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1

Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is produced. Therefore, we have hypothesized the two processes: C1 coal combustion --> nanoquartz in ambient air --> lung cancer excess in non-smoking women. Methods/Design We propose to conduct a retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis above. We will search historical records and compile an inventory of the coal mines in operation during 1930–2009. To estimate the study subjects' retrospective exposure, we will reconstruct the historical exposure scenario by burning the coal samples, collected from operating or deserted coal mines by coal geologists, in a traditional firepit of an old house. Indoor air particulate samples will be collected for nanoquartz and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs analyses. Bulk quartz content will be quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Size distribution of quartz will be examined by electron microscopes and by centrifugation techniques. Lifetime cumulative exposure to nanoquartz will be estimated for each subject. Using the epidemiology data, we will examine whether the use of C1 coal and the cumulative exposure to nanoquartz are associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer. Discussion The high incidence rate of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, one of the counties in the current study area, was once attributed to high indoor air concentrations of PAHs. The research results have been cited for qualitative and quantitative cancer risk assessment of PAHs by the World Health Organization and other agencies. If nanoquartz is found to be the main underlying cause of the lung cancer epidemic in the study area, cancer potency estimates for PAHs by the international agencies based on the lung cancer data in this study setting should then be updated.

Zhou Yiping

2008-12-01

2

Influence of tectonics on Permian coal-rank patterns in Australia  

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Coal in the Australian Permian basins is dominantly subbituminous coal to medium-volatile bituminous coal. The subbituminous coal and higher-rank bituminous coals are generally the result of burial diagenesis. Localized low-volatile bituminous coal to anthracite is commonly associated with igneous activity. Extensive zones of high-rank coal in the eastern part of the Bowen Basin are due to uplift of deeply buried coal-measure sequences during Late Permian and Triassic tectonism. High-rank coals in the Sydney Basin are due to uplift of deeply buried Permian rocks preceding sea-floor spreading in the Tasman Sea during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary although this conclusion is controversial. Localized semianthracite and anthracite at depths greater than 2,500 m in the Cooper Basin were formed either by enhanced heat flow from radiogenic basement granites or by vertical movement of hot fluids through the fractured granitic bodies during the Tertiary. Permian coals in the Pedirka and Arckaringa Basins in the center of the continent, and the Perth, Carnarvon, Canning, Bonaparte and Officer Basins in the west are generally low in rank due to either shallow depths of burial or slight heat flow, or both. The Fitzroy Trough of the Canning Basin is an exception; there significant tectonic activity has occurred since the Permian. 67 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Middleton, M.F.; Hunt, J.W. (Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth)

1989-07-01

3

Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Chen, J.; Liu, G.; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, L.; Jiang, D.

2011-01-01

4

Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest-mire communities dominated by glossopterid and noeggerathiopsid gymnosperms. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Holdgate, G.R.; McLoughlin, S.; Drinnan, A.N.; Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A.

2005-01-01

5

Nature and origin of fractures in Permian coals from the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia  

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A field investigation into the development of cleat and other fractures within Permian coal measures was undertaken in the Bowen Basin of eastern Queensland, Australia to provide predictive information on coal permeability for use in coalbed methane exploration. Data were collected from five open-cut and three underground mines in the southern and central Bowen Basin, covering the Upper Permian German Creek Formation and Rangal Coal Measures. Fractures noted in the coals fall readily into the four categories of faults and shear zones, extension and compression-related joint sets, mining-induced fractures and coal cleats. Four geometric varieties of coal cleats were identified: class A orthogonal sets, class B sinusoidal sets, class C polygonal sets and class D chaotic sets. Superimposed or overprinted type A sets were also observed locally. On a regional scale the cleats typically parallel dip (face cleats) and strike (butt cleats), but local departures from this pattern occur in proximity to faults, where face and butt cleat directions were often reversed, rotated or multimodal. Field data suggest that coal cleats of classes A, B and C were formed by brittle fracturing of the coal during burial, whereas class D and superimposed cleats were formed during later compressional events. Constraints on the timing of deformation events affecting the Bowen Basin, and geochemical data provided by other workers indicate that the cleats were formed within 5 Ma of formation of precursor peats, but were in many instances modified by later structural events. 45 refs.

Pattison, C.I.; Fielding, C.R.; McWatters, R.H.; Hamilton, L.H. [CSIRO, Glen Waverley, Vic. (Australia). Div. of Petroleum Resources

1996-06-01

6

Control of sea-level change to coal accumulation in Carboniferous-Permian, north China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the results of sequence stratigraphic research, the Carboniferous-Permian depositional formation in North China were formed in a second order sea-level change cycle, which includes 4 cycles in the third order and 26 cycles in the fourth order. Several large scale coal accumulations took place during the turning point between the fall and rise of the third order sea-level, locating at the top of highstand system tracts. The formation of thin coal seams was correlated to the fourth order sea-level change cycle and occurred at the top of the parasequences. The development of coal accumulation was controlled by the sea-level change cycle. The sea-level change supplied the potential accommodate space for the accumulation of organic materials. The developmental range of coal accumulation was controlled by the periodic range of sea-level change, which controlled the evolution of coal accumulation in time and space. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Chen, S. [Petroleum University of China (China). Resource Department

2000-10-01

7

Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zheng, L.; Liu, G.; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zhang, Y.

2007-01-01

8

Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals.

Zheng, L.G.; Liu, G.J.; Chou, C.L.; Qi, C.C.; Zhang, Y. [University of Science & Technology China, Hefei (China)

2007-10-15

9

Catastrophic dispersion of coal fly ash into oceans during the latest Permian extinction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the latest Permian extinction about 250 Myr ago, more than 90% of marine species went extinct, and biogeochemical cycles were disrupted globally. The cause of the disruption is unclear, but a link between the eruption of the Siberian Trap flood basalts and the extinction has been suggested on the basis of the rough coincidence of the two events. The flood basalt volcanism released CO{sub 2}. In addition, related thermal metamorphism of Siberian coal measures and organic-rich shales led to the emission of methane, which would have affected global climate and carbon cycling, according to model simulations. This scenario is supported by evidence for volcanic eruptions and gas release in the Siberian Tunguska Basin, but direct indicators of coal combustion have not been detected. Here we present analyses of terrestrial carbon in marine sediments that suggest a substantial amount of char was deposited in Permian aged rocks from the Canadian High Arctic immediately before the mass extinction. Based on the geochemistry and petrology of the char, we propose that the char was derived from the combustion of Siberian coal and organic-rich sediments by flood basalts, which was then dispersed globally. The char is remarkably similar to modern coal fly ash, which can create toxic aquatic conditions when released as slurries. We therefore speculate that the global distribution of ash could have created toxic marine conditions.

Grasby, S.E.; Sanei, H.; Beauchamp, B. [Geological Survey Canada Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2011-02-15

10

Molecular representations of Permian-aged vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich South African coals  

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Molecular representations for two Permian-aged South African coals, inertinite-rich Highveld (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg were constructed based on analytical data. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to determine the size and distribution of aromatic fringes, thereby affording the base aromatic skeleton for each coal model. Sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and aliphatic side chains and crosslinks were added to the aromatic skeletons according to {sup 13}C NMR and literature data. The individual molecules were assembled into three-dimensional structures and were in agreement with experimental data (NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses data). These models were structurally diverse with a molecular weight ranging from 78 to 1900 amu. The vitrinite-rich coal model consists of 18,572 atoms and 191 individual molecules and the inertinite-rich coal model consists of 14,242 atoms and 158 individual molecules. These were the first molecular representations for South African vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich coals. The inertinite-rich Highveld coal model was more aromatic with a larger portion of the aromatic carbons polycondensed. The vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal model was more aliphatic and contained more aliphatic side chains and longer aliphatic crosslinks. Although these coals have very similar average molecular structures according to the various analytical data, subtle differences in the experimental data lead to significant structural differences in the models. 53 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Daniel Van Niekerk; Jonathan P. Mathews [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute

2010-01-15

11

Concentration and distribution of elements in Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, China  

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With the aim of better understanding geochemistry of coal, 71 Late Permian whole-seam coal channel samples from western Guizhou Province, Southwest China were studied and 57 elements in them were determined. The contents of Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Sn, Ta, Ti, Th, U, V, Zr, and REEs in the Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province are higher than the arithmetic means for the corresponding elements in the US coals, whereas As, Ba, Br, F, Hg, P, Se, and Tl are lower. Compared to common Chinese coals, the contents of Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Hf, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sc, Sn, Ti, U, V, Zn, and Zr in western Guizhou coals are higher, and As, F, Hg, Rb, Sb, Tl, and W are lower. Five groups of elements may be classified according to their mode of occurrence in coal: The first two, Group A, Tm-Yb-Lu-Y-Er-Ho-Dy-Tb-Ce-La-Nd-Pr-Gd-Sm, and Group B, As-Sr-K-Rb-Ba-F-Ash-Si-Sn-Ga-Hf-Al-Ta-Zr-Be-Th-Na, have high positive correlation coefficients with ash yield and they show mainly inorganic affinity. Some elements from Group B, such as Ba, Be, Ga, Hf, and Th, are also characterized by significant aluminosilicate affinity. In addition, arsenic also exhibits high sulfide affinity (r{sub S-Fe}>0.5). The elements, which have negative or lower positive correlation coefficients with ash yield (with exceptions of Bi, Cs, Nb, Mn, Se, and Ti), are grouped in other four associations: Group C, Cr-V-Mo-U-Cd-Tl; Group D, Hg-Li-Sc-Ti-Eu-Nb-Cs-W; Group E, Bi-Sb; and Group F, Co-Ni-Cu-Pb-Zn-Mg-Se-Ca-Mn-S-Fe. The correlation coefficients of some elements, including Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mo, Ni, P, S, Sc, U, V, and Zn, with ash yield are below the statistically significant value. Only Cr and Cu are negatively correlated to ash yield (-0.07 and -0.01, respectively), showing intermediate (organic and inorganic) affinity. Manganese and Fe are characterized by carbonate affinity probably due to high content of epigenetic veined ankerite in some coals. Phosphorus has low correlation coefficients with any other elements and is not included in these six associations. There are five possible genetic types of enrichment of elements in coal from western Guizhou Province: source rock, volcanic ash, low-temperature hydrothermal fluid, groundwater, and magmatic hydrothermal inputs.

Dai, Shifeng; Ren, Deyi; Tang, Yuegang; Yue, Mei; Hao, Liming [China University of Mining and Technology, D11, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

2005-01-18

12

Radiometric age determination of tonsteins and stratigraphic constraints for the Lower Permian coal succession in southern Parana Basin, Brazil  

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Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons from tonsteins interbedded with coal seams from the Candiota and Faxinal coalfields (Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil) is presented. The mean ages obtained (290.6 {+-} 1.5 Ma) are more precise than previously published intervals. Calibrations of chronostratigraphic data with radiometric ages show that the main coal succession from the southern Basin is constrained to the Middle Sakmarian. The {+-} 2 Ma time interval of deposition supports the hypothesis that the coal-generating process was quite rapid in terms of geological time. In a general context, Faxinal and Candiota coals are assigned, into the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone, besides some paleocological differences evidenced by palynological studies. This bio-interval does not correspond to a consistent palynostratigraphic tool and more accurate biostratigraphic zonation for the Carboniferous-Permian interval must be delineated. The new results have far-reaching significance for correlations of the Basin with sequences of the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and also with the Karoo Basin, with the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). This new evidence supports the presence of an active and widespread Lower Permian explosive volcanic event in western Gondwana, which is interpreted as the same volcanism which produced the Choiyoi Group in western Argentina. According to this correlation the ash-fall source is located about 1400 km to the southwest of their area of deposition. (author)

Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Hartmann, Leo Afraneo; Formoso, Milton Luis Laquintinie [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, Joao Orestes Schneider [Centre for Global Targeting, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia); Ketzer, Joao Marcelo [Instituto de Meio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Avenida Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

2008-03-03

13

Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The content of trace element in pyrite vein depends upon the content of mosaic pyrite and of trace elements in it. Many environmentally sensitive trace elements are mainly contained in the minerals in coal, and hence the physical coal cleaning techniques can remove minerals from coal and decrease the emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang, J.; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C. -L.; Liu, J.

2002-01-01

14

Raman spectroscopy of coal component of Late Permian coals from Southern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical structural characterization of four samples (M-1, M-5, VS, and BaS) from Southern China was studied by Raman spectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis. Several Raman parameters, e.g., full width at half maximum (FWHM) and intensity ratio (ID1/IG), were obtained. Vitrinite (VS) and barkinite (BaS) were separated from the same coal sample, separately. The results showed that nine bands were assigned from the Raman spectra. Two typical bands, G and D1, have broad peaks, which showed that all the samples have poor order in chemical structure. Barkinite has higher disorder in chemical structure than vitrinite. PMID:24973667

Wang, Shaoqing; Cheng, Hongfei; Jiang, Di; Huang, Fan; Su, Shen; Bai, Haipeng

2014-11-11

15

Raman spectroscopy of coal component of Late Permian coals from Southern China  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical structural characterization of four samples (M-1, M-5, VS, and BaS) from Southern China was studied by Raman spectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis. Several Raman parameters, e.g., full width at half maximum (FWHM) and intensity ratio (ID1/IG), were obtained. Vitrinite (VS) and barkinite (BaS) were separated from the same coal sample, separately. The results showed that nine bands were assigned from the Raman spectra. Two typical bands, G and D1, have broad peaks, which showed that all the samples have poor order in chemical structure. Barkinite has higher disorder in chemical structure than vitrinite.

Wang, Shaoqing; Cheng, Hongfei; Jiang, Di; Huang, Fan; Su, Shen; Bai, Haipeng

2014-11-01

16

Nature and origin of fractures in Permian coals from the Bowen Basin and the relationship with in situ reservoir permeability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a broader research effort into the controls on methane generation, storage and production potential of Bowen Basin coals, this paper presents summary results of a regional investigation into the characteristics and origin of cleats and their relationship to other structures and sedimentary features associated with two major Late Permian coal measure units (German Creek Formation and Rangal Coal Measures). The aims of this study were to determine the local and regional distribution and orientation of fractures occurring naturally within coal, to investigate the relationship between cleats and other fractures (joints, shears, faults) and interpret the origin of cleats and establish a regional model for their development. Coal cleats in the Bowen Basin of eastern Queensland are interpreted to have formed by brittle failure of macerals during burial in the Permo-Triassic. The results of analysis indicate that for a given stress regime, the intensity of fracturing inherent to a coal seam has a significant impact on measured `in situ` reservoir permeability. With some refinement, and used in conjunction with measured or predicted stress data, the coal fracture index methodology may prove useful in the future as an exploration tool or aid in the generation of more reliable reservoir models. (author). 14 figs., 49 refs.

Pattison, C.I. [Geocontext Pty Ltd., (Australia); Fielding, C.R. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia); McWatters, R.H. [Geospan Pty Ltd., (Australia); Hamilton, L.H. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Bowen Basin Geologists Group, QLD (Australia); Geological Society of Australia Inc., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

1995-10-01

17

The geology petrology, palynology and geochemistry of Permian coal basins in Tanzania. 1. Namwele-Mkomolo, Muze and Galula coalfields  

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Permian coal-bearing strata occur in a number of intracratonic rift basins in Tanzania. This study examines coals, shales and mudstones of the Namwele-Mkomolo, Muze and Galula coalfields (Rukwan basin) by coal petrological, palynological and rock eval techniques. For the coals the focus was on the establishment of coal seam characteristics and related quality and utilization potentials, whereas the shales and mudstones were examined for age relationships, flora and related palaeodepositional environments and source rock potential. The coal seams, which have a thickness of up to 2.95 m are high in ash and have calorific values ranging from 5344 to 18947 J/g. Many seams are detrital with a high content finely disseminated clay minerals, quartz and detrital macerals. Pyrite content is variable. Vitrinite reflectance ranges from 0.43 to 0.66% R{sub random}. Use of the coals in small-scale power generation and for domestic use would greatly reduce the dependency of rural Tanzania on wood and wood-derived charcoal. Palynomorph assemblages are characterized by the predominance of nontaeniate and taeniate pollen, and trilete spores in the Namwele-Mkomolo and Muze coalfields. At Galula coalfields the palynomorph assemblages were poor. On the basis of age correlations with Karoo basins to the south and the Collie Basin of western Australia, an Artinskian to Kungurian (?) age is suggested for the coal measures in the Rukwa basin. The diversity of palynomorph assemblages suggests a variety of floras and contemporary depositional environments. This is consistent with coal petrography indicating that peat accumulation occurred in upper delta plain, braided plan and lacustrine depositional environments. Rock eval parameters indicate koergen type III for all samples investigated and indicate very poor hydrocarbon source rock potential. 59 refs., 17 figs., 6 plates, 3 tabs.

Semkiwa, P.; Kalkreuth, W.; Utting, J.; Mayagilo, F.; Mpanju, F.; Hagemann, H. [Tanzania Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals, Dodoma (Tanzania)

1998-03-01

18

Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the predominance of quartz and kaolinite (also pyrite). Gypsum, gibbsite, jarosite and calcite were also identified in some samples. Feldspar was noted but is rare. The major element distribution in the three seams (coal basis) is dominated by SiO{sub 2} (31.3 wt.%, mean value), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (14.5 wt.%, mean value) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (6.9 wt.%, mean value). Considering the concentrations of trace elements that are of potential environmental hazards the Barro Branco, Bonito and Irapua seams (coal base) are significantly enriched in Co (15.7 ppm), Cr (54.5 ppm), Li (59.3 ppm), Mn (150.4 ppm), Pb (58.0 ppm) and V (99.6 ppm), when compared to average trace elements contents reported for U. S. coals. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified, based on similarity levels, three groups of major elements and seven groups of trace elements. Applying discriminant analyses using trace and major element distribution, it could be demonstrated that the three seams from Santa Catarina show distinct populations in the discriminant analyses plots, and also differ from the coals of Rio Grande do Sul analyzed in a previous study. (author)

Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

2010-12-01

19

Petrography and depositional environments of the Permian coal deposits of Deoghar basin, Bihar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt has been made to carry out the petrographic characterization of coals from the Deoghar basin and to reconstruct the palaeo environmental conditions of coal formation using macerals and microlithotypes as tools. For this purpose, a large number of pillar coal samples from the Karharbari and Barakar seams were collected and were subjected to detailed petrographic examination. The results indicate that the Karharbari coals are rich in inertinite while the Barakar coals are comparatively rich in vitrinite. The rank of Deoghar coals (as per ASTM system), on the basis of the mean of random vitrinite reflectance, has been found to range between Sub-Bituminous 'B' and High Volatile 'C' Bituminous. The quantitative relationships of macerals, microlithotypes and mineral matter show that these coals have originated from the transitional plant communities in open to forest moor and under limno-telmatic to limnic conditions. Moreover, the Karharbari coals have evolved under oxic moor conditions with sudden high flooding while the Barakar coals have evolved under comparatively wet moor conditions with intermittent moderate to high flooding. Low values of TPI and GI indicate periodic dryness in the basin. This contention is supported by the dominance of inertodetrinite, particularly in the coals of Karharbari Formation.

Singh, M.P.; Singh, P.K.; Singh, A.K. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Geology

2003-04-01

20

In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal ?in Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and study in vitro toxicity of naturally occurring silica particles on BEAS-2B. Methods ?Separating the silica particles from combustion products of C1 bituminous coal by physical method, observing the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope, analysis elements by SEM-EDX, observed the single particle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscope, analyed its particle size distribution by Laser particle size analyzer, the surface area of silica particles were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption analysis; ?Cell viability of the experimental group (silica; naturally occurring, control group (silica; industrial produced and crystalline silica was detected by assay used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined after 24 h-72 h exposed to these particles. Results ?The physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal, which have different size, and from 30 nm to 120 nm particles accounted for 86.8%, different morphology, irregular surface area and containing trace of aluminum, calcium and iron and other elements; ?Under the same concentration, the experiment group have higher toxicity on BEAS-2B than control groups. Conclusion ?Physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal and not change the original morphology and containing trace; ?Naturally occurring silica nanoparticles have irregular morphology, surface area, and containing complex trace elements may has greater toxicity than the silica nanoparticle of industrial produced and crystalline silica.

Guangjian LI

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Lopingian (Late Permian) coal measures in southwestern China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lopingian coal measures of southwestern China were deposited within a range of facies associations spanning a spectrum of settings from fluvial to marine carbonate platform. The transitional to terrestrial coal measures are dominated by siliciclastics, but they also contain fifteen laterally extensive marine bands (limestone beds and mudstone). These bands act as marker horizons that enable correlation between fully marine and terrestrial facies. Examination of this range of facies and their sedimentology has enabled the development of a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework. Set against the established backdrop of second-order Lopingian transgression, sixteen fourth-order sequences and three composite sequences (third-order) are recognized. Results show that, in the composite sequences, peat accumulation in the seaward parts of the study area predominantly correlates with early transgressive sequence sets (TSS), while in more landward areas it correlates with the middle TSS to late highstand sequence sets (HSS). Differences in peat-accumulation regimes within the sequence stratigraphic framework are attributed to variations in subsidence and background siliciclastic input rates in different depositional settings, with these combining to produce differences in the rate of accommodation change. The preservation of coal resources in the middle to late HSS in this area was most likely related to the rise of the regional base level throughout the Lopingian. (author)

Wang, Hao [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Shao, Longyi; Hao, Liming; Zhang, Pengfei [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Glasspool, Ian J. [Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Wheeley, James R.; Hilton, Jason [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Wignall, Paul B. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Yi, Tongsheng [Guizhou Bureau of Coal Geological Exploration, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhang, Mingquan [Coal Geology and Prospecting Institute of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan (China)

2011-01-01

22

Petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 1. Santa Terezinha, Leao-Butia and Candiota Coalfields, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper presents results on petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization in Permian coal-bearing strata from the Parana Basin, southern Brazil. Sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that peat accumulation in Permian time was closely linked to transgressive/regressive cycles, with peat accumulation occurring in a predominantly back barrier/lagoonal setting. Coal petrographic analysis indicates subbituminous coals at Candiota and Leao-Butia and high volatile bituminous coals at Santa Terezinha, where locally the coal seams are thermally altered by volcanic intrusions. Petrographic composition is highly variable, with seams at Candiota and Santa Terezinha frequently enriched in inertinite. Chemical analyses indicate that all coals are mineral matter-rich (mean 49.09 wt.%), with SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dominating as determined by ICP-AES. Quartz is also the predominant mineral detected by X-ray diffraction, where it is associated with feldspar, kaolinite and hematite and iron-rich carbonates. The results from Scanning Electron Microscopy are broadly consistent with the bulk chemical and mineralogical analysis. Quartz and clays are common in all samples analyzed. Other minerals observed were, amongst others, carbonates (calcite, siderite, ankerite), pyrite, monazite, kaolinite, barite, sphalerite, rutile and quartz of volcanic origin. The distribution of trace elements is well within the range typical for coal basins of other areas despite the fact that the Parana Basin coals are very high in ash yields. The average concentrations for elements of environmental concern (As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn) are similar to or less than the mean values for U.S. coal. However, considered on an equal energy basis, Parana Basin coals will produce in combustion 5 to 10 times the amount of most elements compared to an equal weight US coal. Concentrations of major and trace elements, such as Fe, B and S, appear to be controlled by depositional setting, with increasing values in coal seams overlain by brackish/marine strata. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified three groups of major minerals and seven groups of trace elements based on similarity levels. On a regional scale, the coalfields can be separated by the differences in rank (Candiota and Leao-Butia versus Santa Terezinha) and by applying discriminant analysis based on 4 trace elements (Li, As, Sr, Sb). Highest Rb and Sr values occur at Candiota and are linked to syngenetic volcanism of the area, whereas high Y and Sr values at Santa Terezinha can be related to the frequent diabase intrusions in that area. (author)

Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Kern, M.; Mexias, A.; Silva, M.B. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Machado, G. [Instituto de Quimica, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin-Geoinformatik-Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

2006-08-01

23

Age and significance of the Platypus Tuff Bed, a regional reference horizon in the upper Permian Moranbah coal measures, north Bowen Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Platypus Tuff Bed in the Permian Moranbah Coal Measures provides a basin-wide marker horizon traceable for over 300 km along strike. The bed is a tephra event unit, the product of a large-scale volcanic eruptive episode involving a pyroclastic volume > 10 km3. The relatively even thickness (?1-1.5 m) of the tuff across the entire northern Bowen Basin (?10 000 km2) implies a distant source. The tuff is ash-rich and its original geochemistry has been compromised by diagenetic alteration. Crystal content (10-15%) is dominated by quartz, suggesting a rhyolitic association. SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircons indicates an age of 258.9 ± 2.7 Ma for the Platypus Tuff Bed, confirming the Late Permian age that has generally been assigned to the Blackwater Group. The age framework now apparent for the coal-bearing Blackwater Group suggests an average depositional rate ranging from ?133 m/106 years for its eastern depocentre in the northern Bowen Basin to ?70 m/106 years in more marginal settings to the west. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

24

Age and significance of the Platypus Tuff Bed, a regional reference horizon in the Upper Permian Moranbah Coal Measures, north Bowen Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Platypus Tuff Bed in the Permian Moranbah Coal Measures provides a basin-wide marker horizon traceable for over 300 km along strike. The bed is a tephra event unit, the product of a large-scale volcanic eruptive episode involving a pyroclastic volume {gt} 10 km{sup 3}. The relatively even thickness of the tuff across the entire northern Bowen Basin implies a distant source. The tuff is ash-rich and its original geochemistry has been compromised by diagenetic alteration. Crystal content (10-15%) is dominated by quartz, suggesting a rhyolitic association. SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircons indicates an age of 258.9 +/- 2.7 Ma for the Platypus Tuff Bed, confirming the Late Permian age that has generally been assigned to the Blackwater Group. The age framework now apparent for the coal-bearing Blackwater Group suggests an average depositional rate ranging from about to 133 m/10{sup 6} years for its eastern depocentre in the northern Bowen Basin to similar to 70 m/10{sup 6} years in more marginal settings to the west.

Michaelsen, P.; Henderson, R.A.; Crosdale, P.J.; Fanning, C.M. [James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, Qld. (Australia). School of Earth Science

2001-07-01

25

Confirmation of Sigillaria Brongniart as a coal-forming plant in Cathaysia: occurrence from an Early Permian autochthonous peat-forming flora in Inner Mongolia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A common lycopsid genus, Sigillaria Brongniart, has been recorded most frequently in peat-forming forests in Europe and North America, but rarely in China. Although Sigillaria, in China, has been found in coal balls and used as evidence that it was a coalforming element, it has never been recorded as compression/impressions in peat-forming settings. Recent investigation of an Early Permian autochthonous peat-forming flora of the Taiyuan Formation near Wuda, Inner Mongolia, has provided evidence that Sigillaria could be a major element of peat-forming vegetation in China. Sigillaria is the only arborescent lycopsid acting as a major contributor to peat/coal formation. The genus Sigillaria is another element that China has in common with the Palaeozoic low-land floras of Europe and North America, enhancing the common floral aspects between the tropical swamp vegetations of the east and west regions of the Palaeotethys Ocean.

Wang, J.; Feng, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

2009-07-15

26

Geochemistry of the late Permian No. 30 coal seam, Zhijin Coalfield of Southwest China: influence of a siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the influence of siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid on the elemental concentrations and mineralogical characteristics of the late Permian anthracitic (Ro,max=3.58%) coal seam (No. 30) from the Zhijin Coalfield in western Guizhou Province, SW China. Coal samples were examined using instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray, and isotope analysis. The modes of occurrence of elements were determined using a sequential chemical extraction procedure. The studies indicate that the No. 30 coal seam has a very high content of veined quartz (vol. 9.4%), whose isotope values of ?30Si and ?18O are 0.6 per mille and 15.4 per mille, respectively, indicating that the quartz originated from siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid (formation temperature 160-220 deg. C) rather than detrital material of terrigenous origin or magmatic hydrothermal inputs. Results of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray and sequential chemical extraction procedure show that the veined quartz is the dominant source of Fe, Cu, U, Pd, Pt and Ir, which are as high as 2.31%, 356, 8, 2.1, 2.43, and 0.006 ?g/g in this coal seam, respectively. The studies have also found that elements, such as Fe and so found that elements, such as Fe and Cu are mainly in the veined quartz and they do not occur as sulfides in this coal seam, in sharp contrast to many other coal seams in China. The geochemical and mineralogical anomalies of the coal are attributed to the siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluid

27

Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2008-12-01

28

Solvent swelling behavior of Permian-aged South African vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two South African coals similar in rank and age, but different in maceral composition, were studied using solvent swelling. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were evaluated for swelling extent and swelling rate using N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and CS2/NMP. A stop-motion videography method was developed to study individual particle swelling behavior. This method allowed observation of overshoot and climbing-type swelling, as well as swelling kinetics. Single-particle swelling experiments showed that both coals exhibited overshoot-type and climbing-type swelling. The inertinite-rich coal swelled much faster (in both solvents) than the vitrinite-rich coal. The swelling in CS{sub 2}/NMP was faster for both coals. Kinetic parameters showed that solvent swelling was governed by relaxation (super-Case II relaxation) of the coal structure. X-ray computed tomography was conducted over a 50 h swelling period in NMP for single particles of each coal. Anisotropic swelling was observed in all the particles (swelling greater perpendicular to the bedding plane than parallel to it). The subtle changes in molecular structure, fine structural and physical differences resulted in significant differences in solvent swelling behavior. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Daniel Van Niekerk; Phillip M. Halleck; Jonathan P. Mathews [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute

2010-01-15

29

Cyclicity in early Permian fluviatile Gondwana coal measures: An example from Giridih and Saharjuri basins, Bihar, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The Karharbari and Barakar coal measures of Giridih and Saharjuri basins of Bihar, eastern India, comprise an interbedded assemblage of sandstone, shale and coal in variable abundance. The lithofacies composition records a progressive decrease in sandstone and enrichment of shale and coal from Karharbari up to Barakar. Application of first-order embedded Markov-chain statistics to subsurface data of Karharbari (52 borehole logs) and Barakar (10 borehole logs) reveals that deposition in both the coal measures followed a Markovian mechanism with variable probability, to yield a sequence of upward transition from sandstone through shale to coal. The repetitive fining-upward cycles are asymmetrical, i.e. sandstone ? shale ? coal ? sandstone in the case of Karharbari, but symmetrical as sandstone ? shale ? coal ? shale in Barakar. The abundance of sandstone and the asymmetrical nature of Karharbari cycles are attributed to abrupt shifting of channel bars in low-sinuosity anabranching streams. By contrast, the subequal amount of sandstone, shale and coal forming symmetrical cycles in the overlying Barakar Formation is due perhaps to a slow and gradual shift of the stream channels over and across the adjacent subenvironments of the flood plain.

Tewari, Ram C.; Casshyap, Satyendra M.

1983-08-01

30

Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)  

Science.gov (United States)

This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

2012-01-01

31

Origin of CO{sub 2}-rich gas in the Permian coal measures of the northern Sydney Basin, NSW, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Areas where CO{sub 2} is present at high concentrations (6-100%) are considered to be less attractive for coal bed methane (CBM) exploration. In the Sydney Basin CO{sub 2} as a proportion of the total gas can range from 0.1% to in excess of 90% and so geographic and stratigraphic variability of CO{sub 2} in coal seams, along with parameters such as methane content and coal permeability, have become of prime importance for successful CBM production. Before a full-scale CBM project can be undertaken in the Sydney Basin, reasons for high CO{sub 2} content and the controls on its distribution need to be identified. This paper reports the results of a study conducted to determine a) in-seam and inter-seam distribution of CO{sub 2} and b) source of CO{sub 2} particularly where it is present in high proportions, in exploration leases held by Pacific Power in the Sydney Basin. The data for this study were collected mainly from 3 exploration wells drilled by Pacific Power. Additional information was collected from Ellalong Colliery and from Dartbrook Mine both in the Hunter Valley. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Kozyrev, N.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Geology

1997-08-01

32

Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions (Shandong Province, China): Sequence development in an epicontinental basin  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions in Shandong Province, North China in order to understand the depositional processes and sequence-stratigraphic framework in an epicontinental basin. Based on detailed analysis of eleven facies, five facies assemblages (FAs) were recognized in the studied succession. FA1-3 are present mainly in the Benxi and Taiyuan formations, and consist of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate lithofacies, representing eluvial-lagoon, barrier-lagoon, and tidal-flat environments. FA4 occurs in the Shanxi formation and consists mainly of interbedded medium to fine sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, and coal lithofacies, representing river-dominated deltaic environments. FA5 is characterized by interbeds of trough cross-stratified coarse sandstone, and silty mudstone, mainly in the Lower Shihezi Formation, which was deposited in meandering river channel and floodplain. Three third-order sequences were established based on the vertical arrangement of facies assemblages and identification of physical surfaces (i.e., subaerial unconformity, transgressive surface, and regressive surface). Each sequence comprises a transgressive systems tract (TST) and a highstand systems tract (HST). TST of sequence 1 is composed of eluvial lagoonal deposits (FA1), whereas HST formed in lagoon-barrier and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 2 formed in a barrier-lagoon system (FA2), whereas HST is characterized by repetitive accumulation of interbedded limestone, sandstone, mudstone, and coal, deposited under lagoonal and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 3 comprises FA2, and HST mainly FA4, deposited in a river-dominated shallow-water delta system. Sequence 3 is overlain by a fluvial sequence (FA5). The three third-order sequences in the Shandong region are generally correlated with those in the Taebaeksan Basin (South Korea), the eastern part of the North China Block. The relative sea-level curves established in the two regions show a generally similar long-term rising trend.

Lv, Dawei; Chen, Jitao

2014-01-01

33

Palynological resolution of Permian sequence in Ib-River coalfield, Orissa and its environmental significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ib-River coalfield, a part of Mahanadi Master Basin has rich deposit of Lower Permian Barakar coal. The palynological analysis of sediments from this coalfield has revealed the presence of distinct palynoassemblages. These assemblages represent Permian sequence from Lower Barakar (Early Permian) to Lower Kamthi (Late Permian) sediments. The present palynological studies help in redefining the status of Barakar and Kamthi Formations and in classifying them. Here the palynological assessment has been compared with the megafossil work of the author. Based on the palaeobotanical data, the stratigraphy of this coalfield has been proposed and the environment during Permian time has been discussed in this paper.

Goswami, S. [Fakir Mohan University, Vyasa Vihar (India). PG Dept. of Environmental Science

2007-07-15

34

An investigation into the trace elements distribution in Permian Gondwana coals of northwestern Bangladesh by proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal samples of low volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite were studied to determine rank and concentrations of mineral species for their possible utilisation in combustion processes. Results obtained show that nineteen elements including environmentally hazardous ones like arsenic, bromine, lead, selenium, and economically valuable gallium and germanium as well as major elements like iron, calcium, potassium and manganese were detected with a wide distribution in these coals. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Podder, J.; Tarek, S.A.; Hossain, T. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Department of Physics

1999-07-01

35

The use of sequential extraction to determine the distribution and modes of occurrence of mercury in Permian Huaibei coal, Anhui Province, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sequential extraction tests using a Flow Injection Mercury System (FIMS) were done on 34 samples collected from the number 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 coal seams in the Huaibei Coalfield; average total mercury (Hg) concentrations for the seams were 0.13, 0.18, 0.54, 0.34, and 0.19 mg/kg respectively. The average value for all of the coal samples was 0.26 mg/kg, which is higher than most Chinese and U.S. coals. Six modes of Hg occurrence were recognized, including: water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic-bound, carbonate-bound, silicate-bound, and sulfide-bound Hg. With rare exception, little Hg was found in water-soluble, ion-exchangeable or carbonate-bound forms. Sulfide-bound Hg and organic-bound Hg dominated seams 3, 4, and 10, whereas silicate-bound Hg dominated seams 5 and 7. The relatively high Hg values observed in seams 5 and 7, especially in parting samples, are attributed to Hg enrichment by magmatic intrusions. (author)

Zheng, Liugen [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Science, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Guijian [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shaanxi (China); Qi, Cuicui; Zhang, Ying [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wong, Minghong [Croucher Institute for Environmental Science, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

2008-01-21

36

Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The end-Permian mass extinction has been envisaged as the nadir of biodiversity decline due to increasing volcanic gas emissions over some 9 million years. We propose a different tempo and mechanism of extinction because we recognize two separate but geologically abrupt mass extinctions on land, one terminating the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) at 260.4 Ma and a later one ending the Permian Period at 251 Ma. Our evidence comes from new paleobotanical, paleopedological, and carbon isotopic studies of Portal Mountain, Antarctica, and comparable studies in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Extinctions have long been apparent among marine invertebrates at both the end of the Guadalupian and end of the Permian, which were also times of warm-wet greenhouse climatic transients, marked soil erosion, transition from high- to low-sinuosity and braided streams, soil stagnation in wetlands, and profound negative carbon isotope anomalies. Both mass extinctions may have resulted from catastrophic methane outbursts to the atmosphere from coal intruded by feeder dikes to flood basalts, such as the end-Guadalupian Emeishan Basalt and end-Permian Siberian Traps.

