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Sample records for permian c1 coal

  1. Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study

    Zhou Yiping; Ho Suzanne C; Huang Yunchao; Wang Jianfang; Dai Shifeng; Tian Linwei; Lucas Donald; Koshland Catherine P

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is pr...

  2. Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study

    Zhou Yiping

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is produced. Therefore, we have hypothesized the two processes: C1 coal combustion --> nanoquartz in ambient air --> lung cancer excess in non-smoking women. Methods/Design We propose to conduct a retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis above. We will search historical records and compile an inventory of the coal mines in operation during 1930–2009. To estimate the study subjects' retrospective exposure, we will reconstruct the historical exposure scenario by burning the coal samples, collected from operating or deserted coal mines by coal geologists, in a traditional firepit of an old house. Indoor air particulate samples will be collected for nanoquartz and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs analyses. Bulk quartz content will be quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Size distribution of quartz will be examined by electron microscopes and by centrifugation techniques. Lifetime cumulative exposure to nanoquartz will be estimated for each subject. Using the epidemiology data, we will examine whether the use of C1 coal and the cumulative exposure to nanoquartz are associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer. Discussion The high incidence rate of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, one of the counties in the current study area, was once attributed to high indoor air concentrations of PAHs. The research results have been cited for qualitative and quantitative cancer risk assessment of PAHs by the World Health Organization and other agencies. If nanoquartz is found to be the main underlying cause of the lung cancer epidemic in the study area, cancer potency estimates for PAHs by the international agencies based on the lung cancer data in this study setting should then be updated.

  3. Petrified peat from a permian coal bed in Antarctica

    Schopf, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Petrified plant remains that composed a Permian peat deposit occur at a coal horizon in a local area of Mount Augusta near the Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica. This discovery is the first in the entire Gondwana area that yields plant materials as exquisitely preserved as the materials of the well-known coal-ball localities of the Northern Hemisphere. A sampling of anatomical details is illustrated.

  4. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  5. Petrography, carbonate mineralogy and geochemistry of thermally altered coal in Permian coal measures, Hunter Valley, Australia

    Golab, Alexandra N. [School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Hutton, Adrian C. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522 (Australia); French, David [CSIRO Energy Technology, Science and Technology Centre, Lucas Heights NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2007-04-02

    Carbonate minerals commonly occur in coals of many ages and from a utilisation viewpoint can be deleterious. Several studies have been undertaken of the carbonates in the Permian coals of the Hunter Valley, Australia, but few studies use a multi-technique approach. For this study, a combined petrographic, geochemical and mineralogical approach was used to determine the distribution and residence of carbonate minerals in coal that had been intruded by a dyke. The dominant carbonate assemblages comprise primary siderite in inertinite-rich microlithotypes and secondary calcite(-ankerite-dolomite)-dawsonite in vitrinite-rich microlithotypes. The secondary carbonates were found in both the aureole of heated coal and also in an unheated mine-face sample. It is believed that the secondary carbonate minerals precipitated from magma-derived fluids percolating through the coal following the emplacement of the intrusions. The textures and distribution of the secondary carbonate minerals suggest that the temperature and pressure of the fluids may be just as important in developing fractures near dykes (particularly those that have multiple phases of geometries), cleat mineralogy and coal textures as direct heating from the intrusion. The partitioning of primary siderite with inertinite and secondary carbonates with vitrinite indicates that it can be reasonably expected that there would be a partitioning of minerals in various density fractions derived from float-sink tests and consequently a partitioning of elements with inertinite-rich fractions containing elevated Fe levels and vitrinite-rich fractions containing elevated Ca, Mg and Al. This partitioning has implications for the behaviour of the coal during washing and combustion, and the composition of combustion products. (author)

  6. Trace elemental analysis of permian gondwana coals in Bangladesh by PIXE technique

    The study of trace elements level in coal arouses much interest days to assess and evaluate the environmental impact related to its benefit and usage in applying it to the problem of mining site. Further, it is more important during the coal combustion in thermal power stations particularly in relation to the emission of air toxic, disposal and utilization of fly ash. The paper describes the level of nineteen environmentally significant trace elements found in recently discovered Permian Gondwana coals in Barapukuria and Khalaspir of Northwestern Bangladesh using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. Both the mineral species and trace elements are expected to be due to sedimentary and aerobic environmental condition where the Permian coals have been generated depending on their degree of evolution. (author)

  7. Stratigraphy of Upper Permian coal bearing deposits of Western Taimyr

    Shishlov, S.B.; Verbitskaya, N.G. (Vsesoyuznyi Geologicheskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut (USSR))

    1990-07-01

    Gives a stratigraphic description of the Pyasina deposit in the Western Taimyr coalfield on the basis of available information. The cross section is divided into 4 megarhythms (a megarhythm units 2 adjacent macrorhythms; a macrorhythm comprises 2 mesorhythms; a mesorhythm is 3-6 rhythms). Megarhythm IV (upper part, 245 m) has 6 thin coal seams, total thickness less than 6 m. The coal bearing coefficient is less than 2%. Megarhythm III (390 m) has a coal bearing coefficient of 6% (12 seams, 21 m total thickness). Megarhythm II (365 m) has a coal bearing coefficient of 5% (11 seams, 20 m total thickness). The coal bearing coefficient of megarhythm I (300 m) is less than 1%; the coal seams are thin and inconsistent. Aleurolites are the predominant form of rock over the whole cross section, with sandstones playing a secondary role. Flora found in the megarhythms in the form of vegetable residues are listed. 5 refs.

  8. Characterization of trace elements in sulphur-rich Late Permian coals in the Heshan coal field, Guangxi, South China

    Zeng, Rongshu; Xu, Wendong [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhuang, Xinguo [Faculty of Earth Resources (China); Koukouzas, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, (CERTH/ISFTA), IPTA-NRCPS Demokritos, GR-15310 Ag. Paraskevi-Athens (Greece)

    2005-01-18

    The concentration of trace elements and their distribution in the late Permian coal in the Heshan coal field, Guangxi Autonomous Region, were analysed in this paper. The late Permian coal of the Heshan mining district was developed in a low energy and shallow, confined carbonate platform. Heshan coal is a low volatile bituminous coal characterized by a high sulphur content, ranging between 2.0% and 8.2%. Compared with the worldwide average content of the trace elements in coal, the content of some trace element in the study coal is markedly high (Bi, Ce, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Hf, Sr, Ta, Th, U, V, W, Y, Zr, La, Mo, Nb and Sc). The trace element associations were investigated by means of intracorrelation analysis. Some elements, such as Cl, F and Sr are found in coal in association with the carbonate minerals. V, Cr, Zn, Mo, Ni and As contents in coal vary significantly amongst the coal samples. They are mainly concentrated in the lower part of the coal no.4 upper of Suhe and Lilan mines and the coal no.4 lower of Dong mine, and these possibly occurring in minerals such as arsenide and sulphide. The content of U in Heshan coal is high and is mainly concentrated at the upper and the lower parts of the coal seam and it is associated with mineral assemblages with Ba, Mo, V, Ni, Zn, Rb and Cr. Furthermore, La and Ce are highly correlated with those found in phosphate minerals and Pb, Sc, Ga, Th, Y and Sn to those in aluminosilicate minerals. The enrichment of some elements such as V, Cr, Zn, Mo, Ni, Rb as well as total sulphur and iron in the lower part of most coal seams might be associated with the formation of soil horizon before the accumulation of peat in the basin. Some other elements such as Cl, F, Sr and Ca are locally concentrated in the top of specific coal seams as a result of the leaching from overlying carbonates.

  9. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Zheng, Lingyun; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Catastrophic dispersion of coal fly ash into oceans during the latest Permian extinction

    Grasby, S.E.; Sanei, H.; Beauchamp, B. [Geological Survey Canada Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    During the latest Permian extinction about 250 Myr ago, more than 90% of marine species went extinct, and biogeochemical cycles were disrupted globally. The cause of the disruption is unclear, but a link between the eruption of the Siberian Trap flood basalts and the extinction has been suggested on the basis of the rough coincidence of the two events. The flood basalt volcanism released CO{sub 2}. In addition, related thermal metamorphism of Siberian coal measures and organic-rich shales led to the emission of methane, which would have affected global climate and carbon cycling, according to model simulations. This scenario is supported by evidence for volcanic eruptions and gas release in the Siberian Tunguska Basin, but direct indicators of coal combustion have not been detected. Here we present analyses of terrestrial carbon in marine sediments that suggest a substantial amount of char was deposited in Permian aged rocks from the Canadian High Arctic immediately before the mass extinction. Based on the geochemistry and petrology of the char, we propose that the char was derived from the combustion of Siberian coal and organic-rich sediments by flood basalts, which was then dispersed globally. The char is remarkably similar to modern coal fly ash, which can create toxic aquatic conditions when released as slurries. We therefore speculate that the global distribution of ash could have created toxic marine conditions.

  11. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Late Permian coals from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, southwestern China

    Dai, S.F.; Zhou, Y.P.; Ren, D.Y.; Wang, X.B.; Li, D.; Zhao, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China)

    2007-05-15

    Mineralogy and geochemistry of the four main workable coal seams (No.6, No.7, No.8, and No.11) of Late Permian age from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, Southwest China, were examined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), cold-vapor absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), ion-selective electrode (ISE), scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the main workable No.8 Coal that accounts for about 60% of the total coal reserves in the Songzao Coalfield was not enriched in hazardous trace elements. The No.11 Coal has high concentrations of alkaline elements, and rare earth elements. The concentration of Nb and Ta in the No. 11 Coal is higher than the industrial grade, and their potential utilization should be further studied. It should be noted that alabandite of hydrothermal origin and anatase occurring as cement were identified in coal. In addition, the clayey microbands derived from alkaline volcanic ashes were identified in the coal. The dominant compositions of these clayey microbands were mixed-layer clay minerals of illite and smectite, which were interlayered with organic bands. The alkaline volcanic ashes were the dominant factors for the enrichment of alkaline elements, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and rare earth elements, and the sulfide minerals are the main carriers of Ga, Cu, and Hg in the No. 11 Coal.

  12. Revisiting platinum group elements of Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, SW China

    Qi, Liang [State Key Lab of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2008-08-05

    Twenty five coal samples from the Late Permian coal-bearing strata in Weining, Nayong, and Zhijin, western Guizhou Province, SW, China, were analyzed for platinum group elements (PGEs). The coal ashes were digested by the Carius tube technique and accurately measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for all PGEs. The results are much lower than the previous reported values. Our study suggested that the previously reported PGE values are incorrect and may due to the polyatomic interferences in ICP-MS measurements. In our study, samples from the Weining coalfield have the lowest PGE contents (from 0.019 Ir to 0.42 ng/g Pd), which represent the PGE background value in coal in western Guizhou province. Some of the coals have Pt and Pd contents about 20-times higher than the background value, indicating PGEs are concentrated. We also reported new and reliable PGE data and background value of coal in western Guizhou province, SW, China, and suggested to rework the PGE background values of Chinese coals. (author)

  13. Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Ogden, Darcy E; Sleep, Norman H

    2012-01-01

    The end-Permian extinction decimated up to 95% of carbonate shell-bearing marine species and 80% of land animals. Isotopic excursions, dissolution of shallow marine carbonates, and the demise of carbonate shell-bearing organisms suggest global warming and ocean acidification. The temporal association of the extinction with the Siberia flood basalts at approximately 250 Ma is well known, and recent evidence suggests these flood basalts may have mobilized carbon in thick deposits of organic-rich sediments. Large isotopic excursions recorded in this period are potentially explained by rapid venting of coal-derived methane, which has primarily been attributed to metamorphism of coal by basaltic intrusion. However, recently discovered contemporaneous deposits of fly ash in northern Canada suggest large-scale combustion of coal as an additional mechanism for rapid release of carbon. This massive coal combustion may have resulted from explosive interaction with basalt sills of the Siberian Traps. Here we present physical analysis of explosive eruption of coal and basalt, demonstrating that it is a viable mechanism for global extinction. We describe and constrain the physics of this process including necessary magnitudes of basaltic intrusion, mixing and mobilization of coal and basalt, ascent to the surface, explosive combustion, and the atmospheric rise necessary for global distribution. PMID:22184229

  14. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Late Permian Coals from the Mahe Mine, Zhaotong Coalfield, Northeastern Yunnan, China

    Xibo Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Late Permian C2, C5a, C5b, C6a, and C6b semianthracite coals from the Mahe mine, northeastern Yunnan, China. Minerals in the coals are mainly made up of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S, pyrite, and calcite; followed by anatase, dolomite, siderite, illite and marcasite. Similar to the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, the authigenic quartz and chamosite were precipitated from the weathering solution of Emeishan basalt, while kaolinite and mixed-layer I/S occurring as lenses or thin beds were related to the weathering residual detrital of Emeishan basalt. However, the euhedral quartz and apatite particles in the Mahe coals were attributed to silicic-rock detrital input. It further indicates that there has been silicic igneous eruption in the northeastern Yunnan. Due to the silicic rock detrital input, the Eu/Eu* value of the Mahe coals is lower than that of the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, where the detrital particles were mainly derived from the basalt. The high contents of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, and Sn in the Mahe coals were mainly derived from the Kangdian Upland.

  15. Radiometric age determination of tonsteins and stratigraphic constraints for the Lower Permian coal succession in southern Parana Basin, Brazil

    Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Hartmann, Leo Afraneo; Formoso, Milton Luis Laquintinie [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, Joao Orestes Schneider [Centre for Global Targeting, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia); Ketzer, Joao Marcelo [Instituto de Meio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Avenida Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2008-03-03

    Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons from tonsteins interbedded with coal seams from the Candiota and Faxinal coalfields (Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil) is presented. The mean ages obtained (290.6 {+-} 1.5 Ma) are more precise than previously published intervals. Calibrations of chronostratigraphic data with radiometric ages show that the main coal succession from the southern Basin is constrained to the Middle Sakmarian. The {+-} 2 Ma time interval of deposition supports the hypothesis that the coal-generating process was quite rapid in terms of geological time. In a general context, Faxinal and Candiota coals are assigned, into the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone, besides some paleocological differences evidenced by palynological studies. This bio-interval does not correspond to a consistent palynostratigraphic tool and more accurate biostratigraphic zonation for the Carboniferous-Permian interval must be delineated. The new results have far-reaching significance for correlations of the Basin with sequences of the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and also with the Karoo Basin, with the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). This new evidence supports the presence of an active and widespread Lower Permian explosive volcanic event in western Gondwana, which is interpreted as the same volcanism which produced the Choiyoi Group in western Argentina. According to this correlation the ash-fall source is located about 1400 km to the southwest of their area of deposition. (author)

  16. The Lower Permian coal seams from Singrauli coalfield (M. P. ), India: petrochemical nature, rank, age and sedimentation

    Misra, B.K.; Singh, B.D. (Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India))

    1990-04-01

    Biopetrographic and chemical investigations carried out on the Lower Permian (Barakar Formation) coal seams encountered in two bore-holes (NCSM-3 and CMSA-111) from the Singrauli coalfield, Son Valley, reveal that they are, in general, rich in inertinite and mineral matter towards the eastern part. Whereas, towards the western part they are rich in vitrinite with subordinate amounts of inertinite and mineral matter. The Turra and Purewa Top seams, in the eastern part, consist chiefly of mixed and fusic coal types and the Turra and Purewa Merged seams, in the western part of the basin, are characterized dominantly by vitric and mixed coal types. The basin of deposition was shallower in its major part but deepened towards west. Consequently frequent oxic fluctuations are most common in the coal seams of the eastern part. The rank of these coal seams ranges between subbituminous-A to high-volatile bituminous-C stages. They show normal increase in rank with depth. The coal seams in the western part of the area are higher in rank than their counterparts in the east. The Purewa Bottom seam (NCSM-3) is petro-palynologically correlatable with the Turra seam (CMSA-111) of the western part. It has been presumed that Glossopteridophyta (a complex group of gymnospermous plants), arthrophytes and ferns were the vegetal source for the formation of Barakar coal seams. These plants during the Early Permian grew as thick forests along river valleys and as upland and subaquatic vegetation, and experienced a warm, humid and windy temperate climate. The coal seams were presumably deposited in backwater and lacustrine swamps in fluvial environment from hypoautochthonous source material. An attempt has been made to explain reasons for the high incidence of mineral matter and its apparent relationship with inertinite content in the coal seams while also discussing the depositional history. 25 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Palynological evidence for the age of the Permian Karoo coal deposits near Vereeniging, northern Orange Free State, South Africa

    Millsteed, B.D. (Geological Survey of South Africa, Pretoria (South Africa))

    1994-03-01

    Palynological investigations of the coal-bearing strata of the Vereeniging area, Orange Free State Coalfield, have led to an interpretation of the age of the northern coal measures of the Main Karoo Basin. The sequence, part of the Vryheid Formation, is composed of three major coal seams, these being the Bottom, Middle, and Top Seams. The well-preserved palynoflora obtained from the sequence allows correlation of the Vereeniging coal seams with the coal-bearing sequence of the Witbank/Highveld coalfields. The age determination of the sequence is dependent upon comparison of the ranges of [ital Granulatisporites trisinus] Balme and Hennelly, 1956, [ital Pseudoreticulatispora pseudoreticulata] (Balme and Hennelly) Bharadwaj and Srivastava, 1969 and [ital Praecolpatites sinuosus] (Balme and Hennelly) Bharadwaj and Srivastava, 1969 with their distribution in the better understood Australian Permian sequences. An Artinskian (Aktastinian to lower Baigendzhinian) age for the Vryheid Formation is suggested. The determination of the age and correlation of these strata is important as they are associated with historically significant plant macrofossil deposits, which were important in the development of the Permian chronostratigraphy of South Africa and Gondwana. 48 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the high-organic sulphur coals from the carbonate Coal measures of the Late Permian in central Guangxi

    Shao, L.; Lu, J.; Jones, T. (and others) [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2006-12-15

    The sulphur species, mineralogy and major and trace element geochemistry of Coal of the Late Permian Heshan Formation in the Heshan Coalfield, central Guangxi were investigated using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence etc. The results show that the sulphur content of Heshan coals ranges from 5.3% to 11.6% and vitrinites are more enriched with inorganic sulphur compounds compared to inertinites. XRD analysis coupled with optical and scanning electron microscopy show that the minerals in these coals are mainly quartz, calcite, dolomite etc. as well as some oxidised products of weathering such as gypsum. Most trace elements in the Heshan coals have greater than world average content of W, U, Mo, Cr, V, and Zr. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. [Research on hydrocarbon-generation mechanism of upper permian coals from Leping, Jiangxi, based on infrared spectroscopy].

    Yu, Hai-yang; Sun, Xu-guang

    2007-05-01

    Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (Micro-FTIR) technique was used to investigate the chemical compositions and structures of kerogen from the Late Permian bark coal in the B3 coal seam in mingshan mine, Leping, Jiangxi, at different temperatures. With the observation and the statistics of organic macerals under microscope, the author analysed the model of hydrocarbon generation of the bark coal in the B3 coal seam in mingshan mine, Leping, Jiangxi. And the author also estimated the oil and gas resources in Leping. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the coal is composed by aliphatic structure, heteroatomic compounds and aromatic structure, and their activation energy reduces in turn. Along with the rise in temperature, the intensity of aliphatic structure and heteroatomic compounds decreases obviously, however the aromatic structure changes little. The deamocollinite of B type and barkinite in the bark coal all can generate oil and gas easy, so the bark coal in Leping has a great petroleum-generating potential. PMID:17655089

  20. Late Permian global coal hiatus linked to {sup 13}C depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere during the final consolidation of Pangea

    Faure, K.; Dewit, M.J.; Willis, J.P. [University of Cape Town, Rondesbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Geological sciences

    1995-06-01

    At a time when all continents were finally arrayed in their Pangea supercontinental configuration (250 {+-} 50 Ma), Earth`s stratigraphy records a global and very abrupt coal discontinuity. From the Tartarian stage of the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic, reduced coal productivity and/or preservation overlaps with a period of anomalous oceanic and atmospheric decrease in {sup 13}C, as recorded in marine carbonates and organic matter, and terrestrial plant and animal fossils from the Northern and Southern hemispheres. During the same short period, the peripheral margin of the entire supercontinent Pangea, except for the southern shores of Tethys, was effectively under compressive stress. This unique tectonic state caused deformation and uplift of coal-bearing foreland basins and oxidation of Pangea`s vast peat deposits. The latter resulted in a rapid, massive {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere, which in turn may have forced global warming.

  1. Palynology of an Early Permian coal seam from the Karoo Supergroup of Botswana

    Barbolini, N.; Bamford, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two borehole cores from the south-east area of the Mmamantswe coalfield (Mmamabula area), Botswana, provided 124 samples for palynological analysis. The assemblage is dominated by trilete and alete spores, indicating a parent flora of mostly lower order lycopods, sphenophytes and ferns. Distinctive taxa at Mmamantswe include Brevitriletes levis, Cannanoropollis densus, Gondisporites raniganjensis, Platysaccus radialis, Scheuringipollenites ovatus, and Verrucosisporites naumovae. Saccate pollen is less common, suggesting the assemblage reflects the local vegetation of the coal swamp. The Mmamantswe microflora has been sub-divided into two assemblage zones, with the lower Assemblage Zone 1 correlating with Assemblage Zone 1 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone B of the Waterberg (South Africa) and the Milorgfjella assemblage (Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). The upper Assemblage Zone 2 of Mmamantswe is correlated with Assemblage Zone 2 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone C of the Waterberg (South Africa), and the No. 2 Seam assemblage (Witbank coalfield, South Africa). On the basis of these correlations the Mmamantswe microfloral assemblage is assigned to the Asselian, Sakmarian and Early Artinskian periods.

  2. In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal 
in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Guangjian LI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and study in vitro toxicity of naturally occurring silica particles on BEAS-2B. Methods ①Separating the silica particles from combustion products of C1 bituminous coal by physical method, observing the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope, analysis elements by SEM-EDX, observed the single particle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscope, analyed its particle size distribution by Laser particle size analyzer, the surface area of silica particles were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption analysis; ②Cell viability of the experimental group (silica; naturally occurring, control group (silica; industrial produced and crystalline silica was detected by assay used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined after 24 h-72 h exposed to these particles. Results ①The physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal, which have different size, and from 30 nm to 120 nm particles accounted for 86.8%, different morphology, irregular surface area and containing trace of aluminum, calcium and iron and other elements; ②Under the same concentration, the experiment group have higher toxicity on BEAS-2B than control groups. Conclusion ①Physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal and not change the original morphology and containing trace; ②Naturally occurring silica nanoparticles have irregular morphology, surface area, and containing complex trace elements may has greater toxicity than the silica nanoparticle of industrial produced and crystalline silica.

  3. Confirmation of Sigillaria Brongniart as a coal-forming plant in Cathaysia: occurrence from an Early Permian autochthonous peat-forming flora in Inner Mongolia

    Wang, J.; Feng, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

    2009-07-15

    A common lycopsid genus, Sigillaria Brongniart, has been recorded most frequently in peat-forming forests in Europe and North America, but rarely in China. Although Sigillaria, in China, has been found in coal balls and used as evidence that it was a coalforming element, it has never been recorded as compression/impressions in peat-forming settings. Recent investigation of an Early Permian autochthonous peat-forming flora of the Taiyuan Formation near Wuda, Inner Mongolia, has provided evidence that Sigillaria could be a major element of peat-forming vegetation in China. Sigillaria is the only arborescent lycopsid acting as a major contributor to peat/coal formation. The genus Sigillaria is another element that China has in common with the Palaeozoic low-land floras of Europe and North America, enhancing the common floral aspects between the tropical swamp vegetations of the east and west regions of the Palaeotethys Ocean.

  4. Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals

    Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

  5. Sill-induced evaporite- and coal-metamorphism in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia, and the implications for end-Permian environmental crisis

    Svensen, Henrik; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

    2014-05-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. Petrographic investigations of the metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the crisis.

  6. Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

  7. XII international congress on Carboniferous and Permian geology and stratigraphy

    1991-01-01

    Contains abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 12th international congress. Various aspects of Carboniferous and Permian geology and stratigraphy throughout the world are covered, including coal seams and oil shales.

  8. Palynological resolution of Permian sequence in Ib-River coalfield, Orissa and its environmental significance

    Goswami, S. [Fakir Mohan University, Vyasa Vihar (India). PG Dept. of Environmental Science

    2007-07-15

    The Ib-River coalfield, a part of Mahanadi Master Basin has rich deposit of Lower Permian Barakar coal. The palynological analysis of sediments from this coalfield has revealed the presence of distinct palynoassemblages. These assemblages represent Permian sequence from Lower Barakar (Early Permian) to Lower Kamthi (Late Permian) sediments. The present palynological studies help in redefining the status of Barakar and Kamthi Formations and in classifying them. Here the palynological assessment has been compared with the megafossil work of the author. Based on the palaeobotanical data, the stratigraphy of this coalfield has been proposed and the environment during Permian time has been discussed in this paper.

  9. The Permian system in Kansas

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rocks of Permian age in Kansas were first recognized in 1895, and by the early 21st century the internationally accepted boundary between the Permian and the...

  10. Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land

    Retallack, G.J.; Metzger, C.A.; Greaver, T.; Jahren, A.H.; Smith, R.M.H.; Sheldon, N.D. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2006-11-15

    The end-Permian mass extinction has been envisaged as the nadir of biodiversity decline due to increasing volcanic gas emissions over some 9 million years. We propose a different tempo and mechanism of extinction because we recognize two separate but geologically abrupt mass extinctions on land, one terminating the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) at 260.4 Ma and a later one ending the Permian Period at 251 Ma. Our evidence comes from new paleobotanical, paleopedological, and carbon isotopic studies of Portal Mountain, Antarctica, and comparable studies in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Extinctions have long been apparent among marine invertebrates at both the end of the Guadalupian and end of the Permian, which were also times of warm-wet greenhouse climatic transients, marked soil erosion, transition from high- to low-sinuosity and braided streams, soil stagnation in wetlands, and profound negative carbon isotope anomalies. Both mass extinctions may have resulted from catastrophic methane outbursts to the atmosphere from coal intruded by feeder dikes to flood basalts, such as the end-Guadalupian Emeishan Basalt and end-Permian Siberian Traps.

  11. Extinguishing a Permian World

    Schneebeli-Hermann, E.

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the Permian, ca. 252 Ma ago, marine and terrestrial fauna were facing the most extensive mass extinction in Earth history (Raup and Sepkoski, 1982). 80%–95% of all species on Earth, on land and in the oceans, became extinct (Benton et al., 2004) within an estimated time interval of less than 200 k.y. to 700 k.y. (Huang et al., 2011; Shen et al., 2011). Among the prominent Paleozoic animal groups that vanished are fusulinid foraminifera, rugose and tabulate cora...

  12. Permian potentiometric analysis

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

  13. Coal

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  14. Plant fossil distributions in some Australian Permian non-marine sediments

    McLoughlin, S. (Western Australia University, Nedlands, WA (Australia). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-05-01

    Plant remains occur in all post-Devonian, lowland, terrestrial depositional systems, with distinctive assemblages characterizing discrete environments. Glossopterid gymnospherms dominate most Australian Permian coal-bearing sediments. Herbaceous pteridophytes, sphenophytes, and lycophytes are best represented in lower deltaic lacustrine and paludal deposits. Non-glossopterid gymnosperms mostly colonized drier flood plain and upland environments and are poorly represented in Australian Permian sequences. Fresh- and brackish-water algae are abundantly preserved in paludal and lacustrine facies in both alluvial and delta plain environments. Seasonal productivity and taphonomic factors undoubtedly influenced the composition of interseam compression/impression floras but integration of information from these assemblages with that from permineralized peats, in-situ coalified plants, and coal maceral and palynological analyses can assist in the interpretation of Australian Permian coal-forming environments and the structure of plant communities.

  15. Queensland coal inventory

    NONE

    2008-04-01

    Australia's black coal resources rank in the top five globally, around 50% of which are located in the sedimentary basins of Queensland. The Bowen Basin is the most prolific coal repository, hosting over 60% of the currently established resource inventory. Large volumes of thermal coal are present in the Surat and Galilee basins as well as small extensional and pull apart basins such as Blair Athol and Tarong. The article examines Queensland's coal industry from a government perspective. It first discusses the current coal market, then introduces the concept of inventory coal and explains the Australia Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) code - a resource evaluation system. The stratigraphy of each of Queensland's coal basins is then discussed in sections headed Permian coals, Triassic coals, Jurassic and Cretaceous coals, and Tertiary coals. 3 figs.

  16. Early Permian Pangea `B' to Late Permian Pangea `A'

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Kent, Dennis V.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Brack, Peter; Abrahamsen, Niels; Gaetani, Maurizio

    2003-10-01

    The pre-drift Wegenerian model of Pangea is almost universally accepted, but debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configuration since Ted Irving introduced Pangea 'B' by placing Gondwana farther to the east by ˜3000 km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. New paleomagnetic data from radiometrically dated Early Permian volcanic rocks from parts of Adria that are tectonically coherent with Africa (Gondwana), integrated with published coeval data from Gondwana and Laurasia, again only from igneous rocks, fully support a Pangea 'B' configuration in the Early Permian. The use of paleomagnetic data strictly from igneous rocks excludes artifacts from sedimentary inclination error as a contributing explanation for Pangea 'B'. The ultimate option to reject Pangea 'B' is to abandon the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis by introducing a significant non-dipole (zonal octupole) component in the Late Paleozoic time-averaged geomagnetic field. We demonstrate, however, by using a dataset consisting entirely of paleomagnetic directions with low inclinations from sampling sites confined to one hemisphere from Gondwana as well as Laurasia that the effects of a zonal octupole field contribution would not explain away the paleomagnetic evidence for Pangea 'B' in the Early Permian. We therefore regard the paleomagnetic evidence for an Early Permian Pangea 'B' as robust. The transformation from Pangea 'B' to Pangea 'A' took place during the Permian because Late Permian paleomagnetic data allow a Pangea 'A' configuration. We therefore review geological evidence from the literature in support of an intra-Pangea dextral megashear system. The transformation occurred after the cooling of the Variscan mega-suture and lasted ˜20 Myr. In this interval, the Neotethys Ocean opened between India/Arabia and the Cimmerian microcontinents in the east, while widespread lithospheric wrenching and magmatism took place in the west around the Adriatic promontory. The general distribution of plate boundaries and resulting driving forces are qualitatively consistent with a right-lateral shear couple between Gondwana and Laurasia during the Permian. Transcurrent plate boundaries associated with the Pangea transformation reactivated Variscan shear zones and were subsequently exploited by the opening of western Neotethyan seaways in the Jurassic.

  17. C1 esterase inhibitor

    ... C1-INH can lead to a condition called angioedema. Angioedema results in sudden swelling of the tissues of ... There are two types of conditions that cause angioedema from decreased levels of C1-INH. They are ...

  18. Permian depositional and environmental development in Svalbard

    Dustira, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to improve the knowledge on the depositional and environmental development of Svalbard during the Permian (299–252 Ma), with a primary focus on the Early to Late Permian Kapp Starostin Formation (Tempelfjorden Group). Thirteen localities of Permian sedimentary strata were investigated with respect to their sedimentological and geochemical properties. Sediments from this period reflect mostly marine deposition on a broad epicontinental shelf at the northern...

  19. New Permian fauna from tropical Gondwana.

    Cisneros, Juan C; Marsicano, Claudia; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Smith, Roger M H; Richter, Martha; Fröbisch, Jörg; Kammerer, Christian F; Sadleir, Rudyard W

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial vertebrates are first known to colonize high-latitude regions during the middle Permian (Guadalupian) about 270 million years ago, following the Pennsylvanian Gondwanan continental glaciation. However, despite over 150 years of study in these areas, the biogeographic origins of these rich communities of land-dwelling vertebrates remain obscure. Here we report on a new early Permian continental tetrapod fauna from South America in tropical Western Gondwana that sheds new light on patterns of tetrapod distribution. Northeastern Brazil hosted an extensive lacustrine system inhabited by a unique community of temnospondyl amphibians and reptiles that considerably expand the known temporal and geographic ranges of key subgroups. Our findings demonstrate that tetrapod groups common in later Permian and Triassic temperate communities were already present in tropical Gondwana by the early Permian (Cisuralian). This new fauna constitutes a new biogeographic province with North American affinities and clearly demonstrates that tetrapod dispersal into Gondwana was already underway at the beginning of the Permian. PMID:26537112

  20. Coal potential of Antartica

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  1. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  2. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

  3. Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle to bedding-parallel, have been identified along low-dipping limbs of the folds. They can be recognized due to the high colour contrast between the red-coloured Permian beds and the concentration of calcite veins in the decollements. The development of the structures above described has to be linked to the Alpine compressional tectonics. This interpretation is supported by the good correlation in geometry and orientation between the structures observed in the Permian basin and in southernmost areas of the South Pyrenean Zone, where the deformation is imprinted in Cretaceous to Tertiary rocks. In this regard, the southern border of the Anayet basin, at least in the western part, can be interpreted as a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the Alpine Orogeny. Bixel, F., 1987. Le volcanisme stephano-permien des Pyrenees petrographie, mineralogie, geochimie. Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica 11, 41-55. Gisbert, J., 1984. Las molasas tardihercínicas del Pirineo, in: Geología de España. Libro Jubilar de J. M. Ríos, Comba, J.A. (Ed.), IGME, Madrid, 168-186.

  4. Acritarchs from the Number 5 Seam in the Permian Vryheid Formation, Witbank Coalfield, South Africa

    Venter, M.E.; Cairncross, B. [Rand Afrikaans University, Auckland Park (South Africa). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-01

    Two species of marine acritarchs, Mehlisphaeridium fibratum and Mehlisphaeridium gondwanaensis, are described from a shale parting near the top of the No. 5 Seam at Greenside Colliery, Witbank Coalfield, Republic of South Africa. The sedimentary sequence containing this coal seam consists of fine- to very coarse-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal which constitute part of the Early Permian Vryheid Formation (Karoo Supergroup). The paleoenvironmental implications of the discovery of acritarchs imply that marine conditions prevailed in the basin at the time of deposition of this particular shale unit. 56 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. High precision radiometric ages from the northern Sydney Basin and their implication for the Permian time interval and sedimentation rates

    Three pyroclastic samples that bracket the coal-bearing Permian System of the northern Sydney Basin have been dated using the zircon U/Pb and hornblende K/Ar methods. The Matthews Gap Dacitic Tuff Member, situated 170 m below the base of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 309 ± 3 Ma. Its age correlates well with the Paterson Volcanics which suggests that the immediately overlying clastic sediments are equivalent to the Seaham Formation. The Awaba Tuff, which is located 50 m below the top of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 256 ± 4 Ma. An intervening horizon, the Thornton Claystone of the Tomago Coal Measures, gives a best estimate of 266 ± 0.4 Ma. The ages indicate an earlier beginning ? 299 Ma BP), an earlier termination (? 255 Ma BP) and slightly longer duration (44±13 Ma) of the Permian System in the Hunter Valley than previously suggested. Sedimentation rates of ± 65m/Ma, calculated from proximal sequence thicknesses, are only half the rate calculated from the closest maximum thicknesses. Both are considerably lower than previously quoted rates. The estimated time interval of 10 Ma between the Thornton Claystone and the Awaba Tuff is more than twice the length of time previously attributed to accumulation of the combined Tomago and Newcastle Coal Measures. 38 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Atmospheric circulation in a Permian climate

    Schneider, Steven; Tost, Holger

    2015-04-01

    At the beginning of the Permian (299-251 mya) the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea that comprised all of the present-day continents was completed. This configuration with a single landmass stretching from North to South Pole provides a special case of land-sea distribution for analysing its effect on climate and atmospheric circulation. This work uses a coupled system to represent Permian climate, including an explicit formulation for meridional heat transport in both atmosphere and ocean. The simulations are done with a topography of the early Late Permian (approx. 262 mya). During the Permian the Earth turned from an icehouse world with preindustrial carbon dioxide concentration to a hothouse world with an atmosphere containing up to ten times as much of carbon dioxide as before. Therefore centurial time-slice experiments with different carbon dioxide concentrations are performed, allowing for adjusted equilibrium climate states. Our simulation results are compared to alternative modelling studies, but also to sedimental and phytogeographic data. Analysing the Permian atmosphere, special interest is given on convectional processes to study atmospheric circulation in comparison with the present-day situation.

  7. Modern Pearl River Delta and Permian Huainan coalfield, China: A comparative sedimentary facies study

    Suping, P.; Flores, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary facies types of the Pleistocene deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China and Permian Member D deposits in Huainan coalfield in Anhui Province are exemplified by depositional facies of anastomosing fluvial systems. In both study areas, sand/sandstone and mud/mudstone-dominated facies types formed in diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels laterally juxtaposed with floodplains containing ponds, lakes, and topogenous mires. The mires accumulated thin to thick peat/coal deposits that vary in vertical and lateral distribution between the two study areas. This difference is probably due to attendant sedimentary processes that affected the floodplain environments. The ancestral floodplains of the Modern Pearl River Delta were reworked by combined fluvial and tidal and estuarine processes. In contrast, the floodplains of the Permian Member D were mainly influenced by freshwater fluvial processes. In addition, the thick, laterally extensive coal zones of the Permian Member D may have formed in topogenous mires that developed on abandoned courses of anastomosing fluvial systems. This is typified by Seam 13-1, which is a blanket-like body that thickens to as much as 8 in but also splits into thinner beds. This seam overlies deposits of diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels of the Sandstone D, and associated overbank-floodplain deposits. The limited areal extent of lenticular Pleistocene peat deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta is due to their primary accumulation in topogenous mires in the central floodplains that were restricted by contemporaneous anastomosing channels.

  8. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the coals from the Chongqing and Southeast Hubei coal mining districts, South China

    Zhuang, Xinguo [Institute of Sedimentary Basin and Mineral, Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Plana, F.; Moreno, N. [Institute of Earth Science ' Jaume Almera' CSIC, C/LLuis Sole y Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Andres, J.M. [Institute of Coal Chemistry, C/ Miguel Luesma Castan, 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Wang, Jielin [Qinhuangdao Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, 066000 Qinhuangdao (China)

    2007-07-02

    This paper deals with the study of the Late Permian coal deposits from Chongqing and south-eastern Hubei mining districts and of the Late Triassic coal deposits from Chongqing mining district. The Late Permian coals are characterized by relatively high amount of sulphide, sulphate and carbonate minerals and by a high total content of trace elements (with respect to the Late Triassic coals) due to the marine influence on the depositional environment. The Late Permian Chongqing and the southeastern Hubei coals showed similar geochemistry and mineralogy. However, there were some differences due to the different source rock and magmatic influence on Hubei coals. The concentrations of most trace elements in the Late Triassic coal were relatively low when compared with the usual range of the worldwide concentrations. By contrast, the contents of Ta, Se, Nb, Sc, Hf, Tl, Bi, Cu, V and Zn in the Late Permian Chongqing and Southeastern Hubei coals were higher than the usual range. Differences in occurrence of major and trace elements were found between Late Permian Hubei and Chongqing coals. Thus, most of the trace elements investigated presented an aluminosilicate association, followed by sulphide-arsenide (Fe, S, As, Pb, Mo, Ni and Co, in most cases) and carbonate (Ca and Mg) affinities in both areas. However, there was an important phosphate and zircon association in the Chongqing coal, whereas the carbonate association was significantly influenced by magma in the coals from Hubei. In the Late Triassic coal most of the major and trace elements investigated occur in aluminosilicate associations, with the exception of S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Sr, Sn, Ba, Nb, Mo, Mg, Co and Ta, with carbonate, sulphate and sulphide affinities. (author)

  9. Carbon isotope variations in the upper Carboniferous - Permian Mallemuk Mountain Group, eastern North Greenland

    Isotope data from Late Palaeozoic limestones of the Wandel Sea Basin in eastern North Greenland show a variation of ?13C from 0.0 0/00 to 5.7 0/00 vs PDB. Carbonates depleted in 13C occur in the basal part of lower Moscovian, upper Moscovian and middle Gzhelian transgressive sequences. 13C enriched limestones occur later in the cycles. The most 13C enriched limestones occur in the youngest (late Early Permian-early Late Permian) part of the sequence in Amdrup Land. The isotopic data is believed to represent changes in the global carbon cycle. Thus 13C enriched carbonates correlate to periods of burial of organic carbon mostly as coal, while 13C depleted carbonates formed as the result of erosion and oxidation of organic carbon during sea-level low stands. (author)

  10. Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse-greenhouse transition (Ecca Group, South Africa)

    Götz, Annette E.; Ruckwied, Katrin

    2013-04-01

    The Permian coal-bearing formations of the South African Karoo Basin play a crucial role in the study and interpretation of Gondwana's climate history and biodiversity in this time of major global changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Here, we report on new palynological data from the No. 2 coal seam of the northern Witbank coal field, documenting the switch from Icehouse to Greenhouse conditions in the Early Permian (Lower Ecca Group). The studied postglacial fluvio-deltaic deposits of a highly proximal setting comprise coarse-grained to pebbly sandstones, partially with an abrupt upward transition into fine-grained sediments and coal, trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones, and horizontally laminated fine- to medium-grained sandstones and siltstones. The sedimentary organic matter content clearly documents stratal changes in the palynomorph assemblage and variations in the amount and in the type, size and shape of plant debris. Generally, palynofacies is characterized by a high amount of opaque phytoclasts. Amorphous organic matter is characteristic of laminated siltstones and coals. The palynological record indicates a cold climate, fern wetland community, characteristic of lowland alluvial plains, and an upland conifer community in the lower part of the coal seam. Up section, these communities are replaced by a cool-temperate cycad-like lowland vegetation and gymnospermous upland flora. Ongoing studies focus on the cyclic architecture of the coal seam, applying palynofacies analysis as high-resolution correlation tool with respect to decipher signatures of prominent climate amelioration on basin-wide, intercontinental and intra-Gondwanic scales.

  11. The Saint Martin de Belleville syncline and its uraniferous permian sandstone

    This dissertation (these de specialite) is a study of the geology of the St.Martin d.B. syncline and the uranium prospect 'le Cochet' in the Carboniferous Brianconnais Zone of Savoy. Stratigraphy and sedimentology: This syncline presents continental detrital sediments ranging from U.Carboniferous to L.Triassic. In the U.Carboniferous, magmatic activity begins with the Moriaz Layers acid volcanics that are considered as a lateral equivalent of the Stephanian Courchevel Conglomerates. In Permian times, parts of an alluvial fan seem to occupy the north of the study area (gray and green conglomeratic sandstone). Southwards these inter-finger with flood plain sediments (red slate) including a locally oolitic limestone. Volcanic detritus is important in the Permian. Tourmalinite pebbles are frequent and seem to be related to the regional Permian magmatism. Albitization of feldspars is general in the Carboniferous and the Permian. The Permo-triassic typically shows microcline bearing dolomitic sandstones. In the Scythian quartzites orthoclase is the dominant feldspar. The quartzites are overlain by L.Triassic evaporites identified by the sulfur isotope ratio of their gypsum. The morphology of the zircons in the sandstones has been investigated using the typological method of J.P. Pupin. Regional Permian magmatism apparently produces volcanics of the calc-alkalic and tholeiitic series as well as a high level granitic intrusion of anatectic origin. The uranium occurrences are strata-bound on a kilometric and hecto-metric scale. They are developed almost exclusively in the gray variety of the Permian sandstones whose gray and red varieties are always barren. Within this unit, the mineralization impregnates irregularly distributed lenses and pods of coal material. Uranium is accompanied by vanadium occurring as roscoelite. The association U-V, of bio-philic character, reflects the concentration in the sedimentary environment and argues for a quite indirect relation with the source rocks. The mineralization is regarded as syn-genetic or more probably early epigenetic of Permian age, related to surface or groundwater flow that precipitated its metal content on wooden debris ('trash piles') in the host rocks. Alpine deformation resulted in folds and strong schistosity striking N2O that almost obliterate north verging transverse folds. The deformation caused plastic flow of the mineralized carbonaceous material on a metric scale. This material is now commonly found in lenses parallel to schistosity. Metamorphism is at the epizone/anchizone limit with a barrovian to high pressure gradient. It had practically no effect on the mineralization. (author)

  12. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2000-10-27

    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F-T plant development in the U.S. is in the Alaskan oil fields.

  13. Raining lead around 250mya : a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction

    Standard, J. C.; Angell, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, s...

  14. Life crises on land across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China

    Peng, Yuanqiao; Shi, G. R.

