivial ( triple bond topological) solution. We discuss a ''dressing'' operator which in principle allows one to obtain a non-trivial solution, but an explicit computation runs into a problem of analytic continuation of the formal expressions for ?-functions. We discuss also the application of proposed scheme to the case of discrete matrix model and consider some parallels with mirror symmetry and background independence in string theory. (orig.)

1994-01-01

142

Reactions of C1 Building Blocks  

Science.gov (United States)

The chapter “Reactions of C1 Building Blocks” covers the direct conversion of methane to aromatics, the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTHC) conversion with respect to gasoline (methanol to gasoline) and olefins (methanol to olefins, methanol-to-propene) as well as some combinations like the TIGAS and Mobil's olefin-to-gasoline and distillate processes. The main focus within this chapter will be on the industrial processes, especially concerning the MTHC reactions - including catalytic systems, reaction conditions, process - and to a minor extent related to the mechanistic aspects and kinetic considerations.

Stöcker, Michael

143

A new captorhinid reptile, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Permian of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Captorhinids, a clade of Paleozoic reptiles, are represented by a rich fossil record that extends from the Late Carboniferous into the Late Permian. Representatives of this clade dispersed from the equatorial regions of Laurasia into the temperate regions of Pangea during the Middle and Late Permian. This rich fossil record shows that there was an evolutionary trend from faunivorous to omnivorous and herbivorous feeding habits within this clade. The discovery of well-preserved captorhinid materials in the Middle Permian of China allows us to determine that the new taxon, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov, is a member of Moradisaurinae, a clade of captorhinids with multiple tooth rows arranged in parallel. The presence of this moradisaurine in the Middle Permian of south central Asia leads us to suggest that paleogeographic changes during the Permian, with part of what is today China becoming a large peninsula of Pangea, allowed these early reptiles as well as other terrestrial vertebrates to extend their geographic ranges to this region of the Late Paleozoic supercontinent.

Reisz RR; Liu J; Li JL; Müller J

2011-05-01

144

A new captorhinid reptile, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Permian of China  

Science.gov (United States)

Captorhinids, a clade of Paleozoic reptiles, are represented by a rich fossil record that extends from the Late Carboniferous into the Late Permian. Representatives of this clade dispersed from the equatorial regions of Laurasia into the temperate regions of Pangea during the Middle and Late Permian. This rich fossil record shows that there was an evolutionary trend from faunivorous to omnivorous and herbivorous feeding habits within this clade. The discovery of well-preserved captorhinid materials in the Middle Permian of China allows us to determine that the new taxon, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov, is a member of Moradisaurinae, a clade of captorhinids with multiple tooth rows arranged in parallel. The presence of this moradisaurine in the Middle Permian of south central Asia leads us to suggest that paleogeographic changes during the Permian, with part of what is today China becoming a large peninsula of Pangea, allowed these early reptiles as well as other terrestrial vertebrates to extend their geographic ranges to this region of the Late Paleozoic supercontinent.

Reisz, Robert R.; Liu, Jun; Li, Jin-Ling; Müller, Johannes

2011-05-01

145

Palaeomagnetic results from the Early Permian Copacabana Group, southern Peru: Implication for Pangaea palaeogeography  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples collected from folded carbonate rocks of the Early Permian Copacabana Group exposed in the Peruvian Subandean Zone have been subjected to detailed palaeomagnetic analysis. Thermal demagnetisation of most samples yield stable high unblocking temperature directions dominantly carried by titanomagnetite minerals. This remanence, identified in 32 samples (43 specimens), is exclusively of reverse polarity consistent with the Permian Carboniferous Reversal Superchron (PCRS). The overall directions pass the fold test at the 99% confidence level and are considered as being a pre-folding remanence acquired in Early Permian times. The Copacabana Group yields an overall mean direction of D = 166°, I = +49° (?95 = 4.5°, k = 131.5, N = 9 sites) in stratigraphic coordinates and a corresponding palaeosouth pole position situated at ? = 68°S, ? = 321°E (A95 = 5.2°, K = 100). Combining this pole with the coeval high quality data from South America, Africa and Australia results in a mean pole for Gondwana situated at ? = 34.4°S, ? = 065.6°E (A95 = 4.9°, K = 73.6, N = 13 studies) in African coordinates. This pole position supports a Pangaea B palaeogeography in Early Permian times. In contrast, the combined pole for Gondwana diverges from the coeval Laurasian mean pole when assuming the Pangaea A-type configuration. Poor quality of the Gondwana dataset and inclination shallowing in sediments seem to play no role in the misfit between the Permian Triassic poles from Gondwana and Laurasia in Pangaea A reconstruction.

Rakotosolofo, N. A.; Tait, J. A.; Carlotto, V.; Cárdenas, J.

2006-02-01

146

Paleomagnetic investigation of Upper Permian sediments in the South Junggar Basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Lacustrine organic-rich mudstones of the Upper Permian Lucaogou Formation are a significant petroleum source bed throughout most of the Junggar basin in northwest China, and paleomagnetic data may provide insight into tectonic conditions prevalent during their deposition. Secondary magnetizations were removed from 180 samples from 29 sites within the South Junggar basin. Characteristic magnetizations of these samples were either revealed directly during thermal demagnetization or were calculated from great circle trajectories. The primary nature of the characteristic magnetization is attested to by a positive fold test, by exclusively reversed magnetizations which are consistent with the mid-Carboniferous to Late Permian Kiaman reversed interval for the geomagnetic field, and by relatively low levels of thermal maturity found in the mudstones. Tectonically corrected remagnetization circles and direct observations combined give a steep direction (I = -61.9°, D = 163.0°, k = 17, n = 78 specimens). The steep mean inclination recorded within the lacustrine organic-rich mudstones suggests that Junggar was situated near its present-day latitude during deposition of the mudstones in Late Permian times, consistent with the marginal ocean basin origin for Junggar that has been proposed based upon stratigraphic relationships. Our data suggest that Junggar may always have been associated with the northern continents of Laurasia, initially as a pre-Permian marginal ocean basin north of the Tethys and subsequently as a Permian, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic nonmarine foreland basin.

Sharps, Robert; Li, Yianping; McWilliams, Michael; Li, Yongan

1992-02-01

147

Synthesis of ethanol 14C-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The direct reduction by LiAlH4, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-14C by LiAlH4, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-14C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author)[fr] Une etude de la reduction directe par LiAlH4, de l'acetate de soude anhydre en suspension dans le tetrahydrofurfuryloxytetrahydropyrane est decrite. Cette etude a montre que l'on obtient de l'ethanol souille d'impuretes, avec un rendement variable. Par contre, la reduction du chlorure d'acetyle 14C-1 par LiAlH4, dans le 'diethyl carbitol' conduit a l'ethanol 14C-1 de purete convenable avec un rendement de l'ordre de 71 pour cent. (auteur)

1958-01-01

148

Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction  

CERN Multimedia

Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

Standard, J C

2003-01-01

149

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is presented under the following headings: an introduction to coal in the energy market, coal consumption trends in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, trends in coal production and trade, coal in Communist countries, coal in the USA - the public policy issues, the state and coal - the Western European case, the emergence of producers for export, and prospects for coal

Gordon, R.L.

1987-01-01

150

Stratigraphy of Upper Permian and Lower Triassic Strata of the Žiri Area (Slovenia)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the stratigraphy of Late Permian and Early Triassic strata of the Luka? section in the Žiri area of western Slovenia. This is the only section presently known in the External Dinarides where the Permian-Triassic boundary is defined following international criteria based on the first appearance of the conodont Hindeodus parvus. The following lithostratigraphic units have been formalized: the Bellerophon Limestone and Evaporite-dolomite Members of the Bellerophon Formation and the Luka~ Formation with the three members,the Transitional Beds, Streaky Limestone and Carbonate-clastic Member. The paper presents the results of micropaleontologicalstudy based on foraminifers and conodonts as well as petrographic and sedimentologic research results. The investigation of conodont assemblages enabled the conodont biozonation of the Permian-Triassic interval of the studied Luka? section.

Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek; Bogdan Jurkovšek; Dunja Aljinovi?; Galina P. Nestell

2011-01-01

151

Coal 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest update of this reference document gives key information on the domestic and global coal markets. It has sections on: world coal trade (imports, exports, production); Australia's export coal industry and coal resources including maps of Australia and New Zealand coalfields and coal mines and projects of Queensland; Australian coal production (production by state, productivity, coal consumption, the coal industry in different states etc.); major coal exporters with maps of coal mining areas - Australia, Canada, China, Indonesia, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, USA, Venezuela and Vietnam; major coal importing countries (Hong Kong, India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan); prices and contracts; transport; ports; coal specifications; and coal industry directories for Australia, Indonesia and China.

NONE

2001-07-01

152

A method to differentiate between anti-C1q antibodies and C1q-binding immune complexes using collagenase-digested solid phase C1q.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for the detection of circulating immune complexes in the presence of autoantibodies to C1q is described. Solid phase C1q-digestion with bacterial collagenase results in the elimination of the collagen-like region of C1q. Binding of model immune complexes to this modified solid phase C1q is practically unaltered, while reactivity of anti-C1q antibodies is abolished by this procedure. In conjunction with an ELISA using the collagen-like region of C1q as antigen this modified C1q solid phase assay may be used to determine immune complexes and anti-C1q antibodies in the sera of patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. PMID:1851794

Menzel, J E; Scherak, O; Kolarz, G; Gamerith, F; Youngchaiyud, U

1991-04-25

153

Upper Permian ostracode assemblage from the Jadar Block (Vardar zone, NW Serbia)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ostracodes from the Changhsingian (latest Permian age) in the uppermost part of the “Bituminous Limestone” Formation of the Komiri? Section in NW Serbia (Jadar Block, Vardar Zone) are described and illustrated. Three new species of ostracodes are introduced: Basslerella jadarensis n. sp., Acratia serbianella n. sp., and Knoxiella vardarensis n. sp. The ostracode assemblage, together with conodonts and foraminifers, is the first record of the youngest Late Permian age microfaunas from Serbia and from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula.

Crasquin Sylvie; Sudar Milan N.; Jovanovi? Divna; Kolar-Jurkovšek Tea

2010-01-01

154

Evidence of a new narrow resonance decaying to ?(c1)? in B??(c1)?K.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurements of B??(c1)?K and ?(c2)?K decays using 772×10(6) BB[over ¯] events collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e(+)e(-) collider. Evidence of a new resonance in the ?(c1)? final state is found with a statistical significance of 3.8?. This state has a mass of 3823.1±1.8(stat)±0.7(syst) MeV/c(2), a value that is consistent with theoretical expectations for the previously unseen 1(3)D(2) cc[over ¯] meson. We find no other narrow resonance and set upper limits on the branching fractions of the X(3872)??(c1)? and ?(c2)? decays. PMID:23909309

Bhardwaj, V; Miyabayashi, K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Bhuyan, B; Bischofberger, M; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bra?ko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S-K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, D; Dutta, K; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Frey, A; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwashita, T; Julius, T; Kah, D H; Kang, J H; Kato, E; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y-J; Lange, J S; Lee, S-H; Li, J; Li, Y; Liu, C; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Panzenböck, E; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petri?, M; Piilonen, L E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rostomyan, A; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Seidl, R; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T-A; Shiu, J-G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y-S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stari?, M; Steder, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Urquijo, P; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M-Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, C C; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

2013-07-16

155

Evidence of a New Narrow Resonance Decaying to ?_{c1}? in B??_{c1}?K.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report measurements of B??_{c1}?K and ?_{c2}?K decays using 772×10^{6} BB[over ¯] events collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider. Evidence of a new resonance in the ?_{c1}? final state is found with a statistical significance of 3.8?. This state has a mass of 3823.1±1.8(stat)±0.7(syst)??MeV/c^{2}, a value that is consistent with theoretical expectations for the previously unseen 1^{3}D_{2} cc[over ¯] meson. We find no other narrow resonance and set upper limits on the branching fractions of the X(3872)??_{c1}? and ?_{c2}? decays.

Bhardwaj V; Miyabayashi K; Adachi I; Aihara H; Asner DM; Aulchenko V; Aushev T; Aziz T; Bakich AM; Bala A; Bhuyan B; Bischofberger M; Bondar A; Bonvicini G; Bozek A; Bra?ko M; Brodzicka J; Browder TE; Chekelian V; Chen A; Cheon BG; Chilikin K; Chistov R; Cho K; Chobanova V; Choi SK; Choi Y; Cinabro D; Dalseno J; Danilov M; Doležal Z; Drásal Z; Drutskoy A; Dutta D; Dutta K; Eidelman S; Epifanov D; Farhat H; Fast JE; Ferber T; Frey A; Gaur V; Gabyshev N; Ganguly S; Gillard R; Goh YM; Golob B; Haba J; Hara T; Hayashii H; Horii Y; Hoshi Y; Hou WS; Hsiung YB; Hyun HJ; Iijima T; Inami K; Ishikawa A; Itoh R; Iwashita T; Julius T; Kah DH; Kang JH; Kato E; Kawasaki T; Kichimi H; Kiesling C; Kim DY; Kim JB; Kim JH; Kim KT; Kim MJ; Kim YJ; Kinoshita K; Klucar J; Ko BR; Kodyš P; Korpar S; Križan P; Krokovny P; Kumar R; Kumita T; Kuzmin A; Kwon YJ; Lange JS; Lee SH; Li J; Li Y; Liu C; Liu ZQ; Liventsev D; Lukin P; Matvienko D; Miyata H; Mizuk R; Mohanty GB; Moll A; Mussa R; Nakano E; Nakao M; Natkaniec Z; Nayak M; Nedelkovska E; Nisar NK; Nishida S; Nitoh O; Ogawa S; Okuno S; Olsen SL; Pakhlov P; Pakhlova G; Panzenböck E; Park H; Park HK; Pedlar TK; Pestotnik R; Petri? M; Piilonen LE; Ritter M; Röhrken M; Rostomyan A; Sahoo H; Saito T; Sakai K; Sakai Y; Sandilya S; Santel D; Santelj L; Sanuki T; Sato Y; Savinov V; Schneider O; Schnell G; Schwanda C; Seidl R; Semmler D; Senyo K; Seon O; Sevior ME; Shapkin M; Shen CP; Shibata TA; Shiu JG; Shwartz B; Simon F; Singh JB; Smerkol P; Sohn YS; Sokolov A; Solovieva E; Stari? M; Steder M; Sumihama M; Sumiyoshi T; Tamponi U; Tanida K; Tatishvili G; Teramoto Y; Trabelsi K; Tsuboyama T; Uchida M; Uehara S; Uglov T; Unno Y; Urquijo P; Usov Y; Vahsen SE; Van Hulse C; Vanhoefer P; Varner G; Varvell KE; Vinokurova A; Wagner MN; Wang CH; Wang MZ; Wang P; Watanabe M; Watanabe Y; Won E; Yabsley BD; Yamaoka J; Yamashita Y; Yashchenko S; Yook Y; Yuan CZ; Zhang CC; Zhang ZP; Zhilich V; Zhulanov V; Zupanc A

2013-07-01

156

Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls.

1987-01-01

157

Records of Late Permian surface temperatures in continental Gondwana in isotope geochemistry of upper Permian early diagenetic calcite concretions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present geochemical and isotopic evidence of paleotemperatures from freshwater continental deposits from 55{degrees}S in interior southern Gondwana. Lacustrine shales host spheroidal concretions with abundant septarian cracks. Cement carbonate varies from 65% at the centre to 15% at the edges. Cistraccide remains are preserved. Septarian calcite occurs in dull and bright bands, with three distinct generations of vein-fills. Early-formed cement both in concretions and septarian veins is magnesium-rich whereas, later-formed carbonates are pure calcite. Carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios (PDB) are: host shales, {delta}{sup 13}C= -4.36 to o.77{per_thousand}, {delta}{sup 18}O= -12.73 to -17.12{per_thousand}; concretion cements, {delta}{sup 13}C=+0.26 to {delta}{sup 18}O= -9.34{per_thousand}; and vein-fills, {delta}{sup 13}C= -7.05 to +1.09{per_thousand}, {delta}{sup 18}O= -8.28 to -18.24{per_thousand}. 13C and 18O ratios are depleted from the center of concretions to the periphery, as well as from the centre of veins to the tip. Near-surface cementation is suggested by textural evidence. {delta}18O in the range of -12.636{per_thousand} to -8.989 SMOW is calculated for the meteoric palaeowaters, from which average annual surface temperatures of 5-8{degrees}C are inferred. {delta}18O of early-formed cements also yields a mean annual surface temperature of 2-6{degrees}C. Based on continentality and palaeolatitudes of northern Malawi during the Late Permian, we propose that mean annual surface palaeotemperatures may have been as high as 10{degrees}C, similar to those found in modern continental temperate climates.

Yeman, E. [Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kelts, K. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1996-12-31

158

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moderate but steady growth in coal production is forecast, but there is instability and uncertainty in Europe, the CIS and former Comecon countries. This article discusses, on the basis of recent published figures and reports, the present and future market for coal worldwide. Tables are given for 1991, for world coal production, world coal exports and world coal consumption, by country, and also for hard and soft coal producers, ranked by total output. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 photo.

Chadwick, J.

1992-09-01

159

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presents tables of data relating to: world coal production in 1990 by country; world coal exports in 1990 from the major exporting countries; world coal consumption by country; and hard and soft coal producers ranked by total output. Despite the fact that the world coal industry has experienced difficulties in recent years with demand not increasing at the rate many had predicted and extraction and use of coal coming under increasingly stringent environmental regulations coal still provides some 30% of global primary energy. About 47% of coal is used for electricity generation; 19% is consumed in steel and coke making and 34% is put to industrial and domestic use. 5 tabs.

Chadwick, J.

1991-10-01

160

Sedimentology and cyclicity in the Lower Permian De Chelly Sandstone on the Defiance Plateau: eastern Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Permian (Leonardian) De Chelly Sandstone crops out along a north-south trend on the Defiance Plateau of eastern Arizona. It is divided into lower and upper members separated by a tongue of the Supai Formation that pinches out to the north. Stratigraphy, and lateral and vertical facies relations within the lower and upper members, are discussed. -from Author

Stanesco, J. D.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four components, we detected increased provincialism between our Permian and Triassic datasets. In southern Pangea, a more homogeneous and broadly distributed fauna in the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian, ?257 Ma) was replaced by a provincial and biogeographically fragmented fauna by Middle Triassic times (Anisian, ?242 Ma). Importantly in the Triassic, lower latitude basins in Tanzania and Zambia included dinosaur predecessors and other archosaurs unknown elsewhere. The recognition of heterogeneous tetrapod communities in the Triassic implies that the end-Permian mass extinction afforded ecologically marginalized lineages the ecospace to diversify, and that biotic controls (i.e., evolutionary incumbency) were fundamentally reset. Archosaurs, which began diversifying in the Early Triassic, were likely beneficiaries of this ecological release and remained dominant for much of the later Mesozoic.

Sidor CA; Vilhena DA; Angielczyk KD; Huttenlocker AK; Nesbitt SJ; Peecook BR; Steyer JS; Smith RM; Tsuji LA

2013-05-01

162

Large Perturbations of the Carbon Cycle During Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-resolution carbon isotope measurements of multiple stratigraphic sections in south China demonstrate that the pronounced carbon isotopic excursion at the Permian-Triassic boundary was not an isolated event but the first in a series of large fluctuations that continued throughout the Early Trias...

Schrag, Daniel; Knoll, Andrew; Orchard, Michael J.; Wei, Jiayong; Lehrmann, Daniel J.; Payne, Jonathan L.

163

Controls on body size during the Late Permian mass extinction event.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the morphological responses of Late Permian brachiopods to environmental changes. Quantitative analysis of body size data from Permian-Triassic brachiopods has demonstrated significant, directional changes in body size before, during and after the Late Permian mass extinction event. Brachiopod size significantly reduced before and during the extinction interval, increased for a short time in more extinction-resistant taxa in the latter stages of extinction and then dramatically reduced again across the Permian/Triassic boundary. Relative abundances of trace elements and acritarchs demonstrate that the body size reductions which happened before, during and after extinction were driven by primary productivity collapse, whereas declining oxygen levels had less effect. An episode of size increase in two of the more extinction-resistant brachiopod species is unrelated to environmental change and possibly was the result of reduced interspecific competition for resources following the extinction of competitors. Based on the results of this study, predictions can be made for the possible responses of modern benthos to present-day environmental changes.

He WH; Twitchett RJ; Zhang Y; Shi GR; Feng QL; Yu JX; Wu SB; Peng XF

2010-12-01

164

Controls on body size during the Late Permian mass extinction event.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the morphological responses of Late Permian brachiopods to environmental changes. Quantitative analysis of body size data from Permian-Triassic brachiopods has demonstrated significant, directional changes in body size before, during and after the Late Permian mass extinction event. Brachiopod size significantly reduced before and during the extinction interval, increased for a short time in more extinction-resistant taxa in the latter stages of extinction and then dramatically reduced again across the Permian/Triassic boundary. Relative abundances of trace elements and acritarchs demonstrate that the body size reductions which happened before, during and after extinction were driven by primary productivity collapse, whereas declining oxygen levels had less effect. An episode of size increase in two of the more extinction-resistant brachiopod species is unrelated to environmental change and possibly was the result of reduced interspecific competition for resources following the extinction of competitors. Based on the results of this study, predictions can be made for the possible responses of modern benthos to present-day environmental changes. PMID:20550584

He, W-H; Twitchett, R J; Zhang, Y; Shi, G R; Feng, Q-L; Yu, J-X; Wu, S-B; Peng, X-F

2010-12-01

165

CHEMICAL SIGNATURE OF TWO PERMIAN VOLCANIC ASH DEPOSITS WITHIN A BENTONITE BED FROM MELO, URUGUAY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m) overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m). The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively....

Calarge, L.; Meunier, A.; Lanson, B.; L. Formoso, M.

166

Unayzah Formation: a new Permian-Carboniferous unit in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sandstones, shales, and thin beds of argillaceous limestone previously included as the basal part of the Permian Khuff Formation were described as the Unayzah Formation by al-Laboun in 1982 and 1986. The type locality (stratotype.) of this formation is in the town of Unayzah, and a reference section was established in the Qusayba area, al-Qasim district, Saudi Arabia. Fossil flora collected from outcrops and palynomorphs obtained from boreholes support a Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age for these strata. The Unayzah Formation is conformably overlain by the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation, whereas its basal contact is marked by a regional angular unconformity with various older units. The Unayzah Formation is widespread in the Greater Arabian basin. The formation represents cyclic transgressive and regressive deposits preceding the Permian regional marine transgression, during which the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation were deposited. This Permian transgression marked a major change in the Sedimentation and evolution of the Greater Arabian basin. The porous sandstones of the Unayzah Formation are important exploration targets because several fields in the eastern and southeastern parts of the Greater Arabian basin produce hydrocarbons from the Unayzah. 11 figures, 1 table.

Al-Laboun, A.A.

1987-01-01

167

Sedimentology of a Permian playa lake: the Boda Claystone Formation, Hungary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Upper Permian Boda Claystone Formation (BCF) in SW Hungary has been previously been identified as a saline lake deposit. A country-wide screening found this 800–1000 m thick succession the most suitable for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Hungary, and research into this formation...

Konrád, Gyula; Sebe, Krisztina; Halász, Amadé; Babinszki, Edit

168

Absence of Extraterrestrial 3He in Permian–Triassic Age Sedimentary Rocks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Helium concentration and isotopic composition were measured in a suite of samples across the Permian–Triassic boundary at Opal Creek, Canada, to determine whether high extraterrestrial helium concentrations are associated with a possible extinction-inducing impact event at this time. No extraterrest...

Garrison, G.; Ward, P.; Farley, K. A.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

169

Ichnological analysis in San Gregorio deposits (Lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area Uruguayan north basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ichnological analysis in deposits corresponding to San Gregorio Fm.(lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area (Cerro Largo Department, Uruguay) was made.Trace fossils in sandstones and mud stones outcrops were studied.The ichnofossil assemblage studied allows to propose a shallow marine environment. (author)

1998-01-01

170

Petrological, chemical and depositional aspects of eastern Himalayan coals from Elephant Flat area, Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The eastern Himalayan coals of India associated with Permian (Lower Gondwana) sediments in the Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh have petrographic and chemical properties differing from Peninsular Permian coals. The coals are moderately to highly crushed and have reached a semianthracitic stage. Macerals are highly reflecting and homogenized. Vitrinite and inertinite exhibit a crushing effect in the form of criss-cross fissures and cracks. Exinite is unidentifiable and has attained an inertinitic reflectivity. The Kameng coals are of high rank with average fixed carbon 88.75% and volatile matter 13.75% on d.a.f. basis. The reflectance values of these coals are quite high with marked anisotropy. It is inferred that these peculiar coal properties have been attained due to prolonged tectonic disturbance in the area during the later Himalayan orogeny. The coal characteristics suggest that these coals were formed in a humid tropical climate within a deltaic regime. The depositional site experienced occasional marine influx due to tectonically controlled subsidence during peat accumulation.

Misra, B.K.; Ahmed, M.; Navale, G.K.B.