Retallack, G.J.; Metzger, C.A.; Greaver, T.; Jahren, A.H.; Smith, R.M.H.; Sheldon, N.D. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

2006-11-15

37

Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2012-01-01

38

Permian potentiometric analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

39

Coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that in 1990, the United States became only the second country (after China) to produce more than 900 Mt (1 billion st) of coal in a single year. US production of bituminous and subbituminous coal, lignite and anthracite total 933.5 Mt (1.029 billion st) in 1990, 5% more than in 1989. The production gains were largely due to the rebuilding of depleted coal stockpiles by electric utilities and a surge in US coal exports. Domestic coal consumption essentially remained at its 1989 level. A slight increase in electric utility coal consumption was partly offset by a decline in metallurgical coal use. The use of coal in other industries and in the residential-commercial sector remained virtually flat

40

Coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

 
 
 
 
41

Permian geology of Gondwana countries: An overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earliest Permian sequences of Antarctica, southern and east-central Africa, the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, peninsular and Himalayan India, Tibet, western and eastern Australia, New Zealand, and South America are all characterized by glacial deposits and cold-water marine faunas. In the course of the Permian, considerable faunal (and floral) and climatic divergence occurred. Although folding is not necessarily present, the effects of the strong compressive tectonic phase (Hunter-Bowen Orogenic Folding Phase of Dickins) beginning in the mid-Permian (traditional two-fold subdivision) and of acidic and intermediate volcano-magmatic activity are apparent in all these regions as in other parts of the world. The progressive continentality of the Upper Permian (worldwide regression) culminates at the Permian-Triassic (Changxingian-Griesbachian) boundary.

Dickins, J.M. (Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))

1992-10-01

42

Species of the medullosan ovule Stephanospermum from the Lopingian (late Permian) floras of China  

Science.gov (United States)

The medullosan pteridosperm ovule Stephanospermum Brongniart is a well-known component of Carboniferous aged coal-ball and siderite nodule floras from North America and Europe but also occurs in the Permian floras of Cathaysia where it is represented by the Lopingian (late Permian) aged species Stephanospermum trunctatum (Li) Wang et al. (2009) from coal-balls in the Wangjiazhai Formation in Southern China. We provide a detailed emendation of S. trunctatum and illustrate it comprehensively for the first time, and document an additional specimen from the Wangjiazhai Formation coal-ball assemblage that we assign to Stephanospermum shuichengensis sp. nov. S. shuichengensis is distinguished from S. trunctatum by the absence of apical teeth in the sclerotesta and non-obovate base. The two species of Stephanospermum from the Wangjiazhai Formation are important as they extend the stratigraphic and geographical range of the genus from the Pennsylvanian of Euramerica into the Lopingian of Southern China, and demonstrate that the genus persisted in wetland, peat forming environments in the run up to the end-Permian mass extinction event. The 44 MY stratigraphic discontinuity between the Euramerican and the Cathaysian species, here named the Stephanospermum gap, leads us to infer that the genus was likely to have occurred in the Pennsylvanian-Permian successions of southern Russia and northern China that are geographically and stratigraphically intermediate to the known occurrences but from which the genus has yet to be discovered. Medullosan pteridosperms appear to have become extinct at or immediately prior to the Permian-Triassic boundary that coincides with the Permo-Trias mass extinction event; although the exact causes of this loss in plant diversity remains unknown, a response to regional climatic drying is likely to have been a contributing factor.

Spencer, Alan R. T.; Wang, Shi-Jun; Dunn, Michael T.; Hilton, Jason

2013-10-01

43

A sudden end-Permian mass extinction (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian mass extinction is the largest of the Phanerozoic. In the immediate aftermath the marine ecosystem was dominated by microbial and communities with disaster taxa. Plausible kill mechanism includes an extremely rapid, explosive release of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulfide. Siberian flood volcanism has been suggested as the most possible mechanism to trigger the massive release of greenhouse gases from volcanic eruptions and interaction of magmas with carbon from thick organic-rich deposits or rapid venting of coal-derived methane or massive combustion of coal. A sharp ?13C isotopic excursion, rapid disappearance of carbonate benthic communities and ?18O data from conodont apatite suggest rapid global warming. The end-Permian mass extinction occurred in less than 200,000 years. This extinction interval is constrained by two ash beds (Beds 25 and 28) at the Meishan section. However, the extinction patterns remain controversial largely due to the condensed nature of the Meishan sections. Geochemical signals and their interpretations are also contentious. Thus, the level of achievable stratigraphic resolution becomes crucial to determine the nature of the event and a detailed study of the extinction interval is essential to unravel the extinction pattern, chemostratigraphy, and the causes. However, the extinction interval at Meishan is only 26 cm thick and contains distinct gaps at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and possibly the base of Bed 25. Thus, it is impossible to resolve a detailed extinction pattern. Studying expanded sections is crucial to understand the detailed events before, during and after the main extinction. In this report, we show a highly-expanded Permian-Triassic boundary section in Guangxi Province, South China. The last 4.5 m between beds 22 and 28 of the Meishan sections is represented by a sequence of ~560 m at the section and the extinction interval between beds 24e and 28 at Meishan is represented by an interval about ~95 m which contains abundant benthic fossils. This expanded section reveals a very sudden extinction in a transgressive sequence that is inferred to have occurred within a few thousands of years.

Shen, S.

2013-12-01

44

Coal facies studies in Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite the economic importance of coal to the Australian economy, detailed studies of controls on variation in coal type are remarkably few. However, important contributions have been made in the understanding of coal facies development. Tertiary lignite deposits of the Gippsland Basin provide key insights into the development of lithotype cyclicity and its relationship to relative sea-level changes, with individual paling-up cycles being correlated to parasequences. Studies of Permian hard coals have identified relationships between coal type and surrounding sediments. Unfortunately, these relationships have been widely over-interpreted in a manner that has diminished their real value.

Crosdale, Peter J. [Coalseam Gas Research Institute, School of Earth Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4814 (Australia)

2004-04-23

45

Permian Basin as a radioactive waste repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Permian Basin comprises portions of many structural basins in which halite was deposited close together aerially during the Permian Period of time. It contains at least five areas where salt beds within a formation cumulatively total greater than 200 feet, and are overlain by between 1,000 and 5,000 feet of strata: the Colorado-Kansas, Kansas, Oklahoma-Texas, Clovis and Carlsbad areas. A few other areas within the Permian Basin may contain salt beds collectively greater than 200 feet thick. The Carlsbad area contains a great thickness of salt and covers a very large area. For the Clovis and Oklahoma-Texas areas there is little data available for the Texas portions. The Kansas area has the only halite mines with rooms comparable to those of the proposed waste repository facility. There is little data available for the Colorado-Kansas area, especially for the Colorado portion. The Permian Basin major tectonic elements were formed before deposition of Permian salt beds, and only minor igneous activity and possible fault movement is along the periphery. The greatest seismic activity is associated with the Nemaha Ridge along the northeast side of the Permian Basin, and there is no proven movement, only a suggestion of movement in the form of lineaments to have caused earthquakes. All of the Permian Basin is in zone 1 of Coffman and Cloud (1970) where only distant earthquakes may cause damage to structures; therefore, ground rupture is not anticipated in the Permian Basture is not anticipated in the Permian Basin during the time that the radioactive waste is dangerous

46

Permian Basin as a radioactive waste repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Permian Basin comprises portions of many structural basins in which halite was deposited close together aerially during the Permian Period of time. It contains at least five areas where salt beds within a formation cumulatively total greater than 200 feet, and are overlain by between 1,000 and 5,000 feet of strata: the Colorado-Kansas, Kansas, Oklahoma-Texas, Clovis and Carlsbad areas. A few other areas within the Permian Basin may contain salt beds collectively greater than 200 feet thick. The Carlsbad area contains a great thickness of salt and covers a very large area. For the Clovis and Oklahoma-Texas areas there is little data available for the Texas portions. The Kansas area has the only halite mines with rooms comparable to those of the proposed waste repository facility. There is little data available for the Colorado-Kansas area, especially for the Colorado portion. The Permian Basin major tectonic elements were formed before deposition of Permian salt beds, and only minor igneous activity and possible fault movement is along the periphery. The greatest seismic activity is associated with the Nemaha Ridge along the northeast side of the Permian Basin, and there is no proven movement, only a suggestion of movement in the form of lineaments to have caused earthquakes. All of the Permian Basin is in zone 1 of Coffman and Cloud (1970) where only distant earthquakes may cause damage to structures; therefore, ground rupture is not anticipated in the Permian Basin during the time that the radioactive waste is dangerous.

Smith, J.W.

1975-11-02

47

High precision radiometric ages from the northern Sydney Basin and their implication for the Permian time interval and sedimentation rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three pyroclastic samples that bracket the coal-bearing Permian System of the northern Sydney Basin have been dated using the zircon U/Pb and hornblende K/Ar methods. The Matthews Gap Dacitic Tuff Member, situated 170 m below the base of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 309 ± 3 Ma. Its age correlates well with the Paterson Volcanics which suggests that the immediately overlying clastic sediments are equivalent to the Seaham Formation. The Awaba Tuff, which is located 50 m below the top of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 256 ± 4 Ma. An intervening horizon, the Thornton Claystone of the Tomago Coal Measures, gives a best estimate of 266 ± 0.4 Ma. The ages indicate an earlier beginning ? 299 Ma BP), an earlier termination (? 255 Ma BP) and slightly longer duration (44±13 Ma) of the Permian System in the Hunter Valley than previously suggested. Sedimentation rates of ± 65m/Ma, calculated from proximal sequence thicknesses, are only half the rate calculated from the closest maximum thicknesses. Both are considerably lower than previously quoted rates. The estimated time interval of 10 Ma between the Thornton Claystone and the Awaba Tuff is more than twice the length of time previously attributed to accumulation of the combined Tomago and Newcastle Coal Measures. 38 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

48

Modern Pearl River Delta and Permian Huainan coalfield, China: A comparative sedimentary facies study  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedimentary facies types of the Pleistocene deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China and Permian Member D deposits in Huainan coalfield in Anhui Province are exemplified by depositional facies of anastomosing fluvial systems. In both study areas, sand/sandstone and mud/mudstone-dominated facies types formed in diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels laterally juxtaposed with floodplains containing ponds, lakes, and topogenous mires. The mires accumulated thin to thick peat/coal deposits that vary in vertical and lateral distribution between the two study areas. This difference is probably due to attendant sedimentary processes that affected the floodplain environments. The ancestral floodplains of the Modern Pearl River Delta were reworked by combined fluvial and tidal and estuarine processes. In contrast, the floodplains of the Permian Member D were mainly influenced by freshwater fluvial processes. In addition, the thick, laterally extensive coal zones of the Permian Member D may have formed in topogenous mires that developed on abandoned courses of anastomosing fluvial systems. This is typified by Seam 13-1, which is a blanket-like body that thickens to as much as 8 in but also splits into thinner beds. This seam overlies deposits of diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels of the Sandstone D, and associated overbank-floodplain deposits. The limited areal extent of lenticular Pleistocene peat deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta is due to their primary accumulation in topogenous mires in the central floodplains that were restricted by contemporaneous anastomosing channels.

Suping, P.; Flores, R. M.

1996-01-01

49

Permian Gondwana sedimentation in Yellandu (Singareni) coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India with notes on regional paleogeography and tectonic history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Yellandu coalfield of Andhra Pradesh contains 850 m Permian Gondwana rocks composed of Barakar, Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations. They are characterised by fining upward cycles. The sandstones are channel shaped, sheet-like and multistoried, and planar and trough cross bedded. The shales are massive to laminated and form thin tenses in the Barakar, but moderately thick sheets in the overlying Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations. The coal seams are thin and lensoid. Paleocurrent studies suggest consistently northwesterly dispersal direction areally and temporally. Evidence indicates that initially braided streams at the onset of Early Permian Barakar sedimentation became meandering through into Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations of Middle and Late Permian, respectively. The close similarity in lithofacies depositional environment and dispersal direction of Permian rocks of Yellandu coalfields and those of neighbouring Pranhita-Godavari basin in the east, and their geological and tectonic setting suggest that the Yellandu coalfield was part of the Godavari basin until the Late Permian or Early Triassic.

Tewari, R.C. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Geology

1998-11-01

50

Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and thallium in a Late Permian anthracite from Xingren, Guizhou, Southwest China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mineralogy and geochemistry of nine Late Permian coal-seam channel samples (anthracite) from Xingren, Guizhou, Southwest China were examined. Results showed that As, Sb, Hg, and Tl are significantly enriched in a Late Permian anthracite (sample XR-M1) in the study area, and their contents are as high as 2226 {mu}g/g, 3860 {mu}g/g, 12.1 {mu}g/g, and 7.5 {mu}g/g, respectively. However, the contents of the four elements in other coal-seam channel samples from Xingren, even the two channel samples (samples XR-M2 and XR-M3) that are from the same bed as sample XR-M1, are close to the ordinary coal average, indicating that these four elements varied greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed, and such coals highly enriched in these hazardous elements are very local and restricted. The main carrier of As, Sb, Hg, and Tl in sample XR-M1 is an epigenetic getchellite rather than syngenetic pyrite and clay minerals. Getchellite occurs only in the veined kaolinite of hydrothermal origin. The high As, Sb, Hg, and Tl in coal are derived from an arsenic- and antimony-rich hydrothermal fluid. (author)

Dai, Shifeng; Sun, Yuzhuang [Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province, Handan 056038 (China); Zeng, Rongshu [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

2006-03-03

51

Fluvial architecture of Early Permian Barakar rocks of Korba Gondwana basin, eastern-central India  

Science.gov (United States)

The Early Permian Barakar Formation of the Korba basin represents repeated deposition of fining upward sequences of coarse to medium grained sandstone, fine grained sandstone-shale, shale and coal. The sandstones are channel, sheet like, multistory, and profusely cross-bedded. The shale beds are lens as well sheet like and laminated; coal facies is thin to moderately thick and shows splitting. Paleocurrent analysis suggests a northwesterly paleoslope during Barakar sedimentation. However, the deflection of paleoslope towards northeast in the eastern part of the basin supports the existence of a watershed in the depositional area. The Barakar paleochannel were 4.05 m deep and 176 m wide (single channel) with an average sinuosity of 1.27. The average flow velocity and sediment load during flood stage are in the order of 1.77 m/s and 4.15. These results indicate bed-load (braided) to mixed load nature of the Barakar streams of the Korba basin. The study suggests that the Early Permian braided Barakar streams deposited the coal measure sequence subsequent to deglaciation in a northwesterly slopping paleovalley. The basin floor was highly uneven marked by the presence of a basement high in the northwestern part that bifurcates the paleostreams into northwestern and northeastern branches.

Tewari, Ram Chandra; Hota, Rabindra Nath; Maejima, Wataru

2012-06-01

52

Permian age from radiolarites of the Hawasina nappes, Oman Mountains  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hawasina nappes of the Oman Mountains yielded Permian radiolarians from cherts stratigraphically overlying a thick volcanic basement (AI Jil Formation) at the base of the Hamrat Duru Group. This fauna represents the first Permian radiolarians and radiolarites in the central and western Tethyan realm. A Permian age for pelagic sequences within the Hawasina Complex of Oman has major significance for regional paleogeographic reconstruction. A clear differentiation between platform (reefal sediments) and basin (radiolarites) from the base of the Late Permian (255 Ma) is implied. It suggests a flexure of the platform during Permian time; the present date implies that a zone of rifting was already developed adjacent to the northeast Gondwana platform margin during the Late Permian. The Hamrat Duru Basin corresponds to an opening intracontinental rift area (sphenochasm) between Arabia and northeast Gondwana, a reentrant of the paleo-Tethys.

de Wever, Patrick; Bourdillon-de Grissac, Chantal; Bechennec, François

1988-10-01

53

Clarification and changes in Permian stratigraphic nomenclature in Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines Permian nomenclature changes to Zeller (1968) that have been adopted by the Kansas Geological Survey. The Permian System/ Period, Cisuralian Series/Epoch, and Asselian Stage/Age are established at the base of the Bennett Shale Member of the Red Eagle Limestone. Series/epoch names Wolfcampian, Leonardian, and Guadalupian are retained and usage of Gearyan, Cimarronian, and Custerian is abandoned. The repositioned Carboniferous-Permian boundary divides the Council Grove Group into Carboniferous (Upper Pennsylvanian Series/Epoch; Virgilian Stage/Age) and Permian (Wolfcampian Series Epoch) segments.

Sawin, R. S.; Franseen, E. K.; West, R. R.; Ludvigson, G. A.; Watney, W. L.

2008-01-01

54

Permian age from radiolarites of the Hawasina nappes, Oman Mountains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hawasina napper of the Oman Mountains yielded Permian radiolarians from cherts stratigraphically overlying a thick volcanic basement (Al Jil Formation) at the base of the Hamrat Duru Group. This fauna represents the first Permian radiolarians and radiolarites in the central and western Tethyan realm. A Permain age for pelagic sequences within the Hawasina Complex of Oman has major significance for regional paleogeographic reconstruction. A clear differentiation between platform (reefal sediments) and basin (radiolarites) from the base of the Late Permian (255 Ma) is implied. It suggests a flexure of the platform during Permian time; the present data implies that a zone of rifting was already developed adjacent to the northeast Gondwana platform margin during the Late Permian. The Hamrat Duru Basin corresponds to an opening intracontinental rift area (sphenochasm) between Arabia and northeast Gondwana, a reentrant of the paleo-Tethys.

Wever, P.D. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (France)); Grissac C.B. (Bureau de Recherche Geologique et Miniere, Orleans, (France)); Bechennec, F. (Bureau de recherche Geologique et Miniere, Nantes (France))

1988-10-01

55

The carbon and sulfur cycles and atmospheric oxygen from middle Permian to middle Triassic  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a theoretical isotope mass balance model are presented for the time dependence of burial and weathering-plus-degassing fluxes within the combined long-term carbon and sulfur cycles. Averaged data for oceanic ? 13C and ? 34S were entered for every million years from 270 to 240 Ma (middle Permian to middle Triassic) to study general trends across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Results show a drop in the rate of global organic matter burial during the late Permian and a predominance of low values during the early-to-middle Triassic. This overall decrease with time is ascribed mainly to epochs of conversion of high biomass forests to low biomass herbaceous vegetation resulting in a decrease in the production of terrestrially derived organic debris. Additional contributions to lessened terrestrial carbon burial were increased aridity and a drop in sea level during the late Permian which led to smaller areas of low-lying coastal wetlands suitable for coal and peat deposition. Mirroring the drop in organic matter deposition was an increase in the burial of sedimentary pyrite, and a dramatic increase in the calculated global mean ratio of pyrite-S to organic-C. High S/C values resulted from an increase of deposition in marine euxinic basins combined with a decrease in the burial of low-pyrite associated terrestrial organic matter. The prediction of increased oceanic anoxia during the late Permian and early Triassic agrees with independent studies of the composition of sedimentary rocks. Weathering plus burial fluxes for organic carbon and pyrite sulfur were used to calculate changes in atmospheric oxygen. The striking result is a continuous drop in O 2 concentration from ˜30% to ˜13% over a twenty million year period. This drop was brought about mainly by a decrease in the burial of terrestrially derived organic matter. but with a possible contribution from the weathering of older organic matter on land. It must have exerted a considerable influence on animal evolution because of the role of O 2 in respiration. Some examples are the extinction of many vertebrates, loss of giant insects and amphibians, and the restriction of animals to low elevations. It is concluded that the extinction of plants may have contributed to the extinction of animals.

Berner, Robert A.

2005-07-01

56

Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F-T plant development in the U.S. is in the Alaskan oil fields.

Gerald P. Huffman

2000-10-27

57

Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

The Grassi Detachment Fault is located in the Orobic Alps east of Lake Como and was described by Froitzheim et al. (2008) as an Early Permian extensional structure. Many issues still remained unclear, like the exact timing of faulting and the extension from the well-exposed part of the detachment towards west. The Grassi Detachment Fault separates the Variscan Basement in its footwall from the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Early Permian Collio Formation within its hanging wall, marked by a mylonitic and cataclastic layer whose textures indicate top-to-the-southeast displacement. The footwall basement is formed by the Variscan Morbegno Gneiss and two granitic intrusions, the Val Biandino Quarz Diorite (VBQD) and the Valle Biagio Granite (VBG). The former is syntectonic with respect to the detachment, whereas for the latter, the relation to the detachment is unknown. The age of the VBQD is poorly defined as 312 Ma ± 48 Ma (Thöni et al. 1992); the VBG has not been dated. Volcanic rocks of the Collio Formation in the hanging wall may represent the extrusive part of the magmatic system. In our study area west of Val Biandino, several faults and shear zones are exposed: (1) The Grassi Detachment Fault is represented by mylonites and cataclasites with top-SE shear sense, between basement rocks and the Collio Volcanics. Towards NW, it is truncated by the unconformably overlying Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. This may reflect the eroded culmination of a Permian metamorphic core complex. (2) A steeply NW-dipping, brittle normal fault is found further west in the footwall between VBQD and VBG. It is sealed by the basal unconformity of the Verrucano Lombardo and therefore should also be of Early Permian age (Sciunnach, 2001). It may represent an antithetic fault with respect to the detachment, accommodating the uplift of the magmatically inflated core complex. (3) The Biandino Fault is a steeply SE-dipping reverse fault, affecting also the Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

2014-05-01

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Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito Formation, Early Permian, Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quiteria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The record in some coal palynofloras of Striadopodocarpites fusus, a component of the Hamiapollenites karrooensis subzone, as defined in the palynostratigraphic framework for the Parana Basin, indicates a Kungurian age for the palynoflora.

Jasper, A.; Menegat, R.; Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; de Souza, P.A. [UNIVATES, Lajeado (Brazil)

2006-07-15

59

Provenance evolution recorded by fine-grained Permian clastics, central Transantarctic Mountains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During austral summer 1985-1986, the authors collected approximately 310 samples of fine-grained clastics from 24 measured sections in the Permian sequence of the central Transantarctic Mountains. The objective is to extract provenance and paleoclimatic information from these fine-grained sediments, using their mineral and chemical compositions as well as principles established by other workers. Because the Permian sequence in the central Transantarctic Mountains records the transition from a glacial regime (Pagoda Formation), through subaqueous clastic (deltaic) deposits (Mackellar Formation), to fluvial sequences (Fairchild Formation) with coals (Buckley Formation), such an examination promises to provide valuable insight into the timing and nature of this paleoenvironmental change. Samples that have experienced minimal post-depositional alteration have been recognized on the basis of five criteria: presence of kaolinite; low illite crystallinity index, indicating relatively abundant less-ordered illites; low illite polytype parameter, indicting relatively abundant less-ordered (i.e., low temperature) 1Md illites; low vitrinite reflectance value, indicating limited heating of organic components; and high organic carbon content.

Krissek, L.A.; Horner, T.C. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1987-01-01

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Permian stratigraphy and correlation of Northeast China: A review  

Science.gov (United States)

Palaeontological, lithostratigraphical data from the Permian strata and correlation of the Permian successions for different tectonic units in Northeast China are reviewed and summarized in this paper. Permian strata in Northeast China are dominated by brachiopods, fusulinoideans and land plants, with limited ammonoids, conodonts and bivalves. The Cisuralian (Early Permian) in the northern margin of the North China Block and in the Manchuride Belt is composed mostly of marine massive limestone with the characteristic Pseudoschwagerina Zone in the Asselian and Sakmarian and the Misellina claudiae Zone in the Kungurian. The Cisuralian in the Xing'an Block and the northeastern part of Inner Mongolia is dominated by huge terrestrial deposits with fossil plants. The Guadalupian (Middle Permian) in the Manchuride, Altaid and Yanbian Belts are characterized by bi-temperate Roadian or early Wordian Monodiexodina fauna and the late Wordian-Capitanian Codonofusiella- Schwagerina or Neoschwagerina- Yabeina faunas, the mixed brachiopod faunas between the Boreal/antitropical and the Palaeoequatorial Cathaysian forms, the Roadian or early Wordian solitary coral faunas, and the late Wordian-Capitanian compound Waagenophyllum- Wentzelella fauna. The Nadanhada Terrane contains some exotic limestone blocks with a typical Cathaysian Neoschwagerina- Yabeina fauna in a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous mélange, which is related to Mesozoic subduction in the western Circum-Pacific region. The Lopingian (Late Permian) in Northeast China is mostly characterized by terrestrial molasse deposits with a mixed flora between the Boreal Angaran and the palaeoequatorial Cathaysian Provinces, indicating the final closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean.

Shen, S.-Z.; Zhang, H.; Shang, Q. H.; Li, W.-Z.

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Sedimentary Response to Arc-Continent Collision, Permian, Southern Mongolia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eurasian Tien Shan-Yin Shan suture is a ~3000 km-long boundary between Paleozoic arc and accretionary complexes (the Altaids) and Precambrian microcontinental blocks (Tarim and North China block). Stratigraphic data are presented from localities in southern Mongolia spanning more than 800 km along the northern margin of the suture. Facies descriptions, climatic indicators, sandstone provenance, and paleocurrent data help reconstruct Permian basin evolution during and following arc-continent collision, and results are integrated with previously published data to create a preliminary regional synthesis. Upper Permian strata of southern Mongolia comprise fluvial successions in the southwest, and marine turbidite deposits in the southeast. Floral assemblages show mixing of Siberian craton and North China block communities, indicating their close proximity to Mongolia by Permian time. There is a rapid transition from humid environments in the Late Permian to more arid conditions in the Early Triassic, which corresponds to the global Permian-Triassic boundary event, but may also reflect more local driving mechanisms such as rain shadow effects. Permian sandstones from Mongolia have undissected to dissected arc provenance, with little input from continental or recycled orogen sources. Timing of the nonmarine-marine facies transition and cessation of arc magmatism broadly supports earlier collision along the western part of the suture zone than the eastern part (e.g., Late Carboniferous-Late Permian). However when regional geologic constraints are integrated, a more complex model involving differential rotation of Tarim and the North China block is preferred. Late Paleozoic rocks of southern Mongolia have been subsequently dismembered along Mesozoic-Cenozoic strike-slip faults, and thus also represent the long-term record of intracontinental deformation within accreted, heterogeneous crust.

Johnson, C.; Amory, J.; Zinniker, D.; Lamb, M.; Graham, S.; Affolter, M.; Badarch, G.

2007-12-01

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Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Permian Basin locatd in the western part of Texas. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

63

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid gas hydrate release (the “clathrate gun” hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ?400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2‰ negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

2014-05-01

64

Microbial demineralization of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to other substances, coal contains varying amounts of minerals which were co deposited with the organic material during the process of coal formation. These minerals, predominantly metal silicates and pyrites, remain physically entrapped within the coal matrix and are largely responsible for the ash content of coal. Coal samples form Balochistan were found to contain about 15% pyrite and gave 30% ash content on combustion at 850 degree centigrade for 4 hours. Microbial leaching can remove mineral components from coal, thereby reducing ash content and thus increasing ash content and thus increasing energy per ton. A strain capable of iron and sulfur oxidising rod shaped, gram negative bacteria [MAA-C1] have been isolated from coal samples by enrichment technique. These bacteria were grown on 9k-gel rite plates. Shake flask experiments were carried out to determine the demineralization efficiency of these bacteria. About 58% reduction in ash content was observed on treating the coal samples with MAA-C1 for 12 days. (author)

65

Nest algebras in $c_1$  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we address some basic questions of the Banach space structure of the nest algebras in the trace class; in particular, we study whether any two of them are isomorphic to each other, and show that the nest algebras in the trace class have bases. We construct three non-isomorphic examples of nest algebras in $c_1$; present a new proof of the primarity of $c_1$ (Arazy, [Ar1], [Ar2]), and prove that $K(H)$, and the nest algebras in $B(H)$ are primary.

Arias, A A

1994-01-01

66

C1 lateral mass screw fixation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available C1 lateral mass screw placement is a powerful technique for segmental control of the C1 vertebra. In this report, we describe surgical technique for placement of C1 lateral mass screws, on our C1 specimen. C1 lateral mass is anatomically ideally suited for screw fixation to achieve C1-C2 arthrodesis. C1 lateral mass screw fixation is a safe technique and can be performed to achieve rigid and immediate stabilization.

Senoglu M

2009-01-01

67

Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Charcoal fóssil foi encontrado na Mina do Faxinal, Permiano Inferior, Formação Rio Bonito, na porção sul da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Foram descritos três tipos de lenhos gimnospérmicos picnoxílicos originários de um único nível de tonstein, o que confirma a ocorrência de paleoincêndios vegetacionais [...] nesta área. Uma redução da concentração de charcoal da base para o topo no nível de tonstein indica que a quantidade de combustível diminuiu durante a deposição, provavelmente devido ao consumo da vegetação existente pelo fogo. A presença de inertinita na camada de carvão, em níveis sobrepostos e sotopostos ao tonstein , indica que incêndios não estavam restritos ao intervalo de deposição da cinza vulcânica. A integração dos novos dados aqui apresentados com outros publicados anteriormente acerca da Mina do Faxinal, demonstra que eventos vulcânicos ocorridos nas áreas circunvizinhas podem ser identificados como potenciais fatores de ignição para os incêndios. A presença de chacoal em sedimentos associados a níveis de carvão em diferentes localidades no Permiano, demonstra que incêndios vegetacionais foram relativamente comuns nos ambientes formadores dos depósitos de carvão da Bacia do Paraná. Abstract in english Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in t [...] his area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumption of vegetation by the fire. The presence of inertinite in coals overlying and underlying the tonstein layer indicates that fire-events were not restricted to the ash fall interval. The integration of the new data presented in the current study with previously published data for the Faxinal Coalfield demonstrates that volcanic events that occurred in the surrounding areas can be identified as one potential source of ignition for the wildfires. The presence of charcoal in Permian sediments associated with coal levels at different localities demonstrates that wildfires have been relatively common events in the peat-forming environments in which the coal formation took place in the Paraná Basin.

André, Jasper; Dieter, Uhl; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Abdalla M. B, Abu Hamad; Neli T. G, Machado.

2011-06-01

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Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in this area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumption of vegetation by the fire. The presence of inertinite in coals overlying and underlying the tonstein layer indicates that fire-events were not restricted to the ash fall interval. The integration of the new data presented in the current study with previously published data for the Faxinal Coalfield demonstrates that volcanic events that occurred in the surrounding areas can be identified as one potential source of ignition for the wildfires. The presence of charcoal in Permian sediments associated with coal levels at different localities demonstrates that wildfires have been relatively common events in the peat-forming environments in which the coal formation took place in the Paraná Basin.Charcoal fóssil foi encontrado na Mina do Faxinal, Permiano Inferior, Formação Rio Bonito, na porção sul da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Foram descritos três tipos de lenhos gimnospérmicos picnoxílicos originários de um único nível de tonstein, o que confirma a ocorrência de paleoincêndios vegetacionais nesta área. Uma redução da concentração de charcoal da base para o topo no nível de tonstein indica que a quantidade de combustível diminuiu durante a deposição, provavelmente devido ao consumo da vegetação existente pelo fogo. A presença de inertinita na camada de carvão, em níveis sobrepostos e sotopostos ao tonstein , indica que incêndios não estavam restritos ao intervalo de deposição da cinza vulcânica. A integração dos novos dados aqui apresentados com outros publicados anteriormente acerca da Mina do Faxinal, demonstra que eventos vulcânicos ocorridos nas áreas circunvizinhas podem ser identificados como potenciais fatores de ignição para os incêndios. A presença de chacoal em sedimentos associados a níveis de carvão em diferentes localidades no Permiano, demonstra que incêndios vegetacionais foram relativamente comuns nos ambientes formadores dos depósitos de carvão da Bacia do Paraná.

André Jasper

2011-06-01

69

Did an Impact Trigger the Permian-Triassic Extinction?  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource, authored by David Morrison, contains the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Astrobiology Institute news story on new evidence of a 251-million year-old impact crater off the western coast of Australia that may have caused the "Great Dying", the Permian-Triassic extinction event.

Morrison, David

2009-05-26

70

Characteristics and formation mechanism of Permian Shanxi tight gas reservoir of Changbei gas field, Ordos Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the lithological characteristics of tight gas reservoirs, including the diagenetic characteristics, diagenetic environment and diagenetic sequence. The link between porosity, the sedimentary environment, lithology, diagenesis and basin tectonics was examined in order to determine how tight reservoirs were formed. The study focused on the Changbei gas field located in Yishan Slope of the Ordos Basin in China. The main pay zone reservoir is the Upper Paleozoic Lower Permian Shanxi sandstone which lies at a depth of 2700-2950 m. This low porosity, low permeability tight gas reservoir was deposited in a coal bearing acid environment which controlled the diagenesis sequence. The early carbonate cement was not well developed because the original pore water was acidic with non saturated calcium carbonate. However, compaction has significantly reduced the original pore and pore volume. The acidic environment caused large amounts of secondary quartz cementation to fill the pores during compaction. This was the main cause for the low porosity and low permeability. Thin sections show that calcium carbonate cementation did not develop in the pores of the sandstone reservoir, particularly in the earlier stage, but autogenetic kaolinite cementation is well developed. Tectonic studies indicate that the Changbei gas field was stable when the Lower Permian Shanxi Formation was deposited. The formation layers are flat and with few faults and folds. Buried history analysis also indicates that there was no apparent uplift and subsidence after the P1S2 Shanxi Formation was deposited. Underground water, particularly organic acid and carbon dioxide acid water is not active, and pores are reduced by compaction and silicon dioxide cementation. Dissolvable components such as feldspar limited the amount of secondary pores generated, which also contributed to low porosity and low permeability. tabs., figs.

Zhong, D. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting; Zhang, X. [PetroChina, Beijing (China). Foreign Cooperation Administration Dept.

2010-07-01

71

Water mass denitrification during the latest Permian extinction in the Panthalassic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest Permian extinction (LPE) event, about 252 Myr ago, resulted in the disappearance of >90 % of marine and terrestrial species. Possible explanations invoke, Siberian Trap volcanism, anoxia, H2S poisoning draw down of bioessential elements or a combination of these. Recent observation of coal ash dispersion into global oceans prior to LPE suggest global ash fall could have created toxic marine (terrestrial) conditions. Recent work also suggests volcanic mercury emissions may have added to toxic marine conditions. While development of marine euxinic conditions in the Tethyan region across the LPE is widely accepted, inferences on the redox and environmental conditions of the Panthalassic Ocean more equivocal. Indications of (photic zone) euxinia occur in marginal areas of Panthalassa. In central pelagic areas, however, expansion of low oxygen conditions across the LPE may be restricted to the oxygen minimum zone rather than towards the photic zone or the seafloor. Here, we report the ?15N isotopic signature in Late Permian - Early Triassic sediments from the Buchanan Lake section in the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic. Deep water marine sedimentation in the Sverdrup Basin, connected to Panthalassa via a western seaway, allows inferences on the nitrogen cycling across the LPE. We confirm that expansion of low oxygen conditions in the Panthalassic Ocean began prior to the paleo-Tethys Ocean. Further, the detailed correspondence of changes in denitrification, nitrate utilization/fixation across the LPE in both oceans indicate rapid reorganization of the marine ecosystem in response to changes in nutrient inventories, probably mediated through the eruption of the Siberian Traps.

Knies, J.; Grasby, S.; Beauchamp, B.; Schubert, C.

2012-04-01

72

Coal geopolitics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

73

The late Paleozoic oxygen pulse and accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent geophysical and geochemical data and theoretical modeling indicate high levels of atmospheric O2 (up to 35%) during the Carboniferous-Permian. I suggest that this O2 pulse had a substantial impact on global accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal during this geological period.

Premovic, Pavle I.

2006-01-01

74

The late Paleozoic oxygen pulse and accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent geophysical and geochemical data and theoretical modeling indicate high levels of atmospheric O2 (up to 35% during the Carboniferous-Permian. I suggest that this O2 pulse had a substantial impact on global accumulations of petroleum source rocks and coal during this geological period.

PAVLE I. PREMOVIC

2006-02-01

75

Permian palynostratigraphy and palaeoclimate of Lingala-Koyagudem coalbelt, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Godavari Graben, one of the biggest basins among several Gondwana basins of India, holds a unique position not only because of its geographical location in South India, but also due to the presence of almost complete succession from Permian to Cretaceous sediments. The Graben is traversed by many small faults due to which the dating and correlation of coal bearing horizons is difficult in this area. As palynology is one of the most reliable parameter for dating, correlation and characterization of continental deposits, palynological studies have been carried out in order to date and correlate the coal bearing horizons of Gundala, Mamakannu and Kachinapalli areas from Lingala-Koyagudem coalbelt of Godavari Graben.The distributional pattern of various palynotaxa has suggested the occurrence of eight distinct palynozones in five borecores of Gundala (MLG-23, MLG-24, and MLG-28), Mamakannu (MMK-19) and Kachinapalli (MGK-6) areas. These palynozones are comparable to Talchir, Lower Karharbari, Upper Karharbari, Barakar and Raniganj palynoflora of Indian Lower Gondwana. Palynozone-1 is equivalent to Parasaccites Assemblage of Talchir Palynoflora; Palynozone-2 is correlatable with Callumispora + Parasaccites Assemblage of Lower Karharbari palynoflora; Palynozone-3 corresponds well with Parasaccites + Scheuringipollenites Assemblage of Upper Karharbari palynoflora; Palynozone-4 is comparable to Scheuringipollenites Assemblage of Barakar palynoflora; Palynozone-5 is correlatable with Faunipollenites + Striatopodocarpites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora; Palynozone-6 is comparable with Striasulcites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora; Palynozone-7 shows its equivalence with Parasaccites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora and Palynozone-8 corresponds well with the Crescentipollenites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora. On the basis of palynofloral evidences, it has been suggested that palaeoclimate during Palynozone 1-3 was cool but humidity was more in Palynozone-3 in comparison to Palynozone-2. Warmer phase started during Palynozone-4 with thick coal deposits, while Palynozones 5-8 representing Raniganj palynoflora indicate warm climate with very high humidity.

Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

2013-03-01

76

Main: C1MOTIFZMBZ2 [PLACE  

Full Text Available C1MOTIFZMBZ2 S 000237 23-S ep-1999 (las t modified) kehi C1-motif; S imilar to Myb-box; Found in the ... moter region of maize (Z.m.) Bronze2 ( glutathione S -trans feras e) gene; C1 binding; C1-motif and R-moti ... f were s hown to be important for full R and C1 activation o ... f the Bz2 promoter; S =C or G; C1-motif; Bronze2; Myb-box; glutathione S - ... trans feras e; C1; s eed; maize (Zea mays ) TAACTS AGTTA ...