    2009-02-01

    The western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan area of southwest China commands a unique and significant position globally in the study of Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) events as it contains well and continuously exposed PTB sections of marine, non-marine and marginal-marine origin in the same area. By using a range of high-resolution stratigraphic methods including biostratigraphy, eventostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy, not only are the non-marine PTB sections correlated with their marine counterparts in the study area with high-resolution, the non-marine PTB sections of the study area can also be aligned with the PTB Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Meishan in eastern China. Plant megafossils ("megaplants") in the study area indicate a major loss in abundance and diversity across the PTB, and no coal beds and/or seams have been found in the non-marine Lower Triassic although they are very common in the non-marine Upper Permian. The megaplants, however, did not disappear consistently across the whole area, with some elements of the Late Permian Cathaysian Gigantopteris flora surviving the PTB mass extinction and locally even extending up to the Lower Triassic. Palynomorphs exhibit a similar temporal pattern characterized by a protracted stepwise decrease from fern-dominated spores in the Late Permian to pteridosperm and gymnosperm-dominated pollen in the Early Triassic, which was however punctuated by an accelerated loss in both abundance and diversity across the PTB. Contemporaneous with the PTB crisis in the study area was the peculiar prevalence and dominance of some fungi and/or algae species. The temporal patterns of megaplants and palynomorphs across the PTB in the study area are consistent with the regional trends of plant changes in South China, which also show a long-term decrease in species diversity from the Late Permian Wuchiapingian through the Changhsingian to the earliest Triassic, with about 48% and 77% losses of species occurring respectively in the end-Wuchiapingian and end-Changhsingian. Such consistent patterns, at both local and regional scales, contradict the hypothesis of a regional isochronous extinction of vegetation across the PTB, and hence call into question the notion that the end-Permian mass extinction was a one-hit disaster. Instead, the data from the study area and South China appears more consistent with a scenario that invokes climate change as the main driver for the observed land vegetation changes across the PTB in South China.

  15. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  16. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments of the Pyeongan Supergroup (Carboniferous Permian) in the Taebaek area, mid-east Korea

    Lee, H. S.; Chough, S. K.

    2006-03-01

    The Pyeongan Supergroup (Carboniferous-Permian) consists of a thick siliciclastic sequence (1700 m thick). Recent sedimentological work in the Taebaek area has refined the lithostratigraphic units: Manhang, Geumcheon-Jangseong, Hambaeksan, Dosagok, Gohan and Donggo formations in ascending order. The entire sequence is represented by thirteen sedimentary facies, which can be organized into seven facies associations (FA). The lower part of the Manhang Formation (FA 1) (Moscovian) consists of crudely cross-stratified conglomerate, massive sandstone and gray homogeneous siltstone, formed in shoreface off river mouth, whereas purple siltstone and grainstone of the upper part (FA 2) probably formed in a coastal plain environment. The Geumcheon-Jangseong Formation (Moscovian-Artinskian) consists of dark gray sandstone, dark gray shale, coal and bioturbated wackestone (FA 3) formed in a lagoonal environment. The Hambaeksan Formation (Kungurian) comprises milky white, crudely stratified, conglomerate, gray coarse sandstone and partly laminated black shale (FA 4), representing a shoreface progradation. The Dosagok Formation (Late Permian) is characterized by an alternation of purple fine sandstone and conglomerate (FA 5), formed in a bedload-dominated fluvial system. The Gohan Formation (Late Permian) is mostly composed of upward-fining units (massive sandstone to dark gray siltstone) (FA 6), suggesting a restricted inter-distributary bay environment. The Donggo Formation (?Late Permian) consists of cross-stratified coarse sandstone and purple sandstone (FA 7), interpreted as deposits of perennial, sandy braided river system.

  17. Permian polar forests: deciduousness and environmental variation.

    Gulbranson, E L; Isbell, J L; Taylor, E L; Ryberg, P E; Taylor, T N; Flaig, P P

    2012-11-01

    Forests are expected to expand into northern polar latitudes in the next century. However, the impact of forests at high latitudes on climate and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood because such forests cannot be studied in the modern. This study presents forestry and geochemical analyses of three in situ fossil forests from Late Permian strata of Antarctica, which grew at polar latitudes. Stem size measurements and stump spacing measurements indicate significant differences in forest density and canopy structure that are related to the local depositional setting. For forests closest to fluvial systems, tree density appears to decrease as the forests mature, which is the opposite trend of self-thinning observed in modern forests. We speculate that a combination of tree mortality and high disturbance created low-density mature forests without understory vegetation near Late Permian river systems. Stable carbon isotopes measured from permineralized wood in these forests demonstrate two important points: (i) recently developed techniques of high-resolution carbon isotope studies of wood and mummified wood can be applied to permineralized wood, for which much of the original organic matter has been lost and (ii) that the fossil trees maintained a deciduous habit at polar latitudes during the Late Permian. The combination of paleobotanical, sedimentologic, and paleoforestry techniques provides an unrivaled examination of the function of polar forests in deep time; and the carbon isotope geochemistry supplements this work with subannual records of carbon fixation that allows for the quantitative analysis of deciduous versus evergreen habits and environmental parameters, for example, relative humidity. PMID:22845834

  18. The South African coal industry today

    Cook, A.B. (Randcoal Limited (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    The South African coal industry has existed since the early nineteenth century, but it is only fairly recently that it has become an important national industry. Eskom and SASOL were important in the early stages of growth, and in the 1970s Witbank coal started to be exported to Japan via the Richards Bay coal terminal. The mining houses control coal production. Coals are Permian in age, those easily mined and prepared are used for exports. Productivity must be improved, as wages are rising. Industrial relations are fairly good, and the relationship with organized labour extends beyond collective bargaining into social and economic issues. The safety record is worse than in the west, although better than in Asia, but improving. Rand coal is one of the three major producers, running a mix of underground and surface mines. Training is given high priority, as are other employee benefits. 17 figs.

  19. C1 lateral mass screw fixation

    Senoglu M; Gumusalan Y

    2009-01-01

    C1 lateral mass screw placement is a powerful technique for segmental control of the C1 vertebra. In this report, we describe surgical technique for placement of C1 lateral mass screws, on our C1 specimen. C1 lateral mass is anatomically ideally suited for screw fixation to achieve C1-C2 arthrodesis. C1 lateral mass screw fixation is a safe technique and can be performed to achieve rigid and immediate stabilization.

  20. Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito Formation, Early Permian, Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Jasper, A.; Menegat, R.; Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; de Souza, P.A. [UNIVATES, Lajeado (Brazil)

    2006-07-15

    This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quiteria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The record in some coal palynofloras of Striadopodocarpites fusus, a component of the Hamiapollenites karrooensis subzone, as defined in the palynostratigraphic framework for the Parana Basin, indicates a Kungurian age for the palynoflora.

  1. Phreatomagmatic Pipes of the Tunguska basin (Siberia): Improvement of End-Permian Mass Extinction Model

    Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Jerram, Dougal

    2014-05-01

    Formation of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is regarded as key phenomena responsible for the end-Permian mass extinction. Extinct event was accelerating due to release of enormous amount of gases throughout numerous basalt pipes, originated from contact aureoles of dolerite sills intruded into Tunguska Basin. Tunguska sedimentary basin consists of Precambrian and Paleozoic evaporites, carbonates and terrigenous rocks including Late Paleozoic coal-bearing strata. Precambrian and early Paleozoic oil source rocks contain numerous high potential oil and gas fields. Paleozoic evaporites contain rock and potassium salts deposits of commercial grade. Tunguska Basin evaporites are considered as a regional seal for the mineralizing brines. Permian-Triassic volcaniclastic rocks overlie this sequence and intrusive rocks have the numerous evidences of magma-sediment interaction result in basalt pipes formation. Compilation of available Russian literature gives us a chance to make a conclusion that hundreds of basalt pipes occur in the Tunguska Basin. The basalt pipes cross over all known dolerite intrusions and are filled with breccias of magmatic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks altered to varying extents. Pipes from the Tunguska Basin south have a phreatomagmatic origin that is supported by ubiquitous occurrence of altered sedimentary clasts and volcaniclastic lapilli, corroded by brine during initial stages of magma-evaporite (brine) interaction. Corroded lapilli rimmed by diopside, chlorine-bearing hornblende, apatite and magnetite. Our recent study of magnetite-rich coarse lapilli tuffs revealed the garnet lapilli rimmed with magnetite cemented by altered clay groundmass enriched by native metals (Cu, Sn, Zn). This result corroborates our hypothesis about magnetite formation during initial stage of magma-sediment-brine interaction. We suggest that these observations could shed light on end-Permian aerosol flux originated from basalt pipes and could provide new information for improvement of our model.

  2. High influx of carbon in walls of agglutinated foraminifers during the Permian-Triassic transition in global oceans

    Nestell, Galina P.; Nestell, Merlynd K.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Basu, Asish R.; Ghosh, Nilotpal; Phuong Lan, Luu Thi; Rowe, Harry D.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Ratcliffe, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    The Permian–Triassic mass extinction is postulated to be related to the rapid volcanism that produced the Siberian flood basalt (Traps). Unrelated volcanic eruptions producing several episodes of ash falls synchronous with the Siberian Traps are found in South China and Australia. Such regional eruptions could have caused wildfires, burning of coal deposits, and the dispersion of coal fly ash. These eruptions introduced a major influx of carbon into the atmosphere and oceans that can be recognized in the wallstructure of foraminiferal tests present in survival populations in the boundary interval strata. Analysis of free specimens of foraminifers recovered from residues of conodont samples taken at aPermian–Triassic boundary section at Lung Cam in northern Vietnam has revealed the presence of a significant amount of elemental carbon, along with oxygen and silica, in their test wall structure, but an absence of calcium carbonate. These foraminifers, identified as Rectocornuspira kalhori, Cornuspira mahajeri, and Earlandia spp. and whose tests previously were considered to be calcareous, are confirmed to be agglutinated, and are now referred to as Ammodiscus kalhori and Hyperammina deformis. Measurement of the 207Pb/204Pb ratios in pyrite clusters attached to the foraminiferal tests confirmed that these tests inherited the Pb in their outer layer from carbon-contaminated seawater. We conclude that the source of the carbon could have been either global coal fly ash or forest fire-dispersed carbon, or a combination of both, that was dispersed into the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean immediately after the end-Permian extinction event.

  3. Main: C1MOTIFZMBZ2 [PLACE

    Full Text Available C1MOTIFZMBZ2 S000237 23-Sep-1999 (last modified) kehi C1-motif; Similar to Myb-box; Found in the ... promoter region of maize (Z.m.) Bronze2 ( glutathione ... S-transferase) gene; C1 binding; C1-motif and R-mo ... z2 promoter; S=C or G; C1-motif; Bronze2; Myb-box; glutathione ... S-transferase; C1; seed; maize (Zea mays) TAACTSAG ...

  4. S = 1 for c = 1

    Gross, David J.; Klebanov, Igor R.

    1991-07-01

    We compare the tachyon correlation functions in the Liouville path integral and in the string field theory approaches to quantum gravity coupled to c = 1 matter. Both calculations yield external leg factors which have poles at the quantized values of momentum where there are extra degrees of freedom in the form of dressed special primary fields. If the external leg factors are absorbed in the redefinition of vertex operators, then the correlation functions are zero per unit volume, characteristic of a free-field theory in two dimensions. Indeed, although its bosonic action is non-polynomial, the string field theory is non-interacting if the reflections from the spatial boundaries are ignored.

  5. S=1 for c=1

    We compare the tachyon correlation functions in the Liouville path integral and in the string field theory approaches to quantum gravity coupled to c = 1 matter. Both calculations yield external leg factors which have poles at the quantized values of momentum where there are extra degrees of freedom in the form of dressed special primary fields. If the external leg factors are absorbed in the redefinition of vertex operators, then the correlation functions are zero per unit volume, characteristic of a free-field theory in two dimensions. Indeed, although its bosonic action is non-polynomial, the string field theory is non-interacting if the reflections from the spatial boundaries are ignored. (orig.)

  6. Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental changes during the continental Middle-Late Permian transition at the SE Iberian Ranges, Spain

    De la Horra, R.; Galán-Abellán, A. B.; López-Gómez, J.; Sheldon, N. D.; Barrenechea, J. F.; Luque, F. J.; Arche, A.; Benito, M. I.

    2012-08-01

    The Middle and Late Permian are characterized by a pair of mass-extinction events that are recorded in both marine and continental environments. Here, we present the first continental western peri-Tethyan record of an extinction event located in the Middle-Late interval. In the SE Iberian Ranges, Central Spain, the transition between the Lower and Middle subunits of the Middle Permian Alcotas Formation indicates a significant paleoclimatic change from arid and semiarid conditions towards more humid conditions. Coincident with the onset of humid conditions there were changes in the sedimentology, mineralogy, and geochemistry that indicate significant environmental changes including a shift in weathering intensity and a change of fluvial style from braided to meandering systems. Near the top of the Middle Subunit, a local biotic crisis is recorded by palynomorph assemblages. Following this crisis, there is a total absence of coal beds, plant remains, and microflora that defines a barren zone in the uppermost part of the Alcotas Formation which is recorded throughout the basin. The barren zone is accompanied by a shift back to braided stream systems, but not by a return to carbonate-bearing paleosols indicative of arid or semi-arid conditions. This combination of features is consistent with other Middle-Late continental basins related with mass extinctions, so the barren zone is interpreted as the extinction interval. The regional character of the extinction interval and its proximity with the Middle-Late Permian transition could be related with the global mid-Capitanian biotic turnover described in this period of time in other marine basins. However, the common difficulties of dating with precision non-marine rocks make this relationship difficult to probe in the Iberian Basin and in other Middle-Late Permian basins. Further work, including high resolution carbon-isotope analyses and complete studies of the magnetostratigraphy, should be desirable in order to obtain a better age constraint and to produce reliable comparisons with marine sections.

  7. Permian paleoclimate data from fluid inclusions in halite

    Benison, K.C.; Goldstein, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study has yielded surface water paleotemperatures from primary fluid inclusions in mid Permian Nippewalla Group halite from western Kansas. A 'cooling nucleation' method is used to generate vapor bubbles in originally all-liquid primary inclusions. Then, surface water paleotemperatures are obtained by measuring temperatures of homogenization to liquid. Homogenization temperatures ranged from 21??C to 50??C and are consistent along individual fluid inclusion assemblages, indicating that the fluid inclusions have not been altered by thermal reequilibration. Homogenization temperatures show a range of up to 26??C from base to top of individual cloudy chevron growth bands. Petrographic and fluid inclusion evidence indicate that no significant pressure correction is needed for the homogenization temperature data. We interpret these homogenization temperatures to represent shallow surface water paleotemperatures. The range in temperatures from base to top of single chevron bands may reflect daily temperatures variations. These Permian surface water temperatures fall within the same range as some modern evaporative surface waters, suggesting that this Permian environment may have been relatively similar to its modern counterparts. Shallow surface water temperatures in evaporative settings correspond closely to local air temperatures. Therefore, the Permian surface water temperatures determined in this study may be considered proxies for local Permian air temperatures.

  8. Coal geopolitics

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  9. Characteristics and exploration prospects of Middle Permian reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Guang Yang; Hua Wang; Hao Shen; Yuran Yang; Song Jia; Wen Chen; Hua Zhu; Yi Li

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, encouraging progress has been made in the Middle Permian natural gas exploration in the Sichuan Basin – numerous wells have obtained high-yield industrial gas flows in the dolomite porous reservoir sections in the Middle Permian Maokou Formation and the Qixia Formation, making the Middle Permian one of the most realistic replacement strata at present. In order to clarify the further exploration prospect of the basin, the Middle Permian depositional settings and prospective re...

  10. Aromatized arborane/fernane hydrocarbons as molecular indicators of floral changes in Upper Carboniferous/Lower Permian strata of the Saar-Nahe Basin, southwestern Germany

    Vliex, M.; Hagemann, H. W.; Püttmann, W.

    1994-11-01

    Thirty-seven coal samples of Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian age from three boreholes in the Saar-Nahe Basin, Germany, have been studied by organic geochemical and coal petrological methods. The investigations were aimed at the recognition of floral changes in the Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian strata. The results show that compositional changes in the extracts are only partly caused by variations in coalification. Specific aromatic hydrocarbons appear in Upper Westphalian D coal seams and increase in concentration up to the Rotliegendes. The dominant compound has been identified by mass spectrometry and NMR-spectroscopy as 5-methyl-10-(4-methylpentyl)-des- A-25-norarbora(ferna)-5,7,9-triene (MATH) and always occurs associated with 25-norarbora(ferna)-5,7,9-triene. Both compounds are thought to originate from isoarborinol, fernene-3β-ol, or fernenes. The strongly acidic conditions during deposition of the coals might have induced the 4,5-cleavage combined with a methyl-shift in an arborane/fernane-type pentacyclic precursor yielding the MATH. Based on petrological investigations, palynomorphs related to early Gymnospermopsida such as Pteridospermales and Coniferophytes ( Cordaitales and Coniferales) increased in abundance in the strata beginning with the Upper Westphalian D concomitant with the above mentioned biomarkers. The results suggest the arborane/fernane derivatives originate from the plant communities producing these palynomorphs.

  11. The Permian mega floras of Uruguay.A synthesis

    The Permian megafloras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the microfloral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called ''transition xilotaphofloras'' as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  12. Tectonics, basin analysis and organic geochemical attributes of Permian through Mesozoic deposits and their derivative oils of the Turpan-Hami basin, northwestern China

    Greene, Todd Jeremy

    The Turpan-Hami basin is a major physiographic and geologic feature of northwest China, yet considerable uncertainty exists as to the timing of its inception, its late Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic history, and the relationship of its petroleum systems to those of the nearby Junggar basin. Mesozoic sedimentary fades, regional unconformities, sediment dispersal patterns, and sediment compositions within the Turpan-Hami and southern Junggar basins suggest that these basins were initially separated between Early Triassic and Early Jurassic time. Prior to separation, Upper Permian profundal lacustrine and fan-delta fades and Triassic coarse-grained braided-fluvial/alluvial fades were deposited across a contiguous Junggar-Turpan-Hami basin. Permian through Triassic fades were derived mainly from the Tian Shan to the south as indicated by northward-directed paleocurrent directions and geochemical provenance of granitoid cobbles. Lower through Middle Jurassic strata begin to reflect ponded coal-forming, lake-plain environments within the Turpan-Hami basin. A sharp change in sedimentary-lithic-rich Lower Jurassic sandstone followed by a return to lithic volcanic-rich Middle Jurassic sandstone points to the initial uplift and unroofing of the largely andesitic Bogda Shan range, which first shed its sedimentary cover as it emerged to become the partition between the Turpan-Hami and southern Junggar basins. In Turpan-Hami, source rock age is one of three major statistically significant discriminators of effective source rocks in the basin. A newly developed biomarker parameter appears to track conifer evolution and can distinguish Permian rocks and their correlative oils from Jurassic coals and mudrocks, and their derivative oils. Source fades is a second key control on petroleum occurrence and character. By erecting rock-to-oil correlation models, the biomarker parameters separate oil families into end-member groups: Group 1 oils---Lower/Middle Jurassic peatland/swamp fades, Group 2 oils---Lower/Middle Jurassic marginal lacustrine fades, and Group 3 oils---Upper Permian lacusbine fades. Burial history exercises a third major control on petroleum in the Turpan-Hami basin. While relatively uninterrupted deep burial in the Tabei Depression exhausted Upper Permian source rocks and brought Lower/Middle Jurassic rocks well into the oil generative window, Late Jurassic uplift in the Tainan Depression eroded much of the Lower/Middle Jurassic section and preserved Upper Permian sourced oils as biodegraded, relict, heavy oils.* *This dissertation includes a CD that is multimedia (contains text and other applications that are not available in a printed format). The CD requires the following applications: Adobe Acrobat, UNIX.

  13. Sedimentology and stratigraphic architecture of the Late Permian Betts Creek Beds, Queensland, Australia

    Allen, Jonathan P.; Fielding, Christopher R.

    2007-11-01

    The Late Permian Betts Creek Beds form a succession of coal-bearing alluvial-coastal plain sediments in a basin marginal setting within the northeastern Galilee Basin, Queensland, Australia. The unit is ˜ 50-60 m in thickness at Porcupine Creek National Park where outcrop is laterally continuous for several kilometers. Eight facies have been identified within the formation and can be grouped into 2 facies associations: (A) channel deposits and (B) floodbasin deposits. The channel association consists of conglomerate (A1) and trough cross-bedded multistorey sandstone facies (A2), both interpreted as deposits of low-sinuosity river systems, tidally influenced fluvial channels (A3), interbedded sandstone and siltstone (A4) interpreted as the abandonment fill of the alluvial systems, and diamictite (A5) interpreted as debris flows. The floodbasin facies association is composed of sandy siltstone (B1; proximal-distal floodbasin), carbonaceous siltstone (B2; mire), and bioturbated siltstone (B3; estuarine) facies. The overall sediment body architecture can be resolved into 6 unconformity-bounded cycles interpreted as sequences in the genetic sense, which are sheet-like in geometry and, in general, consist of amalgamated multistorey, multilateral braided fluvial deposits at the base overlain by extensive sheet-like overbank mudstones, carbonaceous shales, and coals. Sea-level change is interpreted as the primary control on the sequence architecture of the formation, while the internal stratigraphic architecture, however, varies between sequences and is a function of a combination of sea level, tectonic, and autogenic controls.

  14. Coal 2001

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The latest update of this reference document gives key information on the domestic and global coal markets. It has sections on: world coal trade (imports, exports, production); Australia's export coal industry and coal resources including maps of Australia and New Zealand coalfields and coal mines and projects of Queensland; Australian coal production (production by state, productivity, coal consumption, the coal industry in different states etc.); major coal exporters with maps of coal mining areas - Australia, Canada, China, Indonesia, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, USA, Venezuela and Vietnam; major coal importing countries (Hong Kong, India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan); prices and contracts; transport; ports; coal specifications; and coal industry directories for Australia, Indonesia and China.

  15. Coal 2002

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The report includes a summary of the previous year's coal production, world trade, prices, contracts, port details, and the most detailed coal quality database available. In addition, each issue gives historical production, pricing, and export information as well as a list of new mine developments and a useful directory of industry contacts in Australia and Indonesia. Section headings are: world coal trade; Australia's coal industry (with details of coalfields, coal, mines, coal resources, production, consumption etc. by state); major exporters; major coal importing countries; prices and contracts; transportation; coal specifications; and coal industry directories.

  16. Coal 2004

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The report includes a summary of the previous year's coal production, world trade, prices, contracts, port details, and the most detailed coal quality database available. In addition, each issue gives historical production, pricing, and export information as well as a list of new mine developments and a useful directory of industry contacts in Australia and Indonesia. Section headings are: world coal trade; Australia's coal industry (with details of coalfields, coal mines, coal resources, production, consumption etc. by state); major exporters; major coal importing countries; prices and contracts; transportation; coal specifications; and coal industry directories on mines in Australia and Indonesia.

  17. Carboniferous and permian noeggerathialean plants and their spores; preliminary report

    Bek, Jiří; Wang, J.

    Prague : National Museum, 2006. ISBN 80-7036-198-0. [European Palaeobotany- Palynology Conference /7./. 06.09.2006-11.09.2006, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Noeggerathiales * in situ spores * Palaeozoic-Permian Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  18. Faunal migration into the Late Permian Zechstein Basin

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Håkansson, Eckart; Stemmerik, Lars

    2007-01-01

    northern margin of Pangea is used to test hypotheses concerning Late Palaeozoic evolution of the North Atlantic region. During the Permian, the Atlantic rift system formed a seaway between Norway and Greenland from the boreal Barents Shelf to the warm and arid Zechstein Basin. This seaway is considered to...

  19. Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming

    Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Å afanda, Jan; Beauchamp, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 393, May (2014), s. 243-253. ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Latest Permian extinction * gas hydrates * carbon isotope shift Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2014

  20. Microbial growth on C1 compounds: proceedings

    This book contains individual papers prepared for the 4th International Symposium on Microbial Growth on One Carbon Compounds. Individual reports were abstracted and indexed for EDB. Topics presented were in the areas of the physiology and biochemistry of autotraps, physiology and biochemistry of methylotrophs and methanotrops, physiology and biochemistry of methanogens, genetics of microbes that use C1 compounds, taxonomy and ecology of microbes tht grow on C1 compounds, applied aspects of microbes that grow on C1 compounds, and new directions in C1 metabolism. (DT)

  1. The Permian Dongfanghong island-arc gabbro of the Wandashan Orogen, NE China: Implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wilde, Simon A.; Chen, Han-Lin; Yang, Shu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    The Dongfanghong hornblende gabbro is located in the western part of the Wandashan Orogen and to the east of the Jiamusi Block in NE China. It was emplaced into Early Paleozoic oceanic crust (i.e. Dongfanghong ophiolite) at ~ 275 Ma and both later collided with the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block. The Dongfanghong gabbro is sub-alkaline with high Na2O contents and is characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), large ion lithosphile elements (LILE), Sr, Eu, and Ba, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). The enriched isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = ~ 0.7065, εNd(t) = ~- 0.5, 208Pb/204Pbi = ~ 38.05, 207Pb/204Pbi = ~ 15.56, 206Pb/204Pbi = ~ 18.20 and zircon εHf(t) = ~+ 5.8) indicate an enriched mantle (EM2) source, with some addition of continental material. It has arc geochemical affinities similar to Permian arc igneous rocks in the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block, the Yakuno Ophiolite in SW Japan, arc rocks along the western margin of the North America Craton, and also the Gympie Group in eastern Australia. All these features, together with information from tectonic discrimination diagrams, suggest that the Dongfanghong gabbro formed in an immature island arc. The spatial configuration of ~ 290 Ma immature continental arc rocks in the eastern part of the Jiamusi Block and the ~ 275 Ma immature island arc Dongfanghong gabbro in the Wandashan Orogen to the east is best explained by eastward arc retreat and slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This model is also supported by the Carboniferous-Permian stratigraphic transition in the Jiamusi Block from oceanic carbonate rocks to coal-bearing terrestrial clastic rocks and andesites. We thus suggest that both Paleo-Pacific subduction and roll-back occurred in the Early Permian along the eastern margin of Asia.

  2. Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

    2010-05-01

    At the coalfield of Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) extensive underground coal fires cause widespread thermal and oxidative effects in coal seams. Within phase B of the Coal Fire Research Project of the Sino-German Initiative, methods for innovative fire-extinguishing technologies were investigated in multifaceted research approaches. Extensive investigations of oxidative and thermally affected coal seams in coal fire zone 18 were conducted in 2008 prior to application of new fire-extinguishing methods. We present results from the outcrop of coal seam No. 4 in the fire zone 18. The coal of seam No. 4 is of Early Permian age and belongs stratigraphically to the Shanxi Formation. The unaffected coal displays a high volatile bituminous A rank with a background value of random vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.90 to 0.96 % Rr. Coal channel samples were coallected at actively extracted coal faces along multiple profiles with surface temperatures ranging from about 50° to 600°C. Microscopic examinations revealed a variety of products of coal exposure to the fire. Within coal samples, a marked rise in vitrinite reflectance from background values to 5.55% Rr (6.00 % Rmax) is encountered. In addition, a number of coal samples showed suppressed vitrinite reflectances ranging between 0.82 to 0.88% Rr. Further, seemingly heat unaffected coal samples display intensive development of oxidations rims at coal grain edges and cracks as well as shrinkage cracks and formation of iron oxides/hydroxides. Instead, thermally affected coal samples with higher coalification grade are further characterised by development of macropores (devolatilisation pores) in vitrinitic streaks, transformation of liptinite to meta-liptinite and micrinite as well as by natural coke particles of mostly porous nature and fine to coarse grained anisotropic mosaic. Coal petrographic investigations confirmed a hypothesis that both, oxidations as well as low temperature carbonisation govern the thermal regime in the coal fire zone 18. The occurrence of various thermal alteration products indicates temperatures in the range of 500-700°C.

  3. Gondwana basins and their coal resources in Bangladesh

    Fault bounded five Gondwana basins have been discovered in the north western Bangladesh. Among these basins show considerable amount of coal deposits. The Gondwana rocks are highly formed during the Permo-carboniferous diastrophism and later on acquired dynamic characters. In almost all basins, the Permian rocks overlie the Precambrian basement and underlie either the Tertiary or the Cretaceous sediments, structural, stratigraphic, and depositional history of these basins is more or less similar. The sedimentary sequences are composed of light to dark gray, fine to very coarse grained, sub angular to sub rounded felspathic sandstone, dark grey carbonaceous shale and sandstone, variegated conglomerate and thick coal seams (single seam max. 42.38m). The rocks are often alternated and bear the characteristics of cyclic sedimentation. The depositional environments varied from restricted drainage to open fluvial dominated low to moderate sinuous drainage system. The coal bearing basins were flanked by vegetated and swampy over bank. Age of these coals is suggested to be the late permian. Proved and probable reserves of coal in Jamalganj-Paharpur basin are 670 and 1,460 million metric tons, in Barapukuria basin 303 and 3899 million metric tons; in Barapukuria basin 303 and 389 million metric tons; and in Khalaspir basin 143 and 685 million metric tons respectively. The coal is high volatile, low sulphur, bituminous type. It can be used for different forms of thermal conversion. (author)

  4. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

    Amiruddin Amiruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20094An active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Southern Papua and Galille-Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basins. Those large basins are respectivelly filled by fluvial, fluvio- deltaic to marine Permian-Triassic sediments, which are unconformably overlain by the Jurrassic-Cretaceous marine succession. The paleomagnetic data, confirmed by flora content found in Australia and Papua, indicate that those areas initially belong to the Gondwanaland before part of them were drifted and rotated into the present day position. Tectonically, the presence of those Permian-Triassic magmatic-volcanic belts and back-arc basins in behind, indicates that at the time there were huge compressive activities: convergence of paleo-oceanic Pasific Plate moving westward, collided and subducted into the Southeastern Gondwana Continental Plate, moved relatively eastwards. This phenomenon resembles to the formation of Sumatera Tertiary tectonic zones producing back-arc basins, i.e. South Sumatera, Central, and North Sumatera Basins including the Tertiary Magmatic Arc. Concerning the similarity of Permian-Triassic geological condition of the magmatic arc and back-arc basins in Eastern Indonesia and Eastern Australia including paleoposition, paleotectonic setting, strati- graphic succession, and lithologic composition, it is suggested to carry out an increase in a more intens- ive tin exploration in the Eastern Indonesia, e.g. Bird Head area and Banggai Sula Island, and also for hydrocarbon target (coal, coalbed methane, oil and gas, and oil shale in the Southern Papua Basin, East Indonesia. This suggestion is confirmed by cassiterite and hydrocarbon discoveries and exploitation activ- ity in the Eastern Australia and also a new seismic data of the Semai Basin a part of Southern Papua Basin. This seismic record shows a more complete stratigraphic sucession and a number of large structure traps of stratigraphic levels in which the Permian-Triassic units are included within the sequence.  

  5. C^1 spline wavelets on triangulations

    Jia, Rong-Qing; Liu, Song-Tao

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we investigate spline wavelets on general triangulations. In particular, we are interested in C^1 wavelets generated from piecewise quadratic polynomials. By using the Powell-Sabin elements, we set up a nested family of spaces of C^1 quadratic splines, which are suitable for multiresolution analysis of Besov spaces. Consequently, we construct C^1 wavelet bases on general triangulations and give explicit expressions for the wavelets on the three-direction mesh. A general theory is developed so as to verify the global stability of these wavelets in Besov spaces. The wavelet bases constructed in this paper will be useful for numerical solutions of partial differential equations.

  6. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism

    Srikanta Murthy; Ram-Awatar; Saurabh Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Palynofloras have been recorded from the Barakar Formation in the Borehole MBKW-3, Barpali–Karmitikra Block, Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh. Three distinct palynoassemblages have been identified and referred to the following palynoassemblage zones – Gondisporites raniganjensis (Latest Permian); Faunipollenites varius (latest Early Permian), and Scheuringipollenites barakarensis (late Early Permian). It is inferred that these deposits contain the representative palynoassamblages of Early to Late Permian in age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD)s of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, A. ovatus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lundbladispora microconata, Alisporites opii, Klausipollenites sp., and Goubinispora indica (at 41.95, 45.90, 98.35 m depths), indicate the closing phase of Permian, as these elements are the key species that mark a transition from Permian to the Lower Triassic. An attempt has been made here to reconstruct the phytogeographical provincialism on the basis of Guttulapollenites recorded in this basin.

  7. Oceanic Anoxia and the End Permian Mass Extinction

    Wignall; Twitchett

    1996-05-24

    Data on rocks from Spitsbergen and the equatorial sections of Italy and Slovenia indicate that the world's oceans became anoxic at both low and high paleolatitudes in the Late Permian. Such conditions may have been responsible for the mass extinction at this time. This event affected a wide range of shelf depths and extended into shallow water well above the storm wave base. PMID:8662450

  8. Lower Permian brachiopods from Oman : their potential as climatic proxies

    Angiolini, L.; D. P. F. Darbyshire; Stephenson, Michael; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; F. Berra; F. Jadoul

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Permian of the Haushi basin, Interior Oman (Al Khlata Formation to Saiwan Formation/lower Gharif member) records climate change from glaciation, through marine sedimentation in the Haushi sea, to subtropical desert. To investigate the palaeoclimatic evolution of the Haushi sea we used O, C, and Sr isotopes from 31 brachiopod shells of eight species collected bed by bed within the type-section of the Saiwan Formation. We assessed diagenesis by scanning electron microscopy of ultrastr...

  9. The permian sequence reconstructed from reworked carbonate clasts in the Batain Plain (northeastern Oman)

    Hauser, Marc; Vachard, Daniel; Martini, Rossana; Matter, Albert; Peters, Tjerk; Zaninetti, Louisette

    2000-02-01

    An almost complete Permian sequence is reworked in the conglomerates and sandstones of the Aseelah Unit forming the lower part of the Batain Croup. This series of Late Permian to Earliest Triassic age overlies conformably the Qarari Unit, dated as Middle Permian by ammonoids. The bioclastic limestone pebbles and boulders deposited on shallow marine-shelf environments yield diversified assemblages of dasyclads, red algae, fusulinids and smaller foraminifers, indicating Yakhtashian, Bolorian, Kubergandian, Early Murgabian, Midian and Dzhulfian ages (systematic work in progress).

  10. On Orientifolds of c=1 Orbifolds

    Dijkstra, T.P.T.; ~Gato-Rivera, B.; Riccioni, F.; Schellekens, A. N.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string t...

  11. Coal-92

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  12. Coal 2005

    Haddad, D. (ed.)

    2005-08-15

    Designed for people engaged in the international coal market, this book, produced annually from a database, includes summaries with tables and graphs of the major importers and exporters of coal, world trade statistics (resources, production, exports and imports), prices, contracts, ports and infrastructure information (with some maps), detailed coal quality specification for coal products from Australia, Indonesia, China, Canada, South Africa, Colombia, Venezuela, Vietnam, and some from the United States as well as a directory of coal mines in Australia and Indonesia including ownership, operator and contact details, mining method, coal category, resources, brands, load port, and production.

  13. On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds

    Dijkstra, T.P.T. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Riccioni, F. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: f.riccioni@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-10-25

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

  14. On Orientifolds of c=1 Orbifolds

    Dijkstra, T P T; Riccioni, F; Schellekens, Adrian Norbert

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

  15. On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections

  16. Coal Atlas

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Coal Atlas gives a comprehensive overview of coal mining currently being carried out around the world. The Atlas contains over 50 maps which detail mine types and products produced in the major coalfields. The maps are accompanied by summaries about coal producing countries and graphs of both production and exports over the last 10 years. The Coal Atlas is a full colour book and provides a handy reference to the world coal industry. The Atlas is divided into 12 regional sections each of which contains a map of coalfields and maps of coal mines. The coalfields maps details coal bearing strata and distinguishes between lignite, hard coal and anthracite. The mine level maps show individual mines, rail where possible and port locations.

  17. Phreatomagmatic Pipes of the Tunguska basin (Siberia): Aerosols Flux into End-Permian atmosphere

    Polozov, A. G.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Jerram, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequence consists of Precambrian and Paleozoic evaporites, carbonates and terrigenous rocks including Late Paleozoic coal-bearing strata. Precambrian and early Paleozoic oil source rocks contain numerous high potential oil and gas fields. Paleozoic evaporites contain rock and potassium salts deposits of commercial grade. Tunguska Basin evaporites are considered as a regional seal for the mineralizing brines. Permian-Triassic volcaniclastic rocks overlie this sequence and intrusive rocks have the numerous evidences of magma-sediment interaction. The Siberian Traps dolerites have intruded the Tunguska Basin sequence at different levels of emplacement and magma-sediment-brine interaction result in basalt pipes formation. Intrusions are surrounded by contact aureoles of thicknesses dependent upon sediment composition, dolerite thickness, depth of emplacement and the number of intrusive bodies. The basalt pipes cutting all intrusive bodies are filled with breccias of magmatic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks altered to varying extents. The age of the pipes is geologically well constrained and related to Siberian Traps intrusion emplacement. A dolerite sill intruded into rock salt sequences of the Nepa potash deposit has a U-Pb zircon age of 252 × 0.4 Ma. Basalt pipe cutting all known dolerite intrusions, revealed here during prospecting survey. The phreatomagmatic origin of the basalt pipes is supported by ubiquitous occurrence of altered sedimentary clasts and volcaniclastic lapilli, corroded by brine during initial stages of magma-evaporite (brine) interaction. Corroded lapilli have rims of diopside, chlorine-bearing hornblende, apatite and magnetite. Iron rich garnet is present on the tuff and glass fragments. Our recent study of magnetite-rich coarse lapilli tuffs revealed the specific garnet lapilli rimmed with magnetite cemented by altered clay groundmass. This result corroborates our hypothesis about magnetite formation during initial stage of magma-sediment-brine interaction. We suggest that such conclusion requires a re-examination of lapilli tuff size and composition from basalt pipes of the Tunguska Basin. We suppose that this study could shed light on our understanding of aerosols flux from the Siberian phreatomagmatic pipes and its influence on End-Permian atmosphere.

  18. Coal desulfurization

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  19. Palynology of Permian Gondwana sequence of Umrer coalfield, Maharashtra

    Jha, N.; Tewari, R.; Rajanikanth, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2007-04-15

    Quantitative and qualitative palynological analysis of Early Permian sediments, Umrer Coalfield, Wardha Basin has been carried out. The microspore assemblage consists of 22 genera and 40 species. It is characterized by dominance of radial monosaccates chiefly, Parasacciles and subdominance of non-striate disaccates chiefly, Scheuringipollenites. Presence of Crucisaccites and Caheniasaccites suggests Upper Karharbari (Late Sakmarian-Early Artinskian) affinity. The presence of the Karharbari palynozone has been demarcated in lithologically designated Barakar Formation. The present finding corroborates the earlier studies by Bharadwaj and Anand Prakash (1974).

  20. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C1) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C1 to C5), while only C1 and C2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C2-C3, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C2 was detected in all samples while C3-C5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  1. German coal

    Payne, M.

    1999-06-01

    The current situation in the German black coal and brown coal industries is described. Since 1998 a plan to reduce costs and improve efficiency has been brought into play, and numbers of black coal mines are scheduled to close. Companies have been consolidated into the Deutsche Steinkohle (DSK) group as part of this restructuring. Export of German coal and mining technologies is till seen as a priority. Brown coal mining is concentrated in the Rhineland and in Lusatia. Rheinbraun runs the Rhineland mines, and also has interests in foreign mining groups. Laubag is diversifying its product so as not to rely so completely on local power stations. 2 figs.

  2. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  3. Growth and demise of Permian biogenic chert along northwest Pangea: evidence for end-Permian collapse of thermohaline circulation

    Beauchamp Benoît; Baud Aymon

    2002-01-01

    The Permian Chert Event (PCE) was a 30 Ma long episode of unusual chert accumulation along the northwest margin of Pangea, and possibly worldwide. The onset of the PCE occurred at about the Sakmarian-Artinskian boundary in the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic, where it coincides with a maximum flooding event, the ending of high-frequency/high-amplitude shelf cyclicity, the onset of massive biogenic chert deposition in deep-water distal areas, and a long-term shift from warm- to cool-water carb...

  4. Flourishing ocean drives the end-Permian marine mass extinction.

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas; Strauss, Harald; Korn, Dieter; Korte, Christoph

    2015-08-18

    The end-Permian mass extinction, the most severe biotic crisis in the Phanerozoic, was accompanied by climate change and expansion of oceanic anoxic zones. The partitioning of sulfur among different exogenic reservoirs by biological and physical processes was of importance for this biodiversity crisis, but the exact role of bioessential sulfur in the mass extinction is still unclear. Here we show that globally increased production of organic matter affected the seawater sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope signature that has been recorded in carbonate rock spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary. A bifurcating temporal trend is observed for the strata spanning the marine mass extinction with carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope excursions toward decreased and increased values, respectively. By coupling these results to a box model, we show that increased marine productivity and successive enhanced microbial sulfate reduction is the most likely scenario to explain these temporal trends. The new data demonstrate that worldwide expansion of euxinic and anoxic zones are symptoms of increased biological carbon recycling in the marine realm initiated by global warming. The spatial distribution of sulfidic water column conditions in shallow seafloor environments is dictated by the severity and geographic patterns of nutrient fluxes and serves as an adequate model to explain the scale of the marine biodiversity crisis. Our results provide evidence that the major biodiversity crises in Earth's history do not necessarily implicate an ocean stripped of (most) life but rather the demise of certain eukaryotic organisms, leading to a decline in species richness. PMID:26240323

  5. The Permian and Triassic in the Albanian Alps

    Gaetani, Maurizio; Meço, Selam; Rettori, Roberto; Henderson, Charles M.; Tulone, Accursio

    2015-09-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Permian to Middle Triassic of the Albanian Alps is described, as part of the eastern Adria passive margin towards the Tethys. A carbonate ramp deepening towards NE in present day coordinates developed during the Middle Permian and was affected by block faulting with the deposition of carbonate breccia. The Early Triassic was characterized by intense terrigenous deposition with several cobble conglomerate units up to 80 m-thick, and by oolitic carbonate shoals. The fine clastic deposition ended gradually during the earliest Anisian and a wide calcarenitic ramp occupied the area, with small local carbonate mounds. Basinward, the red nodular limestone of the Han Bulog Formation was interbedded with calcarenitic material exported from the ramp. Drowning to more open conditions occurred towards the end of the Pelsonian. Subsequently, cherty limestone and tuffitic layers spread over the entire area. Towards the end of the Ladinian, with the end of the volcanic activity, red pelagic limestone was deposited locally for a short period. By the latest Ladinian most of the area returned to shallow-water conditions, with a peritidal carbonate platform. In the Theth area, in contrast, a basin with black organic-rich dolostone and limestone developed which seems to be unique in that part of the Adria passive margin. The occurrence of cobble conglomerate units in the Lower Triassic testifies to very active block faulting and high accommodation, not yet described for the area.

  6. CARBONIFEROUS-PERMIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND FUSULINIDS OF EASTERNIRAN. THE PERMIAN IN THE BAG-E-VANG SECTION (SHIRGESHT AREA

    ERNST JA. LEVEN

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Jamal Formation of the Bag-e-Vang section near Shirgesht is described. The lower part of the formation (Bag-e-Vang Member is composed of shales and marls with interbeds of hallow water bioclastic limestones. It contains abundant fusulinids indicative of the uppermost Yakhtashian-basal Kubergandian. The upper part of the Jamal Formation is represented by micritic and finely detrital limestones and dolomites. The age of this part of the formation is based on rare fusulinids and smaller foraminifers and cannot be defined more precisely than the Kubergandian-Dorashamian of the Upper Permian. The formation has visible conformable contacts with the underlying Sardar and overlying Sorkh Shale Formations. However, there may be unobservable stratigraphic hiatuses of indefinite scope at the formation boundaries. Forty-one species and subspecies, which belong to 27 genera and subgenera and 9 families of fusulinids, were identified in the Permian of the section described. Among them, two genera (Iranella, Paraleeina, one subgenus (Cuniculina and 8 species, i. e. Yangchienia compressaeformis,Paradoxiella insueta, Darvasites minutus, Skinnerella chusenellaeformis, Iranella bella, I. longa, I. orbiculata, and I. pauca, are new.

  7. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  8. Application of Markov chain and entropy analysis to lithologic succession – an example from the early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Ram Chandra Tewari; D P Singh; Z A Khan

    2009-10-01

    A statistical approach by a modified Markov process model and entropy function is used to prove that the early Permian Barakar Formation of the Bellampalli coal field developed distinct cyclicities during deposition.From results,the transition path of lithological states typical for the Bellampalli basin is as:coarse to medium-grained sandstone $\\longrightarrow $ interbedded fine-grained sandstone/shale $\\longrightarrow $ shale $\\longrightarrow $ coal and again shale.The majority of cycles are symmetrical but asymmetrical cycles are present as well.The chi-square stationarity test implies that these cycles are stationary in space and time.The cycles are interpreted in terms of in-channel,point bar and overbank facies association in a fluvial system.The randomness in the occurrence of facies within a cycle is evaluated in terms of entropy,which can be calculated from the Markov matrices.Two types of entropies are calculated for every facies state;entropy after deposition (post)and entropy before deposition (pre),which together form entropy set;the entropy for the whole system is also calculated.These values are plotted and compared with Hattori ’s idealized plots,which indicate that the sequence is essentially a symmetrical cycle (type-B of Hattroi). The symmetrical cyclical deposition of early Permian Barakar Formation is explained by the lateral migration of stream channels in response to varying discharge and rate of deposition across the alluvial plain.In addition,the fining upward cycles in the upper part enclosing thick beds of fine clastics,as well as coal may represent differential subsidence of depositional basin.