1987-09-01

171

The mechanism of phospholipase C?1 activation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phospholipase C is an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) into second messengers inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These messengers then promote the activation of protein kinase C and release of Ca2 from intracellular stores, initiating numerous cellular events including proliferation, differentiation, signal transduction, endocytosis, cytoskeletal reorganization or activation of ion channels. There have been identified 14 isozymes of PLC among which PLC?1 and PLC?2 are of particular interest. PLC? contains catalytic region XY and a few regulatory domains: PH, EF and C2. The most unique features of these two enzymes are the Src homology domains (SH2, SH3) and split PH domain within the catalytic barrel. PLC?1 and PLC?2 have an identical domain structure, but they differ in their function and occurrence. Phospholipase C?1 is expressed ubiquitously, especially in the brain, thymus and lungs.PLC?1 can be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (i.e.: PDGFR, EGFR, FGFR, Trk), as well as non-receptor protein kinases (Src, Syk, Tec) or phosphatidic acid, tau protein and its analogue.The molecular mechanism of PLC?1 activation includes membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, rearrangements and activation in the presence of growth factors.In reference to PLC?1 regulation, a number of positive and negative modulators have been considered. The most important positive modulator is phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P2). Protein kinase A and C, tyrosine phosphatases (SHP-1, PTP-1B) and Cbl, Grb2, Jak2/PTP-1B complex proteins have been described as negative regulators of PLC?1 activation.

Pawe? Krawczyk; Janusz Matuszyk

2011-01-01

172

Pangean Reconstruction of the Yucatan Block and its Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic Geologic and Tectonic History  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleomagnetic studies of Paleozoic sedimentary and plutonic rocks demonstrate that the Yucatan Block lay inverted off the NW coast of South America (SA) in Pangea, and rotated in a series of clockwise motions as SA and NA separated. Mid-Permian Yucatan was a fragment of the western margin of Pangea, just south of the equator. By 230 Ma, Yucatan rotated ˜20° clockwise and moved to the equator. Clockwise rotation continued through the Jurassic: ˜54° between 230 Ma and about Oxfordian, and another ˜32° between ˜Oxfordian and Tithonian, when the approximate present orientation was achieved. Passage of the Yucatan Block into the gap created by the separation of North and South America requires left-lateral motion relative to North America, perhaps by translation along the Mojave Sonora megashear. One remanence, carried by magnetite in red bed strata from the margins of the marine Santa Rosa basin (Maya Mtns), decays exceedingly linearly to the origin of orthogonal-axes plots. Biostratigraphy indicates a Late Pennsylvanian to Middle Permian age, and the presence of dual polarities in a 110 m, four polarity, magnetostratigraphic sequence demonstrates a post-Late Paleozoic Reversed Superchron (i.e., Middle Permian) age. Plutonic rocks exhibit a second, also dual-polarity, remanence, which corresponds to a paleopole 60° clockwise of the mid-Permian pole. The spatial relationship between the Permian and pluton paleopoles is very similar to that of the North American Permian and Late Triassic poles. Moreover, exceedingly uniform K/Ar ages of 231±7 Ma characterize all Maya Mtns plutons and the southern volcanic complex, indicating a 230 Ma resetting of the K/Ar radiometric systems of plutons dated by U/Pb as Late Silurian (Steiner and Walker, 1996). Metamorphic aureoles developed in the Pennsylvanian-Permian Santa Rosa strata bordering the Silurian plutonic complexes suggest the occurrence of a post-intrusion hydrothermal event. The 230 Ma reset K/Ar systems, metamorphic aureoles in strata younger than the plutons, and a magnetization resembling a Late Triassic remanence all suggest that a 230 Ma hydrothermal event remagnetized and reset the igneous rocks, probably during the initial break-up of Pangea. The Maya Mtns pluton paleopole is statistically identical to that of the Chiapas Massif. Identical dual polarity magnetization populations characterizing both of these Yucatan plutonic complexes suggest that both were remagnetized around 230 Ma. Importantly, identical remanences in these widely separated plutonic complexes indicate that the Yucatan Block (including the Chiapas Massif) has been a structural entity since at least 230 Ma.

Steiner, M.

2004-12-01

173

Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area and causes rotation of older probably Paleozoic sediments and creates syn-tectonic sediment wedges. The syn-tectonic wedges most probably contain volcaniclastic sediments of the Karl Formation or sandstones of the Auk Formation, but it cannot be excluded that the earliest late Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment of the E-W striking fault system are generally planar and strike parallel to the fault with a southward dip geometrically similar to antithetic faults. In contrast, the intrusions in the footwall segment show a much more complex pattern striking at a high angle to the E-W basement fault and outlining a sill complex, which in certain areas resembles a poorly outlined composite cone. The intrusions are not observed in the syn-tectonic sedimentary wedges and this combined with the general age of the intrusions suggests that the syn-tectonic wedges are of latest early Permian or earliest late Permian age. The study demonstrates Paleozoic intrusions with a systematic orientation and geometry that most likely was directly controlled by the basement faulting. Syn-tectonic hanging-wall deformation represented by antithetic fractures is suggested to be the most important controlling factor for the intrusions at the hanging-wall. At the footwall a more composite geometry of the intrusions is observed, resulting in a much more complex compartmentalization of the Paleozoic sediments due to intrusions compared to the hanging-wall segment. The intrusions and especially the compartmentalization must be taken into account during evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Paleozoic.

Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul

174

Ostracods (Crustacea) associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian) - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian) interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) are discussed.

Marie-Beatrice FOREL

2012-01-01

175

Angioedema with normal C1q and C1 inhibitor: an atypical presentation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angioedema is a recurrent, non-pitting, non-pruritic, transitory swelling due to transient increase of endothelial permeability in the capillaries of the deep cutaneous and mucosal layers. Angioedema is generally categorized based on etiology, and characteristic lab findings are associated with each category. Cases of acquired angioedema associated with myeloproliferative disorders have been described in the literature, but these have been associated with a characteristic low C1q, a defining laboratory finding in acquired angioedema. Here we present a case of 68-year-old female with acquired angioedema that was not associated with low C1q, but was found to have Waldenström disease. Her angioedema responded dramatically to combination therapy consisting of bortezomib, rituximab, and dexamethasone. PMID:23591717

Khanfar, Anas; Trikha, Anita; Bonds, Rana; Jana, Bagi

2013-04-17

176

Angioedema with normal C1q and C1 inhibitor: an atypical presentation of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Angioedema is a recurrent, non-pitting, non-pruritic, transitory swelling due to transient increase of endothelial permeability in the capillaries of the deep cutaneous and mucosal layers. Angioedema is generally categorized based on etiology, and characteristic lab findings are associated with each category. Cases of acquired angioedema associated with myeloproliferative disorders have been described in the literature, but these have been associated with a characteristic low C1q, a defining laboratory finding in acquired angioedema. Here we present a case of 68-year-old female with acquired angioedema that was not associated with low C1q, but was found to have Waldenström disease. Her angioedema responded dramatically to combination therapy consisting of bortezomib, rituximab, and dexamethasone.

Khanfar A; Trikha A; Bonds R; Jana B

2013-05-01

177

Strontium and sulfur isotope study of well-preserved Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro basin, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?34S, 87Sr/86Sr ratio, and strontium concentrations for 50 well-preserved samples of Permian marine anhydrite have been determined. The samples were collected from two continuous cores drilled through cyclic Permian evaporites, The Department of Energy drilled the samples in its search for a permanent storage facility for high-level nuclear waste. Primary depositional fabrics (selenite pseudomorphs) and high strontium concentrations (average 1,850 ppm), in association with published bromide and fluid inclusion data from associated halite, suggest primary seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios may be recorded in many of the samples. The general shape of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio curve through the Permian is in accord with previously published observations. However, the increased stratigraphic detail from this unique set of cores constrains the abrupt charge in 87Sr/86Sr during the Permian at a precision previously available only in Deep Sea Drilling Project material. Interpretation of the more complex portions of the curve is limited by poor biostratigraphic control, the specter of provincial early diagenetic effects, and interpretation of the time significance of hiatal surfaces in cyclic strata. Age relationships are constrained by a K-Ar date on an interbedded volcanic ash in the Ochoan strata, and fusulinid age determinations of a well-documented regional transgression during the earliest Guadalupe. Sulfur isotopes yield typical Permian values of 12 per-thousand during the marine portion of the basin fill phase, and abruptly shift to 10 per-thousand in those cycles with a significant component of siliciclastic sediment

1990-01-01

178

Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage ( Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage ( Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode, and the gradual regional northward drift to a lower latitude of the Indian plate.

Ghazi, Shahid; Mountney, Nigel P.; Butt, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Sadaf

2012-10-01

179

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between energy needs, the coal mining industry and the geology of coalfields is examined. The problem of defining classes of coal resources and reserves is discussed and an approach based on coal-in-place is introduced which is used to derive an assessment of technically mineable coal-in-place. (2 refs.)

Holtom, J.E.B. (IEA Coal Research)

1981-03-01

180

Coal geology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics were covered on the course: the formation of coal from plant sources; the position of the groundwater table; syn-depositional subsidence; post-depositional subsidence; sedimentary environment of coal formation; geotectonic environment of coal formation; exploration targets; exploration methods; and coal quality assessment.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international coal market for the year 1995 is reviewed. Coal consumption is rising overall, with consumption in Asia and Australasia on the increase, while that in Europe is falling. Coal consumption figures for all regions and the chief consumers is given. Supply has risen but demand is rising more. Again, that in Europe is falling, while production in Asia increases. A table of world coal production are given. Statistics and analysis on: coal reserves; the balance between hard and soft coal production; and the position of the coking coal market is also presented. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Chadwick, J.

1996-10-01

182

(Coal science)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traveler attended the 1989 International Conference on Coal Science, which covered a broad spectrum of topics in fundamental and applied coal science. Of particular interest and relevance to the DOE sponsored Organic Coal Chemistry Program at ORNL were symposia on Coal Structure and Characterization and Basic Reactions of Coal. The traveler presented a paper on his research to a large international audience, chaired a technical session, and participated in numerous informal discussions of benefit to the Coal Chemistry Program. Visits with staff at the technology centers indicated above provided insights into the current status of Japanese efforts in coal liquefaction and gasification.

Buchanan, A.C. III.

1989-11-09

183

Late Permian age of NH[sub 4]-bearing illite in anthracite from eastern Pennsylvania. Temporal limits on coalification in the central Appalachians  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Authigenic NH[sub 4]-bearing illites in coal fractures from the Anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania yield individual K/Ar dates of 236-253 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.) and a composite isochron of 253 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.). Rh/Sr data for the same samples indicate an isochron of 260 Ma ([+-]44 m.y.), consistent with the more precise K/Ar data. The age of NH[sub 4]-bearing illite authigenesis should reflect the time at which coal attained anthracite rank, because mineralogical and geochemical evidence indicates that NH[sub 4]-bearing illite formed exclusively during anthracite formation (T = 200-275[degree]C) from organically derived nitrogen and a kaolinite precursor. Similar Late Permian K/Ar dates for both NH[sub 4]-rich illite and K-illite in anthracite fractures and lack of correlation between percent NH[sub 4] substitution in illite and the K/Ar date suggest that NH[sub 4] does not influence significantly the closure temperature of illite and, thus, that NH[sub 4]-rich illite can be used for dating the time of authigenesis. Given the uncertainties in closure temperatures for illite as well as the maximum temperatures for anthracite formation, we consider the oldest K/Ar date of 253 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.) to be a minimum age for NH[sub 4]-illite authigenesis and anthracite formation. 33 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Daniels, E.J.; Altaner, S.P. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)); Aronson, J.L. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Clauer, N. (Centre de Geochimie de la Surface, Strasbourg (France))

1994-06-01

184

Coal Fires  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anumpa

185

Paleomagnetic studies of Carboniferous and Permian in the U. K. Southern North Sea: Core orientation, paleocurrent analysis, and diagenetic application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.K. southern North Sea is a major gas province with production from Carboniferous and Permian reservoirs. It was a foreland basin in Carboniferous times uplifted to form a Lower Permian desert basin and subsequently deeply buried during the Mesozoic. Paleomagnetic methods have been used for burial analysis, core orientation, and paleocurrent studies. VRM is shown to be of only limited value for core orientation; problems relating to drilling effects and deflection by ChRM will be discussed. Detailed thermal demagnetization studies are most valuable. Blocking temperature spectra can be related to burial history curves, and ChRM directions isolated and compared with Carboniferous and Permian reference directions. ChRM is a valuable parameter for core orientation and thus paleocurrent studies. Examples will be shown from the Carboniferous and Lower Permian.

Turner, P. (Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Hartley, A.J. (Univ. College of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom))

1991-03-01

186

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30

187

C1-generic conservative diffeomorphisms have trivial centralizer  

CERN Document Server

We prove that the spaces of C1 symplectomorphisms and of C1 volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of connected manifolds both contain residual subsets of diffeomorphisms whose centralizers are trivial. (Les diff\\'eomorphismes conservatifs C1-g\\'en\\'eriques ont un centralisateur trivial. Nous montrons que l'espace des symplectomorphismes de classe C1 et l'espace des diff\\'eomomorphismes de classe C1 pr\\'eservant une forme volume contiennent tous deux des sous-ensembles r\\'esiduels de diff\\'eomorphismes dont le centralisateur est trivial.)

Bonatti, Christian; Wilkinson, Amie

2007-01-01

188

Disposal of excess saline water from coal mines in the Upper Hunter Valley  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examines the problems of excess saline water in the Upper Hunter Valley, NSW, the contribution of coal mining to this problem, and measures being taken to overcome it. The primary source of saline water at coal mines is the interception of groundwater in the Permian strata, which is naturally highly saline. The EPA and Water Resources Department have developed a mine discharge scheme. This aims to maximise on-site use and recycling of water and ensure that any discharges are environmentally acceptable. The EPA has also introduced a salt credits scheme in which tradeable credits to discharge saline water are allocated to each mine. 2 refs., 1 tab.

Hannan, J.C. [NSW Coal Association, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

1995-08-01

189

Application of geostatistics for a more precise statement of coal reserves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the traditional methods of ore estimation lack an optimisation criterion, the geostatistical technique, based on the theory of regionalized variables, which acknowledges and rectifies this deficiency, is evaluated. The development of a suite of Fortran computer programmes, GRESYS, for the implementation of geostatistical techniques is presented. Its application to the design of sampling surveys, the estimation of the values of economically sensitive parameters within a coal reserve and the precision associated with these predictions are demonstrated using data from the Orion seam of the Curragh prospect of the Permian Rangal Coal Measures in the Bowen Basin of north-eastern Australia.

Pauncz, I.; Nixon, T.R.; (Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories)

1980-01-01

190

A Review of h_c(1P1), eta_c(1S) and eta_c(2S)  

CERN Multimedia

Recent experimental results on charmonium $h_c(^1P_1)$, $\\eta_c(1S)$ and $\\eta_c(2S)$ from Belle, BaBar, CLEO and BESIII are reviewed. $h_c$ production and properties, the $\\eta_c(1S)$ lineshape and the observation of $\\eta_c(2S)$ in $\\psi'$ decays are discussed.

Bian, Jianming

2012-01-01

191

Coal-92  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.).

1992-01-01

192

Coal preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional role of coal preparation has been to produce a saleable product from and add economic value to run-of-mine (ROM) coal. More recently, it has been recognised that coal preparation can also bring considerable environmental benefits, including reduced emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and particulates, through the supply of clean coal of consistent quality to downstream coal utilisation processes. A wide range of coal preparation plant design is applied throughout the world. Major influences include raw coal characteristics, market requirements, local infrastructures and regional preferences. However, two major plant categories can be identified: total-washing systems to produce coal for premium markets and partial-washing systems, used primarily for the preparation of PSF. Whatever the market, the need to minimise costs has meant that there is a clear trend worldwide to design new plant with simpler process design, with single-unit processing streams, where possible. This report discusses coal preparation in the following aspects; (1) principal processes including raw coal pre-treatment; coal cleaning; coal sizing and classification; coal dewatering; tailing treatment and water clarification; (2) plant monitoring and control; (3) plant design and construction; (4) international practices in coal preparation (5) R & D and future technology development. 7 refs., 21 figs.

NONE

2001-01-01

193

Origin of Gondwanic South Brazilian coal measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palynological and petrological studies of several Gondwanic South Brazilian coalfields have resulted in a better understanding of different aspects relating both moor facies and ancient peat-forming vegetation. From the palaeobotanical affinities of certain Lower Permian miospores a shrub-like plant community comprising herbaceous and arbustive lycophyta and subordinate gymnospermae is supposed to be the main contributors to the formation of coal seams. According to the petrographic composition, different environments of coal deposition are considered in relation to both the water level variation and the type of vegetation. The forest-terrestrial moor is poorly developed and the deposition is restricted to coaly shale with fusinite, sporinite-poor durite and resinite. The limno-telmatic reed moor coals characterized by high amounts of nonstructured vitrinite, sporinite-rich clarite, trimacerite, associated with alginite and cutinite. The open moor is the most productive in South Brazilian coal measures and is characterized by the presence of clay minerals in excess of 50% associated with carbargilite, trimacerite and high exinite (sporinite and/or alginite) content.

Marques-Toigo, M.; Correa da Silva, Z.C.

1984-01-01

194

Coal 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Designed for people engaged in the international coal market, this book, produced annually from a database, includes summaries with tables and graphs of the major importers and exporters of coal, world trade statistics (resources, production, exports and imports), prices, contracts, ports and infrastructure information (with some maps), detailed coal quality specification for coal products from Australia, Indonesia, China, Canada, South Africa, Colombia, Venezuela, Vietnam, and some from the United States as well as a directory of coal mines in Australia and Indonesia including ownership, operator and contact details, mining method, coal category, resources, brands, load port, and production.

Haddad, D. (ed.)

2005-08-15

195

Direct interaction between CD91 and C1q  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

C1q-mediated removal of immune complexes and apoptotic cells plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune conditions. It has been suggested that C1q mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells through a receptor complex assembled from CD91 (alpha-2- macroglobulin receptor, or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein) and calreticulin, with CD91 being the transmembrane part and calreticulin acting as the C1q-binding molecule. In the present study, we observe that C1q binds cells from a CD91 expressing monocytic cell line as well as monocytes from human blood. C1q binding to monocytes was shown to be correlated with CD91 expression and could be inhibited by the CD91 chaperone, receptor-associated protein. We also report data showing a direct interaction between CD91 and C1q. The interaction was investigated using various protein interaction assays. A direct interaction between purified C1q and CD91 was observed both by ELISA and a surface plasmon resonance assay, with either C1q or CD91 immobilized. The interaction showed characteristics of specificity because it was time-dependent, saturable and could be inhibited by known ligands of both CD91 and C1q. The results obtained show for the first time that CD91 recognizes C1q directly. On the basis of these findings, we propose that CD91 is a receptor for C1q and that this multifunctional scavenger receptor uses a subset of its ligand-binding sites for clearance of C1q and C1q bound material.

Duus, Karen; Hansen, Erik W

2010-01-01

196

The not so simple relationship between seismicity and oil production in the Permian Basin, west Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

We have relocated seismicity occurring in the Permian Basin of west Texas between 1975 and 1979 using three-dimensional velocity models constructed from well log information and compared the locations to detailed geological and geophysical models of specific oil fields. The seismicity appears to be related to a variety of causes including migration of naturally occurring overpressured fluids, tectonic activity, reservoir production, and enhanced recovery operations. Many earthquakes may represent a combination of these effects. Although the Permian Basin is the site of numerous oil and gas fields, only a limited number of fields appears to be associated with seismicity. We find that there are similarities in the structural setting in the fields associated with seismicity. Furthermore, fields within the Delaware Basin that are associated with seismicity are located in regions of high vertical and lateral fluid pressure gradients related to an overpressured zone within the Delaware Basin.

Doser, D. I.; Baker, M. R.; Luo, M.; Marroquin, P.; Ballesteros, L.; Kingwell, J.; Diaz, H. L.; Kaip, G.

1992-09-01

197

Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI). A great attention has been given to the negative ?13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1) and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE) data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.

Aymon Baud

2005-01-01

198

Early Permian deep-water allochthonous limestone facies and reservoir, west Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional cores from six wells in southwest Reagan and northern Crockett Counties, Texas, recovered interbedded limestone conglomerate, intraclast and bioclast limestone, calcarenite, and shale. Twenty-one lithologies are grouped into six lithofacies based on study of slabbed core surfaces. The limestone facies are interpreted on the basis of petrologic characteristics, biota regional stratigraphic setting, and facies stratigraphy as deep water and allochthonous. Biotic constituents within the lithoclasts and matrix indicate an Early Permian (Wolfcamp) age. Age and facies determinations from cores in the Gunnx area significantly alter earlier stratigraphic interpretations made with wireline logs alone. Late Paleozoic allochthonous carbonate facies may provide significant new reserves in the Permian basin. 19 figures, 2 tables.

Hobson, J.P.; Caldwell, C.D.; Toomey, D.F.

1985-12-01

199

Sulfur and oxygen isotopes in Italian marine sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaporitic sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from Italian occurrences were analyzed for sulfur and oxygen isotopes in order to supplement the corresponding isotope-age curves and to use isotopic data to trace the origin of the sulfate in hydrologic systems. The sulfur-isotopic composition-age relationships obtained in this study generally agree with those found throughout the world. In two cases, i.e. in samples from the Carniola di Bovegno Formation (Bergamo and Brescia Alps) and from the lower part of the Gracilis Formation (Recoaro, Vicenza), sulfur isotopes suggest different ages for the rocks than the formerly ascribed ones. Oxygen-isotopic compositions show the same range from approximately +10.5 to +18.5per thousand, without any consistent relationship with sulfur. These ranges of values are almost identical to those published previously for sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from other locations.

Cortecci, G.; Reyes, E.; Berti, G. (Pisa Univ. (Italy)); Casati, P. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

1981-11-01

200

The Universal Askey-Wilson Algebra and DAHA of Type (C_1^?,C_1)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Around 1992 A. Zhedanov introduced the Askey-Wilson algebra AW(3). Recently we introduced a central extension $Delta_q$ of AW(3) called the universal Askey-Wilson algebra. In this paper we discuss how $Delta_q$ is related to the universal DAHA $hat H_q$ of type$(C^vee_1, C_1)$. Our main result is an algebra injection $psi: Delta_q o hat H_q$. We compute the image under $psi$ of various central elements in $Delta_q$. We describe how the Artin braid group $B_3$ acts on $Delta_q$ and $hat H_q$. We show that $psi$ commutes with these $B_3$ actions.

Paul Terwilliger

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Permian reefs of Texas and New Mexico: history of their study and scientific influence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

No fossil reef has more influenced thinking on carbonate and evaporite deposition, paleontology, paleoecology, and accumulation of petroleum than the Permian reefs of Texas and New Mexico. Study of the reefs can be divided into six fairly distinct periods. Little attention was given these Permian rocks, following discovery in 1855, until work by Girty and Richardson resulted in the monumental Guadalupian Fauna. Their study and those of Udden, Darton, Baker and others typify the first period. Discovery of oil in Permian rocks in Winkler County, Texas in 1926 initiated the second period, one when outcrops in the Guadalupe Mountains and elsewhere were examined to help explain puzzling stratigraphic relationships seen in the subsurface. E.R. Lloyd published in 1929 that the Capitan Limestone was a reef. The third period was dominated by P.B. and R.E. King and their colleagues. It was a time of geologic mapping and stratigraphic study. Adams et al. proposed Permian series based on sections in the Glass and Guadalupe Mountains. The fourth period is characterized by the classic study of Newell and his associates and was a time of paleoecologic and paleontologic work. Seminal studies by industry geologists, such as Dunham (Shell) and Pray and Tyrrell (Amoco) typify the fifth period. Dunham's work, in particular, spurred study of massive reef and bedded shelf facies and reef profiles. The sixth period is characterized by continuing detailed study of physical aspects of reef and shelf rocks by University of Wisconsin students and faculty, although they have also included work on algae and conodonts.

Rigby, J.K.

1985-01-01

202

Study of association of fossil levels in the Mangrullo Formation (Terminal Permian age) Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution makes reference to new findings, product of paleontological surveys performed in the Mangrullo Formation in the NE region of the country. The presence of a new group of vertebrates associated to mesosaurid remains was confirmed , in strata where only the latter where recorded until this moment. Palynological analysis were carried out in fossil bearing levels confirming a Terminal Permian Age and a possibly non marine acuatic depostional environment under an arid climate. (author)

1998-01-01

203

Geochemical anomalies near the Eocene-Oligocene and Permian-Triassic boundaries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence is presented to support the theory that several mass extinctions, i.e., those that define the Permian-Triassic boundary, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and the Eocene-1 Oligocene boundary, were caused by impact on the earth of extraterrestrial objects having the composition of carbonaceous chondrites and diameters of about 10 km. The evidence consists of anomalously high concentrations of iridium and other siderophile elements at the stratigraphic levels defining the extinctions. (ACR)

Asaro, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H.V.

1981-10-01

204

The problems of Paleozoic beds and reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin in western Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the first part of paper geologic data from smaller outcrops of Val Gardena Formation in west Slovenia are assembled. Together with the already published information from larger outcrops they permit the reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin on which the accent of paper is based. Attention is drawn to general problems of Upper Paleozoic beds, and conclusions regarding lithologic, stratigraphic and structural control of uranium and copper deposits in this part of Slovenia are given.

Ivan Mlakar

2003-01-01

205

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper analyses the world coal industry in 1999 with statistical information relating to coal reserves, coal production and coal consumption in 1999. Coal production fell sharply last year, with world output slipping by 6.1% to 2,103.5 Mtoe. The decline in coal consumption of recent years intensified during 1999 falling 5.1% to 2,129.5 Mtoe as China recorded a dramatic 16.8% slide to 511.0 Mtoe, relegating it to the world's number two consumer after the US. With the exception of North America and the Former Soviet Union (FSU), all regions showed a fall in coal consumption, most notably Europe where consumption fell by 5.2% to 348.0 Mtoe. The internationally traded price of both coking and steam coals continued to fall during 1999. 4 tabs.