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Injection technology increases oil recovery at Permian Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article provided a brief overview of the positive field results of the Powerwave injection technology at an oil field in the Permian Basin. The patented injection technology uses pulses of fluid pressure to create momentary elastic flexure of the pore structure to improve the flow of fluids in sedimentary soils and fractured rock, thereby optimizing the performance of chemical enhanced oil recovery technologies, liquid carbon dioxide injection, water injection, and surfactant/polymer flooding to effectively increase oil recovery. In the example of the West Texas waterflood, the Powerwave technology generated an overall production increase of nearly 50 percent. The significant improvements in production and the increased profitability that resulted from the installation of the Powerwave equipment are expected generate interest in the technology from other operators seeking to maximize oil recovery in their fields. The Edmonton-based company is actively pursuing other contracts in the Permian Basin. 1 fig., 1 ref.

Anon.

2010-09-15

78

A first record of late Middle Permian actinopterygian fish from Anatolia, Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The Middle-Upper Permian of the Gomaniibrik Formation, of the Tanin Group, in south-east Anatolia, close to the Iraq border, yielded moderately preserved fish remains. Two species, Palaeoniscum freieslebeni and Pygopterus cf. nielseni, known so far only from the Upper Permian deposits of the Zechstein Basin in western Central Europe, were recognised. This late Middle Permian Anatolian record significantly widens the geographical range of these actinopterygians into the equatorial Palaeotethys Realm.

Ho?gör, Izzet; Štamberg, Stanislav

2014-06-01

79

The Permian Whitehill Formation (Karoo Basin, South Africa): deciphering the complexity and potential of an unconventional gas resource  

Science.gov (United States)

A key energy policy objective of the South African government is to diversify its energy mix from coal which constitutes 85% of the current mix. Gas will play a key role in the future South African economy with demand coming from electricity generation and gas-to-liquids projects. A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2011 concluded that there could be as much as 485 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the South African Karoo Basin. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. The present study compiles existing data from literature review and new data from outcrop analogue studies on the Permian Whitehill Formation, the main target formation for future shale gas production, including thickness, depth, maturity, TOC, lithologies, sedimentary and organic facies, and dolerite occurrence to provide a first reference dataset for further investigations and resource estimates.

Götz, Annette E.

2014-05-01

80

Gondwana basins and their coal resources in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fault bounded five Gondwana basins have been discovered in the north western Bangladesh. Among these basins show considerable amount of coal deposits. The Gondwana rocks are highly formed during the Permo-carboniferous diastrophism and later on acquired dynamic characters. In almost all basins, the Permian rocks overlie the Precambrian basement and underlie either the Tertiary or the Cretaceous sediments, structural, stratigraphic, and depositional history of these basins is more or less similar. The sedimentary sequences are composed of light to dark gray, fine to very coarse grained, sub angular to sub rounded felspathic sandstone, dark grey carbonaceous shale and sandstone, variegated conglomerate and thick coal seams (single seam max. 42.38m). The rocks are often alternated and bear the characteristics of cyclic sedimentation. The depositional environments varied from restricted drainage to open fluvial dominated low to moderate sinuous drainage system. The coal bearing basins were flanked by vegetated and swampy over bank. Age of these coals is suggested to be the late permian. Proved and probable reserves of coal in Jamalganj-Paharpur basin are 670 and 1,460 million metric tons, in Barapukuria basin 303 and 3899 million metric tons; in Barapukuria basin 303 and 389 million metric tons; and in Khalaspir basin 143 and 685 million metric tons respectively. The coal is high volatile, low sulphur, bituminous type. It can be used for different forms of thermal conversion. (author)

 
 
 
 
81

Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of Meishan Bed 25 sanidine and igneous intrusions from the Siberian platform compared: implications for the timing of gas emissions and the End-Permian extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian mass extinction wiped out nearly all life on our planet. The cause for this cataclysmic event and whether this appeared as a double extinction is a matter of current debate. The most favoured candidate is volatile release from either magmatic degassing directly or induced by interaction between magmas and volatile bearing deposits. Release of volatiles during thermal metamorphism and assimilation of coal and evaporite deposits which are widespread on the Siberian platform following igneous intrusion has been proposed as a major cause of the environmental and extinction event at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009). To meaningfully examine this proposed causality requires precise dating of the Siberian intrusions at the ';Earthtime' goal of × 0.1 % or better. Here we present preliminary results from Ar-40/Ar-39 step heating experiments on plagioclase and biotite from Siberian basin intrusions and compare the data with published and new Ar-40/Ar-39 sanidine ages for Bed 25 from the global section and Permian-Triassic boundary stratotype at Meishan, China. REFERENCES H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 200

Storey, M.; Reichow, M. K.; Saunders, A. D.

2013-12-01

82

C1q nephropathy- unity in diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical educationC1q nephropathy refers to a disorder in which C1q deposits are seen in mesangium on immunofluorescence microscopy and mesangial electron dense deposits on electron microscopy. The diagnosis of C1q nephropathy is based on demonstration of intense C1q (dominant or co-dominant positivity, mainly in the mesangium on immunofluorescence microscopy. Electron dense deposits of C1q in C1q nephropathy are confirmatory of the diagnostic entity.

Malleshappa Pavan

2013-10-01

83

Sedimentological synthesis of permian fluviatile sediments of East Bokaro basin, Bihar, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The early Permian Karharbari and Barakar formations of East Bokaro basin comprise the following lithofacies: Lithofacies A, consisting of monomictic cobble- and pebble-conglomerate including pebbly sandstone, with faint crossbeds; deposited mainly by high-velocity aqueous currents as channel-lag deposit or longitudinal bars. Lithofacies B, coarse to medium sandstone, profusely crossbedded; interpreted as channel facies formed by downcurrent migration of sand bars in low-sinuosity streams. Lithofacies C, mainly fine sandstone with interbedded siltstone, characterised by small-scale ripple-lamination; formed in a low-energy environment such as swale-fill and/or overbank deposits. Lithofacies D, including carbonaceous shale and coal, with lack-of-current structures, indicating quiet-water deposition; interpreted as backswamp and lacustrine deposits. The overall context of the Karharbari and Barakar assemblage with relative abundance of pebbly coarse sandstone in the former and fine clastics in the latter, the presence of fining-upward cycles, widespread development of tabular and trough crossbedding and sample to sample variation of foreset azimuths, all suggest a generally alluvial environment. Analysis of crossbedding dip azimuth and dimensional fabric suggest that the sediment milieu in either case consisted of streams flowing persistently from the south-southeast to north-northwest direction. It is inferred that the unidirectional system of streams flowing across the East Bokaro basin changes systematically in channel sinuosity through time.

Khan, Zahid A.; Casshyap, Satyendra M.

1982-10-01

84

Permian `Wolfcamp` limestone reservoirs: Powell ranch field, eastern Midland basin: Discussion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The {open_quotes}E&P Notes{close_quotes} paper by S.L. Montgomery (1996) on Wolfcamp resedimented carbonates in the Permian basin concerns an exploration play with the potential for significant reserves; however, its economic importance and geological complexity, and the question of whether his model can be extended to other areas in the Permian basin warrant this discussion.

Mazzullo, S.J. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

1997-10-01

85

Permian U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages from Australia and China: Constraining the time scale of environmental and biotic change  

Science.gov (United States)

In eastern Australia, the interconnected Bowen and Sydney Basins are filled with terrestrial sediments of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. These sedimentary units record significant evolutionary events of eastern Gondwana during the time interval between two major mass extinctions (end Middle Permian and Permian-Triassic), and also provide lithological evidence for the Carboniferous-Permian Late Paleozoic Ice Age of southern Pangea, considered to be divisible into up to seven discrete glaciation events in Australia [e.g., 1]. These glaciations are currently assigned ages that indicate that the last of the glaciations predate the end Middle Permian mass extinction at ca. 260 Ma. However, the estimates for the time and durations are largely based on biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy that, in the absence of robust and precise radioisotopic ages, are unacceptably fragile for providing an accurate high-resolution framework. Interbedded with the sediments are numerous tuff layers that contain zircon, many of which are associated with extensive coal measures in the Sydney and Bowen Basins. Published SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages [2, 3] have been shown to be less precise and inaccurate when compared to ages applying the CA-TIMS method to the same horizons. Also within the late Middle Permian, the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts in SW China has been proposed to have caused the end Middle Permian mass extinction [e.g., 4], though a causal link between these events demands a rigorous test that can only be provided by high-resolution geochronology. We present new U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages on tuff layers from the Sydney and Bowen Basins, with the purpose of generating a timescale for the Upper Permian of Australia to allow correlation with different parts of the world. Initial results, with permil precision, date a tuff layer within the uppermost Bandanna Fm. to ca. 252 Ma, a tuff within the Moranbah Coal Measures to ca. 256 Ma, and a tuff within the Ingelara Fm. to ca. 257 Ma, the latter two units lying stratigraphically below the latest identified glacial deposits. U-Pb (CA-TIMS) results on zircons from the Emeishan flood basalts and related volcanic products confirm the end-Guadalupian age (ca. 260 Ma) of the magmatism, and based on present data, place the Emeishan volcanic event (and its possibly associated mass extinction) within the occurrence of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. This study’s primary goal is the establishment of a chronostratigraphic framework that would allow the integration of calibrated records from both terrestrial and marine units from different parts of the world in order to constrain the timing and rates of extinctions and recoveries in different locations and physical environments. [1] Fielding et al. (2008), J. Geol Soc. Lon., v. 165, pp. 129-140 [2] Michaelsen et al. (2001), Aus. J. Earth Sci., v. 48, pp. 183-192 [3] Roberts et al. (1996), Aus. J. Earth Sci., v. 43, pp. 401-421 [4] He et al. (2007), EPSL, v. 255, pp. 306-323

Denyszyn, S. W.; Mundil, R.; Metcalfe, I.; He, B.

2010-12-01

86

C1q (c1) receptor on human platelets: inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation by C1q (C1) molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemolytically active human C1q incubated with EA before the addition of complement inhibited the immune hemolysis. On the contrary, heat-inactivated preparation (30 min 56 degrees C) was ineffective. Preincubation of EA with bovine collagen also resulted in a decreased hemolysis. When aggregation was measured by a turbidimetric method in citrated human platelet-rich plasma, it was found that hemolytically active human C1q (C1) alone does not induce platelet aggregation. However, in its presence the platelets failed to aggregate or exhibited a significantly reduced aggregation response to bovine collagen. The inhibition by C1q depended on the preincubation time with platelets. Heat treatment (30 min 56 degrees C) destroyed the inhibitory action of C1q (C1). The effect of C1q proved to be highly specific because different C1q preparations at their inhibitory doses in collagen-induced platelet aggregation did not influence the response to other aggregating agents (bovine thrombin, ADP, horse anti-human thymocyte globulin, goat anti-baboon platelet antiserum). The results prove that collagen and C1q are capable of binding to the same site(s); namely, to those of EA and human platelets; furthermore, they suggest the presence of a receptor for C1q (C1) on human platelets. PMID:1084367

Suba, E A; Csako, G

1976-07-01

87

Phreatomagmatic Pipes of the Tunguska basin (Siberia): Aerosols Flux into End-Permian atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequence consists of Precambrian and Paleozoic evaporites, carbonates and terrigenous rocks including Late Paleozoic coal-bearing strata. Precambrian and early Paleozoic oil source rocks contain numerous high potential oil and gas fields. Paleozoic evaporites contain rock and potassium salts deposits of commercial grade. Tunguska Basin evaporites are considered as a regional seal for the mineralizing brines. Permian-Triassic volcaniclastic rocks overlie this sequence and intrusive rocks have the numerous evidences of magma-sediment interaction. The Siberian Traps dolerites have intruded the Tunguska Basin sequence at different levels of emplacement and magma-sediment-brine interaction result in basalt pipes formation. Intrusions are surrounded by contact aureoles of thicknesses dependent upon sediment composition, dolerite thickness, depth of emplacement and the number of intrusive bodies. The basalt pipes cutting all intrusive bodies are filled with breccias of magmatic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks altered to varying extents. The age of the pipes is geologically well constrained and related to Siberian Traps intrusion emplacement. A dolerite sill intruded into rock salt sequences of the Nepa potash deposit has a U-Pb zircon age of 252 × 0.4 Ma. Basalt pipe cutting all known dolerite intrusions, revealed here during prospecting survey. The phreatomagmatic origin of the basalt pipes is supported by ubiquitous occurrence of altered sedimentary clasts and volcaniclastic lapilli, corroded by brine during initial stages of magma-evaporite (brine) interaction. Corroded lapilli have rims of diopside, chlorine-bearing hornblende, apatite and magnetite. Iron rich garnet is present on the tuff and glass fragments. Our recent study of magnetite-rich coarse lapilli tuffs revealed the specific garnet lapilli rimmed with magnetite cemented by altered clay groundmass. This result corroborates our hypothesis about magnetite formation during initial stage of magma-sediment-brine interaction. We suggest that such conclusion requires a re-examination of lapilli tuff size and composition from basalt pipes of the Tunguska Basin. We suppose that this study could shed light on our understanding of aerosols flux from the Siberian phreatomagmatic pipes and its influence on End-Permian atmosphere.

Polozov, A. G.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Jerram, D. A.

2013-12-01

88

Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earth’s history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and po¬tentially into the open ocean realm. These events of¬ten coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing from the Siberian Traps. We measured redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, Cu, U) and the speciation of iron [Fe-HR/Fe-T and Fe-PY/ Fe- HR] in marine sediments from Svalbard (Festningen). We compare these data to additional, new, high-lati-tude data from eastern Greenland and the equatorial Tethys realm in Iran. We show that the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary at Svalbard is marked by 2 phases of euxinic (sulfidic) ocean conditions. An initial short phase at the onset of atmospheric carbon release is separated from a subsequent longer phase by a re¬turn to ferruginous ocean conditions (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland and Iran. It sug¬gests a strongly decreased global ocean molybdenum (and possibly also ocean sulfate) inventory by massive molybdenum drawdown (and possibly pyrite buri¬al) at the onset of end-Permian atmospheric carbon release and leading up to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. We compare these oceanographic changes to similar observations for the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction and discuss environmental forcing, poten¬tially inherent to major volcanic events and leading to global environmental change and extinction

Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.

2013-01-01

89

New Permian Insects Discovered in Kansas and Oklahoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Midco insect bed of Oklahoma and a newly discovered insect bed above this were traced across Kay County, Okla., into Sumner County, Kan. As a result, a greater time span is available for study of insect evolution during the mid-continent Permian, and the exact stratigraphic correlation of the Wellington of Oklahoma and Kansas can now be demonstrated. Four insect orders have thus far been identified from the new insect bed: Protodonata, Odonata, Protoperlaria, and Ephemeroptera. Numerous new species and higher categories are included in the collections from the two insect beds. PMID:17781391

Tasch, P; Zimmerman, J R

1959-12-11

90

Palynology of Permian Gondwana sequence of Umrer coalfield, Maharashtra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantitative and qualitative palynological analysis of Early Permian sediments, Umrer Coalfield, Wardha Basin has been carried out. The microspore assemblage consists of 22 genera and 40 species. It is characterized by dominance of radial monosaccates chiefly, Parasacciles and subdominance of non-striate disaccates chiefly, Scheuringipollenites. Presence of Crucisaccites and Caheniasaccites suggests Upper Karharbari (Late Sakmarian-Early Artinskian) affinity. The presence of the Karharbari palynozone has been demarcated in lithologically designated Barakar Formation. The present finding corroborates the earlier studies by Bharadwaj and Anand Prakash (1974).

Jha, N.; Tewari, R.; Rajanikanth, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

2007-04-15

91

The delta 13C record of Devonian to Permian carbonates  

Science.gov (United States)

A ?13Ccarb curve will be presented for samples spanning the time interval from the Silurian/Devonian to the Permian/Triassic boundary. Reliable data are usually based on analyses of brachiopod shells. Because of the huge reservoir of carbon in carbonates, also whole rock samples are suitable for stable carbon isotope analyses if they are not altered by meteoric water or by incorporation of re-oxidized organic carbon during diagenesis. There are several possibilities to test the quality of the data: (1) comparison of the ?13C record of whole rock samples with samples from brachiopod shells, (2) with the organic record, (3) analyses of the same time interval in different sections. If the same pattern of isotope data is observed in separa-ted palaeogeographic settings, it is probably caused by a change in the global carbon reservoir. Reliable ?13C data will be presented for the Devonian, Mississippian and Middle to Late Permian. During Pennsylvanian and Early Permian most carbonates were affected by meteoric diagenesis due to the large glacio-eustatic sea level changes of the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation. Long term variations (mean values for 10 Ma) are known from literature. Devonian ?13C values are about 0 to 2 ppm (V-PDB) they increase up to 5 to 6 ppm during the Mississippian - Pennsylvanian transition and drop sharply at the Permian Triassic boundary. The Devonian - Carboniferous trend is probably at least partly due to the evolution of land plants. Short term variations in the range of 0.1 to 1 Ma modify the long term trend significantly. Large positive excursions of ?13C up to 5 or 6 ppm are known from the Silurian - Devonian boundary and during the Middle Tournaisian of Laurentia and Europe. Many positive excursions of a magnitude of 2 to 3 ppm are observed, some are verified worldwide as for instance at the Frasnian - Famennian boundary which coincides with one of the largest extinction events in earth history. Short time variations in the isotopic composition of global CO_2 are controlled by the partitioning between the organic and inorganic reservoir during sedimentation. Concomittants are often sea level changes and/or other geologial and biological events.

Buggisch, W.

2003-04-01

92

Coal Fires  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Prakash, Anumpa

93

Coal upgrading  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

94

C1 inhibitor: quantification and purification.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1 inhibitor is a multipotent serpin capable of inhibiting the classical and the lectin pathways of complement, the fibrinolytic system, and contact/kinin system of coagulation. Deficiency of C1 inhibitor manifest as hereditary angioedema (HAE), an autosomal dominant hereditary disease. Measuring the C1 inhibitor level is of vital importance for the diagnosis of HAE and also for monitoring patients receiving C1 inhibitor for therapy. Determination of the antigenic C1 inhibitor level by the radial immunodiffusion (RID) technique is described in detail in this chapter. The presented purification method of plasma C1 inhibitor is primarily based on its high carbohydrate content and its affinity to the lectin jacalin. PMID:24218261

Varga, Lilian; Dobó, József

2014-01-01

95

A potential biomarker for the Permian Triassic ecological crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

A unique biomarker, a C 33n-alkylcyclohexane ( n-heptacosylcyclohexane), which strongly increases in abundance within the extinction interval of the end-Permian ecological crisis, is here reported from the key Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) marine section in Greenland. Prior to this study, this compound had been known from Early Triassic organic-rich marine rocks and oils from the northern Perth Basin, Western Australia for two decades. We have identified the compound in high relative abundance in 29 samples from P-Tr marine sections from two separate paleogeographic localities, from Laurasia and Gondwana. Relative concentrations of the C 33n-alkylcyclohexane show similar changes to the relative abundances of extinct spinose acritarchs ( Veryhachium and Micrhystridium) indicating that the source organism of the C 33n-alkylcyclohexane is associated with the depositional environments/facies in which the acritarchs are identified. These organisms probably formed the cornerstone of the unique marine ecosystem that thrived in the extinction aftermath in the Early Triassic Ocean.

Grice, Kliti; Twitchett, Richard J.; Alexander, Robert; Foster, C. B.; Looy, Cindy

2005-07-01

96

Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west

97

Coal-92  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

98

Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies  

CERN Document Server

A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies. Using blender-horseshoes, we prove that homoclinic classes of $C^1$-generic diffeomorphisms containing saddles with different indices and that do not admit dominated splittings (of appropriate dimensions) display $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies.

Bonatti, C

2009-01-01

99

New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France), viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidaefam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permianagen. etsp. n., the ParelmoidaePermelmoa magnificagen. etsp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyrieigen. etsp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined). In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera) is reported. These new fossils clearly demonstrate that the present knowledge of the Permian insects remains very incomplete. They also confirm that the Lodève entomofauna was highly diverse providing links to other Permian localities and also rather unique, with several families still not recorded in other contemporaneous outcrops. PMID:22259265

Prokop, Jakub; Nel, André

2011-01-01

100

Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C1) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C1 to C5), while only C1 and C2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C2-C3, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C2 was detected in all samples while C3-C5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Geological controls on exploitable coal seam gas distribution in Queensland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commercial coal seam gas production in Queensland has been entirely from the Permian coals of the Bowen Basin, but the Jurassic coals of the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins are poised to deliver commercial gas volumes. Depositional environments range from fluvial to delta plain to paralic and marginal marine coals in the Bowen Basin are laterally more continuous than those in the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins. The tectonic and structural settings are important as they control the coal characteristics both in terms of deposition and burial history. The important coal seam gas seams were deposited in a foreland setting in the Bowen Basin and an intracratonic setting in the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins. Both of these settings resulted in widespread coal deposition. The complex burial history of the Bowen Basin has resulted in a wide range of coal ranks and properties. Rank in the Bowen Basin coal seam gas fields varies from vitrinite reflectance of 0.55% to > 1.1% Rv and from Rv 0.35-0.6% in the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins in Queensland. High vitrinite coals provide optimal gas generation and cleat formation. The commercial gas fields and the prospective ones contain coals with > 60% vitrinite. Gas generation in the Queensland basins is complex with isotopic studies indicating that biogenic gas, thermogenic gas and mixed gases are present. Biogenic processes occur at depths of up to a kilometre. Gas content is important, but lower gas contents can be economic if deliverability is good. Free gas is also present. Drilling and production techniques play an important role in making lower gas content coals viable. Since the Bowen and Surat basins are in a compressive regime, permeability becomes a defining parameter. Areas where the compression is offset by tensional forces provide the best chances for commercial coal seam gas production.

J.J. Draper; C.J. Boreham

2006-07-01

102

Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian extinction is associated with a mysterious disruption to Earth's carbon cycle. Here we identify causal mechanisms via three observations. First, we show that geochemical signals indicate superexponential growth of the marine inorganic carbon reservoir, coincident with the extinction and consistent with the expansion of a new microbial metabolic pathway. Second, we show that the efficient acetoclastic pathway in Methanosarcina emerged at a time statistically indistinguishable from the extinction. Finally, we show that nickel concentrations in South China sediments increased sharply at the extinction, probably as a consequence of massive Siberian volcanism, enabling a methanogenic expansion by removal of nickel limitation. Collectively, these results are consistent with the instigation of Earth's greatest mass extinction by a specific microbial innovation. PMID:24706773

Rothman, Daniel H; Fournier, Gregory P; French, Katherine L; Alm, Eric J; Boyle, Edward A; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger E

2014-04-15

103

Crosswell seismic imaging in the Permian Basin, West Texas, USA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crosswell seismic imaging technology has advanced rapidly over the last three years as the processing methods have become more robust, the cost of data acquisition has fallen, and the interwell distances of operation have increased. The Permian Basin of west Texas, USA is proving to be an ideal environment in which to develop this technology because of the relatively low seismic attenuation of the carbonate-dominated lithology, the moderate well spacings in the large number of mature fields, and the unusually high number of reflecting horizons. Current technology permits us to operate in carbonates at well spacings on the order of 2000 ft (650 m) and to image P- and S-wave reflecting horizons on a scale of 8 to 25 ft (2.4 to 7.6 m). Crosswell technology is not limited to carbonates, although the majority of recent applications have been in this environment. We are involved in three separate crosswell experiments in the Permian Basin, each with unique objectives. The first experiment involves a CO{sub 2} pilot project in a Grayburg Formation reservoir on the eastern edge of the Central Basin Platform. Here we are attempting to characterize the reservoir at a scale unobtainable from 3-D surface seismic data and to image CO{sub 2} fronts directly. The second experiment deals with a waterflood in a Middle Clearfork Formation reservoir on the Eastern Shelf, where we are trying to explain the erratic response of adjacent wells to water injection. In the third project we are trying to image the structure and stratigraphy of subtle {open_quotes}anomalies{close_quotes} in 3-D surface seismic images of the Wolfcamp Formation.

Langan, R.T.; Harris, J.M.; Jensen, T.L. [and others

1995-12-31

104

Palaeomagnetism and palaeogeography of Mongolia in the Cretaceous, Permian and Carboniferous—preliminary data  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports on the results of palaeomagnetic stability tests of oriented samples of lithologically different types of Cretaceous, Permian and Carboniferous rocks from northern and southern Mongolia. The Permian andesites and tuffites from three localities (Barun Buren, Tel Tin Gol, and Chulut Tsagan Del) have yielded interesting results. Groups of normally and reversely polarized andesite tuffs were found even within a single outcrop by means of thermal field demagnetization and multicomponent analysis of the magnetization. With a view to the number of samples (177) suitable for analysis and the number of localities (9), the reported palaeomagnetic data should be considered as preliminary. The interpreted results indicate a different palaeogeographic evolution of northern and southern Mongolia relative to the Siberian platform and North China in the Permian and Carboniferous. On the other hand, similar apparent polar wander paths for North China (Lin et al., 1985) and the studied regions of northern and southern Mongolia indicate similar palaeogeographic evolution in the Permian to Carboniferous.

Pruner, Petr

1987-07-01

105

Boundary Liouville theory at c = 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The c = 1 Liouville theory has received some attention recently as the Euclidean version of an exact rolling tachyon background. In an earlier paper it was shown that the bulk theory can be identified with the interacting c 1 limit of unitary minimal models. Here we extend the analysis of the c 1-limit to the boundary problem. Most importantly, we show that the FZZT branes of Liouville theory give rise to a new 1-parameter family of boundary theories at c = 1. These models share many features with the boundary Sine-Gordon theory, in particular they possess an open string spectrum with band-gaps of finite width. We propose explicit formulas for the boundary 2-point function and for the bulk-boundary operator product expansion in the c = 1 boundary Liouville model. As a by-product of our analysis we also provide a nice geometric interpretation for ZZ branes and their relation with FZZT branes in the c = 1 theory

106

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

107

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

1993-05-01

108

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

1993-05-01

109

16 CFR Appendix C1 to Part 305 - Compact Dishwashers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Compact Dishwashers C1 Appendix C1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. C1 Appendix C1 to Part 305—Compact Dishwashers Range Information...

2010-01-01

110

Amphibian and Paleoisciforms from the Lower Part of the Taquaral Member of the Permian Irati Formation, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the east-central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, good exposures of Permo-Carboniferous sequences of theParaná intracratonic basin are found. These sequences start with the Tubarão Supergroup deposits, the PermocarboniferousItararé Group, and the earliest Permian Guatá Group, of which the Tatuí Formation is the only unit occurring in the Stateof São Paulo. The Permian Passa Dois Group overlies the Tubarão Supergroup, with the Early Permian Irati Formation andthe Middle Per...

Artur Chahud; Setembrino Petri

2010-01-01

111

Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area  

Science.gov (United States)

The study area is located in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the "Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province" that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area and causes rotation of older probably Paleozoic sediments and creates syn-tectonic sediment wedges. The syn-tectonic wedges most probably contain volcaniclastic sediments of the Karl Formation or sandstones of the Auk Formation, but it cannot be excluded that the earliest late Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment of the E-W striking fault system are generally planar and strike parallel to the fault with a southward dip geometrically similar to antithetic faults. In contrast, the intrusions in the footwall segment show a much more complex pattern striking at a high angle to the E-W basement fault and outlining a sill complex, which in certain areas resembles a poorly outlined composite cone. The intrusions are not observed in the syn-tectonic sedimentary wedges and this combined with the general age of the intrusions suggests that the syn-tectonic wedges are of latest early Permian or earliest late Permian age. The study demonstrates Paleozoic intrusions with a systematic orientation and geometry that most likely was directly controlled by the basement faulting. Syn-tectonic hanging-wall deformation represented by antithetic fractures is suggested to be the most important controlling factor for the intrusions at the hanging-wall. At the footwall a more composite geometry of the intrusions is observed, resulting in a much more complex compartmentalization of the Paleozoic sediments due to intrusions compared to the hanging-wall segment. The intrusions and especially the compartmentalization must be taken into account during evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Paleozoic.

Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Rasmussen, Jens A.

2013-04-01

112

Magnetostratigraphy of Permian/Triassic boundary sequences in the Cis-Urals, Russia: No evidence for a major temporal hiatus  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last five years there has been considerable doubt over the age of the continental uppermost Permian Russian stages, the Kazanian and Tatarian. Traditionally they have been regarded as Late Permian but were re-dated as Middle Permian in the 2004 international time scale, despite fossil evidence that the Tatarian, at least, is Late Permian. These debated ages are tested by magnetostratigraphic study of five sections spanning the Permian Triassic Boundary (PTB) of the SE Urals in the Orenburg region of Russia. The Upper Permian and Lower Triassic of this region have a well documented vertebrate fauna whose evolution has a significant bearing on our understanding of the PTB mass extinction event. If the Tatarian is viewed as Mid Permian, then the Late Permian in Russia is marked by a 9-10 Ma stratigraphic gap. The palaeomagnetic data yield a distinct series of polarity zones that provide clear local and regional correlation and are readily tied to a recently compiled global magnetostratigraphic record. On the basis of this correlation the sampled sections span the upper Guadalupian to Induan stages without any obvious break, so confirming the traditional view that the Tatarian is Late Permian in age. Anomalies in the magnetic inclination are consistent with sediment compaction (inclination shallowing, a common phenomenon of red beds) but declination anomalies between these sites and elsewhere in Russia may suggest localised vertical axis rotation.

Taylor, Graeme K.; Tucker, Christopher; Twitchett, Richard J.; Kearsey, Timothy; Benton, Michael J.; Newell, Andrew J.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.

2009-04-01

113

Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (?98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for ?98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in ?98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced oxic conditions throughout the LPE event, while anoxic conditions developed in the deep ocean. Hence, anoxic marine waters did not extend globally onto shelf environments and as such ocean anoxia cannot have been the main driver of the extinction event. While global systems were stressed by anoxia, the anoxic conditions may better represent a symptom of Siberian Trap eruptions that had catastrophic impact on the environment, potentially through nutrient loading and deposition of toxic substances into marine and terrestrial systems. Proemse et al., 2013: Molybdenum isotopic evidence for oxic marine conditions during the latest Permian extinction. Geology 41, 967-970.

Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

2014-05-01

114

Roadian-Wordian (Guadalupian, Middle Permian) global palaeobiogeography of brachiopods  

Science.gov (United States)

A database of 4471 Roadian-Wordian (Guadalupian, Middle Permian) occurrences of 381 brachiopod genera in 44 different operational geographical units (stations) was analyzed by both Q-mode and R-mode quantitative methods. Four distinct brachiopod biogeographical realms and nine provinces, and 11 brachiopod associations are recognized. The Boreal Realm in the Northern Hemisphere includes the Verkolyman Province in the northern and northeastern Siberian Platform and the eastern European Province in the Ural seaway between the European and Siberian platforms. Both provinces are characterized by containing typical Boreal cold-water brachiopod associations. The Gondwanan Realm in the south also includes two provinces. The Austrazean Province in eastern Australia and New Zealand is probably the most stable province throughout the Permian and characterized by typical Gondwanan brachiopod associations. The Westralian Province centered in Western Australia is also characterized by typical Gondwanan brachiopods, but also demonstrates biogeographical links with the Tethyan stations. The Palaeoequatorial Realm located mainly in the palaeotropical zone contains highly diverse and abundant brachiopod faunas. Two regions/subrealms and four provinces are recognized within this realm. The North America Subrealm contains a distinct Grandian Province characterized by many endemic brachiopod genera and a few cold-water genera. East-central Alaska and Yukon Territory may constitute another brachiopod province. All the stations in the Tethyan Ocean (both Palaeotethys and Neotethys) constitute a distinct Asian-Tethyan Region/Subrealm and incorporate three different provinces. The Cathaysian Province is comprised of the stations in South China and its surrounding terranes/blocks and a few stations in the northern and western margin of the Palaeotethys. Two transitional provinces (Sino-Mongolian-Japanese Province and Cimmerian Province) in the northern and southern temperate zones are also recognizable. The brachiopod fauna from the Mino Belt in Japan is well distinguished from those from other regions, and is hence assigned to the palaeoceanic Panthalassan Realm. Principal coordinates analysis and minimum spanning tree analysis suggest that a latitude-related thermal gradient was the major control for the palaeobiogeography of Roadian-Wordian global brachiopod faunas and for the latitudinal of pattern of decreasing brachiopod generic diversities from the equator to the poles. In addition, geographic separation and oceanic currents may also have played some role in the spatial distribution of brachiopods during Roadian-Wordian times.

Shen, Shu-zhong; Xie, Jun-fang; Zhang, Hua; Shi, G. R.

2009-02-01

115

On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections

116

On Orientifolds of c=1 Orbifolds  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

Dijkstra, T P T; Riccioni, F; Schellekens, Adrian Norbert

2003-01-01

117

On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

Dijkstra, T.P.T. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Riccioni, F. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: f.riccioni@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2004-10-25

118

Application of Markov chain and entropy analysis to lithologic succession - an example from the early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A statistical approach by a modified Markov process model and entropy function is used to prove that the early Permian Barakar Formation of the Bellampalli coalfield developed distinct cyclicities during deposition. From results, the transition path of lithological states typical for the Bellampalli basin is as: coarse to medium-grained sandstone, interbedded, ne-grained sandstone/shale, shale, coal and again shale. The majority of cycles are symmetrical but asymmetrical cycles are present as well. The chi-square stationarity test implies that these cycles are stationary in space and time. The cycles are interpreted in terms of in-channel, point bar and overbank facies association in a fluvial system. The randomness in the occurrence of facies within a cycle is evaluated in terms of entropy, which can be calculated from the Markov matrices. Two types of entropies are calculated for every facies state; entropy after deposition E(post) and entropy before deposition E(pre), which together form entropy set; the entropy for the whole system is also calculated. These values are plotted and compared with Hattori's idealized plots, which indicate that the sequence is essentially a symmetrical cycle (type-B of Hattroi). The symmetrical cyclical deposition of early Permian Barakar Formation is explained by the lateral migration of stream channels in response to varying discharge and rate of deposition across the alluvial plain. In addition, thinning upward cycles in the upper part enclosing thick beds of fine clastics, as well as coal may represent differential subsidence of depositional basin.

Tewari, R.C.; Singh, D.P.; Khan, Z.A. [Sri JNPG College, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Geology

2009-10-15

119

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

120

Geochemical evidence from bio-apatite for multiple oceanic anoxic events during Permian-Triassic transition and the link with end-Permian extinction and recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed, 20 myr redox history of Permian to Triassic oceans (Changhsingian to Carnian stages) has been constructed using Ce-anomaly (?Ce) and Th/U ratios from conodont albid crown apatite material. The results show that the well-established phenomenon of intense ocean anoxia (coincident with the end-Permian mass extinction) is faithfully recorded in conodont ?Ce and Th/U data. Extending this conodont redox record shows that end-Permian anoxia persisted possibly into the earliest Dienerian Stage and that two intense oceanic anoxic events also occurred later in the Early Triassic (earliest Smithian-earliest Spathian, and middle Spathian), followed by a weaker manifestation of anoxia in the Anisian Stage, seen in ?Ce data. Marine benthic radiation, following the end-Permian mass extinction, began after the Smithian-earliest Spathian anoxic event suggesting a suppression of evolution prior to this due to these inimical conditions. The failure of the middle Spathian anoxic event to retard the evolutionary rebound implies shallow shelf seas remained well ventilated at this time even if the oceans did not. Other attributes of the Early Triassic record also closely coincide with redox fluctuations: phases of anoxia intensification saw the proliferation of microbial carbonates and major negative carbon isotope swings that can be attributed to chemocline shallowing causing alkalinity pulses and enrichment in light, remineralised carbon and/or indicate a trigger meachnaims related to increased fluxes of light C from Siberian volcanic sources.

Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Bond, David P. G.; Song, Huyue; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Yanlong

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Evolution of the Early Permian volcanic-plutonic complex in the western part of the Permian Gobi-Altay Rift (Khar Argalant Mts., SW Mongolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lower Permian volcano-sedimentary complexes of the Khar Argalant and Delger Khangay formations in the Khar Argalant Mts. in south-western Mongolia are products of postorogenic within-plate magmatic activity. They consist of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic flows with local intercalations of clastic sedimentary rocks. Vascular plants in volcano-clastic layers correspond to typical Lower to Middle Permian terrestrial associations formed under dry to intermediate conditions of temperate to colder climatic zones. The plant communities of all three formations show affinities to the Siberia (Angara “Cordaitean taiga”.
Relationships of volcanic rocks suggest simultaneous eruptions of mafic (basalt to trachyandesite and felsic (trachyte to rhyolite lavas. The rocks of both formations have similar major- and trace-element contents as well as volcanological character. The granite of the Shar Oroy Massif, with zircon concordia age of 285 ± 1 Ma, was roughly contemporaneous with the volcanic rocks of the Delger Khangay Fm. The Early/Late Permian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Butnaa Khudag Fm. in the hanging wall of the Delger Khangay Fm. postdated the terrestrial volcanic events. Geochemical and structural characteristics suggest that the Shar Oroy Massif and the surrounding Permian volcanic suite represent an eroded, shallow-level plutonic centre and its eruptive cover, which evolved during a crustal extension.

Buriánek D

2012-07-01

122

Coal Rank and Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian Coal and Coaly Shale Samples, Young County, North-Central Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.

Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.