  9. Coal - 96

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NOx removal. Most other plants are using low NOx burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  10. Coal technology

    The coal- and gas-fueled cogeneration plants develop rapidly and according to all the scenarios will continue to grow with ever improving power generation effect in counterpressure mode. As there is no 'cooling water waste', a greater percentage of houses should be heated electrically. The coal combustion technologies mentioned here will probably converge around 53-55% coefficient of performance. Emission requirements can be fulfilled by use of modern coal technologies. Coal will stay as a competitive fuel for cogeneration as other more advanced technologies are often yet at the demonstration stage. (EG)

  11. Venezuelan coal

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  12. Hard coal

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued.

  13. Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald Eugene; Stemmerik, Lars

    (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland and...... ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon...... oceanographic changes to similar observations for the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction and discuss environmental forcing, poten¬tially inherent to major volcanic events and leading to global environmental change and extinction...

  14. Cretaceous stem chondrichthyans survived the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Guinot, Guillaume; Adnet, Sylvain; Cavin, Lionel; Cappetta, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Cladodontomorph sharks are Palaeozoic stem chondrichthyans thought to go extinct at the end-Permian mass extinction. This extinction preceded the diversification of euselachians, including modern sharks. Here we describe an outer-platform cladodontomorph shark tooth assemblage from the Early Cretaceous of southern France, increasing the fossil record of this group by circa 120 million years. Identification of this material rests on new histological observations and morphological evidence. Our finding shows that this lineage survived mass extinctions most likely by habitat contraction, using deep-sea refuge environments during catastrophic events. The recorded gap in the cladodontomorph lineage represents the longest gap in the fossil record for an extinct marine vertebrate group. This discovery demonstrates that the deep-sea marine diversity, poorly known during most of the fish evolutionary history, contains essential data for a complete understanding of the long-term evolution of marine fish paleobiodiversity. PMID:24169620

  15. Reservoir engineering continuing education course for the Permian Basin Section

    Edgar, A.L.; Eddy, R.E.; Caudle, B.H.

    1967-01-01

    A questionnaire sent to members of the Permian Basin Section of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME resulted in the development of a 2-semester course in reservoir engineering. This first semester was devoted to the basic law of fluid flow in porous media and the mathematics for those solutions used in modern reservoir engineering. The second semester consisted of the application of the laws to reservoir engineering problems in well testing, gas cycling, waterflooding, and other secondary recovery methods. The main objective of the program was to increase the ability of the practicing petroleum engineer to understand and use the reservoir engineering methods now being developed and described in the literature. A survey of those attending indicated general satisfaction with the program. The section intends to continue its education program by repeating the reservoir engineering course in 1967-1968 and also introducing a second course covering principles of management.

  16. Fungal event and palynological record of ecological crisis and recovery across the Permian-Triassic boundary

    Eshet, Yoram; Rampino, Michael R.; Visscher, Henk

    1995-11-01

    The end of the Permian Period was marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Detailed quantitative study of pollen and spores from shallow-marine deposits spanning the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary in Israel reveals a sequence of palynological-ecological stages reflecting a major crisis among land plants. The disappearance of the gymnosperm-dominated palynoflora of the Late Permian Lueckisporites virkkiae Zone is recorded at a claystone horizon containing almost exclusively abundant fungal remains and carbonized terrestrial plant debris. This “fungal spike” is followed by a zone dominated by marine acritarchs and a succession showing ecological recovery with abundant lycopod spores and eventual reappearance of bisaccate gymnosperm pollen in the Early Triassic. The latest Permian proliferation of fungi is recognizable worldwide and can be correlated with other paleontological and geochemical markers of a global ecological disaster.

  17. Anatomy of an intruded coal, I: Effect of contact metamorphism on whole-coal geochemistry, Springfield (No. 5) (Pennsylvanian) coal, Illinois Basin

    Rimmer, Susan M. [Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Yoksoulian, Lois E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    If time and heating rate are important agents in coal maturation, one might expect to see differences in chemical changes in response to maturation depending on the means of increased rank. Using a suite of samples obtained from an intruded Pennsylvanian-age coal in southern Illinois, we present whole-coal chemical data. Comparing these data to extant geochemical data for coals that have undergone normal burial maturation, we evaluated the hypothesis that if coal alteration occurs rapidly (due to intrusion) rather than gradually (burial maturation), then different relationships are seen in chemical composition (proximate and ultimate analyses) and vitrinite reflectance. The Pennsylvanian-age (Asturian [Westphalian D]) Springfield (No. 5) coal is mined at the Big Ridge Mine, near Eldorado, southern Illinois. This high volatile B bituminous coal was intruded by an ultramafic igneous intrusion during the early Permian. Alteration occurs out to {proportional_to} 1.2 x dike thickness and includes an increase in random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub m}) from levels {proportional_to} 0.7% to over 5.3%, loss of liptinites, and formation of devolatilization vacuoles and fine mosaic texture. Decreases in volatile matter (VM) and increases in fixed carbon (FC) appear to be less than would be expected for the level of reflectance seen within the alteration halo. Carbonate minerals have a major influence on proximate analyses but even following the removal of carbonates, the decrease in VM is still less than would be seen in coals of similar vitrinite reflectance that were altered by normal burial maturation. Carbonate mineralization also contributes to variability in ultimate analysis values approaching the intrusion, particularly for %C and %O. After carbonate removal, data for these coals do not appear to follow the normal burial coalification tracks when plotted on a van Krevelen diagram and on a Seyler chart. These differences suggest that a slightly different maturation pathway may have been followed by these coals and by others that were altered rapidly by intrusion. (author)

  18. Evolution and extinction of Permian fusulinid fauna in the Khao Tham Yai Limestone in NE Thailand

    Hada, Shigeki; Khosithanont, Somboon; Goto, Hiroya; Fontaine, Henri; Salyapongse, Sirot

    2015-05-01

    The first detailed biostratigraphic investigation of a single limestone unit within the Khao Tham Yai Limestone shows it was deposited continuously in a shelf setting without any intercalation of clastic beds. It ranges from the Wordian (middle Middle Permian) up to the Wuchiapingian (lower Upper Permian). The limestone unit is divided in ascending order into three fusulinid zones, i.e. Colania, Lepidolina and Codonofusiella zones. The middle zone is characterized by an abundance of large-tested fusulinids characteristic of the Lepidolina Zone. Shell sizes of the fusulinid species in this zone display continuous rapid morphological change along a one-way evolutionary path from small, primitive species with simple structure to large, highly evolved species having a complicated wall structure. Fusulinid biostratigraphy in a single limestone unit elucidates evolution and extinction patterns of Permian fusulinids of the shallow-water Tethyan shelf area in the Indochina Block. Our study reveals that the boundary between the Guadalupian (Middle Permian) and Lopingian (Upper Permian) in the Khao Tham Yai Limestone is clearly defined as an abrupt change in the fusulinid assemblages from the elimination of large-tested Verbeekinids and Schwagerinids to the domination of small-shelled Schubertellids. The Schubertellids underwent slower evolutionary morphological change than earlier fusulinids and were decreasingly dominant through the Permian. A similar pattern of fusulinid evolution and extinction at the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary occurs in shallow-water Tethyan shelf areas and mid-oceanic shallow-water environments in mid-Panthalassa. Eventually, even smaller fusulinids abruptly become extinct. Clastic deposits finally replace previous carbonate formations characterized by algae-foraminifera biota. It starts in the upper Middle Permian in the southern parts and spreads throughout the whole area in the lower Upper Permian in NE Thailand. These observations suggest possible correlation between the turning points of fusulinid evolution and global environmental change such as worldwide sea-level drop and its consequent effects.

  19. Characteristics and exploration prospects of Middle Permian reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Guang Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, encouraging progress has been made in the Middle Permian natural gas exploration in the Sichuan Basin – numerous wells have obtained high-yield industrial gas flows in the dolomite porous reservoir sections in the Middle Permian Maokou Formation and the Qixia Formation, making the Middle Permian one of the most realistic replacement strata at present. In order to clarify the further exploration prospect of the basin, the Middle Permian depositional settings and prospective reservoir types were analyzed. The results show that: (1 the depositional environment was predominately open, shallow water; the paleogeomorphology was high in the west and low in the east, with bioclastic flat reservoirs more extensive in the middle-west part than the east part; crustal extension made Middle Permian deposits have good conditions for thermal water deposition and hydrothermal alteration; and (2 the prospect reservoirs for exploration were shoal facies dolomite porous reservoir of the Qixia Formation, thermal water dolomite porous reservoir and karst reservoir of the Maokou Formation, thus, dolomite porous reservoir was the most perspective target in the Middle Permian. It is concluded that Middle Permian limestone source rocks have large hydrocarbon generation intensity in the northern part of Western and Central Sichuan Basin and have the material basis for the formation of large-medium gas fields; the thick dolomite reservoir of the Qixia Formation in the Western Sichuan Basin is the most prospective reservoir in the Middle Permian; three types of reservoirs are distributed in the Central Sichuan Basin, and they are superimposed vertically with large exploration potential; Jiange–Nanchong–Fengdu region is located in the thermal sub-basin zone, where the thermal water dolomite reservoir of the Maokou formation is pervasive and superimposed on the karst reservoir of the Maokou Formation, showing good natural gas exploration prospects.

  20. Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r

    Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls

  1. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  2. Coal petrography

    Toprak, S. [Mineral Research and Exploration Institute, Ankara (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    The term maceral describes the shape and the nature of the microscopically recognizable (organic) constituents of the coal. The rock types in coal are called lithotypes. Microlithotypes are maceral constituents used mainly to interpret paleodepositional environments. The term lithotype is used for megascopic observations, but the terms microlithotype and maceral are used for microscopic observations. The ICCP classification recognise the macerals: vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite. Coal commonly contains ash in the form of clays, silica, carbonates and sulfides. Other methods of classification include the recognition of microlithotypes, and the use of reflectance and fluorescence in analysis. 33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Facing coal

    Singer, M

    2011-01-01

    Facing coal provides an environmental history of changing ideas around South African coal-based pollution, focusing on Witbank, where the scars of mining are etched deep into the land. The essence of this book is its link between local and global repercussions of past and present reliance on fossil fuel consumption. The historical approach seeks to demonstrate the way in which long-term environmental effects of coal have manifested, and reveals how, in spite of how much is now known about coa...

  4. Characterization of an Upper Permian tight aas reservoir : a multidisciplinary, multiscale analysis from the Rotliegend, Northern Germany

    Antrett, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary, multiscale approach to the analysis of tight gas reservoirs. It focused initially on the facies architecture of a Permian tight gas field in the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), East Frisia, Northern Germany. To improve field development, 3D seismic data, wireline and core data were compared to a reservoir analogue in the Panamint Valley, California, United States. Depositional environments of the Permian Upper Rotliegend II included perennial saline la...

  5. Problems for Evaluation of the Scenario of the Permian-Triassic Boundary Biotic Crisis and of Its Causes

    H. W. Kozur

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the causes of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) biotic crisis is hindered primarily by the diachronous nature of the used PTB, poor stratigraphic control of compared Upper Permian and Lower Triassic faunas, especially in continental biotopes, poor knowledge of the lower and middle Scythian faunas from many environments, and by interpolation of the unknown (lower and middle) Scythian diversity from the known Upper Permian and Middle Triassic diversity data in many major foss...

  6. The mechanism of phospholipase C?1 activation

    Pawe? Krawczyk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase C is an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2 into second messengers inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins(1,4,5P3 and diacylglycerol (DAG. These messengers then promote the activation of protein kinase C and release of Ca2 from intracellular stores, initiating numerous cellular events including proliferation, differentiation, signal transduction, endocytosis, cytoskeletal reorganization or activation of ion channels. There have been identified 14 isozymes of PLC among which PLC?1 and PLC?2 are of particular interest. PLC? contains catalytic region XY and a few regulatory domains: PH, EF and C2. The most unique features of these two enzymes are the Src homology domains (SH2, SH3 and split PH domain within the catalytic barrel. PLC?1 and PLC?2 have an identical domain structure, but they differ in their function and occurrence. Phospholipase C?1 is expressed ubiquitously, especially in the brain, thymus and lungs.PLC?1 can be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (i.e.: PDGFR, EGFR, FGFR, Trk, as well as non-receptor protein kinases (Src, Syk, Tec or phosphatidic acid, tau protein and its analogue.The molecular mechanism of PLC?1 activation includes membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, rearrangements and activation in the presence of growth factors.In reference to PLC?1 regulation, a number of positive and negative modulators have been considered. The most important positive modulator is phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5P2. Protein kinase A and C, tyrosine phosphatases (SHP-1, PTP-1B and Cbl, Grb2, Jak2/PTP-1B complex proteins have been described as negative regulators of PLC?1 activation.

  7. Grain-rimming kaolinite in Permian Rotliegend reservoir rocks

    Waldmann, Svenja; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Upper Rotliegend sediments of Permian age from the northeast Netherlands show moderate to good reservoir qualities. The predominant control is by the presence of authigenic grain-rimming kaolinite, which has a negative, but in some parts also a positive, effect on reservoir quality. To better understand the formation and distribution of grain-rimming kaolinite, reservoir rocks were studied in terms of composition and diagenetic processes. Petrographic evidence, summarized as a paragenetic sequence, is integrated with geochemical modeling results to identify early mesodiagenetic water-rock interactions under the participation of gases, i.e., CO2 and H2S, released from underlying Carboniferous source rocks. The sediments investigated were deposited at varying distance from the southern flank of the Southern Permian Basin. Sediments near the basin margin are mainly attributed to a fluvial environment and comprise medium to coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates. There, vermicular kaolinite occurs with a lath-like structure. Distal to the basin margin, mainly in sandstones intercalated with fine-grained playa sediments, comparatively high amounts of grain-rimming kaolinite occur. There, the presence of this mineral has a significant influence on the rock properties and the reservoir quality. Geochemical modeling suggests that the formation of such kaolinites cannot be explained exclusively by in situ feldspar dissolution. The modeling results support evidence that kaolinite can be formed from precursor clay minerals under the presence of CO2-rich formation waters. Such clay minerals could be corrensite, smectite-chlorite mixed-layer minerals, or chlorite that is potentially present in Rotliegend sediments during early diagenesis. Furthermore, the geochemical modeling can reflect several mineral reactions that were identified from petrographic analysis such as the formation of illite and kaolinite at the expense of feldspar dissolution and consequent silica precipitation. Under the presence of sulfate (SO42 -), partial hematite dissolution and the reduction of Fe3 + to Fe2 + occur, where the latter is further incorporated in Fe-Mg-rich carbonates. The sulfate is bonded in anhydrite. The results of this study are relevant for reservoir quality predictions in kaolinite-dominated systems, as well as for CO2 storage projects and the prediction of long-term fluid-rock interactions under the participation of carbon dioxide and/or other gases.

  8. Polyhomologation. A living C1 polymerization.

    Luo, Jun; Shea, Kenneth J

    2010-11-16

    The physical properties of synthetic macromolecules are strongly coupled to their molecular weight (MW), topology, and polydispersity index (PDI). Factors that contribute to their utility include the control of functionality at the macromolecule termini and copolymer composition. Conventional polymerization reactions that produce carbon backbone polymers (ionic, free radical, and coordination) provide little opportunity for controlling these variables. Living polymerizations, sometimes referred to as controlled polymerizations, have provided the means for achieving these goals. Not surprisingly, these reactions have had a profound impact on polymer and materials science. Three basic reaction types are used for the synthesis of most carbon backbone polymers. The first examples of "living" polymerizations were developed for ionic polymerizations (cationic and anionic). These reactions, which can be technically challenging to perform, can yield excellent control of molecular weight with very low polydispersity. The second reaction type, free radical polymerization, is one of the most widely used polymerizations for the commercial production of high molecular weight carbon backbone polymers. Nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) have emerged as three of the more successful approaches for controlling these reactions. The third type, transition metal mediated coordination polymerization, is the most important method for large-scale commercial polyolefin production. Simple nonfunctional hydrocarbon polymers such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene, poly-α-olefins, and their copolymers are synthesized by high pressure-high temperature free radical polymerization, Ziegler-Natta or metallocene catalysts. Although these catalysts of exceptional efficiency that produce polymers on a huge scale are in common use, control that approaches a "living polymerization" is rare. Although the controlled synthesis of linear "polyethylene" described in this Account is not competitive with existing commercial processes for bulk polymer production, they can provide quantities of specialized materials for the study of structure-property relationships. This information can guide the production of polymers for new commercial applications. We initiated a search for novel polymerization reactions that would produce simple hydrocarbon polymers with the potential for molecular weight and topological control. Our research focused on polymerization reactions that employ nonolefin monomers, more specifically the polymerization of ylides and diazoalkanes. In this reaction, the carbon backbone is built one carbon at a time (C1 polymerization). These studies draw upon earlier investigations of the Lewis acid catalyzed polymerization of diazoalkanes and build upon our discovery of the trialkylborane initiated living polymerization of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide 1. PMID:20825177

  9. An Early Permian fusuline fauna from southernmost Peninsular Thailand: Discovery of Early Permian warming spikes in the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block

    Ueno, Katsumi; Arita, Michiko; Meno, Satomi; Sardsud, Apsorn; Saesaengseerung, Doungrutai

    2015-05-01

    An Early Permian fusuline fauna is reported from the Tarn To Formation of the Yala area in southernmost Peninsular Thailand, which geotectonically belongs to the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block. The fauna consists of Pseudofusulina and Praeskinnerella? species, including forms closely resembling Tethyan and Panthalassan Pseudofusulina fusiformis and Pseudofusulina ex gr. kraffti. A Yakhtashian-Bolorian age is estimated for this fauna. In Sibumasu, shallow-marine biotas showing similar Tethyan affinities, such as the fusulines Misellina and alatoconchid bivalves, also occur in the Early Permian succession of the Kinta Valley area in western Peninsular Malaysia. These unusual Tethyan faunas within Early Permian peri-Gondwanan fossil records suggest episodic influences from paleo-tropical Tethyan biotas. They are here interpreted as showing short-term warming spikes during the late Yakhtashian-Bolorian transgression, which would facilitate sporadic migration and temporal inhabitation of warm-water dwellers into the eastern Cimmerian areas. The Yala and Kinta Valley fusuline and other invertebrate faunas would give us a new insight for the Permian geohistory and environmental change of the peri-Gondwanan Sibumasu Block.

  10. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  11. C1q, antibodies and anti-C1q autoantibodies.

    Beurskens, Frank J; van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A; Trouw, Leendert A

    2015-11-01

    The complement system has long been known for its role in combating infections. More recently the complement system is becoming increasingly appreciated for its role in processes that range from waste transport, immune tolerance and shaping of the adaptive immune response. Antibodies represent the humoral part of the adaptive immune response and the complement system interacts with antibodies in several ways. Activated complement fragments impact on the production of antibodies, the complement system gets activated by antibodies and complement proteins can be the target of (auto)antibodies. In this review, written to celebrate the contributions of Prof. Dr. M.R. Daha to the field of immunology and especially complement, we will focus on C1q and its various interactions with antibodies. We will specifically focus on the mechanisms by which C1q will interact with monomeric IgG versus polymerized IgG and fluid-phase IgM versus solid-phase IgM. In addition in this review we will discuss in detail how C1q itself is targeted by autoantibodies and how these autoantibodies are currently considered to play a role in human disease. PMID:26032012

  12. Coal -98

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx-burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the environmental influence will lead to more efficient power generation methods and us e of other fuels such as forest fuels. During the next few years the crisis in Asia will also have a reducing effect on the use of coal

  13. Coal 99

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimise the env ironmental influence will lead to more effective power generation methods and use of other fuels such as forest fuels. During the next few years the crisis in Asia will also have a reducing effect on the use of coal

  14. Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves

    An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m-3) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m-3 in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m-3). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system

  15. Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian

    Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

    2001-05-01

    During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

  16. Electrokinetic transport behavior of phenol in upper Permian soils

    Haus, R.; Zorn, R.; Czurda, K.; Ruthe, H. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Electrokinetic experiments with upper Permian, phenol contaminated soils ('Solaris'-area Chemnitz) were performed. Bench scale results show the successful removal of phenol. The developing soil-pH during electroremediation tests is found to affect the transport behavior of phenol strongly. If buffer solutions are used at the electrode compartments, phenol could be removed from the soils. By neutralizing the generating hydrogen ions at the anode reservoir the hydroxyl ions developing at the cathode by the electrolysis of water enter the soil and propagate to the anode by increasing the soil pH. The pH dependent dehydroxylation of phenol promotes the electromigration of negative charged phenolate ions from the cathode to the anode. At the anode the coupling of phenoxyl-radicals supports the formation of non toxic, water insoluble polyoxyphenylene by electro-polymerization. In the case of buffering the pH at the cathode uncharged phenol is transported by electroosmosis from the anode to the cathode because of the nonexisting base front and the unhindered production of hydrogen ions at the anode. (orig.)

  17. Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction

    Standard, J C

    2003-01-01

    Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

  18. The Alashan Terrane did not amalgamate with North China block by the Late Permian: Evidence from Carboniferous and Permian paleomagnetic results

    Yuan, Wei; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-05-01

    Rock magnetic and paleomagnetic studies have been carried out on the early Carboniferous limestones and the Late Permian purple sandstones sampled in the eastern Alashan Terrane (ALT), northwest of China. Two components were isolated from the Early Carboniferous limestone by thermal progressive demagnetisation: a low unblocking temperature component (LTC) of recent origin; a pre-folding medium temperature component (MTC) (the paleomagnetic pole is ? = 13.1°N, ? = 11.0°E, A95 = 7.0°) that is probably the result of the hydrothermal fluids from the Qilian Orgenic Belt acquired during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. Also, two components were separated from the Late Permian purple sandstone by thermal progressive demagnetisation: the LTC with the recent viscous remanent magnetisation, and the higher temperature component (HTC) revealed from three sections which has passed a regional fold test at the 95% probability level and reversal test, suggesting a primary characteristic magnetisation. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole is ? = 27.2° N, ? = 18.8° E, A95 = 12.0°. The apparent polar wander path (including early Carboniferous, late Carboniferous-Early Permian, Late Permian and Early-middle Triassic poles) of the ALT is significantly different with those of the NCB. Comparison of the APWPs between the ALT and NCB shows a strong similarity. If the APWP of Hexi Corridor-Alashan rotated counterclockwise around an Euler pole at 44°N, 84°E by 32°, then the coeval APW path of the ALT overlaps to that of the NCB. This result indicates that the ALT migrated to the NCB after the Early-Middle Triassic along a tectonic boundary located between Helanshan Mountain and Zhuozishan Mountain, and finally amalgamated to the NCB before the Early Cretaceous.

  19. Coal 95

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO2 and NOx as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NOx cleaning system. Most other plants use low NOx burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  20. Coal and the environment

    Attention is paid to the impact of winning of coal and the use of coal on the environment and how to abate the pollution to a minimum. After a brief introduction on coal, coal reserves and coal production the most important environmental issues concerning the exploitation and transport of coal are discussed. Next the key part of coal in power generation and the clean coal techniques are dealt with. These techniques demand large investments which is a problem for developing countries. 12 figs

  1. Bioessential element-depleted ocean following the euxinic maximum of the end-Permian mass extinction

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kaiho, Kunio; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2014-05-01

    We describe variations in trace element compositions that occurred on the deep seafloor of palaeo-superocean Panthalassa during the end-Permian mass extinction based on samples of sedimentary rock from one of the most continuous Permian-Triassic boundary sections of the pelagic deep sea exposed in north-eastern Japan. Our measurements revealed low manganese (Mn) enrichment factor (normalised by the composition of the average upper continental crust) and high cerium anomaly values throughout the section, suggesting that a reducing condition already existed in the depositional environment in the Changhsingian (Late Permian). Other redox-sensitive trace-element (vanadium [V], chromium [Cr], molybdenum [Mo], and uranium [U]) enrichment factors provide a detailed redox history ranging from the upper Permian to the end of the Permian. A single V increase (representing the first reduction state of a two-step V reduction process) detected in uppermost Changhsingian chert beds suggests development into a mildly reducing deep-sea condition less than 1 million years before the end-Permian mass extinction. Subsequently, a more reducing condition, inferred from increases in Cr, V, and Mo, developed in overlying Changhsingian grey siliceous claystone beds. The most reducing sulphidic condition is recognised by the highest peaks of Mo and V (second reduction state) in the uppermost siliceous claystone and overlying lowermost black claystone beds, in accordance with the end-Permian mass extinction event. This significant increase in Mo in the upper Changhsingian led to a high Mo/U ratio, much larger than that of modern sulphidic ocean regions. This trend suggests that sulphidic water conditions developed both at the sediment-water interface and in the water column. Above the end-Permian mass extinction horizon, Mo, V and Cr decrease significantly. On this trend, we provide an interpretation of drawdown of these elements in seawater after the massive element precipitation event during the end-Permian maximum development of the reducing water column. A decrease in the Mo/U ratio despite enrichment of Mo and U also supports that of Mo. Calculations of the total amounts of these elements precipitated compared with the global seawater inventory suggest that when more than 6-10% of the global ocean became euxinic as much as the study section, most of the dissolved elements would precipitate into sediments, resulting in a global element-depleted seawater condition. Mo, V, and Cr act as bioessential elements for both primary producers and animals. The continuing reducing water column and the lack of bioessential elements could have had a considerable effect on primary producer turnover and marine life metabolism not only in the pelagic environment, but also in surrounding marine environments.

  2. Molecular analysis of the C1-I allele from Zea mays: a dominant mutant of the regulatory C1 locus.

    Paz-Ares, J.; Ghosal, D; Saedler, H.

    1990-01-01

    The C1 locus of Zea mays (maize) controls the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in aleurone and scutellar tissue and encodes a protein with the features of a transcriptional activator. C1-I is a dominant negative mutant which inhibits pigment formation. The structure of the C1-I allele was determined by cloning and sequencing of this allele and of two distinct C1-I derived cDNAs. C1-I has two major and several minor sequence differences with respect to the wild-type C1 ...

  3. A new captorhinid reptile, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Permian of China.

    Reisz, Robert R; Liu, Jun; Li, Jin-Ling; Müller, Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Captorhinids, a clade of Paleozoic reptiles, are represented by a rich fossil record that extends from the Late Carboniferous into the Late Permian. Representatives of this clade dispersed from the equatorial regions of Laurasia into the temperate regions of Pangea during the Middle and Late Permian. This rich fossil record shows that there was an evolutionary trend from faunivorous to omnivorous and herbivorous feeding habits within this clade. The discovery of well-preserved captorhinid materials in the Middle Permian of China allows us to determine that the new taxon, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov, is a member of Moradisaurinae, a clade of captorhinids with multiple tooth rows arranged in parallel. The presence of this moradisaurine in the Middle Permian of south central Asia leads us to suggest that paleogeographic changes during the Permian, with part of what is today China becoming a large peninsula of Pangea, allowed these early reptiles as well as other terrestrial vertebrates to extend their geographic ranges to this region of the Late Paleozoic supercontinent. PMID:21484260

  4. 26 CFR 1.682(c)-1 - Definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.682(c)-1 Section 1.682(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous § 1.682(c)-1 Definitions. For definitions of the terms “husband” and “wife”...

  5. 26 CFR 49.4262(c)-1 - Definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 49.4262(c)-1 Section 49.4262(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4262(c)-1 Definitions. (a)...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3401(c)-1 - Employee.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee. 31.3401(c)-1 Section 31.3401(c)-1... Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(c)-1 Employee. (a) The term employee includes every individual performing... relationship of employer and employee. The term includes officers and employees, whether elected or...

  7. Mineralogy of the No. 6 coal from the Qinglong Coalfield, Guizhou Province, China

    Li, Dahua; Tang, Yuegang; Deng, Tao; Chen, Kun; Liu, Dong; Cheng, Fangping

    2008-12-15

    The mineralogy and its geological origin of the Late Permian No. 6 coal seam from the Qinglong Coalfield, western Guizhou Province, were determined by the methods of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). A particular material consists of volcanic ash, detrital materials of terrigenous origin, and organic matter in this coal seam was determined. The results confirmed that the volcanic-derived material exactly exists in coal. Four structure types of the volcanic-derived materials were classified according to their shapes and occurrence modes. It is the first time that the authors found a relative high content of bornite in coal, which was attributed to the basic volcanic ash.

  8. Summary of breakout Session C1: C1, chemical countermeasures; dispersants

    The discussions in breakout session C1 are summarized. The topics discussed include the pros and cons of dispersant use. Many of the positions which have been heard for the last twenty years were restated. Neither group convinced the other of the advisability of easing the use of dispersants. There was better agreement on the need for research and development programs to get a better handle on some of the questions being raised. The R ampersand D needs on which the participants could agree are summarized

  9. ACR coal 1998

    Jones, T.; Kent, S. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    This annual reference book provides a report of last year`s Australian coal industry, giving details of coal production, coal exports, coal resources and coalfields. It also summarises world coal trade (exports, imports, production of hard coal, lignite and brown coal) for several years up to and including 1997. The coal industry in major exporting countries (Canada, China, Colombia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, USA, Venezuela and Vietnam) and in coal importing countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and India) is reviewed and figures are presented for reserves, production and exports or imports. Coal prices and contracts are listed. A summary of coal transport to ports in Australia is included, and details given of Australia`s coal terminals and productivity at coal ports. A detailed listing of internationally traded coking, semi-coking and thermal coals is given. A directory lists companies operating in the Australian and Indonesian coal industry, by company and by mine.

  10. Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (δ98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for δ98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in δ98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced oxic conditions throughout the LPE event, while anoxic conditions developed in the deep ocean. Hence, anoxic marine waters did not extend globally onto shelf environments and as such ocean anoxia cannot have been the main driver of the extinction event. While global systems were stressed by anoxia, the anoxic conditions may better represent a symptom of Siberian Trap eruptions that had catastrophic impact on the environment, potentially through nutrient loading and deposition of toxic substances into marine and terrestrial systems. Proemse et al., 2013: Molybdenum isotopic evidence for oxic marine conditions during the latest Permian extinction. Geology 41, 967-970.

  11. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. South African coal statistics 2005

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This manual gives a complete statistical review of the South African coal industry for 2004. Chapter headings are: Coal Reserves and Production; Local Coal Industry; Coal Exports; Coking Coal, Anthracite and Coke Imports; Labour; Export Infrastructure - Rail Systems; Southern African Coal Terminals; Black Economic Empowerment (BEE); Large South African Coal Producers; Other South African Coal Producers; Coal Qualities: Large Producers; Coal Qualities: Small Producers and Potential Coal Exporters; Coal Qualities: Anthracite Producers; and Colliery Location Map. 139 figs.

  13. Early Permian volcano-sedimentary successions, Beishan, NW China: Peperites demonstrate an evolving rift basin

    Chen, Shi; Guo, Zhaojie; Qi, Jiafu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The Lower Permian volcano-sedimentary Zhesi Group has been investigated in the Hongliuhe and Liuyuan areas in Beishan, China, which is significant for the reconstruction of Late Paleozoic evolution in the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. A variety of volcanic facies were distinguished in the Upper Zhesi Group: pillow basalt with interstitial limestone, thin-interbedded limestone and basalt, closely packed pillows, pillow-fragmented hyaloclastite breccia, and peperite. Laser 40Ar/39Ar whole-rock dating of the basalt yielding an age of 277 ± 11 Ma, as well as Early Permian brachiopod fossils in the limestone interbedded with the basalt, indicate that basalt was erupted in the Early Permian. The identification of the peperite and other facies originating from magma-sediment mingling reveals that the basaltic lava flows were derived from autochthonous basaltic magmatism and formed as part of the Lower Permian succession. The peperite also indicates that these subaqueous basaltic lava flows are not dismembered ophiolitic components, but formed in an autochthonous extensional setting in the Early Permian. The clastic rocks in the Lower Zhesi Group underlying the basaltic flows and peperites in the Hongliuhe and Liuyuan areas show a general fining-upwards sequence, indicating that they were deposited in a progressively deepening basin overlying the Devonian Hongliuhe suture zone. Subaqueous volcanism in a rift basin or basins, accompanied by coeval deposition of carbonate sediment and mud, built up the peperite-bearing volcanogenic-sedimentary successions. From among the various tectonic hypotheses for the Beishan region, this study demonstrates that by Early Permian the region was developing post-collisional rift basins.

  14. From rift to drift in South Pamir (Tajikistan): Permian evolution of a Cimmerian terrane

    Angiolini, L.; Zanchi, A.; Zanchetta, S.; Nicora, A.; Vuolo, I.; Berra, F.; Henderson, C.; Malaspina, N.; Rettori, R.; Vachard, D.; Vezzoli, G.

    2015-04-01

    Here, we describe the Permian-Lower Triassic sedimentary succession of South Pamir and the associated biota of conodonts, foraminifers and brachiopods. The studied succession comprises the Carboniferous-Lower Permian siliciclastic Uruzbulak and Tashkazyk formations (Bazar Dara Group), which are unconformably covered by upper Lower to Upper Permian units, deposited both in platform settings (Kurteke Formation), and on the slope and basin (Kochusu Formation, Shindy Formation, Kubergandy Formation, Gan Formation, and Takhtabulak Formation). These formations comprise bioclastic limestones, cherty limestones, shales, volcaniclastic rocks, basalts, sandstones and conglomerates, and are locally very rich in fossils (fusulinids, ammonoids, brachiopods, corals and conodonts). The Permian succession is then overlain by shallow water carbonates of the Induan to Anisian Karatash Group. Subsidence analysis and volcanics of the Permian and overlying Triassic successions constrains the timing of rifting of South Pamir from Gondwana in the Early Permian (=Cisuralian), and its docking to Central Pamir, the Eurasian margin and the interposed volcanic arcs at the end of the Triassic. The sedimentary successions of the Pamirs represent a key-point to refine the correlations between the Tethyan regional scale and the International Time Scale. The analyses of the fusulinids and conodonts of the Kubergandian and Murgabian stratotypes of SE Pamir suggest that: (1) the upper Bolorian and the lower part of the Kubergandian correlate to the upper Kungurian; (2) the upper Kubergandian and the lower Murgabian correlate to the Roadian; (3) the mid-upper Murgabian correlates to the Wordian; (4) possibly the uppermost Murgabian and the lower Midian correlate to the lower Capitanian. The Kubergandian is thus a defined regional stage, based on fusulinids, ammonoids and conodonts and can be correlated to the Kungurian and the Roadian; still problematic remains the Murgabian correlation which needs to be investigated and resolved in other Tethyan sections.

  15. Shallow marine ecosystem feedback to the Permian/Triassic mass extinction

    Wang, Yongbiao; Meng, Zheng; Liao, Wei; Weng, Zeting; Yang, Hao

    2011-03-01

    Late Permian reefs developed widely on shallow marine carbonate platforms in South China but disappeared far below the main mass extinction level of the latest Permian. The collapse of reef ecosystem may be related to the enhanced volcanism at the end of Late Permian. Notably, some colony corals and reef-building sponges were found to occur near the mass extinction boundary, inferring the eclipse of reef ecosystem is ahead of the disappearance of reef-building organisms, and the triggers would be present long before the main mass extinction. As the primary producers, the calcareous algae are rich in platform limestones of Late Permian and played a very important role in maintaining the shallow benthic ecosystems. The calcareous algae were found to disappear synchronously with the great reduction of foraminifers, which were ecologically associated with these algae. The extinction of Late Permian calcareous algae greatly reduced the biodiversity of primary producers in the shallow marine environment and destroyed in part the structure and the base of the shallow marine ecosystems, which in turn cause the extinction of ecologically associated metazoan. Microbialites developed on carbonate platforms immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction, representing a simple and unique microbial ecosystem. Widespread occurrence of microbialites symbolized the deterioration of marine environmental conditions and the dramatic revolution of marine ecosystems. As the new primary producers instead of the extinguished calcareous algae, cyanobacteria in the microbialites were an important base of this peculiar ecosystem and contributed greatly to the survival of the remnant faunas after the mass extinction. Widespread occurrence of microbialites in shallow marine environment is suggested to be related to the elevated level of volcanism-induced greenhouse gases and enhanced evaporation and hypersaline condition in addition to the decrease of metazoan grazing pressure. The change from calcareous algae and reef ecosystem to the cyanobacteria-dominated microbial ecosystem documented in the shallow marine sequences in South china is the ecological feedback to the deterioration of the marine environmental conditions probably induced by volcanism.

  16. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  17. Origin of banded structure and coal lithotype cycles in Kargali coal seam of East Bokaro sub-basin, Jharkhand, India: Environmental implications

    Ram Chandra Tewari; Zahid A Khan

    2015-04-01

    The Kargali seam of Early Permian Barakar cyclothems of East Bokaro sub-basin of Jharkhand, India is 12–30 m thick, splits into two parts, and extends throughout the length of the basin. It is made up of interbedded sequences and variable proportions of Vitrain, Clarain, Durain and Fusain. Application of embedded Markov chain model rejects the phenomenon of randomness in the repetition of coal lithotypes. The preferential upward transition path for coal lithotypes that can be derived for the Kargali top coal seam is: Vitrain → Clarain → Durain ↔ Fusain → Vitrain, and for the Kargali bottom coal seam is: Clarain ↔ Vitrain → Fusain → Durain → Clarain. By and large, the cyclic repetition of coal lithotypes is similar in the Kargali bottom and top seams. Among the noteworthy features are two-way transitions between Durain and Fusian in Kargali top and between Clarain and Vitrain in the case of Kargali bottom coal seam. Entropy analysis corroborates Markov chain and indicates the presence of type A-4 asymmetrical cycles of coal lithotypes. It is suggested that the banded structure of a coal seam is not a random feature and follows a definite cyclic pattern in the occurrence of coal lithotypes in vertical order and is similar to that described in Australian and European coal seams. Asymmetrical cyclic sequences are a normal, rather than an unusual condition, within coal seams. It is visualized that a gradual decline of toxic environment and ground water level resulted in the coal lithotype cycles in the Kargali seam of East Bokaro sub-basin. The close interbedding of Vitrain and Clarain is suggestive of seasonal fluctuation in anaerobic and aerobic conditions during peat formation.

  18. NEW FINDINGS OF PERMIAN FUSULINIDS AND CORALS FROM WESTERN KARAKORUM AND E HINDU KUSH (PAKISTAN

    ERNST JA. LEVEN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Additional findings of fusulinids and corals from Permian rocks of Western Karakorum and Eastern Hindu Kush are reported. The Lashkargaz Fm. of Western Karakorum (Sakmarian - Kubergandian in age, is redefined in its uppermost part. A new unit of sucrosic dolostone, the Ini Sar Fm., of early Murgabian age in its basal part, is established for a level previously attributed to the Ailak Fm. The Ailak Fm. is confirmed to be Late Permian in its lower part. A rich fusulinid fauna of early Kubergandian age was found in a carbonate nappe previously unidentified, along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border in the Eastern Hindu Kush. 

  19. Anoxia duirng the Late Permian Binary Mass Extinction and Dark Matter

    Abbas, S; Mohanty, S; Abbas, Samar; Abbas, Afsar; Mohanty, Shukadev

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence quite convincingly indicates that the Late Permian biotic crisis was in fact a binary extinction with a distinct end-Guadalupian extinction pulse preceding the major terminal end-Permian Tartarian event by 5 million years. In addition anoxia appears to be closely associated with each of these end-Paleozoic binary extinctions. Most leading models cannot explain both anoxia and the binary characteristic of this crisis. In this paper we show that the recently proposed volcanogenic dark matter scenario succeeds in doing this.

  20. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  1. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  2. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  3. Did the Middlesboro, Kentucky, bolide impact event influence coal rank?

    Hower, J.C.; Greb, S.F.; Kuehn, K.W.; Eble, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Middlesboro Basin, southeastern Kentucky, occurs on the Cumberland Overthrust Sheet and includes a ca. 5.5-km diameter impact structure. The Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata are faulted, with some evidence for shock metamorphism. The event post-dated the latest-Pennsylvanian-early-Permian thrusting and was likely prior to late-Mesozoic entrenchment of drainages. The impact of a 0.5-km meteor traveling at ca. 60,000??km/h would release about 1??EJ, the approximate equivalent of the instantaneous combustion of 30??Mt of coal. The coal rank, while increased slightly above the regional level, still is within the upper portion of the high volatile A bituminous rank range. This helps to constrain the depth of burial at the time of the impact. The coal would have had to have been at a depth of a few kilometers to have avoided a more substantial rank increase. In addition, it is possible that some of the coal rank increase might be attributable to movements along the cross-cutting Rocky Face fault, unrelated to the impact. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coal Mines Security System

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  5. Inversion tectonics in the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    During Permian times the Pyrenees were characterized by extensional tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries. The Anayet Permian basin crops out in the western Spanish Axial Zone between the Aragon and Tena valleys. It is WNW-trending and it is filled by a continental Permian succession that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area. Permian deposits rest discordantly over Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. In the Anayet basin, Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, mainly composed of sandstones and conglomerates, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987). Due to the lithological characteristics of the Permian rocks in this region, there are almost no accurate age constraints for these units. A detailed structural study of the area, including mapping and balanced cross-sections, shows increasingly older rocks to the west of the Anayet basin. Moreover, it can be deduced a mean slope of around 11 % to the west for the basin. These data confirm that the basin depocenter was located to the west and that the Anayet basin was partitioned by N10 °E-trending normal faults. Although the contacts between the Permian and the Devono-Carboniferous rocks are covered by quaternary deposits in most of its extent, a fault contact can also be recognized. The fault contact is a 3 m thick shear zone oriented N120 ° E and dipping 60° to the North. It develops breccias, fault gouges and sigmoidal S-C tectonites indicating a reverse motion. The contact places Permian slates and sandstones over Carboniferous limestones and is almost parallel to the alpine cleavage deforming Permian rocks. The slope of the contact together with the presence of younger rocks in the hangingwall of the reverse fault points out that the original contact was a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the Alpine Orogeny. The high dip of the contact produced a buttressing effect during the alpine compression that concentrated the deformation near the fault zone and generated the cleavage of the hangingwall. Moreover, the higher abundance of fractures and calcite veins near the contact in the Carboniferous limestones of the footwall can be interpreted as an incipient stage to the formation of a short-cut-fault related with the buttressing effect. This process can explain the uncommon thickness of the fault zone, if we compare it with other alpine thrusts in this region. The structural features described above support the interpretation of the southern limit of the Anayet Permian basin as a normal fault originated during the Permian rifting and inverted during the compressional tectonics due to the Alpine Orogeny. Bixel, F., 1987. Le volcanisme stephano-permien des pyrenees petrographie, mineralogie, geochimie. Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica 11, 41-55. Gisbert, J., 1984. Las molasas tardihercínicas del Pirineo, in: Geología de España. Libro Jubilar de J. M. Ríos, Comba, J.A. (Ed.). IGME, Madrid, 168-186.

  6. Report on 30th IGC field trip T306. Coal, geology and nature Northern Ordos Plateau, Inner Mongolia (excursion); Dai 30 kai IGC (Beijing) T306 chishitsu junken sanka hokoku. Uchimongoru jichiku hokubu Ordos kogen no sekitan chishitsu shizen (junken)

    Tokuhahi, S.; Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    This is the second report, and describes the details of the excursion. Eleven participants from various countries left Beijing on August 14, 1996, and broke up at Huhehaote on August 20. During the tour, the participants visited the Heidaigou surface coal mine at Jungar, Ordovician Period coal section, Permian Period Shanxi formation, Shenshangou section of the Dosheng coal mine, and Majiatadong surface mine of the Donsheng coal mine. On the way, the tourists visited historical sites such as Genghis Khan Mausoleum. The report is written like a travel piece describing people`s customs and beautiful scenes, but is also elaborate on the geology and physiognomy of the visited locations including lithofacies. For instance, the Heidaigou surface coal mine has a reserve of 1.49 giga-ton of coal in its complicated coal layers which include 1 to 36 partings. 3 refs., 50 figs.