Clifford, D.

2000-09-01

206

Coal pump  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01

207

Coal Mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

The panel on coal mining technology of the NRC committee on processing and utilization of fossil fuels was appointed to assess the distribution and quality of the nation's coal reserve, underground and surface mining techniques, processing techniques, man...

1978-01-01

208

Functional analysis of the serpin domain of C1 inhibitor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To analyze the role of the heavily glycosylated amino-terminal domain of C1 inhibitor in protease inhibitory activity, two truncated C1 inhibitor molecules were constructed. The abilities of the recombinant truncated inhibitors to complex with target proteases were compared with that of the wild-type recombinant protein. One recombinant truncated molecule consisted of amino acid residues 76 to 478 (C-serp(76)) and the other of residues 98 to 478 (C-serp(98)). The recombinant proteins were each expressed in similar quantities. The thermal denaturation profiles of the two truncated proteins were similar to that of the wild-type protein. Identical binding of C1s, C1r, kallikrein, and beta factor XIIa was observed with the three molecules. Furthermore, the truncated molecules also effectively inhibited C1 activity in hemolytic assays. These studies therefore clearly demonstrate that the amino-terminal domain of C1 inhibitor does not influence complex formation with target proteases.

Coutinho M; Aulak KS; Davis AE 3rd

1994-10-01

209

Towards an efficient prover for the C1 paraconsistent logic  

CERN Document Server

The KE inference system is a tableau method developed by Marco Mondadori which was presented as an improvement, in the computational efficiency sense, over Analytic Tableaux. In the literature, there is no description of a theorem prover based on the KE method for the C1 paraconsistent logic. Paraconsistent logics have several applications, such as in robot control and medicine. These applications could benefit from the existence of such a prover. We present a sound and complete KE system for C1, an informal specification of a strategy for the C1 prover as well as problem families that can be used to evaluate provers for C1. The C1 KE system and the strategy described in this paper will be used to implement a KE based prover for C1, which will be useful for those who study and apply paraconsistent logics.

Neto, Adolfo; Finger, Marcelo; 10.1016/j.entcs.2009.11.007

2012-01-01

210

Fullerenes and nanotubes from coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphite has normally been used to synthesise fullerenes and nanotubes. However, coal is a cheaper and more suitable industrial material. Because coal is a molecular solid, unlike graphite, the mechanism by which fullerene and nanotubes are formed is different. Moreover, other products such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and microfibres are also formed. In this review, the mechanism of formation of fullerene and nanotubes from coal is discussed. It is shown that the pathway involved is other than through the C-1 intermediate route. The influence of other elements in coal such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and iron is also discussed. It appears that, hydrogen, oxygen, iron and sulfur affect the yield and type of fullerenes and nanotubes formed.

Patney, H.K.; Nordlund, C.; Moy, A.; Rose, H.; Young, B.; Wilson, M.A. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Materials and Forensic Science

1999-07-01

211

Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate reservoirs of the Timan-Pechora Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate succession of the Timan-Pechora basin is a major hydrocarbon-bearing complex, hosting about half of the oil and nearly a third of the gas reserves of the basin. The succession represents the last episode of carbonate deposition on the northeastern margin of the Russian platform before the closure of the Ural seaway in the mid-Permian. The lower part of the succession (upper Visean-Moscovian) contains three major transgressive-regressive sequences. Depositional facies ranged from nearshore carbonate-shale-evaporite through shallow shelf detrital carbonates to outer-shelf carbonate-siliceous shale. The most pronounced regression during this interval occurred during the Serpukhovian, when marine sabkhas covered vast portions of the carbonate platform. Late Carboniferous-Early Permian sedimentation was complicated by the onset of Uralian tectonism. Flysch from the encroaching orogen accumulated initially in the east, advanced westward across the passive margin, and finally covered the carbonate platform in Artinskian-Kungurian time. Simultaneously, structural inversion along the Pechora-Kolva aulacogen and elsewhere provided sites for bioherm growth, in addition to exposing parts of the lower succession to erosion and karstification. Overall polarity of the basin switched as the eastern margin was elevated in the frontal thrusts of the Urals. The carbonate succession was terminated by increased clastic input from the advancing Ural orogen. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Zhemchugova, V.A. [Petroleum Scientific Research Geological Exploration Institute, Komi Republic (Russian Federation); Schamel, S. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1994-01-01

212

Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia): II. The morphogenus Glossopteris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group), near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004), was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil). Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.

Iannuzzi Roberto; Vieira Carlos E. L.; Guerra-Sommer Margot; Díaz-Martínez Enrique; Grader George W.

2004-01-01

213

A new Early Permian reptile and its significance in early diapsid evolution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The initial stages of evolution of Diapsida (the large clade that includes not only snakes, lizards, crocodiles and birds, but also dinosaurs and numerous other extinct taxa) is clouded by an exceedingly poor Palaeozoic fossil record. Previous studies had indicated a 38 Myr gap between the first appearance of the oldest diapsid clade (Araeoscelidia), ca 304 million years ago (Ma), and that of its sister group in the Middle Permian (ca 266 Ma). Two new reptile skulls from the Richards Spur locality, Lower Permian of Oklahoma, represent a new diapsid reptile: Orovenator mayorum n. gen. et sp. A phylogenetic analysis identifies O. mayorum as the oldest and most basal member of the araeoscelidian sister group. As Richards Spur has recently been dated to 289 Ma, the new diapsid neatly spans the above gap by appearing 15 Myr after the origin of Diapsida. The presence of O. mayorum at Richards Spur, which records a diverse upland fauna, suggests that initial stages in the evolution of non-araeoscelidian diapsids may have been tied to upland environments. This hypothesis is consonant with the overall scant record for non-araeoscelidian diapsids during the Permian Period, when the well-known terrestrial vertebrate communities are preserved almost exclusively in lowland deltaic, flood plain and lacustrine sedimentary rocks.

Reisz RR; Modesto SP; Scott DM

2011-12-01

214

Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant communities of the geologic past can be reconstructed with high fidelity only if they were preserved in place in an instant in time. Here we report such a flora from an early Permian (ca. 298 Ma) ash-fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, a time interval and area where such information is filling a large gap of knowledge. About 1,000 m(2) of forest growing on peat could be reconstructed based on the actual location of individual plants. Tree ferns formed a lower canopy and either Cordaites, a coniferophyte, or Sigillaria, a lycopsid, were present as taller trees. Noeggerathiales, an enigmatic and extinct spore-bearing plant group of small trees, is represented by three species that have been found as nearly complete specimens and are presented in reconstructions in their plant community. Landscape heterogenity is apparent, including one site where Noeggerathiales are dominant. This peat-forming flora is also taxonomically distinct from those growing on clastic soils in the same area and during the same time interval. This Permian flora demonstrates both similarities and differences to floras of the same age in Europe and North America and confirms the distinct character of the Cathaysian floral realm. Therefore, this flora will serve as a baseline for the study of other fossil floras in East Asia and the early Permian globally that will be needed for a better understanding of paleoclimate evolution through time.

Wang J; Pfefferkorn HW; Zhang Y; Feng Z

2012-03-01

215

Permian basalts and trachytes from Esterel (SE France): a transitional tholeiitic suite emplaced during lithosphere thinning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geochemical (major, trace and rare earth elements) and isotopic (143Nd/144Nd) compositions of lavas emplaced in the Esterel Massif (eastern Provence, France) at the end of the Permian allow to estimate the evolution of the continental lithosphere between the end of the Hercynian orogenesis and the beginning of the Tethyan rifting. Basalts from Agay basin and trachyte from Batterie des Lions belong to a transitional tholeiitic suite, characterized by negative Nb and Ta anomalies (relative to N-MORB) and homogeneous ?Nd(T=250Ma) ratios, close to the Bulk Earth. This suggests that the basalts from Agay basin and trachyte from Batterie des Lions derived from the partial melting of a mantle contaminated by lower continental crust. Maure Vieille trachytes differ from the differentiated rocks of the transitional suite by higher heavy rare earth abundances and ?Nd(T=250Ma) of +4/+5. These high ?Nd ratios suggest that the Maure Vieille trachytes could derive from the partial melting of a more depleted source, likely an asthenospheric mantle. The isotopic compositions of the Permian lavas from Esterel suggest the thinning (and perhaps the disappearance) of the lithospheric mantle which is associated at the surface with a NNW-SSE extension. The progressive change recorded in Agay basin from a stretching regime to a strike-slip regime may be related to the end of the lithospheric thinning and of the Permian magmatism. (authors)

1999-01-01

216

Coal from South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates coal mining and coal exports from South Africa. The following aspects are analyzed: reserves of black coal, coal properties and quality, mining conditions, methods for mining, number of coal mines and coal output per mine, coal consumption in South Africa, coal exports, development of coal exports, competitive position of coal from South Africa, activities of SASOL, TRANS-NATAL, RANDCOAL and RBCT, position of black coal from South Africa on the world market, prospects for increasing coal exports from South Africa.

Serafin, K. [Akademia Ekonomiczna, Katowice (Poland)

1993-10-01

217

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses coal production and demand around the world during 1992. South-east Asia leads demand growth, interest in US and Australian coal has increased, European output is shrinking and market forces have been disturbing centrally planned operations in Eastern Europe. Tables of data on world coal production, exports and consumption are presented and the top 153 hard and soft coal producers in the world are listed according to total output. 3 tabs.

Chadwick, J.

1993-09-01

218

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author briefly reviews coal reserves and production of the major producing regions. The prospects for international coal trade are examined and it is shown that there is little prospect of the UK having a significant influence in the international coal market.

Mills, L.J.

1985-03-01

219

Deashing coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emulsified oil is added to a water and coal suspension and it is subjected to ultrasonic (UZ) irradiation with simultaneous mixing. The coal is granulated more quickly than with conventional oiling and the granules are isolated from the mineral particles. The separation is supported by the varying wettability by water and oil of the coal and mineral particles.

Usami, M.; Nisi, A.; Savada, Y.; Sirakhava, S.

1983-06-11

220

Coal science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have designed a book to used primarily as a text for an introductory course in coal chemistry. The book is designed to be used with minimal background in chemistry and geology. However, a background in analytical, organic, and physical chemistry would be very useful in fully understanding some of the concepts presented in the test. The book is divided into five chapters covering major topics in coal chemistry. Chapter one is an introduction to coal. A brief history of the uses of coal is presented. Definitions of common terms such as resource, reserve, and rank are presented and explained. Chapter two deals with the petrology and petrography of coal. The various coal classification systems are discussed with an emphasis of microscopic analysis. Chapter three deals with the organic structure of coal. Emphasis is placed on the reactivity of coal to various conditions and reagents. Several models for the structure of coal are presented. Chapter four deals with coal conversion. Various techniques of both liquefaction and gasification are discussed. The last chapter deals with the analytical chemistry of coal. Sampling and the problems associated with sampling are discussed in some detail. All of the classical analysis techniques employed by coal scientists are discussed. Several references are made to the ASTM procedures.

Hessley, R.K.; Reasoner, J.W.; Riley. J.T.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Coalbed methane (CBM) potential in Brazil: coal characteristics and associated gas volumes in test well CBM001-ST- RS, Santa Terezinha Coal field, RS, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Santa Terezinha coal field in Rio Grande do Sul, a coal occurrence assigned to the Early Permian Rio Bonito Formation of the Parana Basin, has been target of a research project focusing on the CBM potential of that area. Sequence stratigraphic analysis has shown that peat accumulation was closely linked to transgressive / regressive cycles, with peat accumulation occurring in a predominantly back barrier type setting. To make an assessment of the CBM potential of the coal-bearing strata, computer-aided 3 D modeling of the main coal-bearing para sequences of the Terezinha coal field, and data from a pioneer test well were used for the evaluation of the CBM potential for an area of approximately 20 x 40 km in size. Based on coal volume and averaged methane desorption values it is suggested that in excess of 5 Billion m3 methane are contained in the coal seams of the study area and as such will contribute significantly to Brazil's known natural gas resources. Preliminary results from CO 2 adsorption experiments show that the adsorption capacities of the Parana Basin coals are 3-4 times higher than the adsorption capacities determined for methane, suggesting that the coal seams may serve as storage reservoirs for CO 2. (author)

Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Holz, Michael; Levandowski, Janaina; Casagrande, Junia; Oliveira, Tiago Agne de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Kern, Marcio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernd [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal

2008-07-01

222

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

223

Coal in western Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Activities of coal companies operating producing coal mines in western Canada are reported. Individual coal mines, production, contracts, and coal rank are included in the description. The coal producers are BC Coal, Cardinal River Coals, Coleman Collieries, Crows Nest Resources, Esso Minerals Canada, Fording Coal, Luscar, Manalta Coal, and McIntyre Mines.

1982-03-01

224

Advanced characterization of physical properties of coals with different coal structures by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the correlation between coal structure and physical property of coal, samples with different coal structures were collected from the Late Permian period coal seams in the Laochang area, Yunnan Province, China. A set of experiments were carried out to quantitatively characterize the physical properties of coals with different coal structures using advanced and nondestructive low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). The experimental results gave us confidence to conclude that the evolution of the coal structures can be divided into five stages with stress increasing: the fractures closing stage, the microfractures development stage, the cracks development stage, the shear deformation stage, and the plastic deformation stage. Each stage corresponds to a different coal structure with unique physical characteristics. The undeformed coal is dominated with pores and a small amount of poorly connected fractures. In the proto-cataclastic stage, the volume of the mesopores, macropores and fractures sharply decreases with stress increasing. The coal rock becomes more compacted. Additionally, the connectivity between fractures and pores becomes worse. The cataclastic coal has well-developed mesopores, macropores and fractures but few micropores and transition pores. The connectivity between fractures and pores is most conducive to the exploitation of coalbed methane. In the mylonitic coal stage, the plastic deformation occurs, resulting in the reduction and discontinuity of mesopores, macropores, and fractures. Moreover, the undeformed coal has the best homogeneity, and the mylonitic coal has the highest heterogeneity, resulted from the uneven distribution of the maceral, pores, fractures, and minerals caused by later stress effect. Furthermore, the CT porosities have a good positive correlation with the permeability; the average CT number, the standard deviation of CT number have a negative correlation with the permeability.

Li, Song; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Yang, Zi

2012-11-01

225

The application of FAMM (Fluorescence Alteration of Multiple Macerals) analyses for evaluating rank of Parana Basin coals, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combining vitrinite reflectance (VR) and fluorescence alteration of multiple macerals (FAMM) analyses provide insights into the chemical nature of vitrinites (i.e., perhydrous vs. orthohydrous vs. subhydrous compositions) in Permian Gondwana coals of the Parana Basin, Brazil. The FAMM-derived equivalent VR (EqVR) values and relationships with VR can be determined according to calibration curves based largely on Permian Gondwana coals of eastern Australia.The analytical results indicate that vitrinites in the Parana Basin coals studied generally range from orthohydrous to perhydrous, with interpreted VR suppression ranging up to 0.2% absolute for the most perhydrous case. The EqVR values of the Santa Catarina coals, which range from about 0.85% to 0.95% differ from VR values by about 0.10-0.15% absolute, potentially having significant implications on coal utilization. The causes of vitrinite reflectance suppression in the Parana Basin coals are as yet poorly understood, but are likely to be related to a combination of factors.

Kalkreuth, W.; Cioccari, G.; Correa da Silva, Z.; Silva, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, RS 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Sherwood, N. [CSIRO Petroleum, P.O. Box 136, North Ryde, 1670 NSW (Australia); Zhong, N. [Department of Geoscience, University of Petroleum, Chang Ping, Beijing 102200 (China); Zufa, L. [School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2004-03-23

226

Glomerular C1q deposition and serum anti-C1q antibodies in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is a well-known antibody-induced autoimmune disease. A few patients have glomerular C1q deposition, but it is usually absent on renal histopathology. The role of C1q deposition in kidney injury is unclear. Recently, anti-C1q antibodies are demonstrated to be pathogenic in the target organ damage of many autoimmune diseases, by facilitating C1q deposition and enhancing complement activation via classical pathway. In the current study, we investigated the associations between anti-C1q antibodies in sera and C1q deposition in kidney of patients with anti-GBM disease. RESULTS: It was shown that the severity of kidney injury was comparable between patients with and without C1q deposition, including the prevalence of oliguria/auria, the median percentage of crescents in glomeruli and the mean concentration of serum creatinine. Serum anti-C1q antibodies were detected in 15/25 (60%) patients with a low titer. The prevalence of C1q deposition in kidney was comparable between patients with and without serum anti-C1q antibodies (26.7% vs. 30.0%, p > 0.05). No association was found between anti-C1q antibodies and the severity of kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: The classical pathway of complement may not play a pathogenic role in the kidney injury of human anti-GBM disease. Anti-C1q antibodies could be detected in more than half of patients, which need further investigations.

Hu SY; Jia XY; Yang XW; Yu F; Cui Z; Zhao MH

2013-09-01

227

Coal preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of 26 equipment groups used in Poland for black coal preparation, 18 were developed or modernized by the KOMAG Mining Mechanization Center in Gliwice. The following equipment groups are characterized: classification screens, equipment for separation of metals from run-of-mine coal, coal crushers (jaw and drum crushers), DISA heavy media separators, OM jigs, OS jigs, heavy media cyclone separators, flotation machines, PWP vibrating screens for magnetite separation from coal, centrifugal dewatering screens, WOW dewatering centrifuges, disc vacuum filters, PF-ROW filter presses. Technical specificatirons of the separation equipment and dewatering equipment are shown in tables. Types of equipment for coal preparation exported from Poland are discussed. 4 refs.

Jedo, A.

1986-12-01

228

Clean coal  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuels such as coal can be powerful polluters of the environment. This article, part of site on the future of energy, introduces students to methods being implemented to make burning coal a cleaner process. Students read about the 1986 creation of the Clean Coal Technology Program and the coal-burning improvements it generated. Definitions of key terms are available, and a link is provided to an ABC News article about bacteria that have been bioengineered to clean coal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

229

Coal comminution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In coal preparation, coal comminution, or size reduction, improves handleability and processing performance by breaking down oversize material before processing. Conventional technologies, such as mechanically crushing, grinding and milling coal, are reviewed in this report as a basis for comparing and assessing new methods. Non-conventional comminution methods examined are slurry milling for coal-oil-water mixture production, cryocrushing, ultrasonic grinding, and chemical comminution. Chemical comminution was expected to be of greatest interest in this study which focussed on determining how clay might be released from Western Canadian coal particles to improve its cleanability. Background literature consulted is included. 39 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs., 1 app.

Rashid, M.A.; Long, D.F.

1987-12-01

230

Mineralogy of the No. 6 coal from the Qinglong Coalfield, Guizhou Province, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mineralogy and its geological origin of the Late Permian No. 6 coal seam from the Qinglong Coalfield, western Guizhou Province, were determined by the methods of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). A particular material consists of volcanic ash, detrital materials of terrigenous origin, and organic matter in this coal seam was determined. The results confirmed that the volcanic-derived material exactly exists in coal. Four structure types of the volcanic-derived materials were classified according to their shapes and occurrence modes. It is the first time that the authors found a relative high content of bornite in coal, which was attributed to the basic volcanic ash.

Li, Dahua; Tang, Yuegang; Deng, Tao; Chen, Kun; Liu, Dong; Cheng, Fangping

2008-12-15

231

Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

2008-03-15

232

The local $C^1$-density of stable ergodicity  

CERN Multimedia

The center bundle of a conservative partially hyperbolic diffeomorphism $f$ is called robustly non-hyperbolic if any conservative diffeomorphism which is $C^1$-close to $f$ has non-hyperbolic center bundle. In this paper, we prove that stable ergodicity is $C^1$-dense among conservative partially hyperbolic systems with robust non-hyperbolic center.

Zhou, Yunhua

2011-01-01

233

Dating of authigenic clays related to igneous intrusions in Hunter Valley Coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Sydney Basin is composed mainly of Permian and Triassic marine and non-marine clastic sedimentary strata together with economically significant coal deposits and volumetrically minor igneous rocks. Many of these igneous rocks are also economically significant not only for their use in the construction industry but also for their deleterious effects on coal mining, particularly in underground mines utilising longwall extraction systems. Igneous activity in the Sydney Basin ranges from Early Permian to Tertiary in age and although episodic in nature, activity was unlikely to have ceased for periods of more than approximately 10 million years (Carr and Facer 1980; Embleton et al. 1982). Dating of the time of emplacement of igneous rocks using the K-Ar isotopic system is a relatively straightforward procedure if suitable analytical facilities and samples of appropriate, fresh, primary minerals are available. In the case of intrusions in coal seams, however, the occurrence of fresh, primary minerals is very rare due to widespread alteration produced by interaction between the igneous rock and fluids in the coal seam. This interaction produces a variety of secondary minerals with most primary minerals and glass being altered to clays (mainly kaolinite) and carbonates. Consequently, relatively few isotopic dates for intrusions into coal seams have been determined. A detailed study of several hundred samples of igneous rocks from the Sydney Basin found only six samples of intrusions into coal seams that were suitable for conventional K-Ar dating (Carr and Facer 1980). Techniques for K-Ar dating of authigenic illite, developed in response to the need by the petroleum industry to understand the timing of diagenesis in petroleum source-rocks and reservoirs, are now well established (Clauer and Chaudhuri 1995). As part of a larger project on the impact of igneous intrusions on coal mining and the alienation of coal reserves, a preliminary investigation of the timing of authigenic illite formation by alteration of intrusions in Dartbrook Mine has been undertaken

2000-01-01

234

Paleomagnetic results from the Upper Permian of the eastern Qiangtang Terrane of Tibet and their tectonic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleomagnetic samples were collected from red intercalations within the Upper Permian Tuoba Formation from the eastern Qiangtang Terrane of Tibet. Progressive thermal demagnetization has revealed a prefolding, possibly primary, characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), which yields a tilt-corrected mean direction ofD/I=25.2°6.7° (? 95 = 8.6°). The equatorial paleolatitude for the Qiangtang Terrane indicated by this result and the similarity of Late Permian fauna and flora shared by the Qiangtang Terrane and South China Block (SCB) suggest that the two terranes were in close proximity during the Late Permian. A Late Permian paleogeographic reconstruction involving the major terranes of the present-day East Asia is constructed, in which the Songpan-Garze Sea is surrounded by Laurasia, the North China Block (NCB), the SCB and the Qiangtang Terrane. The Permian development of the Songpan-Garze Sea appears to be related to the rifting of the Qiangtang Terrane off the SCB. Its Triassic evolution may resemble that of the Solomon Sea today in the southwestern Pacific.

Huang, Kainian; Opdyke, Neil D.; Peng, Xingjie; Li, Jiguang, Li

1992-06-01

235

Possible origins of Permian remagnetizations in Devonian and Carboniferous limestones from the Moroccan Anti-Atlas (Tafilalet) and Meseta  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian overprints have been recognized for several years in different regions of the Hercynian chain. This process seems to affect not only large internal parts, but also external zones of the chain. Devonian limestones sampled in the Tafilalet and Maider massifs near Erfoud and Msissi reveal a strong Permian component carried mainly by magnetite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray investigations were performed in order to unravel the origin of this magnetite. Permian remagnetizations are also present in Visean limestones from the Meseta. Isothermal Remanent Magnetization studies and SEM analysis of magnetic separates show that this magnetization is carried mainly by pyrrhotite which could be a result of oxidation of pre-existing pyrite.

Salmon, E.; Edel, J. B.; Pique, A.; Westphal, M.

1988-11-01

236

Coal industry in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the present status of the coal industry in China. Aspects considered include the distribution of coal within the country, coal mining and production, coal processing and coal utilization.

Dai, H.; Ouyang, Y.; Pan, H.

1981-09-01

237

Coal and conglomerate in the Newcastle Coal Measures. Coeval facies or temporally unrelated?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Central Coast region of the Sydney Basin, the Vales Point, Wallarah and Great Northern Coals coalesce and comprise the topmost unit of the Late Permian Newcastle Coal Measures. These coals reach a combined thickness of 8 m and, in places, are separated by 50-m-thick conglomeratic, incised valley fills at several stratigraphic horizons. Early Triassic, terrestrial sedimentary rocks unconformably onlap onto the eroded coal. Although the coalesced coals are remarkably free of siliciclastic interbeds, coal plies (subsections) have been correlated for more than 20 km using brightness profiles (lithotypes) and gamma-ray logs. Plies average about 0.5 m thick and indicate that the original peat was deposited episodically. The concept that coal originated from low-lying peat mires on flood basins adjacent to, and coeval with, active river systems is not supported here. Instead, correlations show that gravel was deposited at a time that equates to the hiatus between coal plies. Gravel-filled incised valleys were eroded into peat mires, removing all peat in the deepest places. Where the coals are coalesced, the only evidence for adjacent, thick conglomerate is a gamma-ray spike and a thin clay pellet layer of altered volcanogenic fragments. It is proposed that the coal is composed of individual plies originating from raised peat mires that grew during cyclical base-level rises. Afterwards, the mires became dormant during base-level falls, creating a hiatal surface above the degrading peat. During base-level fall, the increasing gradient initiated erosion of an incised valley into the dormant peat mire. Subsequently, as base level rose again, fluvial gravel aggraded in the valley. When the water table rose to the top of the incised valley, the flanking dormant peat mire was reactivated, initiating the accumulation of another ply above the hiatal surface. As peat grew and accumulated in raised mires, the sediment-filled incised valley may have resembled a muddy, estuarine body of water, no longer capable of transporting the coarse clastic bed load it did at times of lower base level. Repetition of base-level rise and fall is considered the main controlling factor in producing vertically stacked coal plies separated by hiatal and erosional surfaces, split in places, by thick conglomerate.