2007-01-01

123

Late Permian brachiopoda fauna in north-western Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La secuencia marina del Pérmico superior en el noroeste de Irán y el este de Azerbaiyán, sección estatigráfica de Zal, fue seleccionada para este estudio de braquiópodos. Las muestras fueron tomadas en las formaciones Ali Bashi y Jolfa. Se reconocieron 27 especies de 13 géneros de braquiópodos en es [...] te análisis. Las muestras recolectadas fueron comparadas con sus similares de otras regiones de Irán y de la región del Tetis, lo que sugirió el período de tardío de Dzhulfan como la proveniencia de estos depósitos. Los braquiópodos reconocidos en este trabajo pertenecen a las familias de Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida y Strophomenida. Abstract in english The Late Permian marine sequence in the north- west of Iran, in eastern Azerbaijan province in the Zal stratigraphic section, was selected for studying brachiopods. Samples were collected from the Ali Bashi and Jolfa Formation.S. Twenty-seven species from 13 brachiopoda genera were recognised in thi [...] s study.The recognised fossil community was compared to brachiopod communities in some regions of Iran and the Tethyan region, suggesting the Late Dzhulfian period as the age for the deposits being studied. Recognized brachiopods belonge to the orders Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida and Strophomenida.

Yousefirad, Mostafa; Khamooshi, Touran; Shaabanian, Rahim.

2013-06-01

124

Recrystallized microbial trace fossils from metamorphosed Permian basalt, southwestern Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial trace fossils on terrestrial basalts can be used as an analogue in the search for traces of life on other terrestrial planets. This study reports on microbial trace fossils within Permian greenstones in the Maizuru Terrane, southwest Japan, which is recognized as back-arc basin oceanic crust that consists mainly of metabasalt and metagabbro. The trace fossils have been studied by means of morphology, mineralogy, elemental mapping, and carbon isotope analysis. Although minute original textures of trace fossils are recrystallized in these rocks, Granulohyalichnus vulgaris isp., Tubulohyalichnus spiralis isp., and Tubulohyalichnus annularis isp. were identified. Significant concentration of C within the trace fossils implies these are organic remnants from microbes. The ?13CPDB values trace fossils within low-grade metamorphic basalt can be reliably identified based on their morphology and chemical composition, as reveled by elemental mapping. In this context, glassy Martian basalt may be the best rock type to investigate in terms of searching for signs of microbial activity on Earth and other planets.

Sugawara, H.; Sakakibara, M.; Ikehara, M.

2014-05-01

125

Late Permian brachiopoda fauna in north-western Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La secuencia marina del Pérmico superior en el noroeste de Irán y el este de Azerbaiyán, sección estatigráfica de Zal, fue seleccionada para este estudio de braquiópodos. Las muestras fueron tomadas en las formaciones Ali Bashi y Jolfa. Se reconocieron 27 especies de 13 géneros de braquiópodos en es [...] te análisis. Las muestras recolectadas fueron comparadas con sus similares de otras regiones de Irán y de la región del Tetis, lo que sugirió el período de tardío de Dzhulfan como la proveniencia de estos depósitos. Los braquiópodos reconocidos en este trabajo pertenecen a las familias de Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida y Strophomenida. Abstract in english The Late Permian marine sequence in the north- west of Iran, in eastern Azerbaijan province in the Zal stratigraphic section, was selected for studying brachiopods. Samples were collected from the Ali Bashi and Jolfa Formation.S. Twenty-seven species from 13 brachiopoda genera were recognised in thi [...] s study.The recognised fossil community was compared to brachiopod communities in some regions of Iran and the Tethyan region, suggesting the Late Dzhulfian period as the age for the deposits being studied. Recognized brachiopods belonge to the orders Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida and Strophomenida.

Yousefirad, Mostafa; Khamooshi, Touran; Shaabanian, Rahim.

126

Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

2001-05-01

127

Diagenesis of Permian alluvial fan deposits of Northern Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fine-grained sandstones of Permian alluvial fan deposits from three Nagra boreholes (Weiach, Riniken, Kaisten) and an exploration well, drilled at Wintersingen are clast supported, moderately sorted arkosic greywackes containing typically 2-20 % clayey matrix. Petrographic studies indicate that the origin of this clayey matrix is postdepositional. Mechanical infiltration of fines and diagenetic reddening of detrital and authigenic iron oxides are the earliest recorded events. Additionally, nodular calcites of calcrete origin and fibrous illitic clays are also ascribed to the eogenetic environment. The present strong compaction fabric results from general lack of eogenetic framework supporting cements. During mesogenesis, secondary porosity was generated through partial removal of early calcite. At the same time, a first generation of syntaxial quartz cementation and a subsequent fibrous illite authigenesis took place. Leaching of detrital K-feldspars post-dating compaction is recorded throughout the studied boreholes. The following burial diagenetic events differ between the various boreholes: in Weiach and Wintersingen kaolinite, illite, prismatic quartz and ankerite/siderite are recorded; in Riniken K-feldspar, illite, prismatic quartz and dolomite developed; whilst in Kaisten K-feldspar and microcrystalline quartz-cement dominate. These differences reflect the chemistry, pH and ionic strength of the pore fluids. Filling of veins by dolomite/ankerite, iron-rich and subsequent iron-poor calcite is the latest recorded event. (author) 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

128

A record of Permian subaqueous vent activity in southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The remarkable occurrence of more than 4,500 conical siliceous mounds in an area of less than 1.5 square kilometres has been reported in the Paraná basin, near Anhembi, São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. These structures, which are up to two metres high, are thought to have been formed at the margin of a very shallow, broad but waning internal sea, and it was originally suggested that they are stromatolites. Yet their restricted occurrence, unusual abundance and nearly pure siliceous composition have never been satisfactorily explained by this hypothesis. Here we report field and laboratory observations on their shape, construction, composition and mineralogy. On the basis of our data we suggest that the conical mounds are the result of subaqueous Late Permian vent activity in southwestern Gondwana. The present siliceous cone field differs considerably from other Palaeozoic siliceous hot spring deposits, such as those at Rhynie, Scotland, and the Drummond basin, Australia, and therefore represents an unusual occurrence of vent activity. PMID:16281032

Yamamoto, Jorge Kazuo; Fairchild, Thomas Rich; Boggiani, Paulo Cesar; Montanheiro, Tarcísio Jose; de Araújo, Carlos César; Kiyohara, Pedro Kunihiko; de Matos, Sergio Luis Fabris; Soares, Paulo César

2005-11-10

129

Safety analysis of the C-1 Loop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The C-1 Loop is a small in-reactor water loop located in the 105-C Building. The loop was originally designed and constructed for nonfueled testing of the effects of reactor radiation on sample corrosion, crud deposition, and coolant radiolysis. The loop was modified in 1964 to permit the irradiation of aluminum-clad fuel elements and subsequently used for about eight months for the in-reactor testing of aluminum-clad, plutonium-aluminum fuel assemblies at high coolant temperatures and pressures. The facility is currently inactive but is available for the performance of special testing. Prior to nuclear operation of the C-1 Loop the mechanical equipment was carefully checked and the backup coolant system was experimentally verified to perform as designed. A safety analysis was also made with results summarized briefly in Reference and in more detail in the production test which authorized nuclear operation of the C-1 Facility. This report updates those earlier documents with improved descriptions of the C-1 Loop and its operation including analyses of postulated accidents.

Carlson, P.A.; Deobald, T.L.

1964-12-31

130

Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction  

CERN Document Server

Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

Standard, J C

2003-01-01

131

Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.

Dawit, Enkurie L.

2014-11-01

132

Silicified wood from the Permian and Triassic of Antarctica: Tree rings from polar paleolatitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

The mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary produced a floral turnover in Gondwana in which Paleozoic seed ferns belonging to the Glossopteridales were replaced by corystosperm seed ferns and other seed plant groups in the Mesozoic. Secondary growth (wood production) in both plant groups provides information on plant growth in relation to environment in the form of permineralized tree rings. Techniques utilized to analyze extant wood can be used on fossil specimens to better understand the climate from both of these periods. Late Permian and early Middle Triassic tree rings from the Beardmore Glacier area indicate an environment where extensive plant growth occurred at polar latitudes (~80–85°S, Permian; ~75°S, Triassic). A rapid transition to dormancy in both the Permian and Triassic woods suggests a strong influence of the annual light/dark cycle within the Antarctic Circle on ring production. Latewood production in each ring was most likely triggered by the movement of the already low-angled sun below the horizon. The plants which produced the wood have been reconstructed as seasonally deciduous, based on structural and sedimentologic evidence. Although the Late Permian climate has been reconstructed as cold temperate and the Middle Triassic as a greenhouse, these differences are not reflected in tree ring anatomy or wood production in these plant fossils from the central Transantarctic Mountains.

Ryberg, P.E.; Taylor, E.L.

2007-01-01

133

Coal gas for coal trucks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first truck engine converted to use methane gas from a coal mine will be installed in a Volvo N12 prime mover in the Heggies transport coal haulage fleet on the NSW Illawarra coast. The conversion and subsequent dynamometer test program was completed mid-May at the engine research laboratory of the Natural Gas Company (AGL Sydney Ltd.) at Mortlake.

Hatfield, B.

1991-06-01

134

Advanced characterization of physical properties of coals with different coal structures by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the correlation between coal structure and physical property of coal, samples with different coal structures were collected from the Late Permian period coal seams in the Laochang area, Yunnan Province, China. A set of experiments were carried out to quantitatively characterize the physical properties of coals with different coal structures using advanced and nondestructive low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). The experimental results gave us confidence to conclude that the evolution of the coal structures can be divided into five stages with stress increasing: the fractures closing stage, the microfractures development stage, the cracks development stage, the shear deformation stage, and the plastic deformation stage. Each stage corresponds to a different coal structure with unique physical characteristics. The undeformed coal is dominated with pores and a small amount of poorly connected fractures. In the proto-cataclastic stage, the volume of the mesopores, macropores and fractures sharply decreases with stress increasing. The coal rock becomes more compacted. Additionally, the connectivity between fractures and pores becomes worse. The cataclastic coal has well-developed mesopores, macropores and fractures but few micropores and transition pores. The connectivity between fractures and pores is most conducive to the exploitation of coalbed methane. In the mylonitic coal stage, the plastic deformation occurs, resulting in the reduction and discontinuity of mesopores, macropores, and fractures. Moreover, the undeformed coal has the best homogeneity, and the mylonitic coal has the highest heterogeneity, resulted from the uneven distribution of the maceral, pores, fractures, and minerals caused by later stress effect. Furthermore, the CT porosities have a good positive correlation with the permeability; the average CT number, the standard deviation of CT number have a negative correlation with the permeability.

Li, Song; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Yang, Zi

2012-11-01

135

Diagenetic and detrital origin of moretane anomalies through the Permian-Triassic boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

Many biogeochemical anomalies coincide with the Late Permian Extinction (LPE; 252.28 Ma). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the moretane/hopane anomaly that has been identified in samples from Meishan GSSP section in southeastern China. Here, we report homohopane, 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopane and lithological data for a drill core from the Meishan section in southeastern China. Three intervals of elevated C30 moretane/hopane ratios are recorded in the Lungtan, Yinkeng and Helongshan Formations. Moretane/hopane ratios of C31-34 homohopanes and the 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopanes display the same stratigraphic patterns as the C30 moretane/hopane record. In light of the multiple and parallel moretane anomalies for the homohopane and 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopane series, enhanced input from higher plant organic matter, such as coal and peat, does not adequately explain the observed isomer patterns. Correlation of high moretane/hopane ratios with low C35 Homohopane Index (HHI) and high hopane/sterane values suggest increased input of hopanoids from oxic soils. Additionally, moretane/hopane ratios show excellent correlations with total clay percentages and specific clay types, particularly chlorite, illite, and mixed layer illite/smectite. We conclude that a combination of episodic hopanoid input from soil bacteria and diagenetic effects related to redox and detrital clays generated the unique moretane/hopane patterns at Meishan. Similar relationships of Ts/(Ts + Tm) with redox, source indicators, and lithology indicate that Ts/(Ts + Tm) is affected by the same factors controlling the moretane/hopane ratios. Berthierine, a clay that requires reducing conditions for formation, was detected in samples from the Lungtan Formation. We are unable to determine from our results whether the berthierine is authigenic or detrital, but future determination of the origin of berthierine at Meishan may offer additional environmental insight. No link between diasteranes and lithology was observed in this study suggesting that diasteranes are relatively unaffected by the detrital clay component of the Meishan sediments. In total, the results point toward the complex role of source input, lithology, and depositional redox conditions in the transformation of organic matter during maturation. Future work is required to elucidate the lithological effects on diagenetic processes, including biomarker genesis isomerization, and thermal degradation.

French, Katherine L.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger E.

2012-05-01

136

A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: 'quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our 'quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints

137

Stratigraphy of Upper Permian and Lower Triassic Strata of the Žiri Area (Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the stratigraphy of Late Permian and Early Triassic strata of the Luka? section in the Žiri area of western Slovenia. This is the only section presently known in the External Dinarides where the Permian-Triassic boundary is defined following international criteria based on the first appearance of the conodont Hindeodus parvus. The following lithostratigraphic units have been formalized: the Bellerophon Limestone and Evaporite-dolomite Members of the Bellerophon Formation and the Luka~ Formation with the three members,the Transitional Beds, Streaky Limestone and Carbonate-clastic Member. The paper presents the results of micropaleontologicalstudy based on foraminifers and conodonts as well as petrographic and sedimentologic research results. The investigation of conodont assemblages enabled the conodont biozonation of the Permian-Triassic interval of the studied Luka? section.

Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek

2011-12-01

138

New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France, viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined. In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera is reported. These new fossils clearly demonstrate that the present knowledge of the Permian insects remains very incomplete. They also confirm that the Lodève entomofauna was highly diverse providing links to other Permian localities and also rather unique, with several families still not recorded in other contemporaneous outcrops.

André Nel

2011-09-01

139

A high-pyrite semianthracite of Late Permian age in the Songzao Coalfield, southwestern China: Mineralogical and geochemical relations with underlying mafic tuffs  

Science.gov (United States)

The No. 12 Coal (Late Permian) in the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, southwestern China, is characteristically high in pyrite and some trace elements. It is uniquely deposited directly above mafic tuff beds. Samples of coal and tuffs have been studied for their mineralogy and geochemistry using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, plasma low-temperature ashing plus powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.The results show that the minerals of the No. 12 Coal are mainly composed of pyrite, clay minerals (kaolinite, chamosite, and illite), ankerite, calcite, and trace amounts of quartz and boehmite. Kaolinite and boehmite were mainly derived from sediment source region of mafic tuffs. Chamosite was formed by the reaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. The high pyrite (Sp,d=8.83%) in the coal was related to marine transgression over peat deposits and abundant Fe derived from the underlying mafic tuff bed. Ankerite and calcite were precipitated from epigenetic fluids.Chemical compositions of incompatible elements indicate that the tuffs were derived from enriched mantle and the source magmas had an alkali-basalt character. Compared to other coals from the Songzao Coalfield and common Chinese coals, the No. 12 Coal has a lower SiO2/Al2O3 (1.13) but a higher Al2O3/Na2O (80.1) value and is significantly enriched in trace elements including Sc (13.5??g/g), V (121??g/g), Cr (33.6??g/g), Co (27.2??g/g), Ni (83.5??g/g), Cu (48.5??g/g), Ga (17.3??g/g), Y (68.3??g/g), Zr (444??g/g), Nb (23.8??g/g), and REE (392??g/g on average). Above mineralogical compositions, as well as similar ratios of selected elements (e.g., SiO2/Al2O3 and Al2O3/Na2O) and similar distribution patterns of incompatible elements (e.g., the mantle-normalized diagram for incompatible elements and chondrite-normalized diagram for rare earth elements) of coal and tuff, indicated that enriched trace elements above were largely derived from mafic tuffs, in addition to a minor amount from the Kandian Oldland. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Dai, S.; Wang, X.; Chen, W.; Li, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.; Li, H.; Zhu, X.; Xing, Y.; Zhang, W.; Zou, J.

2010-01-01

140

A high-pyrite semianthracite of Late Permian age in the Songzao Coalfield, southwestern China: Mineralogical and geochemical relations with underlying mafic tuffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The No. 12 Coal (Late Permian) in the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, southwestern China, is characteristically high in pyrite and some trace elements. It is uniquely deposited directly above mafic tuff beds. Samples of coal and tuffs have been studied for their mineralogy and geochemistry using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, plasma low-temperature ashing plus powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results show that the minerals of the No. 12 Coal are mainly composed of pyrite, clay minerals (kaolinite, chamosite, and illite), ankerite, calcite, and trace amounts of quartz and boehmite. Kaolinite and boehmite were mainly derived from sediment source region of mafic tuffs. Chamosite was formed by the reaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. The high pyrite (S{sub p,d} 8.83%) in the coal was related to marine transgression over peat deposits and abundant Fe derived from the underlying mafic tuff bed. Ankerite and calcite were precipitated from epigenetic fluids. Chemical compositions of incompatible elements indicate that the tuffs were derived from enriched mantle and the source magmas had an alkali-basalt character. Compared to other coals from the Songzao Coalfield and common Chinese coals, the No. 12 Coal has a lower SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1.13) but a higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}O (80.1) value and is significantly enriched in trace elements including Sc (13.5 {mu}g/g), V (121 {mu}g/g), Cr (33.6 {mu}g/g), Co (27.2 {mu}g/g), Ni (83.5 {mu}g/g), Cu (48.5 {mu}g/g), Ga (17.3 {mu}g/g), Y (68.3 {mu}g/g), Zr (444 {mu}g/g), Nb (23.8 {mu}g/g), and REE (392 {mu}g/g on average). Above mineralogical compositions, as well as similar ratios of selected elements (e.g., SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}O) and similar distribution patterns of incompatible elements (e.g., the mantle-normalized diagram for incompatible elements and chondrite-normalized diagram for rare earth elements) of coal and tuff, indicated that enriched trace elements above were largely derived from mafic tuffs, in addition to a minor amount from the Kandian Oldland. (author)

Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Xibo; Chen, Wenmei [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, (China); Li, Dahua [Research Center of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Chongqing 400042, (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey (Emeritus), 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, (United States); Zhou, Yiping [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218, (China); Zhu, Changsheng; Li, Hang [Research Center of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Chongqing 400042, (China); Zhu, Xingwei; Xing, Yunwei; Zhang, Weiguo; Zou, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, (China)

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Shaping coal`s future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Energy Agency was established in 1974 following the first oil crisis with the aim of ensuring the security and diversity of energy supplies. The Executive Director of the IEA assesses the important role of coal in a strategy of energy diversification and evaluates the challenges for coal in a carbon constrained future. Following the liberalisation of the energy market, the IEA provides advice to governments on achieving economic efficiency. It has a commitment to coal as an element of energy security and energy diversity. The article draws on last October CIAB`s debate on the future role of coal, on the IEA statement on the `Energy dimension of climate change`, and the IEA`s `World energy outlook`. To meet the Kyoto Commitments for CO{sub 2} reduction without use of flexible mechanisms could wipe out coal use in power generation in OECD Europe and Pacific. The IEA is engaged in helping to develop policy tools to achieve the Kyoto targets most effectively, in the case of coal through more efficient clean coal technologies. The Clean Development Mechanism could entice technological assistance from the developed world. 1 ref., 8 figs.

Priddle, R. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

1999-07-01

142

16 CFR Appendix C1 to Part 305 - Compact Dishwashers  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Compact Dishwashers C1 Appendix C1 to Part 305 Commercial... Appendix C1 to Part 305—Compact Dishwashers Range Information “Compact” includes countertop dishwasher models with a capacity of...

2010-01-01

143

Coal dilatation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are various national and international standards for coal laboratories to use for the dilatation test. The results reported vary depending on which standard is used which causes issues when results are used at an international level and particularly relevant to coal sales contracts. A draft new ISO Dilatometer standard has just been written and this project has tested the ruggedness of this new method against the current standards. This project has developed one single International Standard for dilatation that could be used by laboratories throughout the world. Having one dilatation standard should improve methods for predicting blend dilatation which would help coal suppliers to target the correct coal against specifications for given blend situations and remove potential confusion from having alternative methods.

John J. Kelly [BMA Barney Point Laboratory (Australia)

2009-05-15

144

Coal Sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.; Simon, Frederick Otto, 1939-

2011-03-29

145

Coal competitiveness?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

146

Upper Permian ostracode assemblage from the Jadar Block (Vardar zone, NW Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ostracodes from the Changhsingian (latest Permian age in the uppermost part of the “Bituminous Limestone” Formation of the Komiri? Section in NW Serbia (Jadar Block, Vardar Zone are described and illustrated. Three new species of ostracodes are introduced: Basslerella jadarensis n. sp., Acratia serbianella n. sp., and Knoxiella vardarensis n. sp. The ostracode assemblage, together with conodonts and foraminifers, is the first record of the youngest Late Permian age microfaunas from Serbia and from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula.

Crasquin Sylvie

2010-01-01

147

Coal and conglomerate in the Newcastle Coal Measures. Coeval facies or temporally unrelated?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Central Coast region of the Sydney Basin, the Vales Point, Wallarah and Great Northern Coals coalesce and comprise the topmost unit of the Late Permian Newcastle Coal Measures. These coals reach a combined thickness of 8 m and, in places, are separated by 50-m-thick conglomeratic, incised valley fills at several stratigraphic horizons. Early Triassic, terrestrial sedimentary rocks unconformably onlap onto the eroded coal. Although the coalesced coals are remarkably free of siliciclastic interbeds, coal plies (subsections) have been correlated for more than 20 km using brightness profiles (lithotypes) and gamma-ray logs. Plies average about 0.5 m thick and indicate that the original peat was deposited episodically. The concept that coal originated from low-lying peat mires on flood basins adjacent to, and coeval with, active river systems is not supported here. Instead, correlations show that gravel was deposited at a time that equates to the hiatus between coal plies. Gravel-filled incised valleys were eroded into peat mires, removing all peat in the deepest places. Where the coals are coalesced, the only evidence for adjacent, thick conglomerate is a gamma-ray spike and a thin clay pellet layer of altered volcanogenic fragments. It is proposed that the coal is composed of individual plies originating from raised peat mires that grew during cyclical base-level rises. Afterwards, the mires became dormant during base-level falls, creating a hiatal surface above the degrading peat. During base-level fall, the increasing gradient initiated erosion of an incised valley into the dormant peat mire. Subsequently, as base level rose again, fluvial gravel aggraded in the valley. When the water table rose to the top of the incised valley, the flanking dormant peat mire was reactivated, initiating the accumulation of another ply above the hiatal surface. As peat grew and accumulated in raised mires, the sediment-filled incised valley may have resembled a muddy, estuarine body of water, no longer capable of transporting the coarse clastic bed load it did at times of lower base level. Repetition of base-level rise and fall is considered the main controlling factor in producing vertically stacked coal plies separated by hiatal and erosional surfaces, split in places, by thick conglomerate.

Lindsay, Grahame; Herbert, Chris [Mining and Exploration Geology Services MEGS, P.O. Box 840, NSW, Charlestown (Australia)

2002-08-01

148

Hereditary Angioedema due to C1 Inhibitor Deficiency: C1-INH Replacement Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare condition affecting about 1 in 50.000 individuals and caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH, which is involved in the control of complement, clotting, fibrinolytic and kinin pathways. HAE is characterized by plasma outflow from blood vessels, leading to fluid collecting (edema in the deep tissue layers of the face, larynx, abdomen, and extremities. Three different types of HAE have been identified: in type I the mutation leads to the lack of production of C1-INH, in type II the mutation leads to the production of dysfunctional C1-INH, while type III is extremely rare and still not fully understood. Therapeutic approaches for HAE include on-demand treatments to stop angioedema attacks and prophylactic treatment to prevent attacks both by pre-procedural (short-term and routine (long-term prophylaxis. Aim of the present review is to present an overview of C1-INH replacement therapy with the plasma-derived concentrate of C1-INH Berinert® (CSL Behring GmbH in the treatment of type I and II HAE.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v5i2.913

Mauro Cancian

2014-04-01

149

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

Gerald P. Huffman

2001-04-30

150

Coal -98  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx-burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the environmental influence will lead to more efficient power generation methods and us e of other fuels such as

151

Coal 99  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimise the env ironmental

152

Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

2008-03-15

153

Coal 95  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO2 and NOx as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NOx cleaning system. Most other plants use low NOx burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

154

Ichnological analysis in San Gregorio deposits (Lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area Uruguayan north basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ichnological analysis in deposits corresponding to San Gregorio Fm.(lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area (Cerro Largo Department, Uruguay) was made.Trace fossils in sandstones and mud stones outcrops were studied.The ichnofossil assemblage studied allows to propose a shallow marine environment. (author)

155

Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls

156

Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area and causes rotation of older probably Paleozoic sediments and creates syn-tectonic sediment wedges. The syn-tectonic wedges most probably contain volcaniclastic sediments of the Karl Formation or sandstones of the Auk Formation, but it cannot be excluded that the earliest late Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment of the E-W striking fault system are generally planar and strike parallel to the fault with a southward dip geometrically similar to antithetic faults. In contrast, the intrusions in the footwall segment show a much more complex pattern striking at a high angle to the E-W basement fault and outlining a sill complex, which in certain areas resembles a poorly outlined composite cone. The intrusions are not observed in the syn-tectonic sedimentary wedges and this combined with the general age of the intrusions suggests that the syn-tectonic wedges are of latest early Permian or earliest late Permian age. The study demonstrates Paleozoic intrusions with a systematic orientation and geometry that most likely was directly controlled by the basement faulting. Syn-tectonic hanging-wall deformation represented by antithetic fractures is suggested to be the most important controlling factor for the intrusions at the hanging-wall. At the footwall a more composite geometry of the intrusions is observed, resulting in a much more complex compartmentalization of the Paleozoic sediments due to intrusions compared to the hanging-wall segment. The intrusions and especially the compartmentalization must be taken into account during evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Paleozoic.

Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul

157

Evidence of a new narrow resonance decaying to ?(c1)? in B??(c1)?K.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurements of B??(c1)?K and ?(c2)?K decays using 772×10(6) BB[over ¯] events collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e(+)e(-) collider. Evidence of a new resonance in the ?(c1)? final state is found with a statistical significance of 3.8?. This state has a mass of 3823.1±1.8(stat)±0.7(syst) MeV/c(2), a value that is consistent with theoretical expectations for the previously unseen 1(3)D(2) cc[over ¯] meson. We find no other narrow resonance and set upper limits on the branching fractions of the X(3872)??(c1)? and ?(c2)? decays. PMID:23909309

Bhardwaj, V; Miyabayashi, K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Bhuyan, B; Bischofberger, M; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bra?ko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S-K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, D; Dutta, K; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Frey, A; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwashita, T; Julius, T; Kah, D H; Kang, J H; Kato, E; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y-J; Lange, J S; Lee, S-H; Li, J; Li, Y; Liu, C; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Panzenböck, E; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petri?, M; Piilonen, L E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rostomyan, A; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Seidl, R; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T-A; Shiu, J-G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y-S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stari?, M; Steder, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Urquijo, P; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M-Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, C C; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

2013-07-19

158

Using conodont elements to distinguish Permian-Triassic boundary disconformity near Haftad Gholleh, central Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente estudio se enfoca en la estatigrafía del Límite Pérmico-Triásico en el área de Haftad Gholleh, al este de Arak y al norte de Mahallat, centro de Irán. Este límite de discordancia erosiva, al igual que en otras secuencias iraníes relacionadas al período Pérmico, contiene calizas dolomías, [...] esquistos y areniscas discordantes localizadas debajo de la secuencia Triásica. En una medida estratigráfica detallada del área de estudio se encontraron conodontas del Límite Pérmico-Triásico (PTB, por sus siglas en inglés). Se reconocieron tres áreas de conodontas, lo que ubica esta sección del PTB como bioestatigráfica precisa. Una de las secuencias superiores del Pérmico pertenece al período Guadalupiense. La secuencia Triásica consiste en calizas con capas vermiculitas coloreadas de esquisto que pertenecen al período Triásico temprano. La discordancia del Límite Pérmico Triásico, entonces, representa un lapso cercano a los 10 millones de años. Abstract in english The present study focuses on the stratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Haftad Gholleh area in eastern Arak and north of Mahallat,located in central Iran. This boundary of erosional unconformity or disconformity and as in other Iranian sequences related to the Permian period, contains [...] dolomitic limestone and shale and sandstone disconformably located below the Triassic sequence. A detailed measured stratigraphic section has provided conodonts from the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sequences in the area being studied. Three conodont areas have been recognied which place the PTB in this section by precise biostratigraphy. One of the most upper Permian sequences belongs to the Guadalupian period. The Triassic sequence consists of vermiculate limestone layers with coloured shale inter beds belonging to the Early Triassic period; unconformity at the Permian-Triassic boundary therefore represents a hiatus of about 10 million years.

Mostafa, Yousefirad; Somayeh, Ghanbari; Mahnaz, Parvanehnejad Shirazi.

2013-06-01

159

Strontium and sulfur isotope study of well-preserved Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro basin, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?34S, 87Sr/86Sr ratio, and strontium concentrations for 50 well-preserved samples of Permian marine anhydrite have been determined. The samples were collected from two continuous cores drilled through cyclic Permian evaporites, The Department of Energy drilled the samples in its search for a permanent storage facility for high-level nuclear waste. Primary depositional fabrics (selenite pseudomorphs) and high strontium concentrations (average 1,850 ppm), in association with published bromide and fluid inclusion data from associated halite, suggest primary seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios may be recorded in many of the samples. The general shape of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio curve through the Permian is in accord with previously published observations. However, the increased stratigraphic detail from this unique set of cores constrains the abrupt charge in 87Sr/86Sr during the Permian at a precision previously available only in Deep Sea Drilling Project material. Interpretation of the more complex portions of the curve is limited by poor biostratigraphic control, the specter of provincial early diagenetic effects, and interpretation of the time significance of hiatal surfaces in cyclic strata. Age relationships are constrained by a K-Ar date on an interbedded volcanic ash in the Ochoan strata, and fusulinid age determinations of a well-documented regional transgression during the earliest Guadalupe. Sulfur isotopes yield typical Permian values of 12 per-thousand during the marine portion of the basin fill phase, and abruptly shift to 10 per-thousand in those cycles with a significant component of siliciclastic sediment

160

Paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks: a comparison between central and eastern Alborz, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

The succession of Permian rocks in Alborz region is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate facies. All of the sediments were deposited in the Paleotethyan passive continental margin but they show different facies architecture and paleoenvironmental condition in various parts of the region. This study, as part of a wider project, has investigated sedimentary facies and paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks in central and eastern Alborz. The Permian rocks in central Alborz are dominated by siliciclastic facies (Doroud Formation) in the lower, and carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the upper half. Field studies and laboratory measurements resulted in recognition of 4 terrigenous and 13 carbonate facies in the succession. A siliciclastic shallow marine system was determined as depositional environment of the terrigenous facies. A homoclinal carbonate ramp, with scattered patch reefs, was determined as depositional environment of the carbonate facies. Dasycladacean green algae, ancestral red algae, hermatypic corals and bryozoans were the major bioconstructors of the ramp. The abundance of skeletal shoals respect to ooidal shoals in the ramp margin was high. The Permian rocks in eastern Alborz are dominated by mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the lower, and siliciclastic facies (Nesen Formation) in the upper half. The studies resulted in recognition of 5 terrigenous and 6 carbonate facies in the succession. A mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf with high sediment influx was determined as depositional environment of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies. Occurrence of the small patch reefs with high coral diversity in this mixed shelf indicates normal marine (hyposaline) condition. Upper terrigenous facies were deposited in fluvial-flood plain system. Difference in paleoclimate and tectonic activity of two sub-basins seems to be the major cause of the differences between the Permian facies in central and eastern Alborz.

Lankarani, M.; Amini, A.; Mosadegh, H.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Tectonic rotations south of the Bohemian Massif from palaeomagnetic directions of Permian red beds in Hungary  

Science.gov (United States)

Palaeomagnetic studies were carried out in Permian red beds of the Balaton Highlands, the Mecsek Mountains and the Bu??kk Mountains of Hungary. Statistically well defined directions were obtained from six localities in the Balaton Highlands and two localities in the Mecsek Mountains. No meaningful results were obtained from the Bu??kk Mountains. Three magnetic components were identified from red beds of the Balaton Highlands: (1) in haematite with a very high unblocking temperature (700??C), interpreted as a Permian magnetization (Dc= 79??, Ic=-11??, k = 24, ??95 = 13.6 ??), in six samples from three beds in a single locality (2) a secondary but ancient component residing mainly inmaghemite (D = 314??, I = 49??, k = 48, ??95 = 10.0??), in 84 samples from six localities with a within-locality scatter increasing on unfolding; and (3) a direction parallel to the present field (D = 7??, I = 62??, k = 46, ??95 = 7.7 ??), in nine samples from a single locality. For the Balaton Highlands, the component 1 direction agrees with directions obtained from Permian red beds and volcanics in the eastern part of the Southern and Eastern Alps and the Inner West Carpathians. All show large, apparent rotations relative to stable Europe since the Permian. Component 2 is of post-folding (post-Aptian) age. Its direction agrees with known Late Cretaceous directions from the Transdanubian Central Mountains, which also show significant counterclockwise rotation relative to stable Europe. The characteristic magnetization for the Mecsek Mountains resides in haematite and may be primary. The directions indicate only a slight net counterclockwise rotation of the Mecsek Mountains with respect to stable Europe since the Permian. ?? 1987.

Marton, E.; Elston, D.P.

1987-01-01

162

Using conodont elements to distinguish Permian-Triassic boundary disconformity near Haftad Gholleh, central Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente estudio se enfoca en la estatigrafía del Límite Pérmico-Triásico en el área de Haftad Gholleh, al este de Arak y al norte de Mahallat, centro de Irán. Este límite de discordancia erosiva, al igual que en otras secuencias iraníes relacionadas al período Pérmico, contiene calizas dolomías, [...] esquistos y areniscas discordantes localizadas debajo de la secuencia Triásica. En una medida estratigráfica detallada del área de estudio se encontraron conodontas del Límite Pérmico-Triásico (PTB, por sus siglas en inglés). Se reconocieron tres áreas de conodontas, lo que ubica esta sección del PTB como bioestatigráfica precisa. Una de las secuencias superiores del Pérmico pertenece al período Guadalupiense. La secuencia Triásica consiste en calizas con capas vermiculitas coloreadas de esquisto que pertenecen al período Triásico temprano. La discordancia del Límite Pérmico Triásico, entonces, representa un lapso cercano a los 10 millones de años. Abstract in english The present study focuses on the stratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Haftad Gholleh area in eastern Arak and north of Mahallat,located in central Iran. This boundary of erosional unconformity or disconformity and as in other Iranian sequences related to the Permian period, contains [...] dolomitic limestone and shale and sandstone disconformably located below the Triassic sequence. A detailed measured stratigraphic section has provided conodonts from the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sequences in the area being studied. Three conodont areas have been recognied which place the PTB in this section by precise biostratigraphy. One of the most upper Permian sequences belongs to the Guadalupian period. The Triassic sequence consists of vermiculate limestone layers with coloured shale inter beds belonging to the Early Triassic period; unconformity at the Permian-Triassic boundary therefore represents a hiatus of about 10 million years.

Mostafa, Yousefirad; Somayeh, Ghanbari; Mahnaz, Parvanehnejad Shirazi.

163

Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage ( Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage ( Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode, and the gradual regional northward drift to a lower latitude of the Indian plate.

Ghazi, Shahid; Mountney, Nigel P.; Butt, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Sadaf

2012-10-01

164

Paleomagnetism of Late Permian volcanic rocks from South Transbaikalia: preliminary results  

Science.gov (United States)

Tamir volcano-tectonic structure (VTS) is one of the largest Late Paleozoic rift related features within Selengin-Vitim volcano-plutonic belt. The belt was formed in the back area of Siberian continent active margin (Gordienko et al., 2010). Igneous-sedimentary rocks within Tamir VTS are presented by contrastive volcanites more than 5 km thick. The deposits are subdivided into three suits: Ungurkuy (mostly basaltic), Tamir (acidic volcanics and tuffs) and Chernoyar (presented mostly by basalts, andesites and tuffs, sandstones and conglomerates). The age of youngest suits (Tamir and Chernoyar) is Late Permian, Middle-late Triassic accordingly. The age of Ungurkuy suit is deemed to be between Late Carboniferous and Late Permian (Gordienko et al., 1998; Popeko et al., 2005). Volcanic deposits of the three suits were studied to create APWP for the Siberian craton. 200 oriented samples from 31 sites were collected from the Tamir, Shazaga, Kiret, Ungurkuy and Ara-Kiret river valleys within South Transbaikalia. A number of samples were characterized by interpretable paleomagnetic signal. Tamir and Chernoyar rocks were collected from monoclinal structure within Tamir river valley. 5 sites show direction of magnetization similar to directions revealed from Early Cretaceous volcanites from nearby area (Metelkin et al., 2004). The magnetization is metachronous. In the other 8 sites the directions of magnetization are bipolar. The magnetization direction is well-correlated with Triassic APWP of Europe (Torsvik, Cocks, 2005). The volcanites of Ungurkuy suite show mostly monopolar (normal polarity) magnetization direction (formed before crustal folding) between Early Permian and Permian-Triassic Siberian poles, which indicates its Late Permian age. The normal polarity of the deposits indicates its formation in the period between Kiama superchron, characterized by reversal polarity, and Illavara hyperchron with mixed polarity - 265 Ma. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 13-05-12030.

Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.