  7. Coal industry annual 1997

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  8. Coal industry annual 1997

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  9. Human genes for complement components C1r and C1s in a close tail-to-tail arrangement

    Complementary DNA clones for human C1s were isolated from cDNA libraries that were prepared with poly(A)+ RNAs of human liver and HepG2 cells. A clone with the largest cDNA insert of 2,664 base pairs (bp) was analyzed for its complete nucleotide sequence. It contained 202 bp of a 5' untranslated region, 45 bp of coding for a signal peptide (15 amino acid residues), 2,019 bp for complement component C1s zymogen (673 amino acid residues), 378 bp for a 3' untranslated region, a stop codon, and 17 bp of a poly(A) tail. The amino acid sequence of C1s was 40.5% identical to that of C1r, with excellent matches of tentative disulfide bond locations conserving the overall domain structure of C1r. DNA blotting and sequencing analyses of genomic DNA and of an isolated genomic DNA clone clearly showed that the human genes for C1r and C1s are closely located in a tail-to-tail arrangement at a distance of about 9.5 kilobases. Furthermore, RNA blot analyses showed that both C1r and C1s genes are primarily expressed in liver, whereas most other tissues expressed both C1r and C1s genes at much lower levels (less than 10% of that in liver). Multiple molecular sizes of specific mRNAs were observed in the RNA blot analyses for both C1r and C1s, indicating that alternative RNA processing(s), likely an alternative polyadenylylation, might take place for both genes

  10. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  11. Coal industry annual 1996

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  12. Coal industry annual 1996

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  13. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  14. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O; Fang, H; Alarcón, G S; Gordon, C; Merrill, Jt; Fortin, P R; Bruce, I N; Isenberg, D A; Wallace, D J; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Bae, S-C; Hanly, J G; Sanchez-Guerrero, J; Clarke, A E; Aranow, C B; Manzi, S; Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Kalunian, K C; Costner, M I; Werth, V P; Zoma, A; Bernatsky, S; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Khamashta, M A; Jacobsen, Søren; Buyon, J P; Maddison, P; Dooley, M A; Van Vollenhoven, R F; Ginzler, E; Stoll, T; Peschken, C; Jorizzo, J L; Callen, J P; Lim, S S; Fessler, B J; Inanc, M; Kamen, D L; Rahman, A; Steinsson, K; Franks, A G; Sigler, L; Hameed, S; Pham, N; Brey, R; Weisman, M H; McGwin, G; Magder, L S; Petri, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multicenter study. METHODS: Information...... serologies. Anti-C1q in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement was the strongest serological association with renal involvement. These data support the usefulness of anti-C1q in SLE, especially in lupus nephritis....

  15. The c1 genes of P1 and P7.

    Osborne, F A; Stovall, S R; Baumstark, B R

    1989-01-01

    The c1 genes of the heteroimmune phages P1 and P7 were sequenced and their products were compared. P7c1 expression was correlated with the translation in vitro of a protein whose predicted molecular weight (33,000 daltons) is indistinguishable from that of the P1c1 repressor. The c1 regions from both P1 and P7 were found to contain open reading frames capable of coding for a 283-amino acid protein whose predicted secondary structure lacks the helix-turn-helix motif commonly associated with re...

  16. Coal and Energy.

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  17. Basin-scale distribution of sill intrusions in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia, and the implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis

    Svensen, Henrik H.; Frolov, Sergei; Akhmanov, Grigorii G.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

    2015-04-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province through the Tunguska Basin is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. Still, the lack of data from the Tunguska Basin represents one of the main uncertainties in understanding this link. Degassing from contact metamorphic aureoles in evaporites is suggested as key to the continental mass extinction, but very little is known about the actual distribution of sills within these lithologies. We present results from a unique borehole database with more than 700 boreholes, where 293 boreholes are studied in detail and presented here. The boreholes cover large parts of the basin, from Norilsk in the north (N69) to Bratsk in the south (N55), with a bias towards petroleum-bearing regions. In total, 93.5% of the selected boreholes contain sill intrusions. The sill thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. Locally, thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tunguska Series sediments. However, on average, the thickest sills in the basin are emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations, with average thicknesses in the 115-130 meter range. Accompanying petrographic investigations of metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. Degassing to the atmosphere took place via explosive pipe degassing and seepage. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the end-Permian mass extinction.

  18. Paleomagnetism of the Independencia Group, Eastern Paraguay: A New Late Permian Pole for Stable South America

    Rapalini, A. E.; Fazzito, S.; Orue, D.

    2005-05-01

    The late Permian segment of the South American apparent polar wander path (APWP) is poorly defined due to scarce and unreliable paleomagnetic poles, justifying the need for further paleomagnetic efforts on suitable rocks of such age from stable areas of South America. A study was carried out on the Late Permian Independencia Group, which is discontinuously exposed along Eastern Paraguay and consists of several hundred meters of flat lying continental pink to reddish sandstones and siltstones, deposited on the western margin of the Parana basin. Thirteen sites (83 samples) were collected on the top unit of the Group (the latest Permian Tacuary Fm) from outcrops distributed over 1000 square kms. Detailed AF and thermal demagnetization permitted the isolation of within-site consistent characteristic remanence in eleven sites, being generally hematite the main carrier of the remanence. Excluding one outlier, a paleomagnetic pole was computed by averaging 10 virtual geomagnetic poles of mixed polarities (6 reversed, 4 normal), yielding a position at: 80.7 S, 7.0 E, A95: 6.6. The new pole may be considered as key for a better definition of the South American APWP by filling a gap between recently obtained and reliable Early Permian poles and an older and less reliable Early-Middle Triassic group of poles.

  19. A new Late Permian paleomagnetic pole for stable South America: The Independencia group, eastern Paraguay

    Rapalini, Augusto E.; Fazzito, Sabrina; Orué, Delio

    2006-10-01

    The Late Permian segment of the South American apparent polar wander path (APWP) is poorly defined and further paleomagnetic efforts on suitable rocks of such age from stable areas of South America are needed. A study was carried out on the Late Permian Independencia Group, which is discontinuously exposed along Eastern Paraguay and consists of several hundred meters of flat lying continental white, pink and reddish sandstones and siltstones, deposited on the western margin of the Paraná basin. Thirteen sites (83 samples) were collected on the top unit of the Group (the latest Permian Tacuary Fm) from outcrops distributed over 1000 square kms. Detailed AF and thermal demagnetization permitted the isolation of within-site consistent characteristic remanence in eleven sites, being generally hematite the main carrier of the remanence. Excluding one outlier, a paleomagnetic pole was computed by averaging 10 virtual geomagnetic poles of mixed polarities (6 reversed, 4 normal), yielding a position at: 80.7°S, 7.0°E, A95: 6.6°. The new pole may be considered key for a better definition of the South American APWP by filling a gap between a relatively reliable Early Permian and a poorly defined Early-Middle Triassic groups of poles.

  20. Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Sidor, Christian A; Vilhena, Daril A; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Huttenlocker, Adam K; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Peecook, Brandon R; Steyer, J Sébastien; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A

    2013-05-14

    In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four components, we detected increased provincialism between our Permian and Triassic datasets. In southern Pangea, a more homogeneous and broadly distributed fauna in the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian, ∼257 Ma) was replaced by a provincial and biogeographically fragmented fauna by Middle Triassic times (Anisian, ∼242 Ma). Importantly in the Triassic, lower latitude basins in Tanzania and Zambia included dinosaur predecessors and other archosaurs unknown elsewhere. The recognition of heterogeneous tetrapod communities in the Triassic implies that the end-Permian mass extinction afforded ecologically marginalized lineages the ecospace to diversify, and that biotic controls (i.e., evolutionary incumbency) were fundamentally reset. Archosaurs, which began diversifying in the Early Triassic, were likely beneficiaries of this ecological release and remained dominant for much of the later Mesozoic. PMID:23630295

  1. Anatomy of a Permian Erg sequence: the De La Cuesta Formation (northwestern Argentina)

    This work is about the Permian red beds of the La Cuesta Formation (Sierra de Narvaez, northwestern Argentina) which is composed of sandstones associated with mud stones and subordinate conglomerates. The sediments obtained from the interaction between aeolian and ephemeral fluvial systems, are represented by aeolian dune, dry aeolian inter dune and aeolian sand sheet, mud flat, wet aeolian inter dune, and fluvial deposits

  2. Taeniopterid lamina on Phasmatocycas megasporophylls (Cycadales) from the Lower Permian of Kansas, U.S.A.

    Gillespie, W.H.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    New specimens of Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris from the original Lower Permian locality in Kansas demonstrate organic attachment of the two and corroborate Mamay's hypothesis that Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris were parts of the same plant. These forms also suggest that cycads evolved from taxa with entire leaves; i.e. Taeniopteris, rather than from pteridosperms with compound leaves. ?? 1986.

  3. Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction.

    Lau, Kimberly V; Maher, Kate; Altiner, Demir; Kelley, Brian M; Kump, Lee R; Lehrmann, Daniel J; Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Weaver, Karrie L; Yu, Meiyi; Payne, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Delayed Earth system recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is often attributed to severe ocean anoxia. However, the extent and duration of Early Triassic anoxia remains poorly constrained. Here we use paired records of uranium concentrations ([U]) and (238)U/(235)U isotopic compositions (δ(238)U) of Upper Permian-Upper Triassic marine limestones from China and Turkey to quantify variations in global seafloor redox conditions. We observe abrupt decreases in [U] and δ(238)U across the end-Permian extinction horizon, from ∼3 ppm and -0.15‰ to ∼0.3 ppm and -0.77‰, followed by a gradual return to preextinction values over the subsequent 5 million years. These trends imply a factor of 100 increase in the extent of seafloor anoxia and suggest the presence of a shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that inhibited the recovery of benthic animal diversity and marine ecosystem function. We hypothesize that in the Early Triassic oceans-characterized by prolonged shallow anoxia that may have impinged onto continental shelves-global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystem structure became more sensitive to variation in the position of the OMZ. Under this hypothesis, the Middle Triassic decline in bottom water anoxia, stabilization of biogeochemical cycles, and diversification of marine animals together reflect the development of a deeper and less extensive OMZ, which regulated Earth system recovery following the end-Permian catastrophe. PMID:26884155

  4. Integrated Sr isotope variations and global environmental changes through the Late Permian to early Late Triassic

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Huyue; Chen, Jing; Chu, Daoliang; Tian, Li; Luo, Mao; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Yanlong; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei

    2015-08-01

    New 87Sr/86Sr data based on 127 well-preserved and well-dated conodont samples from South China were measured using a new technique (LA-MC-ICPMS) based on single conodont albid crown analysis. These reveal a spectacular climb in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios during the Early Triassic that was the most rapid of the Phanerozoic. The rapid increase began in Bed 25 of the Meishan section (GSSP of the Permian-Triassic boundary, PTB), and coincided closely with the latest Permian extinction. Modeling results indicate that the accelerated rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be ascribed to a rapid increase (>2.8×) of riverine flux of Sr caused by intensified weathering. This phenomenon could in turn be related to an intensification of warming-driven runoff and vegetation die-off. Continued rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Early Triassic indicates that continental weathering rates were enhanced >1.9 times compared to those of the Late Permian. Continental weathering rates began to decline in the middle-late Spathian, which may have played a role in the decrease of oceanic anoxia and recovery of marine benthos. The 87Sr/86Sr values decline gradually into the Middle Triassic to an equilibrium values around 1.2 times those of the Late Permian level, suggesting that vegetation coverage did not attain pre-extinction levels thereby allowing higher runoff.

  5. Palaeoenvironmental significance of Late Permian palaeosols in the South-Eastern Iberian Ranges, Spain

    Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; López Gómez, José; Arche, Alfredo; Fernández Barrenechea, José María, ed. lit; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier, ed. lit

    2008-01-01

    The Late Permian (Wuchiapingian) Alcotas Formation in the SE Iberian Ranges consists of one red alluvial succession where abundant soil profiles developed. Detailed petrographical and sedimentological studies in seven sections of the Alcotas Formation allow six different types of palaeosols, with distinctive characteristics and different palaeogeographical distribution, to be distinguished throughout the South-eastern Iberian Basin. These characteristics are, in turn, relate...

  6. Coal-93

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1992. Some information about technics, environmental questions and markets are also given. The use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced by about 10 percent during 1992 to the level of 1.1 million ton. This is the case for both heat generating boilers and co-generation boilers. On the other hand, the electricity production in the cogeneration plants have increased, mainly for tax reasons. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. During 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 cogeneration plants. For 1992 these figures are 5 and 9. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The industry has reduced its use of steamcoal by 140 000 tons to about 700 000 tons. The reason is a cut down of production in particularly the cement industry and the mineral wool industry. The steamcoal import was 1.2 million tons during 1992, the same as the year before. The import has been lower than the consumption during the last years. The companies have reduced their stocks because of changed laws about emergency stocks. The average price of steamcoal imported in Sweden in 1992 was 272 SEK/ton or 25 SEK/ton lower than in 1991. The coal market during 1992 was affected by smaller consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. Among other things independent mines in Russia and Poland have dumped low quality coals. A structuring of both process and quality has now begun. Western companies have for instance started joint ventures with Russian companies and supplied washing- and classifying equipments. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. 13 tabs

  7. 26 CFR 31.3402(c)-1 - Wage bracket withholding.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage bracket withholding. 31.3402(c)-1 Section... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(c)-1 Wage bracket withholding. (a) In general. (1) The employer may elect to use the wage bracket method provided in section 3402(c) instead of...

  8. Missed C1 posterior arch fracture: a case report

    Munro, Donald S.

    1990-01-01

    A case of a C1 posterior arch fracture following a fall is presented. The need to perform a thorough history and examination, regardless of previous examination findings, is emphasized. This is especially true when there is a history of recent trauma. A brief discussion of the characteristics and management of C1 fractures follows.

  9. 26 CFR 53.4941(c)-1 - Special rules.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules. 53.4941(c)-1 Section 53.4941(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... rules. (a) Joint and several liability. (1) In any case where more than one person is liable for the...

  10. Coal -94

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx. Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO2-removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 40% reduction

  11. Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Shahid Ghazi; Nigel P Mountney; Aftab Ahmad Butt; Sadaf Sharif

    2012-10-01

    The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage (Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage (Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode, and the gradual regional northward drift to a lower latitude of the Indian plate.

  12. Coal industry annual 1993

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  13. On the coal market

    The state of the world coal market in 1996-1997 is surveyed. Major coal exporters and importers are briefly characterized. Data on coal mining, supply and demand in diverse countries of the world are presented

  14. Coal industry annual 1993

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  15. European coal geology and technology

    Gayer, R.; Pesek, J. [eds.] [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1997-12-31

    39 papers are presented covering new research into coal geology and coal technology. They are grouped under the section headings: regional coal reserves, coal basin tectonics and stratigraphy; coal petrology and palaeontology; mineral matter in coal and the environment; mining geophysics; and coal technology and coalbed methane. All the papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  16. 12 CFR 204.125 - Foreign, international, and supranational entities referred to in §§ 204.2(c)(1)(iv)(E) and 204.8...

    2010-01-01

    ....2(c)(1)(iv)(E) and 204.8(a)(2)(i)(B)(5) are: Europe Bank for International Settlements. European Atomic Energy Community. European Central Bank. European Coal and Steel Community. The European Communities. European Development Fund. European Economic Community. European Free Trade Association....

  17. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  18. Coal profile Turkey 2006

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The profile is designed as a marketing manual for coal exporters wishing to enter or increase their market share in the Turkish coal market. It provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the coal market in Turkey, from detailing the specific users of imported coal, to examining local coal traders and producers and outlining the coal importing legislation and logistics. A comprehensive list of contacts is included. 2 figs., 70 tabs.

  19. Coal excavating machinery

    Walker, J.H.; Sleigh, N.J.

    1989-07-19

    Coal excavating machinery comprising: a coal winning unit; and a base member; wherein the coal winning unit and the base member are interconnected by means of at least one lemniscate link arrangement. With this arrangement, the coal excavating machinery can be controlled so that as the height of the coal winning unit is adjusted relative to the base member, an essentially flat surface is cut on the mine coal face.

  20. Organic Chemistry of coal

    Larsen, J.W. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The papers deal with the chemistry of coal and estimates of its structure based on various analytical methods applied to coal liquids, oxidized coal, etc. often after elaborate fractionation to get more homogeneous samples. A number of papers are concerned with coal liquefaction (similarities between solvent-refined coal and solvent-refined lignite, super critical gas extraction, temperature conditions of liquefaction, heteroatom species in coal liquids, etc.). Twenty-two papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. Emerging and Novel Functions of Complement Protein C1q

    Kouser, Lubna; Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Shastri, Abhishek; Saraon, Anuvinder; Ferluga, Janez; Al-Mozaini, Maha; Kishore, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Complement protein C1q, the recognition molecule of the classical pathway, performs a diverse range of complement and non-complement functions. It can bind various ligands derived from self, non-self, and altered self and modulate the functions of immune and non-immune cells including dendritic cells and microglia. C1q involvement in the clearance of apoptotic cells and subsequent B cell tolerance is more established now. Recent evidence appears to suggest that C1q plays an important role in ...

  2. The factor VIII C1 domain contributes to platelet binding

    Hsu, Ting-Chang; Pratt, Kathleen P.; Thompson, Arthur R.

    2008-01-01

    Activated factor VIII (FVIIIa) forms a procoagulant complex with factor IXa on negatively charged membranes, including activated platelet surfaces. Membrane attachment involves the FVIII C2 domain; involvement of the adjacent C1 domain has not been established. Binding of recombinant FVIII C1C2 and C2 proteins to platelets was detected by flow cytometry using (1) anti-C2 monoclonal antibody ESH8 followed by a phycoerythrin-labeled secondary antibody; (2) biotinylated C1C2 detected by phycoery...

  3. Surgical approach to C1-C2 nerve sheath tumors

    Krishnan Prasad; Behari Sanjay; Banerji Deepu; Mehrotra Naveen; Chhabra Devendra; Jain Vijendra

    2004-01-01

    Background: C1 and C2 nerve sheath tumors (NST) are unique in presentation, relationship to neighbouring structures and surgical approaches when compared to their counterparts in other regions of the spine. Aim: The strategies involved in the surgery for C1-C2 NST are discussed Setting and Design: Retrospective study. Methods: 21 patients with C1 (n=6) and C2 (n=15) NST were operated based on their position with respect to the cord i.e. anterior (4), anterolateral (10), poster...

  4. Mineralogical and Geochemical Compositions of the No. 5 Coal in Chuancaogedan Mine, Junger Coalfield, China

    Ning Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Early Permian No. 5 coal from the Chuancaogedan Mine, Junger Coalfield, China, using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Low-temperature ashing X-ray diffraction (LTA-XRD in combination with Siroquant software, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The minerals in the No. 5 coal from the Chuancaogedan Mine dominantly consist of kaolinite, with minor amounts of quartz, pyrite, magnetite, gypsum, calcite, jarosite and mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S. The most abundant species within high-temperature plasma-derived coals were SiO2 (averaging 16.90%, Al2O3 (13.87%, TiO2 (0.55% and P2O5 (0.05%. Notable minor and trace elements of the coal include Zr (245.89 mg/kg, Li (78.54 mg/kg, Hg (65.42 mg/kg, Pb (38.95 mg/kg, U (7.85 mg/kg and Se (6.69 mg/kg. The coal has an ultra-low sulfur content (0.40%. Lithium, Ga, Se, Zr and Hf present strongly positive correlation with ash yield, Si and Al, suggesting they are associated with aluminosilicate minerals in the No. 5 coal. Arsenic is only weakly associated with mineral matter and Ge in the No. 5 coals might be of organic and/or sulfide affinity.

  5. Evidence of lacustrine sedimentation in the Upper Permian Bijori Formation, Satpura Gondwana basin: Palaeogeographic and tectonic implications

    Tapan Chakraborty; Soumen Sarkar

    2005-06-01

    The Upper Permian Bijori Formation of the Satpura Gondwana basin comprising fine- to coarsegrained sandstone, carbonaceous shale/mudstone and thin coal bands was previously interpreted as the deposits of meandering rivers. The present study documents abundance of wave ripples, hummocky and swaley cross-stratification and combined flow bedforms in the Bijori Formation, suggesting that a significant part of the formation was deposited in a wave-agitated environment. Evidence of near-emergent depositional conditions provided by repeated occurrence of rootlet beds and hydromorphic paleosols, local flooding surfaces denoting rapid fluctuation of water level, occurrences of temnospondyl vertebrate fossils, and absence of tidal signatures and marine fossils suggest a lacustrine rather than marine depositional regime. Five facies associations recognised within the Bijori Formation are inferred to represent fluvial channels and associated floodplains (FA1), lake shorelines (FA2), subaqueous distributary channels and associated levees (FA3), wave- and storm-affected delta front (FA4), and open lacustrine/lower shoreface (FA5) deposits. The planoconcave fluvial channel-fill sandbodies with unidirectional cross-beds are clearly distinguishable from the delta front bars that show a convexo-plan or bi-convex sandbody geometry and dominance of wave and combined flow bedforms. Some of the distributary channels record interaction of fluvial and wave-dominated basinal processes. Major distributary sandbodies show a north to northwest flow direction while wave-affected delta front sandbodies show very complex flow patterns reflecting interaction between fluvial discharge and wave processes. Wave ripple crest trends show that the lake shoreline had an overall east–northeast to west–southwest orientation. The lack of documented contemporaneous lacustrine or marine sediments in the Satpura Gondwana basin posed a major problem of basin-scale palaeogeographic reconstruction. The existence of Bijori lake solves the problem and the lake is inferred to have acted as repository for the contemporaneous alluvial drainage. Development of the large Bijori lake body implies generation of accommodation space exceeding the rate of sediment supplied and thus represents locus of high tectonic subsidence. Transition of fluvial sediments with red mudstone and calcareous soil profile in the lower part of the succession to carbonaceous shale and coal-bearing lacustrine sediments in the upper part, denote a change from a warm semi-arid climate with seasonal rainfall to a more humid one.

  6. 78 FR 16569 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC, Permian Basin Railways, and San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Corporate...

    2013-03-15

    ... Holdings, LLC (IPH), its wholly owned subsidiaries Permian Basin Railways (PBR) and San Luis & Rio Grande..., IPH is a noncarrier that wholly owns PBR, which directly controls seven Class III railroads.\\1\\...

  7. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. δ13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). δ34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive δ13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ∑REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in δ13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of δ34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior to the main extinction horizon may have been caused by oceanic oxygen-minimum zone expansion and upward movement of the chemocline5. The coupled increases in Eu/Eu* and Baxs may record hydrothermal influence, possibly accompanied by increased ocean acidity and high seawater temperatures. Collectively, our results document major changes in seawater chemistry during the Changhsingian prior to the main end-Permian crisis.

  8. An Exact Bosonization Rule for c=1 Noncritical String Theory

    Ishibashi, N.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2007-01-01

    We construct a string field theory for c=1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields.

  9. Tiarajudens eccentricus and Anomocephalus africanus, two bizarre anomodonts (Synapsida, Therapsida) with dental occlusion from the Permian of Gondwana

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Jashashvili, Tea; de Oliveira Bueno, Ana; Dentzien-Dias, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Anomodontia was a highly successful tetrapod clade during the Permian and the Triassic. New morphological information regarding two bizarre basal anomodonts is provided and their palaeoecological significance is explored. The osteology of the recently discovered Tiarajudens eccentricus Cisneros et al. 2011, from the Brazilian Permian, is described in detail. The taxon exhibits unusual postcranial features, including the presence of gastralia. Additional preparation and computed tomography sca...

  10. First evidence for Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism in the Northern Gemericum: geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology

    Vozárová Anna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several magmatic events based on U-Pb zircon geochronology were recognized in the Permian sedimentary succession of the Northern Gemeric Unit (NGU. The Kungurian magmatic event is dominant. The later magmatism stage was documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The detrital zircon assemblages from surrounding sediments documented the Sakmarian magmatic age. The post-orogenic extensional/transtensional faulting controlled the magma ascent and its emplacement. The magmatic products are represented by the calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, ranging from basaltic metaandesite to metarhyolite, associated with subordinate metabasalt. The whole group of the studied NGU Permian metavolcanics has values for the Nb/La ratio at (0.44–0.27 and for the Nb/U ratio at (9.55–4.18, which suggests that they represent mainly crustal melts. Magma derivation from continental crust or underplated crust is also indicated by high values of Y/Nb ratios, ranging from 1.63 to 4.01. The new 206U–238Pb zircon ages (concordia age at 269 ± 7 Ma confirm the dominant Kungurian volcanic event in the NGU Permian sedimentary basin. Simultaneously, the Permian-Triassic boundary volcanism at 251 ± 4 Ma has been found for the first time. The NGU Permian volcanic activity was related to a polyphase extensional tectonic regime. Based on the new and previous U-Pb zircon ages, the bulk of the NGU Permian magmatic activity occurred during the Sakmarian and Kungurian. It was linked to the post-orogenic transpression/transtension tectonic movements that reflected the consolidation of the Variscan orogenic belt. The Permian-Triassic boundary magmatism was accompanied by extension, connected with the beginning of the Alpine Wilson cycle.

  11. Reworked calcretes: their significance in the reconstruction of alluvial sequences (Permian and Triassic, Minorca, Balearic Islands, Spain)

    Gómez Gras, D.; Alonso-Zarza, Ana María

    2003-01-01

    The Permian and Triassic of Minorca (Balearic Islands) consists of a 670-m-thick, red, alluvial succession that includes in situ calcrete profiles and reworked calcrete material. In the Permian succession, the calcretes vary from laminar forms developed on the Carboniferous basement to weakly developed nodular calcretes in fluvial sediments. The palaeosols in the Triassic are mostly dolomitic, and the profiles reach up to Stage III of soil development (Spec. Pap.-Geol. Surv. Am. 203,...

  12. Permian–polysulphide-siderite–barite–haematite deposit Rude in Samoborska Gora Mts., Zagorje–Transdanubian zone of the Inner Dinarides

    Borojevic Sostaric, Sibila; Palinkaš, Ladislav Antun; Strmi? Palinkaš, Sabina; Prochaska, Walter; Spangenberg, Jorge; Cuna, Stella; Šinkovec, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Samoborska Gora Mts. is situated within westernmost part of the Zagorje–Mid–Transdanubian zone of the Inner Dinarides. The Samoborska Gora Mts. consists dominantly of Permian unmetamorphosed siliciclastic sediments and evaporites, overlain by Lower Triassic sediments. Rude mineralization is hosted by Permian siliciclastic sediments, beneath gypsum and anhydrite strata. Central part of the deposit consists of 1.5 km long stratabound mineralization, grading laterally into ferruginou...

  13. Late Permian continental sediments in the SE Iberian Ranges, eastern Spain: Petrological and mineralogical characteristics and palaeoenvironmental significance

    Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Fernández Barrenechea, José María, ed. lit; López Gómez, José; Rodas, Magdalena; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Arche, Alfredo; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier, ed. lit

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mineralogical and petrological study and the analysis of paleosol profiles in continental alluvial sediments of the Late Permian in the SE Iberian Ranges (Spain) allow us to infer the significant environmental changes that occurred during this time period. Three parts have been distinguished in the Late Permian sediments (Alcotas Formation). The lower part includes abundant and well-preserved carbonate paleosol profiles and fine-grained sediments made up by quartz, feldspa...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either as...

  15. Riemannian Geometry of $C^{1,1}$ Manifolds

    Groah, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Riemannian Geometry for $C^{1,1}$ manifolds contains important differences from that for $C^{2}$ manifolds. This paper develops Riemannian geometry at the $C^{1,1}$ level of regularity. It is shown that the connection is not symmetric and this leads to additional terms in curvature tensors, geodesic equations and the Bianchi identities. Failure to account for these terms leads to nonzero torsion, affecting everything from geodesics to the Einstein curvature tensor.

  16. Evaluation report on CCTF core-I reflood tests C1-6 (RUN 15), C1-9 (RUN 18), C1-11 (RUN 20) and C1-13 (RUN 22)

    The present report describes the effects of the Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water injection rate on the reflooding phenomena observed in the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF). The evaluation is based on the data of Tests C1-5, C1-6, C1-9, C1-11 and C1-13 of the CCTF Core-I test series. In these tests, the injection rates of an accumulator system (Acc) and a low pressure coolant injection system (LPCI) and the injection duration of the Acc were parametrically varied from Test C1-5 (base case test). The higher ECC water injection rate caused the downcomer water head and core flooding rate to be higher resulting in the better core cooling. However, there was little effect of the LPCI injection rate on the core cooling once the downcomer water head reached the maximum level. Although the effects of the Acc injection rate and duration on the primary system thermo-hydrodynamic behavior and the core cooling behavior were dominant in an early period of the transient, they also significantly influenced the core cooling behavior through the whole transient. The similar trends of the effect of Acc injection rate on the core cooling behavior were observed in the CCTF and the FLECHT-SET Phase A experiments. (author)

  17. Coal systems analysis

    Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  18. Distribution, Mineralogy, Petrography, Provenance and Significance of Permian Ash-Carrying Deposits in the Paraná Basin

    José Moacyr Vianna Coutinho

    Full Text Available The study of thin sections taken from drill core samples and outcrops in southern Brazil has demonstrated the occurrenceof repeated ash fall episodes during the Permian period between 280 and 245 Ma. Scattered or concentrated altered volcanicglass shards were detected in strata of Permian sedimentary rocks of the Rio Bonito and Tatui Formations. The shardcarryingsediment is usually a silty or cherty mudstone with variable amounts of calcrete calcite. Burial and alteration ofunstable glass debris led to the development of analcite and less commonly, calcite, silica minerals, zeolites or montmorillonite.Sources of explosive Permian volcanism, responsible for ample ash falls have been sought in South Africa, in the AndeanCordillera and along the Paraná Basin margin. A swarm of rhyolitic centers described in the Cordillera Frontal and in theCentral Argentinian Provincia de La Pampa (Patagonia is here proposed as the most adequate Permian source. In that area,volcanoes must have expelled ashes that traveled thousands of kilometers before settling in deltaic or shallow marineenvironments. Twenty-three occurrences of Permian shard-carrying sediments have been plotted in a Paraná Basin map. Thenumber of ash-carrying sediments decreases northeastward. The authors envisage dense clouds originated in Patagoniatraveling NE, depositing progressively smaller quantities of ashes but reaching Australia in pre-drift Gondwana. Shardcarrying sediments must be distinguished from “tonstein”, ash fall or ash flow tuffs, also recorded in the Permian Gondwana,which would indicate closer ash source area.

  19. Coal processing and utilization

    Schilling, H.-D.

    1980-04-01

    It is noted that the rising price of oil as well as supply concerns have lead to an increase in the use of coal. It is shown that in order for coal to take a greater role in energy supply, work must commence now in the areas of coal extraction and processing. Attention is given to new technologies such as coke production, electricity and heat generation, coal gasification, and coal liquifaction. Also covered are a separator for nitrogen oxides and active coal regeneration. Finally, the upgrading of coal is examined.

  20. Coal profile India 2007

    Mark Dougan

    2007-07-01

    The document gives an insight into the Indian coal scene. The study includes: current demand for coal and coke (including plant by plant demand estimates) whilst focusing on key thermal and metallurgical coal consumers; a detailed assessment of domestic coal supply including a review of geology, coal quality and beneficiation, the major coal producers, mine production and productivities; forecasts of demand to 2020 for coking, PCI and thermal coals as well as a forecast of domestic coal supply which form the basis of an assessment of likely import demand for coal in terms of both volume and quality; and a status report on coal bed methane activity, an introduction to Indian iron ore and comprehensive lists of Indian power generators, iron and steel makers and sponge iron producers. 44 figs., 188 tabs., 1 app.

  1. Coal yearbook 1993

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  2. The not so simple relationship between seismicity and oil production in the Permian Basin, west Texas

    Doser, D. I.; Baker, M. R.; Luo, M.; Marroquin, P.; Ballesteros, L.; Kingwell, J.; Diaz, H. L.; Kaip, G.

    1992-09-01

    We have relocated seismicity occurring in the Permian Basin of west Texas between 1975 and 1979 using three-dimensional velocity models constructed from well log information and compared the locations to detailed geological and geophysical models of specific oil fields. The seismicity appears to be related to a variety of causes including migration of naturally occurring overpressured fluids, tectonic activity, reservoir production, and enhanced recovery operations. Many earthquakes may represent a combination of these effects. Although the Permian Basin is the site of numerous oil and gas fields, only a limited number of fields appears to be associated with seismicity. We find that there are similarities in the structural setting in the fields associated with seismicity. Furthermore, fields within the Delaware Basin that are associated with seismicity are located in regions of high vertical and lateral fluid pressure gradients related to an overpressured zone within the Delaware Basin.

  3. Physiological implications of the abnormal absence of the parietal foramen in a late Permian cynodont (Therapsida)

    Benoit, Julien; Abdala, Fernando; Van den Brandt, Marc J.; Manger, Paul R.; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2015-12-01

    The third eye (pineal eye), an organ responsible for regulating exposure to sunlight in extant ectotherms, is located in an opening on the dorsal surface of the skull, the parietal foramen. The parietal foramen is absent in extant mammals but often observed in basal therapsids, the stem-group to true mammals. Here, we report the absence of the parietal foramen in a specimen of Cynosaurus suppostus, a Late Permian cynodont from South Africa (SA). Comparison with Procynosuchus delaharpeae, a contemporaneous non-mammalian cynodont from SA, demonstrates that the absence of this foramen is an abnormal condition for such a basal species. Because seasonality was marked during the Late Permian in SA, it is proposed that the third eye was functionally redundant in Cynosaurus, possibly due to the acquisition of better thermoregulation or the evolution of specialized cells in the lateral eyes to compensate for the role of the third eye.

  4. Physiological implications of the abnormal absence of the parietal foramen in a late Permian cynodont (Therapsida).

    Benoit, Julien; Abdala, Fernando; Van den Brandt, Marc J; Manger, Paul R; Rubidge, Bruce S

    2015-12-01

    The third eye (pineal eye), an organ responsible for regulating exposure to sunlight in extant ectotherms, is located in an opening on the dorsal surface of the skull, the parietal foramen. The parietal foramen is absent in extant mammals but often observed in basal therapsids, the stem-group to true mammals. Here, we report the absence of the parietal foramen in a specimen of Cynosaurus suppostus, a Late Permian cynodont from South Africa (SA). Comparison with Procynosuchus delaharpeae, a contemporaneous non-mammalian cynodont from SA, demonstrates that the absence of this foramen is an abnormal condition for such a basal species. Because seasonality was marked during the Late Permian in SA, it is proposed that the third eye was functionally redundant in Cynosaurus, possibly due to the acquisition of better thermoregulation or the evolution of specialized cells in the lateral eyes to compensate for the role of the third eye. PMID:26538062

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  6. The global Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian Correlation Project: a review of the contribution from Great Britain

    Warrington, G.; Barclay, W.J.; Leveridge, B.E.; C. N. Waters

    2012-01-01

    A contribution on the lithostratigraphy and palaeoenvironments of Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian successions onshore in Great Britain, prepared for an international project, is summarised with particular reference to south-west England. Devonian and Carboniferous successions present in that region occur in the Rhenohercynian Tectonic Zone, to the south of the Variscan Front (VF), and their complexity reflects formation in six composite basins. They differ substantially from contempora...

  7. The fossil record of early tetrapods: worker effort and the end-Permian mass extinction

    Bernard, Emma L.; Ruta, Marcello; Tarver, James E.; Michael J. Benton

    2010-01-01

    It is important to understand the quality of the fossil record of early tetrapods (Tetrapoda. minus Lissamphibia and Amniota) because of their key role in the transition of vertebrates from water to land, their dominance of terrestrial faunas for over 100 million years of the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic, and their variable fates during the end-Permian mass extinction. The first description of an early tetrapod dates back to 1824, and since then discoveries have occurred at a rather irr...

  8. Organic geochemistry across the Permian-Triassic transition at the Idrijca Valley, Western Slovenia

    Bulk and molecular stable C isotopic compositions and biomarker distributions provide evidence for a diverse community of algal and bacterial organisms in the sedimentary organic matter of a carbonate section throughout the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) transition at the Idrijca Valley, Western Slovenia. The input of algae and bacteria in all the Upper Permian and Lower Scythian samples is represented by the predominance of C15-C22 n-alkanes, odd C-number alkylcyclohexanes, C27 steranes and substantial contents of C21-C30 acyclic isoprenoids. The occurrence of odd long-chain n-alkanes (C22-C30) and C29 steranes in all the samples indicate a contribution of continental material. The decrease of Corg and Ccarb contents, increase of Rock-Eval oxygen indices, and 13C-enrichment of the kerogen suggest a decrease in anoxia of the uppermost Permian bottom water. The predominance of odd C-number alkylcycloalkanes, C27 steranes, and C17 n-alkanes with δ13C values ∼-30%o, and 13C-enrichment of the kerogens in the lowermost Scythian samples are evidence of greater algal productivity. This increased productivity was probably sustained by a high nutrient availability and changes of dissolved CO2 speciation associated to the earliest Triassic transgression. A decrease of Corg content in the uppermost Scythian samples, associated to a 13C-depletetion in the carbonates (up to 4%o) and individual n-alkanes (up to 3.4%o) compared to the Upper Permian samples, indicate lowering of the primary productivity (algae, cyanobacteria) and/or higher degradation of the organic matter

  9. Anoxia/high temperature double whammy during the Permian-Triassic marine crisis and its aftermath

    Wignall, PB; Chu, D.; Tong, J.; Y. Sun; Song, H; He, W.; Tian, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction was the most severe biotic crisis in the past 500 million years. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the crisis, but few account for the spectrum of extinction selectivity and subsequent recovery. Here we show that selective losses are best accounted for by a combination of lethally warm, shallow waters and anoxic deep waters that acted to severely restrict the habitable area to a narrow mid-water refuge zone. The relative tolerance of groups to ...

  10. Subsidence hazards caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England : geology, investigation and remediation

    Cooper, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    About every three years natural catastrophic subsidence, caused by gypsum dissolution, occurs in the vicinity of Ripon, North Yorkshire, England. Holes up to 35 m across and 20 m deep have appeared without warning. In the past 150 years, 30 major collapses have occurred, and in the last ten years the resulting damage to property is estimated at about £1000000. Subsidence, associated with the collapse of caves resulting from gypsum dissolution in the Permian rocks of eastern England, occurs in...

  11. Reproductive biology of the Permian Glossopteridales and their suggested relationship to flowering plants.

    Taylor, E. L.; Taylor, T.N.

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of permineralized glossopterid reproduction organs from Late Permian deposits in the Beard-more Glacier region (central Transantarctic Mountains) of Antarctica provides anatomical evidence for the adaxial attachment of the seeds to the megaasporophyll in this important group of Late Paleozoic seed plants. The position of the seeds is in direct contradiction to many earlier descriptions, based predominatly on impression/compression remains. The attachement of the ovules on the ad...

  12. Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs of the Mengkarang Formation (Early Permian, Sumatra) and their palaeobiogeographical significance

    Crippa, G.; Angiolini, L.; Van Waveren, I.; Crow, M. J.; Hasibuan, F.; Stephenson, M. H.; Ueno, K.

    2014-01-01

    Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs from the Lower Permian Mengkarang Formation (Sumatra, Indonesia) have been studied in order to establish the palaeogeographical position and the palaeolatitude of the West Sumatra Block. The position of the West Sumatra Block within the Palaeo-Tethys and Panthalassa oceans and its relationships to their marginal landmasses, in particular the Gondwana supercontinent and the Cathaysian palaeogeographical area, currently is uncertain.

  13. Geochemical anomalies near the Eocene-Oligocene and Permian-Triassic boundaries

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H.V.

    1981-10-01

    Evidence is presented to support the theory that several mass extinctions, i.e., those that define the Permian-Triassic boundary, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and the Eocene-1 Oligocene boundary, were caused by impact on the earth of extraterrestrial objects having the composition of carbonaceous chondrites and diameters of about 10 km. The evidence consists of anomalously high concentrations of iridium and other siderophile elements at the stratigraphic levels defining the extinctions. (ACR)

  14. The problems of Paleozoic beds and reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin in western Slovenia

    Ivan Mlakar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of paper geologic data from smaller outcrops of Val Gardena Formation in west Slovenia are assembled. Together with the already published information from larger outcrops they permit the reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin on which the accent of paper is based. Attention is drawn to general problems of Upper Paleozoic beds, and conclusions regarding lithologic, stratigraphic and structural control of uranium and copper deposits in this part of Slovenia are given.

  15. Permian Palaeotemperature and Ice Volumes History: Evidence from Carbon and Oxygen isotopes

    Chen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution oxygen isotope record based on 356 measurements of conodont apatite from several low latitudinal sections in South China, USA and Iran was composed in order to unravel Permian palaeotemperature and ice volume history. Oxygen isotope analyses of different conodont taxa suggest that Streptognathodus and Hindeodus lived in near-surface seawater and recorded surface waters temperature, whereas the habitat of gondolellid genera was variable depending on sea level, with both near-su...

  16. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production. PMID:26802271

  17. Socioeconomic impact of infill drilling recovery from carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, West Texas.

    Jagoe, Bryan Keith

    1994-01-01

    This investigative study presents results on the socioeconomic impact of infill drilling recovery from carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin. The amount of incremental oil and gas production from infill drilling in 37 carbonate reservoir units is established using decline curve analysis. The increase in incremental recovery is used to compute the amount of increased revenue and taxes (local, state and federal). A job market analysis is performed to determine the impact of thes...

  18. Climatic and biotic upheavals following the end-Permian mass extinction

    C. Romano; Goudemand, N.; Vennemann, T. W.; Ware, D.; Schneebeli-Hermann, E.; P. A. Hochuli; Brühwiler, T; Brinkmann, W.; Bucher, H.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction is frequently described as delayed, with complex ecological communities typically not found in the fossil record until the Middle Triassic epoch. However, the taxonomic diversity of a number of marine groups, ranging from ammonoids to benthic foraminifera, peaked rapidly in the Early Triassic. These variations in biodiversity occur amidst pronounced excursions in the carbon isotope record, which are compatible with episodes of massive CO2 outgassi...

  19. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    Marie-Béatrice Forel; Pierre-Yves Collin; Yue Li; Stephen Kershaw; Sylvie Crasquin

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1) problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, wh...

  20. Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction

    Sidor, Christian A.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Adam K. Huttenlocker; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Peecook, Brandon R.; Steyer, J. Sébastien; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four ...

  1. FORAMINIFERA, ALGAE AND CARBONATE MICROPROBLEMATICA FROM THE LATE WUCHIAPINGIAN/DZHULFIAN (LATE PERMIAN) OF PELOPONNESUS (GREECE)

    DANIEL VACHARD; ALEXANDRA ZAMBETAKIS-LEKKAS; EMMANUEL SKOURTSOS; ROSSANA MARTINI; LOUISETTE ZANINETTI

    2003-01-01

    The origin of late Permian olistoliths found in the Glypia Cenozoic flysch must be seeked in regions located to the east of the Parnon Mountain and in units that were more internal to Pindos Unit, especially in the islets of Karavia in the Argolis Gulf, and the Episkopi Formation in Hydra Island, that display probably the largest outcrops of this age. The most interesting olistolith is a bioclastic grainstone. It yields about forty taxa of algae, microproblematica, smaller foraminifers and fu...

  2. Evidence for a western extension of the Angaran phytogeographic province in the Early Permian

    Sunderlin, David [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A newly described Early Permian fossil plant assemblage in the Mt. Dall conglomerate in the Farewell terrane (Alaska Range, USA) is analyzed from a paleobiogeographic perspective. These data constitute the youngest paleontological dataset yet discovered in this terrane, represent the terrane's only predominantly terrestrial fossil assemblage, and are the only plant macrofossil remains of Early Permian age within a > 1500 km radius today. A suite of multivariate statistical analyses comparing the Mt. Dall paleoflora to similar age (Asselian-Artinskian) collections from the Angaran, Euramerican, and Cathaysian Permian phytogeographic provinces reveals that the Mt. Dall paleoflora has a paleobiogeographic affinity with Sub-Angaran plant fossil assemblages collected from Mongolia and the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. The paleoflora has dual importance in the construction and testing of hypotheses for which there are geographically and temporally few controls. First, these data may be used in association with other faunal and floral remains to test models of the assembly of Alaska, which seek, in part, an understanding of the paleogeographic and lithological origins of accreted terranes. That the Mt. Dall paleoflora indicates mixed Eurasia-North America paleobiogeographic affinity among individual taxa and plots in multivariate space with mid-latitude assemblages on northern Pangea may suggest deposition in that latitudinal belt. Second, contrary to the well-sampled fossil plant-bearing Permo-Carboniferous of the paleotropics and the northeastern temperate Pangean regions (Angaraland), terrestrial biome structure and vegetation type of northwestern Pangea are poorly known. This lack of understanding is due to the paucity of paleofloral collections from this region in this time period and the paleogeographic uncertainty of their position along the ancient active margin of Laurentia. The Mt. Dall paleoflora's phytogeographic affinity to paleobotanical collections from the northeastern Pangea therefore suggests that the Angaran province extended meridionally westward in the Early Permian into what is now northern North America. (author)

  3. PERMIAN CRINOIDS FROM THE SAIWAN AND KHUFF FORMATIONS,SOUTHEASTERN OMAN

    GARY D. WEBSTER; ANDREA TINTORI; LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    2009-01-01

    Early Permian (Sakmarian) crinoids are described from six horizons in the Saiwan Formation of the Huqf area of southeastern Oman. Each horizon yielded only one to three taxa. All specimens lived in a shallow water environment characterized by mixed siliciclastic or siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentation. Disarticulated arm plates of an indeterminate articulate crinoid are described from a tempestite bed in the Khuff Formation (Wordian) of the Haushi area.The Saiwan Sakmarian crinoids are some ...