Lindsay, Grahame; Herbert, Chris [Mining and Exploration Geology Services MEGS, P.O. Box 840, NSW, Charlestown (Australia)

2002-08-01

238

Coal - 96  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NOx removal. Most other plants are using low NOx burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

1996-01-01

239

Venezuelan coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

1991-01-01

240

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this program in its third year, as briefly summarized below. (1) Nanoscale iron-based catalysts containing molybdenum, palladium, or nickel and supported on alumina have been developed that are very effective for the dehydrogenation of methane and ethane to produce pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. Some of the nanotube structures are being investigated as a safe storage medium for hydrogen. Dehydrogenation of higher hydrocarbons, including several liquids that are compatible with vehicular transportation under fuel cell power, is currently under investigation. (2) Operation of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis under supercritical fluid (SCF) solvent conditions increases liquid fuel yields and improves the selectivity of the process to produce desired products. (3) Small additions ({approx}1%) of organic probe molecules with carbon-carbon triple bonds to the FT reaction markedly shift the molecular weight distribution and increase the oxygenate content of the products. The goal is to develop better technology for producing cleaner burning diesel fuel and other fuels. (4) Several different types of catalyst are under investigation to develop better control of FT fuel product distributions. (5) C1 processes have been developed for producing ethylene and propylene, two high-value products, from methanol. Novel silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) catalysts containing nickel and other metals are used. (6) Binary tungsten-cobalt carbide catalysts have been found to have excellent activities and lifetimes for reforming of methane into synthesis gas using carbon dioxide. This type of catalyst is being further investigated for synthesis gas reactions relevant to the goal of producing hydrogen from coal.

Gerald P. Huffman

2002-09-30

 
 
 
 
241

Size-frequency distributions along a latitudinal gradient in Middle Permian fusulinoideans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Geographic gradients in body size within and among living species are commonly used to identify controls on the long-term evolution of organism size. However, the persistence of these gradients over evolutionary time remains largely unknown because ancient biogeographic variation in organism size is poorly documented. Middle Permian fusulinoidean foraminifera are ideal for investigating the temporal persistence of geographic gradients in organism size because they were diverse and abundant along a broad range of paleo-latitudes during this interval (~275-260 million years ago). In this study, we determined the sizes of Middle Permian fusulinoidean fossils from three different paleo-latitudinal zones in order to examine the relationship between the size of foraminifers and regional environment. We recovered the following results: keriothecal fusulinoideans are substantially larger than nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans; fusulinoideans from the equatorial zone are typically larger than those from the north and south transitional zones; neoschwagerinid specimens within a single species are generally larger in the equatorial zone than those in both transitional zones; and the nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans Staffellidae and Schubertellidae have smaller size in the north transitional zone. Fusulinoidean foraminifers differ from most other marine taxa in exhibiting larger sizes closer to the equator, contrary to Bergmann's rule. Meridional variation in seasonality, water temperature, nutrient availability, and carbonate saturation level are all likely to have favored or enabled larger sizes in equatorial regions. Temporal variation in atmospheric oxygen concentrations have been shown to account for temporal variation in fusulinoidean size during Carboniferous and Permian time, but oxygen availability appears unlikely to explain biogeographic variation in fusulinoidean sizes, because dissolved oxygen concentrations in seawater typically increase away from the equator due to declining seawater temperatures. Consequently, our findings highlight the fact that spatial gradients in organism size are not always controlled by the same factors that govern temporal trends within the same clade.

Zhang Y; Payne JL

2012-01-01

242

Regional distribution and chemical characterization of Permian Capitan fore-reef slope dolomite: Implications for paleohydrology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dolomitized fore-reef slope facies recently have become significant targets for petroleum exploration in the Permian basin and elsewhere. Despite this, very little is known about the dolomitization process that largely controls porosity distribution in this facies. An integrated field, petrographic, and geochemical study has been conducted in the fore-reef slope strata of the Permian Capitan Formation to provide insight into this problem. Dolomitization of the Capitan fore-reef slope facies ranges from 0 to 100%. Regionally, the variation is related to stratigraphic age, with older forereef slope facies more dolomitized than younger facies. This generalization is consistent throughout the Guadalupe Mountains and appears to continue into the subsurface. On a local scale, more permeable beds were the first dolomitized, and within these, dolomitization decreases downslope. In the Capitan reef facies, dolomitization is restricted to vertical karst breccia pipes and other zones of high primary porosity. The majority of Capitan dolomite is finely crystalline (5-30 {mu}) with average {delta}{sup 18}O = 0.9 and {delta}{sup 13}C = 5.9. A second coarser (130-{mu}) dolomite generation is also present but is not as volumetrically important. The relative positive (for the Late Permian) {delta}{sup 18}O values indicates an evaporitively concentrated dolomitizing fluid. The most likely paleohydrologic model for the main phase of forereef slope dolomitization calls for descending hypersaline brines passing through the reef facies in vertical karst breccia pipes and then following permeable beds down the foreslope. Several sources are possible for these brines, with the most likely being the hypersaline back-reef lagoonal environment.

Melim, L.A. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

243

Impact event at the Permian-Triassic boundary: evidence from extraterrestrial noble gases in fullerenes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) event, which occurred about 251.4 million years ago, is marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Recent studies of some PTB sites indicate that the extinctions occurred very abruptly, consistent with a catastrophic, possibly extraterrestrial, cause. Fullerenes (C60 to C200) from sediments at the PTB contain trapped helium and argon with isotope ratios similar to the planetary component of carbonaceous chondrites. These data imply that an impact event (asteroidal or cometary) accompanied the extinction, as was the case for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event about 65 million years ago.

Becker L; Poreda RJ; Hunt AG; Bunch TE; Rampino M

2001-02-01

244

Archaea dominate ammonia oxidizers in the permian water ecosystem of midland basin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the existence and characteristics of ammonia oxidizers in Permian water from Midland Basin. Molecular surveys targeting the amoA gene showed that only ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) exist and have potential activity in this special environment. In contrast, no ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were detected in the water. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 72-89% of the total screened AOA clones were affiliated with those found in underground water, and 10-24% of the AOA clones were related to those found in marine water or sediments. Our results indicate AOA might be the most abundant ammonia-oxidizing microbes in this ecological niche.

Hong Y; Youshao W; Chen F

2013-09-01

245

Configuration of the magnetic field and reconstruction of Pangaea in the Permian period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The virtual geomagnetic poles of Laurasia and Gondwanaland in the Carboniferous and Permian periods diverge significantly when these continents are reassembled according to the fit calculated by Bullard et al. Two interpretations have been offered: Briden et al. explain these divergences by a magnetic field configuration very different from that of a geocentric axial dipole; Irving (and private communication), Van der Voo and French(4) suggest a different reconstruction and it is shown here that these two interpretations are not incompatible and that the first may help the second.

Westphal M

1977-05-01

246

Configuration of the magnetic field and reconstruction of Pangaea in the Permian period.  

Science.gov (United States)

The virtual geomagnetic poles of Laurasia and Gondwanaland in the Carboniferous and Permian periods diverge significantly when these continents are reassembled according to the fit calculated by Bullard et al. Two interpretations have been offered: Briden et al. explain these divergences by a magnetic field configuration very different from that of a geocentric axial dipole; Irving (and private communication), Van der Voo and French(4) suggest a different reconstruction and it is shown here that these two interpretations are not incompatible and that the first may help the second. PMID:16073416

Westphal, M

1977-05-12

247

Geotectonic implications of Permian and Triassic carbonate successions in the Central Plain of Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Two carbonate successions constituting Paleozoic–Mesozoic basement rocks distributed in the Nakhon Sawan–Uthai Thani area in the Chao Phraya Central Plain of Thailand were investigated to understand basic geotectonic subdivision of the area. Of them, we newly proposed the term Khao Pathawi Limestone for a Triassic succession exposed in eastern Uthai Thani Province, from which a rich foraminiferal fauna consisting of Aulotortus sinuosus, A. friedli, Tetrataxis inflata, Diplotermina subangulata, Agathammina austroalpina, Ammobaculites rhaeticus, Alpinophragmium perforatum, Gaudryina triadica, and others was discriminated. They clearly suggest a Late Triassic age and highly probably Norian/Rhaetian. This limestone succession is considered to have formed a carbonate platform and is comparable to those on the Triassic Lampang–Phrae Basin in the Sukhothai Zone of Northern Thailand. In contrast, the Uthai Thani Limestone exposed just west of the Khao Pathawi Limestone, in the form of NNW–SSE trending monadnocks, represents a slightly metamorphosed, thick-bedded Permian succession. Its outcrop alignment is distinct from the north–south trending Khao Pathawi Limestone, suggesting their structural separation. The Uthai Thani Limestone is correlated to the Sai Yok Formation and the Ratburi Limestone, both of which are well-known as typical Permian successions on the Sibumasu Block. By integrating these data from the carbonates, together with available geological information from other Paleozoic–Mesozoic basement units in the Central Plain, such as petrochemical properties of granitoids and volcanic/volcaniclastic rocks and litho- and chronostratigraphic characteristics of sedimentary successions, including the Permian Khao Gob Chert, we explain that the central part of the Nakhon Sawan–Uthai Thani area where the Khao Pathawi Limestone and the Khao Gob Chert are distributed, corresponds geotectonically to the direct southern extension of the Sukhothai Zone of Northern Thailand. Thus, as is the case of Northern Thailand, we recognized three geotectonic domains also in the Central Plain; they are the Indochina Block (part of Cathaysialand), Sukhothai Zone (Permian–Triassic island arc system), and Sibumasu Block (part of Gondwanaland) from east to west. To the south, the Sukhothai Zone probably extends to the Klaeng Zone of Southeast Thailand. In this paper, Endotriada martiniae Ueno, Miyahigashi and Charoentitirat, n. sp. from the Khao Pathawi Limestone is also described.

Ueno, Katsumi; Miyahigashi, Akira; Kamata, Yoshihito; Kato, Miyako; Charoentitirat, Thasinee; Limruk, Seranee

2012-11-01

248

Sponge assemblage of some Upper Permian reef limestones from Phrae province (Northern Thailand)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sponge fauna of uppermost Permian reef or reefal limestones of the Phrae province in northern Thailand include representatives of hexactinellida, sclerospongea,"sphinctozoans", and "inozoans". The "sphinctozoans" and "inozoans"are described in detail. Following taxa are new:"Sphinctozoans": Phraethalamia tubulara n. gen., n. sp., Ambithalamia pérmican. gen., n. sp."Inozoans": Bisiphonella tubulara n. sp., Solutossaspongia crassimuralis n.gen., n. sp.The genus name Belyaevaspongia nom. nov. is proposed for PolysiphonellaBelyaeva, 1991 (in Boiko et al., 1991), non Polysiphonella Russo, 1981.

Baba Senowbari-Daryan; Rucha Ingavat-Helmcke

1994-01-01

249

Impact event at the Permian-Triassic boundary: evidence from extraterrestrial noble gases in fullerenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) event, which occurred about 251.4 million years ago, is marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Recent studies of some PTB sites indicate that the extinctions occurred very abruptly, consistent with a catastrophic, possibly extraterrestrial, cause. Fullerenes (C60 to C200) from sediments at the PTB contain trapped helium and argon with isotope ratios similar to the planetary component of carbonaceous chondrites. These data imply that an impact event (asteroidal or cometary) accompanied the extinction, as was the case for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event about 65 million years ago. PMID:11222855

Becker, L; Poreda, R J; Hunt, A G; Bunch, T E; Rampino, M

2001-02-23

250

Palynology and stratigraphy preliminary study and the perforation 313/1, lower Permian. Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The palynomorphs in the bore 313/1 of the Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia are analyzed. Twenty three samples were processed, and only 9 were fertile. The lithologies correspond to sandstones of variable grain size, to mudstone and to diamictite, all of them assigned to the San Gregorio and Tres Islas Fms. The most abundant genera of sporare are essentially represented by monosaccate grains. Bisaccate and striated grains are very scare. The palynoflora is comparable with those studied in Brazil in the Fm Rio Bonito. Therefore, it is proposed that the sediments studied were deposited in the early Permian. (author)

1998-01-01

251

A Temnospondyl amphibian from the Rio do Rasto Formation, Upper Permian of southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partially preserved lower jaw constitutes the holotype of Bageherpeton longignathus n. g., n. sp., a probable archegosaurid amphibian, which is here assigned to the Platyoposaurinae. The material was collected in the beds of the Rio do Rasto Formation outcropping in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. This is the second archegosaurid described for the Permian of Brazil. Prionosuchus plummeri Price 1948, from the Pedra do Fogo Formation in the Parnaiba Basin (northeastern Brazil), is the first. The new taxon differs from other platyoposaurs by the presence of an extremely elongated precoronoid that participates in the mandibular symphysis.

DIAS ELISEU V.; BARBERENA MARIO C.

2001-01-01

252

Functional analysis of the serpin domain of C1 inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the role of the heavily glycosylated amino-terminal domain of C1 inhibitor in protease inhibitory activity, two truncated C1 inhibitor molecules were constructed. The abilities of the recombinant truncated inhibitors to complex with target proteases were compared with that of the wild-type recombinant protein. One recombinant truncated molecule consisted of amino acid residues 76 to 478 (C-serp(76)) and the other of residues 98 to 478 (C-serp(98)). The recombinant proteins were each expressed in similar quantities. The thermal denaturation profiles of the two truncated proteins were similar to that of the wild-type protein. Identical binding of C1s, C1r, kallikrein, and beta factor XIIa was observed with the three molecules. Furthermore, the truncated molecules also effectively inhibited C1 activity in hemolytic assays. These studies therefore clearly demonstrate that the amino-terminal domain of C1 inhibitor does not influence complex formation with target proteases. PMID:7930585

Coutinho, M; Aulak, K S; Davis, A E

1994-10-15

253

Conditions for the formation and atmospheric dispersion of a toxic, heavy gas layer during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits by sill intrusion  

Science.gov (United States)

There is compelling evidence for massive discharge of volatiles, including toxic species, into the atmosphere at the end of the Permian. It has been argued that most of the gases were produced during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits in the East Siberia Tunguska basin following sill intrusion (Retallack and Jahren, 2008; Svensen et al., 2009). The release of the volatiles has been proposed as a major cause of environmental and extinction events at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009) Here we consider the conditions required for the formation and dispersion of toxic, heavier than air, gas plumes, made up of a mixture of CO2, CH4, H2S and SO2 and formed during the thermal metamorphism of C- and S- rich sediments. Dispersion models and density considerations within a range of CO2/CH4 ratios and volatile fluxes and temperatures, for gas discharge by both seepage and from vents, allow the possibility that following sill emplacement much of the vast East Siberia Tunguska basin was - at least intermittently - covered by a heavy, toxic gas layer that was unfavorable for life. Dispersion scenarios for a heavy gas layer beyond the Siberian region during end-Permian times will be presented. REFERENCES G. J. Retallack and A. H. Jahren, Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events, Journal of Geology, volume 116, 1-20, 2008 H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 2009

Storey, Michael; Hankin, Robin K. S.

2010-05-01

254

The stability of the stratospheric ozone layer during the end-Permian eruption of the Siberian Traps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of mutated palynomorphs in end-Permian rocks led to the hypothesis that the eruption of the Siberian Traps through older organic-rich sediments synthesized and released massive quantities of organohalogens, which caused widespread O3 depletion and allowed increased terrestrial incidence of harmful ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315nm; Visscher et al. 2004 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12952-12956). Here, we use an extended version of the Cambridge two-dimensional chemistry-transport model to evaluate quantitatively this possibility along with two other potential causes of O3 loss at this time: (i) direct effects of HCl release by the Siberian Traps and (ii) the indirect release of organohalogens from dispersed organic matter. According to our simulations, CH3Cl released from the heating of coals alone caused comparatively minor O3 depletion (5-20% maximum) because this mechanism fails to deliver sufficiently large amounts of Cl into the stratosphere. The unusual explosive nature of the Siberian Traps, combined with the direct release of large quantities of HCl, depleted the model O3 layer in the high northern latitudes by 33-55%, given a main eruptive phase of less than or equal to 200kyr. Nevertheless, O3 depletion was most extensive when HCl release from the Siberian Traps was combined with massive CH3Cl release synthesized from a large reservoir of dispersed organic matter in Siberian rocks. This suite of model experiments produced column O3 depletion of 70-85% and 55-80% in the high northern and southern latitudes, respectively, given eruption durations of 100-200kyr. On longer eruption time scales of 400-600kyr, corresponding O3 depletion was 30-40% and 20-30%, respectively. Calculated year-round increases in total near-surface biologically effective (BE) UV-B radiation following these reductions in O3 layer range from 30-60 (kJm(-2)d(-1))BE up to 50-100 (kJm(-2)d(-1))BE. These ranges of daily UV-B doses appear sufficient to exert mutagenic effects on plants, especially if sustained over tens of thousands of years, unlike either rising temperatures or SO2 concentrations.

Beerling DJ; Harfoot M; Lomax B; Pyle JA

2007-07-01

255

Coal gasification and coal hydrogenation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present state of the development works on the coal gasification and coal hydrogenation processes carried out by the coal producing and engineering companies is presented. The coal gasification projects are the following: Texaco suspended dust gasification, Lurgi fixed-bed pressurized gasification (Ruhr 100), Shell-Koppers dust gasification, Saarberg-Otto fluidized dust gasification, high temperature fluidized bed Winkler gasification and the Rheinbraun hydrogenating gasification in the fluidized bed. The coal hydrogenation is developed on the basis of the IG technology based on the work of F. Bergius and M. Pier. Emissions of coal refining plants, plant location and permit procedure studies are treated also. Separate abstracts were prepared for 8 papers of this symposium.

1980-01-01

256

Illite/Smectite diagenesis in the NanXiang, Yitong, and North China Permian-carboniferous basins: Application to petroleum exploration in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NanXiang basin in Henan Province and the Yitong basin in Jilin Province, located in the eastern part of China, are composed mainly of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences that thicken to more than 4000-5000 m. The North China Permian-Carboniferous basin consists of Permian-Carboniferous systems composed of marine and nonmarine coal-bearing sequences. Clay diagenesis in these basins was studied by systematic x-ray diffraction analysis. The clay mineralogy consists of illite, smectite, mixed-layered illite/smectite (I/S), kaolinite, and chlorite. The major clay reaction is the illitization of smectite with depth and temperature. The reactions generally involve discrete smectite stage to smectite, plus the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0 in the Reichweite nomenclature), followed by the first rapid change (1) to the ordered I/S of short-range stacking (R = 1) and the second rapid change (11) to the metastable stage (with the ordered I/S of long-range stacking-R {ge}3). The first rapid change leads to the appearance of I/S-ordered I/S and disappearance of discrete smectite. The proportion of smectite layers (Ps) in the I/S in the metastable stage remained unchanged (15-20%) over a thick burial interval. The discrete illite stage finally occurs in highly mature areas. Potassium-feldspar (K-feldspar) in rocks and K ions in present formation waters are available for the I/S reactions; I/S reactions in these areas responded mainly to temperature. The I/S transition from the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0) to the ordered I/S occurred at 80-95{degrees}C and coincided with the onset of the oil window in source rocks and with secondary porosity enhancement of sand-stones. Integrating the I/S reactions with thermal histories, hydrological regimes, structure, sedimentation, and sandstone diagenesis of each basin allows formulation of clay diagenetic models for each specific basin.

Xinhua Deng; Youngchuan Sun; Xinrong Lei [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China)] [and others

1996-02-01

257

Vertical seismic profiling in coal. [Sydndy Basin coalfield  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intellection (understanding) of seismic wave propagation in coal measures demands direct observation of the wavefield progression. Two vertical seismic profiles with high spatial and temporal sampling, were recently recorded in the Sydney Basin coalfields as part of an experimental coal seismic program. Static corrections and interval velocities were obtained by an automated system to determine first kicks and pulse rise times. Upgoing and downgoing waves were separated in the f - k-plane using a novel technique of contour slice filtering. The isolated upgoing waves clearly display reflections from the major coal seams within the stratigraphic sequence. The downgoing wave spectra were subjected to attenuation analysis. The deduced specific quality factor Q for Permian coal measure rocks lies in the range 20-70. Similar estimates were obtained in the time domain from measurements of pulse broadening. Synthetic VSP seismograms, computed using an exact recursive formulation, are an indispensable aid to interpretation. They illustrate the filtering effects of coal seams and sequences, and the effects of the contribution of internal and free-surface multiple reflections in the recorded wavetrains.

Greenhalgh, S.A.; Suprajitno, M.

1985-08-01

258

Human pasteurized C1-inhibitor concentrate for the treatment of hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hereditary angioedema is a relatively rare genetic disorder affecting between one in 10,000 and one in 50,000 individuals worldwide. The most common clinical symptoms observed are relapsing swelling of the skin and abdominal pain attacks. However, more serious and potentially fatal laryngeal attacks can also occur. Hereditary angioedema is most frequently caused by a deficiency of C1-inhibitor. Replacement therapy with Berinert, an intravenous pasteurized C1-inhibitor concentrate derived from human plasma, is a recommended treatment for rapid resolution of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency. Prophylactic therapy with C1-inhibitor is also available. Future advances may improve morbidity and mortality associated with hereditary angioedema.

Bork K

2011-11-01

259

Clean Coal?  

Science.gov (United States)

This video and accompanying essay examine carbon capture and storage and clean-coal technology, providing statistics for overall annual U.S. consumption as well as average household usage. Turning solid coal into a clean-burning fuel gas (syngas) and capture and storage pros and cons are discussed.

Pbs, Wgbh -.; Domain, Teachers'

260

Coal handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The eleven chapters of the handbook present coal science and technology, starting with basic definitions of the structure of coal (Chapter 1) and methods of sampling and analysis (Chapter 2), through the technology and equipment of underground and surface coal mining (Chapters 3 and 4) and size reduction (Chapter 5). Chapters on coal cleaning (Chapter 6), utilization (Chapter 7), combustion (Chapter 8), and the conversion of coal to coke (Chapter 9), along with chapters on gaseous fuels (Chapter 10) and liquid fuels (Chapter 12), complete the presentation. An extensive glossary of technical terms is available at the back of the handbook. This book is intended to be particularly useful to scientists and engineers who are experts in one or two coal technology disciplines but require ready access to a wider range of coal technology. Scientists and technologists just entering the coal area cannot only familiarize themselves with the complete technological field but obtain an in-depth introduction to specific areas. The government manager, legislator, or planner will be in a better position to evaluate and select among planning and legislative alternatives after reading this handbook. Chapters have been entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

Meyers, R.A. (ed.)

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Coal science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

493 papers were presented at this conference. Volume I contains papers dealing with: fundamentals and general aspects; combustion and gasification; and pyrolysis and carbonization. Volume II contains papers on: liquefaction and hydropyrolysis; and coal and the environment. All the papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

Pajares, J.A.; Tascon, J.M.D. [eds.] [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

1995-12-31

262

C1 inhibitor, a multi-functional serine protease inhibitor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is a serpin that regulates both complement and contact (kallikrein-kinin) system activation. It consists of a serpin domain that is highly homologous to other serpins and an amino terminal non-serpin mucin-like domain. Deficiency of C1INH results in hereditary angioedema, a disease characterised by episodes of angioedema of the skin or the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract or the oropharynx. Although early data suggested that angioedema was mediated via complement system activation, the preponderance of the data indicate that bradykinin is the mediator. In the past few years, it has become apparent that C1INH has additional anti-inflammatory functions independent of protease inhibition. These include interactions with leukocytes that may result in enhanced phagocytosis, with endothelial cells via E- and P-selectins that interfere with leukocyte rolling and in turn results in suppression of transmigration of leukocytes across the endothelium, and interactions with extracellular matrix components that may serve to concentrate C1INH at sites of inflammation. In addition, C1INH suppresses gram negative sepsis and endotoxin shock, partly via direct interaction with endotoxin that interferes with its interaction with macrophages, thereby suppressing tumour necrosis factor-a and other inflammatory mediators. C1INH treatment improves outcome in a number of disease models, including sepsis and other bacterial infections, possibly malaria, ischaemia-reperfusion injury (intestinal, hepatic, muscle, cardiac, brain), hyper-acute transplant rejection, and other inflammatory disease models. Recent data suggest that this effectiveness is the result of mechanisms that do not require protease inhibition, in addition to both complement and contact system activation.

Davis AE 3rd; Lu F; Mejia P

2010-11-01

263

Primer caso registrado en Cuba de nefropatía C1q/ First case of C1q nephropathy in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La nefropatía C1q es una glomerulopatía no comprendida completamente y con algunas controversias conceptuales, pero con característica inmunológica distintiva (depósito dominante o co-dominante de C1q) y no evidencia clínica ni serológica de lupus eritematoso sistémico. Se presenta paciente masculino que comienza a los 10 meses de edad con un síndrome nefrótico con hematuria, hipertensión arterial e insuficiencia renal. Se realiza una primera biopsia renal y se (more) plantea una esclerosis mesangial difusa, pero su evolución posterior con respuesta parcial a la prednisona y el mantenimiento de proteinuria en rango nefrótico con normalización de los parámetros humorales, nos lleva a realizar una segunda biopsia renal que arroja, por la inmunofluorescencia, una nefropatía C1q. Abstract in english C1q nephropathy is a poorly understood glomerulopathy with some conceptual controversies, but with a distinctive immunologic characteristic (dominant or co-dominant deposit of C1q) and neither clinical nor serological evidence of systemic erythematous lupus. This is the case of a male patient who began suffering nephritic syndrome with hematuria, blood hypertension and renal failure at 10 months of age. A first renal biopsy was performed to detect diffuse mesangeal sclero (more) sis; however after partial response of the patient to prednisone therapy and to maintenance treatment of proteinuria in nephritic range, with normalization of humoral parameters, then a second renal biopsy was performed with immunofluorescence. The final result was C1q nephropathy.