2013-12-01

165

Microbialites and global environmental change across the Permian-Triassic boundary: a synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites (PTBMs) are thin (0.05-15 m) carbonates formed after the end-Permian mass extinction. They comprise Renalcis-group calcimicrobes, microbially mediated micrite, presumed inorganic micrite, calcite cement (some may be microbially influenced) and shelly faunas. PTBMs are abundant in low-latitude shallow-marine carbonate shelves in central Tethyan continents but are rare in higher latitudes, likely inhibited by clastic supply on Pangaea margins. PTBMs occupied broadly similar environments to Late Permian reefs in Tethys, but extended into deeper waters. Late Permian reefs are also rich in microbes (and cements), so post-extinction seawater carbonate saturation was likely similar to the Late Permian. However, PTBMs lack widespread abundant inorganic carbonate cement fans, so a previous interpretation that anoxic bicarbonate-rich water upwelled to rapidly increase carbonate saturation of shallow seawater, post-extinction, is problematic. Preliminary pyrite framboid evidence shows anoxia in PTBM facies, but interbedded shelly faunas indicate oxygenated water, perhaps there was short-term pulsing of normally saturated anoxic water from the oxygen-minimum zone to surface waters. In Tethys, PTBMs show geographic variations: (i) in south China, PTBMs are mostly thrombolites in open shelf settings, largely recrystallised, with remnant structure of Renalcis-group calcimicrobes; (ii) in south Turkey, in shallow waters, stromatolites and thrombolites, lacking calcimicrobes, are interbedded, likely depth-controlled; and (iii) in the Middle East, especially Iran, stromatolites and thrombolites (calcimicrobes uncommon) occur in different sites on open shelves, where controls are unclear. Thus, PTBMs were under more complex control than previously portrayed, with local facies control playing a significant role in their structure and composition. PMID:22077322

Kershaw, S; Crasquin, S; Li, Y; Collin, P-Y; Forel, M-B; Mu, X; Baud, A; Wang, Y; Xie, S; Maurer, F; Guo, L

2012-01-01

166

Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

Marie-Beatrice FOREL

2012-08-01

167

Classical complement pathway component C1q: purification of human C1q, isolation of C1q collagen-like and globular head fragments and production of recombinant C1q-derivatives. Functional characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The classical complement pathway (CCP) activation is a multimolecular complex, composed of three subcomponents namely C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q is the recognition subunit of this complex and its binding to the specific targets leads to the formation of active C1, which in turn activates the CCP in an immunoglobulin-dependent or -independent manner. C1q is a hexameric glycoprotein composed of 18 polypeptide chains of three different types (A, B, and C), organized in two fragments-collagen-like (CLR) and globular head (gC1q) possessing different functional activity. The contemporary knowledge of the C1q structure allows the isolation and purification of a C1q molecule from serum by combination of different chromatography procedures including ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity chromatography, as well as the isolation of CLR and gC1q by limited enzymatic hydrolysis of the native C1q molecule. In this chapter, we described methods for purification of human C1q and its CLR and gC1q fragments, as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production and purification of recombinant C1q derivatives ghA, ghB, and ghC (globular fragments of the individual C1q chains) are also presented. PMID:24218248

Kojouharova, Mihaela

2014-01-01

168

Concentrations and occurrences of mercury and arsenic in coals from the Qianxi fault depression area in southwestern Guizhou, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-arsenic coal combustion has caused extremely harmful on inhabitants and environment in Southwestern Guizhou. Sixty-one coal samples were collected and determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption (CV-AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) for understanding the contents and distributions of mercury and arsenic in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou. And sequential chemical extraction procedures were carried out for understanding the modes of occurrences of mercury and arsenic in the coals. The results show that the concentrations of mercury in coals are between 0.034 to 10.5 mg/kg and the average value is 1.006 mg/kg. The content of arsenic in coal is between 0.2 to 238 mg/kg and the average value is 40.7 mg/kg. The concentrations of mercury and arsenic in Late Triassic coal are higher than in Late Permian coal, mercury is 1.421 mg/kg and 0.891 mg/kg and arsenic is 53.3 mg/kg and 30.7 mg/kg respectively. Compared with average value of World and Chinese coal, the concentrations of mercury and arsenic in QFDA coal are higher. And the concentrations of mercury and arsenic in QFDA coal are also higher than the average value of Guizhou coal. Mercury and arsenic in coal are predominately associated with minerals and the percents of mercury and arsenic with macerals are very low. There are some water extractable and readily exchangeable mercury and arsenic because of the leaching of mercury and arsenic contained rock. Mercury and arsenic are mainly contained in the minerals in coal and hence the physical coal cleaning techniques can remove minerals from coal and decrease the mercury and arsenic emissions. 16 refs., 8 tabs.

Junying Zhang; Yaqin Qiu; Deyi Ren; Jing Liu; Chuguang Zheng [Huazhong University Of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2003-07-01

169

The coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economical and political aspects of mineral coal consumption in Brazil are studied, including data of thermoelectric potential, thermoelectricity, capacity and metal industry from south region. Statistical data of consumption and forecasting for the year 2000; resources and reserves, production cost and investment of different sources of energy are also shown. (C.G.C.)

170

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30

171

Structure and depositional environments of Permian-Triassic terrigeneous complex of the Barents Sea shelf  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian-Triassic complex of the Barents Sea shelf composed of up to 8-12 km of clastic sediments has a great interest for geology as it contains hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs and source rocks. It is drilled on shelf margins and structural highs; it outcrops in adjoining archipelagos. However within depositional centers like the South-Barents basin where Permian-Triassic reaches maximum thickness and burial, its structure can only be understood from seismic data. We present an evaluation of structure, depositional environments and cyclicity of Permian-Triassic terrigeneous complex based on interpretation of 18 000 km of regional seismic profiles with record length of 10-12 s acquired by MAGE in 2007-09 in the south-east shelf. Transgressive-regressive sequences were identified and correlated using well log analysis for 17 wells, descriptions of well sections and outcrops in Franz Josef Land, Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya archipelagos. Cooling of the climate throughout Sakmarian-Artinskian (Lower Permian), marine transgression, and Ural orogeny in the south-east had interrupted carbonate deposition and initiated the deposition of terrigeneous (East Barents) and spiculite, siliceous-carbonate, and siliciclastic (West Barents) sediments (Geological history, 2009). Triassic is represented by clastic lithologies all over the basin. On seismic data lower boundary of Permian-Triassic complex is a high-amplitude reflector (Ia) and downlap surface corresponding to the top of Lower Permian carbonates. Upper boundary is related to Rhaetian erosional unconformity best pronounced in the pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep, Kola monocline and Pechora Sea. Permian is represented by 5 transgressive-regressive sequences with upward regressive trend and total thickness of 100-800 m. Low-angle clinoforms prograding from south-east (Ural provenance) and east were interpreted on seismic. Increasing thickness of Permian towards Novaya Zemlya is consistent with up to 4 km of sediments in the archipelago's outcrops and indicates Kara provenance. In the south-eastern basin margin Permian-Triassic boundary is well-traced due to its erosional origin and downlapping of overlaying Induan clinoforms. Triassic sediments were formed in deltaic, shallow-marine to deep shelf environments in the large epicontinental basin with vast transgressions and significant lateral shift of the shoreline during sea level changes. Interpreted Triassic horizons correspond to Induan/Olenekian (top Havert), Lower/Upper Olenekian, Olenekian/Anisian (top Klappmyss) and Ladinian/Carnian boundaries. These relatively continuous reflectors were formed as transgressive shaly packages overlaid sequence boundaries. During Induan clinoforms (height ~100 s) had prograded to the north-west and west compensating the steady subsidence of the South- and North Barents depressions and pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep. We traced migration of the clinoform break (platform margin) of several Induan prograding sequences across the South-Barents basin towards Norwegian Barents Sea, where the area of non-compensated deposition in deep shelf environments was delineated (Glorstad-Clark, 2010). During Olenekian and Middle Triassic the clinoform break persisted in the western shelf, thus no clinoforms are observed in the south-east of the Barents Sea where deltaic environments had prevailed. Late Triassic was characterized by shallowing of the basin, spreading of deltas and filling of previously non-compensated area in the north-west. Maximum thickness of Triassic is related to Lower Triassic within South Barents basin and Lower-Middle Triassic within the pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep.

Norina, Daria; Stoupakova, Antonina

2014-05-01

172

Coal Mines Security System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, au...

Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Rane, Milind E.

2012-01-01

173

Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 31 and 32 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15-17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized by high vitrinite and low to medium inertinite and liptinite contents. These properties may be related to evolution of the coal forming environment from more reducing conditions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for the early Taiyuan coals to more oxidizing paleoenvironments in an upper delta plain for the upper Shanxi coal seams. The major mineral phases present in the coal are quartz, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. The sulfur content of the Taiyuan coal seams is considerably higher than that of the Shanxi coals. Organic sulfur content is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Th, U and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements, with the exception of Th, are enriched in the top and bottom plies of the seam, and that their concentrations are also relatively high in the dirt bands within the seam. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the top, bottom and parting plies of the seam. The concentrations of the trace elements are closely related to sulfur and ash contents. Most of the trace elements are correlated with the ash content, and may be associated with the mineral matter in the coal. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu, G.; Yang, P.; Peng, Z.; Chou, C.-L.

2004-01-01

174

Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area in southwestern Guizhou, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mineralogy, coal chemistry and 21 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) of 44 coal samples from the Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou province, China have been systematically studied. The major minerals in coals studied are quartz, kaolinite, illite, pyrite, calcite, smectite, marcasite and accessory minerals, including rutile, dolomite, siderite, gypsum, chlorite, melanterite, apatite, collophane and florencite. The SiO{sub 2} content shows a broad variation (0.8-30.7%). A high SiO{sub 2} content in Late Permian coals reflects their enrichment in quartz. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content varies from 0.8% to 13.4%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 0.2% to 14.6%, CaO from <0.1% to 11.9% and the contents of other oxides are relatively low. The relationship between the major oxides and the ash content of coals from high to low is in the order of Si>Al>K>Ti>Na>Mg>Ca>Fe>S. A comparison with World coal averages shows that the Late Permian coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As, Hg, F and U, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Se, Th, V and Zn. The Late Triassic coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As and Hg, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Th and U. The concentrations of As, Hg, Mo, Se, Tl and Zn in the QFDA coal are higher than other Guizhou coal and Liupanshui coal nearby.The QFDA is an area strongly affected by the low-temperature hydrothermal activity during its geologic history (Yanshanian Age, about 189 Ma). The coals in QFDA are enriched in volatile PHTEs, including As, Hg, Se, Sb, Mo, among others. The regions where the coals are enriched in As, Hg and F have been mapped. The regions of coals enriched in volatile PHTEs overlap with the regions of noble metal ore deposits. These coals are located in the cores of anticline and anticlinorium, which are connected with the profound faults through the normal faults. Coals are enriched in volatile PHTEs as a result of the low-temperature hydrothermal activity associated with tectonic faulting.

Zhang, Junying [National Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ren, Deyi [China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Zhu, Yanming [China University of Mining and Technology (Xuzhou), Xuzhou 221008 (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Zeng, Rongshu [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zheng, Baoshan [Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)

2004-01-15

175

A sulfur and strontium isotopic investigation of Lower Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lower Permian Wolfcamp and Wichita carbonates and anhydrites, Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle, record a change from a normal marine evaporite depositional environment. Isotopic compositions of S and Sr in anhydrite were determined to investigate the age of Wolfcamp and Wichita strata and the paragenesis of eight anhydrite forms. Bedded nodular mosaic (Wichita) and replacive nodular (Wolfcamp) anhydrites have S and Sr isotopic compositions that record precipitation from Early Permian (Wolfcampian to Leonardian) seawater. Silicified nodular, coarsely crystalline nodular, fossil-filling, and vein-filling anhydrites have enriched S isotopic compositions relative to Permian seawater, whereas euhedral and anhedral replacive anhydrites have depleted S. The Sr isotopic composition of most anhydrite forms indicates an Early Permain marine origin, however, Sr in anhydrite veins is slightly radiogenic compared to Permian seawater. The Sr isotopic composition of bedded nodular mosaic anhydrite indicates a Leonardian seawater source of material. (author)

176

Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito formation, Early Permian, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quitéria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The basal section of this outcrop represents a coastal lagoon depositional system protected by barriers in microtide conditions, where peat-forming conditions developed in lowlands with ingression of distal alluvial fan deposits. The upper clastic section represents different environmental conditions, originated by the barrier sectioning brought by washover fans. The palynoflora identified in the basal section present a dominance of spores produced by arborescent and herbaceous lycophytes, as well as by sphenophytes and filicophytes, complementary forms of gymnosperm pollen grains. Algae or algae-elements, indicative of fresh, brackish, or marine water, are recorded together with terrestrial spores and pollen grains. The palynological content of matrix-supported conglomerates suggests a close, qualitative similarity with the coaly facies; however, the increase in gymnosperm pollen grains accompanied by a decrease in spores produced by pteridophyte vegetation is remarkable. The autochthonous roof-shale flora related to the clastic upper section is composed of basal stumps of arborescent cormose lycophytes ( Brasilodendron pedroanum), understory vegetation ( Botrychiopsis valida, Lycopodites sp.), small trees ( Coricladus quiteriensis), undetermined filicoid rodheopterid fronds, and parautochthonous elements ( Rubidgea sp., Cordaites sp.). Palynofloras point to floristic similarity between the roof-shale floras and the subjacent coal-forming parautochthonous floras. Correlations between the floristic data and those from high-resolution sequence stratigraphic methods indicate that this interval is associated with the final parasequences of the transgressive tract of Rio Bonito Formation, where coal levels are thin. The record in some coal palynofloras of Striadopodocarpites fusus, a component of the Hamiapollenites karrooensis subzone, as defined in the palynostratigraphic framework for the Paraná Basin, indicates a Kungurian age for the palynoflora.

Jasper, André; Menegat, Rualdo; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; de Souza, Paulo Alves

2006-07-01

177

Late Permian-early Middle Triassic back-arc basin development in West Qinling, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Late Permian-early Middle Triassic strata of the northern West Qinling area, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, are composed of sediment gravity flow deposits. Detailed sedimentary facies analysis indicates these strata were deposited in three successive deep-marine environments. The Late Permian-early Early Triassic strata of the Maomaolong Formation and the lowest part of the Longwuhe Formation define a NW-SE trending proximal slope environment. Facies of the Early Triassic strata composing the middle and upper Longwuhe Formation are consistent with deposition in a base-of-slope apron environment, whereas facies of the Middle Triassic Anisian age Gulangdi Formation are more closely associated with a base-of-slope fan depositional environment. The lithofacies and the spatial-temporal changes in paleocurrent data from these strata suggest the opening of a continental margin back-arc basin system during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the northern West Qinling. U-Pb zircon ages for geochemically varied igneous rocks with diabasic through granitic compositions intruded into these deep-marine strata range from 250 to 234 Ma. These observations are consistent with extensional back-arc basin development and rifting between the Permian-Triassic Eastern Kunlun arc and North China block during the continent-continent collision and underthrusting of the South China block northward beneath the Qinling terrane of the North China block. Deep-marine sedimentation ended in the northern West Qinling by the Middle Triassic Ladinian age, but started in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi to the south. We attribute these observations to southward directed rollback of Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere, continued attenuation of the West Qinling on the upper plate, local post-rift isostatic compensation in the northern West Qinling area, and continued opening of a back-arc basin in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi. Rollback and back-arc basin development during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the West Qinling area explains: the truncated map pattern of the Eastern Kunlun arc, the age difference of deep-marine sediment gravity flow deposits between the Late Permian-early Middle Triassic northern West Qinling and the late Middle Triassic-Late Triassic southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi, and the discontinuous trace of ophiolitic rocks associated with the Anyemaqen-Kunlun suture.

Li, Lin; Meng, Qingren; Pullen, Alex; Garzione, Carmala N.; Wu, Guoli; Wang, Yanling; Ma, Shouxian; Duan, Liang

2014-06-01

178

Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China  

Science.gov (United States)

Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. ?13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). ?34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive ?13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ?REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in ?13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of ?34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior to the main extinction horizon may have been caused by oceanic oxygen-minimum zone expansion and upward movement of the chemocline5. The coupled increases in Eu/Eu* and Baxs may record hydrothermal influence, possibly accompanied by increased ocean acidity and high seawater temperatures. Collectively, our results document major changes in seawater chemistry during the Changhsingian prior to the main end-Permian crisis.

Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

2013-12-01

179

Molecular carbon isotope variations in core samples taken at the Permian-Triassic boundary layers in southern China  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable carbon isotope composition (?13C) of carbonate sediments and the molecular (biomarker) characteristics of a continuous Permian-Triassic (PT) layer in southern China were studied to obtain geochemical signals of global change at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). Carbonate carbon isotope values shifted toward positive before the end of the Permian period and then shifted negative above the PTB into the Triassic period. Molecular carbon isotope values of biomarkers followed the same trend at and below the PTB and remained negative in the Triassic layer. These biomarkers were acyclic isoprenoids, ranging from C15 to C40, steranes (C27 dominates) and terpenoids that were all significantly more abundant in samples from the Permian layer than those from the Triassic layer. The Triassic layer was distinguished by the dominance of higher molecular weight (waxy) n-alkanes. Stable carbon isotope values of individual components, including n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids such as phytane, isop-C25, and squalane, are depleted in ?13C by up to 8-10‰ in the Triassic samples as compared to the Permian. Measured molecular and isotopic variations of organic matter in the PT layers support the generally accepted view of Permian oceanic stagnation followed by a massive upwelling of toxic deep waters at the PTB. A series of large-scale (global) outgassing events may be associated with the carbon isotope shift we measured. This is also consistent with the lithological evidence we observed of white thin-clay layers in this region. Our findings, in context with a generally accepted stagnant Permian ocean, followed by massive upwelling of toxic deep waters might be the major causes of the largest global mass extinction event that occurred at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

Wang, Ruiliang; Zhang, Shuichang; Brassell, Simon; Wang, Jiaxue; Lu, Zhengyuan; Ming, Qingzhong; Wang, Xiaomei; Bian, Lizeng

2012-07-01

180

Uranium mineralization in the Permian volcanic rocks at Kravany, Kozie Chrbty Mts., Western Carpathians, Slovak Republic: Preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rock debris with uranium mineralization were found at the Kravany village. Ore mineralization occurs in quartz-calcite-dolomite gangue located in the altered, fine-grained Permian diorite porphyrite. Mineralization is represented by uraninite, Pb phase (?) and arsenic-rich pyrite, and is accompanied by arsenic-free pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, sphalerite and galena. The origin of the mineralization can be probably explained by infiltration of uranium-bearing solutions from the sedimentary Kravany Member of Permian age to volcanic rocks. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Functional model of subcomponent C1 of human complement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The domain organization of the zymogen subunits of the first component of human complement C1s, C1r2 and the complex C1s-C1r2-C1s was studied by electron microscopy. In the absence of Ca2+, monomeric C1s was visualized as a dumb-bell-shaped molecule consisting of two globular domains (center-to-center distance 11 nm) connected by a rod. One of the globular domains is assigned to the light chain (B-chain) of the activated molecule, which is homologous to trypsin and other serine proteases. The second globular domain and the rod are assigned to the heavy chain (A-chain) of CIs. The subunit C1r is a stable dimer in the presence or absence of Ca2+. This dimer C1r2 was visualized as composed of two dumb-bells of dimensions similar to those observed for C1s. These are connected near the junctions between the rod and one of the globular domains. This leads to the structure of an asymmetrical X with two inner closely spaced globules (center-to-center distance 7 nm) and two outer globules at a larger distance (14 nm). By comparison with fragment C1rII2, in which part of the A-chain is removed, the inner globular domains were assigned to the catalytic B-chains. This characteristic structure of C1r2 is readily recognized in the central portion of the thread-like 54 nm long C1s-C1r2-C1s complex formed in the presence of Ca2+. By affinity-labeling of C1s with biotin and visualization of avidin-ferritin conjugates in the reconstituted complex, it was demonstrated that C1s forms the outer portion of the complex. A detailed model of C1s-C1r2-C1s is proposed, according to which two C1s monomers bind to the outer globes of C1r2 by contacts between their heavy chains and those of C1r. According to this model the catalytic domains of C1r are located in the center and those of C1s at the very tips of the C1s-C1r2-C1s complex. On the basis of the structure of C1s-C1r2-C1s, we derived a detailed model of the C1 complex (composed of C1q and the tetrameric complex) and we discuss this model with a view to finding a possible activation mechanism of C1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3023630

Weiss, V; Fauser, C; Engel, J

1986-06-01

182

Origin of Permian gabbroic intrusions in the southern margin of the Altai Orogenic belt: A possible link to the Permian Tarim mantle plume?  

Science.gov (United States)

Zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions, whole-rock and mineral geochemistry, as well as field and petrographic observations, are reported for the Permian gabbroic intrusions in the southern margin of the Altai orogenic belt. Similar zircon ages (~ 280 Ma) of these intrusions to that of the Permian Tarim mantle plume suggest a possible link to the Tarim plume. Olivine grains from the intrusions have Fo contents ranging from 69 to 81 and NiO from 0.05 to 0.21 wt.%, indicating the crystallization from evolved mafic magmas. Clinopyroxene grains from the intrusions have 0.3 to 1.5 wt.% TiO2 and display a rift- to arc-like affinity. The intrusions are tholeiitic and have slightly LREE-depleted to LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns. Zircons from the intrusions have ?Hf(t) values higher than + 8.0, whereas the whole-rock ?Nd(t) values range from + 2.7 to + 7.0. Rocks from the intrusions have Nb/La of 0.2 to 0.8, consistent with the derivation from a depleted sub-lithospheric mantle with variable degrees of crustal contamination. The presence of primary hornblende and/or biotite in the rocks indicates metasomatism by slab-derived fluids/melts in the mantle source. We propose that upwelling of asthenospheric mantle in the Permian Tarim mantle plume along the Irtish suture zone, resulted in partial melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Based on a comparison between the Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing Kalatongke complex and un-mineralized intrusions, we suggest that Ni-Cu sulfide mineralized intrusions in the Altai orogenic belt are characterized by the enrichments of LREEs and LILEs and by the presence of primary water-bearing minerals.

Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Zou, Hai-Bo; Yao, Chun-Yan; Dong, Yong-Guan

2014-09-01

183

Coal industry annual 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

184

Coal industry annual 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

185

Coal industry annual 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

186

Coal industry annual 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01

187

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01

188

Minimax theorems on C1 manifolds via Ekeland variational principle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We prove two minimax principles to find almost critical points of C1 functionals restricted to globally defined C1 manifolds of codimension 1. The proof of the theorems relies on Ekeland variational principle.

Mabel Cuesta

2003-07-01

189

No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Multiple observations have revealed that environmental disturbances may have been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and delayed biotic recovery. Biogeochemical constraints on the temporal and spatial changes of oceanic redox chemistry during the Permian–Triassic interval are essential to evaluate global significance of previous hypotheses and to improve our understanding of extinction and recovery processes. To investigate redox ocean chemistry change associated with the end-Permian extinction and subsequent delayed biotic recovery, we examine framboidal pyrites as well as sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrites from the East Greenland Basin. The size distributions of framboidal pyrites in sediments from a continuous section across the Permian–Triassic boundary reveal that sulfidic conditions in water columns were established about 0.7 m above the extinction event in the East Greenland Basin. Our detailed examination of framboidal pyrites challenges a leading hypothesis that euxinia in the photic zonecaused the end-Permian ecosystem collapse. We identify several positive and negative S-isotopic shifts before and after the extinction event and demonstrate that a positive S-isotopic shift is not indicative of an abrupt change of redox chemistry in water columns, in contrast to previous claims. The integration of isotope and framboidal pyrite data provides a nearly continuous record of ocean chemistry evolution and new insights into the end-Permian extinction and delayed biotic recovery in the East Greenland Basin.

Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y

2010-01-01

190

Coal and Energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

Bryant, Reba; And Others

191

Coal-93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1992. Some information about technics, environmental questions and markets are also given. The use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced by about 10 percent during 1992 to the level of 1.1 million ton. This is the case for both heat generating boilers and co-generation boilers. On the other hand, the electricity production in the cogeneration plants have increased, mainly for tax reasons. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. During 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 cogeneration plants. For 1992 these figures are 5 and 9. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The industry has reduced its use of steamcoal by 140 000 tons to about 700 000 tons. The reason is a cut down of production in particularly the cement industry and the mineral wool industry. The steamcoal import was 1.2 million tons during 1992, the same as the year before. The import has been lower than the consumption during the last years. The companies have reduced their stocks because of changed laws about emergency stocks. The average price of steamcoal imported in Sweden in 1992 was 272 SEK/ton or 25 SEK/ton lower than in 1991. The coal market during 1992 was affected by smaller consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. Among other things independent mines in Russia and Poland have dumped low quality coals. A structuring of both process and quality has now begun. Western companies have for instance started joint ventures with Russian companies and supplied washing- and classifying equipments. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. 13 tabs

192

Coal purification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Please read the abstract in the section 00front of this document © 2003 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Mthembi PM, 2003, Coal purification, MSc dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, vi...

Mthembi, Pabalala Meshack

2005-01-01

193

Sulfur and oxygen isotopes in Italian marine sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaporitic sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from Italian occurrences were analyzed for sulfur and oxygen isotopes in order to supplement the corresponding isotope-age curves and to use isotopic data to trace the origin of the sulfate in hydrologic systems. The sulfur-isotopic composition-age relationships obtained in this study generally agree with those found throughout the world. In two cases, i.e. in samples from the Carniola di Bovegno Formation (Bergamo and Brescia Alps) and from the lower part of the Gracilis Formation (Recoaro, Vicenza), sulfur isotopes suggest different ages for the rocks than the formerly ascribed ones. Oxygen-isotopic compositions show the same range from approximately +10.5 to +18.5per thousand, without any consistent relationship with sulfur. These ranges of values are almost identical to those published previously for sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from other locations. (Auth.)

194

U-Th-Geochemistry of Permian and Triassic sediments of the Drauzug, Carinthia, Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical analysis of samples of Triassic and Permian rocks from the Drauzug, Carinthia and Austria was carried out. U concentration was measured by flurimetry, Th and Cu by spectrophotometry using Thoronol method or Arsenazo III method for Th, Fe by titrimetry and V, Ba, Sr by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average U concentration ranged from 0.8 to 4.6 ppm and the Th concentration from 3.2 to 15.6 ppm depending upon the mineral material. The quartzporphyries contained the highest concentration of both. It was concluded that the Permian-Triassic series are very similar to the equivalent deposits in Northern Italy. Assuming a lateral displacement, the former represent the Northern marginal part of the latter and therefore are inferior in thickness and thus not favourable for larger U mineralization

195

Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI. A great attention has been given to the negative ?13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1 and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.

Aymon Baud

2005-10-01

196

The problems of Paleozoic beds and reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin in western Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the first part of paper geologic data from smaller outcrops of Val Gardena Formation in west Slovenia are assembled. Together with the already published information from larger outcrops they permit the reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin on which the accent of paper is based. Attention is drawn to general problems of Upper Paleozoic beds, and conclusions regarding lithologic, stratigraphic and structural control of uranium and copper deposits in this part of Slovenia are given.

Ivan Mlakar

2003-06-01

197

Origin of the Permian-Triassic Iberian Basin, central-eastern Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Iberian Basin was an intracratonic rift basin in central-eastern Spain developed since Early Permian times. The basin boundary faults were normal, listric faults controlling an asymmetric extension propagating northeast with time. Hercynian or older lineaments controlled the orientation of the Iberian Basin and extension was accommodated basically in the hanging wall block by the formation of secondary grabens and a central high. The basin was related with the coeval Ebro, Cat...

Arche, Alfredo; Lo?pez Go?mez, Jose?

1996-01-01

198

Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous-Permian volcanosedimentary sequences of the Northern Pamir, Tajikistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The point of view on two angular unconformities in the section of the Lower Carboniferous volcanosedimentary sequences of the northern Pamir is disproved. Two terrigenous sequences in contrast to one Beleuli sequence of shales are present in the Beleuli River basin. The first Carboniferous sequence conformably overlaps limestones with Serpukhovian goniatites and the second Permian sequence may be correlated with the Pshikharv Formation of shales from the western regions of the northern Pamir and contacts by the thrust Carboniferous rocks.

Leven, E. Ja.

2013-11-01

199

New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France), viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined). In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemeroptera) ...

Jakub Prokop

2011-01-01

200

Subsidence hazards caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England : geology, investigation and remediation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

About every three years natural catastrophic subsidence, caused by gypsum dissolution, occurs in the vicinity of Ripon, North Yorkshire, England. Holes up to 35 m across and 20 m deep have appeared without warning. In the past 150 years, 30 major collapses have occurred, and in the last ten years the resulting damage to property is estimated at about £1000000. Subsidence, associated with the collapse of caves resulting from gypsum dissolution in the Permian rocks of eastern England, occurs i...

Cooper, A. H.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Geochemical anomalies near the Eocene-Oligocene and Permian-Triassic boundaries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence is presented to support the theory that several mass extinctions, i.e., those that define the Permian-Triassic boundary, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and the Eocene-1 Oligocene boundary, were caused by impact on the earth of extraterrestrial objects having the composition of carbonaceous chondrites and diameters of about 10 km. The evidence consists of anomalously high concentrations of iridium and other siderophile elements at the stratigraphic levels defining the extinctions. (ACR)

Asaro, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H.V.

1981-10-01

202

Abrupt environmental and climatic change during the deposition of the Early Permian Haushi limestone, Oman  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the late Sakmarian (Early Permian), the Haushi limestone was deposited in a shallow embayment of the Neotethys Ocean covering what is now north Oman and parts of southeast Saudi Arabia. The sea persisted through the late Sakmarian, but by the time of the deposition of the ?Artinskian Middle Gharif Member, limestone deposition had ceased and generally arid fluvial and minor lacustrine palaeonvironments in a low accommodation space setting had become established. Analysis of three subsur...

Stephenson, Michael; Angiolini, Lucia; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; Berra, F.; Jadoul, F.; Gambacorta, G.; Verna, V.; Al Beloushi, B.

2008-01-01

203

Diagenetic and Detrial Origin of Moretane Anomalies through the Permian-Triassic Boundary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many biogeochemical anomalies coincide with the Late Permian Extinction (LPE; 252.28 Ma). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the moretane/hopane anomaly that has been identified in samples from Meishan GSSP section in southeastern China. Here, we report homohopane, 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopane and lithological data for a drill core from the Meishan section in southeastern China. Three intervals of elevated C30 moretane/hopane ratios are recorded in the Lungtan, Yinkeng and Helo...

French, Katherine L.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger Everett

2011-01-01

204

The source rock potential of the Karroo coals of the south western Rift Basin of Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

For many years geoscientists believed that coals (Type III Kerogen) generate gas only. The geochemical study of Durand and Parrante ( Petrolum Geochemistry and Exploration of Europe, pp. 255-265, 1983) revealed that coals have reasonable potential for oil generation. On this basis forty outcrop samples of Lower and Upper Permian age, i.e. coals and carbonaceous shales, were collected from the south western Rift Basin of Tanzania. The aim of the study was to determine the richness, type, maturity and hydrocarbon potential of the above samples. These samples were subjected to both geochemical and petrological analyses. Geochemical analyses included solvent extraction, TOC, GC, GC-MS and pyrolysis. The petrological analysis included vitrinite reflectance, spore fluorescence and maceral content. The geochemical analyses showed all samples to be rich in organic matter of Types II and III and samples from Songwe Kiwira, Namwele, Mbamba Bay, Njuga and Mhukuru coalfields were in an early mature-mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. Whereas samples from Ketewaka and Ngaka coalfields showed a GC-trace of early generated waxy oil. All samples contained organic matter derived from terrestrial material which was deposited under oxic environment. The Hydrogen Index of most coals and carbonaceous shales was greater than 200 indicating that they can generate oil or light oil. Petrological observations showed all samples to be in the range of 0.47-0.67% Ro and some of them were rich in both liptinite and vitrinite macerals. From both geochemical and petrological observations it was concluded that the Lower and Upper Permian coals and carbonaceous shales under study are probably capable of generating oil. The oil generated has the same characteristics as that generated by Cretaceous and Tertiary coals discovered from other parts of the world, i.e. Adjuna and Kutei Basins in Indonesia and the Gippsland Basin in Australia (Kirkland et al., AAPG Bull.71, 577, 1987).

Mpanju, F.; Ntomola, S.; Kagya, M.

205

Revisiting the mechanism of the autoactivation of the complement protease C1r in the C1 complex: structure of the active catalytic region of C1r.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1r is a modular serine protease which is the autoactivating component of the C1 complex of the classical pathway of the complement system. We have determined the first crystal structure of the entire active catalytic region of human C1r. This fragment contains the C-terminal serine protease (SP) domain and the preceding two complement control protein (CCP) modules. The activated CCP1-CCP2-SP fragment makes up a dimer in a head-to-tail fashion similarly to the previously characterized zymogen. The present structure shows an increased number of stabilizing interactions. Moreover, in the crystal lattice there is an enzyme-product relationship between the C1r molecules of neighboring dimers. This enzyme-product complex exhibits the crucial S1-P1 salt bridge between Asp631 and Arg446 residues, and intermolecular interaction between the CCP2 module and the SP domain. Based on these novel structural information we propose a new split-and-reassembly model for the autoactivation of the C1r. This model is consistent with experimental results that have not been explained adequately by previous models. It allows autoactivation of C1r without large-scale, directed movement of C1q arms. The model is concordant with the stability of the C1 complex during activation of the next complement components. PMID:17996945

Kardos, József; Harmat, Veronika; Palló, Anna; Barabás, Orsolya; Szilágyi, Katalin; Gráf, László; Náray-Szabó, Gábor; Goto, Yuji; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter

2008-03-01

206

Coal industry annual 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

1994-12-06

207

Environmental characterization of bedded salt formations and overlying areas of the Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report constitutes one input to the first stage of site qualification studies. It presents a general environmental characterization of the region that is underlain by the Permian bedded salt formation. The formation covers portions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Permian bedded salt formation is one of a number of deep, stable geologic formations being studied for potential locations for nuclear waste repositories. These studies will not necessarily lead to selection of a site. They are intended only to provide information necessary to evaluate the suitability of locations for repositories. The report is intended as a general characterization of the existing environmental setting of the Permian Region with emphasis on land, water, and air characteristics; resources; plant and animal life; and man's organizations and activities. The report provides background information about the role that this regional study will play in the overall plan for environmental impact assessments and statements deemed necessary as input to the decision-making process. Background information on the present concept of nuclear waste repository design and function is also included. The information presented in this report has been summarized from open literature readily accessible to the public. No field work was conducted nor new data used in developing the descriptions contained herein

208

Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

Montgomery, S.L. [Petroleum Consultant, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

209

Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.

Iannuzzi Roberto

2004-01-01

210

Mid-Permian Phosphoria Sea in Nevada and the Upwelling Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Phosphoria Sea extended at least 500 km westward and at least 700 km southwestward from its core area centered in southeastern Idaho. Throughout that extent it displayed many characteristic features of the core: the same fauna, the same unique sedimentary assemblage including phosphate in mostly pelletal form, chert composed mainly of sponge spicules, and an association with dolomite. Phosphoria-age sediments in Nevada display ample evidence of deposition in shallow water. The chief difference between the sediments in Nevada and those of the core area is the greater admixture of sandstone and conglomerate in Nevada. Evidence of the western margin of the Phosphoria Sea where the water deepened and began to lose its essential characteristics is located in the uppermost part of the Upper Devonian to Permian Havallah sequence, which has been displaced tectonically eastward an unknown distance. The relatively deep water in which the mid-Permian part of the Havallah was deposited was a sea of probably restricted east-west width and was floored by a very thick sequence of mainly terrigenous sedimentary rocks. The phosphate content of mid-Permian strata in western exposures tends to be relatively low as a percentage, but the thickness of those strata tends to be high. The core area in and near southeastern Idaho where the concentration of phosphate is highest was separated from any possible site of upwelling oceanic waters by a great expanse of shallow sea.

Ketner, Keith B.

2009-01-01

211

Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate reservoirs of the Timan-Pechora Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate succession of the Timan-Pechora basin is a major hydrocarbon-bearing complex, hosting about half of the oil and nearly a third of the gas reserves of the basin. The succession represents the last episode of carbonate deposition on the northeastern margin of the Russian platform before the closure of the Ural seaway in the mid-Permian. The lower part of the succession (upper Visean-Moscovian) contains three major transgressive-regressive sequences. Depositional facies ranged from nearshore carbonate-shale-evaporite through shallow shelf detrital carbonates to outer-shelf carbonate-siliceous shale. The most pronounced regression during this interval occurred during the Serpukhovian, when marine sabkhas covered vast portions of the carbonate platform. Late Carboniferous-Early Permian sedimentation was complicated by the onset of Uralian tectonism. Flysch from the encroaching orogen accumulated initially in the east, advanced westward across the passive margin, and finally covered the carbonate platform in Artinskian-Kungurian time. Simultaneously, structural inversion along the Pechora-Kolva aulacogen and elsewhere provided sites for bioherm growth, in addition to exposing parts of the lower succession to erosion and karstification. Overall polarity of the basin switched as the eastern margin was elevated in the frontal thrusts of the Urals. The carbonate succession was terminated by increased clastic input from the advancing Ural orogen. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Zhemchugova, V.A. [Petroleum Scientific Research Geological Exploration Institute, Komi Republic (Russian Federation); Schamel, S. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1994-01-01

212

Billions of barrels of potential Permian oil starts race for carbon dioxide in the Rockies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major producers in the Permian Basin are jockeying for position in the race for a different type of natural gas--carbon dioxide. The purse for the winners may be billions of barrels of additional oil recovery from the Permian Basin fields. The track is leading the competitors to the north, through New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, where stratigraphic and structural accumulations of carbon dioxide, nearly 100% pure in some places, are known to exist. Land positions are being blocked up, many wells have been drilled and more are underway. Potential tertiary recovery projects in the Permian Basin are the reason for all the excitement. Some engineers feel the carbon dioxide miscible flood is the best, perhaps the only way in this region, to economically recover billions of barrels of remaining oil. Chevron led the field, initially, with its carbon dioxide miscible flood at Sacroc. The first major tertiary project of its type, the experiment in Scurry County's Kelly-Snyder field, has been termed a success. The operator says some 35,000 bpd of tertiary oil is being recovered from the 50,000-acre project.