  4. Coal data: A reference

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  5. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession from Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield, Jharkhand, India

    Srikanta Murthy; Archana Tripathi; B Chakraborti; U P Singh

    2014-12-01

    Palynological investigations are carried out on approximately 538.00-m thick Gondwana strata from borehole SKB-1, Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield in Jharkhand. Based on the distribution pattern of age marker palynotaxa, two distinct palynoassemblages are identified. Palynoassemblage-I in the lithologically designated Barren Measures and Barakar formations, between 552.00 and 53.20 m depth show dominance of striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites, Crescentipollenites, and Faunipollenites) and abundance of nonstriate bisaccate (Scheuringipollenites). Upward the Palynoassemblage-II (39.50–13.80 m depth) is rich in striate bisaccate (Striatopodocarpites and Crescentipollenites) and significant enveloping monosaccate Densipollenites magnicorpus pollen. These strata have been equated with Raniganj Formation of Latest Permian age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD) of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, Playfordiaspora cancellosa, Alisporites sp., Falcisporites sp. and Krempipollenites indicus observed at 13.80 and 39.50 m depth, mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic. The FADs of Guttulapollenites spp. at 49.10 and 504.70 m, Goubinispora morondavensis at 415.90 m, Alisporites ovalis and Arcuatipollenites sp. at 526.70 m is observed and suggest that these sediments are equivalent to Raniganj Formation, Late Permian in age.

  6. Environmental characterization of bedded salt formations and overlying areas of the Permian Basin

    This report constitutes one input to the first stage of site qualification studies. It presents a general environmental characterization of the region that is underlain by the Permian bedded salt formation. The formation covers portions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Permian bedded salt formation is one of a number of deep, stable geologic formations being studied for potential locations for nuclear waste repositories. These studies will not necessarily lead to selection of a site. They are intended only to provide information necessary to evaluate the suitability of locations for repositories. The report is intended as a general characterization of the existing environmental setting of the Permian Region with emphasis on land, water, and air characteristics; resources; plant and animal life; and man's organizations and activities. The report provides background information about the role that this regional study will play in the overall plan for environmental impact assessments and statements deemed necessary as input to the decision-making process. Background information on the present concept of nuclear waste repository design and function is also included. The information presented in this report has been summarized from open literature readily accessible to the public. No field work was conducted nor new data used in developing the descriptions contained herein

  7. Permian to tertiary faunas and paleogeography: Somalia, Kenya Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, South Africa

    Kamen-Kaye, M.

    1978-07-01

    Permian to Tertiary faunas along the eastern margin of Africa, and on Madagascar, are presented, described, and discussed. Presentation of the faunas is made in four charts: Permo-Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary. A correlation chart provides tentative time-rock units. Paleogeography northeast and east of Africa is derived from the writer's analysis of marine invertebrate fauna, and is delineated in sketches for Late Permian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous times. Limitations exist on the conclusions that can be drawn from fauna alone. Pelagic waters can be indicated, but their extent cannot be specified, and lack of diversification in some of the pelagic genera results in unavoidable ambiguities of interpretation. Nothing in the faunal evidence so far available, however, disproves unequivocally the existence of an ancestral Indian Ocean from Late Permian onward. Even if such an ancestral ocean did not exist the pattern of pelagic waters that can be inferred from marine invertebrate fauna constitutes an impediment to models that suture Australia or India to Africa or Madagascar. Peninsular India, on readings of its own geology across the foreland-orogen boundary, may have occupied its present position through the whole of geologic time. 9 figures.

  8. Far-travelled Permian chert of the North Fork terrane, Klamath Mountains, California

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Irwin, William P.; Blome, Charles D.

    1996-04-01

    Permian chert in the North Fork terrane and correlative rocks of the Klamath Mountains province has a remanent magnetization that is prefolding and presumably primary. Paleomagnetic results indicate that the chert formed at a paleolatitude of 8.6° ± 2.5° but in which hemisphere remains uncertain. This finding requires that these rocks have undergone at least 8.6° ± 4.4° of northward transport relative to Permian North America since their deposition. Paleontological evidence suggests that the Permian limestone of the Eastern Klamath terrane originated thousands of kilometers distant from North America. The limestone of the North Fork terrane may have formed at a similar or even greater distance as suggested by its faunal affinity to the Eastern Klamath terrane and more westerly position. Available evidence indicates that convergence of the North Fork and composite Central Metamorphic-Eastern Klamath terranes occurred during Triassic or Early Jurassic time and that their joining together was a Middle Jurassic event. Primary and secondary magnetizations indicate that the new composite terrane containing these and other rocks of the Western Paleozoic and Triassic belt behaved as a single rigid block that has been latitudinally concordant with the North American craton since Middle Jurassic time.

  9. Mid-Permian Phosphoria Sea in Nevada and the Upwelling Model

    Ketner, Keith B.

    2009-01-01

    The Phosphoria Sea extended at least 500 km westward and at least 700 km southwestward from its core area centered in southeastern Idaho. Throughout that extent it displayed many characteristic features of the core: the same fauna, the same unique sedimentary assemblage including phosphate in mostly pelletal form, chert composed mainly of sponge spicules, and an association with dolomite. Phosphoria-age sediments in Nevada display ample evidence of deposition in shallow water. The chief difference between the sediments in Nevada and those of the core area is the greater admixture of sandstone and conglomerate in Nevada. Evidence of the western margin of the Phosphoria Sea where the water deepened and began to lose its essential characteristics is located in the uppermost part of the Upper Devonian to Permian Havallah sequence, which has been displaced tectonically eastward an unknown distance. The relatively deep water in which the mid-Permian part of the Havallah was deposited was a sea of probably restricted east-west width and was floored by a very thick sequence of mainly terrigenous sedimentary rocks. The phosphate content of mid-Permian strata in western exposures tends to be relatively low as a percentage, but the thickness of those strata tends to be high. The core area in and near southeastern Idaho where the concentration of phosphate is highest was separated from any possible site of upwelling oceanic waters by a great expanse of shallow sea.

  10. Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia.

    Wang, Jun; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Zhuo

    2012-03-27

    Plant communities of the geologic past can be reconstructed with high fidelity only if they were preserved in place in an instant in time. Here we report such a flora from an early Permian (ca. 298 Ma) ash-fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, a time interval and area where such information is filling a large gap of knowledge. About 1,000 m(2) of forest growing on peat could be reconstructed based on the actual location of individual plants. Tree ferns formed a lower canopy and either Cordaites, a coniferophyte, or Sigillaria, a lycopsid, were present as taller trees. Noeggerathiales, an enigmatic and extinct spore-bearing plant group of small trees, is represented by three species that have been found as nearly complete specimens and are presented in reconstructions in their plant community. Landscape heterogenity is apparent, including one site where Noeggerathiales are dominant. This peat-forming flora is also taxonomically distinct from those growing on clastic soils in the same area and during the same time interval. This Permian flora demonstrates both similarities and differences to floras of the same age in Europe and North America and confirms the distinct character of the Cathaysian floral realm. Therefore, this flora will serve as a baseline for the study of other fossil floras in East Asia and the early Permian globally that will be needed for a better understanding of paleoclimate evolution through time. PMID:22355112

  11. Emerging and Novel Functions of Complement Protein C1q.

    Kouser, Lubna; Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Shastri, Abhishek; Saraon, Anuvinder; Ferluga, Janez; Al-Mozaini, Maha; Kishore, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Complement protein C1q, the recognition molecule of the classical pathway, performs a diverse range of complement and non-complement functions. It can bind various ligands derived from self, non-self, and altered self and modulate the functions of immune and non-immune cells including dendritic cells and microglia. C1q involvement in the clearance of apoptotic cells and subsequent B cell tolerance is more established now. Recent evidence appears to suggest that C1q plays an important role in pregnancy where its deficiency and dysregulation can have adverse effects, leading to preeclampsia, missed abortion, miscarriage or spontaneous loss, and various infections. C1q is also produced locally in the central nervous system, and has a protective role against pathogens and possible inflammatory functions while interacting with aggregated proteins leading to neurodegenerative diseases. C1q role in synaptic pruning, and thus CNS development, its anti-cancer effects as an immune surveillance molecule, and possibly in aging are currently areas of extensive research. PMID:26175731

  12. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  13. String beta function equations from c=1 matrix model

    Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R

    1995-01-01

    We derive the \\sigma-model tachyon \\beta-function equation of 2-dimensional string theory, in the background of flat space and linear dilaton, working entirely within the c=1 matrix model. The tachyon \\beta-function equation is satisfied by a \\underbar{nonlocal} and \\underbar{nonlinear} combination of the (massless) scalar field of the matrix model. We discuss the possibility of describing the `discrete states' as well as other possible gravitational and higher tensor backgrounds of 2-dimensional string theory within the c=1 matrix model. We also comment on the realization of the W-infinity symmetry of the matrix model in the string theory. The present work reinforces the viewpoint that a nonlocal (and nonlinear) transform is required to extract the space-time physics of 2-dimensional string theory from the c=1 matrix model.

  14. Cytochrome c1 of bakers' yeast. I. Isolation and properties.

    Ross, E; Schatz, G

    1976-04-10

    Cytochrome c1 has been purified from mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The procedure involves solubilization withcholate, ammonium sulfate fractionation, disruption of the dytochrome b-c1 complex with mercaptoethanol and detergents, and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The final product is psectrally pure, contains up to 62 nmol of covalently bound heme per mg of protein and does not react with oxygen or carbon monoxide. Sodium dodecyl sulfate disaggregates the purified cytochrome into a single 31,000 dalton subunit carrying the covalently attached heme group. Many cytochrome c1 preparations contain in addition an 18,500 dalton polypeptide which is devoid of covalently bound heme. Since this polypeptide can be removed from the heme-carrying polypeptide by relatively mild procedures, it is probably not an essential subunit of cytochrome c1. Cytochrome c1 is extremely sensitive to proteolysis. If it si purified in the absence of protease inhibitors, a family of heme polypeptides with molecular weights of 29,000, 27,000, and 25,000 daltons is obtained. In the presence of the protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride the purification yields predominantly a 31,000 dalton heme protein with only little contamination by a 29,000 dalton degradation product. In order to show that only the 31,000 dalton heme-polypeptide is the native species, yeast cells were labeled with the heme-precursor delta-amino[3H]levulinic acid, converted to protoplasts and directly lysed with dodecyl sulfate in the presence of protease inhibitors. Subsequent electrophoresis of the lysate in the presence of dodecyl sulfate reveals the covalently bound heme of cytochrome c1 as a single symmetrical peak at 31,000 daltons. PMID:178651

  15. Global coal directory 2001

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    The directory incorporates the Financial Times publications Coal Producers, Coal Consumers, and Who's who in World Coal yearbooks. It gives details of over 1,900 companies worldwide. It lists 300 major coal producers and 300 major coal consumers, giving full contact information, key personnel, three year profit and loss accounts and a description of current business operations. 660 specialist coal service companies and equipment suppliers are listed, in buyers guide format, with contact details. 350 global financial institutions associated with the coal industry are listed. There is a Who's who listing of over 800 key personnel, contact details of 150 coal traders, 100 global coal associations and 90 research establishments. Also included are articles by industry specialists.

  16. Further paleomagnetic results for lower Permian basalts of the Baoshan Terrane, southwestern China, and paleogeographic implications

    Xu, Yingchao; Yang, Zhenyu; Tong, Ya-Bo; Wang, Heng; Gao, Liang; An, Chunzhi

    2015-05-01

    The Baoshan Terrane of southwestern China is considered to have been part of the Cimmerian block during the late Paleozoic; consequently, knowledge of its paleoposition and geological evolution can provide constraints on the Permian breakup of northern East Gondwana. Therefore, we conducted paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic studies on lower Permian basalts from four localities in the Baoshan Terrane. The basalts hold a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) at high temperatures (300-680 °C) that is carried by magnetite, maghemite, and hematite with both pseudo-single and multiple domains. To test the reliability of data from these volcanic rocks, we analyzed the geomagnetic secular variation (GSV) and reliability of both the present data and previous paleomagnetic data. The results from 23 sites yield a single reversed polarity directed downwards to the southwest, giving a site-mean direction of Dg/Ig = 156.7°/56.6° (kg = 8.0, α95 = 11.4°) before tilt correction, and Ds/Is = 218.3°/60.1° (ks = 14.1, α95 = 8.4°) after tilt correction. The result passed the fold test, but the GSV was able to be averaged out in only two sections. All available data were examined section-by-section using the angular dispersion (SB) of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) to ensure that the GSV was completely averaged out. Because the dispersion in declinations is likely to have been affectedby subsequent tectonic deformation, the paleosecular variation (PSV) could not be evaluated from all the data amassed from different sections, and the PSV was able to be removed from only four (combined) sections. A small-circle fit of these VGPs gives an averaged paleocolatitude of 51.9° ± 3.7° (N = 31 sites) centered on 24°N, 99°E. The result indicates that the sampled area of the Baoshan Terrane was located at a latitude of 38°S ± 3.7° during the late early Permian. A comparison of this result with early Permian data from Gondwanan blocks suggests that the Baoshan Terrane was situated near the junction of northern India and northwestern Australia, and that it broke away from western Australia after the early Permian.

  17. Late Permian Tsunamites in Guryul Ravine (Kashmir, India) - revisited and rejected

    Krystyn, Leopold; Horacek, Micha; Brandner, Rainer; Parcha, Suraj

    2014-05-01

    Recent claims for tsunami-related event beds induced by the Siberian Trap basalts in this section (Brookfield et al., 2013) have to be questioned. Identical storm generated carbonate beds occur not only during a short interval close to the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary but through a major part of the late Permian (Changhsingian) succession there - as low as 26 m below the so-called tsunami beds. Moreover, during our recent study in a closely neighbouring place called Mandakpal (less than 10 km to the southeast), no signs of tsunamites have been detected in time-correlative finegrained sediments. Based on sedimentary and trace fossil evidence we interpret the late Permian of Guryul as relatively shallow, neritic and delta-influenced. The so-called tsunamites are shelly-enriched discontinuous carbonate lenses fed downslope through local channels. Judging from the distinct facies change from the storm related "tsunamites" to thinly bedded mud turbidites above, the sudden deepening may be explained by local and still rift-related tectonics along the NIM (North-Indian Gondwana Margin) which led to episodic seismic induced sediment redeposition in the area of Guryul. Synsedimentary tectonic activity with tilting and eventual Horst and Graben structure building along the large NIM is indicated by margin inversion during the P-T boundary interval leading to sedimentary breaks and 20 times thinner, condensed limestone deposits far offshore from Guryul in Spiti (Krystyn et al., 2004) and Tibet (Orchard et al., 1994). Thus, local seismic activity seems to be a far more logic explanation of the Guryul "tsunamites" than the eruption of the Siberian Traps more than 6000 km away. References Brookfield, M. E., Algeo, T. J., Hannigan, R., Williams, J and Bhat, G. M., 2013: Shaken and Stirred: Seismites and Tsunamites at the Permian-Triassic boundary, Guryul Ravine, Kashmir, India. Palaios, v. 28, 568-582. Krystyn, L., Balini, M. and Nicora, A., 2004: Lower and Middle Triassic stage boundaries in Spiti. Albertiana, v. 30, 40-53. Orchard, M.J., Nassichuk, W.W., Rui Lin, 1994: Conodonts from the lower Griesbachian Otoceras latilobatum Bed of Selong, Tibet and the position of the Permian-Triassic boundary. In: Pangea: Global Environments and Resources, Memoirs of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, vol. 17, 823-843.

  18. Lax matrix solution of c=1 Conformal Field Theory

    Eynard, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    To a correlation function in a two-dimensional conformal field theory with the central charge c=1, we associate a matrix differential equation \\Psi'=L\\Psi, where the Lax matrix L is a matrix square root of the energy-momentum tensor. Then local conformal symmetry translates into isomonodromy of the differential equation. This provides a justification for the recently observed relation between four-point conformal blocks and solutions of the Painleve VI equation. This also provides a direct way to compute the three-point function of Runkel-Watts theory - the common c->1 limit of Minimal Models and Liouville theory.

  19. Matrix models, topological field theories and c?1 string theory

    We review ordinary and extended two-matrix models and their application to 2D gravity. After a general introduction we deal in particular with two aspects: 1) the emergence from two-matrix models of n-th KdV hierarchies and the topological field theories associated to them; 2) the representation of the discrete states of the c=1 string theory by means of the extended two-matrix model. These constitute two remarkable examples of our idea that two-matrix models provide a unifying description of 2D gravity coupled to c?1 conformal matter. (author)

  20. Draft genome sequence of Arthrospira platensis C1 (PCC9438)

    Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee; Prommeenate, Peerada; Kaewngam, Warunee; Musigkain, Apiluck; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tabata, Satoshi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chanprasert, Juntima; Tongsima, Sissades; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Jeamton, Wattana; Dulsawat, Sudarat; Klanchui, Amornpan; Vorapreeda, Tayvich; Chumchua, Vasunun; Khannapho, Chiraphan; Thammarongtham, Chinae; Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Hongsthong, Apiradee; Ruengjitchatchawalya, Marasri; Meechai, Asawin; Senachak, Jittisak; Tanticharoen, Morakot

    2012-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium that is extensively cultivated outdoors on a large commercial scale for consumption as a food for humans and animals. It can be grown in monoculture under highly alkaline conditions, making it attractive for industrial production. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of A. platensis C1 strain and its annotation. The A. platensis C1 genome contains 6,089,210 bp including 6,108 protein-coding genes and 45 RNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome information has been used for further comparative analysis, particularly of metabolic pathways, photosynthetic efficiency and barriers to gene transfer. PMID:22675597

  1. Draft genome sequence of Arthrospira platensis C1 (PCC9438)

    Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee; Prommeenate, Peerada; Kaewngam, Warunee; Musigkain, Apiluck; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tabata, Satoshi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chanprasert, Juntima; Tongsima, Sissades; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Jeamton, Wattana

    2012-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium that is extensively cultivated outdoors on a large commercial scale for consumption as a food for humans and animals. It can be grown in monoculture under highly alkaline conditions, making it attractive for industrial production. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of A. platensis C1 strain and its annotation. The A. platensis C1 genome contains 6,089,210 bp including 6,108 protein-coding genes and 45 RNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome ...

  2. C1q nephropathy presenting as acute renal failure

    Malleshappa Pavan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 42-year-old male patient who presented with high grade fever asso-ciated with acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Renal biopsy revealed that he had focal proliferative glomerulonephritis on light microscopy, dominant mesangial deposition of C1q by immunofluorescent staining, and electron dense deposits on electron microscopy, with no evi-dence of systemic lupus erythematosus, compatible with the diagnosis of C1q nephropathy. Intensive treatment with a combination of methyl prednisolone pulse therapy and oral predni-solone was successful in achieving complete remission and disappearance of proteinuria in our patient.

  3. Topological cigar and the c=1 string: Open and closed

    We clarify some aspects of the map between the c=1 string theory at self-dual radius and the topologically twisted cigar at level one. We map the ZZ and FZZT D-branes in the c=1 string theory at self dual radius to the localized and extended branes in the topological theory on the cigar. We show that the open string spectrum on the branes in the two theories are in correspondence with each other, and their two point correlators are equal. We also find a representation of an extended N = 2 algebra on the worldsheet which incorporates higher spin currents in terms of asymptotic variables on the cigar. (author)

  4. Draft genome sequence of Arthrospira platensis C1 (PCC9438).

    Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee; Prommeenate, Peerada; Kaewngam, Warunee; Musigkain, Apiluck; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tabata, Satoshi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chanprasert, Juntima; Tongsima, Sissades; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Jeamton, Wattana; Dulsawat, Sudarat; Klanchui, Amornpan; Vorapreeda, Tayvich; Chumchua, Vasunun; Khannapho, Chiraphan; Thammarongtham, Chinae; Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Hongsthong, Apiradee; Ruengjitchatchawalya, Marasri; Meechai, Asawin; Senachak, Jittisak; Tanticharoen, Morakot

    2012-03-19

    Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium that is extensively cultivated outdoors on a large commercial scale for consumption as a food for humans and animals. It can be grown in monoculture under highly alkaline conditions, making it attractive for industrial production. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of A. platensis C1 strain and its annotation. The A. platensis C1 genome contains 6,089,210 bp including 6,108 protein-coding genes and 45 RNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome information has been used for further comparative analysis, particularly of metabolic pathways, photosynthetic efficiency and barriers to gene transfer. PMID:22675597

  5. Chondromyxoid fibroma of C1: first case report Fibroma condromixoide de C1: primer caso Fibroma condromixóide de C1: primeiro relato de caso

    Ericson Sfreddo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF is a rare, benign primary bone tumor. The cervical spine is an uncommon site for this tumor, with only 10 reported cases to date and none involving the first cervical vertebra (C1. CASE REPORT: Female patient, 25-year-old monozygotic female twin, presented with cervical pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated a contrast-enhanced, right-sided lytic lesion of the insufflated type in C1, with a punched-out appearance and extending to the anterior arch. A postero-lateral and a posterior approach were performed in two steps to resect the tumor followed by occipitocervical fixation. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of CMF. At one year, the patient remains disease free with excellent spinal stability. CONCLUSION: Spinal surgeons may need to treat rare spinal tumors. Despite the proximity to neural and vascular structures, the goal of surgery is always a radical resection due to high recurrence rates.REVISIÓN: El fibroma condromixoide (FCM es un tumor óseo primario, benigno y raro. La columna cervical es un lugar raro de este tumor, con solamente 10 casos relatados, siendo que ninguno involucra a la primera vértebra cervical (C1. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo femenino, 25 años, gemela monozigótica, presentando dolor cervical. La imagen radiográfica demostró una lesión contrastada, predominantemente en la masa lateral de C1 con extensión hacia el arco posterior y anterior. La resección del tumor se realizó en dos tiempos, inicialmente una aproximación posterolateral, seguida por la vía posterior. En esta última, se realizó una fijación occipitocervical. El análisis anatomopatológico fue compatible con FCM. Pasado un año de los procedimientos, la paciente permanecía sin enfermedad y con estabilidad cranio-cervical. CONCLUSIÓN: Especialistas de columna deben tener el conocimiento de que estos tumores raros pueden acometer a la columna vertebral y, a pesar de su proximidad con el tejido neural y las estructuras vasculares, el objetivo de la cirugía es su resección radical debido al alto índice de recidiva.REVISÃO: O fibroma condromixóide (FCM é um tumor ósseo primário, benigno e raro. A coluna cervical é um local incomum desse tumor, com apenas 10 casos relatados, sendo que nenhum envolveu a primeira vértebra cervical (C1. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 25 anos, gêmea monozigótica, apresentando dor cervical. A imagem radiográfica demonstrou lesão lítica contrastada, predominantemente na massa lateral de C1 com extensão para o arco posterior e anterior. A ressecção do tumor foi feita em dois tempos, inicialmente uma abordagem postero-lateral, seguida pela via posterior. Nesta última, foi relizada uma fixação occiptocervical. O exame anátomo-patológico foi compatível com FCM. Passado um ano dos procedimentos, a paciente permanecia sem doença e com estabilidade craniocervical. CONCLUSÃO: Especialistas de coluna devem ter o conhecimento de que estes tumores raros podem acometer a coluna vertebral e, apesar da sua proximidade com tecido neural e estruturas vasculares, o objetivo da cirurgia é a sua ressecção radical devido ao alto índice de recidiva.

  6. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  7. Coal desulfurization process

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  8. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  9. Can coal upgrading help

    Starting from a doubled energy consumption which is expected to take place by the year 2000, the possibilities of finding an important contributor to energy supply by upgrading coal are investigated. Coal gasification is taking the first place among all deliberations as by using nuclear process heat it is most likely to be profitable. Without nuclear energy, coal gasification would have to take place completely autothermally, which would lead to a high coal demand. This means that coal gasification would be somewhat impossible without nuclear energy which is due to the large quantities of coal needed to generate electric power. (UA)

  10. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O; Fang, H; Alarcón, G S; Gordon, C; Merrill, Jt; Fortin, P R; Bruce, I N; Isenberg, D A; Wallace, D J; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Bae, S-C; Hanly, J G; Sanchez-Guerrero, J; Clarke, A E; Aranow, C B; Manzi, S; Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Kalunian, K C; Costner, M I; Werth, V P; Zoma, A; Bernatsky, S; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Khamashta, M A; Jacobsen, Søren; Buyon, J P; Maddison, P; Dooley, M A; Van Vollenhoven, R F; Ginzler, E; Stoll, T; Peschken, C; Jorizzo, J L; Callen, J P; Lim, S S; Fessler, B J; Inanc, M; Kamen, D L; Rahman, A; Steinsson, K; Franks, A G; Sigler, L; Hameed, S; Pham, N; Brey, R; Weisman, M H; McGwin, G; Magder, L S; Petri, M

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: Prevalence of anti-C1q was 28% (86/308) in patients with SLE and 13% (49/389) in controls (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.8-4, p < 0.001). Anti-C1q was associated with proteinuria (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.1, p < 0.001), red cell casts (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.4, p = 0.015), anti-dsDNA (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1...... was strongly associated with renal involvement (OR = 14.9, 95% CI: 5.8-38.4, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-C1q was more common in patients with SLE and those of Asian race/ethnicity. We confirmed a significant association of anti-C1q with renal involvement, independent of demographics and other...

  11. Pediatric hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH is a rare, life-threatening disorder. It is characterized by attacks of angioedema involving the skin and/or the mucosa of the upper airways, as well as the intestinal mucosa. In approximately 50 per cent of cases, clinical manifestations may appear during childhood. The complex management of HAE in pediatric patients is in many respects different from the management of adults. Establishing the diagnosis early, preferably before the onset of clinical symptoms, is essential in cases with a positive family history. Complement studies usually afford accurate diagnosis, whereas molecular genetics tests may prove helpful in uncertain cases. Appropriate therapy, supported by counselling, suitable modification of lifestyle, and avoidance of triggering factors (which primarily include mechanical trauma, mental stress and airway infections in children may spare the patient unnecessary surgery and may prevent mortality. Prompt control of edematous attacks, short-term prophylaxis and intermittent therapy are recommended as the primary means for the management of pediatric cases. Medicinal products currently used for the treatment of children with hereditary angioedema include antifibrinolytics, attenuated androgens, and C1-INH replacement therapy. Current guidelines favour antifibrinolytics for long-term prophylaxis because of their favorable safety profile but efficacy may be lacking. Attenuated androgens administered in the lowest effective dose are another option. C1-INH replacement therapy is also an effective and safe agent for children. Regular monitoring and follow-up of patients are necessary.

  12. International perspectives on coal preparation

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  13. The investigation of chemical structure of coal macerals via transmitted-light FT-IR microscopy by X. Sun

    Hower, J.C.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Mastalerz, Maria; Cook, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    A recent paper by Sun [X. Sun, Spectrochim. Acta A 62 (1-3) (2005) 557] attempts to characterize a variety of liptinite, termed "barkinite", from Chinese Permian coals. The component identified does not appear to fundamentally differ from previously-described liptinite macerals included in the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology's system of maceral nomenclature. Further, chemical comparisons made with macerals from coals of different rank and age are flawed because the author did not account for changes in chemistry with rank or for the chemical changes associated with botanical changes through geologic time. The author has not satisfactorily proved his hypothesis that the component differs morphologically or chemically from known liptinite-group macerals. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY AT THE LUKAC SECTION IN WESTERN SLOVENIA

    TEA KOLAR-JURKOVSEK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Detailed conodont biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Late Permian and Early Triassic beds were studied at the LukaC section in western Slovenia. The analyzed section is composed of the Bellerophon Formation ("evaporite-dolomite member" and the newly introduced Lukaè Formation ("transitional beds", "streaky limestone member" and "carbonate-clastic beds member". The Permian-Triassic boundary interval is represented by "transitional beds" of carbonate facies deposited in shallow restricted marine conditions. The presence of H. parvus in sample L1 in the "transitional beds" marks the systemic boundary between Permian and Triassic. The studied interval is characterized by a diverse microfauna that contain conodonts, foraminifers, ostracods and gastropods. Six conodont zones have been recognized, in ascending order, the latest Changhsingian (uppermost Permian praeparvus Zone, and the Griesbachian (lowermost Triassic parvus, lobata, staeschei-isarcica, postparvus and anceps zones. This faunal succession represents the first known and the most complete conodont biozonation across the Permian-Triassic interval from the entire Dinaric region. The recognized conodont biozones can be correlated with the biozonation of the Southern Alps and of the GSSP Meishan D section. 

  15. The volcanism overprint in the Permian filling of the Lodeve basin. Petrographical and geochemical study, metallogenic implication

    This study reports on a detail petrological and geochemical study of the Lodeve basin Permian sediments. The petrographical study shows the important contribution of volcanism to the sedimentary components. In the grey, the grey-red, and the lower red Permian, well characterized ash beds are present, whereas in the upper red Permian, tuffite beds are present. In addition, most sediments have a constant fine component of volcanic origin. The volcanic components are of rhyolitic composition. The continuous availability of volcanic debris and discrete beds attributable to explosive volcanic activity indicate that volcanic centers existed nearby during Permian sedimentation in the Lodeve basin. The major and trace element geochemical study of volcanic products shows an evolution of the activity from a calk-alkaline trend corresponding to the grey and grey-red Permian to an alkaline trend later on. These trends are similar to what has been found for this period in Corsica and Esterel. Zircon typology is in agreement with the geochemical trends. The volcanic component of sedimentation in the Lodeve basin as a whole is estimated at approximately 30 %. The abundant, easily altered, fine vitreous component of the volcanic products largely contribute to mineralogic and chemical transformations of the sediments. This volcanic apport, synchronous with sedimentation, would be the source of an important stock of uranium in the Lodeve basin. The reworking of this uranium by different phases of alterations and hydrothermal circulations would have driven to uranium ore deposits today in production in the Lodeve basin. (author)

  16. Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system

    Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2010-01-07

    During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as sporinite and cutinite with an oil generation potential typical of type II kerogen contribute to the source rock potential of the Um Irna Formation which is equivalent to the Khuff Formation in the oil provinces of Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (thermal maturity of dispersed OM ranges between 0.48 and 0.55% R{sub r} giving rise to the mature stage of oil generation). Additionally, Botryococcus-type algae point towards the presence of type I kerogen. Moreover the presence of solid bitumen and oil droplets (petroleum fluid expulsions) in the sediments of the Um Irna Formation indicates formation of hydrocarbons. Organic chemistry not only supported the coal petrographic findings but also indicated inhospitable aquatic conditions near the P/Tr boundary evidenced by PAHs present in the sample and by lots of charcoal. The tropical areas were affected by vast wildfires raging in the forest and swamps during the late Permian. They contributed to a highly toxic atmosphere, a decrease of the oxygen contents speeded up by dead OM spilled into the water and creating anoxia approaching the P/Tr boundary. The elevated geothermal gradient sparking hydrothermal alteration in the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation during the Late Permian may be accounted for as related to a precursor stage of the Dead Sea Rift, which is still active today in terms of migration of hot brines and hydrocarbons. (author)

  17. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. First use of coal

    Thery, I.; Gril, J.; Vernet, J.L.; Meignen, L.; Maury, J. [Universite de Montpellier II, Montpellier (France). Lab. de Paleobotanique, Environnement et Archaeologie

    1995-02-09

    Briefly discusses the use of coal by European Palaeolithic man. It suggests that prehistoric man may have resorted to coal during times of climate and forest regression while using wood for preference. 2 photos.

  19. Coal in Malaysia

    Husin, Z.A. (National Electricity Board (Malaysia))

    1990-03-01

    Malaysia has coal reserves, mainly in Sarawak and Sabah, of 80 million tonnes. It has larger reserves of crude oil and natural gas and also hydro resources. Details are given of the potential coal resources. A brief history of the exploitation of coal in Malaysia is given. Utilization of coal in the power sector and in the cement industry is discussed. Maps show the location of Malaysia's energy sources and power plants. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Polish brown coal

    A general information about brown coal genesis and occurrence is given. The brown coal deposits in Poland as well as their industrial utilization are described in detail. The descriptions of all Polish brown coal collieries are presented together with basic technical data. The influence of collieries on the environment is described, too. The role of brown coal in energy balance of Poland is assessed. The development perspectives of this energy sector are given. 1 fig., 29 ills, 7 tabs

  1. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  2. Underground coal gasification (UCG)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This Thermie Clean Coal Technology project (Project nos. SF/369/91 and SF/543/92) discussed the results from the underground gasification of subbituminous coal at a depth of 600 m in the Oliete-Arino coal basin in Alcorisa (Teruel), Spain.

  3. Palaeochannels (stone-rolls) in coal seams: Modern analogues from fluvial deposits of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, southern Africa

    Cairncross, B.; Stanistreet, I. G.; McCarthy, T. S.; Ellery, W. N.; Ellery, K.; Grobicki, T. S. A.

    1988-05-01

    Two varieties of fluvial sandstones are associated with coal seams in the Permian Witbank Coalfield of South Africa. The first comprises lenticular channel-fill sandstone, minor conglomerate and siltstone encased entirely within the coal seam. Medium- to coarse-grained arkosic sandstones are structured by planar cross-bedding and fine upwards into carbonaceous siltstone and overlying coal. These palaeochannel-fill deposits are 5 km wide in proximal basin areas and narrow down palaeoslope to less than 1 km in width. The second variety of channel fill consists of medium- to coarse-grained sandstone which occurs below the floor of the coal seam. These deposits form undulating ridges that occur either in sub-parallel groups or as isolated shoe-string type bodies at the coal-floor rock contact. Both features are referred to as stone-rolls in colliery terminology. These ancient deposits are compared with active and abandoned fluvial systems from the Okavango Delta in Botswana, southern Africa. Active channels are flanked by extensive peat swamps which effectively confine and stabilize the channel margins. Clastic sedimentation is therefore completely confined to the channels by the vegetation and deposition occurs by vertical aggradation. Recently abandoned channels in the Okavango Delta display a variety of well preserved bed-forms which alternate with scoured depressions along the thalweg producing an undulating topography to the channel floor. These features provide a modern analogue for the stone-rolls in the coalfield deposits. The subsequent channel abandonment, vegetation encroachment and peat formation over the sand bodies would form a coal seam superimposed on the irregular surface, provided channel abandonment was followed by subsidence, overlying sediment deposition, compaction and coalification of the peat. Although the Okavango rivers are narrower and transport finer-grained sand than their Permian counterparts, the mechanism of formation and style of deposition was similar for both systems.

  4. Quantum and classical aspects of deformed c = 1 strings

    The quantum and classical aspects of a deformed c=1 matrix model proposed by Jevicki and Yoneya are studied. String equations are formulated in the framework of the Toda lattice hierarchy. The Whittaker functions now play the role of generalized Airy functions in c<1 strings. This matrix model has two distinct parameters. Identification of the string coupling constant is thereby not unique, and leads to several different perturbative interpretations of this model as a string theory. Two such possible interpretations are examined. In both cases, the classical limit of the string equations, which turns out to give a formal solution of Polchinski's scattering equations, shows that the classical scattering amplitudes of massless tachyons are insensitive to deformations of the parameters in the matrix model. (author)

  5. Quantum and classical aspects of deformed c = 1 strings

    Nakatsu, T; Tsujimaru, S; Nakatsu, T; Takasaki, K; Tsujimaru, S

    1995-01-01

    The quantum and classical aspects of a deformed c=1 matrix model proposed by Jevicki and Yoneya are studied. String equations are formulated in the framework of Toda lattice hierarchy. The Whittaker functions now play the role of generalized Airy functions in c<1 strings. This matrix model has two distinct parameters. Identification of the string coupling constant is thereby not unique, and leads to several different perturbative interpretations of this model as a string theory. Two such possible interpretations are examined. In both cases, the classical limit of the string equations, which turns out to give a formal solution of Polchinski's scattering equations, shows that the classical scattering amplitudes of massless tachyons are insensitive to deformations of the parameters in the matrix model.

  6. The Carboniferous - Permian basins of Central and Western Bohemia, the Krkonoše Mt. foreland and the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic : part I

    Opluštil, S.; Martínek, K.; Lojka, R.; Rosenau, N.; Zajíc, Jaroslav; Šimůnek, Z.; Drábková, J.; Štamberg, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2014), s. 14-54. ISSN 1433-1284. [Field Meeting on Carboniferous and Permian Nonmarine – Marine Correlation. Freiberg, 21.07.2014-27.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Carboniferous * Permian * excursion guide Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  7. $C^{1,\\alpha}$ estimates for the parallel refractor

    Abedin, Farhan; Tralli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    We consider the parallel refractor problem when the planar radiating source lies in a medium having higher refractive index than the medium in which the target is located. We prove local $C^{1,\\alpha}$ estimates for parallel refractors under suitable geometric assumptions on the source and target, and under local regularity hypotheses on the target set. We also discuss existence of refractors under energy conservation assumptions.

  8. A Case of angioedema : C1 inhibitor deficiency

    Arijit Sinha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angioedema is rapid swelling (oedema of subcutaneous tissue involving dermis, mucosa and sub mucosal tissues. It may be IgE dependant, bradykinin mediated, complement mediated, non immunologic or idiopathic. It may be heriditory or acquired. In our case the child was suffering from recurrent episodes of angioedema and found to be due to C1 inhibitor deficiency. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 89-90

  9. A calcium isotope test of end-Permian ocean acidification using biogenic apatite

    Hinojosa, J.; Brown, S. T.; DePaolo, D. J.; Paytan, A.; Shen, S.; Chen, J.; Payne, J.

    2011-12-01

    Submarine erosional truncation of uppermost Permian carbonate strata has been interpreted to reflect ocean acidification coincident with the end-Permian mass extinction. Although this scenario is consistent with carbon isotope and paleontological data, several alternative scenarios, such as ocean overturn or collapse of the biological pump, can also account for the carbon isotope and paleontological evidence. Calcium isotopes provide a geochemical proxy to test between acidification and alternative scenarios. Specifically, a negative shift in the calcium isotope composition (δ44/40Ca) of seawater is predicted under the acidification scenario but not the alternatives. The δ44/40Ca of carbonate rocks from south China exhibits a negative excursion of approximately 0.3%, but this shift could result from either a change in the δ44/40Ca of seawater or a change in carbonate mineralogy because calcite and aragonite exhibit substantially different fractionation factors relative to seawater. To test whether the negative shift in δ44/40Ca reflects seawater δ44/40Ca or carbonate mineralogy, we measured the δ44/40Ca of conodont microfossils (calcium hydroxyapatite) from the global stratotype section for the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan, China. The conodont δ44/40Ca record shows a negative excursion similar in stratigraphic position and magnitude to that previously observed in carbonate rocks. Parallel negative excursions in the δ44/40Ca of carbonate rocks and conodont microfossils cannot be accounted for by a change in carbonate mineralogy but are consistent with a negative shift in the δ44/40Ca of seawater. These data add further support for the ocean acidification scenario, pointing toward strong similarities between the greatest catastrophe in the history of animal life and anticipated global change during the 21st century.

  10. Calibration of the C1XS instrument on Chandrayaan-1

    Narendranath, S., E-mail: kcshyama@isac.gov.i [Space Astronomy Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India); University of Calicut (India); Sreekumar, P. [Space Astronomy Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India); Maddison, B.J.; Howe, C.J.; Kellett, B.J.; Wallner, M. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Erd, C. [Advanced Studies and Technology Preparation Division, ESA, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Weider, S.Z. [School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Birbeck College (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-21

    The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray spectrometer (C1XS) experiment on the Chandrayaan-1 mission was designed to carry out spectroscopic observations in the 1-10 keV range for deriving lunar chemistry. We present results from the ground calibration of the Swept Charge Devices (SCDs) on C1XS at the RESIK X-ray beam facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK. The spectral redistribution function of the SCDs are determined in the energy range from 2.3-8 keV using discrete line energies from a monochromatic X-ray beam. The detection efficiency of the SCDs are determined relative to a reference Si-PIN detector. The Si-PIN detector itself has been calibrated at the beamlines of the synchrotron facility at PTB/BESSY II. A non-Gaussian response matrix which includes probability for partial absorption events in the SCD is constructed using instrument parameters obtained from ground calibration. The calibration spectra from the {sup 55}Fe radioactive isotopes obtained from C1XS while in the lunar orbit, are used to validate the response matrix derived on ground.

  11. Safety and surgical techniques of C1 lateral mass screws

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the proper insertion techniques of C1 lateral mass screws. Eighteen consecutive patients were examined after upper cervical fusion using twenty-nine C1 lateral mass screws. Screws were placed by three different techniques; Goel's technique (4), Tan's technique (20), Notching technique (5). Pre and post-operative CT scans with multiplanar reconstruction were used to detect cortical breaches and direction of screws. No transverse foramen and vertebral groove violation was found in CT scans. Three had breached superior articular facet of the atlas. However, the range of motion (R.O.M) of atlanto-occipital joints had not changed postoperatively. Theses screws were inserted with Tan's technique and two of three were directed medially. It is feasible to safely insert C1 lateral mass screws when correct insertion point and direction are considered preoperatively. However, care should be taken because screws can violate the atlanto-occipital joint especially with Tan's technique. (author)

  12. Double-scaled field theory at c=1

    We investigate the double-scaled free fermion theory of the c=1 matrix model. We compute correlation functions of the eigenvalue density field and compare with the predictions of a relativistic boson theory. The c=1 theory behaves as a relativistic theory at long distances, but has softer behavior at short distances. The soft-distance behavior is closely related to the breakdown of the topological expansion at high energies. We also compute macroscopic loop amplitudes at c=1, finding an integral representation for n-loop amplitudes to all orders of perturbation theory. We evaluate the integrals explicitly for two, three, and four macroscopic loops. The small loop length asymptotic expansion then gives correlation functions of local operators in the theory. The two-macroscopic-loop formula gives information on the spectrum and wave functions in the theory. The three- and four-loop amplitudes give scattering amplitudes for tachyon operators to all orders of perturbation theory. Again, the topological expansion breaks down at high energies. We compare our amplitudes with predictions from the Liouville theory. (orig.)

  13. End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century?

    Payne, Jonathan L.; Clapham, Matthew E.

    2012-05-01

    The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (˜252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread ocean anoxia and the eruption of one of Earth's largest continental flood basalt provinces, the Siberian Traps. Volatile release from basaltic magma and sedimentary strata during emplacement of the Siberian Traps can account for most end-Permian paleontological and geochemical observations. Climate change and, perhaps, destruction of the ozone layer can explain extinctions on land, whereas changes in ocean oxygen levels, CO2, pH, and temperature can account for extinction selectivity across marine animals. These emerging insights from geology, geochemistry, and paleobiology suggest that the end-Permian extinction may serve as an important ancient analog for twenty-first century oceans.

  14. Self-scrubbing coal

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  15. Rare earth element geochemistry of the Upper Permian limestone: the Kanigorgeh mining district, NW Iran

    Abedini, Ali; CALAGARI, Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    The limestone of the Ruteh Formation of Upper Permian age in the Kanigorgeh district (northeast of Bukan, NW Iran) contains several layers and lenses of bauxitic ores. Mineralogical data show that this limestone consists of calcite and quartz as major and plagioclase, kaolinite, and hematite as minor mineral phases. Geochemical analyses reveal that the proportions of ?REEs (La-Lu) in this limestone vary from 35.28 to 160.78 ppm. The values of Eu and Ce anomalies (normalized to PAAS) of the li...

  16. Palynology and stratigraphy preliminary study and the perforation 313/1, lower Permian. Uruguay

    The palynomorphs in the bore 313/1 of the Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia are analyzed. Twenty three samples were processed, and only 9 were fertile. The lithologies correspond to sandstones of variable grain size, to mudstone and to diamictite, all of them assigned to the San Gregorio and Tres Islas Fms. The most abundant genera of sporare are essentially represented by monosaccate grains. Bisaccate and striated grains are very scare. The palynoflora is comparable with those studied in Brazil in the Fm Rio Bonito. Therefore, it is proposed that the sediments studied were deposited in the early Permian. (author)

  17. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    Saitoh, M.; Ueno, Y.; Nishizawa, M.; Isozaki, Y.; Takai, K.; Yao, J.; Ji, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian, Sichuan, China, to clarify changes in the oceanic N cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation is composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils, such as calcareous algae, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high TOC contents, and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic conditions. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. δ15N values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. δ15N values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear δ15N shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low δ15N values suggest the enhanced N fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial δ15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic δ15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced N fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite δ15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed N is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to the shallow-marine biota.