Campañá Cobas, Neri Georgina; Chong López, Agustín; Durán Álvarez, Sandalio; Hernández Hernández, Severino; Valdés Mesa, Mario

2013-06-01

264

Newlands coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Newlands is a large opencut export steaming coal mine in Central Queensland. The Newlands mine supplies coal to markets in Europe and Asia. Newlands is located in the northern part of the Bowen Basin, a vast coalfield acclaimed world-wide for the quality and abundance of its coal, much of it recoverable by efficient opencut mining techniques. As well, Bowen Basin mines, such as Newlands, are relatively short rail distances from large modern deepwater coal ports. The Newlands mine is situated 130 kilometres (197 km by road) west of the coastal centre of Mackay. It is 77 kilometres south of Collinsville. Newlands Coal Pty. Ltd. the operating company, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Mount Isa Mines Limited. Both companies are members of the MIM Holdings Limited group of companies. MIM, a major mining and mineral processing group, is based in Queensland where many of its operations are located but it has extensive interests elsewhere in Australia and overseas.

1985-01-01

265

Coal RSA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mid-term prospects look strong, though improved productivity is still necessary, but long-term the South African coal industry needs to secure new export capacity. There is little export capacity apart from the Richards Bay Coal Terminal, so a second terminal is once again being planned. Domestic coal consumption is expected to grow, but productivity still needs improvement for South African coal to remain competitive on the export market. Wages are rising, but so far productivity is keeping pace. The current situation in the coalfields is examined, including developments at Waterburg, investment in new mines by Anglovaal and by Ingwe, land reclamation efforts by Amcoal, and coal prices and demand. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Chadwick, J.

1996-06-01

266

Microbial response to limited nutrients in shallow water immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous work indicates that a variety of microbes bloomed in the oceans after the end-Permian faunal mass extinction, but evidence is sporadically documented. Thus, the nature and geographic distribution of such microbes and their associations are unclear, addressed in this study using a series of biomarker groups. On the basis of microbial biomarker records of the 2-methylhopane index, evidence is presented for cyanobacterial blooms in both the western and eastern Tethys Sea and in both shallow and deep waters, after the mass extinction. The enhanced relative abundance of C(28) (expressed by the C(28) /C(29) ratio of) regular steranes suggests a bloom of prasinophyte algae occurred immediately after the end-Permian faunal extinction, comparable with those observed in some other mass extinctions in Phanerozoic. Significantly, cyanobacteria and prasinophyte algae show a synchronized onset of bloom in the shallow water Bulla section, north Italy, inferring for the first time their coupled response to the biotic crisis and the associated environmental conditions. However, in Meishan of Zhejiang Province in south China, the bloom declined earlier than in Bulla. The association of increased 2-methylhopane index with a negative shift in the nitrogen isotope composition infers a scenario of enhanced nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria immediately after the faunal mass extinction. N(2) fixation by cyanobacteria is here interpreted to have provided prasinophyte algae with ammonium in nutrient-limited shallow waters, and thus caused their associated blooms.

Jia C; Huang J; Kershaw S; Luo G; Farabegoli E; Perri MC; Chen L; Bai X; Xie S

2012-01-01

267

Diagenetic overprint of original depositional architecture in a shallow water carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian shallow-water carbonate reservoirs are highly heterogeneous because of complex variations in depositional facies produced by high-frequency sea level rise and fall. Accordingly, establishment of a cycle stratigraphic framework is fundamental to defining reservoir heterogeneity. Because nearly all of these reservoirs have experienced multiple episodes of dolomitization and sulfate emplacement, however, permeability is a n of diagenetic overprint. The extent to which diagenesis can affect permeability development is dramatically displayed in the Grayburg Formation (middle Permian) at South Cowden field, Weit Texas. Three scales of cyclicity contribute to original depositional facies heterogeneity in the Grayburg; high-frequency cycles, averaging 3 meters in thickness, constitute the fundamental architectural element in the main reservoir interval. Despite original depositional heterogeneity due to this cyclicity, however, permeability development is substantially the result of two diagenetic events: (1) dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones and (2) late alteration and removal of anhydrite. Dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones has produced irregular vertical zones of higher permeability in mud-dominated bases of high-frequency cycles in leeward ramp-crest highstand successions. Because dolomite diagenesis is concentrated in burrowed highstand successions, the distribution of resultant permeability trends is partly constrained by patterns of longterm accommodation and high frequency cyclicity. Anhydrite diagenesis, which is characterized by conversion to gypsum or by complete removal of sulfate, is developed along basinward margins of the field and cross cuts original depositional framework.

Ruppel, S.C.; Lucia, F.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

268

Diagenetic overprint of original depositional architecture in a shallow water carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian shallow-water carbonate reservoirs are highly heterogeneous because of complex variations in depositional facies produced by high-frequency sea level rise and fall. Accordingly, establishment of a cycle stratigraphic framework is fundamental to defining reservoir heterogeneity. Because nearly all of these reservoirs have experienced multiple episodes of dolomitization and sulfate emplacement, however, permeability is a n of diagenetic overprint. The extent to which diagenesis can affect permeability development is dramatically displayed in the Grayburg Formation (middle Permian) at South Cowden field, Weit Texas. Three scales of cyclicity contribute to original depositional facies heterogeneity in the Grayburg; high-frequency cycles, averaging 3 meters in thickness, constitute the fundamental architectural element in the main reservoir interval. Despite original depositional heterogeneity due to this cyclicity, however, permeability development is substantially the result of two diagenetic events: (1) dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones and (2) late alteration and removal of anhydrite. Dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones has produced irregular vertical zones of higher permeability in mud-dominated bases of high-frequency cycles in leeward ramp-crest highstand successions. Because dolomite diagenesis is concentrated in burrowed highstand successions, the distribution of resultant permeability trends is partly constrained by patterns of longterm accommodation and high frequency cyclicity. Anhydrite diagenesis, which is characterized by conversion to gypsum or by complete removal of sulfate, is developed along basinward margins of the field and cross cuts original depositional framework.

Ruppel, S.C.; Lucia, F.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

269

Facies and diagenesis of Grayburg-San Andres dolomite reservoirs, Central Basin platform, Permian basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Porous dolomites of the Grayburg and San Andres Formations (Permian, Guadalupian) form major hydrocarbon reservoirs on the Central Basin platform of the Permian basin. Wireline-log and core studies reveal a shallowing-upward carbonate shelf sequence, from 250 to 300 ft thick, in each of five fields that lie along 55 mi of the eastern edge of the platform. The sequence consists of (1) a basal unit of open shelf dolomudstones and bioturbated fusulinid dolowackestones/packstones; (2) a middle unit of shallow shelf dolomudstones and non-skeletal dolopackstones/grainstones; and (3) an upper unit of arid coastline dolomudstones, quartz siltstones, and evaporites that grade into the overlying Queen Formation. Reservoir zones averaging greater than 9% intercrystalline and moldic porosity and 10-md permeability are best developed in the middle unit of the depositional sequence. Diagenesis occurred in two stages. Stage 1, during deposition and earliest burial, involved submarine cementation, pervasive dolomitization, leaching of grains, minor dolomite cementation, and sulfate cementation and replacement; and stage 2, near maximum burial depth and during subsequent uplift, included fracturing, anhydrite cementation, minor calcite replacement of anhydrite, and gypsum and kaolinite formation.

Harris, P.M.; Garber, R.A.

1986-05-01

270

Porosity formation in deep-burial environment: overview, with examples, from Permian basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Porosity formation accompanying deep burial is ubiquitous and widespread in the Permian basin, particularly but not exclusively in offshore platform and resedimented basinal carbonates of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in such platform carbonate examples locally contain evidence of subaerial exposure and meteoric diagenesis. Commonly, much of the porosity formed during exposure is ultimately reduced by compaction and cementation during early burial. By contrast, no evidence of meteoric diagenesis is observed in associated basinal carbonates, although compaction and cementation accompanying progressive burial are readily evident. In both cases, however, such early diagenesis is overprinted by late burial dissolution, sometimes coincident with hydrocarbon emplacement, creating rocks of high porosity. The formation of porosity by cement dissolution may exhume occluded pores or enhance relict pores that formed in the eogenetic zone, the result being a preponderance of interparticle and moldic pores and residual cements that mimic vadose and phreatic products. In other cases, nonfabric selective dissolution, locally associated with fractures or stylolites, creates vuggy porosity which may resemble that formed during eodiagenesis. Multiple phases of deep-burial dissolution and partial cementation or replacement (by calcite or dolomite) are indicated for many of these diagenetic systems and result in a complex suite of different pore types.

Mazzullo, S.J.; Harris, P.M.

1989-03-01

271

Modeling the response to changes in tropospheric methane concentration: Application to the Permian-Triassic boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss model experiments valid for the Permian-Triassic boundary in which we explore the impact of changes in tropospheric methane concentration. For scenarios relevant to methane clathrate release, we consider surface methane concentration with values up to 5000 times its preindustrial concentration. We employ a comprehensive three-dimensional tropospheric-stratospheric model with chemistry that allows for the feedbacks between chemistry and climate. We show that stratospheric ozone starts collapsing for methane surface concentrations on the order of 1000 times their preindustrial concentration. At 5000 times, more than half of the total ozone column has disappeared. As a result a large rise (up to a factor of 7) in surface UV-B radiation is found. Other chemical consequences include a rise in CO and ozone surface concentrations; although becoming very large (up to 17 ppmv for CO), neither seems to reach lethal values according to present-day life forms. Finally, we show that tropospheric OH does not collapse for any of the scenarios; a corollary of this is a finite methane lifetime (45 years at the most). As a result, if methane were to increase significantly enough over a short period, the associated UV-B increase and/or deterioration of surface conditions could provide an explanation for the landmass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

Lamarque, J.-F.; Kiehl, J. T.; Shields, C. A.; Boville, B. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

2006-09-01

272

Biostratigraphic correlation in the Karoo: The case of the Middle Permian parareptile Eunotosaurus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The richness of fossil tetrapods from the Beaufort Group of South Africa has enabled biostratigraphic subdivision of this Permo-Triassic succession, with global applicability. Despite being the thickest of the seven biozones recognised, attempts at further subdivision of the Middle Permian Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone (Abrahamskraal Formation) have not been successful, largely because the exact stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa are unknown. This gap in knowledge has l (more) imited stratigraphic correlation of the Abrahamskraal Formation and hindered understanding of Middle Permian Karoo basin development. Currently, the lowermost Beaufort Group is split between an eastern and a western stratigraphic scheme and, because of poor outcrop and the relative paucity of fossils in the east, stratigraphic correlation between the two areas has been uncertain. Recent fossil discoveries of the parareptile Eunotosaurus africanus in the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces have extended its known geographic range in the east. An additional specimen from the lower Middleton Formation in the Eastern Cape has, for the first time, enabled the biostratigraphic correlation of this unit with the Poortjie Member of the Teekloof Formation in the west. These finds confirm the diachroneity of the boundary between the marine Ecca Group and the terrestrial Beaufort Group.

Day, Mike; Rubidge, Bruce; Almond, John; Jirah, Sifelani

2013-01-01

273

Rapid expansion of oceanic anoxia immediately before the end-Permian mass extinction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Periods of oceanic anoxia have had a major influence on the evolutionary history of Earth and are often contemporaneous with mass extinction events. Changes in global (as opposed to local) redox conditions can be potentially evaluated using U system proxies. The intensity and timing of oceanic redox changes associated with the end-Permian extinction horizon (EH) were assessed from variations in (238)U/(235)U (?(238)U) and Th/U ratios in a carbonate section at Dawen in southern China. The EH is characterized by shifts toward lower ?(238)U values (from -0.37‰ to -0.65‰), indicative of an expansion of oceanic anoxia, and higher Th/U ratios (from 0.06 to 0.42), indicative of drawdown of U concentrations in seawater. Using a mass balance model, we estimate that this isotopic shift represents a sixfold increase in the flux of U to anoxic facies, implying a corresponding increase in the extent of oceanic anoxia. The intensification of oceanic anoxia coincided with, or slightly preceded, the EH and persisted for an interval of at least 40,000 to 50,000 y following the EH. These findings challenge previous hypotheses of an extended period of whole-ocean anoxia prior to the end-Permian extinction.

Brennecka GA; Herrmann AD; Algeo TJ; Anbar AD

2011-10-01

274

Non-ergodicity for $C^{1}$ Expanding Maps  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we consider the question of existence and uniqueness of absolutely continuous invariant measures for expanding $C^1$ maps of the circle. This is a question which arises naturally from results which are known in the case of expanding $C^k$ maps of the circle where $k\\geq 2$, or even $C^{1+\\epsilon}$ expanding maps of the circle. In these cases, it is known that there exists a unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measure by the so-called `Folklore Theorem'. It follows that this measure is ergodic. It has been shown however that for $C^1$ maps there need not be any such measure. However, this leaves the question of whether there can be more than one such measure for $C^1$ expanding maps of the circle. This is the subject of this paper, and in it, we show that there exists a $C^1$ expanding map of the circle which has more than one absolutely continuous invariant probability measure.

Quas, A N

1993-01-01

275

Biomechanical comparison of the pullout strengths of C1 lateral mass screws and C1 posterior arch screws.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Conditions of the atlantoaxial complex requiring internal stabilization can result from trauma, malignancy, inflammatory diseases, and congenital malformation. Several techniques have been used for stabilization and fusion. Posterior wiring is biomechanically inferior to screw fixation. C1 lateral mass screws and C1 posterior arch screws are used for instrumentation of the atlas. Previous studies have shown that unicortical C1 lateral mass screws are biomechanically stable for fixation. No study has evaluated the biomechanical stability of C1 posterior arch screws or compared the two techniques. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the differences in the pullout strength between C1 lateral mass screws and C1 posterior arch screws. STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical testing of pullout strengths of the two atlantal screw fixation techniques. METHODS: Thirteen fresh human cadaveric C1 vertebrae were harvested, stripped of soft tissues, evaluated with computed tomography for anomalies, and instrumented with unicortical C1 lateral mass screws on one side and unicortical C1 posterior arch screws on the other. Screw placement was confirmed with postinstrumentation fluoroscopy. Specimens were divided in the sagittal plane and potted in polymethylmethacrylate. Axial load to failure was applied with a material testing device. Load displacement curves were obtained, and the results were compared with Student t test. DePuy Spine, Inc. (Raynham, MA, USA) provided the hardware used in this study. RESULTS: Mean pullout strength of the C1 lateral mass screws was 821 N (range 387-1,645 N±standard deviation [SD] 364). Mean pullout strength of the posterior arch screws was 1,403 N (range 483-2,200 N±SD 609 N). The difference was significant (p=.009). Five samples (38%) in the posterior arch group experienced bone failure before screw pullout. CONCLUSIONS: Both unicortical lateral mass screws and unicortical posterior arch screws are viable options for fixation in the atlas. Unicortical posterior arch screws have superior resistance to pullout via axial load compared with unicortical lateral mass screws in the atlas.

Zarro CM; Ludwig SC; Hsieh AH; Seal CN; Gelb DE

2013-08-01

276

String Beta Function Equations From c=1 Matrix Model  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We derive the oe-model tachyon fi-function equation of 2dimensionalstring theory, in the background of flat space and lineardilaton, working entirely within the c = 1 matrix model. Thetachyon fi-function equation is satisfied by a nonlocal and nonlinearcombination of the (massless) scalar field of the matrix model. Wediscuss the possibility of describing the `discrete states' as well as otherpossible gravitational and higher tensor backgrounds of 2-dimensionalstring theory within the c = 1 matrix model. We also comment onthe realization of the W -infinity symmetry of the matrix model inthe string theory. The present work reinforces the viewpoint that anonlocal (and nonlinear) transform is required to extract the spacetimephysics of 2-dimensional string theory from the c = 1 matrixmodel.1On leave from Theoretical Physics Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Homi Bhabha Road, Bombay 400 005, India.2e-mail: adhar@surya11.cern.ch3e-mail: mandal@theory.tifr....

Avinash Dhar; Gautam Mandal; Spenta R. Wadia

277

Palaeoecology of selected South African export coals from the Vryheid Formation, with emphasis on the role of heterosporous lycopods and wildfire derived inertinite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of six bulk coal samples from the Early Permian Vryheid Formation of the Karoo Basin, South Africa has revealed the importance of wildfire in this coal-forming environment. Inertinite is a major constituent of these coals and was predominantly produced by wildfire. The accumulation of the peat in this setting was both autochthonous and hypautochthonous/allochthonous, conditions varying between the occurrence of standing water and desiccation. Woody gymnosperms and also lycopods were important components of the coal swamp vegetation, of which the diversity and abundance of the lycopods may be tentatively assessed by the distribution of megaspores in the coals. Consistent with lycopod reproductive strategy, these megaspores are more abundant and diverse where the vitrinite content is greater. 59 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Ian Glasspool [Royal Holloway University of London, Egham (United Kingdom). Department of Geology

2003-05-01

278

Bivalves and brachiopods in the Carboniferous - Early Permian of Argentine Precordillera: Diversification and faunal turnover in Southwestern Gondwana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diversification patterns and faunistic turnovers of bivalves and brachiopods through the Carboniferous – Early Permian interval in the central western Argentinian basins are analyzed and compared with the global events proposed in former studies. This study reveals a generalized increase of bivalves...

Fabiana Sterren, Andrea

279

Facies and diagenesis of Triassic (Austrian alpine) and upper Permian (New Mexico-Texas) platform-margin carbonates: a comparison  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Platform-margin carbonates of the Austrian Middle and basal Upper Triassic (Carnian) (Wettersteinkalk) and Upper Permian (Capitan reef, Guadalupian) are similar in terms of facies development, biota, and syndepositional diagenetic fabrics. These similarities are noteworthy because of their occurrence across the Permian-Triassic boundary, and the fact that these carbonates are distinct from younger (Upper Triassic Dachsteinkalk) depositional systems. The Upper Permian and Middle to basal Upper Triassic were deposited as subdued rimmed platforms with component lagoonal, reef-flat, reef, and fore-reef facies belts. The reef facies appear to represent upper slope marginal mounds, and consist mainly of sponges, solitary corals, Tubiphytes, and various encrusting biota; typically, this facies is pervasively marine cemented. The reef-flat facies consist of similarly lithified biograin-stones deposited in high-energy wave-base zones along the platform margins. By contrast, steep rimmed platforms with massive framework coral buildups and relatively less syndepositional marine cements dominate in Upper Triassic units (e.g., Dachsteinkalk, Steinplatte reef). Proximal fore-reef beds in the Upper Permian and Middle to basal Upper Triassic are characterized by carbonate-clast debris cemented by coarse crystalline carbonate. The precipitation of this cement (grossoolith) may have occurred during early shallow burial of the fore-reef beds. Similar depositional and diagenetic facies are poorly developed in the Upper Triassic, instead being represented mainly by bedded micrites.

Mazzullo, S.J.; Lobitzer, H.

1988-02-01

280

Implications of paleomagnetic results from the Permian Rodez basin for the late Variscan tectonics in the southern French massif Central.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A paleomagnetic study has been carried out on three sedimentary formations of the Permian Rodez basin in the southern France. Two of them yield paleomagnetic poles of Saxonian and Thuringian age showing counterclockwise rotation of moderate amplitude, during or after the Thuringian deposition. For t...

Diego-Orozco, Arturo; Chen, Yan; Henry, Bernard; Becq-Giraudon, Jean-François

 
 
 
 
281

Collectin receptor (C1q receptor): structure and function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Isolated collectin receptor (C1q receptor) is a single polypeptide chain of approximately 60 kDa (Malhotra and Sim, 1989). Sequence analysis shows that it belongs to a family of proteins which include calreticulin, a component of RoSSA autoantigen, Onchocerca volvulus antigen (RAL-1) and B50 murine melanoma antigen (Malhotra et. al., 1993). The receptor is widely distributed on leukocytes, platelets and endothelium and acts as a receptor for a group of structurally-related complement or lectin opsonins (the collectins), which include C1q, mannose binding protein (MBP), lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) and conglutinin (Malhotra et al., 1990).

Malhotra R

1993-12-01

282

Draft genome sequence of Arthrospira platensis C1 (PCC9438).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium that is extensively cultivated outdoors on a large commercial scale for consumption as a food for humans and animals. It can be grown in monoculture under highly alkaline conditions, making it attractive for industrial production. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of A. platensis C1 strain and its annotation. The A. platensis C1 genome contains 6,089,210 bp including 6,108 protein-coding genes and 45 RNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome information has been used for further comparative analysis, particularly of metabolic pathways, photosynthetic efficiency and barriers to gene transfer.

Cheevadhanarak S; Paithoonrangsarid K; Prommeenate P; Kaewngam W; Musigkain A; Tragoonrung S; Tabata S; Kaneko T; Chaijaruwanich J; Sangsrakru D; Tangphatsornruang S; Chanprasert J; Tongsima S; Kusonmano K; Jeamton W; Dulsawat S; Klanchui A; Vorapreeda T; Chumchua V; Khannapho C; Thammarongtham C; Plengvidhya V; Subudhi S; Hongsthong A; Ruengjitchatchawalya M; Meechai A; Senachak J; Tanticharoen M

2012-03-01

283

Draft genome sequence of Arthrospira platensis C1 (PCC9438).  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium that is extensively cultivated outdoors on a large commercial scale for consumption as a food for humans and animals. It can be grown in monoculture under highly alkaline conditions, making it attractive for industrial production. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of A. platensis C1 strain and its annotation. The A. platensis C1 genome contains 6,089,210 bp including 6,108 protein-coding genes and 45 RNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome information has been used for further comparative analysis, particularly of metabolic pathways, photosynthetic efficiency and barriers to gene transfer. PMID:22675597

Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee; Prommeenate, Peerada; Kaewngam, Warunee; Musigkain, Apiluck; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tabata, Satoshi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chanprasert, Juntima; Tongsima, Sissades; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Jeamton, Wattana; Dulsawat, Sudarat; Klanchui, Amornpan; Vorapreeda, Tayvich; Chumchua, Vasunun; Khannapho, Chiraphan; Thammarongtham, Chinae; Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Hongsthong, Apiradee; Ruengjitchatchawalya, Marasri; Meechai, Asawin; Senachak, Jittisak; Tanticharoen, Morakot

2012-03-05

284

Angioedema in a Patient with C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angioedema is characterized by recurrent, circumscribed, solitary or multiple subcutaneous and mucosal swelling, involving the extremities, face, larynx, bowel wall. Angioedema is due to hereditary or acquired varieties of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. A case of atypical acquired angioedema in a 49-year old man, responding favourably to cinnarizine and alcohol abstinence, is presented in this article. Cinnarizine was prescribed due to presumed alcoholic liver disease. The clinical significant amelioration was not associated with concomitant good laboratory result, which is a relatively common occurrence.

Antonino Murinello; Sra Braz; Emilia Arranhado

2005-01-01

285

Chondromyxoid fibroma of C1: first case report Fibroma condromixoide de C1: primer caso Fibroma condromixóide de C1: primeiro relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare, benign primary bone tumor. The cervical spine is an uncommon site for this tumor, with only 10 reported cases to date and none involving the first cervical vertebra (C1). CASE REPORT: Female patient, 25-year-old monozygotic female twin, presented with cervical pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated a contrast-enhanced, right-sided lytic lesion of the insufflated type in C1, with a punched-out appearance and extending to the anterior arch. A postero-lateral and a posterior approach were performed in two steps to resect the tumor followed by occipitocervical fixation. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of CMF. At one year, the patient remains disease free with excellent spinal stability. CONCLUSION: Spinal surgeons may need to treat rare spinal tumors. Despite the proximity to neural and vascular structures, the goal of surgery is always a radical resection due to high recurrence rates.REVISIÓN: El fibroma condromixoide (FCM) es un tumor óseo primario, benigno y raro. La columna cervical es un lugar raro de este tumor, con solamente 10 casos relatados, siendo que ninguno involucra a la primera vértebra cervical (C1). RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo femenino, 25 años, gemela monozigótica, presentando dolor cervical. La imagen radiográfica demostró una lesión contrastada, predominantemente en la masa lateral de C1 con extensión hacia el arco posterior y anterior. La resección del tumor se realizó en dos tiempos, inicialmente una aproximación posterolateral, seguida por la vía posterior. En esta última, se realizó una fijación occipitocervical. El análisis anatomopatológico fue compatible con FCM. Pasado un año de los procedimientos, la paciente permanecía sin enfermedad y con estabilidad cranio-cervical. CONCLUSIÓN: Especialistas de columna deben tener el conocimiento de que estos tumores raros pueden acometer a la columna vertebral y, a pesar de su proximidad con el tejido neural y las estructuras vasculares, el objetivo de la cirugía es su resección radical debido al alto índice de recidiva.REVISÃO: O fibroma condromixóide (FCM) é um tumor ósseo primário, benigno e raro. A coluna cervical é um local incomum desse tumor, com apenas 10 casos relatados, sendo que nenhum envolveu a primeira vértebra cervical (C1). RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 25 anos, gêmea monozigótica, apresentando dor cervical. A imagem radiográfica demonstrou lesão lítica contrastada, predominantemente na massa lateral de C1 com extensão para o arco posterior e anterior. A ressecção do tumor foi feita em dois tempos, inicialmente uma abordagem postero-lateral, seguida pela via posterior. Nesta última, foi relizada uma fixação occiptocervical. O exame anátomo-patológico foi compatível com FCM. Passado um ano dos procedimentos, a paciente permanecia sem doença e com estabilidade craniocervical. CONCLUSÃO: Especialistas de coluna devem ter o conhecimento de que estes tumores raros podem acometer a coluna vertebral e, apesar da sua proximidade com tecido neural e estruturas vasculares, o objetivo da cirurgia é a sua ressecção radical devido ao alto índice de recidiva.