Hart, D.

1976-06-01

213

Geology of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Culter Group and Permian Kaibab Limestone in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cutler Formation is composed of thick, arkosic, alluvial sandstones shed southwestward from the Uncompahgre highlands into the Paradox Basin. Salt tectonism played an important role in deposition of the Cutler in some areas. In the northeast part of the basin, more than 8,000 ft, and as much as 15,000 ft, of arkose was trapped between rising salt anticlines - this arkose is thin to absent over the crests of some anticlines. In the western and southern parts of the basin, the Cutler is recognized as a Group consisting of, in ascending order: the lower Cutler beds, Cedar Mesa Sandstone, Organ Rock Formation, White Rim Sandstone, and De Chelly Sandstone. The aggregate thickness of these formations is less than 2,000 ft. The formations of the Cutler Group were deposited in a complex system of alluvial, eolian, and marine environments characterized by abrupt vertical and lateral lithologic changes. The basal Cutler is Pennsylvanian in age, but the bulk of the Group was deposited during the Permian. The Cutler is conformably underlain by the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Group across most of the basin. It is overlain unconformably by the Permian Kaibab Limestone in the western part of the Paradox Basin. The Cutler or Kaibab are overlain unconformably by the Triassic Moenkopi or Chinle Formations.

Condon, Steven M.

1997-01-01

214

Fossil Fuels: Coal  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

Pratte, John

215

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-03-31

216

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

217

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2005-03-31

218

Stratigraphy and coal resources of the Makarwal area, Trans-Indus Mountains, Mianwali District, Pakistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sedimentary rocks of marine and nonmarine origin ranging in age from Permian to Pleistocene constitute most of the stratigraphic sequence in the Trans-Indus Mountains in Pakistan. The Makarwal coal field is located in Sargodha Division, Mianwali District, in the Surghar Range. The coal field serves as a source of energy and byproducts for the industrial center at Daud Khel, 34 miles by rail northeast of the coal field. The coal-bearing strata are of Paleocene age and are overlain by younger Tertiary rocks that exceed 15,000 feet in total thickness. The coal was involved in at least two episodes of mountain-building activity that produced the Trans-Indus Mountains. The coal is produced from a single bed that ranges in thickness from 2 feet to more than 10 feet and averages 4 feet. Most of the coal is in the west limb of the Makarwal anticline and dips 30{degree} W. The coal is ranked as high-volatile. C-bituminous, containing ash in the range of 7 to 22%; fixed carbon, 36.3 to 43.4%; sulfur, 4.1 to 5.6%; and calorific value, 9,550 to 11,850 Btu (as received). The area developed for coal mining is almost mined out. From 1914 to 1976 nearly 5 million tons of coal have been produced. The total reserves possible for development to a depth of 200 feet below sea level are 16,600,000 tons. Other mineral resources in the Makarwal coal field include large reserves of limestone, dolomite, greensand, glass sand, and iron-bearing rocks that have been extensively investigated as a possible source of iron.

Danilchik, W.; Shah, S.M.I.

1987-01-01

219

Coal-methane system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Defines the coal-methane system and its importance in coal mining. Presents results of investigations into the coal-methane system. Deformation behavior of coal samples depending on compression is discussed. Compressibility curves are shown for coal samples tested immediately after collection and for samples kept in sealed containers. Methane content was measured in all samples taken. It is concluded that methane content in coal seams may have a more complicated structure than earlier thought. It was also found that no artificial coal-methane system permits the properties of the natural coal-methane system to be correctly evaluated. 4 refs.

Szczurowski, A.; Rogut, J. (Polska Akademia Nauk (Poland). Zaklad Karbochemii)

1992-09-01

220

Late Permian Tsunamites in Guryul Ravine (Kashmir, India) - revisited and rejected  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent claims for tsunami-related event beds induced by the Siberian Trap basalts in this section (Brookfield et al., 2013) have to be questioned. Identical storm generated carbonate beds occur not only during a short interval close to the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary but through a major part of the late Permian (Changhsingian) succession there - as low as 26 m below the so-called tsunami beds. Moreover, during our recent study in a closely neighbouring place called Mandakpal (less than 10 km to the southeast), no signs of tsunamites have been detected in time-correlative finegrained sediments. Based on sedimentary and trace fossil evidence we interpret the late Permian of Guryul as relatively shallow, neritic and delta-influenced. The so-called tsunamites are shelly-enriched discontinuous carbonate lenses fed downslope through local channels. Judging from the distinct facies change from the storm related "tsunamites" to thinly bedded mud turbidites above, the sudden deepening may be explained by local and still rift-related tectonics along the NIM (North-Indian Gondwana Margin) which led to episodic seismic induced sediment redeposition in the area of Guryul. Synsedimentary tectonic activity with tilting and eventual Horst and Graben structure building along the large NIM is indicated by margin inversion during the P-T boundary interval leading to sedimentary breaks and 20 times thinner, condensed limestone deposits far offshore from Guryul in Spiti (Krystyn et al., 2004) and Tibet (Orchard et al., 1994). Thus, local seismic activity seems to be a far more logic explanation of the Guryul "tsunamites" than the eruption of the Siberian Traps more than 6000 km away. References Brookfield, M. E., Algeo, T. J., Hannigan, R., Williams, J and Bhat, G. M., 2013: Shaken and Stirred: Seismites and Tsunamites at the Permian-Triassic boundary, Guryul Ravine, Kashmir, India. Palaios, v. 28, 568-582. Krystyn, L., Balini, M. and Nicora, A., 2004: Lower and Middle Triassic stage boundaries in Spiti. Albertiana, v. 30, 40-53. Orchard, M.J., Nassichuk, W.W., Rui Lin, 1994: Conodonts from the lower Griesbachian Otoceras latilobatum Bed of Selong, Tibet and the position of the Permian-Triassic boundary. In: Pangea: Global Environments and Resources, Memoirs of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, vol. 17, 823-843.

Krystyn, Leopold; Horacek, Micha; Brandner, Rainer; Parcha, Suraj

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

High-resolution stable carbon isotope record of the Permian to earliest Triassic from East Greenland  

Science.gov (United States)

The Late Permian and Early Triassic organic carbon isotope records show global major excursions probably triggered by episodic volcanic degasing of the Siberian Large Igneous Province. Important and rapid fluctuations of the global carbon cycle are also reflected in the biosphere. The geological record seems to comprise several major floral and marine faunal turnovers indicating short-lived biotic recoveries. In northwest Pangea, the active Early Triassic Greenland - Norway rifting system led to the accommodation of thick sedimentary sequences. This basin has a great potential for detailed studies of regional and global biotic and climatic changes with high temporal resolution during this critical interval in Earth's history. The western part of this basin is exposed in north-eastern Greenland and is represented by a succession of deltaic sediments organized in a general regressive trend ranging throughout the Griesbachian and the onset of the Dienerian. On the eastern side of the basin the succession has been drilled off the Norwegian coast. On Hold with Hope (East Greenland, 74°N) up to ca. 800m thick sections of the ammonoid-bearing Early Triassic Wordie Creek Formation have been logged and sampled. Here we present a high-resolution organic carbon isotope record and preliminary palynofacies data of a 500m thick composite section ranging from the Permian into the earliest Triassic. The organic carbon isotope record is closely comparable to the coeval section from the Trøndelag platform in Mid-Norway. The two records show a first major negative shift (ca. -6‰) representing the unconformity between the Ravnefjeld and the Wordie Creek formations, regionally known as the lithological Permian-Triassic boundary. Higher up, a second negative shift of ca. -4‰ correlates with the carbon shift associated with the GSSP Permian-Triassic boundary as defined at Meishan (China), represented by carbon isotope values around -30‰. This negative shift is followed by a steady positive trend, which is interrupted by two striking events, (a) a positive shift reaching values of ca. -22‰, comparable to the values of the Permian Ravnefjeld Formation, and (b) another negative shift of ca. -7‰ bringing the carbon record back to values around -31‰. Our data from north-eastern Greenland indicate multiple and major events recorded by the carbon cycle within less than a million years at the onset of the Triassic.

Sanson Barrera, Anna; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Meier, Maximiliano; Schneebeli Hermann, Elke; Weissert, Helmut; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

2013-04-01

222

Paleomagnetism and Thermal History of the Permian Succession of the Velebit Mts (Dinarides, Croatia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The studied area of Velebit Mts, a part of the Adria Microplate, belonged to a NE margin of Gondwana during the Carboniferous and Permian. While Permian is characterised by clastics, post-Permian sedimentation is dominated by a thick sequence of carbonate rocks. Today, the entire sequence, representing a stratigraphic range from Carboniferous to Recent, is in places more than 10,000 m thick. The mid-Permian deposits of the core part of the Velebit Mt. at Kosna and Crne Grede localities were investigated using paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements, supported by XRD, AFT and K-Ar studies of the clastic part of the profile (Carboniferous to Triassic). Hysteresis studies revealed that magnetic susceptibility of reddish siltstones/sandstones as well as underlying conglomerates is mostly carried by the paramagnetic matrix with a significant but varying contribution of hematite and some SP/SD magnetite. AMS fabric with low anisotropy ratio (1-3%) is strongly oblate at Kosna and weakly prolate at Crne Grede, reflecting differences in the contribution of magnetic phases. Thermal enhancement of AMS results in substantial increase of susceptibility, anisotropy ratio and more oblate fabric due to growth of SP magnetite fraction,.Enhanced AMS fabric tends to mimic tectonic fabric supporting that SP/SD magnetite is younger syntectonic phase more prone to record younger remagnetization. The paleotemperatures have been estimated by clay minerals analyses of the Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic shales. K-Ar and apatite fission track analyses (AFT) provided time constraints for the maximum paleotemperature and the uplift event, respectively. The paleotemperature estimates gave a range from ca. 140 to more than 200°C. Generally, the highest paleotemperatures are recorded within the Carboniferous rocks. K-Ar measurements of multiple fractions of illite-smectite separated from Triassic bentonites gave a consistent range of the Late Cretaceous ages of the maximum paleotemperatures between 100 and 60 Ma. AFT performed on sediments of Carboniferous to Triassic age indicate complete track resetting. The preliminary AFT dating results indicates two cooling episodes around 55 and 28 Ma. Track length distribution analyses conducted on older age population suggest slow to moderate cooling rates. A significant remagnetization of the Permian rocks (proved by results of conglomerate test), probably caused by combination of elevated temperature and fluids migration, may be assigned to a burial-related processes that affected the rocks before the final uplift of the Dinarides. Characteristic remanent magnetization is apparently similar to the Permian direction for Gondwana (shallow inclination with NNW declination), expected for Velebit Mt. coordinates. Paradoxically, this orientation is observed within the almost vertically dipping beds, i.e. before a correction for the tilt. We explain this coincidence assuming syn-folding, Cretaceous-Paleogene remagnetization of the rocks at their subhorizontal position (ca. 30°S) followed by tilting, understood as a rotation of the beds along the horizontal, E-W trending axis to almost vertical, present-day position. A final geometry of the rocks under study was attained probably at the wane of the main uplift phase in Oligocene/Early Miocene. Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, grant no. N N307 475238.

Lewandowski, M.; Werner, T.; Vlahovic, I.; Srodon, J.; Anczkiewicz, A.; Velic, I.; Sidorczuk, M.

2012-12-01

223

Direct interaction between CD91 and C1q  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

C1q-mediated removal of immune complexes and apoptotic cells plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune conditions. It has been suggested that C1q mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells through a receptor complex assembled from CD91 (alpha-2- macroglobulin receptor, or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein) and calreticulin, with CD91 being the transmembrane part and calreticulin acting as the C1q-binding molecule. In the present study, we observe that C1q binds cells from a CD91 expressing monocytic cell line as well as monocytes from human blood. C1q binding to monocytes was shown to be correlated with CD91 expression and could be inhibited by the CD91 chaperone, receptor-associated protein. We also report data showing a direct interaction between CD91 and C1q. The interaction was investigated using various protein interaction assays. A direct interaction between purified C1q and CD91 was observed both by ELISA and a surface plasmon resonance assay, with either C1q or CD91 immobilized. The interaction showed characteristics of specificity because it was time-dependent, saturable and could be inhibited by known ligands of both CD91 and C1q. The results obtained show for the first time that CD91 recognizes C1q directly. On the basis of these findings, we propose that CD91 is a receptor for C1q and that this multifunctional scavenger receptor uses a subset of its ligand-binding sites for clearance of C1q and C1q bound material.

Duus, Karen; Hansen, Erik W

2010-01-01

224

Towards an efficient prover for the C1 paraconsistent logic  

CERN Document Server

The KE inference system is a tableau method developed by Marco Mondadori which was presented as an improvement, in the computational efficiency sense, over Analytic Tableaux. In the literature, there is no description of a theorem prover based on the KE method for the C1 paraconsistent logic. Paraconsistent logics have several applications, such as in robot control and medicine. These applications could benefit from the existence of such a prover. We present a sound and complete KE system for C1, an informal specification of a strategy for the C1 prover as well as problem families that can be used to evaluate provers for C1. The C1 KE system and the strategy described in this paper will be used to implement a KE based prover for C1, which will be useful for those who study and apply paraconsistent logics.

Neto, Adolfo; Finger, Marcelo; 10.1016/j.entcs.2009.11.007

2012-01-01

225

The Universal Askey-Wilson Algebra and DAHA of Type (C_1^?,C_1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Around 1992 A. Zhedanov introduced the Askey-Wilson algebra AW(3. Recently we introduced a central extension $Delta_q$ of AW(3 called the universal Askey-Wilson algebra. In this paper we discuss how $Delta_q$ is related to the universal DAHA $hat H_q$ of type$(C^vee_1, C_1$. Our main result is an algebra injection $psi: Delta_q o hat H_q$. We compute the image under $psi$ of various central elements in $Delta_q$. We describe how the Artin braid group $B_3$ acts on $Delta_q$ and $hat H_q$. We show that $psi$ commutes with these $B_3$ actions.

Paul Terwilliger

2013-07-01

226

Human genes for complement components C1r and C1s in a close tail-to-tail arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complementary DNA clones for human C1s were isolated from cDNA libraries that were prepared with poly(A)+ RNAs of human liver and HepG2 cells. A clone with the largest cDNA insert of 2,664 base pairs (bp) was analyzed for its complete nucleotide sequence. It contained 202 bp of a 5' untranslated region, 45 bp of coding for a signal peptide (15 amino acid residues), 2,019 bp for complement component C1s zymogen (673 amino acid residues), 378 bp for a 3' untranslated region, a stop codon, and 17 bp of a poly(A) tail. The amino acid sequence of C1s was 40.5% identical to that of C1r, with excellent matches of tentative disulfide bond locations conserving the overall domain structure of C1r. DNA blotting and sequencing analyses of genomic DNA and of an isolated genomic DNA clone clearly showed that the human genes for C1r and C1s are closely located in a tail-to-tail arrangement at a distance of about 9.5 kilobases. Furthermore, RNA blot analyses showed that both C1r and C1s genes are primarily expressed in liver, whereas most other tissues expressed both C1r and C1s genes at much lower levels (less than 10% of that in liver). Multiple molecular sizes of specific mRNAs were observed in the RNA blot analyses for both C1r and C1s, indicating that alternative RNA processing(s), likely an alternative polyadenylylation, might take place for both genes

227

Human genes for complement components C1r and C1s in a close tail-to-tail arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Complementary DNA clones for human C1s were isolated from cDNA libraries that were prepared with poly(A){sup +} RNAs of human liver and HepG2 cells. A clone with the largest cDNA insert of 2,664 base pairs (bp) was analyzed for its complete nucleotide sequence. It contained 202 bp of a 5' untranslated region, 45 bp of coding for a signal peptide (15 amino acid residues), 2,019 bp for complement component C1s zymogen (673 amino acid residues), 378 bp for a 3' untranslated region, a stop codon, and 17 bp of a poly(A) tail. The amino acid sequence of C1s was 40.5% identical to that of C1r, with excellent matches of tentative disulfide bond locations conserving the overall domain structure of C1r. DNA blotting and sequencing analyses of genomic DNA and of an isolated genomic DNA clone clearly showed that the human genes for C1r and C1s are closely located in a tail-to-tail arrangement at a distance of about 9.5 kilobases. Furthermore, RNA blot analyses showed that both C1r and C1s genes are primarily expressed in liver, whereas most other tissues expressed both C1r and C1s genes at much lower levels (less than 10% of that in liver). Multiple molecular sizes of specific mRNAs were observed in the RNA blot analyses for both C1r and C1s, indicating that alternative RNA processing(s), likely an alternative polyadenylylation, might take place for both genes.

Kusumoto, H.; Hirosawa, S.; Salier, J.P.; Hagen, F.S.; Kurachi, K. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor (USA))

1988-10-01

228

Clean Coal Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research explains clean coal technologies, including coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, and carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation explores the benefits and processes of clean coal technologies (gasification, coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, carbon capture & sequestration and integrated gasification combined cycle).

2011-03-16

229

Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as sporinite and cutinite with an oil generation potential typical of type II kerogen contribute to the source rock potential of the Um Irna Formation which is equivalent to the Khuff Formation in the oil provinces of Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (thermal maturity of dispersed OM ranges between 0.48 and 0.55% R{sub r} giving rise to the mature stage of oil generation). Additionally, Botryococcus-type algae point towards the presence of type I kerogen. Moreover the presence of solid bitumen and oil droplets (petroleum fluid expulsions) in the sediments of the Um Irna Formation indicates formation of hydrocarbons. Organic chemistry not only supported the coal petrographic findings but also indicated inhospitable aquatic conditions near the P/Tr boundary evidenced by PAHs present in the sample and by lots of charcoal. The tropical areas were affected by vast wildfires raging in the forest and swamps during the late Permian. They contributed to a highly toxic atmosphere, a decrease of the oxygen contents speeded up by dead OM spilled into the water and creating anoxia approaching the P/Tr boundary. The elevated geothermal gradient sparking hydrothermal alteration in the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation during the Late Permian may be accounted for as related to a precursor stage of the Dead Sea Rift, which is still active today in terms of migration of hot brines and hydrocarbons. (author)

Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

2010-01-07

230

C1-extension and C1-reflection of subharmonic functions from Lyapunov-Dini domains into RN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If D is a Lyapunov-Dini domain in RN, N element of {2,3,...}, the possibility of C1-extension and C1-reflection of subharmonic functions in D lying in the class C1(D-bar) across the boundary of D to the whole of RN is investigated. In particular, it is shown that extensions and reflections of this kind are always possible for an arbitrary Lyapunov domain with connected complement. Bibliography: 14 titles.

231

Inorganic Constituents in Coal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

Ra?enovi? A.

2006-01-01

232

Permian geodynamic setting of Northeast China and adjacent regions: closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate  

Science.gov (United States)

Northeast China and adjacent regions are located in the central East Asian continent and consist tectonically of both the Paleo-Asian and Paleo-Pacific orogens between the Siberian platform and Sino-Korean (North China) block. This paper discusses some hotly-debated issues concerning the Permian geodynamic setting of these regions, based on a comprehensive analysis of available geological, geochemical, paleobiogeographical and paleomagnetic data. Spatial and temporal distribution of ophiolites and associated continental marginal sequences, Permian sedimentary sequences, spatial distribution and geochemistry of Permian magmatic rocks, and the evolution of paleobiogeographical realms imply: (1) that the Permian marine basins in northeast China and adjacent regions include remnants of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in southeastern Inner Mongolia and central Jilin Province, and active continental margins of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean; (2) that the suture between the Siberian and Sino-Korean paleoplates was finally emplaced in the Permian and is located in areas from Suolunshan (Solonker) eastwards through regions north to the Xar Moron river in southeastern Inner Mongolia, and then central Jilin province to the Yanji area; and (3) that the Permian crustal evolution of northeast China and adjacent regions, as well as parts of the Siberian paleoplate, was influenced by subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate. Finally, the Permian tectonic framework and paleogeography of northeast China and adjacent regions in central East Asia are discussed briefly, and Early and Late Permian palinspastic reconstruction maps are provided.

Li, J.-Y.

2006-03-01

233

Coal data: A reference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

1995-02-01

234

The Representation of Isometric Operators on C(1)(X)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper,we introduce a new norm on C(1)(X), which is induced by a hexagon on R2, and prove that every isometric operator on C(1)(X) can be induced by a homeomorphism of X, where X is a connected subset of R.

235

The Representation of Isometric Operators on C (1)( X)  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper,we introduce a new norm on C (1)( X), which is induced by a hexagon on R 2, and prove that every isometric operator on C (1)( X) can be induced by a homeomorphism of X, where X is a connected subset of R.

Li, Jingke

2010-12-01

236

Hawking's singularity theorem for $C^{1,1}$-metrics  

CERN Document Server

We provide a detailed proof of Hawking's singularity theorem in the regularity class $C^{1,1}$, i.e., for spacetime metrics possessing locally Lipschitz continuous first derivatives. The proof uses recent results in $C^{1,1}$-causality theory and is based on regularisation techniques adapted to the causal structure.

Kunzinger, Michael; Stojkovic, Milena; Vickers, James A

2014-01-01

237

C1q nephropathy presenting as rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1q nephropathy is an immune complex glomerulonephritis defined by the presence of mesangial immunoglobulins and complement deposits, most notably C1q, and the absence of clinical and laboratory evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus. Histology in C1q nephropathy is characterized by a slight to severe increase in mesangial cellularity and matrix, with or without segmental sclerosis. C1q nephropathy usually presents with nephrotic-range proteinuria in older children and young adults, and has a poor response to steroids. Patients may have decreased creatinine clearance at presentation, but progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is slow. Severe crescentic glomerulonephritis has not been reported in C1q nephropathy. We describe a 3-year-old Hispanic girl who presented with renal insufficiency. Kidney biopsy showed C1q nephropathy with severe crescentic glomerulonephritis. The clinical and serological evaluation ruled out systemic lupus erythematosus or other immunological or infectious etiologies. In spite of immunosuppressive therapy, she progressed to ESRD within 14 weeks and is currently on chronic peritoneal dialysis. The atypical features of C1q nephropathy observed in our patient, which have not been described in earlier reports, are an early age of onset, severe crescentic glomerulonephritis, and rapid progression to ESRD. C1q nephropathy should be added to the differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis in young children and in the patient with crescentic glomerulonephritis. PMID:10975310

Srivastava, T; Chadha, V; Taboada, E M; Alon, U S

2000-09-01

238

17 CFR 240.15c1-1 - Definitions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Definitions. 240.15c1-1...Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-1 Definitions. As used in any...effected by a bookkeeping entry, the time when such bookkeeping entry is made by the...

2010-04-01

239

Isotopic evidence for an anomalously low oceanic sulfate concentration following end-Permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The cataclysmic end-Permian mass extinction was immediately followed by a global expansion of microbial ecosystems, as demonstrated by widespread microbialite sequences (disaster facies) in shallow water settings. Here we present high-resolution carbonate carbon ( ?13C carb) and carbonate-associated sulfate-sulfur isotope ( ?34S CAS) records from the microbialite in the Cili Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) section in South China. A stepwise decline in ?13C carb begins in the underlying skeletal limestone, predating the main oceanic mass extinction and the first appearance of microbialite, and reaches its nadir in the upper part of the microbialite layer. The corresponding ?34S CAS, in the range of 17.4‰ to 27.4‰, is relatively stable in the underlying skeletal limestone, and increases gradually from 2 m below the microbialite rising to a peak at the base of the microbialite. Two episodes of positive and negative shifts occurred within the microbialite layer, and exhibit a remarkable co-variance of sulfur and carbon isotope composition. The large amplitude of the variation in ?34S CAS, as high as 7‰ per 100 kiloyears, suggests a small oceanic sulfate reservoir size at this time. Furthermore, the ?13C carb and ?34S CAS records co-vary without phase lag throughout the microbialite interval, implying a marine-driven C cycle in an anoxic ocean with anomalously low oceanic sulfate concentrations. On the basis of a non-steady-state box model, we argue that the oceanic sulfate concentration may have fallen to less than 15%, perhaps as low as 3%, of that in the modern oceans. Low oceanic sulfate concentration likely was the consequence of evaporite deposition and widespread anoxic/sulfidic conditions prior to the main mass extinction. By promoting methanogenesis and a build-up of atmospheric CH 4 and CO 2, low oceanic sulfate may have intensified global warming, exacerbating the inimical environmental conditions of the latest Permian.

Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.; Wang, Yongbiao; Tong, Jinnan; Arthur, Michael A.; Yang, Hao; Huang, Junhua; Yin, Hongfu; Xie, Shucheng

2010-11-01

240

Permian collisional termination of the accretionary Central Asian orogenic belt, Inner Mongolia, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The East-West Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) extends across the China-Mongolia border into Inner Mongolia where the Solonker suture records the termination of the orogenic belt. The structure and development of the Solonker suture and its associated rocks are poorly understood. We report new field and structural data for the suture, and for the wider suture zone extending from the southern Mongolia cratonic boundary to the North China craton, and place them in the context of a tectonic evolution from the Late Precambrian to the Early Triassic. Our section is constrained by a seismic profile. The southern accretionary zone between the North China Craton and the Solonker suture is characterized by the Mid-Ordovician-Early Silurian Ulan island arc-Ondor Sum subduction-accretion complex and the Bainaimiao arc. This zone was consolidated by the Carboniferous-Permian when it evolved into an Andean-type magmatic margin above a south-dipping subduction zone. The northern accretionary zone between the Solonker suture and the growing Mongolian cratonic boundary extends southwards from a Devonian to Carboniferous active continental margin, through the Hegenshan ophiolite-arc accretionary complex to the Late Carboniferous Baolidao arc associated with some accreted Precambrian blocks. This northern zone had consolidated by the Permian when it developed into an Andean-type magmatic margin above a north-dipping subduction zone. Final subduction of the Central Asian Ocean caused the two opposing active continental margins to collide, leading to formation of the Solonker suture in the end-Permian. Predominant northward subduction during final formation of the suture gave rise in the upper northern plate to a large-scale, post-collisional, south-directed thrust-and-fold belt in the Triassic-Jurassic. In summary, the CAOB underwent three final stages of tectonic development: early Japanese-type accretion, Andean-type magmatism, and Himalayan-type collision.

Windley, B.; Xiao, W.

2003-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Blastoid Body Size - Changes from the Carboniferous to the End-Permian  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate, known for affecting biodiversity within genera of animal species, is often addressed as a major variable of geological systems. The Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous was noted for its lush, tropical climate that sustained a variety of biological life. In contrast, the Permian era was marked primarily by an ice age that had started earlier during the Pennsylvanian. The blastoids, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, were in existence from the Silurian (443.4 Ma) to the end of the Permian (252.28 Ma). This study focused on whether climate affected blastoid theca size over the span of those one hundred million years between the Mississippian and the Permian or if was simply a negligible factor. We analyzed size data from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology and correlated it to both Cope's Rule, which states that size increases with geologic time, and Bergmann's Rule, which states that latitude and temperature are catalysts for size change. CO2 levels from known records served as a proxy for global temperature. Our results indicated that the blastoids increased in size by 59% over geologic time. The size of the blastoids increased over geologic time, following Cope's Rule. According to our graphs in R, there was an inverse relationship between volume and climate. Size decreased as temperature increased, which follows Bergmann's Rule. However, we also wanted to observe spatial factors regarding Bergmann's Rule such as paleolatitude and paleolongitude. This info was taken from the Paleobiology Database and showed that a majority of the blastoids were found near the equator, which, according to the other part of Bergmann's Rule, suggests that they would therefore increase in size. Further tests implied strong correlations between temperature, volume, and paleolocation. We ultimately believe that although Cope's Rule is in effect, Bergmann's mechanisms for size may not apply to the blastoids due to the environments that the blastoids lived in or their anatomical compositions.

Nguyen, L.; Tolosa, R.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

2013-12-01

242

Are C1 chondrites chemically fractionated - A trace element study  

Science.gov (United States)

Six C1 chondrite samples and a C2 xenolith from the Plainview H5 chondrite were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for a large variety of elements, including rare earths. The sample processing is described, including the irradiation, chemical procedure, rare earths separation, counting techniques, radiochemical purity check, and chemical yields. The results of consistency checks on a number of elements are discussed. Abundances for siderophiles, volatiles, and rare earths are presented and discussed. Tests are presented for fractionation of rare earths and other refractories, compositional uniformity of C1's, and interelement correlations. There is no conclusive evidence for nebular fractionation affecting C1's. Three fractionation-prone rare earths have essentially the same relative abundances in C1's and all other chondrite classes, and hence are apparently not fractionated in C1's.

Ebihara, M.; Wolf, R.; Anders, E.

1982-01-01

243

The uranium deposits of the Bourbon-l'Archambault Permian basin (northern Massif Central, France)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1970 and 1988 significant economic uranium concentrations were discovered by CEA-COGEMA in the Bourbon-l'Archambault Permian continental basin in the northern part of the Massif Central between Moulins and Montlucon. The recent formation of some of these stratabound mineralisations in the form of vertical or slightly dipping oxidation-reduction fronts (rollfront type) in upper Autunian redbeds is particularly unusual. The geometry of the orebodies, their present depth and by their structural localisation directly beneath the Triassic unconformity are characteristic. In the same region, north of Montlucon, towards Vallon-en-Sully (in the valley of the Cher), similar deposits have been discovered in older Stephanian strata

244

Geotectonic implications of Permian and Triassic carbonate successions in the Central Plain of Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Two carbonate successions constituting Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement rocks distributed in the Nakhon Sawan-Uthai Thani area in the Chao Phraya Central Plain of Thailand were investigated to understand basic geotectonic subdivision of the area. Of them, we newly proposed the term Khao Pathawi Limestone for a Triassic succession exposed in eastern Uthai Thani Province, from which a rich foraminiferal fauna consisting of Aulotortus sinuosus, A. friedli, Tetrataxis inflata, Diplotermina subangulata, Agathammina austroalpina, Ammobaculites rhaeticus, Alpinophragmium perforatum, Gaudryina triadica, and others was discriminated. They clearly suggest a Late Triassic age and highly probably Norian/Rhaetian. This limestone succession is considered to have formed a carbonate platform and is comparable to those on the Triassic Lampang-Phrae Basin in the Sukhothai Zone of Northern Thailand. In contrast, the Uthai Thani Limestone exposed just west of the Khao Pathawi Limestone, in the form of NNW-SSE trending monadnocks, represents a slightly metamorphosed, thick-bedded Permian succession. Its outcrop alignment is distinct from the north-south trending Khao Pathawi Limestone, suggesting their structural separation. The Uthai Thani Limestone is correlated to the Sai Yok Formation and the Ratburi Limestone, both of which are well-known as typical Permian successions on the Sibumasu Block. By integrating these data from the carbonates, together with available geological information from other Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement units in the Central Plain, such as petrochemical properties of granitoids and volcanic/volcaniclastic rocks and litho- and chronostratigraphic characteristics of sedimentary successions, including the Permian Khao Gob Chert, we explain that the central part of the Nakhon Sawan-Uthai Thani area where the Khao Pathawi Limestone and the Khao Gob Chert are distributed, corresponds geotectonically to the direct southern extension of the Sukhothai Zone of Northern Thailand. Thus, as is the case of Northern Thailand, we recognized three geotectonic domains also in the Central Plain; they are the Indochina Block (part of Cathaysialand), Sukhothai Zone (Permian-Triassic island arc system), and Sibumasu Block (part of Gondwanaland) from east to west. To the south, the Sukhothai Zone probably extends to the Klaeng Zone of Southeast Thailand. In this paper, Endotriada martiniae Ueno, Miyahigashi and Charoentitirat, n. sp. from the Khao Pathawi Limestone is also described.

Ueno, Katsumi; Miyahigashi, Akira; Kamata, Yoshihito; Kato, Miyako; Charoentitirat, Thasinee; Limruk, Seranee

2012-11-01

245

Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.

Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

2014-10-01

246

Palynology and stratigraphy preliminary study and the perforation 313/1, lower Permian. Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The palynomorphs in the bore 313/1 of the Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia are analyzed. Twenty three samples were processed, and only 9 were fertile. The lithologies correspond to sandstones of variable grain size, to mudstone and to diamictite, all of them assigned to the San Gregorio and Tres Islas Fms. The most abundant genera of sporare are essentially represented by monosaccate grains. Bisaccate and striated grains are very scare. The palynoflora is comparable with those studied in Brazil in the Fm Rio Bonito. Therefore, it is proposed that the sediments studied were deposited in the early Permian. (author)

247

Paleomagnetism of Lower Permian Abo and Yeso Formation, Carizzo Arroyo, Lucero Uplift, New Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

We report paleomagnetic data from Lower Permian hematite-cemented sandstones and siltstones from Carrizo Arroyo, on the eastern edge of the Lucero uplift along the west-side of the middle Rio Grande rift, to test the hypothesis that the rift margins have accommodated extensional strain via vertical axis rotation. In addition, we present a revised interpretation of the structural setting and deformation history of the area, were late-Tertiary transtensional stresses have produced the majority of the structures in the area. The paleomagnetic data are discussed in the context of this hypothesis. In the Rio Grande rift area, a mid-Cenozoic and younger extensional feature defining the eastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, relatively little work has been done to assess the magnitude and sense of vertical axis rotations of fault-bounded crustal blocks within and at the margins of the plateau. A growing body of evidence shows that the Colorado Plateau has experienced some degree of vertical axis rotation and some magnitude of northward translation, although the magnitudes of the rotation and translation have been subject to considerable debate. Eight to ten oriented samples from 50 sites have been fully demagnetized with all sites yielding interpretable results: 41 sites from three sections in the Lower Permian Abo Formation, and 9 sites in the Meseta Blanca Member of the overlying Yeso Formation. In most cases, progressive thermal demagnetization resulted in a nearly univectorial decay of the magnetization to the origin that is well grouped at the site level. After correcting for modest dip of strata, the 50 sites in Carrizo Arroyo yield an estimate group mean (D = 162.1°, I = -4.1°, ?95 = 6.8°, k = 10.18). Overall, the data from this part of the west side of the rift are discordant, in a clockwise since, with Early Permian (about D = 140°, I = -2.0°) and mid-Permian (about D = 145°, I = -4.0°) expected directions. We interpret the paleomagnetic data from Carrizo Arroyo to be consistent with modest clockwise vertical axis rotation of these sections since the latest Paleozoic, arguably during Laramide deformation and subsequent Rio Grande extension. We hypothesize that a component of tectonic rotation has accommodated extensional strain along the margins of the Rio Grande rift since inception. The observed rotation could be the result of oblique-slip displacement of the hanging wall block; in this case, the observed rotation is apparent. Alternatively, the rotation is a true block rotation where the block is decoupled from the underlying strata along a detachment surface. Additional field mapping will help to distinguish between these two possible models.

Petronis, M. S.; Geissman, J. W.

2002-12-01

248

Detection of C1q-bearing immune complexes by a monoclonal anti-C1q ELISA system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A monoclonal antibody directed against the collagenous portion of human C1q was used to detect C1q-bearing immune complexes in patients with rheumatic disorders. Sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), osteoarthritis, as well as normal human sera (NHS) used as controls were tested in an ELISA system. C1q-bearing immune complexes were bound to a solid-phase monoclonal anti-C1q antibody, and detected with F(ab')2 antibodies to human IgG. Heat-aggregated human IgG was adjusted to the same concentration as the WHO standard for immune complexes and used for the standard curve in NHS. The mean value in NHS was 19.5 micrograms/ml equivalents of aggregated IgG. Using 2 SD over the mean as the upper limit for normal values, samples greater than 43 micrograms/ml were considered positive. Patients with osteoarthritis were negative; high levels of C1q-bearing immune complexes were detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (up to 800 micrograms/ml equivalents of aggregated IgG). With our assay C1q-bearing immune complexes were detected with high frequency (81%) in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, while a C1q solid-phase binding assay (C1q SPBA) revealed positive results only in 67% of rheumatoid arthritis sera. Compared to NHS, CH50 titers and C1q values of sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis were frequently high. In contrast, the sera of SLE patients with low CH50 titers and low C1q levels had IgG immune complexes which could be detected only in the C1q-SPBA. C1q-bearing immune complexes were not detectable in the sera of patients with SLE. Since C1q triggers activation of the classical C pathway, this assay with monoclonal anti-C1q antibody appears to be useful for detecting immune complexes in rheumatoid arthritis patients with normal or elevated CH50 and C1q values, especially in the early stage of the disease. PMID:2443573

Antes, U; Heinz, H P; Loos, M

1987-09-24

249

Classical complement pathway components C1r and C1s: purification from human serum and in recombinant form and functional characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1r and C1s are the proteases responsible for the activation and proteolytic activity of the C1 complex of the classical complement pathway, respectively. They are assembled into a Ca(2+)-dependent C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer which in turn associates with the recognition protein C1q. The C1 complex circulates in serum as a zymogen and is activated upon binding of C1q to appropriate targets, such as antigen-antibody complexes. This property is used for the purification of C1r and C1s from human serum after binding of C1 to insoluble immune complexes. Disruption of the bound C1 complex by EDTA releases C1r and C1s which are further separated by ion-exchange chromatography; both proteins can be reassembled in the presence of calcium ions and the reconstituted tetramer isolated by gel filtration. In this chapter, we describe the purification of the activated and proenzyme forms of C1r and C1s and of the proenzyme C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production of recombinant C1s and of the proenzyme tetramer in a baculovirus-insect cell system, and their purification by affinity chromatography is also presented. PMID:24218249

Rossi, Véronique; Bally, Isabelle; Lacroix, Monique; Arlaud, Gérard J; Thielens, Nicole M

2014-01-01

250

The origin and early evolution of Sauria: reassessing the permian Saurian fossil record and the timing of the crocodile-lizard divergence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sauria is the crown-group of Diapsida and is subdivided into Lepidosauromorpha and Archosauromorpha, comprising a high percentage of the diversity of living and fossil tetrapods. The split between lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs (the crocodile-lizard, or bird-lizard, divergence) is considered one of the key calibration points for molecular analyses of tetrapod phylogeny. Saurians have a very rich Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil record, but their late Paleozoic (Permian) record is problematic. Several Permian specimens have been referred to Sauria, but the phylogenetic affinity of some of these records remains questionable. We reexamine and review all of these specimens here, providing new data on early saurian evolution including osteohistology, and present a new morphological phylogenetic dataset. We support previous studies that find that no valid Permian record for Lepidosauromorpha, and we also reject some of the previous referrals of Permian specimens to Archosauromorpha. The most informative Permian archosauromorph is Protorosaurus speneri from the middle Late Permian of Western Europe. A historically problematic specimen from the Late Permian of Tanzania is redescribed and reidentified as a new genus and species of basal archosauromorph: Aenigmastropheus parringtoni. The supposed protorosaur Eorasaurus olsoni from the Late Permian of Russia is recovered among Archosauriformes and may be the oldest known member of the group but the phylogenetic support for this position is low. The assignment of Archosaurus rossicus from the latest Permian of Russia to the archosauromorph clade Proterosuchidae is supported. Our revision suggests a minimum fossil calibration date for the crocodile-lizard split of 254.7 Ma. The occurrences of basal archosauromorphs in the northern (30°N) and southern (55°S) parts of Pangea imply a wider paleobiogeographic distribution for the group during the Late Permian than previously appreciated. Early archosauromorph growth strategies appear to be more diverse than previously suggested based on new data on the osteohistology of Aenigmastropheus. PMID:24586565

Ezcurra, Martín D; Scheyer, Torsten M; Butler, Richard J

2014-01-01

251

Implications from zircon-saturation temperatures and lithological assemblages for Early Permian thermal anomaly in northwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite considerable efforts, the Paleozoic tectonic setting (subduction vs. post-collision vs. mantle plume) in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) remains controversial. With aims of solving this issue, we examined zircon saturation temperatures of granitoids emplaced in different settings, and demonstrated that zircon saturation thermometry of felsic igneous rocks, especially when integrated with their lithology and geochemistry, can be a simple and powerful tool for tectonic discrimination. This method is then applied in northern Xinjiang where the Early Permian granitoids have higher saturation temperatures (> 800 °C) than the Silurian-Carboniferous granitoids (mainly Silurian-Carboniferous to an intra-plate setting since Early Permian.