  18. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    a sill complex, which in certain areas resembles a poorly outlined composite cone. The intrusions are not observed in the syn-tectonic sedimentary wedges and this combined with the general age of the intrusions suggests that the syn-tectonic wedges are of latest early Permian or earliest late...... characterizes the study area and causes rotation of older probably Paleozoic sediments and creates syn-tectonic sediment wedges. The syn-tectonic wedges most probably contain volcaniclastic sediments of the Karl Formation or sandstones of the Auk Formation, but it cannot be excluded that the earliest late...

  19. Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia

    Wang, Jun; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W.; ZHANG Yi; Feng, Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    Plant communities of the geologic past can be reconstructed with high fidelity only if they were preserved in place in an instant in time. Here we report such a flora from an early Permian (ca. 298 Ma) ash-fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, a time interval and area where such information is filling a large gap of knowledge. About 1,000 m2 of forest growing on peat could be reconstructed based on the actual location of individual plants. Tree ferns formed a lower canopy and either Cordaites, a conif...

  20. Significance of new breakthrough in and favorable targets of gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin

    Ping Shen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin represents favorable conditions for the formation of natural gas reservoirs. However, only fracture-vuggy limestone gas reservoirs were discovered in early exploration, whose scales and results were limited. In 2014, a high-yield industrial gas flow was produced there in Well Shuangtan 1, the major risk-exploration well, which means a great breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. This plays a strategically important and guiding role in oil and gas exploration in ultra-deep marine formations. This paper illustrates the deployment background of Well Shuangtan 1, major exploration achievements and its significance in the gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. Moreover, exploration potential and subsequent exploration targets of Middle Permian are analyzed in terms of its hydrocarbon source conditions, sedimentary characteristics, reservoir characteristics and areal extension, resources and favorable exploration zones. It is concluded that the Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin is a continent-connected carbonate platform with carbonate deposits being dominant. There are three types of reservoirs, including pore dolomite, karst fracture-vuggy, and fracture, which present considerable natural gas resources and huge exploration potential. Favorable exploration zones classification of Middle Permian in the Sichuan Basin indicates that the most favorable exploration zones are mainly distributed in the central-western Sichuan Basin. In particular, the northwestern Sichuan Basin is the most favorable exploration area which is characterized by the most excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, developed dolomite reservoirs and zonal distribution of structures.

  1. Hydrolysis of coal

    Ueda, S.; Ohuchi, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to previous studies of the hydrolysis of various types of coal, with accounts of the course of the reaction, coal types and reaction conditions. There is a discussion of the possibility of producing low molecular weight compounds from coal by the combined use of hydrolysis and hydrocracking. Using hydrolysis, which proceeds under more moderate conditions than thermal cracking or high-pressure hydrocracking, low molecular weight compounds were produced from coal with a high oxygen content. This is useful for analytic studies of the chemical structure of coal, and for improvements to the process. (54 refs.)

  2. Radionuclides in US coals

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Coal Data: A reference

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  4. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

  5. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  6. Coal and public perceptions

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  7. Indonesian coal export potential

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Evolution of calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism through Carboniferous convergence to Permian transcurrent tectonics, western Chinese Tianshan

    Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Shu, Liangshu S.; Faure, Michel; Charvet, Jacques; Chen, Yan; Meffre, Sébastien; De Jong, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Continuous magmatic activity occurred in the western Chinese Tianshan, Central Asia, from the Carboniferous to the Permian, i.e. before and after the Late Carboniferous amalgamation of Junggar and the Yili Blocks. Zircon U–Pb LA-ICPMS and Ar–Ar data reveal a coincidence in time between regional wrench faulting and granitoid emplacement. Permian post-collisional granitoids crop out within or at the margins of large-scale dextral strike-slip shear zones, some of them show synkinematic fabrics. ...

  9. Coal; Le charbon

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  10. The origin and early evolution of Sauria: reassessing the permian Saurian fossil record and the timing of the crocodile-lizard divergence.

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Scheyer, Torsten M; Butler, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Sauria is the crown-group of Diapsida and is subdivided into Lepidosauromorpha and Archosauromorpha, comprising a high percentage of the diversity of living and fossil tetrapods. The split between lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs (the crocodile-lizard, or bird-lizard, divergence) is considered one of the key calibration points for molecular analyses of tetrapod phylogeny. Saurians have a very rich Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil record, but their late Paleozoic (Permian) record is problematic. Several Permian specimens have been referred to Sauria, but the phylogenetic affinity of some of these records remains questionable. We reexamine and review all of these specimens here, providing new data on early saurian evolution including osteohistology, and present a new morphological phylogenetic dataset. We support previous studies that find that no valid Permian record for Lepidosauromorpha, and we also reject some of the previous referrals of Permian specimens to Archosauromorpha. The most informative Permian archosauromorph is Protorosaurus speneri from the middle Late Permian of Western Europe. A historically problematic specimen from the Late Permian of Tanzania is redescribed and reidentified as a new genus and species of basal archosauromorph: Aenigmastropheus parringtoni. The supposed protorosaur Eorasaurus olsoni from the Late Permian of Russia is recovered among Archosauriformes and may be the oldest known member of the group but the phylogenetic support for this position is low. The assignment of Archosaurus rossicus from the latest Permian of Russia to the archosauromorph clade Proterosuchidae is supported. Our revision suggests a minimum fossil calibration date for the crocodile-lizard split of 254.7 Ma. The occurrences of basal archosauromorphs in the northern (30°N) and southern (55°S) parts of Pangea imply a wider paleobiogeographic distribution for the group during the Late Permian than previously appreciated. Early archosauromorph growth strategies appear to be more diverse than previously suggested based on new data on the osteohistology of Aenigmastropheus. PMID:24586565

  11. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCÇ´ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  12. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian

    Komar, N.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies, and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6°C.

  13. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin

    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  14. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana.

    Mouro, Lucas D; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C S; Waichel, Breno L

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261

  15. Voluminous silicic eruptions during late Permian Emeishan igneous province and link to climate cooling

    Yang, Jianghai; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng

    2015-12-01

    Silicic eruptive units can constitute a substantive component in flood-basalts-dominated large igneous provinces, but usually constitute only a small proportion of the preserved volume due to poor preservation. Thus, their environmental impact can be underestimated or ignored. Establishing the original volume and potential climate-sensitive gas emissions of silicic eruptions is generally lacking for most large igneous provinces. We present a case study for the ˜260 Ma Emeishan province, where silicic volcanic rocks are a very minor component of the preserved rock archive due to extensive erosion during the Late Permian. Modal and geochemical data from Late Permian sandstones derived from the province suggest that silicic volcanic rocks constituted some ˜30% by volume of the total eroded Emeishan volcanic source rocks. This volume corresponds to > 3 ×104 km3 on the basis of two independent estimate methods. Detrital zircon trace element and Hf isotopic data require the silicic source rocks to be formed mainly by fractional crystallization from associated basaltic magmas. Based on experimental and theoretical calculations, these basalt-derived ˜104 km3 silicic eruptions released ˜1017 g sulfur gases into the higher atmosphere and contribute to the contemporaneous climate cooling at the Capitanian-Wuchiapingian transition (˜260 Ma). This study highlights the potentially important impact on climate of silicic eruptions associated with large igneous province volcanism.

  16. Mercury and trace element distribution in density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal: Implications for mercury reduction and preparation of export coal

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Connie L.; van Alphen, Chris; Koenig, Alan E.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Eight density separates of Permian Highveld (#4) coal were investigated for partitioning of Hg and trace elements. The separates include float fractions obtained in heavy media having densities of 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.0 g/cm3, and the sink fraction for 2.0 g/cm3. Bulk analysis of the separates shows strong (R2 ≥ 0.80) positive correlations between pyritic sulfur and mercury, and between ash yield and both pyritic sulfur and mercury. Laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of individual pyrite grains in the separates confirms association of Hg and As with pyrite as indicated by bulk analysis. Other elements detected in pyrite by LA-ICP-MS include Mn, Co, Ni, Tl, and Pb. Results for the separates allow prediction of Hg, trace elements, and ash yields expected in specific South African coal products. These range from 0.06 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 11.5% ash for the export fraction to 0.47 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 60.9% for the discard (stone) fraction (dry basis). Results show pronounced differences expected between coal used for domestic power generation and coal which is exported.

  17. Permian–Triassic palynostratigraphy in Mailaram area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Neerja Jha; Neha Aggarwal

    2012-10-01

    Palynological investigations of five borecores, viz., GAM-3, GAM-6, GAM-7, GAM-8 and GAM-10 from Mailaram area have suggested the occurrence of complete Lower Gondwana succession in Mailaram area. Total nine palynozones have been identified on the basis of dominance, sub-dominance and appearance of various palynotaxa. These palynozones belong to Talchir, Upper Karharbari and Barakar (Early Permian), Raniganj (Late Permian) and Panchet (Early Triassic) palynofloras of Indian Gondwana. The oldest Palynozone-1 demonstrated in borecore GAM-6 (331.4–500 m) and borecore GAM-10 (505.66–581.55 m), is characterized by the dominance of Parasaccites and sub-dominance of Plicatipollenites belongs to Talchir Palynoflora; Palynozone-2 identified in borecore GAM-7 (667–749 m) and borecore GAM-8 (89.75 m) is characterized by the dominance of Parasaccites and sub-dominance of Scheuringipollenites which belongs to Upper Karharbari Palynoflora. Palynozone-3, identified in borecore GAM-6 (149.7–240.05 m) and borecore GAM-8 (84.95 m), is characterized by the dominance of Scheuringipollenites akin to Scheuringipollenites zone of Barakar palynoflora; Palynozone-4, recorded in borecores GAM-3 (294–437.98 m), GAM-7 (453–640.5 m) and GAM-8 (35.35 m) is characterized by the dominance of Faunipollenites and sub-dominance of Striatopodocarpites along with certain stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Weylandites, Guttulapollenites, Corisaccites, Aurangapollenites and Osmundacidites. Palynozone-5, demarcated in borecore GAM-3 (144.86–221.3 m) and borecore GAM-10 (35.35 m), is distinguished by the dominance of striate disaccates along with at least 30% pollen assigned to Striasulcites; Palynozone-6, identified in borecore GAM-3 (35.1–73.08 m) and borecore GAM-7 (231–423 m), is characterized by the dominance of striate disaccates along with 20–30% of Densipollenites; Palynozone-7, recorded in borecore GAM-7 (206 m), is distinguished by the dominance of Crescentipollenites along with striate disaccates; Palynozone-8, identified in borecore GAM-7 (178.4 m), is characterized by the distinguished presence of taeniate pollen Guttulapollenites. Palynozones 4–8 belong to Raniganj Palynoflora. Palynozone-9, identified in borecore GAM-7 (166 m), is discriminated by the dominance of trilete spore Verrucosisporites and sub-dominance of taeniate pollen Lunatisporites which belongs to Triassic palynoflora. On the basis of palynological data Palynozone-1 (= Talchir palynoflora), Palynozone-2 and Palynozone-3 have been assigned to Early Permian age; Palynozones 4–8 (= Raniganj palynoflora) have been assigned to Late Permian age and Palynozone-9 (= Triassic palynoflora) has been assigned to Early Triassic age. With the aim of correlating the Permian and Triassic sediments of Mailaram area palynological investigations of five borecores were carried out.

  18. Clean coal technologies

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  19. Widespread inclination shallowing in Permian and Triassic paleomagnetic data from Laurentia: Support from new paleomagnetic data from Middle Permian shallow intrusions in southern Illinois (USA) and virtual geomagnetic pole distributions

    Domeier, M.; Van Der Voo, R.; Denny, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent paleomagnetic work has highlighted a common and shallow inclination bias in continental redbeds. The Permian and Triassic paleomagnetic records from Laurentia are almost entirely derived from such sedimentary rocks, so a pervasive inclination error will expectedly bias the apparent polar wander path of Laurentia in a significant way. The long-standing discrepancy between the apparent polar wander paths of Laurentia and Gondwana in Permian and Triassic time may be a consequence of such a widespread data-pathology. Here we present new Middle Permian paleomagnetic data from igneous rocks and a contact metamorphosed limestone from cratonic Laurentia. The exclusively reversed Middle Permian magnetization is hosted by low-Ti titanomagnetite and pyrrhotite and yields a paleomagnetic pole at 56.3??S, 302.9??E (A95=3.8, N=6). This pole, which is unaffected by inclination shallowing, suggests that a shallow inclination bias may indeed be present in the Laurentian records. To further consider this hypothesis, we conduct a virtual geomagnetic pole distribution analysis, comparing theoretical expectations of a statistical field model (TK03.GAD) against published data-sets. This exercise provides independent evidence that the Laurentian paleomagnetic data is widely biased, likely because of sedimentary inclination shallowing. We estimate the magnitude of this error from our model results and present and discuss several alternative corrections. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Coal sector profile

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  1. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  2. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document.

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-06-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization. PMID:25605519

  3. Land validation for GCOM-C1/SGLI using UAV

    Honda, Yhosiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Sharma, Ram; Ono, Akiko; Imaoka, Keiji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Hori, Masahiro; Ono, Yusaku; Rostand, Dim

    2012-09-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is going to launch new Earth observation satellite GCOM-C1 in near future. The core sensor of GCOM-C1, Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) has a set of along track slant viewing Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNR). These multi-angular views aim to detect the structural information from vegetation canopy, especially forest canopy, for estimating productivity of the vegetation. SGLI Land science team has been developing the algorithm for above ground biomass, canopy roughness index, shadow index, etc. In this paper, we introduce the ground observation method developed by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in order to contribute the algorithm development and its validation. Mainly, multi-angular spectral observation method and simple BRF model have been developed for estimating slant view response of forest canopy. The BRF model developed by using multi-angular measurement has been able to obtain structural information from vegetation canopy. In addition, we have conducted some observation campaigns on typical forest in Japan in collaboration with other science team experienced with vegetation phenology and carbon flux measurement. Primary results of these observations are also be demonstrated.

  4. Toward the accurate analysis of C1-C4 polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles.

    Zeigler, Christian; Wilton, Nicholas; Robbat, Albert

    2012-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASH) are sulfur analogues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Alkylated PAH attract much attention as carcinogens, mutagens, and as diagnostics for environmental forensics. PASH, in contrast, are mostly ignored in the same studies due to the conspicuous absence of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) retention times and fragmentation patterns. To obtain these data, eight coal tar and crude oils were analyzed by automated sequential GC-GC. Sample components separated based on their interactions with two different stationary phases. Newly developed algorithms deconvolved combinatorially selected ions to identify and quantify PASH in these samples. Simultaneous detection by MS and pulsed flame photometric detectors (PFPD) provided additional selectivity to differentiate PASH from PAH when coelution occurred. A comprehensive library of spectra and retention indices is reported for the C(1)-C(4) two-, three-, and four-ring PASH. Results demonstrate the importance of using multiple fragmentation patterns per homologue (MFPPH) compared to selected ion monitoring (SIM) or extraction (SIE) to identify isomers. Since SIM/SIE analyses dramatically overestimate homologue concentrations, MFPPH should be used to correctly quantify PASH for bioavailability, weathering, and liability studies. PMID:22339202

  5. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    Tahtouh Muriel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR, which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech.

  6. Coal tar in dermatology

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  7. Sampling the coal chain

    P.E., Hand.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is a complex heterogeneous commodity that can be mined in a number of ways and needs to be processed to a homogeneous quality that satisfies the customer's requirements, while attempting to maximize revenues. Only a small proportion of coal is suitable for metallurgical use. Export coals cover [...] a wide range of qualities and some coals can be used optimally in the raw state for energy production. Critical quality parameters vary and can be a combination of heat value, ash, volatiles, sulphur, phosphorus, sizing, amongst others. The level of beneficiation is generally dictated by the washability of the coal, mining contamination, and the target product quality. The steps in the coal chain covered in this paper comprise exploration, mining selections, production, the washing process, and product delivery. Many points of sampling are needed to maximize yield at the correct quality, and some of these will be described in the paper.

  8. Coal comes clean

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  9. Coal in a hole?

    Woof, M.

    1998-05-01

    The editor of World Mining Equipment discusses the tangled position of the European coal industry, affected by concerns over acid rain and carbon dioxide emissions, and by subsidies. He outlines the debate in the UK about gas versus coal and about coal subsidies in Germany (which could affect mines in other European countries). The requirement to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to minimise the problem of acid rain will have a direct bearing on coal mining firms and equipment manufacturers so it is possible that the only future for the industry lies with clean coal technologies. Even here, there is no easy answer as it is not clear how developing nations will be able to pay for these more expensive clean coal systems. 2 photos.

  10. Coal, culture and community

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  11. Clean coal technologies

    Coal represents the most abundant and wide distributed solid fuel. On worldwide level coal represents 27 % of primary energy resources. It is expected that the role of coal in electricity production will maintain. Romanian steam coal reserves, representing more than 80 % lignite from Oltenia basin are low grade quality (low heat value and high specific sulfur content). Need of clean coal technologies (CCT) is obvious in order to respect European environmental regulations. Criteria determining the choice of one or other CCT are well known - emissions reduction, efficiency, fuel flexibility and costs - but the option for a suitable alternative is difficult to make, because it depends on real conditions of each case. It is very important to identify and develop the most economically viable and environmentally sound coal technology in Romanian specific condition. (author). 7 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

  12. Progress on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata in Rio Grande do Sul State, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Souza Paulo A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of published papers and results of analysis of new material have allowed improvements on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata of the Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul State. Based on first and last occurrences of certain species of pollen taxa, two palynozones are formalized, these are the Vittatina costabilis and Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zones, in ascending order. The Vittatina costabilis Interval Zone is subdivided into two units, in ascending order the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis and the Hamiapollenites karrooensis Subzones, and is recognized from the glacial (Itararé Group and post-glacial sequence (Rio Bonito Formation and the base of the Palermo Formation. The Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zone occurs from the uppermost Rio Bonito Formation, through the Palermo and Irati formations, and into the Serra Alta and Teresina formations. The main characteristics and reference sections are established, as well as additional criteria to recognize biostratigraphical units, in accordance with the International Stratigraphic Guide. Palynostratigraphical correlation suggests that the Vittatina costabilis Zone concerns the Early Permian (early Cisuralian, while the Lueckisporites virkkiae is regarded as late Early Permian to early Middle Permian (late Cisularian to early Guadalupian.

  13. New data on Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian deposits of Bol'shevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago

    Victoria B. Ershova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present here a detailed study of the Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian stratigraphy of Bol'shevik Island in the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, consisting of the analysis of sedimentary structures and lithostratigraphy, U/Pb detrital zircon dating and structural studies. The preserved sedimentary structures suggest that the studied strata were deposited in a relatively small meandering fluvial system. U/Pb dating of detrital zircons reveals that the Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian sandstones contain a primary age population ranging from 450 to 570 millions of years, with a predominance of Early–Middle Ordovician zircons. This detrital zircon distribution indicates that the studied formations were derived locally from the erosion of Lower Ordovician deposits of Bol'shevik Island or elsewhere in the archipelago. Our structural studies suggest that Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian deposits are deformed into a series of west–north-west verging open asymmetric folds, suggesting a west–north-west direction of tectonic transport and that deformation across the island is post-Early Permian in age.

  14. No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin

    Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y; Piasecki, Stefan; Stemmerik, Lars

    is not indicative of an abrupt change of redox chemistry in water columns, in contrast to previous claims. The integration of isotope and framboidal pyrite data provides a nearly continuous record of ocean chemistry evolution and new insights into the end-Permian extinction and delayed biotic...

  15. Climatic and biotic changes around the Carboniferous/Permian boundary recorded in the continental basins of the Czech Republic

    Opluštil, S.; Šimůnek, Z.; Zajíc, Jaroslav; Mencl, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2013), s. 114-151. ISSN 0166-5162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biotic change * Bohemian Massif * Carboniferous-Permian transition * continental basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2013

  16. Coal and our environment

    This booklet describes how coal is important for economic development and how it can be used without environmental damage. Aspects covered include: improved air quality; Clean Air Act; controlling emissions from coal; flue gas desulfurization; acid rain; the greenhouse effect and climatic change; the cost of clean air; surface coal mining and land reclamation; underground mining and subsidence; and mining and water pollution including acid mine drainage

  17. The coal question

    Fine, B.

    1990-01-01

    The coal industry has occupied a central position in the British economy over the last two centuries. Although its employment (over a million workers) and output (almost 300 million tonnes of which a third were exports) peaked around the First World War, its rise to such heights and its subsequent decline have been dominant features of the British industrial landscape. Moreover, the conflicts that have surrounded the history of coal, most notably the strikes of 1926 and 1984/85, have had a more general impact on British society. This book is primarily concerned with the economic analysis that has been employed to understand the coal industry. Part I deals with the theory of monopoly and examines monopoly capitalism and the coal vend, and cartels and rationalization in the 1930s. Part II considers coal royalties and reviews the debate which took place at the turn of the century as to whether or not coal royalties were comparable to an economic rent. It also discusses the miner's own approach to the problem, which was one of practical measures such as nationalization of the royalties. Coal and cliometrics are the focus of part III. McCloskey's early classic study of the late nineteenth century coal industry is reviewed, and the increasing returns to scale in the British coal industry in the interwar period and the diffusion of mechanical coal cutting discussed. Part IV deals with contemporary problems in the coal industry. It assesses the economic analysis that has emerged in response to privatization and discusses electricity privatization and approaches to the privatization of coal.

  18. Coal's future is crushed

    The review aims to establish the basic factors and trends that are expected to drive metallurgical coal and coke utilization and demand for the immediate future. Influences discussed include: the development of new technology, e.g. pulverized coal injection (PCI) to reduce coke consumption where capitive capacity is limited; elimination of government subsidies to coal producers; the rationalization of European steel plants; and environmental legislation such as the US Clean Air Act. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 photos

  19. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  20. Clean coal technologies

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  1. Optimal coal import strategy

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  2. Developing Queensland coal

    Philp, A. [Australian QTherm (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Despite regional economic woes and falling coal prices, there have been exciting developments in Queensland`s coal industry with the announcement of three new coal mines, four mine expansions and two mine feasibility studies being undertaken. The article describes new projects being undertaken in Coppabella, Morahbah North and Hall Creek all in the Northern Bowen Basin, and mine expansions underway at Burton, Enshan, Newlands and Oaky North. Feasibility studies are the progress in the Millmerran and Acland deposits in The Moreton Basin. However, a number of proposed expansions at some major mines, such as Moura, Saraji and Peak Downs, have been postponed due to falling international coal prices. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  3. Serbia: coal industry revamp

    NONE

    2001-07-17

    International donors pledged an unanticipated 1.28 bn dollars for economic, social and institutional reforms in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The article gives details of three coal industry projects to be undertaken. One is to develop the Tamnava-Western Field opencast mine to provide coal for CHP Kolubara B - a second is to increase the capacity of the lignite opencast mine Drmo to provide coal for power plant Kostolac A; a third is to define new coal mines in coalfields such as Kolubara, Kostolac and Kovin.

  4. C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems

    Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.

  5. A novel C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) protein from Mytilus coruscus with the transcriptional analysis against marine pathogens and heavy metals.

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Xiang, Li-Xin; Shao, Jian-Zhong

    2014-05-01

    The C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins, which are involved in various processes of vertebrates, are important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity of invertebrates. In present study, a novel C1qDC was identified from Mytilus coruscus (designated as McC1qDC), which was 917 bp in length encoding 236 amino acids with a typical signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues in N-terminus. Based on its conserved C1q domain and molecular architecture of 10 ?-strand jelly-roll folding topology structure, McC1qDC might be classified as a member of the C1q family. The mRNA transcript of McC1qDC was predominantly detectable in the hemocytes, and a less degree in gill, gonad and mantle, but trace in foot, adductor and digestive gland. Upon induction by Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio alginolyticus, McC1qDC expression was significantly up-regulated. Time-dependent mRNA expression of McC1qDC was found during copper and cadmium exposure for its heavy metal-binding domain. These results indicated that McC1qDC was a novel member of the C1qDC protein family as a pattern recognition receptor against pathogens, and might be developed as a potential indicator for monitoring heavy metals pollution. PMID:24296435

  6. Lipid Biomarker Records Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary from Kap Stosch, Greenland

    Hays, L. E.; Love, G. D.; Foster, C. B.; Grice, K.; Summons, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    The end-Permian extinction was the most severe in the past 500 million years of the Earth's history and evidence that an oceanic anoxic event (OAE) occurred contemporaneously has been presented previously [1,2]. OAEs have, therefore, been proposed as responsible for the mass mortality, and if the anoxic ocean was also euxinic, the release of hydrogen sulfide during upwelling and/or transgression provides an extinction agent in the ocean as well as on land. Chlorobiaceae, as indicators of photic zone euxinia (PZE), utilize hydrogen sulfide as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The detection of isorenieratane and a series of short-chain monoaromatic aryl isoprenoids, biomarkers for Chlorobiaceae, in sediments indicates the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the photic zone of the water column during sediment deposition. The Kap Stosch area in Eastern Greenland was identified as a Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) outcrop of homogeneous shale, silty shale, and siltstone facies [3]. Another late Permian section in Eastern Greenland, the Ravnefjeld Formation, has framboidal pyrites indicative of sulfidic deep water [4]. A sample suite from the Kap Stosch region was studied using standard organic geochemistry methods including stable isotopic analyses of organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and biomarker hydrocarbon analysis. Aryl isoprenoids, including isorenieratane, were present in all samples studied and the concentrations were observed to fluctuate in tandem with TOC, similar to other Mesozoic OAEs. The molecular ratios of pristane/phytane and hopanes/steranes as well as the 2-methyl-hopane index (2-MHI) fluctuated dramatically through this section as they do at the type section at Meishan and in the Perth Basin [5]. The 2-MHI shows an inverse pattern to the total aryl isoprenoids, perhaps indicative of instability in the form of primary productivity in the water column during euxinic episodes. This can result in nitrogen limitation and a competitive advantage of cyanobacteria over microalgae for nutrient resources [6]. Overall, the biomarker patterns in these samples indicate the presence of PZE at this location leading up to and continuing through the PTB. 1. Isozaki Y., 1997. Science 276, 235. 2. Wignall P. and R. Twichett, 1996. Science 272, 1155. 3. Teichert C. and B. Kummel, 1972. Bull. Canadian Petrol. Geol. 20, 659. 4. Nielsen J. and Y. Shen, 2004. Geology 32, 1037. 5. Grice K., et al., 2005. Science 307, 706. 6. Kuypers M., et al., 2004. Geology 32, 853.

  7. Gradients in seasonality and seawater oxygen isotopic composition along the early Permian Gondwanan coast, SE Australia

    Beard, J. Andrew; Ivany, Linda C.; Runnegar, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of marine carbonates are commonly employed for understanding ancient temperatures, but this approach is complicated in the very distant past due to uncertainties about the effects of diagenesis and the isotopic composition of seawater, both locally and globally. Microsampled accretionary calcite from two species of the fossil bivalve Eurydesma Sowerby and Morris 1845 collected from sediments of Cisuralian age in high latitude marine sediments along the SE coast of Australia records cyclic seasonal fluctuations in shell ?18O values during growth, demonstrating the primary nature of the isotope signal and thus allowing investigation of early Permian seawater isotopic composition and water temperature in the high southern latitudes. The mean and seasonal range of ?18Ocarb decreases poleward across about 10° of paleolatitude (?67°S-77°S). The presence of co-occurring dropstones and stratigraphically associated glendonites constrains winter temperatures across the region to near-freezing, thus permitting calculation of realistic estimates of water composition and summer temperatures. Summer ?18Ocarb values indicate water temperatures between 5 °C and 12 °C, with warmer values at lower latitudes. The decrease in both mean sea surface temperature and seasonal amplitude with increasing latitude on the Gondwanan coast is much like that observed along high-latitude coastlines today. Calculated ?18Owater decreases toward the pole, likely associated with an increasing contribution of isotopically light fresh water derived from summer snow-melt. The gradient in ?18Owater is similar to that documented over a similar span of latitude on the modern SE Greenland coast. We infer the presence of a north-flowing coastal current of cold, O18-depleted water that entrains progressively greater amounts of more typical seawater as it moves away from the pole. ?18O values in SE Australia, however, are about 3‰ lower than those off Greenland, suggesting comparatively lower salinity water or more O18-depleted glacial ice/runoff in the Permian Gondwanan high latitudes, perhaps augmented by more depleted (negative) global average seawater. Conditions in southeastern Australia during the largest of the Permian deglaciations were warmer than present-day Antarctica at similar latitudes, but may approximate those of early-mid Miocene Antarctica, with frozen winters but summers closer to 10 °C.

  8. WILDFIRES IN THE LATE PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS THE LATE PERMIAN OF THE BLETTERBACH-BUTTERLOCH AREA (NORTHERN ITALY

    DIETER UHL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time fossil macroscopic remains of charcoal as direct evidence of palaeo-wildfires from the Late Permian Gröden Formation of the Bletterbach-Butterloch area in Northern Italy is described. The charcoal consists of pycnoxylic wood and originates from gymnosperms, but a more specific affiliation is not possible due to the fragmentary nature of the material. On a global scale our knowledge about Late Permian fire-ecology is still rather scarce and this finding helps to fill one of the numerous geographical gaps in our current knowledge about Late Permian wildfires. 

  9. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  10. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  11. South African coal statistics 2004

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This book includes: total coal production, local consumption per consuming industry, types of coal produced and production from various coalfields, coal qualities by mine, rail transport and port information, details of the January 2004 agreement between the shareholders of the RBCT with the National Ports Authority to make available 4.0 mtpa of entitlement at the Terminal for Common Users, Black Economic Empowerment companies involved in the coal industry including coal reserves, ownership, coal resources, mining methods, underground and opencast mines, a directory on coal companies and staff with details on the emerging coal exporters as well as smaller companies which do not have export entitlement out of Richards Bay.

  12. Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

  13. The Indonesian coal industry

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  14. Problems and advances in exploration: Masamba, French permian and Rirang areas(summary)

    The results of this prospection in Masamba, based on 705 stream sediments samples, 362 heavy minerals samples, 98 rock samples, and a maximum of 0.85 % uranium were particularly positive. Exploration of the Permian basin of Lodeve, near Montpellier in the south of France contains actually about 18,000 tonnes of economic uranium, which the half is already exploited, and about 750 supplementary tonnes of uranium were found and exploited. Radioactive boulders, uranium and rare earths rich, are known since 1974 in the Rirang valley, in the Kalan Basin, In 1986 and 1988 the main activity is to collect rock and ores samples for complementary studies and to test an emanometric survey.(IR)

  15. Methanogenic Blow-up in the End-Permian Carbon Cycle

    Rothman, D.; Fournier, G.; French, K. L.; Alm, E.; Boyle, E. A.; Cao, C.; Summons, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The end-Permian extinction is associated with a mysterious disruption to Earth's carbon cycle. Here we identify causal mechanisms via three observations. First, we show that geochemical signals indicate an incipient singular blow-up of the marine inorganic carbon reservoir, coincident with the extinction and consistent with the evolutionary expansion of a new microbial metabolic pathway. Second, we show that the fast acetoclastic pathway in Methanosarcina, limited by nickel and responsible for most modern biogenic methane, emerged at a time statistically indistinguishable from the extinction. Finally, we show that nickel concentrations in South China sediments increased sharply at the extinction, probably as a consequence of massive Siberian volcanism and enabling the blow-up. Collectively, these results suggest that a specific microbial innovation instigated Earth's greatest mass extinction.

  16. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  17. Reproductive biology of the Permian Glossopteridales and their suggested relationship to flowering plants.

    Taylor, E L; Taylor, T N

    1992-12-01

    The discovery of permineralized glossopterid reproduction organs from Late Permian deposits in the Beard-more Glacier region (central Transantarctic Mountains) of Antarctica provides anatomical evidence for the adaxial attachment of the seeds to the megaasporophyll in this important group of Late Paleozoic seed plants. The position of the seeds is in direct contradiction to many earlier descriptions, based predominatly on impression/compression remains. The attachement of the ovules on the adaxial surface of a leaf-like megasporophyll, combined with other features, such as megaga-reproductive biology in this group than has previously been hypothesized. The findings confirm the classification of the Glossopteridales as seed ferns and are important considerations in disscussion of the phylogeny of group, including their suggested role as close relatives or possible ancestors of the angiosperms. PMID:11607341

  18. Restoration of marine ecosystems following the end-Permian mass extinction: pattern and dynamics

    Chen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Life came closest to complete annihilation during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME). Pattern and cause of this great dying have long been disputed. Similarly, there is also some debate on the recovery rate and pattern of marine organisms in the aftermath of the EPME. Some clades recovered rapidly, within the first 1-3 Myr of the Triassic. For instance, foraminiferal recovery began 1 Myr into the Triassic and was not much affected by Early Triassic crises. Further, some earliest Triassic body and trace fossil assemblages are also more diverse than predicted. Others, ie. Brachiopods, corals etc., however, did not rebound until the Middle Triassic. In addition, although ammonoids recovered fast, reaching a higher diversity by the Smithian than in the Late Permian, much of this Early Triassic radiation was within a single group, the Ceratitina, and their morphological disparity did not expand until the end-Spathian. Here, I like to broaden the modern ecologic network model to explore the complete trophic structure of fossilized ecosystems during the Permian-Triassic transition as a means of assessing the recovery. During the Late Permian and Early Triassic, primary producers, forming the lowest trophic level, were microbes. The middle part of the food web comprises primary and meso-consumer trophic levels, the former dominated by microorganisms such as foraminifers, the latter by opportunistic communities (i.e. disaster taxa), benthic shelly communities, and reef-builders. They were often consumed by invertebrate and vertebrate predators, the top trophic level. Fossil record from South China shows that the post-extinction ecosystems were degraded to a low level and typified by primary producers or opportunistic consumers, which are represented by widespread microbialites or high-abundance, low-diversity communities. Except for some opportunists, primary consumers, namely foraminifers, rebounded in Smithian. Trace-makers recovered in Spathian, which also saw biodiversity increases of some clades. However, benthic communities were still of low diversity and high abundance and did not recover until middle-late Anisian when reef ecosystems have also constructed. The mid-Anisian ecosystems were characterized by the diverse reptile and fish faunas such as the Luoping biota from Yunnan, Southwest China, in which marine reptiles diversified as top predators. Thus, ecosystems were constructed step by step from low level to top trophic level through the Griesbachian to late Anisian, some 8-9 Myr after the crisis. Moreover, although some top predators also rebounded spoarically in Early Triassic, they constructed incomplete and unstable ecosystems, which could not develop sustainably and thus did not occur repetitedly in younger strata. The contrast between the extrinsic and intrinsic models exemplifies a wider debate about macroevolution -- whether the key driver is the physical environment or biotic interactions. Case studies on microbe-metazoan interactions in matground ecosystems reveal that microbial bloom seems to have set an agenda for metazoan diversification in Early Triassic, implying that intrinsic dynamics may have played a crucial role driving ecosystem's restoration following the EPME.

  19. Synchronism of the Siberian Traps and the Permian-Triassic boundary

    Campbell, I. H.; Czamanske, G. K.; Fedorenko, V. A.; Hill, R. I.; Stepanov, V.

    1992-12-01

    Uranium-lead ages from an ion probe were taken for zircons from the ore-bearing Noril'sk I intrusion that is comagmatic with, and intrusive to, the Siberian Traps. These values match, within an experimental error of +/- 4 million years, the dates for zircons extracted from a tuff at the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the P-Tr extinction was caused by the Siberian basaltic flood volcanism. It is likely that the eruption of these magmas was accompanied by the injection of large amounts of sulfur dioxide into the upper atmosphere, which may have led to global cooling and to expansion of the polar ice cap. The P-Tr extinction event may have been caused by a combination of acid rain and global cooling as well as rapid and extreme changes in sea level resulting from expansion of the polar ice cap.

  20. Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Neerja Jha; M Basava Chary; Neha Aggarwal

    2012-10-01

    The entire 606 m-thick sedimentary sequence in borecore MCP-7 from Chintalapudi area, Chintalapudi sub-basin has been lithologically designated as Kamthi Formation. However, the palynological investigation revealed five distinct palynoassemblages, which essentially fall under two groups, one group (Palynoassemblage-I, II and III) having dominance of striate disaccates along with presence of some stratigraphically significant taxa, belongs to Late Permian (Raniganj) palynoflora, while the other group (Palynoassemblages IV and V) shows sharp decline in percentage of characteristic taxa of first group, i.e., striate disaccates, and consequent rise or dominance of taeniate and cingulate cavate spores, belongs to Early Triassic (Panchet) palynoflora. Palynoassemblage-I, II and III (Group I) are characterized by dominance of striate disaccates chiefly, Striatopodocarpites spp. and Faunipollenites spp. Along with presence of rare but stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Gondisporites raniganjensis, Falcisporites nuthaliensis, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Chordasporites sp., Striomonosaccites, ovatus, Crescentipollenites multistriatus, Verticipollenites debiles, Strotersporites crassiletus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, G. gondwanensis, Hamiapollenites insolitus, Corisaccites alutus, Lunatisporites ovatus, Weylandites spp. and Vitreisporites pallidus. Palynoassemblage-I is distinguished by significant presence of Densipollenites spp. while Palynoassemblage-II shows significant presence of Crescentipollenites spp. and Palynoassemblage-III differs from the above two assemblages in having significant presence of Guttulapollenites hannonicus. Palynoassemblage-IV (Group II) is characterized by high percentage of taeniate disaccates chiefly Lunatisporites spp., while Palynoassemblage-V (Group II) is characterized by cingulate-cavate trilete spores chiefly, Lundbladispora spp. and Densoisporites spp. Striate disaccates show a sharp decline in these two assemblages. In Chintalapudi area Late Permian and Early Triassic palynoflora has been recorded for the first time indicating existence of Raniganj and Panchet sediments as well. The study further supports the earlier studies of Jha and Srivastava (1996) that Kamthi Formation represents Early Triassic (=Panchet Formation) overlying Raniganj equivalent sediments with a gradational contact.

  1. Anomalous carbonate precipitates: is the Precambrian the key to the Permian?

    Grotzinger, J. P.; Knoll, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    Late Permian reefs of the Capitan complex, west Texas; the Magnesian Limestone, England; Chuenmuping reef, south China; and elsewhere contain anomalously large volumes of aragonite and calcite marine cements and sea-floor crusts, as well as abundant microbial precipitates. These components strongly influenced reef growth and may have been responsible for the construction of rigid, open reefal frames in which bryozoans and sponges became encrusted and structurally reinforced. In some cases, such as the upper biostrome of the Magnesian Limestone, precipitated microbialites and inorganic crusts were the primary constituents of the reef core. These microbial and inorganic reefs do not have modern marine counterparts; on the contrary, their textures and genesis are best understood through comparison with the older rock record, particularly that of the early Precambrian. Early Precambrian reefal facies are interpreted to have formed in a stratified ocean with anoxic deep waters enriched in carbonate alkalinity. Upwelling mixed deep and surface waters, resulting in massive seafloor precipitation of aragonite and calcite. During Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic time, the ocean became more fully oxidized, and seafloor carbonate precipitation was significantly reduced. However, during the late Neoproterozoic, sizeable volumes of deep ocean water once again became anoxic for protracted intervals; the distinctive "cap carbonates" found above Neoproterozoic tillites attest to renewed upwelling of anoxic bottom water enriched in carbonate alkalinity and 12C. Anomalous late Permian seafloor precipitates are interpreted as the product, at least in part, of similar processes. Massive carbonate precipitation was favored by: 1) reduced shelf space for carbonate precipitation, 2) increased flux of Ca to the oceans during increased continental erosion, 3) deep basinal anoxia that generated upwelling waters with elevated alkalinities, and 4) further evolution of ocean water in the restricted Delaware, Zechstein, and other basins. Temporal coincidence of these processes resulted in surface seawater that was greatly supersaturated by Phanerozoic standards and whose only precedents occurred in Precambrian oceans.

  2. Eopolydiexodina (Middle Permian giant fusulinids) from Afghanistan: Biometry, morphometry, paleobiogeography, and end-Guadalupian events

    Colpaert, Clémentine; Monnet, Claude; Vachard, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The most spectacular macroevolutionary trend presented by the genera of schwagerinoid fusulinids, during the Pennsylvanian -Permian, is an enormous increase in size, which culminated in the Middle Permian with Eopolydiexodina. However, this potential major biogeographic marker, during the Kubergandian-early Midian time interval, is as yet hampered by its poor taxonomic characterization. Hence, Eopolydiexodina is revised here using biometric and morphometric methods applied to large collections from Afghanistan and selected taxa in the literature. These multivariate analyses consist of classical linear test parameters, as well as new area parameters acquired by computer image analysis. The Afghan species are re-defined, and some other species, occasionally described as Cimmerian, are re-discussed. These methods, combined with classical morphological analyses, also permit to conclude that the largest Eopolydiexodina of Afghanistan are microspheric specimens (probably agamonts) of E. afghanensis and E. bithynica. Two megalospheric groups of individuals (probably gamonts and schizonts) are represented in both species, as well as in E. persica and E. darvasica. Due to this presence of gamonts, agamonts and schizonts in several species, Eopolydiexodina is probably the oldest identified trimorphic genus among the large benthic foraminifers. Biostratigraphically, Eopolydiexodina appears restricted to the late Kubergandian to early Midian. The associated Afghan fusulinids (Dunbarula, Kahlerina, Afghanella, Yangchienia, Sumatrina, and Codonofusiella) allow proposing an accurate biostratigraphy of the Eopolydiexodina species in the Murgabian-Midian boundary interval. Paleobiogeographically, Eopolydiexodina was essentially located in the Laurentian and Perigondwanan borders of the Tethys. The possible presence of Eopolydiexodina in the Cimmerian Continent and in some regions of China has never been irrefutably demonstrated. This paleobiological revision of Eopolydiexodina and the biostratigraphic revision of other large Capitanian fusulinids, permit to suggest that the end-Guadalupian event is most probably a protracted succession of last appearance data of giant genera rather than an instantaneous Lilliput effect at the Capitanian/Wuchiapingian boundary.

  3. Cadmium-isotopic evidence for increasing primary productivity during the Late Permian anoxic event

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Horner, Tristan J.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Bingen, Bernard; Rehkämper, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Earth's most extreme extinction event near the end of the Late Permian decimated more than 90% of all extant marine species. Widespread and intensive oceanic anoxia almost certainly contributed to the catastrophe, though the driving mechanisms that sustained such conditions are still debated. Of particular interest is whether water column anoxia was a consequence of a 'stagnant ocean', or if it was controlled by increases in nutrient supply, primary productivity, and subsequent heterotrophic respiration. Testing these competing hypotheses requires deconvolving sedimentary/bottom water redox conditions from changes in surface water productivity in marine sediments. We address this issue by studying marine shales from East Greenland and the mid-Norwegian shelf and combining sedimentary redox proxies with cadmium-isotopic analyses. Sedimentary nitrogen-isotopic data, pyrite framboid analyses, and organic and inorganic shale geochemistry reveal sulfidic conditions with vigorous upwelling, and increasingly anoxic conditions with a strengthening upwelling in the Greenland and Norwegian sections, respectively. Detailed analysis of sedimentary metal budgets illustrates that Cd is primarily associated with organic carbon and records primary geochemical signatures, thus enabling reconstruction of surface water nutrient utilization. Cadmium-isotopic analyses of the authigenic shale fraction released by inverse aqua regia digestion yield an average δ114Cd110 of + 0.15 ± 0.01 ‰ (2 SE, n = 12; rel. NIST SRM 3108), indicative of incomplete surface water nutrient utilization up-section. The constant degree of nutrient utilization combined with strong upwelling requires increasing primary productivity - and not oceanic stagnation - to balance the larger nutrient fluxes to both study sites during the development of the Late Permian water column anoxia. Overall, our data illustrate that if bottom water redox and upwelling can be adequately constrained, Cd-isotopic analyses of organic-rich sediments can be used to provide valuable information on nutrient utilization and therefore past productivity.