Ericson Sfreddo; Asdrubal Falavigna; Vinícius Borges Soares; Silvia Chaves e Silva; André Nesi; Vinícius Carraro do Nascimento; Pedro Guarise da Silva

2012-01-01

286

Chondromyxoid fibroma of C1: first case report/ Fibroma condromixóide de C1: primeiro relato de caso/ Fibroma condromixoide de C1: primer caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese REVISÃO: O fibroma condromixóide (FCM) é um tumor ósseo primário, benigno e raro. A coluna cervical é um local incomum desse tumor, com apenas 10 casos relatados, sendo que nenhum envolveu a primeira vértebra cervical (C1). RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 25 anos, gêmea monozigótica, apresentando dor cervical. A imagem radiográfica demonstrou lesão lítica contrastada, predominantemente na massa lateral de C1 com extensão para o arco posterior e ant (more) erior. A ressecção do tumor foi feita em dois tempos, inicialmente uma abordagem postero-lateral, seguida pela via posterior. Nesta última, foi relizada uma fixação occiptocervical. O exame anátomo-patológico foi compatível com FCM. Passado um ano dos procedimentos, a paciente permanecia sem doença e com estabilidade craniocervical. CONCLUSÃO: Especialistas de coluna devem ter o conhecimento de que estes tumores raros podem acometer a coluna vertebral e, apesar da sua proximidade com tecido neural e estruturas vasculares, o objetivo da cirurgia é a sua ressecção radical devido ao alto índice de recidiva. Abstract in spanish REVISIÓN: El fibroma condromixoide (FCM) es un tumor óseo primario, benigno y raro. La columna cervical es un lugar raro de este tumor, con solamente 10 casos relatados, siendo que ninguno involucra a la primera vértebra cervical (C1). RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo femenino, 25 años, gemela monozigótica, presentando dolor cervical. La imagen radiográfica demostró una lesión contrastada, predominantemente en la masa lateral de C1 con extensión hacia el arco p (more) osterior y anterior. La resección del tumor se realizó en dos tiempos, inicialmente una aproximación posterolateral, seguida por la vía posterior. En esta última, se realizó una fijación occipitocervical. El análisis anatomopatológico fue compatible con FCM. Pasado un año de los procedimientos, la paciente permanecía sin enfermedad y con estabilidad cranio-cervical. CONCLUSIÓN: Especialistas de columna deben tener el conocimiento de que estos tumores raros pueden acometer a la columna vertebral y, a pesar de su proximidad con el tejido neural y las estructuras vasculares, el objetivo de la cirugía es su resección radical debido al alto índice de recidiva. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare, benign primary bone tumor. The cervical spine is an uncommon site for this tumor, with only 10 reported cases to date and none involving the first cervical vertebra (C1). CASE REPORT: Female patient, 25-year-old monozygotic female twin, presented with cervical pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated a contrast-enhanced, right-sided lytic lesion of the insufflated type in C1, with a punched-out appearance and extending to (more) the anterior arch. A postero-lateral and a posterior approach were performed in two steps to resect the tumor followed by occipitocervical fixation. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of CMF. At one year, the patient remains disease free with excellent spinal stability. CONCLUSION: Spinal surgeons may need to treat rare spinal tumors. Despite the proximity to neural and vascular structures, the goal of surgery is always a radical resection due to high recurrence rates.

Sfreddo, Ericson; Falavigna, Asdrubal; Soares, Vinícius Borges; Silva, Silvia Chaves e; Nesi, André; Nascimento, Vinícius Carraro do; Silva, Pedro Guarise da

2012-01-01

287

The cold-climate origin of inertinite-rich Gondwana coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the inertinite-rich Permian coals of Australia there occurs a close association between inertodetrinite and alginite of a kind which has been generally overlooked in the past. The association is believed to be a consequence of the environment of deposition and especially the climate, which is inferred to have been one of wet, cool summers and freezing winters. The inertodetrinite formed by drying out of a gelified, homogenised precursor; the algae lived at the periodically desiccated surface of the accumulating peat. Much of the evidence for these conclusions has come from the combined use of light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. 24 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

Taylor, G.H.; Liu, S.Y.; Diessel, C.F.K.

1989-02-01

288

Termination of a continent-margin upwelling system at the Permian-Triassic boundary (Opal Creek, Alberta, Canada)  

Science.gov (United States)

Models of mass extinctions caused by greenhouse warming depend on the ability of warming to affect the oxygenation of the ocean, either through slowing circulation or changes in biological productivity and the organic carbon budget. Opal Creek, Alberta, Canada is a biostratigraphically continuous Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) section deposited in deep water on an outer shelf setting in the vast and understudied Panthalassic Ocean, along the western margin of Pangaea. The latest-Permian extinction is here represented as the disappearance of the previously dominant benthic fauna (siliceous sponges). On the basis of nitrogen and reduced sulfur isotopes as well as productivity-sensitive trace elements, the Middle Permian at Opal Creek is interpreted as a highly productive coastal upwelling zone where vigorous denitrification and sulfate reduction occurred in a mid-water oxygen minimum. Similar conditions appear to have continued into the latest Permian until the onset of a euxinic episode represented by a discrete pyrite bed and several trace element indicators of high productivity. This euxinic pulse is followed by the extinction of benthic fauna and a shift in nitrogen and sulfur isotopes to more normal marine values, suggesting the cessation of coastal upwelling and the consequent weakening of the mid-water oxygen minimum. The Lower Triassic appears to be a dysoxic, relatively unproductive environment with a bottom water oxygen minimum. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics show a minimum of radiogenic Os near the main extinction event, which may be due to volcanic input, and increasingly radiogenic values approaching the PTB, possibly due to increased continental erosion. The Opal Creek system demonstrates that, while the biogeochemical crisis in the latest Permian was capable of impacting the coastal upwelling modality of ocean circulation, a transient increase in productivity likely drove the system toward euxinia and, ultimately, extinction.

Schoepfer, Shane D.; Henderson, Charles M.; Garrison, Geoffrey H.; Foriel, Julien; Ward, Peter D.; Selby, David; Hower, James C.; Algeo, Thomas J.; Shen, Yanan

2013-06-01

289

Osteochondroma of C1 causing vertebral artery occlusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spinal osteochondromas constitute a small percentage of all intraspinal tumours, and are a rare cause of neurological symptoms. We describe a patient with a vertebral artery occlusion secondary to an osteochondroma of the C1 vertebra presenting with symptoms of cerebral ischaemia. This case is reported because of its extreme rarity.

Altaf F; Movlik H; Brew S; Rezajooi K; Casey A

2013-02-01

290

Protein kinase C regulation: C1 meets C-tail.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a recent issue of Cell, Leonard et al. (2011) describe the structure of PKC?II, an AGC kinase, revealing an unanticipated intramolecular autoinhibitory interaction between its C-terminal tail and the diacylglycerol and phorbol ester binding site of its C1b domain.

Kazanietz MG; Lemmon MA

2011-02-01

291

Pediatric hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE) resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is a rare, life-threatening disorder. It is characterized by attacks of angioedema involving the skin and/or the mucosa of the upper airways, as well as the intestinal mucosa. In approximately 50 per cent of cases, clinical manifestations may appear during childhood. The complex management of HAE in pediatric patients is in many respects different from the management of adults. Establishing the diagnosis early, preferably before the onset of clinical symptoms, is essential in cases with a positive family history. Complement studies usually afford accurate diagnosis, whereas molecular genetics tests may prove helpful in uncertain cases. Appropriate therapy, supported by counselling, suitable modification of lifestyle, and avoidance of triggering factors (which primarily include mechanical trauma, mental stress and airway infections in children) may spare the patient unnecessary surgery and may prevent mortality. Prompt control of edematous attacks, short-term prophylaxis and intermittent therapy are recommended as the primary means for the management of pediatric cases. Medicinal products currently used for the treatment of children with hereditary angioedema include antifibrinolytics, attenuated androgens, and C1-INH replacement therapy. Current guidelines favour antifibrinolytics for long-term prophylaxis because of their favorable safety profile but efficacy may be lacking. Attenuated androgens administered in the lowest effective dose are another option. C1-INH replacement therapy is also an effective and safe agent for children. Regular monitoring and follow-up of patients are necessary.

Farkas Henriette

2010-01-01

292

Propene polymerization mechanisms by using C1-symmetric catalysts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A set of propene homopolymerizations have been carried out with three different C1-symmetric catalysts, in order to evaluate the polymerization performances. A comparison among the polymer microstructures on the basis of statistical analysis has been performed to have a deeper investigation about th...

DI SILVESTRO, GIUSEPPE; CORNELIO, MASSIMILIANO

293

Quantum and classical aspects of deformed c = 1 strings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantum and classical aspects of a deformed c=1 matrix model proposed by Jevicki and Yoneya are studied. String equations are formulated in the framework of the Toda lattice hierarchy. The Whittaker functions now play the role of generalized Airy functions in c

1995-01-01

294

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article based on the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 1997, presents figures on coal reserves, production and trade and discusses their implications. Asia Pacific leads demand but trails in resources. 6 tabs.

Chadwick, J.

1997-09-01

295

Coal Sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.; Simon, Frederick Otto, 1939-

2011-03-29

296

Coal dewatering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The water content of wet small coal is reduced by adding a defined amount of anionic surfactant, centrifuging, and adding a foam suppressing amount of a cationic organic compound to the aqueous effluent from the centrifugation step.

Flynn, S.A.; Rutter, P.R.

1988-01-07

297

Coal chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article describes the history of the coal chemical industry and the recent business and market development in the U.S. The authors analyzes the reshuffling of the industry and the development of products. 1 fig.

McCoy, M.

2000-05-08

298

C1 inhibitor prevents capillary leakage after thermal trauma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: In burned patients, activation of the complement and clotting systems is suggested to play an important role in the development of the capillary leak syndrome and inflammatory tissue destruction. In an animal model of thermal trauma, the possible protective effect of C1 inhibitor (C1Inh), a major control protein of both the complement and clotting systems, was investigated. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled study. SETTING: Animal model. SUBJECTS: Healthy pigs weighing 30 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Pigs were scalded for 25 secs with 75 degrees C hot water to achieve a 30% total body surface deep partial-thickness burn. The treatment group (n = 8) received C1Inh concentrate at an initial dose of 100 units/kg body weight immediately after thermal trauma, followed by three further applications every 12 hrs. Two control groups included animals that were either scalded (n = 8) or not scalded (n = 7) and treated with lactated Ringer's solution. MEASUREMENTS: Before and at various time points after trauma blood samples were analyzed for complement activation (APH50, CH50, SC5b-9, C3). Continuous monitoring of hemodynamic variables was performed and postmortem histologic examination of specimens from lung, heart, liver, kidney, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon was carried out. Aseptically collected mesenteric lymph nodes were pooled and screened for bacterial translocation. For evaluation of the burn wound, biopsies from defined scalded and not scalded areas were taken daily. As a measure for edema formation, the weight of the animals was recorded every 2 hrs. RESULTS: After C1Inh treatment, which led to a significantly reduced complement activation, the clinical outcome was clearly improved, as indicated by vital signs and as demonstrated by reduced edema formation. Treated animals presented a diminished bacterial translocation. Pathologic alterations were clearly diminished in the burned skin, in shock-related organs, and in the intestines. CONCLUSION: Application of C1Inh appears to be an effective means to prevent capillary leakage and inflammatory tissue destruction after thermal trauma.

Radke A; Mottaghy K; Goldmann C; Khorram-Sefat R; Kovacs B; Janssen A; Klosterhalfen B; Hafemann B; Pallua N; Kirschfink M

2000-09-01

299

Coal extraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal extracts from hydrogenative liquid extraction of coals can be more easily and more quickly filtered if the extraction is carried out at a temperature over 420/sup 0/ C. and the resulting extract is fractionated using a cut point in the range 200/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/ C. to remove low boiling material. The product is then filtered to give a filtrate containing less than 0.1% by weight of mineral matter.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.

1984-12-11

300

British coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes a visit to UK's Daw Mill in north Warwickshire to find out about a planned expansion of the coal mine. Daw Mill, 10 km west of Coventry is the UK's largest underground coal mine. The coal is extracted by an Eckhoff Sl500 coal shearer that traverses the coalface. Overarching the shearer is a series of electro-hydraulically operated powered roof supports (PRS) over the roof and coalface that are advanced forward after each pass of the shearer. The void behind the PRS is then allowed to collapse. The coalface is currently 295 m long, but there are plans to extend the replacement coalface to 357 m. Under the shearer is an armored face conveyor (AFC) that receives and transports the coal along the coalface and deposits it onto the beam stage loader, which sits at 90{sup o} to the AFC. The coal is turned by a deflector plough on the AFC headframe and is transferred to the belt conveyor to begin its journey out of the mine. Last year two significant records were broken at Daw Mill - the fastest million tonnes achieved and the European record for a single face of 3.2 Mt. The 300s area of the mine has already been mapped out and development teams are constructing roadways to facilitate more mining. To maintain annual production in excess of three million tonnes will require at least 5,000 m of roadways to access the coal, and install equipment. These investments are supported by proven reserves. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling has shown approximately 20 Mt of extractable coal in the 300s area which extends over 15 km{sup 2}. These panels will be the next to be mined in a sequence that extends to 2014. 2 photos.

Forrest, M.

2009-03-15

 
 
 
 
301

Re-evaluation of Halle's fertile pteridosperms from the Permian floras of Shanxi Province, China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1927, T. G. Halle published an extensive synthesis of the Permian fossil plant assemblages from China's Shanxi Province that included five genera and species of seed plant that either had ovules in organic attachment or closely and repeatedly associated with foliage. These fertile pteridosperms were the subject of a later publication (1929) that provided additional information on each species, but since that time only Nystroemia pectiniformis Halle has been subjected to detailed investigation based on the original materials. Reinvestigation of the remaining four species has yielded additional examples and new information for each species, and has confirmed the pteridospermalean affinity for three of the four species. Alethopteris norinii Halle shows organic attachment of a pollen organ similar to Wittleseya (Newberry) Halle and is reinterpreted as a microsporangiate medullosan pteridosperm. Emplectopteris triangularis Halle and Sphenopteris tenuis (Schenk) Halle both bear numerous ovules attached directly to the leaf laminae, with Emplectopteris conforming with the gross-organisation of callistophytalean pteridosperms and S. tenuis being interpreted as a derived lagenostomalean pteridosperm. However, discovery of the counterpart to the key specimen of Pecopteris wongii Halle that Halle interpreted as bearing ovules demonstrates this species to be a sterile marattialean frond that agrees with its assignment to Pecopteris. In addition, two further specimens are demonstrated to be fertile organs of previously unknown pteridosperms; Norinosperma shanxiensis gen. et sp. nov. bears cardiocarpalean ovules abaxially on the proximal portions of the frond with ovules positioned directly on the veins of a leaf lamina; Norinotheca shanxiensis gen. et sp. nov. bears large pollen organs abaxially and singly on the vein of the leaf lamina. Collectively Halle's pteridosperms remain important today as they are some of the few specimens that actually demonstrate organic connection of fertile organs to foliage, helping to characterise the morphology and organisation of this seed plant group. These species also demonstrate the persistence of seed plant families and genera in the Permian of China that became regionally extinct at the end of the Carboniferous in Euramerica, and show that pteridosperms remained an important component of Permian as well as Carboniferous floras globally.

Seyfullah LeylaJ; Hilton Jason

2009-05-01

302

Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia): II. The morphogenus Glossopteris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group), near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004), was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil). Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia). Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii Rohn and Rösler (ver Vieira et al. 2004), foi previamente assinalada para estratos do Permiano Superior da Bacia do Paraná (formações Estrada Nova e Rio do Rasto). Portanto, uma idade neopermiana é tentativamente proposta para os níveis da Formação Chutani que contém a associação estudada. As implicações fitogeográficas deste novo achado são brevemente analisadas.

Roberto Iannuzzi; Carlos E. L. Vieira; Margot Guerra-Sommer; Enrique Díaz-Martínez; George W. Grader

2004-01-01

303

British Columbia coal development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication outlines in brief format the major coal bearing areas of British Columbia, reserves and resources, government objectives and policies, coal development by region, the coal transportation systems, and world coal markets.

1983-01-01

304

Coal production in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first coal mine in Thailand was opened in 1955, and coal production has increased steadily since then. The coal, from brown coal to anthracite, is used mainly for electricity generation. Thailand is thought to have at least 1660 million tonnes of coal reserves, mainly of low rank coal. Production is currently underway in 7 coal basins. Figures for production and consumption of coal from 1955 are presented.

Supurtipanish, S.

1986-01-01

305

Queensland coal symposium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

28 papers are presented under the session headings: electron microscopy in the use of coal petrology and coal characterisation; coal mining techniques; coalseam gas assessment; coal preparation techniques; sedimentology/structural geology; environmental controls in coal mining; developments and environmental controls in coal mining; and combustion and utilisation characteristics of coals. The keynote address, entitled environmental and social issues facing the mineral industry and a paper on Queensland coal and the global greenhouse debate are also included.

Griffiths, P. (ed.)

1991-01-01

306

Bilateral C1 laminar hooks combined with C2 pedicle screws fixation for treatment of C1–C2 instability not suitable for placement of transarticular screws  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study design described here is a posterior C1–C2 fusion technique composed of bilateral C1 hooks and C2 pedicle screws. In addition, the clinical results of using this method on 13 patients with C1–C2 instability are reported. The objectives are to introduce a new technique for posterior C1–C2 f...

Ni, Bin; Zhu, Zhuangchen; Zhou, Fengjin; Guo, Qunfeng; Yang, Jian; Liu, Jun; Wang, Fei

307

Capitan reef complex (Permian), Guadalupe Mountains, southwestern United States: a classic sedimentologic model in flux  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Capitan reef complex of west Texas and New Mexico has been an important sedimentologic model since a reef origin was proposed for the Capitan Limestone in 1929. The Capitan's magnificent exposures in the Guadalupe Mountain area; its large scale; its variety of carbonate, sandstone, and evaporite facies; and its relationship to major petroleum resources of the Permian basin have made it a justly famous sedimentary geologic model for academic and industrial geologists alike. Since 1950, extensive research has yielded markedly contrasting sedimentologic interpretations of key features, such as the nature and origin of the Capital massive (reef wall); the back-reef pisolite, sandstone, and evaporite facies; the depositional profile of the shelf and shelf edge; the importance and magnitude of sea level fluctuations; and the role of submarine, vadose, and phreatic diagenesis.

Pray, L.C.

1987-11-01

308

Seismic facies of the Permian section of the Barents Shelf: analysis and interpretation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrocarbon exploration has been intensively conducted on the Barents Shelf during the last 10 years. The main target consisted of the Mesozoic section and, more recently, of the Palaeozoic section. Only a limited number of deep wells and shallow cores have been used to investigate the Palaeozoic succession on the elevated areas of the shelf. However, dense and often high-quality seismic data covering the entire shelf permit the extrapolation of the sporadic well control to the entire basin. The Palaeozoic succession of the Barents Shelf has been investigated with data from only a few wells. However, a considerable amount of high-quality seismic data complements the sporadic well control, permitting an extensive seismic study of the three major intervals distinguished in the Permian section. (author).

Gerard, J.; Buhrig, C. (Fina Exploration Norway, Stavanger (NO))

1990-08-01

309

The equisetalean genus Cruciaetheca nov. from the Lower Permian of Patagonia, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The new genus Cruciaetheca (Equisetales, Sphenopsida) is described from the Río Genoa Formation, Lower Permian of Chubut Province, Argentina. Ramified, whorled vegetative axes terminally bearing leaf whorls of the Phyllotheca type characterize this genus; some last-order axes bear fertile internodes with whorls of cruciate sporangiophores between unmodified leaf whorls. We describe three species, Cruciaetheca patagonica (Feruglio) Cúneo et Escapa nov. comb., Cruciaetheca feruglioi Cúneo et Escapa nov. sp., and Cruciaetheca genoensis Cúneo et Escapa nov. sp., that are diagnosed from vegetative and reproductive features. The new material is compared with other Paleozoic equisetaleans from different geographical regions. We reevaluate the use of the genus Phyllotheca in light of finding Phyllotheca foliar whorls associated with completely distinct reproductive characters. The systematic position of Cruciaetheca is discussed as well as the significance of its cruciate sporangiophores and other characters.

Cuneo NR; Escapa I

2006-01-01

310

Porosity distribution in San Andres Formation (Permian), Cochran and Hockley Counties, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lower San Andres Formation in Cochran and Hockley Counties, Texas, is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-bearing horizons of the Permian basin. It is a cyclic sequence of shallow-water carbonates and evaporites which prograded across the northwest shelf toward the Midland and Delaware basins. San Andres production results from the vertical stacking of porous dolomite reservoirs. Stratigraphic trapping of hydrocarbons results from porosity pinch-outs defined by the degree of dolomitization and anhydrite plugging, both vertically near the top of depositional cycles, and on a regional scale. Stratigraphic trapping, combined with subtle structural nosing and changes in dip, define the limits of production. Reservoir zones are regionally correlatable and mappable. Major productive trends pinch out northward onto the Matador arch, defining this feature as a major influence on San Andres deposition and production.

Cowan, P.E.; Harris, P.M.

1986-06-01

311

Silicification of trace fossils in carbonates; evidence from Permian Kaibab Formation, southwestern Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silicification in carbonates, particularly silicified trace fossils, has received relatively little previous study. Chert comprises a significant percentage of the upper Fossil Mountain Member of the Kaibab Formation, a Permian epicontinental limestone. Distribution and origin of this chert were studied from outcrops in southwestern Utah. The origin of much of this chert is believed to be as silicified Thalassinoides burrows. Field evidence for trace fossil silicification includes (1) silicified cylindrical tubes with Y-shaped branching patterns as well as hollow tubes, and (2) polygonal box-work patterns of tubes. In addition, brachiopods, bryozoans, and abundant specimens of the sponge Actinocelia maendrina Finks are also silicified. Recognition of silicified trace fossils in carbonates provides a different approach to the study of early diagenetic silica precipitation. These silicified trace fossils also represent new information on bioturbation in ancient carbonates, a subject that has, until recently, been relatively unstudied.

Whidden, K.J.; Bottjer, D.J.

1989-04-01

312

Depositional environment of Upper Carboniferous – Lower Permian beds in the Karavanke Mountains (Southern Alps, Slovenia)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Late Paleozoic rocks were studied in detail in the Dovžanova soteska section. The Upper Carboniferous sedimentary succession, correlated with upper part of Auernig and SchulterkofelFm. in the Carnic Alps, indicates cyclic clastic-carbonate deposition in a coastal to shallow marine ramp setting with strong influenceofcoarse-grainedfluvial-deltaicsilici-clastics from the hinterland, storm dominated regime of nearshore sediments, and offshore algal buildups. The Lower Permian sequence is developed differently from its time equivalentGrenzland Fm. and is subdivided into Dovžanova soteska Fm., Born Fm., and Rigelj beds. It is marked by the formation of a reef mound on the platform margin. Open-marine inner platform close to the marginal shoals represented the depositional environment of the mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediments. Thus, a platform evolution from a ramp into a rimmed shelf is suggested.

Matevž Novak

2007-01-01

313

Pre-Alleghenian (Pennsylvanian-Permian) hydrocarbon emplacement along Ordovician Knox unconformity, eastern Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cores taken during exploration for Mississippi Valley-type lead and zinc ores in the Mascot-Jefferson City zinc district of eastern Tennessee commonly contain hydrocarbon residues in carbonate rocks of the Knox Group immediately below the Lower Ordovician Knox unconformity. The location and number of these residue-bearing strata reveal information about the Paleozoic history of hydrocarbon emplacement in the region. Contour maps, generated from nearly 800 holes covering more than 20 km/sup 2/, indicate that zones with elevated organic content in the uppermost 30 m of the Lower Ordovician Mascot Dolomite show a strong spatial correlation with Middle Ordovician paleotopographic highs. These same zones show no spatial association with present-day structural highs, which were formed during Pennsylvanian-Permian Alleghenian tectonism. This suggests that the physical entrapment of hydrocarbons migrating through the upper permeable units of the Mascot must have occurred prior to the principal tectonism of the Alleghenian orogeny. 7 figures, 1 table.

Haynes, F.M.; Kesler, S.E.

1989-03-01

314

The upper permian (Zechstein) tunstall reef of North East England: Palaeoecology and early diagenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed field studies and laboratory examination have identified the palaeocommunities of the Late Permian Tunstall Reef Complex of N.E. England, and have enabled accurate 3-dimensional diagrams to be constructed illustrating the palaeocommunity structure. The different palaeocommunities reflect the development of the reef through time, from reef-base coquine to lower reef core palaeocommunities, and then through space, in the laterally equivalent reef-flat, upper reef core, reef crest and fore-reef talus palaeocommunities, and the backreef patch reef palaeocommunity. An important factor in the formation of the Tunstall Reef was the precipitation of sea-floor cement. Aragonite particularly was an extensive and rapid precipitate in the reef-base coquina, as revealed in undolomitized limestones, and this type of cementation appears to have been widespread in other reef facies too, as judged by the rare occurrence of undolomitized limestones and by textures in the dolomites which can now be interpreted as relics of marine cements.