Liu, Hai-Quan; Xu, Yi-Gang; He, Bin

2013-12-01

252

The investigation of chemical structure of coal macerals via transmitted-light FT-IR microscopy by X. Sun  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent paper by Sun [X. Sun, Spectrochim. Acta A 62 (1-3) (2005) 557] attempts to characterize a variety of liptinite, termed "barkinite", from Chinese Permian coals. The component identified does not appear to fundamentally differ from previously-described liptinite macerals included in the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology's system of maceral nomenclature. Further, chemical comparisons made with macerals from coals of different rank and age are flawed because the author did not account for changes in chemistry with rank or for the chemical changes associated with botanical changes through geologic time. The author has not satisfactorily proved his hypothesis that the component differs morphologically or chemically from known liptinite-group macerals. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J.C.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Mastalerz, M.; Cook, A.C.

2007-01-01

253

Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

Baxter, L.L.

1995-07-01

254

Hydrodesulfurization of chlorinized coal  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of desulfurization is described in which high sulfur coals are desulfurized by low temperature chlorinolysis of coal in liquid media, preferably water, followed by hydrodesulfurization at a temperature above 500 C. The coals are desulfurized to an extent of up to 90% by weight and simultaneously dechlorinated to a chlorine content below 0.1% by weight. The product coals have lower volatiles loss, lower oxygen and nitrogen content and higher fixed carbon than raw coals treated with hydrogen under the same conditions. Heating the chlorinated coal to a temperature above 500 C. in inert gas such as nitrogen results in significantly less desulfurization.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K. (inventors)

1983-01-01

255

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08

256

Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west.

1992-07-20

257

Research on genesis of pyrite near the Permian-Triassic boundary in meishan, Zhejiang, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The content and crystal forms of pyrite and sulfur isotope composition of pyrite sulfur as well as its vertical distribution near the Permian-Triassic (P/T) boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing county, Zhejiang province, China were studied using geological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical methods (techniques). The result showed that the genesis of abundant pyrites in bed 24e2 at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation in the Meishan section may be related to volcanic activity. In bed 24e2 of the Meishan section, pyrite has its highest content of 1.84% and the sulfur isotope composition has the highest ??34S value at + 2.2??? which is very similar to that of the average value of volcanic gas. There are some volcanic products such as ??-quartz, siliceous cylinders and siliceous spherules which coexisted with pyrites in beds 24e2 and 24f. It can be concluded that a large quantity of volcanic ash fell into the South China Sea and was incorporated into marine sediments during the formation of limestone at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation. The volcanic eruption with massive amounts of H2S and S02 gas at the end of the Permian period resulted in the enrichment of H2S in the South China Sea areas. The reaction of H2S with reactive iron minerals formed the mass of abundant pyrites.

Jiang, Y. -F.; Tang, Y. -G.; Chou, C. -L.

2006-01-01

258

Uranium potential in outcropping Permian basins in France and their extensions beneath mesozoic and tertiary cover  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About a third of metropolitan France's uranium production is from Permian deposits located in the Lodeve and, to a lesser extent, Bourbon-l'Archambault basins. Of the Autun, west Vanoise, St-Affrique, Rodez, Brive and Var basins investigated in this study, only those of Rodez and Var have been shown to contain significant deposits. Some of the basins contain potentially interesting targets, often removed from the areas of known mineral occurrences, that have never been investigated. Geophysical exploration and drilling have shown that the Permian extends over a vast area beneath the cover of the large Mesozoic and Tertiary basins. However zones within reach of mineral exploration, ie. those less than 500 m deep, are only found in a few areas. To reach the distant targets down-dip in the outcropping basins or beneath the Mesozoic and Tertiary cover, a detailed study of the basin must be undertaken beforehand. To define and locate targets that are obviously more costly to investigate, direct methods of investigation need to be used such as drilling and geochemistry, and indirect methods such as remote sensing, geophysics and well-logging

259

Pelletization of fine coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

Sastry, K.V.S.

1991-09-01

260

Coal Combustion Science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Selected problems of coal workability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sheds light on measurements of black coal cuttability. Explains relations between basic cutting parameters like cutting forces and cutting depth or width. Working coal by milling or coal plows is considered. Dependence of cutting forces on cutter width and cutting depth is discussed. Coal cuttability indices are discussed. Dependence of coal cuttability indices on cutting depth is considered. Classification of black coal as brittle or tough and of coal deposits with respect to coal workability is pointed out. 8 refs.

Chodura, J. (Politechnika Slaska (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa)

1992-12-01

262

Rapid demise and recovery of plant ecosystems across the end-Permian extinction event  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian extinction event was the most pronounced biotic and ecological crisis in the history of the Earth. It is assumed that over 80% of marine genera disappeared, and that this event had a major impact on the evolution of marine organisms. The impact of this event on terrestrial biota is poorly known and a matter of controversial discussions. In contrast to the fundamental changes in marine fauna most major groups of plants range from the Late Palaeozoic into the Mesozoic. Consequently the impact of the end-Permian extinction event on the evolution of plants was often regarded as minor. However, major changes in the composition of the plant communities have been documented and a number of catastrophic scenarios have been envisioned — including the almost total destruction of plant ecosystems. Based on expanded sections from the Southern Barents Sea (Northern Norway) we trace mid-latitudinal terrestrial ecosystems across the Permo-Triassic transition with a time resolution in the order of 10 kyr, based on a high resolution C org-isotope stratigraphy. Our results show that the floral turnovers are linked with major changes in the C-isotope record and hence with global carbon cycling. The palynological records document the successive steps in the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems. After gradual changes during the latest Permian, plant ecosystems suffered from a major environmental perturbation leading to a rapid turnover from gymnosperm dominated ecosystems to assemblages dominated by lycopods. The dominance of the lycopods, expressed in a spore-spike, represents a relatively short-lived event in the order of 10 kyr. This perturbation of the terrestrial ecosystems preceded the globally recognized negative ? 13C org isotope spike by up to 100 kyr. It coincides with a first end-Permian negative shift of the C-isotope curve and was probably induced by a first major perturbation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, related to the onset of the volcanic activity of the Siberian Traps. Gymnosperms recovered prior to the major isotopic shift. The fast recovery of terrestrial ecosystem explains why all major plant groups survived the end-Permian extinction event while the majority of marine organisms were wiped out. The concordance of pattern of the ? 13C org in globally distributed marine and terrestrial sequences enables us to link turnovers in the terrestrial environment with marine extinction events. It demonstrates that the demise and the onset of the recovery of the terrestrial ecosystems was a global phenomenon and occurred prior to the major isotopic shift. The successive negative shifts in ? 13C org isotope values are thought to reflect CO 2 input into the atmosphere by multiphase volcanic activity (Siberian Traps) or other consecutive events (e.g. methane release).

Hochuli, Peter A.; Hermann, Elke; Vigran, Jorunn Os; Bucher, Hugo; Weissert, Helmut

2010-12-01

263

Permian-Triassic palynostratigraphy in Mailaram area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynological investigations of five borecores, viz., GAM-3, GAM-6, GAM-7, GAM-8 and GAM-10 from Mailaram area have suggested the occurrence of complete Lower Gondwana succession in Mailaram area. Total nine palynozones have been identified on the basis of dominance, sub-dominance and appearance of various palynotaxa. These palynozones belong to Talchir, Upper Karharbari and Barakar (Early Permian), Raniganj (Late Permian) and Panchet (Early Triassic) palynofloras of Indian Gondwana. The oldest Palynozone-1 demonstrated in borecore GAM-6 (331.4-500 m) and borecore GAM-10 (505.66-581.55 m), is characterized by the dominance of Parasaccites and sub-dominance of Plicatipollenites belongs to Talchir Palynoflora; Palynozone-2 identified in borecore GAM-7 (667-749 m) and borecore GAM-8 (89.75 m) is characterized by the dominance of Parasaccites and sub-dominance of Scheuringipollenites which belongs to Upper Karharbari Palynoflora. Palynozone-3, identified in borecore GAM-6 (149.7-240.05 m) and borecore GAM-8 (84.95 m), is characterized by the dominance of Scheuringipollenites akin to Scheuringipollenites zone of Barakar palynoflora; Palynozone-4, recorded in borecores GAM-3 (294-437.98 m), GAM-7 (453-640.5 m) and GAM-8 (35.35 m) is characterized by the dominance of Faunipollenites and sub-dominance of Striatopodocarpites along with certain stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Weylandites, Guttulapollenites, Corisaccites, Aurangapollenites and Osmundacidites. Palynozone-5, demarcated in borecore GAM-3 (144.86-221.3 m) and borecore GAM-10 (35.35 m), is distinguished by the dominance of striate disaccates along with at least 30% pollen assigned to Striasulcites; Palynozone-6, identified in borecore GAM-3 (35.1-73.08 m) and borecore GAM-7 (231-423 m), is characterized by the dominance of striate disaccates along with 20-30% of Densipollenites; Palynozone-7, recorded in borecore GAM-7 (206 m), is distinguished by the dominance of Crescentipollenites along with striate disaccates; Palynozone-8, identified in borecore GAM-7 (178.4 m), is characterized by the distinguished presence of taeniate pollen Guttulapollenites. Palynozones 4-8 belong to Raniganj Palynoflora. Palynozone-9, identified in borecore GAM-7 (166 m), is discriminated by the dominance of trilete spore Verrucosisporites and sub-dominance of taeniate pollen Lunatisporites which belongs to Triassic palynoflora. On the basis of palynological data Palynozone-1 (= Talchir palynoflora), Palynozone-2 and Palynozone-3 have been assigned to Early Permian age; Palynozones 4-8 (= Raniganj palynoflora) have been assigned to Late Permian age and Palynozone-9 (= Triassic palynoflora) has been assigned to Early Triassic age. With the aim of correlating the Permian and Triassic sediments of Mailaram area palynological investigations of five borecores were carried out.

Jha, Neerja; Aggarwal, Neha

2012-10-01

264

International perspectives on coal preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

NONE

1997-12-31

265

Two-matrix models and c =1 string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the most general two-matrix model with bilinear coupling underlies c = 1 string theory. More precisely we prove that W1+? constraints, a subset of the correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy characterizing such two-matrix model, correspond exactly to the W1+? constraints, to the discrete tachyon correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy of the c = 1 string theory. (orig.)

266

Coal Production 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29

267

Coal Mine Workers' Compensation  

Science.gov (United States)

... About DOL | Contact Us | Español Office of Workers' Compensation Programs DOL Home > OWCP > DCMWC > DCMWC TOC Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation (DCMWC) Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Home ...

268

Fluidized coal combustion  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

1979-01-01

269

Amphibian and Paleoisciforms from the Lower Part of the Taquaral Member of the Permian Irati Formation, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the east-central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, good exposures of Permo-Carboniferous sequences of theParaná intracratonic basin are found. These sequences start with the Tubarão Supergroup deposits, the PermocarboniferousItararé Group, and the earliest Permian Guatá Group, of which the Tatuí Formation is the only unit occurring in the Stateof São Paulo. The Permian Passa Dois Group overlies the Tubarão Supergroup, with the Early Permian Irati Formation andthe Middle Permian Corumbataí Formation. Two members are recognized in the Irati Formation, Taquaral and Assistência.Most beds of the Taquaral Member are gray laminated siltic-argillaceous, but sandstone beds are present in lower outcropsof this member. One of these sandstones, 9.5 cm thick unconformably overlying sedimentos of the Tatuí Formation, exhibitsdiversifi ed vertebrate remains. The present paper deals with a Palaeonisciformes mandible fragment, one amphibianTemnospondyli tooth, and one Temnospondyli mandible fragment. These fossils are associated to Chondrichthyes andOsteichthyes. It is an open question whether the Parnaíba Basin Palaeonisciformes Brasilichthys macrognathus and theTemnospondyli Prionosuchus plummery belong to the same taxa of the Paraná Basin fossils. Only better preserved fossilsmight solve this question.

Artur Chahud

2010-03-01

270

Progress on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata in Rio Grande do Sul State, Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of published papers and results of analysis of new material have allowed improvements on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata of the Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul State. Based on first and last occurrences of certain species of pollen taxa, two palynozones are formalized, these are the Vittatina costabilis and Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zones, in ascending order. The Vittatina costabilis Interval Zone is subdivided into two units, in ascending order the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis and the Hamiapollenites karrooensis Subzones, and is recognized from the glacial (Itararé Group and post-glacial sequence (Rio Bonito Formation and the base of the Palermo Formation. The Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zone occurs from the uppermost Rio Bonito Formation, through the Palermo and Irati formations, and into the Serra Alta and Teresina formations. The main characteristics and reference sections are established, as well as additional criteria to recognize biostratigraphical units, in accordance with the International Stratigraphic Guide. Palynostratigraphical correlation suggests that the Vittatina costabilis Zone concerns the Early Permian (early Cisuralian, while the Lueckisporites virkkiae is regarded as late Early Permian to early Middle Permian (late Cisularian to early Guadalupian.

Souza Paulo A.

2005-01-01

271

Middle Permian plume-related volcanism of the Hawasina Nappes (Oman) and the Neo-Tethys opening  

Science.gov (United States)

According to palinspastic reconstructions, the Neo-Tethys opening took place during the Permian between the Cimmerian fragments in the north and the Indian-Arabian margin in the south. Igneous remnants of this opening are found nowdays in Oman where they belong mostly to the Hawasina nappes and consist of pillowed mafic flows interbedded with Middle Permian sediments. Three groups of rocks have been distinguished among the Middle Permian rocks from Oman which were emplaced either on the Arabian submerged platform or the neighbouring Hawasina basin. Group 1 is tholeiitic and characterized by low TiO_2 (Hawasina Nappes. Group 3 trace element chemistry is similar to that of Group 2. Thus, whatever the geological setting of the Oman Permian lavas, they belong to tholeiitic and alkalic magmas but differ by their Nd isotopic composition. A majority of the magmas emplaced in the Hawasina basin are characterized by ?Nd that fall within the range of OIB. In contrast, most of the volcanic rocks emplaced on the submerged Arabian platform and few samples from the Hawasina nappes have low to negative ?Ndi suggesting a contribution of continental crust.

Lapierre, H.; Samper, A.; Bosch, D.; Maury, R. C.; Cotten, J.; Béchennec, F.; Brunet, P.; Caroff, J.; Keller, F.; Demant, A.

2003-04-01

272

Price fixing for coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the framework of the primary energy kinds, the coal - and here, in particular, the hard coal - is subject to a price mechanism which differs strongly from that of other primary energy kinds. The author introduces the influencing factors which led especially as to hard coal to a complicated control system for price fixing. The brown coal is no subject to state restrictions so that here the price is fixed exclusively by market conditions. (orig.)

273

Polish brown coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general information about brown coal genesis and occurrence is given. The brown coal deposits in Poland as well as their industrial utilization are described in detail. The descriptions of all Polish brown coal collieries are presented together with basic technical data. The influence of collieries on the environment is described, too. The role of brown coal in energy balance of Poland is assessed. The development perspectives of this energy sector are given. 1 fig., 29 ills, 7 tabs

274

Inorganic Constituents in Coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

Ra?enovi? A.

2006-02-01

275

Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of this proposed research work are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate flotability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Coals such as Pittsburgh seam coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, Wyodak coal are chosen as representatives of high-rank bituminous coal, high volatile bituminous coal and subbituminous coal, respectively. Coal minerals such as pyrite and dolomite are chosen as representative coal minerals.

Kwon, K.C.

1992-04-07

276

Coal production 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29

277

Coal situation of Taiwan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphs and tables relating to coal production, supply and demand support the fact that coal demand in Taiwan is growing rapidly and depends heavily on imports. A policy of diversification of imported coal sources is being adopted. There is a need for expansion in the port capacities and terminal facilities. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Wang, Y.-M. (Ministry of Economic Affairs (Taiwan). Energy Commission)

1990-03-01

278

Considerations on coal gasification  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

Franzen, J. E.

1978-01-01

279

The effect of pulverised coal’s devolatilisation conditions on char physical characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of pulverised coal fuel devolatilisation conditions on char’s physical characteristics. A devolatilisation system was thus designed and built where three bituminous coals were devolatilised at three different times (100, 150 and 300 ms and at three temperatures (900°C, 1,000°C and 1,100°C. The resul- ting char was characterised regarding porosity, pore volume, surface area and particle size distribution. It was found that char porosity and pore volume increased with devolatilisation temperature and time. Devolatilisation operation conditions did not produce any effect on char’s specific surface area. However, char particle size was bigger than original coal size.

Andrés Felipe Rojas González

2010-04-01

280

A review of chlorine and bromine in some United Kingdom coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the UK there is a longstanding interest in the Cl content of coals because of the adverse effects associated with high-Cl coals during combustion. An average Cl content of a representative suite of coal samples is 0.44 wt.%, but the range is from near zero to over 1%. Several lines of evidence show that in the high-Cl coals the Cl is associated with the coal moisture and that other sources, such as the silicate minerals, are negligible. Although the Cl is moisture associated there is anion exchange with the organic matter, which means that Cl is less than 100% water- soluble unless the Cl is exchanged with other anion species. This occurs if carbonates are present and calcite in particular. The Cl and Br are closely related and the location within the coal is thought to be common to both. These two elements differ from nearly all other trace elements in UK coals in that they are not present in significant concentrations in the mineral matter or bound within the organic matter. Whereas there is a good understanding of the geochemical behaviour of these other elements this is not the case for Cl and Br in the coal moisture. Chlorine and Br are thought to be conservative elements in the diagenetic evolution of the porewaters, in which an original marine depositional imprint could have been preserved. In some areas the porewaters may have fully evolved pre-Permian, whereas in other areas the diagenetic evolution could be much longer. (author)

Spears, D.A. [Centre for Analytical Sciences, Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, S3 7UF (United Kingdom)

2005-11-10

 
 
 
 
281

Primer caso registrado en Cuba de nefropatía C1q / First case of C1q nephropathy in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La nefropatía C1q es una glomerulopatía no comprendida completamente y con algunas controversias conceptuales, pero con característica inmunológica distintiva (depósito dominante o co-dominante de C1q) y no evidencia clínica ni serológica de lupus eritematoso sistémico. Se presenta paciente masculin [...] o que comienza a los 10 meses de edad con un síndrome nefrótico con hematuria, hipertensión arterial e insuficiencia renal. Se realiza una primera biopsia renal y se plantea una esclerosis mesangial difusa, pero su evolución posterior con respuesta parcial a la prednisona y el mantenimiento de proteinuria en rango nefrótico con normalización de los parámetros humorales, nos lleva a realizar una segunda biopsia renal que arroja, por la inmunofluorescencia, una nefropatía C1q. Abstract in english C1q nephropathy is a poorly understood glomerulopathy with some conceptual controversies, but with a distinctive immunologic characteristic (dominant or co-dominant deposit of C1q) and neither clinical nor serological evidence of systemic erythematous lupus. This is the case of a male patient who be [...] gan suffering nephritic syndrome with hematuria, blood hypertension and renal failure at 10 months of age. A first renal biopsy was performed to detect diffuse mesangeal sclerosis; however after partial response of the patient to prednisone therapy and to maintenance treatment of proteinuria in nephritic range, with normalization of humoral parameters, then a second renal biopsy was performed with immunofluorescence. The final result was C1q nephropathy.

Neri Georgina, Campañá Cobas; Agustín, Chong López; Sandalio, Durán Álvarez; Severino, Hernández Hernández; Mario, Valdés Mesa.

282

Primer caso registrado en Cuba de nefropatía C1q / First case of C1q nephropathy in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La nefropatía C1q es una glomerulopatía no comprendida completamente y con algunas controversias conceptuales, pero con característica inmunológica distintiva (depósito dominante o co-dominante de C1q) y no evidencia clínica ni serológica de lupus eritematoso sistémico. Se presenta paciente masculin [...] o que comienza a los 10 meses de edad con un síndrome nefrótico con hematuria, hipertensión arterial e insuficiencia renal. Se realiza una primera biopsia renal y se plantea una esclerosis mesangial difusa, pero su evolución posterior con respuesta parcial a la prednisona y el mantenimiento de proteinuria en rango nefrótico con normalización de los parámetros humorales, nos lleva a realizar una segunda biopsia renal que arroja, por la inmunofluorescencia, una nefropatía C1q. Abstract in english C1q nephropathy is a poorly understood glomerulopathy with some conceptual controversies, but with a distinctive immunologic characteristic (dominant or co-dominant deposit of C1q) and neither clinical nor serological evidence of systemic erythematous lupus. This is the case of a male patient who be [...] gan suffering nephritic syndrome with hematuria, blood hypertension and renal failure at 10 months of age. A first renal biopsy was performed to detect diffuse mesangeal sclerosis; however after partial response of the patient to prednisone therapy and to maintenance treatment of proteinuria in nephritic range, with normalization of humoral parameters, then a second renal biopsy was performed with immunofluorescence. The final result was C1q nephropathy.

Neri Georgina, Campañá Cobas; Agustín, Chong López; Sandalio, Durán Álvarez; Severino, Hernández Hernández; Mario, Valdés Mesa.

2013-06-01

283

Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia): II. The morphogenus Glossopteris  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia). Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descr [...] ição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii Rohn and Rösler (ver Vieira et al. 2004), foi previamente assinalada para estratos do Permiano Superior da Bacia do Paraná (formações Estrada Nova e Rio do Rasto). Portanto, uma idade neopermiana é tentativamente proposta para os níveis da Formação Chutani que contém a associação estudada. As implicações fitogeográficas deste novo achado são brevemente analisadas. Abstract in english Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group), near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). This paper presents the [...] first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004), was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil). Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.

Roberto, Iannuzzi; Carlos E. L., Vieira; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Enrique, Díaz-Martínez; George W., Grader.

2004-03-01

284

Evolution of a Permian carbonate platform to siliciclastic basin: Indochina Plate, Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

In Thailand, during the Permian, an extensive carbonate platform developed on the margin of the Indochina Plate and near to a coeval and deeper siliciclastic-dominated marine basin. This basin separated the Indochina Plate, to the east, from the Shan Thai Plate to the west. Sedimentation in the area of both platform (Pha Nok Khao Platform) and basin (Nam Duk Basin) was ended by a late Permian/early Triassic orogenic event that caused closure of the Palaeo-Tethys ocean. Tectonism has controlled the pattern of platform sedimentation and supplies of carbonate and clastic sediments into the basin area. The Pha Nok Khao Platform developed on an extensive distally steepened ramp-like margin along which carbonates and siliciclastics accumulated. Adjacent to this platform, to the west, the Nam Duk Basin received coeval hemipelagic siliciclastics and minor amounts of carbonates. Biostratigraphic evidence, based on foraminiferal assemblages, suggests an early to middle Permian age equivalence between platform and basin lithofacies. The platform strata are exposed along the Loei fold and thrust belt in northeast Thailand and basin strata are exposed within the Phetchabun fold and thrust belt in central Thailand, respectively. The two belts extend in a north-south direction and their rocks exhibit extensive karstification. On the basis of seismic data, platform lithologies extend further east in the subsurface, beneath the continental sediments of the Khorat Group into Kampuchea and Laos. Facies groups of the platform environments include restricted platform, platform interior, and outer platform. The facies groups of the basin environments include basin margin and basin plain. Minor layers of volcaniclastics and green coloured tuffites are interbedded with both the platform carbonate layers and basinal pelagic layers, suggesting active volcanism during sedimentation. The carbonate lithofacies of the shallow platform to the east (in the Loei Fold Belt) grade westward into turbidites (in the Phetchabun fold belt), and include shales and sandstones with minor carbonates. Farther to the west they pass into hemipelagic lithofacies of shale and carbonate. Lithologies and fauna of the limestones suggest tropical to subtropical climate during deposition.

El Tabakh, Mohamed; Utha-Aroon, Cherdsak

1998-10-01

285

Lipid Biomarker Records Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary from Kap Stosch, Greenland  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian extinction was the most severe in the past 500 million years of the Earth's history and evidence that an oceanic anoxic event (OAE) occurred contemporaneously has been presented previously [1,2]. OAEs have, therefore, been proposed as responsible for the mass mortality, and if the anoxic ocean was also euxinic, the release of hydrogen sulfide during upwelling and/or transgression provides an extinction agent in the ocean as well as on land. Chlorobiaceae, as indicators of photic zone euxinia (PZE), utilize hydrogen sulfide as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The detection of isorenieratane and a series of short-chain monoaromatic aryl isoprenoids, biomarkers for Chlorobiaceae, in sediments indicates the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the photic zone of the water column during sediment deposition. The Kap Stosch area in Eastern Greenland was identified as a Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) outcrop of homogeneous shale, silty shale, and siltstone facies [3]. Another late Permian section in Eastern Greenland, the Ravnefjeld Formation, has framboidal pyrites indicative of sulfidic deep water [4]. A sample suite from the Kap Stosch region was studied using standard organic geochemistry methods including stable isotopic analyses of organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and biomarker hydrocarbon analysis. Aryl isoprenoids, including isorenieratane, were present in all samples studied and the concentrations were observed to fluctuate in tandem with TOC, similar to other Mesozoic OAEs. The molecular ratios of pristane/phytane and hopanes/steranes as well as the 2-methyl-hopane index (2-MHI) fluctuated dramatically through this section as they do at the type section at Meishan and in the Perth Basin [5]. The 2-MHI shows an inverse pattern to the total aryl isoprenoids, perhaps indicative of instability in the form of primary productivity in the water column during euxinic episodes. This can result in nitrogen limitation and a competitive advantage of cyanobacteria over microalgae for nutrient resources [6]. Overall, the biomarker patterns in these samples indicate the presence of PZE at this location leading up to and continuing through the PTB. 1. Isozaki Y., 1997. Science 276, 235. 2. Wignall P. and R. Twichett, 1996. Science 272, 1155. 3. Teichert C. and B. Kummel, 1972. Bull. Canadian Petrol. Geol. 20, 659. 4. Nielsen J. and Y. Shen, 2004. Geology 32, 1037. 5. Grice K., et al., 2005. Science 307, 706. 6. Kuypers M., et al., 2004. Geology 32, 853.

Hays, L. E.; Love, G. D.; Foster, C. B.; Grice, K.; Summons, R. E.

2006-12-01

286

Coal Data: A reference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

287

Coal slurry pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal slurry pipelining is emerging as an economical alternative to unit trains for long distance, large capacity trnasportation of coal. This report reviews the technical and economic aspects of coal slurry pipelines and proposes a versatile and reliable technoeconomic model for evaluating their capital and operating costs. The model is used to illustrate the economic advantages of single-source/multiple-destination pipelines over the single-source/single-destination pipelines and to make an economic comparison of conventional coal slurry pipelines to coal slurry-fuel pipelines.

Ugursal, V.I.

1986-12-01

288

X-ray structure of the Ca2+-binding interaction domain of C1s. Insights into the assembly of the C1 complex of complement.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1, the complex that triggers the classical pathway of complement, is assembled from two modular proteases C1r and C1s and a recognition protein C1q. The N-terminal CUB1-EGF segments of C1r and C1s are key elements of the C1 architecture, because they mediate both Ca2+-dependent C1r-C1s association and interaction with C1q. The crystal structure of the interaction domain of C1s has been solved and refined to 1.5 A resolution. The structure reveals a head-to-tail homodimer involving interactions between the CUB1 module of one monomer and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) module of its counterpart. A Ca2+ ion is bound to each EGF module and stabilizes both the intra- and inter-monomer interfaces. Unexpectedly, a second Ca2+ ion is bound to the distal end of each CUB1 module, through six ligands contributed by Glu45, Asp53, Asp98, and two water molecules. These acidic residues and Tyr17 are conserved in approximately two-thirds of the CUB repertoire and define a novel, Ca2+-binding CUB module subset. The C1s structure was used to build a model of the C1r-C1s CUB1-EGF heterodimer, which in C1 connects C1r to C1s and mediates interaction with C1q. A structural model of the C1q/C1r/C1s interface is proposed, where the rod-like collagen triple helix of C1q is accommodated into a groove along the transversal axis of the C1r-C1s heterodimer. PMID:12788922

Gregory, Lynn A; Thielens, Nicole M; Arlaud, Gérard J; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan Carlos; Gaboriaud, Christine

2003-08-22

289

Indonesian coal export potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

290

Coal and public perceptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

291

The international coal encyclopedia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 1 is a directory of coal importing consumers worldwide and includes the following information for each entry: plant name and address, products produced (eg steel, coke, cement, electricity), key purchasing personnel, and plant information. The plant location manager, no. of tonnes of coal used annually, type and rank of coal used, receiving port, unloading rate and maximum cargo size are given. Volume 2 lists coal exporting producers, giving details of the organisation name, address, key marketing personnel, and mine information. Mine name, location, manager, annual tonnes mined, reserves, type of mine, type and rank of coal mined, preparation method export ports, load rate and maximum cargo size. A section on international coal traders and on import/export coal distributors is included.

1990-01-01

292

Coal; Le charbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

2001-12-15

293

Gasification of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief discussion on the chemical reactions and mechanisms involved in coal gasification is followed by an analysis of the low-rank coal characteristics which influence the design and performance of the process, rendering these coals good gasification feedstocks. Gasification processes and technologies are described in reasonable detail. Principal processes such as fixed-bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed and molten bath are explained. The many processes in commercial operation and also those under development, are discussed, backed up with performance data for low-rank coals. Underground coal gasification technology is described in some detail. The article is based on part of the book 'Clean use of coals. Low-rank coal technologies' to be published by MultiScience Publishing Co. Ltd., in 2000. 92 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.

Vamvuka, D. [Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece)

1999-07-01

294

Coal to gas substitution using coal?!  

Science.gov (United States)

Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UC? s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

2010-05-01

295

A contribution to petrology of dark grey to black interbeds within Upper Permian and Triassic carbonate rocks in the area between Ljubljana and Bloke, Central Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of macroscopic, microscopic, chemical, and isotopic investigations of 12 samples ofdark grey to black coloured interbeds occurring within Upper Permian and Triassic lime-, dolo- and marlstones inan area of Outer Dinarides between Ljubljana and Bloke in Central Slovenia. An additional sample is anthracite ofthe Carnian age from the Orle locality. Concentration of Corg in four samples is below 1 %, and in seven samples itvaries between 1 and 2.3 %. Only in one sample, in the black Carnian limestone of the Lesno Brdo area, it is somewhathigher than 5 %. The highest Corg content, 30.61 %, was analysed in the Orle anthracite.Chemical analysis of major elements (as oxides showed that four samples are clearly siliciclastic mudrocks,with 65–80 % SiO2 + Al2O3. Three samples are typical calcite rich – dolomite poor rocks, with high loss on ignition(LOI about 40 % derived from calcite decomposition. Four samples are calcite – dolomite characterized rocks withLOI of 34–43 %. One sample, from the Slugovo quarry, is composed of quartz, dolomite and calcite. The anthracitesample from Orle has inorganic matter composed almost exclusively of SiO2 + Al2O3 (clays, and some iron and sulphurwhich form pyrite.Isotopic composition of the calcite carbon ranges from ?13CCaCO3 -5.7 to 1.9 ‰, whereas isotopic composition ofthe organic carbon varies between ?13Corg -34.7 and -21.6 ‰. The most negative ?13Corg value of -34.7 ‰ was analysedin a sample, which is the most organic-rich limestone. Isotopic investigations of nitrogen, expressed by ?15N values,also did not express notable differences in respect to lithology. They vary between 4.6 and 9.1 ‰.Microscopy of polished surface samples showed clearly fine grained siliciclastic, carbonate and coal compositionof the treated rocks.

Stevo Dozet

2012-06-01

296

Illitization of Smectite in Sandstones - The Permian Unayzah Reservoir, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The transformation of smectite to illite through an illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer is a major clay mineral reaction that occurs in a range of diagenetic environments and is commonly observed in siliciclastic sedimentary basins worldwide. This reaction is controlled by several chemical and physical factors, the two most important of which are temperature and potassium availability within the sediments. Diagenetic illite is a major factor affecting reservoir quality in all pre-Khuff clastic reservoirs in Saudi Arabia. Illite coating in the Permian Unayzah reservoir has two main morphologies: the platelet-like and fibrous illite. The former morphology is interpreted to form by transformation of infiltrated smectite during burial. This work shows that understanding the type and distribution of early diagenesis in clastic sequences is of paramount importance for the prediction of deep burial alterations and their related reservoir properties.

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi; Al-Ramadan, Khalid

2014-05-01

297

Depositional environment of Upper Carboniferous – Lower Permian beds in the Karavanke Mountains (Southern Alps, Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Late Paleozoic rocks were studied in detail in the Dovžanova soteska section. The Upper Carboniferous sedimentary succession, correlated with upper part of Auernig and SchulterkofelFm. in the Carnic Alps, indicates cyclic clastic-carbonate deposition in a coastal to shallow marine ramp setting with strong influenceofcoarse-grainedfluvial-deltaicsilici-clastics from the hinterland, storm dominated regime of nearshore sediments, and offshore algal buildups. The Lower Permian sequence is developed differently from its time equivalentGrenzland Fm. and is subdivided into Dovžanova soteska Fm., Born Fm., and Rigelj beds. It is marked by the formation of a reef mound on the platform margin. Open-marine inner platform close to the marginal shoals represented the depositional environment of the mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediments. Thus, a platform evolution from a ramp into a rimmed shelf is suggested.

Matevž Novak

2007-12-01

298

Section of Permian deposits and fusulinids in the Halvan Mountains, Yazd province, Central Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian section situated northwest of Tabas in the Halvan Mountains is studied and fusulinids occurring in the section are described. The Chili, Sartakht, and Hermez formations distinguished in the section are separated by horizons of bauxitic laterite and belong to the Khan Group formerly ranked as a synonymous formation. Fusulinids occur at two levels in the section. The lower one confined to the Chili Formation yields the so-called Kalaktash fusulinid assemblage of the late Sakmarian age. The second late Asselian assemblage has been discovered in pebbles from conglomerate-breccia in the basal laterite of the Sartakht Formation. A brief characterization of fusulinids is presented and three new species are described. The new Benshiella genus is discriminated from the Rugosofusulinidae family. As Skinner and Wilde (1965, 1966) changed the original diagnosis of the Pseudofusulina genus, we suggest, regarding all species, which have been attributed to this genus but do not satisfy the new diagnosis, as representing the new Nonpseudofusulina genus.

Leven, E. Ya.; Gorgij, M. N.

2009-04-01

299

Synchronism of the Siberian Traps and the Permian-Triassic boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

Uranium-lead ages from an ion probe were taken for zircons from the ore-bearing Noril'sk I intrusion that is comagmatic with, and intrusive to, the Siberian Traps. These values match, within an experimental error of ??4 million years, the dates for zircons extracted from a tuff at the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the P-Tr extinction was caused by the Siberian basaltic flood volcanism. It is likely that the eruption of these magmas was accompanied by the injection of large amounts of sulfur dioxide into the upper atmosphere, which may have led to global cooling and to expansion of the polar ice cap. The P-Tr extinction event may have been caused by a combination of acid rain and global cooling as well as rapid and extreme changes in sea level resulting from expansion of the polar ice cap.

Campbell, I.H.; Czamanske, G.K.; Fedorenko, V.A.; Hill, R.I.; Stepanov, V.