  4. Dolomitized cells within chert of the Permian Assistência Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Calça, Cléber P.; Fairchild, Thomas R.; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Hachiro, Jorge; Petri, Setembrino; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitic microscopic structures in the form of microspheres, "horseshoe- shaped" objects, and thin botryoidal crusts found within microfossiliferous chert within stromatolites of the Evaporite Bed (EB) of the Permian Assistência Formation, Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The microspheres were identified as dolomitized coccoidal cyanobacteria based on similarity in size, spheroidal and paired hemispheroidal morphologies and colonial habit to co-occurring silicified organic-walled cyanobacteria embedded within the same microfabric and rock samples. The co-occurrence of dolomite, pyrite framboids, and abundant dispersed carbonaceous material and silicified cells is consistent with a hypersaline depositional environment with abundant cyanobacterial mats and elevated Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratios and reducing conditions with active anoxic microbial processes near the water-(bio)sediment interface. The abundance of extracellular polymeric substances facilitated anoxic microbial processes (sulfate reduction), providing essential conditions for possible primary microbially induced dolomitization. In most of the dolomitized cells dolomite occurs only as an external layer; in fully dolomitized cells magnesium is richest in the outermost layer. Presumably, the dolomitization process was favored by the presence of anoxic microbial degraders and negatively charged functional groups at the surface of the cyanobacterial cells. Botryoidal dolomite rims of silica-filled fenestrae formed by a similar process and inherited the botryoidal morphology of the cell as originally lining the fenestrae. Silicification interrupted the dolomitization of the largely organic biosediment, mostly by permineralization, but locally by substitution, thereby preserving not only dolomitic microspheres, but also huge numbers of structurally well-preserved organic-walled cyanobacteria and portions of microbial mat. Clearly, dolomitization began very early in the microbial mats, prior to compaction of the sediment or full obliteration of cellular remains, followed very closely by silicification thereby impeding continued degradation and providing a window onto very well-preserved Permian microbial mats.

  5. Paleoceanographic conditions following the end-Permian mass extinction recorded by giant ooids (Moyang, South China)

    Li, Fei; Yan, Jiaxin; Algeo, Thomas; Wu, Xia

    2013-06-01

    Early Triassic oceans were characterized by deposition of a number of "anachronistic facies", including microbialites, seafloor carbonate cement fans, and giant ooids. Giant ooids were particularly prevalent in Lower Triassic sections across South China and exhibit unusual features that may provide insights into marine environmental conditions following the end-Permian mass extinction. The section at Moyang (Guizhou Province) contains abundant giant ooids ranging in size between 2 and 6 mm (maximum 12 mm) and exhibiting various cortical structures, including regular, deformed, compound, regenerated and "domed". Preservation of ooid cortical structure is generally good as indicated by petrographic observations, and trace element and carbon isotope analyses suggest that diagenesis occurred in a closed diagenetic system. All ooids exhibit fine concentric laminae, frequently alternating between light-colored coarsely crystalline and dark-colored finely crystalline layers probably reflecting variation in organic content or original mineralogy. Under scanning electron microscope, biomineralized filaments or biofilms and tiny carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) crystals are commonly found in the finely crystalline layers. We infer that the precipitation of CFA was related to adsorption of P via microbial activity on the surfaces of ooids following episodic incursions of deep waters rich in CO2, H2S and phosphate into shallow-marine environments. Giant ooid precipitation may have been promoted in shallow ramp settings during these events by increased watermass agitation and supersaturation with respect to CaCO3, as well as reduced carbonate removal rates through biotic skeletal formation. Spatio-temporal distribution data reveal that giant ooids were widespread in the Tethyan region during the Early Triassic, and that they were most abundant immediately after the end-Permian crisis and disappeared gradually as metazoans repopulated marine environments.

  6. Photoelectric effect in coals

    Lizun, S.A.; Petkevich, G.I.; Sizonenko, V.S.; Furtak, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    The method and apparatus used to study the photoelectric effect are described. Special attention was paid to the kinetics involved when coals were excited by various light sources, of different character and spectrum, as a function of factors governing the surface condition of the coal such as temperature and atmosphere. A mechanism is suggested to explain the experimental results. (5 refs.)

  7. Biostimulators from coal

    Semenov, L.V.

    1984-04-01

    A report is presented on a meeting of the Bureau of the Scientific Council of the Ministry of Coal Industry of the USSR on chemistry of fossil fuels held on 21-22 November 1983 in Moscow. Papers delivered during the meeting are evaluated. Chemistry of black and brown coal from the USSR was analyzed. Chemical coal properties which are of particular significance for coal use as an agricultural fertilizer (biostimulator of plant growth) were investigated. Brown and black coal with the highest oxidation level used as a fuel by power plants could be used for production of fertilizers with a high content of humic acids. Tests carried out in the USSR in various climatic zones (in the North and in Central Asia) showed that biostimulators from coal improved plant growth, reduced ripening period, increased crops, improved physical properties of soils (prevented moisture losses). Utilizing selected wastes from coal processing for production of biostimulators was also discussed. Methods for coal preparation for biostimulant production (crushing, screening, chemical processing) were evaluated. Prospects of biostimulator use in land reclamation were discussed.

  8. Clean coal technology

    This paper shows data of current and projected SO2 emissions, ambient pollution in major Asian cities; Benefits of natural gas Use in Power Generation; Efficiency of thermal power plants in India and China. It discusses Coal Benefitiation meaning use of high efficiency coal technologies i.e. reducing particulate emissions

  9. LIBS Analysis for Coal

    E. Romero, Carlos; De Saro, Robert

    Coal is a non-uniform material with large inherent variability in composition, and other important properties, such as calorific value and ash fusion temperature. This quality variability is very important when coal is used as fuel in steam generators, since it affects boiler operation and control, maintenance and availability, and the extent and treatment of environmental pollution associated with coal combustion. On-line/in situ monitoring of coal before is fed into a boiler is a necessity. A very few analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis are available commercially with enough speed and sophistication of data collection for continuous coal monitoring. However, there is still a need for a better on-line/in situ technique that has higher selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and that is safer and has a lower installation and operating costs than the other options. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is ideal for coal monitoring in boiler applications as it need no sample preparation, it is accurate and precise it is fast, and it can detect all of the elements of concern to the coal-fired boiler industry. LIBS data can also be adapted with advanced data processing techniques to provide real-time information required by boiler operators nowadays. This chapter summarizes development of LIBS for on-line/in situ coal applications in utility boilers.

  10. Development of coal resources

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  11. The coal deal

    Woof, M.

    2001-12-01

    This paper reports on the Katowice 2001 coal mining show in Poland. A wide array of mining equipment manufacturers supported the vent including companies from Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, Sweden, the USA and the UK. There was a particular focus on underground coal although other sectors, such as copper mining, were also represented.

  12. Dry piston coal feeder

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  13. Mineral and coal processing

    Hall, S.T. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The paper reviews developments in the field of processing minerals and coal with reference to presentations at several major conferences during the last year and to recent publications. It includes topics such as computers; comminution; grinding and classification; gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separation; froth flotation; and the treatment of particular minerals including coal. 129 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Hydrogen production from coal

    1975-01-01

    The gasification reactions necessary for the production of hydrogen from montana subbituminous coal are presented. The coal composition is given. The gasifier types mentioned include: suspension (entrained) combustion; fluidized bed; and moving bed. Each gasification process is described. The steam-iron process, raw and product gas compositions, gasifier feed quantities, and process efficiency evaluations are also included.

  15. An assay for C1q biosynthesis in cultured human fibroblasts

    With a standard C1 haemolytic assay, cultured human fibroblasts were shown to synthesize and secrete haemolytically active C1 and C1q. A radioimmunoassay for detection and quantitation of intra-cellular biosynthesis and secretion of C1q was then developed, using Sepharose beads covalently coated with goat monospecific anti-C1q IgG. The fibroblasts were labelled with tritiated amino acids. The molecular structure of fibroblast C1q was found to be unusual in 2 ways: firstly, it probably represented an enlarged pro-C1q, and secondly, the secreted molecule had a different structure from the cell associated molecule. (Auth.)

  16. Coal Formation and Geochemistry

    Orem, W. H.; Finkelman, R. B.

    2003-12-01

    Coal is one of the most complex and challenging natural materials to analyze and to understand. Unlike most rocks, which consist predominantly of crystalline mineral grains, coal is largely an assemblage of amorphous, degraded plant remains metamorphosed to various degrees and intermixed with a generous sprinkling of minute syngenetic, diagenetic, epigenetic, and detrital mineral grains, and containing within its structure various amounts of water, oils, and gases. Each coal is unique, having been derived from different plant sources over geologic time, having experienty -45ced different thermal histories, and having been exposed to varying geologic processes. This diversity presents a challenge to constructing a coherent picture of coal geochemistry and the processes that influence the chemical composition of coal.Despite the challenge coal presents to geochemists, a thorough understanding of the chemistry and geology of this complex natural substance is essential because of its importance to our society. Coal is, and will remain for sometime, a crucial source of energy for the US and for many other countries (Figure 1). In the USA, more than half of the electricity is generated by coal-fired power plants, and almost 90% of the coal mined in the USA is sold for electricity generation (Pierce et al., 1996). It is also an important source of coke for steel production, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and even perfumes ( Schobert, 1987). It may also, in some cases, be an economic source of various mineral commodities. The utilization of coal through mining, transport, storage, combustion, and the disposal of the combustion by-products, also presents a challenge to geochemists because of the wide range of environmental and human health problems arising from these activities. The sound and effective use of coal as a natural resource requires a better understanding of the geochemistry of coal, i.e., the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the coal that control its technological behavior, by-product characteristics, and environmental and human health impacts. In this chapter, we will try to make geochemical sense of this wonderfully complex and important resource. (5K)Figure 1. Photograph of a low rank coal bed (lignite of Pliocene age) from southwestern Romania.

  17. Methane of the coal

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  18. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  19. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  20. The renaissance of coal

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  1. State coal profiles, January 1994

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  2. Radiation damage of the HEAO C-1 germanium detectors

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage from proton bombardment of the four HEAO C-1 high purity germanium detectors have been measured and compared to predictions. Because of the presence of numerous gamma-ray lines in the detector background spectra and because of the relatively long exposure time of the HEAO 3 satellite to cosmic-ray and trapped protons, it has been possible to measure both the energy and time dependence of radiation damage. After 100 d in orbit, each of the four detectors has been exposed to approximately 3 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm, and the average energy resolution at 1460 keV had degraded from 3.2 keV fwhm to 8.6 keV fwhm. The lines were all broadened to the low energy side although the line profile was different for each of the four detectors. The damage-related contribution to the degradation in energy resolution was found to be linear in energy and proton influence.

  3. Attitudes toward Women Coal Miners in an Appalachian Coal Community.

    Trent, Roger B.; Stout-Wiegand, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    In a coal mining community, a survey revealed that the level of negative sentiment toward women coal miners was substantial and varied by gender role. Male coal miners were negative toward female co-workers, but they supported women's right to coal mine jobs, while female homemakers did not. (Author/CH)

  4. The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO42- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO42- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

  5. Application of isotopic analyses to study the influence of exploitation of brown coal on the pollution of groundwater

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulfur in sulfates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO42- samples from numerous wells and piezometers in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO42- concentration and sulfur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed the recognition of three groups of sulfates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome; (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulfates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulfides in water-bearing rocks. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. WILDFIRES IN THE LATE PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS THE LATE PERMIAN OF THE BLETTERBACH-BUTTERLOCH AREA (NORTHERN ITALY)

    DIETER UHL; RAINER BUTZMANN; THILO C. FISCHER; BARBARA MELLER; EVELYN KUSTATSCHER

    2012-01-01

    For the first time fossil macroscopic remains of charcoal as direct evidence of palaeo-wildfires from the Late Permian Gröden Formation of the Bletterbach-Butterloch area in Northern Italy is described. The charcoal consists of pycnoxylic wood and originates from gymnosperms, but a more specific affiliation is not possible due to the fragmentary nature of the material. On a global scale our knowledge about Late Permian fire-ecology is still rather scarce and this finding helps to fill one of ...

  7. The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe.

    Virgili, C.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important climatic and biological crises of the history of the Earth occurred 250 m.a. ago, during the transition from the Permian to the Triassic. During the Permian, all of the continental blocks were covering one hemisphere forming the Pangea supercontinent, while the other was covered by the Panthalasa ocean. General conditions for living on land were very precarious. The exuberant vegetation of the Carboniferous period had disappeared almost completely, as well as the ...

  8. The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe

    Virgili, Carmina

    2008-01-01

    [EN] One of the most important climatic and biological crises of the history of the Earth occurred 250 m.a. ago, during the transition from the Permian to the Triassic. During the Permian, all of the continental blocks were covering one hemisphere forming the Pangea supercontinent, while the other was covered by the Panthalasa ocean. General conditions for living on land were very precarious. The exuberant vegetation of the Carboniferous period had disappeared almost completely, as w...

  9. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  10. Coal Mines Security System

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  11. Coal: Less than lackluster

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  12. Strategies for Washing Australian Coals

    Mackinnon, W.L.A.; Swanson, A.R. [Downer EDI Engineering Projects Pty. Ltd. QCC, East Maitland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    This article represents a distillation of QCC's experience over the last 20 years in developing coal-washing circuits to optimize coal recoveries for a wide range of Australian coals. The article will look at typical washabilities and product types to capture the general washing requirements. The major processing equipment will be reviewed as to their typical usage in the Australian context. From this background the processing circuits and strategies commonly used will be discussed for the relevant coal types, including hard coking coal, semi-hard coking coal, PCI, export thermal, and domestic thermal coal from the major producing regions in NSW and Queensland.

  13. Homozygosity for a novel mutation in the C1q C chain gene in a Turkish family with hereditary C1q deficiency

    Gulez, N; Genel, F; Atlihan, F; Gullstrand, B; Skattum, L; Schejbel, L; Garred, P; Truedsson, L

    2010-01-01

    -to-arginine substitution affecting the collagen-like region of C1q. No changes were seen in the exons of the A and B chains. The mutation affected both the formation and the secretion of C1q variant molecules. We describe a novel mutation in the C1q C chain gene that leads to an interchange in amino acids resulting in...

  14. On ultrahot coal

    It is discussed how improvement of the electric efficiency of coal-fired power plants can contribute to a reduction of the CO2 emission. Next to global aspects, attention is paid to the impact of efficiency improvement on the Dutch situation. It is concluded that worldwide replacement of low-efficient coal-fired power plants by ultra-supercritical fine coal-fired power plants can result in a considerable reduction (-50%) of CO2, and also of SOx, NOx and particulates. In the Netherlands emission can be reduced by 20% and in the future even more. 3 refs

  15. Coal. A human history

    Freese, B.

    2002-07-01

    Prized as 'the best stone in Britain' by Roman invaders who carved jewellery out of it, coal has transformed societies, powered navies, fueled economies, and expanded frontiers. Yet the mundane mineral that built our global economy and even today powers our electrical plants, has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. As early as 1306, King Edward I tried to ban coal (unsuccessfully) because its smoke became so obnoxious. Its recent identification as a primary cause of global warming has made it a cause celebre of a new kind. This book describes the history of coal, that began three hundred million years ago and spans the globe.

  16. Farewell, king coal!

    Seaton, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Coal mining provided the power for the industrial development of the West, at great cost to the health of the workforce and, from industrial pollution, of the population. Medical appreciation of the diseases of miners was slow to develop and has been marked by controversy relating to the roles of coal and quartz and the causation of emphysema. Research by the MRC and the British coal industry resolved these issues as the industry itself declined. However, from the research has come an understanding of the influence of inhalation of different inhaled pollutants on human health that has been applied to predicting and preventing possible hazards of developing nanotechnologies. PMID:26856364

  17. Coal-fired generation

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  18. Beneficiation of Coals: A Review

    Shashwata Ghosh; Dr. Chanchal Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Coal is an important fossil fuel and is used as a major source of energy in power plants and blast furnaces. But, Indian coals contain a large amount of impurities, particularly ash forming mineral matter, which interfere withproper combustion of coal and decreases its calorific value. Industrial uses demand coal with minimum ash content so that it can be efficiently used in metallurgical, or, power plants. This paper reviews the removal of ash-forming minerals of coal using chemical ...

  19. Permian depositional age of metaturbidites of the Duque de York Complex, southern Chile: U-Pb SHRIMP data and palynology

    The Duque de York Complex (DYC) is part of the low grade metamorphic accretionary complexes of the pre-Andean Patagonian 'basement'. It is a sedimentary succession exposed along the western margin of southernmost South America. New U-Pb zircon ages and palynological data restrict the maximum depositional age of the DYC to the limit between the early Permian (Kungurian) and the middle Permian (Roadian). The palynological association recorded in the DYC, characterized mainly by Gymnospermopsida pollen, indicates a humid environment of forest with an under-growth of ferns. Regional paleogeographic correlations point out that an interpretation of DYC as an autochthonous terrane cannot be discarded, contrasting with previous hypotheses which suggest an allochthonous character for this complex

  20. Paleobiology of a unique vertebrate coprolites concentration from Rio do Rasto Formation (Middle/Upper Permian), Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q.; Horn, Bruno; Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-12-01

    A large number of coprolites were collected in one outcrop in the lacustrine facies of Rio do Rasto Formation (Middle/Upper Permian) in Southern Brazil. The material ranges from 0.6 cm to 11 cm in length. Their mineralogy, inclusions and morphology were studied to infer their biological source and taphonomy. All of them contain fragments of bones and fish scales, as well as crystalline apatite, and therefore are assigned to carnivores. A wide variety of morphotypes is described, including the knots and the well-known spiral coprolites (heteropolar and amphipolar), as well as a new kind of heteropolar coprolite we called as "edge", that has the whorls grouped in the very end of one pole. These data allow us to instead that a wide variety of vertebrates lived in the lakes of the Middle/Upper Permian in southern Brazil.

  1. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

  2. Impact of Zn-Pb mining in the Olkusz ore district on the Permian aquifer (SW Poland).

    Motyka, Jacek; Postawa, Adam

    2013-11-01

    Long-term extensive mining of Zn-Pb ores in the Olkusz area resulted in significant changes of water table levels and chemical composition of water in all aquifers in this area. Within the Permian aquifer, hydrochemical type of water evolved in two general stages. Short-term effect was freshening in the zones of contact with overlying the Triassic limestones and dolomites. Long-term effect was a change in flow pattern and, as a consequence, an inflow of naturally altered and antropogenically contaminated water from the Triassic aquifer into the Permian complex. This was especially intensive in densely fissured and fault zones. As a result of all these processes, hydrochemical type of water shifted from multi-ion types with various combinations of ions towards higher shares of sulphates, calcium and magnesium. PMID:23633000

  3. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  4. FUSULINID SEQUENCE EVOLUTION AND SEQUENCE EXTINCTIONIN WOLFCAMPIAN AND LEONARDIAN SERIES (LOWER PERMIAN),GLASS MOUNTAINS, WEST TEXAS

    CHARLES A. ROSS; JUNE R. P. ROSS

    2003-01-01

    In the Permian Wolfcampian and Leonardian Series of West Texas, sequence evolution and sequence extinction record the appearance and disappearance of morphological species in stratigraphic successions that show repeated sea level fluctuations and associated depositional hiatuses. The lower Wolfcampian Nealian Stage includes 16 relatively short term sea-level fluctuations (fourth-order depositional sequences) and contains a diverse fusulinid fauna of more than 39 species and eight genera. ...

  5. Diagenesis and reservoir quality of deeply buried Permian sandstones in the Central Graben : a mineralogical, petrographical and petrophysical approach

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with the diagenesis and reservoir quality prediction of deeply buried Rotliegend sandstone from Northern Permian Basin (NPB) in the Central Graben. Cored intervals from two wells (1/3-5 and 2/10-2) have been investigated by petrographical and petrophysical analysis. Quartz cementation is the main process destroying porosity in deeply buried quartz rich sandstone reservoirs of the North Sea. Quartz cement precipitation takes place as syntaxial overgrowths, which starts at t...

  6. Genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Deposits within Permian Carboniferous-Carbonate Rocks in Madina Regency, North Sumatra

    Bhakti Hamonangan Harahap; Hamdan Zainal Abidin; Wahyu Gunawan; Rum Yuniarni

    2015-01-01

    Strong mineralized carbonate rock-bearing Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-(Au) ores are well exposed on the Latong River area, Madina Regency, North Sumatra Province. The ore deposit is hosted within the carbonate rocks of the Permian to Carboniferous Tapanuli Group. It is mainly accumulated in hollows replacing limestone in the forms of lensoidal, colloform, veins, veinlets, cavity filling, breccia, and dissemination. The ores dominantly consist of galena (126 000 ppm Pb) and sphalerite (2347 ppm Zn). The other...

  7. Development of framboidal pyrite in the Upper Permian marly limestone of the NE-Hungarian Darnó Hill

    Kiss, Gabriella; Zaccarini, Federica

    2013-01-01

                The NE Hungarian Darnó Hill has a complex geology; it is built up by an accrétionary mélange complex, which contains Permian, Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary and magmatic blocks too. The succession can be well correlated with the NW Dinarides, and evidences of the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan Ocean (rifting, marginal basin opening, closure) were described too.            Several ore indications are known from this area, but their genesis was by far not well re...

  8. First record of shared species of Late Permian small foraminiferids in Australia and Russia: Time correlations and plate reconstructions

    Palmieri, V.; Foster, C. B.; Bondareva, E. V.

    At least 12 species of small calcareous foraminiferids known from early Late Permian assemblages from Arctic Russia and adjacent areas also occur in assemblages from the earstern Australian Ingelara Formation of the Bowen Basin (Queensland). A key species is Pseudonodosaria borealis (Gerke 1952), newly recognized in Australia. The shared species allow direct correlation with Late Permian Russian assemblages of Kazanian age. This is the first microfaunal evidence of correlative strata in Gondwana; previous chronologic ties in this region have relied on rate and geographically scattered records of ammonoids from both eastern and western Australia. Other shared foraminiferids from the Ingelara Formation include taxa described in 1914 by Tscherdynzev (Nodosaria krotovi, N. noinskii and N. netchajevi, Lenticulina (Astacolus) rotaliaeformis); and by Gerke in 1952 and 1961 (Frondicularia inflata, F. bella, F. prima, F. tijanica, F. dilemma, Tristix permiana, Nodosaria cuspidulata). A brief synonymy shows that almost all of these Russian taxa may have been recognized previously in Australian assemblages, but under different names. Pseudonodosaria serocoldensis (Crespin 1945) is considered an ancestor of P. borealis and its appearance in older assemblages in both Spitsbergen (Kungurian) and Australia (Bowen Basin, late Artinskian) suggests that similar evolutionary developments of the faunas occurred throughout a continuous seaway that connected these areas since the early Permian. Migration of these benthic forms is presumed to have occurred via deep ocean currents and suggests that either Arctic Russia (Nordvik Basin, Siberia: parts of Novaya Zemlya) and Spitsbergen were in closer proximity to Australia than is generally accepted in modern plate reconstructions for the Late Permian or, most likely, that new oceanic dispersal patterns are required to explained their distributions.

  9. Volatility study of [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C2C3im][NTf2] ionic liquids

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C2C3im][NTf2] ionic liquids are reported. • [C1C1im][NTf2] presents higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than expected. • The high volatility of [C2C3im][NTf2] is a result from its asymmetric character. -- Abstract: Vapor pressures of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C1C1im][NTf2]) and 1-ethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C2C3im][NTf2]) ionic liquids were measured as a function of temperature using a Knudsen effusion apparatus combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. Enthalpies and entropies of vaporization were derived from the fitting of vapor pressure and temperature results to the Clarke and Glew equation. [C1C1im][NTf2] presents a higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than the neighboring members of the series. The enthalpy of vaporization of [C2C3im][NTf2] lies in between the asymmetric and symmetric ionic liquid series, reflecting a decrease in the electrostatic interactions due to a decrease of the charge accessibility between the ionic pairs when the methyl group is replaced by an ethyl group. The obtained higher volatility of [C2C3im][NTf2] arises from its asymmetric character, leading to an higher entropic contribution that compensates the enthalpic penalty. The border conditions ([C1C1im][NTf2], [C2C1im][NTf2] and [C2C2im][NTf2]), topology ([C2C3im][NTf2]) and symmetry/asymmetry of the ILs effect were evaluated and rationalized based on a comparative analysis of the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies and entropies of vaporization

  10. Tiarajudens eccentricus and Anomocephalus africanus, two bizarre anomodonts (Synapsida, Therapsida) with dental occlusion from the Permian of Gondwana.

    Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Jashashvili, Tea; de Oliveira Bueno, Ana; Dentzien-Dias, Paula

    2015-07-01

    Anomodontia was a highly successful tetrapod clade during the Permian and the Triassic. New morphological information regarding two bizarre basal anomodonts is provided and their palaeoecological significance is explored. The osteology of the recently discovered Tiarajudens eccentricus Cisneros et al. 2011, from the Brazilian Permian, is described in detail. The taxon exhibits unusual postcranial features, including the presence of gastralia. Additional preparation and computed tomography scans of the holotype of Anomocephalus africanus Modesto et al. 1999 discovered in the Karoo Basin of South Africa allow a reappraisal of this genus. Anomocephalus is similar to Tiarajudens with regard to several traits, including a battery of large, transversally expanded, palatal teeth. Molariform teeth are present in the mandible of the African taxon, providing additional insight into the function of the earliest tooth-occlusion mechanism known in therapsids. At least two waves of tooth replacement can be recognized in the palate of Anomocephalus. The outsized, blade-like caniniforms of the herbivorous Tiarajudens allow several non-exclusive ecological interpretations, among which we favour intraspecific display or combat. This behaviour was an alternative to the head-butting practised by the contemporary dinocephalians. Combat specializations that are considered typical of Cenozoic herbivores likely evolved during the Middle Permian, at the time the first communities with diverse, abundant tetrapod herbivores were being assembled. PMID:26587266

  11. Kerogen morphology and geochemistry at the Permian-Triassic transition in the Meishan section, South China: Implication for paleoenvironmental variation

    Sawada, Ken; Kaiho, Kunio; Okano, Kazuki

    2012-08-01

    Detailed fluorescent microscopic observations and organic geochemical analyses for insoluble sedimentary organic matter (kerogens) are conducted on the end-Permian to earliest Triassic sediments in the Meishan section A of South China. The main objectives of the present study are to reconstruct variations of marine and terrestrial environments, and to evaluate bulk characteristics of terrestrial input in the palaeo-Tethys ocean for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). Most of kerogens in the Meishan section are mainly composed of marine algae-derived amorphous organic matter, while terrestrial plant-derived amorphous organic matter is remarkably dominant in the mass extinction horizon reported previously. The relative abundances of marine organic matter may vary depending on marine production rather than terrestrial input in the palaeo-Tethys associated with changing terrestrial vegetation. We also identified aromatic furans as major compounds in kerogen pyrolysate of all layers. It is possible that sources of aromatic furans with alkyl group, fungi and lichen, proliferated as disaster biota in terrestrial ecosystem through the PTB. Higher abundances of herbaceous organic matter are observed in the layers above the mass extinction horizon. However, the conifer biomarker retene can be identified in kerogen pyrolysates of all layers. These results imply that the productions of herbaceous plants increased as dominant pioneer biota in early stage of recovery for terrestrial ecosystem after its collapse, but also that woody plant potentially continued to be produced in land area throughout the end-Permian and earliest-Triassic.

  12. Australian-derived detrital zircons in the Permian-Triassic Gympie terrane (eastern Australia): Evidence for an autochthonous origin

    Li, Pengfei; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Yang, Jin-Hui; Hoy, Derek

    2015-05-01

    The Tasmanides in eastern Australia record accretionary processes along the eastern Gondwana margin during the Phanerozoic. The Gympie terrane is the easternmost segment of the Tasmanides, but whether its origin was autochthonous or allochthonous is a matter of debate. We present U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Gympie terrane with the aim of tracing the source of the sediments and constraining their tectonic relationships with the Tasmanides. Our results show that the Permian stratigraphic units from the Gympie terrane mainly contain Carboniferous and Permian detrital zircons with dominant age peaks at ~263 Ma, ~300 Ma, ~310 Ma, and ~330 Ma. The provenance ages of the Triassic sedimentary units are similar (~256 Ma, ~295 Ma, and ~328 Ma) with an additional younger age peak of ~240 Ma. This pattern of provenance ages from the Gympie terrane is correlative to episodes of magmatism in the adjacent component of the Tasmanides (New England Orogen), indicating that the detrital zircons were dominantly derived from the Australian continent. Given the widespread input of detrital zircons from the Tasmanides, we think that the sedimentary sequence of the Gympie terrane was deposited along the margin of the eastern Australian continent, possibly in association with a Permo-Triassic continental arc system. Our results do not show evidence for an exotic origin of the Gympie terrane, indicating that similarly to the vast majority of the Tasmanides, the Gympie terrane was genetically linked to the Australian continent.

  13. The armoured dissorophid Cacops from the Early Permian of Oklahoma and the exploitation of the terrestrial realm by amphibians.

    Reisz, Robert R; Schoch, Rainer R; Anderson, Jason S

    2009-07-01

    Cacops, one of the most distinctive Paleozoic amphibians, is part of a clade of dissorophoid temnospondyls that diversified in the equatorial region of Pangea during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, persisting into the Late Permian in Central Russia and China. Dissorophids were a successful group of fully terrestrial, often spectacularly armoured predators, the only amphibians apparently able to coexist with amniotes when the latter started to dominate terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, we describe excellent new skulls from the Early Permian of Oklahoma attributed to Cacops, Cacops morrisi sp. nov. and provide for the first time detailed information about this iconic dissorophid. These specimens show anatomical and ontogenetic features that will impact on future studies on the evolution of terrestriality in tetrapods. For example, the large, posteriorly closed tympanic embayment has fine striations on an otherwise smooth surface, documenting the oldest known clear evidence for the presence of a tympanic membrane in the fossil record, a structure that is used for hearing airborne sound in extant tetrapods. The skull of C. morrisi also has several features associated with predatory behaviour, indicating that this dissorophid may have been one of the top terrestrial predators of its time. PMID:19347261

  14. Provenance of Permian Malužiná Formation sandstones (Hronicum, Western Carpathians: evidence from monazite geochronology

    Vozárová Anna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Permian Malužiná Formation and the Pennsylvanian Nižná Boca Formation are Upper Paleozoic volcano- sedimentary complexes in the Hronicum nappe system. Sandstones, shales and conglomerates are the dominant lithological members of the Malužiná Formation sequence. Detrital monazites were analysed by electron microprobe, to obtain Th-U-Pb ages of the source areas. The majority of detrital monazites showed Devonian-Mississippian ages, ranging from 330 to 380 Ma with a weighted average of 351 ± 3.3 (2σ, that correspond well with the main phase of arcrelated magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians. Only a small portion of detrital monazites displayed Permian ages in the range of 250-280 Ma, with a significant maximum around 255 Ma. The weighted average corresponds to 255 ± 6.2 Ma. These monazites may have been partially derived from the synsedimentary acid volcanism that was situated on the margins of the original depositional basin. However, some of the Triassic ages (230-240 Ma, reflect, most likely, the genetic relationship with the overheating connected with Permian and subsequent Triassic extensional regime. Detrital monazite ages document the Variscan age of the source area and also reflect a gradual development of the Hronicum terrestrial rift, accompanied by the heterogeneous cooling of the lithosphere.

  15. Coal exports still growing

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  16. Coal Industry Bill

    Privatization of the British hardcoal mining industry enters into the final stage. The statutory basis will be created by the 'Coal Industry Bill' being discussed at present in Parliament and which will probably be signed by the Queen in summer 1994 and then become a law. The 'Coal Industry Bill' stipulates in detail in which way British Coal will be dissolved and which competences will be transferred to the newly created coal authority. The allocation of powers and responsibilities to successor organizations will be determined as well as the role of the state for e.g. pension and concessionary commitments. Another important subject is the distribution of the charges for mining damages, and reclamation and environmental protection. (orig.)

  17. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  18. Clean utilization of coal

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  19. Improvements in monitoring coal

    An instrument for determining a first characteristic of a material, eg ash in coal, by X-radiation comprises a turntable with material feeding means. An X-radiation source and detector unit determines the first characteristic, and a microwave source and detector unit, determine a second characteristic of the material, eg moisture in coal. The turntable is transparent to microwaves in at least the region traversed by the microwaves. (author)

  20. Coal liquefaction process

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  1. Improving coal transfer

    Lovitz, J. [Oldenburg Stamler Corp. (United States)

    2002-08-01

    The paper describes how advances in the design of haulage systems have improved the transport of coal between the continuous miner and belt conveyor system. Oldenburg Stamler's equipment is described. The company produces battery-powdered coal haulers (the BH10 and BH20 series), feeders and feeder breakers for use in surface and underground operations, and continuous haulage systems (that can be regarded as between the continuous miner and panel belt conveyor). 2 figs., 7 photos.

  2. World coal production

    NONE

    2005-12-01

    With demand for world coal on the rise this paper takes a look at the major coal regions one by one. Countries covered are: China; India; Australia; Indonesia; USA; Canada; Colombia; South Africa; Russia; Ukraine; Kazakhstan; Germany and Poland. The article is a summary of a review by John Knight of Petrofac Training Ltd., published in the 2005 edition of Mining Annual Review. 3 figs.

  3. Interaction of C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) with C1r, C1s, MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and the MBL-associated protein MAp19

    Thiel, S; Petersen, Steen Vang; Vorup-Jensen, T; Matsushita, M; Fujita, T; Stover, C M; Schwaeble, W J; Jensenius, J C

    2000-01-01

    of C1r and C1s with C1q in that both high salt concentrations and calcium chelation (EDTA) are required to fully dissociate the MASPs or MAp19 from MBL. In the presence of calcium, most of the MASP-1, MASP-2, and MAp19 emerged on gel-permeation chromatography as large complexes that were not...... associated with MBL, whereas in the presence of EDTA most of these components formed smaller complexes. Over 95% of the total MASPs and MAp19 found in serum are not complexed with MBL. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jul-15...

  4. Evolution of groundwater from Permian and Triassic aquifers in the Thuringian basin, Germany

    Lonschinski, Martin; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The hydrochemical properties of shallow and deep groundwater with special emphasis on stable isotopes (2H, 18O, 34SSO4, 18OSO4) as well as rare earth elements (REE) are investigated to study the evolution of groundwater in the edge areas of the Thuringian basin (central Germany). The Thuringian basin is a syncline structure with an extension of 160 km in northwest-southeast and 100 km in northeast-southwest direction. It consists of sandstones, limestones, clays, gypsum and salts, that were deposited from the Late Permian until the Early Jurassic (approximately 250 to 180 million years ago). At the edge areas of the basin, sediments of Zechstein (Permian) and Bunter Sandstone (Early Triassic) are cropping out over a wide area being the catchment areas for ground water recharge of the main aquifers in Bunter Sandstone and Zechstein formations. In addition to the infiltration of atmospheric water, highly mineralized ascending groundwater occurs at fault systems leading to interactions between the aquifers. The isotope data of dissolved sulfates (34SSO4) indicate a terrestrial origin of sulfates in Early Bunter Sandstone as well as marine conditions for sulfate formation in Late Bunter Sandstone and Late Zechstein. Thus, sulfate isotopes can be used to identify the origin of water and to estimate the proportions of sulfates of different sources in mixing water. The isotopic composition of water in Bunter Sandstone aquifers in the eastern part of the basin indicate an increasing influence of sulfates from Late Bunter Sandstone in aquifers of Middle Bunter Sandstone along the groundwater flow towards the center of the basin. On the other hand there is no indication for mixing with Zechstein associated water in these aquifers. In contrast, in the northern part of the Thuringian basin and southward of the basin (south of the Thuringian forest) an interaction of Zechstein and Bunter Sandstone aquifers bound on fault systems becomes evident. The fractionations of rare earth elements in groundwater were determined after an enrichment procedure based on the method of Shabani (1992). Positive and negative Ce anomalies on PAAS (Post Achaean Australian shale) normalized REE fractionation pattern give hints on different redox conditions during groundwater evolution. Positive Ce anomalies were identified only on samples originated at Zechstein aquifers, whereas groundwaters in Bunter Sandstone aquifers with high redox potential show negative Ce anomalies, generally. References: Shabani, M.B., T. Akagi, and A. Masuda (1992): Preconcentration of trace rare earth elements in seawater by complexation with (2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate and 2-ethylhexyl dihydrogen phosphate adsorbed on a C18 cardridge and determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Anal. Chem. 64, 737-743.

  5. Rare-earth elements in the Permian Phosphoria Formation: Paleo proxies of ocean geochemistry

    Piper, D.Z.; Perkins, R.B.; Rowe, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    The geochemistry of deposition of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation (MPM) in southeast Idaho, USA, a world-class sedimentary phosphate deposit of Permian age that extends over 300,000 km2, is ascertained from its rare earth element (REE) composition. Ratios of REE:Al2O3 suggest two sources-seawater and terrigenous debris. The seawater-derived marine fraction identifies bottom water in the Phosphoria Sea as O2-depleted, denitrifying (suboxic) most of the time, and seldom sulfate-reducing (anoxic). This interpretation is supported by earlier research that showed progressively greater ratios in the marine sediment fraction of Cr:Ni>V:Ni???Mo:Ni, relative to their ratios in seawater; for which marine Cr, V, and Mo can have a dominantly O2-depleted bottom-water source and Ni a photic-zone, largely algal, source. The water chemistry was maintained by a balance between bacterial oxidation of organic matter settling through the water column, determined largely by primary productivity in the photic zone, and the flux of oxidants into the bottom water via advection of seawater from the open ocean. Samples strongly enriched in carbonate fluorapatite, the dominant REE host mineral, have variable Er/Sm, Tm/Sm, and Yb/Sm ratios. Their distribution may represent greater advection of seawater between the Phosphoria Sea and open ocean during deposition of two ore zones than a center waste and greater upwelling of nutrient-enriched water into the photic zone. However, the mean rate of deposition of marine Ni, a trace nutrient of algae, and PO43-, a limiting nutrient, indicate that primary productivity was probably high throughout the depositional history. An alternative interpretation of the variable enrichments of Er, Tm, and Yb, relative to Sm, is that they may reflect temporally variable carbonate alkalinity of open-ocean seawater in Permian time. A more strongly negative Ce anomaly for all phosphatic units than the Ce anomaly of modern pelletal phosphate is further indicative of an elevated O2 concentration in the Permo-Carboniferous open ocean, as proposed by others, in contrast to the depletion of O2 in the bottom water of the Phosphoria Sea itself. The oceanographic conditions under which the deposit accumulated were likely similar to conditions under which many sedimentary phosphate deposits have accumulated and to conditions under which many black shales that are commonly phosphate poor have accumulated. A shortcoming of several earlier studies of these deposits has resulted from a failure to examine the marine fraction of elements separate from the terrigenous fraction. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parent brine of the castile evaporites (Upper Permian), Texas and New Mexico

    Kirkland, Douglas W.; Denison, Rodger E.; Dean, Walter E.

    2000-01-01

    The Upper Permian (lower Ochoan) Castile Formation is a major evaporite sequence (∼10,000 km3) of calcite, anhydrite, and halite in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Traditionally the Castile brine has been considered to have been derived from seawater. This tradition has recently been challenged by two versions of the closed-basin drawdown model. They call for deposition from a mixed brine, in part marine and in large part nonmarine. They propose drawdown of as much as 500 m to form a major sink for ground water issuing from the surrounding Capitan reef complex. A large fraction of the solute in the brine body is inferred to have been recycled from older Permian evaporites on the surrounding shelf. Strontium-isotope analyses show no evidence that meteoric ground water was contributed to the Castile brine. From a stratigraphic, geographic, and lithologic array of 65 samples of anhydrite, gypsum, and calcite, 59 have an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.706923 (Δsw of -225.0), a ratio that is the same as that of strontium in early Ochoan ocean water. If considerable (>15%) influx of meteoric water had occurred, enough continental strontium would have been introduced to have resulted in higher ratios. Low bromide values (20-40 ppm) in Castile halite, which have been used to argue for meteoric influx and for recycled salt, probably resulted from diagenesis. During shallow burial by halite, centimeter-size, bottom-grown crystals of gypsum were altered to nodular anhydrite. The rising water of dehydration caused the halite to recrystallize. During the recrystallization, some bromide was expelled. Despite the large volume of water that evaporated annually from its surface (∼52 km3/yr, assuming an evaporation rate of 2 m/yr), the Castile brine body never completely desiccated. The surrounding shelf was flat, hot, and generally dry. It probably could not have supplied a significant volume of meteoric spring water to the basin over tens of thousands of years. More likely, during the entire history of the evaporite sequence, influx was dominantly marine. Marine ground water flowed through the Capitan Formation into the evaporite basin along its southern and possibly western margin probably with a rate of flow that was usually fast enough to prevent major drawdown of the brine surface.

  7. Origins of microspherules from the Permian-Triassic boundary event layers in South China

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zheng, Quan-feng

    2014-09-01

    Volcanism and impact scenarios are two of the most plausible ways of interpreting the causes of the largest biological mass extinction at the end-Permian. Microspherules have previously been widely reported from tens of different Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections in South China and some other regions. These microspherules have been interpreted as either the product of volcanic eruptions or an impact event. In order to test these scenarios, we collected 60 samples from 12 intensively-studied PTB sections in South China. In addition, four soil samples close to these PTB layers were also collected for comparison. Our investigation indicates that abundant microspherules with mosaic or dot shape crystals on rounded surface are present in the surface samples in the PTB layers at Meishan, Meili, and Shatian sections and most soil background samples in South China. Those microspherules consist of four different types based on their main chemical composition, surface features, and internal structure including iron, magnetite-silicate, glassy, pyrite microspherules and framboids. In contrast, microspherules have not been found in a few sections in remote areas such as the Selong Xishan section in Tibet and the Dalongkou section in Xinjiang, Northwest China, in the deeply-excavated samples at the Shangsi section and the hard tuff layers around the PTB at the Xiaochehe Section in Guiyang. Microspherules decrease in abundance with depth in PTB clay beds. All these microspherules except the pyrite microspherules and framboids are found in both the PTB layers and the nearby soil background samples. The iron microspherules are pure iron oxides such as magnetite, hematite or maghemite and contain low concentrations of nickel and chromium, and lack an Ni-Fe core and general extraterrestrial mineral wüstite. All these external and chemical characteristics suggest that most of iron microspherules previously reported from PTB sections in South China are modern industrial fly ashes. A low ratio of Fe3 +/FeTotal in crystals of magnetite-silicate microspherules and high ZnO contents can identify them as industrial contaminants. The pyrite microspherules and framboidal pyrite found from bed 24e and bed 26 at the Meishan sections are of depositional or/and diagenetic origins, and only the rounded quartz and the fragments containing extremely high SiO2 and TiO2 are possibly of volcanic origin.

  8. Coal profile Vietnam

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    At a time when Asia is experiencing unprecedented demand for energy resources, Vietnam is emerging as an important player within the region. Over the last three years Vietnam has become the world's largest exporter of anthracite coal. In January it gained accession to the World Trade Organisation. Vietnam is allowing an increasing number of foreign investors to participate in the building of new power capacity as it struggles to keep up with the rapid rise in electricity demand. The contents of this profile include: Data and information on the country's resources and key mining areas; profile insights into Vietnam's coal industry, including its organization, production techniques, transport and infrastructure; Analysis of the drivers of Vietnam's increase in coal output, including an overview of both its domestic and export markets; Outlook for Vietnam's coal production; Country risk analysis and a detailed description of the laws governing foreign capital opportunities in Vietnam's coal and energy industries; Description of Vietnam's development as a strategic player in the China coal market and the potential impact on its own domestic energy needs; and a Status report on the world anthracite market. 38 figs., 54 tabs., 1 app.

  9. Integrated coal preparation

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  10. Coal log pipeline for twenty-first century coal transportation

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.; Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    During the first years of the 21st century coal log pipeline (CLP) technology will be available for long-distance coal transportation. The purpose of this report is to present the state-of-the-art of coal log pipeline technology. Some recent developments are as follows: optimization of coal log compaction procedures, construction of a unique coal log prototype manufacturing machine, and its testing. Coal log abrasion while transported in water-filled pipelines is also discussed. A CLP pilot plant is currently under construction at the University of Missouri. For certain routes in the US a CLP system appears to be cost-competitive.

  11. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    2005-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input ob...

  12. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  13. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed...

  14. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed...

  15. A survey on C 1,1 fuctions: theory, numerical methods and applications

    La Torre Davide; Rocca Matteo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey some notions of generalized derivative for C 1,1 functions. Furthermore some optimality conditions and numerical methods for nonlinear minimization problems involving C1,1 data are studied.

  16. Coal market outlook in China

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  17. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-04-23

    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  18. Recent investigations of coal utilization

    Lignites of Balkan countries for steam power stations in which they are burnt represent important energy resource of today and well into the 21st century. Coal combustion and other coal utilization technologies are in a state of very rapid changes towards higher efficiency use of coal and overcoming poor characteristics of today's coal utilization. Recent investigations of coal utilization performed at the Vinca Institute are presented in the paper. Three points characterized research of coal utilization: improvement of pulverized coal combustion and NOx reduction, fluidized bed combustion, monitoring of furnace slagging and fouling and the improvements of soot blowing. The main experimental results of performed investigations of pulverized coal and fluidized bed coal combustion, using experimental facilities, are presented. A boiler furnace expert system development for optimization of utility boiler furnace operation, including flame position monitoring module and boiler surface fouling assessment module, is presented too. (Author)

  19. Endotoxin-induced pulmonary dysfunction is prevented by C1-esterase inhibitor.

    Guerrero, R.; Velasco, F.; Rodriguez, M.; A. Lopez; Rojas, R; Alvarez, M. A.; Villalba, R.; Rubio, V.; Torres, A; del Castillo, D

    1993-01-01

    In septic shock, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and neutrophil activation are related to the activation of the blood coagulation contact system. This study evaluates in dogs the effect of the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), a main inhibitor of the blood coagulation contact system, on the cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction associated with endotoxic shock. Two groups were included: controls, which received Escherichia coli endotoxin, and a C1-INH group in which C1-...