Hollingworth, Neville T. J.; Tucker, Maurice E.

315

Coal 99  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimise the env ironmental

2000-01-01

316

Coal -98  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx-burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the environmental influence will lead to more efficient power generation methods and us e of other fuels such as

317

Similarity of Grayburg/San Andres dolomite reservoirs - Eastern edge of Central Basin platform, Permian basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Porous dolomites of the Grayburg/San Andres Formations (Permian, Guadalupian) form major hydrocarbon reservoirs along the eastern edge of the Central Basin platform of the Permian basin, Texas. A comparison of the lithologic descriptions and depositional models for these reservoirs shows that although substantial local variation exists, the overall generalized vertical sequence and, particularly, the occurrence of porous shoal grainstones are strikingly similar. Data presented in this pilot study comes from the Gulf Oil 223-R J. T. McElroy Cons. well in McElroy field, the Gulf Oil 35 E.N. Snodgrass well in Waddell field, and the Gulf Oil 1359-56 C.A. Goldsmith et al well in Goldsmith field. Grayburg/San Andres reservoirs in all three fields occur mainly in the middle part of a shallowing-upward carbonate-shelf sequence that is 250-300 ft thick. The sequence consists of: (1) basal open-shelf, bioturbated dolowackestones/packstones; (2) middle shallow shelf fusulinid dolowackestones overlain by nonskeletal shoal dolopackstones/grainstones; and (3) upper variable intertidal/supratidal deposits that grade into the Queen Formation. The depositional sequence formed in a regional facies tract of shallow-water shelf and shoal environments with related tidal-flat and evaporitic (sabkha) sediments. The facies developed during easterly progradation across a deeper water open shelf. Porosity was formed by near-surface dolomitization and minor dissolution. Early and late evaporite plugging reduced porosity, so reservoir zones average 9% intercrystalline and moldic porosity with 10-md permeability.

Garber, R.A.; Harris, P.M. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA))

1987-02-01

318

Dolomitization of coeval shelf and fore-shelf carbonates, Lower Permian, Midland basin, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coeval shelf and fore-shelf carbonates in Lower Permian (Leonardian) rocks in the Midland basin are pervasively dolomitized. Shelf strata consist of a regional mosaic of shelf margin reef, lagoon, and peritidal facies associated with contemporaneous evaporite deposition; fore-shelf facies consist of resedimented shelf margin deposits. Numerous relative sea-level fluctuations that resulted in the formation of Type 1 and 2 unconformities are recognized throughout this section. Mean stable oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the shelf strate suggest that dolomitization occurred essentially syndepositionally, likely by interaction with normal marine( ) and hypersaline fluids. In fore-shelf strata petrographic evidence, in combination with paleotemperature estimates from isotopic data and the burial depth-temperature history of these rocks, suggest relatively early (late Permian) dolomitization in rock-dominated systems. Three possible modes of dolomitization could have affected these fore-shelf beds: (1) dolomitization by reflux of normal-marine and/or hypersaline fluids during sea level highstands or lowstands; (2) dolomitization by mixed meteoric-marine fluids during lowstands; and (3) replacement by calcic dolomites via reaction with circulating marine fluids during deposition and early, shallow burial without organic matter influences. The latter mode of origin, however, is favored for most of the rocks examined on the basis of the slightly positive carbon isotopic compositions, Sr versus MgCO{sub 3} compositions (mean Sr 61 ppm, mean MgCO{sub 3} 49.5), and low Mn contents (mean 61 ppm) of the dolomites, although later burial recrystallization is indicated by their relatively depleted isotopic compositions.

Mazzullo, S.J.; Qiuchang, Ye (Wichita State Univ., KS (United States))

1991-03-01

319

Coal 95  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO2 and NOx as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NOx cleaning system. Most other plants use low NOx burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

1995-01-01

320

Comments on D-Instantons in c < 1 Strings  

CERN Document Server

We suggest that the boundary cosmological constant zeta in c<1 unitary string theory be regarded as the one-dimensional complex coordinate of the target space on which the boundaries of world-sheets can live. From this viewpoint we point out that soliton-like solutions appearing in string equations can be interpreted as analogues of D-instantons. It turns out that our operator formalism developed in the preceding articles naturally includes Polchinski's ``combinatorics of boundaries.''

Fukuma, M

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Surgical approach to C1-C2 nerve sheath tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: C1 and C2 nerve sheath tumors (NST) are unique in presentation, relationship to neighbouring structures and surgical approaches when compared to their counterparts in other regions of the spine. Aim: The strategies involved in the surgery for C1-C2 NST are discussed Setting and Design: Retrospective study. Methods: 21 patients with C1 (n=6) and C2 (n=15) NST were operated based on their position with respect to the cord i.e. anterior (4), anterolateral (10), posterolateral (5), and posterior (2). The tumors had extra- and intradural components in 20 patients; while in one, the tumor was purely intradural. The operative approaches included the extreme lateral transcondylar approach (3); laminectomy with partial facetectomy (5); laminectomy (11); and, suboccipital craniectomy and laminectomy (2). Results: Total excision was performed in 13 patients; while in 7, a partial extraspinal component, and in 1, a small intradural component were left, in situ. Thirteen patients showed improvement by one or more grades in the Harsh myelopathy score; 2 patients with normal power had significant decrease in spasticity; while 5 maintained their grade. One poor-grade patient succumbed to septicemia. Conclusions: C1-C2 NST may have exuberant growth due to the capacious spinal canal and the absence of a 'true' intervertebral foramen at this level. Surgical approaches are determined by its relationship to the cord . A 'T incision' on the dura, the partial drilling of the facets, sectioning of the denticulate ligament, rotating the operating table 15 to 30 degrees, and at times sectioning the posterior nerve roots are all useful adjuncts for facilitating access.

Krishnan Prasad; Behari Sanjay; Banerji Deepu; Mehrotra Naveen; Chhabra Devendra; Jain Vijendra

2004-01-01

322

A contribution to petrology of dark grey to black interbeds within Upper Permian and Triassic carbonate rocks in the area between Ljubljana and Bloke, Central Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of macroscopic, microscopic, chemical, and isotopic investigations of 12 samples ofdark grey to black coloured interbeds occurring within Upper Permian and Triassic lime-, dolo- and marlstones inan area of Outer Dinarides between Ljubljana and Bloke in Central Slovenia. An additional sample is anthracite ofthe Carnian age from the Orle locality. Concentration of Corg in four samples is below 1 %, and in seven samples itvaries between 1 and 2.3 %. Only in one sample, in the black Carnian limestone of the Lesno Brdo area, it is somewhathigher than 5 %. The highest Corg content, 30.61 %, was analysed in the Orle anthracite.Chemical analysis of major elements (as oxides) showed that four samples are clearly siliciclastic mudrocks,with 65–80 % SiO2 + Al2O3. Three samples are typical calcite rich – dolomite poor rocks, with high loss on ignition(LOI about 40 %) derived from calcite decomposition. Four samples are calcite – dolomite characterized rocks withLOI of 34–43 %. One sample, from the Slugovo quarry, is composed of quartz, dolomite and calcite. The anthracitesample from Orle has inorganic matter composed almost exclusively of SiO2 + Al2O3 (clays), and some iron and sulphurwhich form pyrite.Isotopic composition of the calcite carbon ranges from ?13CCaCO3 -5.7 to 1.9 ‰, whereas isotopic composition ofthe organic carbon varies between ?13Corg -34.7 and -21.6 ‰. The most negative ?13Corg value of -34.7 ‰ was analysedin a sample, which is the most organic-rich limestone. Isotopic investigations of nitrogen, expressed by ?15N values,also did not express notable differences in respect to lithology. They vary between 4.6 and 9.1 ‰.Microscopy of polished surface samples showed clearly fine grained siliciclastic, carbonate and coal compositionof the treated rocks.

Stevo Dozet; Tjaša Kandu?; Miloš Marki?

2012-01-01

323

Calibration of the C1XS instrument on Chandrayaan-1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray spectrometer (C1XS) experiment on the Chandrayaan-1 mission was designed to carry out spectroscopic observations in the 1-10 keV range for deriving lunar chemistry. We present results from the ground calibration of the Swept Charge Devices (SCDs) on C1XS at the RESIK X-ray beam facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK. The spectral redistribution function of the SCDs are determined in the energy range from 2.3-8 keV using discrete line energies from a monochromatic X-ray beam. The detection efficiency of the SCDs are determined relative to a reference Si-PIN detector. The Si-PIN detector itself has been calibrated at the beamlines of the synchrotron facility at PTB/BESSY II. A non-Gaussian response matrix which includes probability for partial absorption events in the SCD is constructed using instrument parameters obtained from ground calibration. The calibration spectra from the {sup 55}Fe radioactive isotopes obtained from C1XS while in the lunar orbit, are used to validate the response matrix derived on ground.

Narendranath, S., E-mail: kcshyama@isac.gov.i [Space Astronomy Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India); University of Calicut (India); Sreekumar, P. [Space Astronomy Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India); Maddison, B.J.; Howe, C.J.; Kellett, B.J.; Wallner, M. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Erd, C. [Advanced Studies and Technology Preparation Division, ESA, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Weider, S.Z. [School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Birbeck College (United Kingdom)

2010-09-21

324

Safety and surgical techniques of C1 lateral mass screws  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objectives of this study were to evaluate the proper insertion techniques of C1 lateral mass screws. Eighteen consecutive patients were examined after upper cervical fusion using twenty-nine C1 lateral mass screws. Screws were placed by three different techniques; Goel's technique (4), Tan's technique (20), Notching technique (5). Pre and post-operative CT scans with multiplanar reconstruction were used to detect cortical breaches and direction of screws. No transverse foramen and vertebral groove violation was found in CT scans. Three had breached superior articular facet of the atlas. However, the range of motion (R.O.M) of atlanto-occipital joints had not changed postoperatively. Theses screws were inserted with Tan's technique and two of three were directed medially. It is feasible to safely insert C1 lateral mass screws when correct insertion point and direction are considered preoperatively. However, care should be taken because screws can violate the atlanto-occipital joint especially with Tan's technique. (author)

2010-01-01

325

Coal preparation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NOx emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

1991-01-01

326

South African coal statistics 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manual gives a complete statistical review of the South African coal industry for 2004. Chapter headings are: Coal Reserves and Production; Local Coal Industry; Coal Exports; Coking Coal, Anthracite and Coke Imports; Labour; Export Infrastructure - Rail Systems; Southern African Coal Terminals; Black Economic Empowerment (BEE); Large South African Coal Producers; Other South African Coal Producers; Coal Qualities: Large Producers; Coal Qualities: Small Producers and Potential Coal Exporters; Coal Qualities: Anthracite Producers; and Colliery Location Map. 139 figs.

NONE

2005-07-01

327

Amplitude analyses of the decays chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-  

CERN Document Server

Using a data sample of 2.59 x 10^7 psi(2S) decays obtained with the CLEO-c detector, we perform amplitude analyses of the complementary decay chains chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-. We find evidence for a P-wave eta' pi scattering amplitude, which, if interpreted as a resonance, would have exotic J^PC = 1^-+ and parameters consistent with the pi_1(1600) state reported in other production mechanisms. We also make the first observation of the decay a_0(980) -> eta' pi and measure the ratio of branching fractions B(a_0(980) -> eta' pi)/B(a_0(980) -> eta pi) = 0.064 +- 0.014 +- 0.014. The pi pi spectrum produced with a recoiling eta is compared to that with eta' recoil.

Adams, G S; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Szczepaniak, A; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B

2011-01-01

328

World coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world market, which seemed stagnant and depressed in 1993 and early 1994, emerged from the doldrums later in the year. After a general decline over the last few years in the fortunes of exporters, prices rose again as world economic recovery took up the slack, steel industries increased output, and coal demand surged. The year also saw a continued shift in the pattern of world energy consumption. Demand is increasingly determined by the rapidly expanding economies, like Asia, often beyond the capacity of their transport networks, rather than by the established rich nations. The character of the industry continues to change, with a global shift away from state ownership and intervention in mining, lifting of subsidies and protectionist levies and an increase in international participation in power generation and mining projects. Regional trends in coal production throughout the world are given and a list of the top coal producers, exporters, consumers and producing companies are given. 5 tabs.

Chadwick, J.

1995-09-01

329

Coal geostatistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper consists of course notes to a workshop held by the Australian Mineral Foundation, 17-20 July 1983 on the application of geostatistics to the coal industry. Some possible applications are: estimating the total reserves; error estimates; optimal drill hole spacing; estimating block reserves; gridding and contour mapping; simulating a deposit to evaluate proposed mine plans; and predicting the recovery and grade of washed coal. The workshop covered: regionalized variables; the variogram; structural analysis; case studies in Australia; dispersion as a function of block size; kriging; estimating the total reserves; and advanced geostatistics. (26 refs.)

1983-01-01

330

Got coal?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By now, the electricity crisis in California will have reminded anyone passively interested in the problem that the availability of cheap and reliable electricity is critical to the sustained economic growth and security of the US. Even participants in the global warming debate have not fully explored the national security or economic impacts of the draconian reductions required under the Kyoto Protocol, or the relatively minor contributions to those reduction might make to the problem - assuming the problem actually exists. There is a future for coal as the US has a 475 year supply of coal resources plus the technology to generate clean electricity from those resources. 1 fig.

Wood, J.F. [Babcock & Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (USA)

2001-02-01

331

Impact of Zn-Pb mining in the Olkusz ore district on the Permian aquifer (SW Poland).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Long-term extensive mining of Zn-Pb ores in the Olkusz area resulted in significant changes of water table levels and chemical composition of water in all aquifers in this area. Within the Permian aquifer, hydrochemical type of water evolved in two general stages. Short-term effect was freshening in the zones of contact with overlying the Triassic limestones and dolomites. Long-term effect was a change in flow pattern and, as a consequence, an inflow of naturally altered and antropogenically contaminated water from the Triassic aquifer into the Permian complex. This was especially intensive in densely fissured and fault zones. As a result of all these processes, hydrochemical type of water shifted from multi-ion types with various combinations of ions towards higher shares of sulphates, calcium and magnesium.

Motyka J; Postawa A

2013-05-01

332

Impact of Zn-Pb mining in the Olkusz ore district on the Permian aquifer (SW Poland).  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term extensive mining of Zn-Pb ores in the Olkusz area resulted in significant changes of water table levels and chemical composition of water in all aquifers in this area. Within the Permian aquifer, hydrochemical type of water evolved in two general stages. Short-term effect was freshening in the zones of contact with overlying the Triassic limestones and dolomites. Long-term effect was a change in flow pattern and, as a consequence, an inflow of naturally altered and antropogenically contaminated water from the Triassic aquifer into the Permian complex. This was especially intensive in densely fissured and fault zones. As a result of all these processes, hydrochemical type of water shifted from multi-ion types with various combinations of ions towards higher shares of sulphates, calcium and magnesium. PMID:23633000

Motyka, Jacek; Postawa, Adam

2013-05-01

333

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-09-30

334

New Zealand coal resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Geological Survey, in conjunction with partners from some 50 countries, is developing an integrated electronic database of coal-quality information the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI). Information is provided for samples representing prominent coal beds in all of the major coal-producing countries, as well as coals from many of the smaller producers. This Fact Sheet summarizes coal-quality and coal-resource information for New Zealand. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Moore, T.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

2004-09-15

335

C1-Cx revisited: intramolecular synergism in a cellulase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endoglucanase A (CenA) from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is composed of a catalytic domain and a nonhydrolytic cellulose-binding domain that can function independently. The individual domains interact synergistically in the disruption and hydrolysis of cellulose fibers. This intramolecular synergism is distinct from the well-known intermolecular synergism between individual cellulases. The catalytic domain corresponds to the hydrolytic Cx system and the cellulose-binding domain corresponds to the nonhydrolytic C1 system postulated by Reese et al. [Reese, E. T., Sui, R. G. H. & Levinson, H. S. (1950) J. Bacteriol. 59, 485-497] to be required for the hydrolysis of cellulose.

Din N; Damude HG; Gilkes NR; Miller RC Jr; Warren RA; Kilburn DG

1994-11-01

336

C1-Cx revisited: intramolecular synergism in a cellulase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoglucanase A (CenA) from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is composed of a catalytic domain and a nonhydrolytic cellulose-binding domain that can function independently. The individual domains interact synergistically in the disruption and hydrolysis of cellulose fibers. This intramolecular synergism is distinct from the well-known intermolecular synergism between individual cellulases. The catalytic domain corresponds to the hydrolytic Cx system and the cellulose-binding domain corresponds to the nonhydrolytic C1 system postulated by Reese et al. [Reese, E. T., Sui, R. G. H. & Levinson, H. S. (1950) J. Bacteriol. 59, 485-497] to be required for the hydrolysis of cellulose. PMID:7972069

Din, N; Damude, H G; Gilkes, N R; Miller, R C; Warren, R A; Kilburn, D G

1994-11-22

337

Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-06-01

338

Late orogenic magmatism and sedimentation within Late Carboniferous to Early Permian basins in the Balkan terrane (Bulgaria): geodynamic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The orogenic Balkanid belt, which developed between the Moesian Plate and the Moravian-Rhodopi-Thracian Massifs, was affected by the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian opening of W-E oriented graben structures. The progressive tectonic rejuvenation of the basins is demonstrated by the deposition of repeated regional sedimentary cycles, associated with volcanism that was mostly localised along the tectonic boundaries, in an intramontane setting.

Cortesogno, Luciano; Gaggero, Laura; Ronchi, Ausonio; Yanev, Slavcho

2004-09-01

339

The change in mineral coals upon contact with a dike of ultrabasic composition in the northeastern part of the Tunguss basin. Ob izmenenii iskopayemykh ugley na kontakte s daykoy ul'traosnovnogo sostava v severovostochnoy chasti Tungusskogo basseyna  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of a study of the effect of a dike of ultrabasites (picritic porphyrite) 3.2 meters thick on the mineral coal of Permian age are cited for the first time for the Tunguss basin. Natural coke is observed with direct contact, while thick and lean coals of the contact series of metamorphism are observed at a large distance from the intrusive rock. The absence of fundamental differences in the nature of the transformation of the coal matter near dikes of ultrabasic and basic rocks of approximately identical thickness in similar geological conditions (the stratigraphic position, the composition and thicknesses of the coal seams, the initial stage of coal metamorphism and the composition of the enclosing rock) of the northeastern part of the Tunguss basin is shown on the basis of a comprehensive chemical and petrographic characterization.

Gurevich, A.B.; Gavrilova, O.I.; Volkova, G.M.

1985-01-01

340

Coal gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A standard series of two staged gas generators (GG) has been developed in the United States for producing gas with a combustion heat from 4,700 to 7,600 kilojoules per cubic meter from coal (U). The diameter of the gas generators is from 1.4 to 3.65 meters and the thermal capacity based on purified cold gas is from 12.5 to 89 million kilojoules per hour. Certain standard sized gas generators have undergone experimental industrial tests which showed that it is most expedient to feed the coal into the gas generators pneumatically. This reduces the dimensions of the charging device, makes it possible to use more common grades of structural steels and reduces the cost of the gas. A double valve reliably prevents ejections of the gasification product and promotes the best distribution of the coal in the gas generator. The gas generators may successfully operate on high moisture (up to 36 percent) brown coal. Blasting with oxygen enriched to 38 percent made it possible to produce a gas with a combustion heat of 9,350 kilojoules per cubic meter. This supports a combustion temperature of 1,700C.

Rainey, D.L.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

An Introduction and Virtual Field Trip to the Permian Reef Complex, Guadalupe and Delaware Mountains, New Mexico-West Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Peter Scholle, a professor of geology at New Mexico Tech, oversees this site showcasing the geology of the Permian reefs of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The Salado Formation, part of this sequence, has been in the spotlight lately because it contains the newly discovered, 250 million-year-old, salt-dwelling bacteria (see this week's Scout Report's In the News). The classic sedimentary sections of the Guadalupe and Delaware mountains have been well studied because of their magnificent exposures of Permian aged carbonate platform and slope deposits. Each year, geology students flock to the region to learn about sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology, and tectonic history, among other things. At this information-rich, well-illustrated site, everyone gets a chance to see and learn about these rocks. Sections of the virtual guidebook feature text with links to the bibliography, and color diagrams and photographs. The site is divided into the following sections: General Settings, Previous Studies, Structural History, Stratigraphic Setting and Nomenclature, Depositional Patterns, Diagenetic Patterns, Recent Models, Oil and Gas Production, and Field Trip and Safety Notes. Especially useful to those planning a field trip are road logs and field stop descriptions of road cuts between El Paso and Carlsbad, McKittrick Canyon, Walnut Canyon, and Dark Canyon-Sitting Bull Falls-Rocky Arroyo. Take a moment to discover the beauty and amazing geology of these classic Permian Reefs.

342

A new bolosaurid parareptile, Belebey chengi sp. nov., from the Middle Permian of China and its paleogeographic significance  

Science.gov (United States)

A new bolosaurid parareptile, Belebey chengi sp. nov., is described from Dashankou, Gansu Province, China, a Middle Permian locality which is known mostly for its therapsid fauna. The material consists of well-preserved mandibular and anterior skull remains and currently represents the largest and latest surviving member of Bolosauridae. Phylogenetic analysis of bolosaurid interrelationships, the first analysis of any clade of Early Permian parareptiles, indicates that the new taxon groups consistently with the other (Russian) members of the genus Belebey, and forms the sister clade to the genus Bolosaurus from North America. The Early Permian Eudibamus cursoris from Germany falls into the basal most position within Bolosauridae. Our analysis also shows that the split between the main bolosaurid lineages must have occurred near or before the Permo-Carboniferous boundary and that the paleo-equatorial region of Laurasia probably served as the center of origination for these parareptiles. A similar pattern can be found in other clades of Paleozoic amniotes, suggesting that this may be the general trend in early amniote evolution.

Müller, Johannes; Li, Jin-Ling; Reisz, Robert R.

2008-12-01

343

A new bolosaurid parareptile, Belebey chengi sp. nov., from the Middle Permian of China and its paleogeographic significance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new bolosaurid parareptile, Belebey chengi sp. nov., is described from Dashankou, Gansu Province, China, a Middle Permian locality which is known mostly for its therapsid fauna. The material consists of well-preserved mandibular and anterior skull remains and currently represents the largest and latest surviving member of Bolosauridae. Phylogenetic analysis of bolosaurid interrelationships, the first analysis of any clade of Early Permian parareptiles, indicates that the new taxon groups consistently with the other (Russian) members of the genus Belebey, and forms the sister clade to the genus Bolosaurus from North America. The Early Permian Eudibamus cursoris from Germany falls into the basal most position within Bolosauridae. Our analysis also shows that the split between the main bolosaurid lineages must have occurred near or before the Permo-Carboniferous boundary and that the paleo-equatorial region of Laurasia probably served as the center of origination for these parareptiles. A similar pattern can be found in other clades of Paleozoic amniotes, suggesting that this may be the general trend in early amniote evolution.

Müller J; Li JL; Reisz RR

2008-12-01

344

Massive volcanism at the Permian-Triassic boundary and its impact on the isotopic composition of the ocean and atmosphere  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bulk carbonate and conodonts from three Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary sections at Guryul Ravine (Kashmir), Abadeh (central Iran) and Pufels/Bula/Bulla (Italy) were investigated for d13C and d18O. Carbon isotope data highlight environmental changes across the P-T boundary and show the following features: (1) a gradual decrease of 4‰ to more than 7‰ starting in the Late Permian (Changhsingian) C. bachmanni Zone, with two superimposed transient positive excursions in the C. meishanensis-H. praeparvus and the M. ultima-S. ? mostleri Zones; (2) two d13C minima, the first at the P-T boundary and a higher, occasionally double-minimum in the lower I. isarcica Zone. It is unlikely that the short-lived phenomena, such as a breakdown in biological productivity due to catastrophic mass extinction, a sudden release of oceanic methane hydrates or meteorite impact(s), could have been the main control on the latest Permian carbon isotope curve because of its prolonged (0.5 Ma) duration, gradual decrease and the existenceof a >1‰ positive shift at the main extinction horizon. The P-T boundary d13C trend matches in time and magnitude the eruption of the Siberian Traps and other contemporaneous volcanism, suggesting that volcanogenic effects, such as outgassed CO2 from volcanism and, even more, thermal metamorphism of organic-rich sediments, as the likely cause of the negative trend.

Korte, Christoph; Pande, P.

2010-01-01

345

The armoured dissorophid Cacops from the Early Permian of Oklahoma and the exploitation of the terrestrial realm by amphibians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cacops, one of the most distinctive Paleozoic amphibians, is part of a clade of dissorophoid temnospondyls that diversified in the equatorial region of Pangea during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, persisting into the Late Permian in Central Russia and China. Dissorophids were a successful group of fully terrestrial, often spectacularly armoured predators, the only amphibians apparently able to coexist with amniotes when the latter started to dominate terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, we describe excellent new skulls from the Early Permian of Oklahoma attributed to Cacops, Cacops morrisi sp. nov. and provide for the first time detailed information about this iconic dissorophid. These specimens show anatomical and ontogenetic features that will impact on future studies on the evolution of terrestriality in tetrapods. For example, the large, posteriorly closed tympanic embayment has fine striations on an otherwise smooth surface, documenting the oldest known clear evidence for the presence of a tympanic membrane in the fossil record, a structure that is used for hearing airborne sound in extant tetrapods. The skull of C. morrisi also has several features associated with predatory behaviour, indicating that this dissorophid may have been one of the top terrestrial predators of its time.

Reisz RR; Schoch RR; Anderson JS

2009-07-01

346

Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech.

Tahtouh Muriel; Garçon-Bocquet Annelise; Croq Françoise; Vizioli Jacopo; Sautière Pierre-Eric; Van Camp Christelle; Salzet Michel; Nagnan-le Meillour Patricia; Pestel Joël; Lefebvre Christophe

2012-01-01

347

Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. METHODS: Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. RESULTS: rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. CONCLUSIONS: A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech.

Tahtouh M; Garçon-Bocquet A; Croq F; Vizioli J; Sautière PE; Van Camp C; Salzet M; Nagnan-le Meillour P; Pestel J; Lefebvre C

2012-01-01

348

Congenital C1 arch deficiency: Grand Round presentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: We present an uncommon and yet interesting congenital anomaly and discuss the difficulties with diagnosis and controversies in management. C1 arch deficiency is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of neck pain in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 12-year-old girl presented initially with a loud clicking emanating from the cervical spine during nappy changes in early childhood. Subsequent investigation by way of CT and MRI revealed her to have a deficient posterior arch of the C1 vertebra, and due to persistent and painful clicking she was placed into a cervical brace, which was worn for approximately 1 year. At age 12, her clicking had all but completely resolved but she continued to complain of minor neck pain. She is advised to avoid contact sports and her parents are instructed to observe any new worrying symptoms. CONCLUSION: No definitive guidelines exist for the management of this congenital anomaly. Indications for surgical intervention prior to any neurological disturbance are unclear, and restricting a child from partaking in healthy activity may not be necessary. We discuss the anomaly and identified management strategies as reported in the literature so far.

Elmalky MM; Elsayed S; Arealis G; Mehdian H

2013-06-01

349

Coal industry annual 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

350

Coal industry annual 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

1998-01-01

351

Coal industry annual 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01

352

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01

353

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

1996-01-01

354

Coal industry annual 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

1997-01-01

355

Mechanical decarbonylation of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Desorption, oxidation and mechanically activated decarbonylation of coal were examined as possible sources of carbon monoxide emitted from coal during the grinding process. The effects of grinding time, temperature, coal pretreatment and coal rank on CO emission as well as adsorptive capacity of coal for carbon monoxide were investigated for 12 coal samples. Mechanical decarbonylation of coal was found to be the most probable source of CO evolved from coal in milling under inert conditions. During milling under oxygen, however, some of the CO emission originates from coal oxidation. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Taraba, B. (Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Inst. of Geonics)

1994-08-01

356

Coal Mines Security System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India...

Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

357

Coal transportation manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2002-2003 edition of the coal transportation manual is a source for: coal marketing, railroad, port, barge, producer, utility, financial service and other industry personnel changes; by-railroad listing of mines served; barge company fleets and capacities; port coal-handling capabilities; country coal exports by tonnage; and coal mine specs.

NONE

2002-05-01

358

Source potential and sequence stratigraphic characterization of microbial evaporitic mudrocks: Upper Permian Zechstein Group, Northern Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial evaporitic carbonate mudrocks are important source rocks throughout much of the earth history. Some of the largest hydrocarbon provinces are potentially sourced by evaporite source rocks such as the Cretaceous and Jurassic in the Middle East, the Tertiary in Spain, the Permian in northern Germany, the Devonian in Canada, and the Pennsylvanian in the USA. Carbonate mudrocks deposited under mesosaline conditions are often over-looked and dismissed as potential source rocks. However, preservation and accumulation of organic matter in salinity-layered intraplatform epeiric depressions and restricted basin centers are significant. These mudrocks may not only constitute the source but also exhibit reservoir qualities. Slope and basin laminated mudrocks were investigated for their source and reservoir potential using sequence stratigraphic and geochemical techniques to investigate the exploration potential of the northern German Upper Permian Zechstein Formation. The lower Zechstein cycles Z1 and Z2 are characterized by calcareous to argillaceous, laminated, organic-rich mudstones with TOC (total organic carbon) contents ranging mostly 6% in the Z1 cycle. Maturities range from 0.9 to >3% Ro depending on depth of burial for these two cycles. While the Z1 mudrocks deposited above the Rotliegend clastic section are more argillaceous and clay-rich grading upward from calcareous mudstones to intraclast, coated grain, thrombolitic wacke- and packstones into coated-grain grainstones, the Z2 mudrocks are dominated by calcareous to dolomitic laminated mudstones. Both cycles are characterized by microbially bound carbonates ranging from thrombolytic to crenulated laminated structures that are overlain by anhydrite and salt. Stacking patterns of the Z1 3rd-order cycle reveal three 5th-order parasequences stacking into two 4th-order sequences; Z2 3rd-order cycle is composed of three 4th-order parasequences that first deepen and then shallow upwards. Sediments associated with deepening events contain the highest amount of TOC and maturities along the slope and basin. The configuration of the two Zechstein cycles within this epeiric basin favored accumulation of microbial source rocks, carbonate reservoirs and evaporite seals.

Hammes, Ursula; Mutti, Maria

2013-04-01

359

Magmatic plumbing of a Permian caldera exposed to a depth of 25 Km.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report discovery of a large caldera within a Permian bimodal volcanic field situated structurally above the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ) and Serie dei Laghi (SdL) of northwest Italy, two lithostratigraphic packages that constitute the deep- and the middle- to upper-crustal components, respectively, of a tilted and exposed section through the pre-Alpine crust of northwest Italy. A caldera diameter of ?13 km is indicated by outcrops of rhyolitic megabreccia and intra-caldera tuff, and a contact between intra-caldera tuff and basement two-mica schist appears to be a relic of the caldera wall based on an increase in abundance of schist inclusions in the tuff as the contact is approached. A 7- to 8-km-thick granite of the SdL intrudes the volcanic rocks, grading downward from granophyre and fine-grained granite with miarolitic cavities near the volcanic rocks at its roof to a coarse-grained "mesogranite" that is rooted in migmatitic, metapelitic paragneiss of the IVZ. Intruding the IVZ paragneiss at deeper crustal levels is a ?8-km-thick gabbronorite complex; equilibration pressures at the roof of this complex indicate that it "underplated" beneath 15 to 20 km of crust. Most rhyolitic and SdL granitic rocks are peraluminous, consistent with an origin involving partial melting of metapelitic paragneiss in the IVZ. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of bimodal volcanism (288 ± 2 to 282 ± 3 Ma), formation of granitic plutons in the SdL (289 ± 3 to 275 ± 5 Ma), and gabbro in the IVZ (289 ± 3 to 286 ± 6 Ma) indicate that the onset of bimodal volcanism and granitic plutonism was coincident with and probably triggered by intrusion of mantle-derived mafic melt in the deep crust, and that volcanic activity and presence of granitic melt at depth persisted after underplating had ceased. Palinspastic restoration of the Permian section provides a possible reference section for the crustal seismic structure beneath large calderas analogous to that provided by the ophiolite model for the seismic structure of the oceanic crust.

Sinigoi, Silvano; Quick, James E.; Peressini, Gabriella; Kloezli, Urs; Demarchi, Gabriella

2010-05-01

360

Gwembe Coal Formation, Karoo Supergroup, Mid-Zambezi valley, southern Zambia; a fluvial plain environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gwembe Coal Formation of Permian age belongs to the Lower Karoo Group of the Karoo Supergroup (Permo-Carboniferous to early Jurassic), which crops out in the mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia. The formation has a maximum thickness of 280 m. It was formed in a fluvial depositional environment in which sandstones, siltstones and mudstones were deposited in channels and flood plains. One sandstone body (A Sandstone) indicates a change in fluvial style from a proximal braided system to a high-sinuosity meandering stream system. The productive coals (Main Seam) with thicknesses from 5 to 12 m were deposited in shallow swampy areas of the flood plain. Peat deposition was interrupted by channel, crevasse channel and splay, levee and overbank deposition. Rootlets observed in basal sandstones indicate an insitu origin for the Main Seam.

Nyambe, I.A.; Dixon, O. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Coal Briquettes from Coal Washings.  

Science.gov (United States)

In working to find an economical way to make wet coal fines (silt) into a marketable briquette product, several mixes utilizing different binders were worked with. Our studies show that the sodium chloride binder worked the best. The briquettes were stron...

G. C. Edwards J. F. Kamineck J. R. Kretchman

1983-01-01

362

Diamond C 1s core-level excitons: Surface sensitivity  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of surface termination on C 1s core-level bulk excitons found near the surface in single-crystal diamond is reported. By simultaneously recording bulk (total electron yield) and surface (partial electron yield) near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectra with a range of single-crystal surface terminations, variable bulk exciton energy blueshifts and linewidth broadening were observed, most notably in the reconstructed single-crystal diamond. Investigation of polycrystalline diamond and ultrananocrystalline diamond films, using the same technique, allowed for a comparison between the reconstructed single-crystal diamond surface and nanodiamond bulk excitons. These findings suggest that surface-related effects can be misinterpreted as quantum confinement in some nanodiamond NEXAFS studies. Band bending is suggested as a possible contributor to these results.

Stacey, Alastair; Cowie, Bruce C. C.; Orwa, Julius; Prawer, Steven; Hoffman, Alon

2010-09-01

363

Benchmark of the Convex C-1 mini supercomputer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In July 1985, we benchmarked the Convex C-1 computer at the Convex plant in Richardson, Texas. The machine is marketed as a mini-supercomputer executing a UNIX operating system. The architecture includes vector functional units, 16-million 64-bit words of physical memory and 64 kbytes of set-associative cache between main memory and the CPU. The standard one-processor Los Alamos benchmarks were executed and timed in both single-precision (32-bit) and double-precision (64-bit) floating-point mode. Subsequent to the July benchmark, the machine architecture was changed to expand the cache bypass for vector memory accesses. The benchmarks were redone in October 1985 to include the significant architecture modification. The results in this paper are from the latest benchmark.

Simmons, M.L.; Lubeck, OlM.

1986-01-01

364

Functional characterization of the recombinant human C1 inhibitor serpin domain: insights into heparin binding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variants of the human C1 inhibitor serpin domain containing three N-linked carbohydrates at positions 216, 231, and 330 (C1inhDelta97), a single carbohydrate at position 330 (C1inhDelta97DM), or no carbohydrate were produced in a baculovirus/insect cells system. An N-terminally His-tagged C1inhDelta97 variant was also produced. Removal of the oligosaccharide at position 330 dramatically decreased expression, precluding further analysis. All other variants were characterized chemically and shown to inhibit C1s activity and C1 activation in the same way as native C1 inhibitor. Likewise, they formed covalent complexes with C1s as shown by SDS-PAGE analysis. C1 inhibitor and its variants inhibited the ability of C1r-like protease to activate C1s, but did not form covalent complexes with this protease. The interaction of C1 inhibitor and its variants with heparin was investigated by surface plasmon resonance, yielding K(D) values of 16.7 x 10(-8) M (C1 inhibitor), 2.3 x 10(-8) M (C1inhDelta97), and 3.6 x 10(-8) M (C1inhDelta97DM). C1s also bound to heparin, with lower affinity (K(D) = 108 x 10(-8) M). Using the same technique, 50% inhibition of the binding of C1 inhibitor and C1s to heparin was achieved using heparin oligomers containing eight and six saccharide units, respectively. These values roughly correlate with the size of 10 saccharide units yielding half-maximal potentiation of the inhibition of C1s activity by C1 inhibitor, consistent with a "sandwich" mechanism. Using a thermal shift assay, heparin was shown to interact with the C1s serine protease domain and the C1 inhibitor serpin domain, increasing and decreasing their thermal stability, respectively.

Rossi V; Bally I; Ancelet S; Xu Y; Frémeaux-Bacchi V; Vivès RR; Sadir R; Thielens N; Arlaud GJ

2010-05-01

365

Coal preparation in the Polish coal industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterized are separation systems used in 94 coal preparation plants in Poland. Preparation plants prepared 207 Mt of run-of-mine coal and produced 163 Mt of prepared coal in 1981. Ninety-four preparation plants have a capacity of 63,700 t/h. About 55% of capacity falls on the following processes: preparation of coal class from 200 to 20 mm in DISA separators (capacity 400 Mg/h), preparation of coal class from 20 to 0.5 mm in OM pulsation jigs with a capacity of 500 Mg/h, and preparation of coal slurries (size from 20 to 0.5 mm) in IZ flotation machines with a capacity of 10 Mg/h slurry. The remaining 45% capacity of Polish coal preparation plants falls on outdated plants which have not been modernized in the last 20 years. Coal types prepared in Poland are characterized. Types 34, 35, and 37 coking coal are prepared irrespective of size class (from 200 to 0 mm). Type 33 gas coal and type 32 coal with a high calorific value and size from 200 to 0.5 mm are prepared, whereas slurries of the 32 and 33 coal are not prepared. Size class from 200 to 20 mm of coal types 31 and 32 is prepared, whereas the class from 20 to 0 mm is not prepared. About 98% of machines and equipment used in Polish coal preparation plants is Polish made.

Jaworski, A.

1983-01-01

366

Coal industry annual 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

1994-12-06

367

Coal - proximate analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

NONE

2005-06-14

368

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01

369

Coal industry annual 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

1994-01-01

370

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, H.D.; Chen, J.M.

1985-10-08

371

Activation of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activation of coal, in which coal that has been partially oxidized with sulfur dioxide is introduced into a reaction zone. The coal is contacted with super-heated steam and then impregnated with vanadium.

Steiner, P.

1981-03-31

372

Coal-93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1992. Some information about technics, environmental questions and markets are also given. The use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced by about 10 percent during 1992 to the level of 1.1 million ton. This is the case for both heat generating boilers and co-generation boilers. On the other hand, the electricity production in the cogeneration plants have increased, mainly for tax reasons. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. During 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 cogeneration plants. For 1992 these figures are 5 and 9. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The industry has reduced its use of steamcoal by 140 000 tons to about 700 000 tons. The reason is a cut down of production in particularly the cement industry and the mineral wool industry. The steamcoal import was 1.2 million tons during 1992, the same as the year before. The import has been lower than the consumption during the last years. The companies have reduced their stocks because of changed laws about emergency stocks. The average price of steamcoal imported in Sweden in 1992 was 272 SEK/ton or 25 SEK/ton lower than in 1991. The coal market during 1992 was affected by smaller consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. Among other things independent mines in Russia and Poland have dumped low quality coals. A structuring of both process and quality has now begun. Western companies have for instance started joint ventures with Russian companies and supplied washing- and classifying equipments. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. 13 tabs.

1993-01-01

373

Evidence of a therapsid scavenger in the Late Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dicynodonts are an extinct group of herbivorous non-mammalian therapsids (‘mammal-like’ reptiles) that are widely known from terrestrial Permo-Triassic strata throughout Pangaea. Dicynodont fossil remains are common within the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin in South Africa. A large, partially articulated dicynodont skeleton recovered from the TropidostomaAssemblage Zone is taphonomically important in having an unusual disarticulation pattern, bone surface punctures and a broken tooth of an unidentified carnivore associated with it. Here we report on the nature of the bone damage, and the identity of the carnivore that lost a canine tooth whilst scavenging the dicynodont carcass. The morphological characteristics of the serrations on the unidentified tooth were compared with those of contemporaneous carnivores, the gorgonopsians and therocephalians. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of a silicone cast of the unidentified tooth revealed distinctive 0.5-mm square-shaped serrations. Our comparative assessment of the tooth size, curvature, cross-sectional shape and morphology of the serrations revealed that the unidentified canine most closely matched Aelurognathus,a gorgonopsian known from the same assemblage zone.

Nicholas Fordyce; Roger Smith; Anusuya Chinsamy

2012-01-01

374

Evidence of a therapsid scavenger in the Late Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Dicynodonts are an extinct group of herbivorous non-mammalian therapsids ('mammal-like' reptiles) that are widely known from terrestrial Permo-Triassic strata throughout Pangaea. Dicynodont fossil remains are common within the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin in South Africa. A large, partially articulated dicynodont skeleton recovered from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone is taphonomically important in having an unusual disarticulation pattern, bone surface (more) punctures and a broken tooth of an unidentified carnivore associated with it. Here we report on the nature of the bone damage, and the identity of the carnivore that lost a canine tooth whilst scavenging the dicynodont carcass. The morphological characteristics of the serrations on the unidentified tooth were compared with those of contemporaneous carnivores, the gorgonopsians and therocephalians. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of a silicone cast of the unidentified tooth revealed distinctive 0.5-mm square-shaped serrations. Our comparative assessment of the tooth size, curvature, cross-sectional shape and morphology of the serrations revealed that the unidentified canine most closely matched Aelurognathus, a gorgonopsian known from the same assemblage zone.

Fordyce, Nicholas; Smith, Roger; Chinsamy, Anusuya

2012-01-01

375

Permian upper Yates Formation carbonate/siliciclastic depositional patterns, northwestern shelf, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sedimentological field study of the upper three sandstones of the upper Yates Formation (Permian, Guadalupian), Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, has shed considerably light on the shelf depositional environment, morphologic profile, and temporal relationships of alternating carbonate and siliciclastic deposition. Primary sedimentary structures are rare, obscure, small scale (less than or equal to 20 cm; 8 in., height), and discontinuous. All structures indicate subaqueous deposition. From the sandstones nearest the Capitan, the shelfward progression of sedimentary structures indicates shelfward diminution of hydraulic energy. Evidence for a marginal mound shelf profile during sandstone deposition is inconclusive. All three sandstones continuously overlie the area of the marginal mound as inferred from the underlying carbonate facies, hence a marginal mound was not present or had no affect on transport of siliciclastics across the outer 5 km (3 mi) of the shelf. Each sandstone is characterized by a sharp, subplanar erosional base, and typically grades upward into peritidal carbonates, which exhibit along the shelf crest of the marginal mound one or more 1 to 2 m (3 to 6 ft) shoaling-upward hemicycles which commonly built up to depositional fill-level in response to episodic shelf subsidence of 1 to 2 m (3 to 6 ft). The sandstone intervals interbedded with shelf crest carbonate facies comprise sandstone/carbonate shoaling-upward hemicycles; contrary to current interpretation the sandstone represents the basal deeper water deposition, the carbonates represent the shoal water deposition.

Candelaria, M.P.

1983-03-01

376

Pre-Khuff (Silurian-Lower Permian) sedimentation in the `A` structure offshore Abu Dhabi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this paper is to describe the stratigraphy and sedimentation of the Pre-Khuff Formations in offshore Abu Dhabi. The thickest penetrated section ranges in age from early Permian to late Silurian. To date, only one paper has been published on the Pre-Khuff in this area. The recent deep well drilled in `A` structure in offshore Abu Dhabi has proved the occurrence of one major unconformity in the Pre-Khuff: the Hercynian unconformity underlain by the early Carboniferous?/Devonian clastic sequence. Another unconformity may occur at the top of the Silurian. The objective of this paper is also to assess and describe the Pre-Khuff penetrated in a deepest well in U.A.E.--here named well 6--recently drilled on the `A` structure. Other wells will also be considered in order to allow regional assessment of the Pre-Khuff. Well 6 penetrated 2,600 ft of the Pre-Khuff and terminated at a depth of 17,926 ft.SS. in the Silurian. The objective of this well was to investigate the hydrocarbon prospects of as greater part of the Pre-Khuff as practically possible. In fact, Well 6 was the first well in the U.A.E. to drill into the Silurian.

Hassan, T.H.; Al Dabal, M.A.; El-Said, M.E.

1995-11-01

377

A preliminary study of REE distributions in mudrocks of Permian Beacon Supergroup, Central Transantarctic Mountains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Partial REE patterns have been determined for ten Permian mud-rock samples from the central Transantarctic Mountains. Depositional environments of the samples range from fluvial overbank to open-water deltaic and basinal. REE patterns have beeh characterized by a LREE enrichment factor (EF), defined as the NASC-normalized La/Lu ratio. The response of LREE to weathering intensity, thermal diagenesis, and compositional variability has been assessed. Average LREE EF for the ten samples is 2.00 (+-0.6), similar to published LREE EF for recent riverine and marine siliciclastics. This agreement suggests that the LREE EF of a sediment is established early in its weathering/transport history. LREE EF do not covary with either an index of chemical weathering of vitrinite reflectance, indicating that LREE are not fractionated by either bulk weathering processes or diagenesis. LREE EF increases as grain size decreases and clay mineral abundance increases. Geographic variations in LREE EF, however, may also reflect a provenance control. These stratigraphic and geographic distributions of LREE EF emphasize the importance of grain size and mineralogy as controls on REE compositions, but also suggest that the early development of LREE enrichment can include a stable provenance signal.

Krissek, L.A.; Horner, T.C.

1988-01-01

378

Influence of Permian salt dissolution on distribution of shallow Niobrara gas fields, eastern Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subsurface analysis of Permian salt and related strata in the shallow Niobrara gas area on the eastern flank of the Denver basin reveals that the location of faulted anticlines which produce gas from porous chalk is related to the occurrence of six Nippewalla Group (Leonardian) salt zones. Salt distribution is controlled by the configuration of evaporate basins during the Leonardian, truncation at a sub-Jurassic unconformity (which has completely removed Guadalupian salts), and post-Jurassic subsurface dissolution. Significant dissolution took place in response to Laramide orogeny and subsequent eastward regional groundwater flow within the Lyons (Cedar Hills) Sandstone aquifer. Initially, dissolution occurred along a regional facies change from sandstone to salt. Solution collapse allowed for cross-formational flow and removal of younger salts. Shallow Niobrara gas fields are situated above salt outliers or along regionally updip salt edges. No significant Niobrara production exists in areas where salt is absent. Structural relief across fields is related to Leonardian thickness variations, rather than subsalt offset. Seismic data reveal abrupt Leonardian thinning at the regionally updip limit of Eckley field, which has produced over 33 BCFG. Thickness of residual salt may be important in controlling the amount of gas trapped within the Niobrara. Where thick salts are preserved, structural relief is greater, the gas-water transition zone is thicker, and gas saturation is higher at the crests of faulted anticlines.

Oldham, D.W.; Smosna, R.A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-06-01

379

Atmospheric Chemistry Response to Changes in Tropospheric Methane Concentration: Application to the Permian-Triassic Boundary.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large methane release from clathrates at the end of the Permian (250 million years ago) has been hypothesized as a possible explanation for the observed large light isotopic carbon deviation. Estimates of the release provide a range of equivalent tropospheric methane concentrations; this range indicates that concentrations up to 1000x present-day conditions were possible. We evaluate the atmospheric chemical impact of such methane concentrations using a three-dimensional climate model (extending from the surface to approximately 85 km) with interactive chemistry. The model uses the land/ocean distribution (including sea-surface temperature) from Kiehl and Shields (Geology, 2005), representative of the simulated time period. Our results indicate that stratospheric ozone shows limited sensitivity to the methane loading until tropospheric methane reaches 750x present-day concentrations. The response for larger concentrations indicates a very rapid collapse of the atmospheric ozone. Very nonlinear behaviors are also observed in other chemically-important species such as OH and CO. Implications for the sustainability of life are discussed.

Lamarque, J.; Kiehl, J. T.; Shields, C.; Boville, B. A.

2005-12-01

380

Impact of methane and hydrogen sulfide on atmospheric ozone at the Permian-Triassic boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss model experiments valid for the Permian-Triassic boundary in which we explore the impact of changes in tropospheric methane concentration. For scenarios relevant to methane clathrate release, we consider surface methane concentration with values up to 5000 times its preindustrial concentration. We employ a comprehensive three-dimensional tropospheric-stratospheric model with chemistry that allows for the feedbacks between chemistry and climate. We show that stratospheric ozone starts collapsing for methane surface concentrations of the order of 1000 times their preindustrial concentration. At 5000 times, more than half of the total ozone column has disappeared. As the methane lifetime never reaches more than 50 years, this perturbation can only be short-lived. We show he addition of large hydrogen sulfide emissions (from an anoxic ocean) can provide the chemical sink for the hydroxyl radical (OH) and make the methane perturbation much more long-lived. However, the hydrogen sulfide itself does not seem to exert much influence on stratospheric ozone.

Lamarque, J.; Kiehl, J.; Shields, C.; Kinnison, D.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Isotope shifts in the late Permian of the Delaware Basin, Texas, precisely timed by varved sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Closely spaced samples (285 in number) of varved sediments from the Upper Permian in Delaware Basin, Texas, have been analyzed for delta/sup 13/Csub(carb), delta/sup 13/Csub(org), delta/sup 18/Osub(carb), Csub(org), Csub(carb) and calcite/dolomite. delta/sup 13/C records a dramatic rise from -2.8 to + 5.7 per mille in only 4400 years, detected in three sections across the basin, extrapolating smoothly through a 600-year interruption by a local (west side of the basin) fresh-water inflow evidenced by low delta/sup 18/O. This continuity and low Csub(org) within the basin, both indicate that the excess net deposition of Csub(org), necessary to generate the rise in delta/sup 13/C, took place in the ocean external to the Delaware Basin, Correlation with similar records from the Zechstein Basin suggest that the event was world-wide, although this poses obvious difficulties for the carbon cycle. The rate of rise of delta/sup 13/C, and its sustained high level, must imply conversions of oxidized carbon to reduced carbon that are very large depending on which reservoirs were involved.

Magaritz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Isotope Dept.; Oregon Univ., ugene (USA). Dept. of Geology); Anderson, R.Y. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque (USA). Dept. of Geology); Holser, W.T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene (USA). Dept. of Geology); Saltzmann, E.S. (Miami Univ., FL (USA). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences); Garber, J. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Isotope Dept.)

1983-12-01

382

Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m) overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m). The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively) varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.

Calarge Liane M.; Meunier Alain; Lanson Bruno; Formo