  20. Shallow lacustrine system of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Gondwana, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Araújo, Raphael Neto; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Bandeira, José; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Period of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil, represented here by deposits from the Pedra de Fogo Formation, records important events that occurred in Western Gondwana near its boundary with the Mesozoic Era. The analysis of outcrop based facies from the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, which is 100 m thick, carried out along the eastern and western borders of the Parnaiba Basin, allowed the identification of eleven sedimentary facies, which were grouped into three distinct facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system associated with mudflats and ephemeral rivers. Bioturbation, desiccation cracks, silcretes and various siliceous concretions characterize the Pedra de Fogo deposits. The FA1 mudflat deposits occur predominantly at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation and consist of laminated claystone/mudstone, mudcrack-bearing sandstones/mudstones and sandstones exhibiting cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding. Popcorn-like silicified nodules and casts indicate evaporite deposits. Other common features are silica concretions, silicified tepees and silcretes. FA2 represents nearshore deposits and consists of fine-grained sandstones with evenly parallel lamination, climbing ripple cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding and mudstone/siltstone showing evenly parallel lamination. FA3 refers to wadi/inundite deposits, generally organized as fining-upward cycles of metric size, composed of conglomerates and medium-grained pebbly sandstones showing massive bedding and cross-stratification, as well as claystone/siltstone showing evenly parallel to undulate lamination. Scour-and-fill features are isolated in predominantly tabular deposits composed of mudstones interbedded with fine to medium-grained sandstones showing planar to slightly undulate lamination. Silicified plant remains previously classified as belonging to the Psaronius genus found in the uppermost levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, near the contact with the Motuca Formation, are considered here as excellent biostratigraphic markers. Fish remains, ostracods, bryozoans and scolecodonts represent other fossils that are present in the succession. Mudflat deposits developed in an arid and hot climate probably in the Early Permian. Semi-arid conditions prevailed in the Middle Permian allowing the proliferation of fauna and flora in adjacent humid regions and onto the lake margin. The climate variation was responsible for the contraction and expansion phases of the lake, fed by sporadic sheet floods carrying plant remains. The reestablishment of the arid climate, at the end of Permian, marks the final sedimentation of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, linked to the consolidation of the Pangaea Supercontinent. This last event was concomitant with the deposition of the Motuca Formation red beds and the development of extensive ergs related to the Triassic Sambaíba Formation in Western Gondwana.

  1. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  2. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  3. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  4. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.1 Prohibition of natural gas...

  5. The role of ficolins and MASPs in hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    Csuka, Dorottya; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Kocsis, Andrea; Zotter, Zsuzsanna; Gál, Péter; Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette; Füst, George; Garred, Peter

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) causes disturbances in the complement system. However, the influence of HAE-C1-INH on the lectin pathway of complement is unresolved. Thus, we studied the main initiator molecules, enzymes and regulators in the lectin pathway in...

  6. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Narayanan, K.S.; Urbina, R.H.; Diao, J.; Yin, Y.; Harris, G.; Hu, Weibei; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Xhong, K.; Xiao, L.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA); Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

    1989-08-15

    The primary goal of this project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur removal at 90% Btu yield, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is an important aspect of the project objectives. Large quantities of coal samples have been procured from six major seams. Samples of the same coals are also to be supplied to the University of Pittsburgh for selective agglomeration research. A second objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal stored in three storage modes, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals are to be collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered coals. Work is divided into 8 tasks: (1) project work plan; (2) coal procurement and weathering; (3) coal characterization; (4) standard beneficiation test; (5) grinding studies; (6) surface modification studies; (7) exploratory R D and support; and (8) task integration and project management. 8 refs., 50 figs., 38 tabs.

  7. Enhanced recycling of organic matter and Os-isotopic evidence for multiple magmatic or meteoritic inputs to the Late Permian Panthalassic Ocean, Opal Creek, Canada

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Henderson, Charles M.; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2015-02-01

    The geochemical record for the Permian-Triassic boundary in northern latitudes is essential to evaluation of global changes associated with the most profound extinction of life on Earth. We present inorganic and organic geochemical data, and Re-Os isotope systematics in a critical stratigraphic interval of pre- and post-extinction Upper Permian-Lower Triassic sediments from Opal Creek, western Canada (paleolatitude of ?30°N). We document significant and long-lived changes in Panthalassa seawater chemistry that were initiated during the first of four magmatic or meteoritic inputs to Late Permian seawater, evidenced by notable decreases of Os isotopic ratios upsection. Geochemical signals indicate establishment of anoxic bottom waters shortly after regional transgression reinitiated sedimentation in the Late Permian. Euxinic signals are most prominent in the Upper Permian sediments with low organic carbon and high sulfur contents, and gradually wane in the Lower Triassic. The observed features may have been generated in a strongly euxinic ocean in which high bacterioplankton productivity sustained prolific microbial sulfate reduction in the sediment and/or water column, providing hydrogen sulfide to form pyrite. This scenario requires nearly complete anaerobic decomposition of predominantly labile marine organic matter (OM) without the necessity for a complete collapse of primary marine productivity. Similar geochemical variations could have been achieved by widespread oxidation of methane by sulfate reducers after a methanogenic burst in the Late Permian. Both scenarios could have provided similar kill mechanisms for the latest Permian mass extinction. Despite the moderate thermal maturity of the section, OM in all studied samples is dominantly terrestrial and/or continentally derived, recycled and refractory ancient OM. We argue that, as such, the quantity of the OM in the section mainly reflects changes in terrestrial vegetation and/or weathering, and not in marine productivity. At Opal Creek, a pyrite layer and pulses recorded by low initial Os isotopes followed the main extinction.

  8. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as demonstrations to the Indonesian Government. Successful demonstrations obtained visible benefits for a large number of local interests and received overwhelmingly favorable public response. This built the public and political support needed to continue this work.These successes encouraged the Ministry to officially assume the responsibility for coal fire management by Decree 1539/20/MPE/1999. The Ministry reallocated internal funds to support portions of the immediate suppression projects and committed a portion of the Coal Royalty Fund to provide long-term support for coal fire suppression activities. Coal fires continue to present a serious risk to Indonesia's ecosystems, population and forest resources. The Ministry and local governments in East Kalimantan are still working on the coal fire inventory. It presently contains 164 coal fires, but it is far from complete. Unless these coal fires are managed or extinguished, they will add to the already catastrophic cycle of anthropogenic forest fires that further reduce Indonesia's forest resources and endangered species while contributing unnecessarily to global carbon emissions.

  9. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of Permian Basin bedded salt at elevated pressure and temperature

    Measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity were made on five core samples of bedded rock salt from the Permian Basin in Texas to determine its suitability as an underground nuclear waste repository. The sample size was 100 mm in diameter by 250 mm in length. Measurements were conducted under confining pressures ranging from 3.8 to 31.0 MPa and temperatures from room temperature to 473 K. Conductivity showed no dependence on confining pressure but evidenced a monotonic, negative temperature dependence. Four of the five samples showed conductivities clustered in a range of 5.6 +- 0.5 W/m.K at room temperature, falling to 3.6 +- 0.3 W/m.K at 473 K. These values are approximately 20% below those for pure halite, reflecting perhaps the 5 to 20%-nonhalite component of the samples. Diffusivity also showed a monotonic, negative temperature dependence, with four of the five samples clustered in a range of 2.7 +- 0.4 x 10-6 m2/s at room temperature, and 1.5 +- 0.3 x 10-6 m2/s at 473 K, all roughly 33% below the values for pure halite. One sample showed an unusually high conductivity (it also had the highest diffusivity), about 20% higher than the others; and one sample showed an unusually low diffusivity (it also had the lowest conductivity), roughly a factor of 2 lower than the others. 27 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  10. Geology and taphonomy of the base of the Taquaral Member, Irati Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin), Brazil

    Chahud, Artur; Petri, Setembrino

    2015-09-01

    The taphonomy of Early Permian vertebrates from a sandy facies at the base of the Taquaral Member, Irati Formation, was surveyed in order to acquire data for the interpretation of the sedimentary processes and paleoenvironment of deposition. Six outcrops from the Rio Claro municipality and surrounding areas, from the Brazilian State of São Paulo, were investigated. The vertebrate groups are Chondrichthyes (Xenacanthiformes, Ctenacanthiformes and Petalodontiformes), Osteichthyes (Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii) and Tetrapodomorpha. They occur as loose teeth, scales, spines and bone remains. The sandy facies is characterized by fining upward deposition. The coarser sandstone immediately above the underlying Tatuí Formation is rich in Chondrichthyes. However, the fine sandstone above, immediately beneath the silty shale facies, is devoid of Chondrichthyes, though Osteichthyes scales, teeth and bones were present. The taphonomy is important for inferring sedimentary processes and then the paleoenvironments. The poor sorting of the sandstone and the presence of fossils that are mostly abraded or worn are indicative of a high energy environment. In contrast, the presence of fossils in a good state of preservation, some without abrasion and breakages are indicative of only limited transport. Differences of fossil spatial density, numbers of specimens and taxa may be explained by the dynamics of deposition, from details of the palaeoenvironment can be obtained.

  11. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren Measures from Raniganj field, West Bengal, India

    Annapurna Boruah; S Ganapathi

    2015-07-01

    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of Damodar Basin were analysed to evaluate their gas generation potential using Rock–Eval pyrolysis techniques. Petrographic analysis brings out the lithofacies of Barren Measures as carbonaceous silty shale, iron rich claystone and sand-shale intercalation. The total organic content (TOC) of the shale units of Barren Measures ranges from 3.75 to 20.9 wt%, whereas hydrogen index (HI) ranges from 58.45 to 125.34 mg HC/g TOC. Present study suggests early to late maturated (0.6–1%) organic matters in Barren Measures with gas prone type III kerogen. The study analysed the effect of burial history on the preservation and maturation of organic matters. The organic richness, kerogen type, thermal maturity and petrographic properties of Barren Measures signify fair to excellent gas generation potential.

  12. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    Marie-Béatrice Forel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1 problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, where proposed marine dissolution surfaces may be subaerial. Sedimentary evidence that the extinction was partly due to ocean acidification is therefore inconclusive; (2 Fossils of marine animals potentially affected by ocean acidification are imperfect records of past conditions; selective extinction of hypercalcifying organisms is uncertain evidence for acidification; (3 The current high rates of acidification may not reflect past rates, which cannot be measured directly, and whose temporal resolution decreases in older rocks. Thus large increases in CO2 in the past may have occurred over a long enough time to have allowed assimilation into the oceans, and acidification may not have stressed ocean biota to the present extent. Although we acknowledge the very likely occurrence of past ocean acidification, obtaining support presents a continuing challenge for the Earth science community.

  13. Age of the Emeishan flood magmatism and relations to Permian-Triassic boundary events

    Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lee, Tung-Yi; Wu, Genyao

    2002-05-01

    The Permian-Triassic (P-T) mass extinction, the greatest biological mortality event in the Earth's history, was probably caused by dramatic and global forcing mechanisms such as the Siberian flood volcanism. Here we present the first set of high-precision 40Ar/ 39Ar dating results of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Emeishan Traps, South China, which define a main stage of the flood magmatism at ˜251-253 Ma and a subordinate precursory activity at ˜255 Ma. This time span is generally coeval with, or slightly older than, the age of the P-T boundary estimated by the ash beds in the Meishan stratotype section and the main eruption of the Siberian Traps. Our data reinforces the notion that the eruption of the Emeishan Traps, rather than eruption of the Siberian Traps, accounted for the formation of the P-T boundary ash beds in South China. The Emeishan flood magmatism, which occurred in the continental margin comprising thick marine limestone formations, moreover, may have triggered rapid release of large volumes of methane and carbon dioxide that could have been responsible for the global ? 13C excursion and associated environmental crisis leading to the mass extinction at the P-T boundary.

  14. Geological environment of the uranium deposits in the Permian of Lodeve Basin, France

    The Permian rocks of the Lodeve Basin are characterized by a biorhexistasic cycle which produced fine alternating sequences of organic-rich sedimentary deposits in a basin ranging from lacustrine to a confined briny lagoon. The erosion of the Hercynian massifs, source for the sediments, along with the constant arrival of volcanic ash, provided metallic ions, particularly uranium. A continual subsidence permitted a regular influx of sediments and a burial compatible with a genesis of hydrocarbons. Post-sedimentary tectonic extension as well as the fine bedding of certain layers, created permeable zones that facilitated the circulation of fluids: the oils migrated, concentrated in petroleum-type traps by fault zones and the finely bedded layers. The interstitial waters flushed by compaction were carriers of metallic ions in solution. They used the same permeable zones as the oil, and the uranium was precipitated in the hydrocarbon traps which were strong reducing agents. During diagenesis, an important physical and mineralogical evolution affected the surroundings and certainly played a role of prime importance in the ''recycling'' and precipitation of the uranium. In the meantime, oxidizing and carbonate-bearing meteoric water rose within the rock formations along the principal faults, flushing and transporting uranium to the traps, developing a complementary accretion process. Classified into three principal types, the mineralizations developed within the framework of a dynamic basin system in which several factors - sedimentary, tectonic and diagenetic - operated. (author)

  15. Triassic actinopterygian fishes: the recovery after the end-Permian crisis.

    Tintori, Andrea; Hitij, Tomaž; Jiang, Dayong; Lombardo, Cristina; Sun, Zuoyu

    2014-08-01

    In the last 15 years, the discovery of several new actinopterygian fish faunas from the Early and Middle Triassic of the Tethys, cast new light on the timing, speed and range of their recovery after the end-Permian crisis. In addition to several new taxa having been described, the stratigraphical and geographical record of many others have been greatly extended. In fact, most of the new fossiliferous sites are in southern China, thus at the Eastern end of the Tethys, and furthermore a few are somewhat older (Chaohu, Panxian, Luoping) than the major classical Western Tethys sites (Monte San Giorgio). Following these new finds, it is possible to have a better definition of the Triassic recovery stages. Indeed, after a quite short phase till the end of the Smithian (Olenekian, Early Triassic) in which a rather consistent fauna was present all around the Pangea coasts, a major radiation occurred in the Early-Middle Anisian after the new Middle Triassic fish fauna already appeared in the late Early Triassic, thus occuring well before what was previously supposed from the Alps localities. Furthermore, the new assemblages from southern China point to an early broader differentiation among the basal neopterygians rather than in the 'subholosteans', the group that was then dominant in the Western Tethys since the Late Anisian. It stands that during the Norian a new basal neopterygian radiation gave rise to several new branches that dominated the remaining part of the Mesozoic. PMID:24148549

  16. Aeolian Delivery of Organic Matter to a Middle Permian Deepwater Ramp

    Artan, S.; Herbert, B. E.; Tice, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Windblown dust is a significant source of sediment and nutrients for many basins, but its influence on ancient basins can be difficult to detect and quantify. Quantification of organic biological markers, including biomarker ratios and n-alkane distributions, were used to demonstrate the significance of windblown dust in delivery of sediment and terrestrial organic matter to the Middle Permian Delaware Basin. Ramp siltstones of the basin have been interpreted as either the deposits of unconfined low-density turbidity currents or aeolo-marine sediments. We analyzed the organic contents of five samples of channel-confined turbiditic sandstones and siltstones and of five samples of ramp siltstones outcropping in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park, west Texas to estimate the relative proportions of terrestrial and marine organic matter in the two types of host rocks. The total organic carbon content of all samples varied from 0.1% - 2.04%. The abundunce of high molecular weight n-alkanes (n-C27 and greater) suggests that terrestrial organic matter was present in nearly all samples. Terrestrial organic content was quantified using a crossplot of pristane/n-C17 versus phytane/n-C18. Ramp siltstones showed ~10-fold greater variation in terrestrial content than did turbiditic sandstones and siltstones. This observation is more consistent with the aeolo-marine interpretation of ramp siltstones, and suggests that terrestrial organic matter was delivered to the Delaware Basin by wind transport during deposition of the Brushy Canyon Formation.

  17. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2-97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK =1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09-2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32-8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806℃ is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian. (author)

  18. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    Azman A Ghani; Fatin Izzani Hazad; Azmiah Jamil; Quek Long Xiang; Wan Nur Atiqah Wan Ismail; Sun-Lin Chung; Yu-Ming Lai; Muhammad Hatta Roselee; Nur Islami; Kyaw Kyaw Nyein; Meor Hakif Amir Hassan; Mohd Farid Abu Bakar; Mohd Rozi Umor

    2014-12-01

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2–97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK=1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09–2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32–8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806°C is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian.

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Lower Permian redbeds of the Abadla Basin (Algeria)

    Merabet, N.; Bouabdallah, H.; Henry, B.

    1998-07-01

    One of the reference Permian paleomagnetic poles for the African Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP) was determined by (Morel et al., 1981, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 55, 65-74) in the upper unit of the 2000 m thick Abadla redbeds formation (31.2°N, 2.7°W). Unfortunately, this upper unit remains undated, although its age was presumed to be Autunian, whereas microflora fossils characteristic of the Autunian were discovered in the lower unit of the same formation. The paleomagnetic data ( N=11, D=130.1°, I=13.0°, k=138, α95=3.6° and pole: 29.1°S, 57.8°E, A95=2.0°) obtained from the better dated Autunian levels must take the place of the previous Abadla pole for the Autunian part of the African APWP. This new pole is very close to the Morel et al.'s pole determined from the unfossiliferous upper unit of the Abadla formation, giving an Autunian age for this upper unit. Consequently, the subsidence of the Abadla basin and the deposition of the whole succession occurred during a period not longer than 20-25 Myr.

  20. FORAMINIFERA, ALGAE AND CARBONATE MICROPROBLEMATICA FROM THE LATE WUCHIAPINGIAN/DZHULFIAN (LATE PERMIAN OF PELOPONNESUS (GREECE

    DANIEL VACHARD

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The origin of late Permian olistoliths found in the Glypia Cenozoic flysch must be seeked in regions located to the east of the Parnon Mountain and in units that were more internal to Pindos Unit, especially in the islets of Karavia in the Argolis Gulf, and the Episkopi Formation in Hydra Island, that display probably the largest outcrops of this age. The most interesting olistolith is a bioclastic grainstone. It yields about forty taxa of algae, microproblematica, smaller foraminifers and fusulinids, that are briefly described. Three markers generally not co-occurring are locally associated: Paradunbarula (Shindella shindensis, Hemigordiopsis cf. luquensis and Colaniella aff. minima. The age of the Paradunbarula (Shindella biozone is most probably late Wuchiapingian/Dzhulfian, although other datings have been proposed from late Capitanian to late Changhsingian. Due to this dating of the Shindella zone, the coexistence of the first Colaniella with the last Hemigordiopsis are not late Capitanian/Midian in age, but late Wuchiapingian. The similarities of the Greek microfauna with that of South China and southeastern Pamirs, are incompatible with a larger Paleotethys but support the paleogeographic reconstructions which indicate a close location of these geographic units (Pangea B. 

  1. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren Measures from Raniganj field, West Bengal, India

    Boruah, Annapurna; Ganapathi, S.

    2015-07-01

    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of Damodar Basin were analysed to evaluate their gas generation potential using Rock-Eval pyrolysis techniques. Petrographic analysis brings out the lithofacies of Barren Measures as carbonaceous silty shale, iron rich claystone and sand-shale intercalation. The total organic content (TOC) of the shale units of Barren Measures ranges from 3.75 to 20.9 wt%, whereas hydrogen index (HI) ranges from 58.45 to 125.34 mg HC/g TOC. Present study suggests early to late maturated (0.6-1%) organic matters in Barren Measures with gas prone type III kerogen. The study analysed the effect of burial history on the preservation and maturation of organic matters. The organic richness, kerogen type, thermal maturity and petrographic properties of Barren Measures signify fair to excellent gas generation potential.

  2. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  3. Definition of rehabilitation strategies for pre-strip tertiary spoil at coal mines in central Queensland

    In the open-cut coal mines of central Queensland, the conventional dragline removal of overburden results in a spoil surface dominated by Permian sediments. In recent years, however, a number of mines have changed their coal exposure methods to include a pre-stripping operation to create a bench for the dragline up to 50 m below the surface. This approach has allowed economic coal recovery from greater depths, but, since this pre-strip material is being deposited on existing spoil piles, it has resulted in a major change in the type of spoil material on the surface. The aims of this project were, firstly, to define the characteristics of this pre-strip material that could cause problems for the establishment and growth of both introduced pasture grasses and native tree species, and secondly, to explore possible spoil amendments which could ameliorate some or all of these limitations. Analyses on the range of spoils included pH, EC and sodicity. Straw mulch also reduced the crust strength and was an effective means of improving vegetative establishment. A complementary field trial was established at Saraji mine in April 1991, and after 4 months, treatments which involved a 30 cm capping of soil on the spoil resulted in the highest densities of tree seedling

  4. Raton Coal Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Raton Coal Basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  5. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  6. Market, trading and coal price

    The coal world experienced a true upheaval in the past five years World coal consumption went up 28 % between 2000 and 2005, as a result of the strong growth in Chinese demand. The growth should continue in the coming years: electrical plant builders' orders are mainly for coal. The regained interest in coal is based on the constraints experienced by competing energies (increase in oil and natural gas prices, geopolitical uncertainties, supply difficulties) and by the abundant reserves of coal in the world and the competitiveness of its price. The strong growth in world coal demand comes with a change in rules governing steam coal trading. While long term bilateral agreements were most common until the late nineties, there has been a true revolution in coal marketing since 2000: spot contracts, stock exchange emergence and futures contracts, price indexes. In a few years, the steam coal market has become a true commodities market, overtaking many more goods. The price of coal has also gone through strong variations since 2003. Whereas the price had been stable for decades, in 2004 the strong increase in China' s demand for coal and iron ore resulting in transport shortage, caused a strong increase in CAF coal prices. Since then, prices have gone down, but remain higher than the Eighties and Nineties levels. In spite of the increase, coal remains available at more competitive prices than its competing energies. (authors)

  7. Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1 gene in porcine ovary and uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy

    Hwang Sue-Yun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1 belongs to a superfamily of NADPH-dependent reductases that convert a wide range of substrates, including carbohydrates, steroid hormones, and endogenous prostaglandins. The 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD is a member of AKR family. The aims of this study were to determine its expression in the ovary and uterus endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE experiments were performed to obtain the 5' and 3' ends of the porcine 20alpha-HSD cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, northern blot analysis, and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine 20alpha-HSD. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine the localization in the ovary. Results The porcine 20alpha-HSD cDNA is 957 bp in length and encodes a protein of 319 amino acids. The cloned cDNA was virtually the same as the porcine AKR1C1 gene (337 amino acids reported recently, and only differed in the C-terminal region (the AKR1C1 gene has a longer C-terminal region than our sequence. The 20alpha-HSD gene (from now on referred to as AKR1C1 cloned in this paper encodes a deletion of 4 amino acids, compared with the C-terminal region of AKR1C1 genes from other animals. Porcine AKR1C1 mRNA was expressed on day 5, 10, 12, 15 of the cycle and 0-60 of pregnancy in the ovary. The mRNA was also specifically detected in the uterine endometrium on day 30 of pregnancy. Western blot analysis indicated that the pattern of AKR1C1 protein in the ovary during the estrous cycle and uterus during early pregnancy was similar to that of AKR1C1 mRNA expression. The recombinant protein produced in CHO cells was detected at approximately 37 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed that pig AKR1C1 protein was localized in the large luteal cells in the early stages of the estrous cycle and before parturition. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that AKR1C1 mRNA and protein are coordinately expressed in the luteal cell of ovary throughout the estrous cycle and in the uterus on day 30 of pregnancy. Thus, the porcine AKR1C1 gene might control important mechanisms during the estrous cycle.

  8. Presence of C1-Inhibitor Polymers in a Subset of Patients Suffering from Hereditary Angioedema

    Elenius Madsen, Daniel; Hansen, Søren; Gram, Jørgen Brodersen; Bygum, Anette; Drouet, Christian; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    2014-01-01

    -inh polymerization phenotypes were observed in four affected family members from one of these families. Genotyping of the families revealed that the polymerogenic mutations of two families were located in proximity to the reactive center loop insertion site in C1-inh (p.Ile271Thr and p.Ser258_Pro260......Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) C1 inhibitor (C1-inh). The mutations cause decreased functional plasma levels of C1-inh, which triggers unpredictable recurrent edema attacks....... Subjects suffering from HAE have been classified in type I patients with decreased functional and antigenic levels of C1-inh, and type II patients with decreased functional but normal antigenic C1-inh levels. However, a few reports have demonstrated that some mutations cause C1-inh polymerization in vitro...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chitinase-producing Biocontrol Bacterium Serratia sp. C-1

    Seur Kee Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The chitinase-producing bacterial strain C-1 is one of the key chitinase-producing biocontrol agents used for effective bioformulations for biological control. These bioformulations are mixed cultures of various chitinolytic bacteria. However, the precise identification, biocontrol activity, and the underlying mechanisms of the strain C-1 have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we evaluated in planta biocontrol efficacies of C-1 and determined the draft genome sequence of the strain in this study. The bacterial C-1 strain was identified as a novel Serratia sp. by a phylogenic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence. The Serratia sp. C-1 bacterial cultures showed strong in planta biocontrol efficacies against some major phytopathogenic fungal diseases. The draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. C-1 indicated that the C-1 strain is a novel strain harboring a subset of genes that may be involved in its biocontrol activities.

  10. Long-distant contribution and χc1 radiative decays to light vector meson

    The discrepancy between the PQCD calculation and the CLEO data for χc1→γ V(V=ρ0, ω,φ) stimulates our interest in exploring other mechanisms of χc1 decay. In this work, we apply an important non-perturbative QCD effect, i.e., the hadronic loop mechanism, to study χc1→γ V radiative decay. Our numerical result shows that the theoretical results including the hadronic loop contribution and the PQCD calculation of χc1→γV are consistent with the corresponding CLEO data of χc1→γV. We expect further experimental measurement of χc1→γV, which will be helpful to test the hadronic loop effect on χc1 decay. (orig.)

  11. Coal production, 1991

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  12. Coal fire interferometry

    This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

  13. Bright outlook for coal

    After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

  14. Coal liquefaction processes

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  15. Power generation at coal pit-heads

    Crushing and sieving of coal at the collieries could improve quality of coal supplied to the consumers. Retaining 50 to 70 million tonnes of coal fines at pit-heads would enable the Indian railways to transport all coal, thus eliminating coal transport by trucks which consumes diesel. The retained coal fines can be used for generating cheaper power. (author)

  16. Stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and C-isotopes of the Permian-Triassic non-marine sequence at Dalongkou and Lucaogou, Xinjiang Province, China

    Metcalfe, I.; Foster, C. B.; Afonin, S. A.; Nicoll, R. S.; Mundil, R.; Xiaofeng, Wang; Lucas, S. G.

    2009-11-01

    Measured lithostratigraphic sections of the classic Permian-Triassic non-marine transitional sequences covering the upper Quanzijie, Wutonggou, Guodikeng and lower Jiucaiyuan Formations at Dalongkou and Lucaogou, Xinjiang Province, China are presented. These measured sections form the framework and reference sections for a range of multi-disciplinary studies of the P-T transition in this large ancient lake basin, including palynostratigraphy, vertebrate biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. The 121 m thick Wutonggou Formation at Dalongkou includes 12 sandstone units ranging in thickness from 0.5 to 10.5 m that represent cyclical coarse terrigenous input to the lake basin during the Late Permian. The rhythmically-bedded, mudstone-dominated Guodikeng Formation is 197 m and 209 m thick on the north and south limbs of the Dalongkou anticline, respectively, and 129 m thick at Lucaogou. Based on limited palynological data, the Permian-Triassic boundary was previously placed approximately 50 m below the top of this formation at Dalongkou. This boundary does not coincide with any mappable lithologic unit, such as the basal sandstones of the overlying Jiucaiyuan Formation, assigned to the Early Triassic. The presence of multiple organic ?13C-isotope excursions, mutant pollen, and multiple algal and conchostracan blooms in this formation, together with Late Permian palynomorphs, suggests that the Guodikeng Formation records multiple climatic perturbation signals representing environmental stress during the late Permian mass extinction interval. The overlap between the vertebrates Dicynodon and Lystrosaurus in the upper part of this formation, and the occurrence of late Permian spores and the latest Permian to earliest Triassic megaspore Otynisporites eotriassicus is consistent with a latest Permian age for at least part of the Guodikeng Formation. Palynostratigrahic placement of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Junggar Basin remains problematic because key miospore taxa, such as Aratrisporites spp. are not present. Palynomorphs from the Guodikeng are assigned to two assemblages; the youngest, from the upper 100 m of the formation (and the overlying Jiucaiyuan Formation), contains both typical Permian elements and distinctive taxa that elsewhere are known from the Early Triassic of Canada, Greenland, Norway, and Russia. The latter include spores assigned to Pechorosporites disertus, Lundbladisporafoveota, Naumovaspora striata, Decussatisporites mulstrigatus and Leptolepidites jonkerii. While the presence of Devonian and Carboniferous spores and Early Permian pollen demonstrate reworking is occurring in the Guodikeng assemblages, the sometimes common occurrence of Scutasporites sp. cf. Scutasporites unicus, and other pollen, suggests that the Late Permian elements are in place, and that the upper assemblage derives from a genuine transitional flora of Early Triassic aspect. In the Junggar Basin, biostratigraphic data and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that the Permian-Triassic boundary (GSSP Level) is in the middle to upper Guodikeng Formation and perhaps as high as the formational contact with the overlying Jiucaiyuan Formation.

  17. Presence of commercial coal in the Taimyr coal basin

    Androsov, B.N.

    1980-05-01

    This article presents the results of a geologic expedition to the Far North of the USSR, where coal resources in the Taimyr Peninsula have been discovered. The surface of the basin is 80,000 square kilometers. Maps provide general information on the geological structure of the basin, location of coal deposits, and the richest seams. Geological structure of the basin, strata in which coal deposits are located, and properties of the coal are described (petrographic components, caking and coking properties, calorific value, ash content etc.). The so-called coefficient of coal content which ranges from 3% or below up to 11% is given for individual regions of the basin. The number of coal seams, their thickness and geological disturbances are described. Taimyr coals represent a full range of various ranks from gas coals to anthracite. The Taimyr coals have lower calorific value and lower nitrogen content than coals from the Donetsk basin. The majority of Taimyr coals have low ash and sulfur content. The best outlook for discovering rich seams of coking and fat coal are in the Taimyr-Ozerskii region of the basin particularly in Chernoyarskoe, Ugol'noe, Ozernoe, and Zayach'e. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  18. Organic matter in a coal ball: Peat or coal?

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lyons, P.C.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical analyses of morphologically preserved organic matter in a Carboniferous coal ball reveal that the material is coalified to a rank approximately equal to that of the surrounding coal. Hence, the plant tissues in the coal ball were chemically altered by coalification processes and were not preserved as peat. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  19. Late- to Post-Variscan magmatism and sedimentation within Late Carboniferous to Late Permian basins in the Balkan Terrane (Bulgaria): geodynamic bearings

    Cortesogno, L.; Gaggero, L.; Ronchi, A.; Yanev, S.

    2003-04-01

    Between Late Carboniferous and Late Permian in the Balkan sector of Bulgaria the late to post-Variscan evolution developed through tectono- and volcano-sedimentary polycyclic steps: 1) the first cycle, Namurian-Westphalian in age, is bounded by two unconformities (respectively "Sudetian" and "Asturian" tectonic phases?). Fluviolacustrine deposits infill several fault-bounded narrow basins, whose opening and subsidence are to be referred to crustal weakness and transtensile, frequently transpressional, tectonics. The magmatism, with intermediate composition, issues explosive eruptions from submersed centres, and flows outpoured within emerged areas; 2) a second cycle developed between Upper Stephanian and Lower Permian. The unconformity in the middle of this cycle (German "Saalian" phase?) could separate the Lower and the Upper Rotliegend. The tectonic regime is still transtensional, but developed over wider depositional areas. The volcanism associated with the sedimentary deposition began at the topmost Carboniferous but mostly occurred during the Early Permian (mainly in the "Lower Rotliegend"). The igneous activity is represented by dacite subvolcanic bodies and by later rhyolite ignimbrites, deposited in subaerial environment, and by tuffs and tuffites interbedded to the sediments. At places, volcanic breccias and volcanoclastic deposits derived from the dacite bodies are alternated with conglomerates and were almost in part, reworked into the alluvial deposits. 3) the third cycle, from the latest Early Permian to the beginning of the Late Permian, comprises the "Upper Rotliegend" clastic deposits; in the Balkan region the Lower Permian proluvial sedimentation deposited over the Permian sequences, or directly covering the basement, as wide continental basins; the cycle is also characterized by the disappearance of both intrusive and extrusive production, and by reworking of older igneous fragments. 4) a further unconformity separates the fourth, Late Permian cycle, represented by more widespread "Saxonian"-type red beds. This new tectono-sedimentary succession accompanied by a marked extensional tectonic regime is likely related to the Variscan crustal attenuation as well as to a main plate boundary reorganization. The Early-to-Late Permian stratigraphic and palaeogeographic turnpoint could also represent the onset of a rift system.

  20. Dry cleaning of Turkish coal

    Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

  1. Low-rank coal research

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  2. Oil, gas, coal, and electricity

    This publication provides up-to-date and detailed quarterly statistics on oil, coal, natural gas and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected oil product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas, hard coal and brown coal show supply and trade. Import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis

  3. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Beovská Mária; Èurillová Dana; Machajová Zlatica

    2002-01-01

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - th...

  4. Sustainable development with clean coal

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  5. Pyrolysis of coal

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  6. TEKO returns to coal

    Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

  7. Natural radioactivity in coal

    This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

  8. Competitive edge of western coal

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  9. Coal -- Energy and the environment

    The proceedings are grouped into the following 31 sessions: Coal processing and utilization; Ash use interactions in soils and plants; Coal preparation I; Coal preparation II - reconstitution processes; Ash use in mine reclamation; Pre/post utilization; Direct liquefaction catalysts; Coal conversion retrospective; Coal characterization and its significance to utilization; Integrated gasification combined cycle; Non-fuel use of coal; Conversion technologies; Expert systems, advanced controls and instrumentation for coal combustion systems; Combustion 2000; Fluidized beds/co-firing; Coal technology from an international perspective; Computer methodologies and software applied to the use of coal; Combustion systems in power plants; Clean Coal Technology Program; Combustion systems; Design of scrubbers for CAAA Round One; Effects of reauthorization of Clean Water Act and regulations of 1990 CAAA; Air toxics; SOx and NOx emission control; Environmental/regulatory issues related to ash use in mine reclamation; Global climate change -- Scientific, economic and policy perspectives; Environmental systems and policies; Coal storage and handling; Coal characterization and its significance to utilization; Slurry technology; and Special topics. 248 papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base

  10. The new deal of coal

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO2 emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO2 capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO2-free coal: CO2 capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  11. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  12. Bed blending of coals

    Poultney, R.M.; Loudon, K.W.G.; Willmers, R.R. [British Steel plc, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom). Teeside Technology Centre

    1997-10-01

    The aim of bed blending is to improve the quality and consistency of the blended material. However, variations sometimes occur in beds, and so monitoring is necessary. Automatic petrographic techniques have been developed to determine the distribution of low-grade filler material within coal layers and major components in blend samples. Uneven distribution of filler was identified as the major cause of variations in the properties of coke produced from coal blends. Consequently, changes were made to bed construction which improved the consistency of the chemical and rheological properties of the blend and the physical properties of the coke. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Fluorine in Asturian coals

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Suarez-Fernandez, G.P.; Cardin, J.M. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain))

    1994-07-01

    Concentrations of fluorine in Asturian bituminous coals and anthracites have been determined. Fluorine analysis has been carried out by comparing oxygen bomb combustion and pyrohydrolysis methods. Pyrohydrolysis revealed higher values in samples whose ash contents were greater than 25 wt%, which in turn was related to fluorine contents higher than 100 ppm. Good correlation between fluorine and ash content suggests that fluorine is present in these coals in mineral species, and is not probably associated with organic matter. The association of fluorine with phosphorus is also discussed. An excess of fluorine concentration versus phosphorus, corresponding to fluorapatite, has been found. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Chlorine in Asturian coals

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Cardin, J.M. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    Analysis of chlorine in Asturian run-of-mine and washed coals has been carried out. Three different methods for its determination have been compared: Volhard titration, ion selective electrode and indirect method of atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparative results have been found, but the ion selective electrode method is the most accurate. Additional information about the nature of chlorine in coals has been obtained through the study of the relationships: chlorine content, ash and organic matter. A positive relation between chlorine and organic matter can be inferred from these observations. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Hydrogasification of coal

    Hydrogasification of coal is a key process in SNG production. The hydrogen required for the process can be produced by steam gasification of the residual coke obtained in hydrogasification as well as by a HTR reactor. Messrs. Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke in Cologne have operated a semi-industrial test plant for coal hydrogasification since 1976. So far, operation of this plant has yielded important information on the correlation between gasifier performance and the main process parameters. A pilot plant on this basis is being planned which will take up operation in 1981. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

  16. Coal liquefaction process

    Minami, R.; Hosoi, T.; Kanou, T.; Okamura, S.; Sunami, Y.

    1984-03-20

    A coal liquefaction process and apparatus therefor are disclosed. According to this invention, a finely divided coal slurry and a solvent are contacted with molecular hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst, the slurry is separated into a gaseous component, a liquid component and a solid residue, the solid residue (which is the liquefaction residue) is then supplied to a molten metal bath together with oxygen gas to generate a gas entraining fine powdery solids, and the thus recovered fine powdery solids are returned to the liquefaction process as a catalyst.

  17. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    After years of relatively slow growth, coal is undergoing a renaissance. Some 140 coal power plants are planned, and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that the U.S. will consume almost 1,800 million tons of coal in 2030, up from about 1,150 million tons this year. In addition, while EIA’s estimates do not take coal-to-hydrogen production into consideration, several recent studies suggest that if the hydrogen economy ever comes to fruition coal could be a feedstock of choice...

  18. Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Parana Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric U-Pb dating and palynostratigraphy

    Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Menegat, R.; Formoso, M.L.L.; Basei, M.A.; Barboza, E.; Simas, M.W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    A radiometric zircon age of 285.4 {+-} 8.6 Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Parana Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part of the basin should lie at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, not within the Sakmarian as previously considered. The new results are significant for correlations between the Parana Basin and the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and with the Karoo Basin, specifically with the top of the Dwyka Tillite (302 {+-} 3 Ma and 299.2 {+-} 3.2 Ma) and the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). The evidence signifies widespread latest Carboniferous volcanic activity in western Gondwana.

  19. Paleotectonic reconstruction of the central Tethys domain since the Late Permian: the DARIUS Maps

    Barrier, Eric; Vrielynck, Bruno; Brunet, Marie-Françoise; Robertson, Alastair; Sosson, Marc; Zanchi, Andrea; Brouillet, Jean-françois; Kaveh, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    The DARIUS Programme is a 4-years consortium sponsored by Major Oil Companies and Research Organizations. DARIUS drive together a group of academic scientific teams whose expertise includes several domains of tectonics (structural analysis, paleotectonic reconstructions, basin analysis, subsidence modeling), stratigraphy (paleontology, sequence stratigraphy, organic matter analysis), modeling, kinematics, and geophysics. The main objective is characterizing the tecto-stratigraphic evolution of a vast domain around Central Tethys extending from Black-Sea Anatolia in the west to western Central Asia in the east. One of the final products of the DARIUS Programme is a set of 20 paleotectonic maps of the DARIUS domain ranging in age from the Late Permian to Pliocene. In these maps we propose paleotectonic reconstructions of the south-central Eurasian and north African-Arabian plates starting after the Late Paleozoic Hercynian orogeny. These palinspastic maps are based on an up-to-date kinematics reconstruction of the African, Indian and Arabian plates with respect to Eurasia. For each map we depict the major tectonic-geodynamic features (i.e. the rifts, different types of basins, major orogens and fold belts, main transcurrent faults, subduction zones, accretionary prisms...) as well as the main paleofacies. Our reconstructions are based on an accurate timing of the tectonic events that have succeeded in the central Tethyan margins since the Late Paleozoic. These events include both the main orogenies resulting from collisions of major plates and blocks and the series of openings and inversions of basins that developed in the northern and southern Tethyan margins between the main collisions. Following the Variscian orogeny that ended in the Early Permian, the Mid to Late Triassic Eo- and Mid-Cimmerian orogenies are related to the collision of Gondwanian blocs with the Pangea margin after closure of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic domain. Then, for the rest of the Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic mainly developed: (1) a northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere beneath the southern Eurasian margin, and (2) a passive margin bordering the African-Arabian plate to the North. In this latter plate, riftings and basins developed until Late Cretaceous when the Neo-tethys ophiolites were obducted onto the Arabian passive margin. On the contrary, the North Tethys active margin recorded a complex tectonic evolution characterized by: (1) the opening of back-arc and marginal basins during the Triassic to Early-Mid Cretaceous times (e.g. Black Sea, Great Caucasus, South Caspian, Central Iran, Amu-Darya and Tadjik basins), and (2) regional compressions associated with the inversions and/or closure of these basins. The main inversions are Mid-Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, and uppermost Cretaceous-Paleogene in age. The first collision between major plates began in the Early Eocene when the northern Indian and southern Eurasian margins collided. The second one is the Arabia-Eurasia collision, which initiated in the Late Eocene. Both developed until Present, originating the Himalaya and Tien-Shan ranges and the Alpine chains respectively. After the complete closure of the remnant Tethyan oceanic domain, at the beginning of Neogene, the continent-continent collisions were developing all along the southern Eurasian active margin.

  20. Mixing mechanisms in siliciclastic-carbonate successions of Khan Formation (Permian), Central Iran

    Shadan, Mahdi; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh

    2010-05-01

    Mixing mechanisms in siliciclastic-carbonate successions of Khan Formation (Permian), Central Iran M. Shadan & M. Hosseini-Barzi Geology Department, Faculty of Earth Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran shadangeo@gmail.com Mixing mechanisms in siliciclastic-carbonate successions of Khan Formation (Permian) have been studied in two sections (Chahroof with 197 m thick in north and Cheshmeh Bakhshi with 204 m thick in south) along basement Kalmard fault in Posht-e-Badam block, Central Iran. Siliciclastic units are characterized by well sorted, fine to medium grain quartzarenites with laterite interbeds, deposited in shoreline zone (foreshore, upper and lower shoreface) influencing wave and longshore currents. Longshore sands which have been transported along the coast made the sand bars in the shoreface. Further along the coast, returning of these currents as rip currents produced erosive channel inlets and caused to carry fine grain into the deeper regions of the basin. Based on this sedimentary model we introduced longshore currents as a probable agent for mixing, by transporting some volumes of sands into the adjacent carbonate environments. Vertically, clastic units of Khan Formation underlined by carbonate units of a tidal flat and high-energy inner ramp system. Repeating of this pattern produced 3 cycles in each section. Cyclic evolution, in studied sections, is accompanied with discrepancy in erosion and sedimentation. These factors caused to disperse local sub-aerial exposures in successions which are recognizable by laterite and conglomerate interbeds. These horizons of sub-aerial exposures are more often in Chahroof section than in Cheshmeh Bakhshi section and indicate more fluctuations of relative sea level probably due to more local tectonic activity in the northern part of the Kalmard fault than in the southern part of it. Also, thicker siliciclastic units in Chahroof section show higher rate of sediment supply and/or more accommodation space there. Moreover, the late Paleozoic glacial conditions in Gondwana lands supported the large volume of clastic supply into the basin by intense weathering and erosion of vast exposed regions in Posht-e-Badam block. Also, tectonic activity along Kalmard basement fault mainly controlled local sea level changes and lithology of outcrops in the hinterlands. Therefore, interplay of these factors during lowstand of relative sea level, with lower accommodation space and higher gradient led to high rate of sediment input and distribution of siliciclastics in the base of each cycles. In contrast, relative sea level rises have been corresponded to the more accommodation space and reducing of siliciclastic entrance into the sedimentary basin that made a suitable condition for carbonate production. Therefore, during relative sea level rise, verities of carbonate-producing organisms tend to more rates of biogenic carbonate products and eventually formation of carbonate units upon the preexistence silisiclastics. Therefore, mixing of siliciclastics with carbonate deposits in Khan Formation have mainly been controlled temporally by sea level fluctuations due to local and/or eustatic sea level changes and spatially by variations in local tectonic activities and lateral facies mixing by longshore currents.