1992-01-01

300

Restoration of marine ecosystems following the end-Permian mass extinction: pattern and dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Life came closest to complete annihilation during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME). Pattern and cause of this great dying have long been disputed. Similarly, there is also some debate on the recovery rate and pattern of marine organisms in the aftermath of the EPME. Some clades recovered rapidly, within the first 1-3 Myr of the Triassic. For instance, foraminiferal recovery began 1 Myr into the Triassic and was not much affected by Early Triassic crises. Further, some earliest Triassic body and trace fossil assemblages are also more diverse than predicted. Others, ie. Brachiopods, corals etc., however, did not rebound until the Middle Triassic. In addition, although ammonoids recovered fast, reaching a higher diversity by the Smithian than in the Late Permian, much of this Early Triassic radiation was within a single group, the Ceratitina, and their morphological disparity did not expand until the end-Spathian. Here, I like to broaden the modern ecologic network model to explore the complete trophic structure of fossilized ecosystems during the Permian-Triassic transition as a means of assessing the recovery. During the Late Permian and Early Triassic, primary producers, forming the lowest trophic level, were microbes. The middle part of the food web comprises primary and meso-consumer trophic levels, the former dominated by microorganisms such as foraminifers, the latter by opportunistic communities (i.e. disaster taxa), benthic shelly communities, and reef-builders. They were often consumed by invertebrate and vertebrate predators, the top trophic level. Fossil record from South China shows that the post-extinction ecosystems were degraded to a low level and typified by primary producers or opportunistic consumers, which are represented by widespread microbialites or high-abundance, low-diversity communities. Except for some opportunists, primary consumers, namely foraminifers, rebounded in Smithian. Trace-makers recovered in Spathian, which also saw biodiversity increases of some clades. However, benthic communities were still of low diversity and high abundance and did not recover until middle-late Anisian when reef ecosystems have also constructed. The mid-Anisian ecosystems were characterized by the diverse reptile and fish faunas such as the Luoping biota from Yunnan, Southwest China, in which marine reptiles diversified as top predators. Thus, ecosystems were constructed step by step from low level to top trophic level through the Griesbachian to late Anisian, some 8-9 Myr after the crisis. Moreover, although some top predators also rebounded spoarically in Early Triassic, they constructed incomplete and unstable ecosystems, which could not develop sustainably and thus did not occur repetitedly in younger strata. The contrast between the extrinsic and intrinsic models exemplifies a wider debate about macroevolution -- whether the key driver is the physical environment or biotic interactions. Case studies on microbe-metazoan interactions in matground ecosystems reveal that microbial bloom seems to have set an agenda for metazoan diversification in Early Triassic, implying that intrinsic dynamics may have played a crucial role driving ecosystem's restoration following the EPME.

Chen, Z.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Permian age of the Burpala alkaline pluton, Northern Transbaikalia: Geodynamic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the U-Pb zircon age of pulaskite of the main phase (294 ± 1 Ma) and the rare metal syenite (283 ± 8 Ma) of the Burpala alkaline pluton. The geochronological data show that it was formed in the Early Permian. By age, it is comparable with the Synnyr pluton of the Synnyr rift zone, alkaline granitic rocks and bimodal volcanic associations of the Uda-Vitim rift zone, and carbonatites of the Saizhen rift zone of the Central Asian foldbelt. These intraplate igneous complexes were formed almost simultaneously with crustal granitic rocks of the Angara-Vitim batholite. All of this gives ground to suppose that the origination of their parental melts is a result of the influence of the mantle hot spot or mantle plume on the lithosphere that led to extensive crustal anatexis.

Kotov, A. B.; Vladykin, N. V.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Sal'nikova, E. B.; Sotnikova, I. A.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

2013-11-01

302

Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

303

Revised fusulinid biostratigraphic zonation and depositional sequence correlation, subsurface Permian basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current revisions in fusulinid zonation enable them to subdivide the fossiliferous Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian section in the Permian basin into more biostratigraphic zones than the older scheme of R.V. Hollingsworth, each zone of shorter temporal duration than has previously been recognized. The identification of distinct fusulinid assemblage subzones within the absolute chronology of radiometric dating provides the basis for these stratigraphic subdivisions. The Atoka is divided into five assemblage subzones, each with an approximate duration of 1.0 m.y. In the Strawn, five subzones each of about 0.8 m.y. duration are recognized within the Cherokee; the three subzones in the Marmaton are each of 0.67 m.y. duration. Within Canyon and Cisco shelf carbonate sections are presently recognized seven and six subzones, respectively; the approximate duration of each is 0.33 and 1.03 m.y. The shelf Wolfcamp section is divisible into seven subzones, each of about 2.36 m.y. span. The entire Leonard shelf section comprises six subzones, each of about 1.83 m.y. duration; three subzones are presently recognized in the lower Leonard and three cumulatively in the middle and upper Leonard sections. These biostratigraphic subzones correspond to single or composite sediment packages (parasequences) that can be correlated regionally from shelf into basinal strata, using wireline log and conventional and processed seismic sections. Such packages comprise parts of individual depositional sequences as recognized by seismic-stratigraphic interpretations. Carbonate (various shelf and foreshelf detrital facies) and sandstone reservoirs occur within individual subzones within these sequences and can be readily defined and mapped by subsurface facies studies.

Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T.; Mazzullo, S.J.; Robbins, S.T.

1988-01-01

304

Fluid-rock reactions in an evaporitic melange, Permian Haselgebirge, Austrian Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

Tectonically isolated blocks of carbonate rocks present within the anhydritic Haselgebirge melange of the Northern Calcareous Alps record a complex history of deformation and associated deep-burial diagenetic to very low-grade metamorphic reactions. Fluids were hot (up to ~ 250 ??C) and reducing brines charged with carbon dioxide. Individual carbonate outcrops within the melange record different regimes of brine-rock reactions, ranging from pervasive dolomite recrystallization to dedolomitization. Early diagenetic features in these carbonates were almost entirely obliterated. Matrix dolomite alteration was related to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) recognized by the replacement of anhydrite by calcite + pyrite ?? native sulphur. Pyrite associated with TSR is coarsely crystalline and characterized by a small sulphur isotope fractionation relative to the precursor Permian anhydrite. Carbonates associated with TSR show low Fe/Mn ratios reflecting rapid reaction of ferrous iron during sulphide precipitation. As a result, TSR-related dolomite and calcite typically show bright Mn(II)-activated cathodoluminescence in contrast to the dull cathodoluminescence of many (ferroan) carbonate cements in other deep-burial settings. In addition to carbonates and sulphides, silicates formed closely related to TSR, including quartz, K-feldspar, albite and K-mica. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of authigenic K-feldspar yielded mostly disturbed step-heating spectra which suggest variable cooling through the argon retention interval for microcline during the Late Jurassic. This timing coincides with the recently recognized subduction and closure of the Meliata-Hallstatt ocean to the south of the Northern Calcareous Alps and strongly suggests that the observed deep-burial fluid-rock reactions were related to Jurassic deformation and melange formation of these Permian evaporites.

Spotl, C.; Longstaffe, F.J.; Ramseyer, K.; Kunk, M.J.; Wiesheu, R.

1998-01-01

305

Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The entire 606 m-thick sedimentary sequence in borecore MCP-7 from Chintalapudi area, Chintalapudi sub-basin has been lithologically designated as Kamthi Formation. However, the palynological investigation revealed five distinct palynoassemblages, which essentially fall under two groups, one group (Palynoassemblage-I, II and III) having dominance of striate disaccates along with presence of some stratigraphically significant taxa, belongs to Late Permian (Raniganj) palynoflora, while the other group (Palynoassemblages IV and V) shows sharp decline in percentage of characteristic taxa of first group, i.e., striate disaccates, and consequent rise or dominance of taeniate and cingulate cavate spores, belongs to Early Triassic (Panchet) palynoflora. Palynoassemblage-I, II and III (Group I) are characterized by dominance of striate disaccates chiefly, Striatopodocarpites spp. and Faunipollenites spp. along with presence of rare but stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Gondisporites raniganjensis, Falcisporites nuthaliensis, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Chordasporites sp., Striomonosaccites, ovatus, Crescentipollenites multistriatus, Verticipollenites debiles, Strotersporites crassiletus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, G. gondwanensis, Hamiapollenites insolitus, Corisaccites alutus, Lunatisporites ovatus, Weylandites spp. and Vitreisporites pallidus. Palynoassemblage-I is distinguished by significant presence of Densipollenites spp. while Palynoassemblage-II shows significant presence of Crescentipollenites spp. and Palynoassemblage-III differs from the above two assemblages in having significant presence of Guttulapollenites hannonicus. Palynoassemblage-IV (Group II) is characterized by high percentage of taeniate disaccates chiefly Lunatisporites spp., while Palynoassemblage-V (Group II) is characterized by cingulate-cavate trilete spores chiefly, Lundbladispora spp. and Densoisporites spp. Striate disaccates show a sharp decline in these two assemblages. In Chintalapudi area Late Permian and Early Triassic palynoflora has been recorded for the first time indicating existence of Raniganj and Panchet sediments as well. The study further supports the earlier studies of Jha and Srivastava (1996) that Kamthi Formation represents Early Triassic (=Panchet Formation) overlying Raniganj equivalent sediments with a gradational contact.

Jha, Neerja; Chary, M. Basava; Aggarwal, Neha

2012-10-01

306

Topological cigar and the c=1 string: Open and closed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We clarify some aspects of the map between the c=1 string theory at self-dual radius and the topologically twisted cigar at level one. We map the ZZ and FZZT D-branes in the c=1 string theory at self dual radius to the localized and extended branes in the topological theory on the cigar. We show that the open string spectrum on the branes in the two theories are in correspondence with each other, and their two point correlators are equal. We also find a representation of an extended N = 2 algebra on the worldsheet which incorporates higher spin currents in terms of asymptotic variables on the cigar. (author)

307

Lax matrix solution of c=1 Conformal Field Theory  

CERN Document Server

To a correlation function in a two-dimensional conformal field theory with the central charge c=1, we associate a matrix differential equation \\Psi'=L\\Psi, where the Lax matrix L is a matrix square root of the energy-momentum tensor. Then local conformal symmetry translates into isomonodromy of the differential equation. This provides a justification for the recently observed relation between four-point conformal blocks and solutions of the Painleve VI equation. This also provides a direct way to compute the three-point function of Runkel-Watts theory - the common c->1 limit of Minimal Models and Liouville theory.

Eynard, Bertrand

2013-01-01

308

Angioedema in a Patient with C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angioedema is characterized by recurrent, circumscribed, solitary or multiple subcutaneous and mucosal swelling, involving the extremities, face, larynx, bowel wall. Angioedema is due to hereditary or acquired varieties of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH deficiency. A case of atypical acquired angioedema in a 49-year old man, responding favourably to cinnarizine and alcohol abstinence, is presented in this article. Cinnarizine was prescribed due to presumed alcoholic liver disease. The clinical significant amelioration was not associated with concomitant good laboratory result, which is a relatively common occurrence.

Sra Braz

2005-12-01

309

77 FR 47921 - Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption...  

Science.gov (United States)

...C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company (PVR), a noncarrier, has...

2012-08-10

310

Clean coal technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

311

Geologic prospecting for coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basic trends of economic and social development in the USSR for investigating coal fields operating in the European part of the USSR, prospecting for coking coals in all regions of the country and the search for new fields suitable for surface mining in Eastern regions. Increased prospecting of operating fields (Donbass, Kuzbass, Karaganda, Pechora and Podmoskovnyi) and recently developed fields (South Yakut, Kansk-Achinsk and also the region of the BAM route) is called for. Tempo of research in the Donbass, the chief source of coal for energy and technology in the European USSR is high. Siberian fields are an increasing source of coking coals and many scarce coals. The eleventh 5-year plan emphasizes the need to investigate Eastern fields for coals required by industry: brown, fat, lean, caking and coking coals. Prospecting of Kuznets and South Yakut fields for coking coals is recommended. The investigation of Kansk-Achinsk, BAM region and regions of the Far East which have not been explored sufficiently should be accomplished. It is stressed that successful geologic prospecting depends on the perfection of methods of research and accurate analysis to determine the type and quality of coals. A graph illustrates the growth of the aggregate geologic and investigated balanced reserves and yield of coal in USSR from 1950-1980.

Cherepovskii, V.F.

1981-06-01

312

Coal sector profile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

1990-06-05

313

Coal Sulphur Content: Impact on Coal Markets.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report considers the factors contributing to the competitiveness between coals with different sulphur contents. The most prominent drivers of competition include regulation of sulphur emissions and changing industry structures, most notably in the po...

P. Baruya, A. McConville

1997-01-01

314

Summary of session C1: pulsar timing arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes parallel session C1: Pulsar Timing Arrays of the Amaldi10/GR20 Meeting held in Warsaw, Poland in July 2013. The session showcased recent results from pulsar timing array collaborations, advances in modelling the gravitational-wave signal, and new methods to search for and characterize gravitational waves in pulsar timing array observations.

Shannon, R. M.; Chamberlin, S.; Cornish, N. J.; Ellis, J. A.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Perrodin, D.; Rosado, P.; Sesana, A.; Taylor, S. R.; Wen, L.; Bassa, C. G.; Gair, J.; Janssen, G. H.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lee, K. J.; Liu, K.; Mandel, I.; Purver, M.; Sidery, T.; Smits, R.; Stappers, B. W.; Vecchio, A.

2014-08-01

315

Pediatric hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH is a rare, life-threatening disorder. It is characterized by attacks of angioedema involving the skin and/or the mucosa of the upper airways, as well as the intestinal mucosa. In approximately 50 per cent of cases, clinical manifestations may appear during childhood. The complex management of HAE in pediatric patients is in many respects different from the management of adults. Establishing the diagnosis early, preferably before the onset of clinical symptoms, is essential in cases with a positive family history. Complement studies usually afford accurate diagnosis, whereas molecular genetics tests may prove helpful in uncertain cases. Appropriate therapy, supported by counselling, suitable modification of lifestyle, and avoidance of triggering factors (which primarily include mechanical trauma, mental stress and airway infections in children may spare the patient unnecessary surgery and may prevent mortality. Prompt control of edematous attacks, short-term prophylaxis and intermittent therapy are recommended as the primary means for the management of pediatric cases. Medicinal products currently used for the treatment of children with hereditary angioedema include antifibrinolytics, attenuated androgens, and C1-INH replacement therapy. Current guidelines favour antifibrinolytics for long-term prophylaxis because of their favorable safety profile but efficacy may be lacking. Attenuated androgens administered in the lowest effective dose are another option. C1-INH replacement therapy is also an effective and safe agent for children. Regular monitoring and follow-up of patients are necessary.

Farkas Henriette

2010-07-01

316

Pathology, clinical presentations, and outcomes of C1q nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

C1q nephropathy is an uncommon glomerular disease with characteristic features on immunofluorescence microscopy. In this report, clinicopathologic correlations and outcomes are presented for 72 patients with C1q nephropathy. The study comprised 82 kidney biopsies from 28 children and 54 adults with male preponderance (68%). Immunofluorescence microscopy showed dominant or co-dominant staining for C1q in the mesangium and occasional glomerular capillary walls. Electron-dense deposits were observed in 48 of 53 cases. Light microscopy revealed no lesions (n = 27), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS; n = 11), proliferative glomerulonephritis (n = 20), or various other lesions (n = 14). Clinical presentations in the patients who had no lesions histology were normal urine examination (7%), asymptomatic hematuria and/or proteinuria (22%), and nephrotic syndrome (minimal change-like lesion; 63%), which frequently relapsed. All patients with FSGS presented with nephrotic syndrome. Those with proliferative glomerulonephritis usually presented with chronic kidney disease (75%) or asymptomatic urine abnormalities (20%). Of the patients with sufficient follow-up data, complete remission of the nephrotic syndrome occurred in 77% of those with a minimal change-like lesion, progression to end-stage renal disease occurred in 33% of those with FSGS, and renal disease remained stable in 57% of those with proliferative glomerulonephritis. In conclusion, this study identified two predominant clinicopathologic subsets of C1q nephropathy: (1) Podocytopathy with a minimal change-like lesion or FSGS, which typically presents with nephrotic syndrome, and (2) a typical immune complex-mediated glomerular disease that varies from no glomerular lesions to diverse forms of glomerular proliferation, which typically presents as chronic kidney disease. Clinical presentation, histology, outcomes, and presumably pathogenesis of C1q nephropathy are heterogeneous. PMID:18650484

Vizjak, Alenka; Ferluga, Dusan; Rozic, Mojca; Hvala, Anastazija; Lindic, Jelka; Levart, Tanja Kersnik; Jurci?, Vesna; Jennette, J Charles

2008-11-01

317

An algorithm for payoff space in C1-games  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present an algorithm implemented by MATLAB, and several examples completely realized by this algorithm, based on a method developed by one of the authors to determine the payoff-space of certain normal-form C1-games. Specifically, our study is based on a method able to determine the payoff space of normal form C1-games in n dimensions, that is for n-players normal form games whose payoff functions are defined on compact intervals of the real line and of class at least C1. In this paper we will determine the payoff space of such normal form C1-games in the particular case of two dimensions. The implementation of the algorithm gives the parametric form of the critical zone of a game in the bistrategy space and in the payoff space and their graphical representations. Moreover, we obtain the parametric form of the transformation of the topological boundary of the bistrategy space and of the transformation of the critical zone. The final aim of the program is to plot the entire payoff space of the considered games. One of the main motivations of our paper is that the mixed extension of a bimatrix game - the most used in the application of Game Theory - is a game of the type considered. For this reason we realized an algorithm that produces the payoff space and the critical zone of a game in normal form supported by a finite family of compact intervals of the real line. Resuming in details, the algorithm returns: the parametric form of the critical zone; the parametric form of the transformation of the topological boundary of the bistrategy space; the parametric form of the transformation of the critical zone. All of them are graphically represented. To prove the efficiency of the algorithm, we show several examples. Our final goal is to provide a valuable tool to study simply but completely normal form C1-games in two dimensions.

David Carfì

2010-02-01

318

European coal mining equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the long-standing importance of coal mining, particularly underground coal mining in western European countries, a large manufacturing base developed for coal mining equipment of all types. Over the past few years, the underground coal mining sector has been rapidly declining in countries such as UK and manufacturers of coal mining equipment are now looking increasingly towards the major overseas markets - Australia, US, South Africa, China and India. This review looks at some of the products currently offered by coal mining equipment manufacturers in a number of European countries and highlights some new developments which could make a considerable impact in global markets. Machinery described includes: longwall shearers; continuous miners, powered supports, cutting and bolting machines, road headers, hoists, integrated systems, and bunkers. 7 figs.

Kennedy, A.

1994-05-01

319

Beneficiated coals' char morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

Diana Vargas

2012-09-01

320

Coal comes clean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

 
 
 
 
321

Sampling the coal chain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Coal is a complex heterogeneous commodity that can be mined in a number of ways and needs to be processed to a homogeneous quality that satisfies the customer's requirements, while attempting to maximize revenues. Only a small proportion of coal is suitable for metallurgical use. Export coals cover [...] a wide range of qualities and some coals can be used optimally in the raw state for energy production. Critical quality parameters vary and can be a combination of heat value, ash, volatiles, sulphur, phosphorus, sizing, amongst others. The level of beneficiation is generally dictated by the washability of the coal, mining contamination, and the target product quality. The steps in the coal chain covered in this paper comprise exploration, mining selections, production, the washing process, and product delivery. Many points of sampling are needed to maximize yield at the correct quality, and some of these will be described in the paper.

P.E., Hand.

2014-01-01

322

Sampling the coal chain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Coal is a complex heterogeneous commodity that can be mined in a number of ways and needs to be processed to a homogeneous quality that satisfies the customer's requirements, while attempting to maximize revenues. Only a small proportion of coal is suitable for metallurgical use. Export coals cover [...] a wide range of qualities and some coals can be used optimally in the raw state for energy production. Critical quality parameters vary and can be a combination of heat value, ash, volatiles, sulphur, phosphorus, sizing, amongst others. The level of beneficiation is generally dictated by the washability of the coal, mining contamination, and the target product quality. The steps in the coal chain covered in this paper comprise exploration, mining selections, production, the washing process, and product delivery. Many points of sampling are needed to maximize yield at the correct quality, and some of these will be described in the paper.

P.E., Hand.

323

Coal tar in dermatology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

2007-07-01

324

Coal-Sizing Auger  

Science.gov (United States)

Aft end of auger, like forward, face-piercing end, equipped with hard cutting bits such as diamonds. As auger breaks face, pulls broken coal lumps into jaws and forces them into hardened throat section. There, cutting bits chew up lumps: Clearance between throat and auger shaft sets maximum size for coal particles that pass through. Auger motion pushes coal particles into mixing chamber, where paddles combine them with water.

Lewis, E. V.

1985-01-01

325

Coal liquefaction. Kohleverfluessigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the neutralisation of chlorine or chlorine compounds liberated in the residue and gas phase coal hydrogenation, sodium hydrosulfide is added to coal in the liquid phase of the slurry. Sodium hydrosulfide is obtained by passing an acidic gas stream from gas washing through a sodium hydroxide solution and it is added to coal in the liquid phase. Corrosions in the connected separators are prevented by the fixation of the chlorine.

Rodewald, B.; Trippmer, K.

1982-05-19

326

Celtic bank on coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A policy of investment has helped Celtic Energy, the largest coal mining company in Wales and the second largest in the UK, to become more profitable even as the UK market for coal has shrunk. Celtic Energy operates six opencast mining sites and has another three being restored. 15 million pounds has recently been spent on new plant to help in development at the 330 hectare Selar site in the Neath Valley, and 4 million has been invested in a new washery distribution facility and coal processing plant at Onllwyn in the Dulais Valley. Details are given of the washery and distribution facility/coal processing plant. 7 photos.

Langham, G.

1998-11-01

327

The UK coal review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current economic situation of the British coal industry is examined. While numbers of the smaller coal producers have successfully negotiated contracts with power companies, RJB Mining has found it difficult to sell its coal. The government has temporarily aided RJB by announcing a moratorium on new gas fired plants, RJB argues that in the longer term importing natural gas is an energy security risk. The market for the smaller producers: Midlands Mining; Scottish Coal; Tower Colliery; Celtic Energy and for equipment manufacturers is also examined. 1 photo.

NONE

1998-05-01

328

Thermoradiation steam coal gasification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoradiation processes of coal gasification by steam under the effect of 1.75 MeV electron beam of 80 kW power were studied under flow conditions. Novomoskovsk brown coal and birch activated carbon with 1-3 mn particle size were used as objects of investigation. It is shown that gas liberation rate achieves the stationary value and remains constant, until the coal layer thickness exceeds electron path. The use of high-power electron accelerator beams enables coal gasification be performed with high efficiency

329

Electrostatic beneficiation of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

1994-10-01

330

Pyrolysis of Coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

Ra?enovi?, A.

2006-07-01

331

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

Science.gov (United States)

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01

332

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved coal liquefaction quenching process is claimed which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Donath, E.E.; Thorogood, R.M.; Yeh, C.

1983-06-07

333

Proposal for coal classification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several critiques to the 'International Classification of Hard Coals by Type' (ECE, Geneva, 1956) have been made in the past and a revision of its usefulness is currently being carried out by several investigators. The principal drawback of this classification is that it is not applicable to coals of variable maceral composition, especially those displaying a high content of inertinite. Furthermore, the parameters hitherto used in the International Classification and in some other national systems to define degree of coalification (rank), i.e. volatile matter and calorific value, are dependent on variabl maceral composition. On the other hand, the parameters used in the International Classification to determine the agglutinating and coking properties of coals are competing parameters, instead of following a hierarchy. The proposed classification scheme is based on two primary parameters determined with microscopic techniques: (1) mean maximum reflectance of vitrinite, which is a good single measure of rank; and (2) petrographic composition (vitrinite and exinite) as an indication of the type of coal. A third parameter is chosen to qualify the different classes of coal: volatile matter for anthracitic coals; dilatation for semianthracitic and bituminous coals; and calorific value for subbituminous coals and lignites. Th scheme is expressed by mean of a code number of four digits, which refers to the rank (first digit), type (second and third digits) and qualification (fourth digit) of coal.

Uribe, C.A.; Perez, F.H.

1985-02-01

334

Coal technology in 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Seventh Coal Policy came into effect in April 1982 and is now operating to bring about a self-supporting Japanese coal industry. Production in 1982 was 17.61 Mt, down 80,000 tonnes from the previous year. The Chito section of the Taiheiyo Kushiro mine was scheduled to start production in March 1983. Productivity is increasing annually. Current levels are 638 t/day clean coal per face. Most coal is won from faces worked by drum cutters. Both daily production and efficiency have increased. Efforts are being made at all mines to increase mechanization and rationalize operations.

1983-01-01

335

Permian depositional age of metaturbidites of the Duque de York Complex, southern Chile: U-Pb SHRIMP data and palynology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Duque de York Complex (DYC) is part of the low grade metamorphic accretionary complexes of the pre-Andean Patagonian 'basement'. It is a sedimentary succession exposed along the western margin of southernmost South America. New U-Pb zircon ages and palynological data restrict the maximum depositional age of the DYC to the limit between the early Permian (Kungurian) and the middle Permian (Roadian). The palynological association recorded in the DYC, characterized mainly by Gymnospermopsida pollen, indicates a humid environment of forest with an under-growth of ferns. Regional paleogeographic correlations point out that an interpretation of DYC as an autochthonous terrane cannot be discarded, contrasting with previous hypotheses which suggest an allochthonous character for this complex

336

Coal gasification for MHD application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The various gasification processes of coal and feasibility of using combustion product gases obtained from coal, as fuel in MHD generators are discussed with special reference to coal found in India. (M.G.B.)

337

Implications of paleomagnetic results from the Permian Rodez basin for the late Variscan tectonics in the southern French massif Central.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A paleomagnetic study has been carried out on three sedimentary formations of the Permian Rodez basin in the southern France. Two of them yield paleomagnetic poles of Saxonian and Thuringian age showing counterclockwise rotation of moderate amplitude, during or after the Thuringian deposition. For the French Massif Central, contrary to its stable southern (Lodève basin) and eastern (Largentière basin) borders, on its southwestern border, in a large area including the Rodez, Saint-Affrique a...

Diego-orozco, Arturo; Chen, Yan; Henry, Bernard; Becq-giraudon, Jean-franc?ois

2002-01-01

338

Foraminifers in the global stratotype (GSSP) of the Permian-Triassic boundary (Bed 27, Meishan, South China)  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper documents the results of a detailed study of the taxonomic composition and stratigraphic distribution of foraminifers in the Permian-Triassic transition bed (Bed 27) in the P-T GSSP (Bed 27, Meishan, South China). The earliest foraminiferal assemblage that followed the largest biotic crisis at the end of the Permian includes 15 genera of four orders, of which lagenids were the most abundant and diverse. The order Lagenida includes the following families: Pachyphloiidae ( Pachyphloia), Geinitzinidae ( Lunucammina s.l. (= Geinitzina = Neogeinitzina) and Robuloididae ( Robuloides). In addition, the assemblage includes numerous members of the family Ichthyolariidae, the generic assignment of which needs confirmation: Frondinodosaria, Nodosinelloides, Protonodosaria, Tauridia, and Eocristellaria. Most recorded taxa occur in both Permian and Lower-Middle Triassic beds in the Tethyan Region and outside it, mainly in the middle, less commonly in the higher latitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Apart from lagenids, a small proportion in the assemblages is represented by taxa of wide stratigraphic and geographical ranges (cosmopolitans) of the order Ammodiscida ( Ammodiscus, Glomospiranella), and the order Globivalvulida ( Globivalvulina), order Cornuspirida, family Neodiscidae ( Neodiscus), family Hemigordiidae ( Hemigordius, Hemigordiella) and a genus of uncertain affinity ( Abriolina), typical of the Permian in the Tethyan Realm. The new results confirm previous records of foraminifers of the genera Lunucammina s.l., Pachyphloia, Robuloides, Nodosinelloides, Cryptoseptida, Globivalvulina, Hemigordius, and Ammodiscus in the P-T boundary bed in the Meishan section, and supplement the list of recorded taxa by Neodiscus, Abriolina, Eocristellaria, Tauridia, and Hemigordiellina. New results update the data on the diversity and abundance of foraminiferal shells in the sections as well as reveal some problems of their identifications. No significant biological innovations, changes in variability, or appearance of new taxa are registered immediately above the critical level at the P-T boundary, while the extinction of some survivors continued after the crisis.

Korchagin, O. A.

2011-04-01

339

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-09-30

340

High arsenic coals related to sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposition in southwestern Guizhou Province, People`s Republic of China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rural population of southwestern Guizhou Province, China uses locally derived coal for domestic heating, cooking, and drying of various food stuffs by un-vented stoves. Coal became the dominant fuel source after deforestation earlier this century. Approximately 40 years ago, symptoms of arsenic poisoning, in some cases extreme, appeared in isolated, rural populations. More than 3,000 cases of arsenosis have been documented, whereas the affected population exceeds 10,000. Chemical analyses show that selected coals are extremely enriched in As and contain high concentrations of other trace elements deleterious to health. Southwestern Guizhou Province is underlain by an extensive thickness of Upper Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The Permian, although aerially much less extensive, contains coal-bearing argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Longtan Formation. The predominantly rural population in this mountainous region obtains most of their coal from many, very small mines operated locally. Southwestern Guizhou Province is also the site of extensive, mostly small-scale, gold mining from discontinuous sedimentary rock-hosted, Carlin-type gold deposits. Gold is currently being mined from areas that contact high-arsenic coals. The structural complexity of the area as well as the gold-As- rich coal association suggests that coal zones containing high As are probably as irregular and discontinuous as the gold deposits. The local public health officials have instituted a program of testing the coal being mined for its high As concentration. A collaborative study between the US Geological Survey and the Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry in Guiyang, Chinese Academy of Science is investigating the origin, occurrence, and distribution of arsenic in these coals. The goal is to be able to understand the petrogenesis in order to be able to predict and delineate arsenic-rich coals or zones.

Belkin, H.E.; Warwick, P.D.; Finkelman, R.B. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Zheng, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhou, D. [Autonomous Prefecture Anti-Epidemic Station of Southwest Guizhou Province (China)

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
341

Fatty acid and DNA analyses of Permian bacteria isolated from ancient salt crystals reveal differences with their modern relatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isolation of living microorganisms from primary 250-million-year-old (MYA) salt crystals has been questioned by several researchers. The most intense discussion has arisen from questions about the texture and age of the crystals used, the ability of organisms to survive 250 million years when exposed to environmental factors such as radiation and the close similarity between 16S rRNA sequences in the Permian and modern microbes. The data in this manuscript are not meant to provide support for the antiquity of the isolated bacterial strains. Rather, the data presents several comparisons between the Permian microbes and other isolates to which they appear related. The analyses include whole cell fatty acid profiling, DNA-DNA hybridizations, ribotyping, and random amplified polymorphic DNA amplification (RAPD). These data show that the Permian strains, studied here, differ significantly from their more modern relatives. These differences are accumulating in both phenotypic and molecular areas of the cells. At the fatty acid level the differences are approaching but have not reached separate species status. At the molecular level the variation appears to be distributed across the genome and within the gene regions flanking the highly conserved 16S rRNA itself. The data show that these bacteria are not identical and help to rule out questions of contamination by putatively modern strains. PMID:16133658

Vreeland, Russell H; Rosenzweig, William D; Lowenstein, Tim; Satterfield, Cindy; Ventosa, Antonio

2006-02-01

342

A new bolosaurid parareptile, Belebey chengi sp. nov., from the Middle Permian of China and its paleogeographic significance  

Science.gov (United States)

A new bolosaurid parareptile, Belebey chengi sp. nov., is described from Dashankou, Gansu Province, China, a Middle Permian locality which is known mostly for its therapsid fauna. The material consists of well-preserved mandibular and anterior skull remains and currently represents the largest and latest surviving member of Bolosauridae. Phylogenetic analysis of bolosaurid interrelationships, the first analysis of any clade of Early Permian parareptiles, indicates that the new taxon groups consistently with the other (Russian) members of the genus Belebey, and forms the sister clade to the genus Bolosaurus from North America. The Early Permian Eudibamus cursoris from Germany falls into the basal most position within Bolosauridae. Our analysis also shows that the split between the main bolosaurid lineages must have occurred near or before the Permo-Carboniferous boundary and that the paleo-equatorial region of Laurasia probably served as the center of origination for these parareptiles. A similar pattern can be found in other clades of Paleozoic amniotes, suggesting that this may be the general trend in early amniote evolution.

Müller, Johannes; Li, Jin-Ling; Reisz, Robert R.

2008-12-01

343

Paleomagnetic study of Permian and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks from Northern Thailand supports the extrusion model for Indochina  

Science.gov (United States)

The mode of deformation of southeast Asia resulting from the Indian collision is still controversial: is convergence between stable India and Siberia absorbed principally by crustal shortening and thickening and minor strike-slip faulting or by a mechanism of extrusion involving crustal thickening and lateral escape of blocks along major strike-slip zones? In order to test these models, we have carried out a paleomagnetic study of sedimentary rocks of Jurassic to Cretaceous age on the Khorat Plateau in Thailand. A large discrepancy between the poles of Indochina presented in this paper and a compilation of South China block pole positions both at the Triassic/Jurassic and the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary imply some 1500 ± 800 km of post-middle Cretaceous left-lateral slip along the Red River and Xian Shui He fault zones and approximately 14 ± 7° of clockwise rotation for the Indochina block relative to the South China block. Such relative motions are in agreement with a model of lateral extrusion of Indochina during the India-Asia collision. Additional data of Permian, Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic age collected in Indochina indicate a post-late Permian remagnetization for the upper Permian limestones. A comparison of these data with those from Yunnan (South China), the North China block and the South China block shows that these blocks have probably been in contact at least since the late Triassic.

Yang, Zhenyu; Besse, Jean

1993-06-01

344

Tetrapod footprints from the uppermost level of the Permian Ikakern Formation (Argana Basin, Western High Atlas, Morocco)  

Science.gov (United States)

Tetrapod footprints from the Permian Ikakern Formation of the Argana Basin have long been known but never studied in detail. Here we present the first comprehensive description of recently discovered tracks and trackways that come from near the uppermost layers of an up to 1800 m thick red-bed sequence. Assigned to HyloidichnusGilmore, 1927 and PachypesLeonardi et al., 1975, these ichnofossils suggest a Middle to Late Permian age of the track-bearing strata. Potential trackmakers are medium to large-sized moradisaurine captorhinids and pareiasaurs. This strongly parallels the bodyfossil record inasmuch as the only known skeletal remains of terrestrial tetrapods from the study area belong to both of these groups. Based on this twofold evidence, captorhinids and Pareiasauria have to be considered as abundant faunal elements of the ancient floodplain environment that is represented by the upper part of the Ikakern Formation. As one of only a few places in the world with closely associated body and ichnofossils of Late Palaeozoic age, the Argana Basin has a high potential for allowing the reconstruction of terrestrial ecosystems during the early stages of the break-up of central Pangaea and just before Mesozoic diapsid reptiles gained ascendancy. Further research on this stimulating topic will significantly contribute to the understanding of still poorly known Middle and Late Permian tetrapod ichnofaunas.

Voigt, Sebastian; Hminna, Abdelkbir; Saber, Hafid; Schneider, Jörg W.; Klein, Hendrik

2010-07-01

345

Delayed recovery of non-marine tetrapods after the end-Permian mass extinction tracks global carbon cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the end-Permian mass extinction, marine ecosystems suffered a major drop in diversity, which was maintained throughout the Early Triassic until delayed recovery during the Middle Triassic. This depressed diversity in the Early Triassic correlates with multiple major perturbations to the global carbon cycle, interpreted as either intrinsic ecosystem or external palaeoenvironmental effects. In contrast, the terrestrial record of extinction and recovery is less clear; the effects and magnitude of the end-Permian extinction on non-marine vertebrates are particularly controversial. We use specimen-level data from southern Africa and Russia to investigate the palaeodiversity dynamics of non-marine tetrapods across the Permo-Triassic boundary by analysing sample-standardized generic richness, evenness and relative abundance. In addition, we investigate the potential effects of sampling, geological and taxonomic biases on these data. Our analyses demonstrate that non-marine tetrapods were severely affected by the end-Permian mass extinction, and that these assemblages did not begin to recover until the Middle Triassic. These data are congruent with those from land plants and marine invertebrates. Furthermore, they are consistent with the idea that unstable low-diversity post-extinction ecosystems were subject to boom-bust cycles, reflected in multiple Early Triassic perturbations of the carbon cycle. PMID:22031757

Irmis, Randall B; Whiteside, Jessica H

2012-04-01

346

Massive volcanism at the Permian-Triassic boundary and its impact on the isotopic composition of the ocean and atmosphere  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bulk carbonate and conodonts from three Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary sections at Guryul Ravine (Kashmir), Abadeh (central Iran) and Pufels/Bula/Bulla (Italy) were investigated for d13C and d18O. Carbon isotope data highlight environmental changes across the P-T boundary and show the following features: (1) a gradual decrease of 4‰ to more than 7‰ starting in the Late Permian (Changhsingian) C. bachmanni Zone, with two superimposed transient positive excursions in the C. meishanensis-H. praeparvus and the M. ultima-S. ? mostleri Zones; (2) two d13C minima, the first at the P-T boundary and a higher, occasionally double-minimum in the lower I. isarcica Zone. It is unlikely that the short-lived phenomena, such as a breakdown in biological productivity due to catastrophic mass extinction, a sudden release of oceanic methane hydrates or meteorite impact(s), could have been the main control on the latest Permian carbon isotope curve because of its prolonged (0.5 Ma) duration, gradual decrease and the existenceof a >1‰ positive shift at the main extinction horizon. The P-T boundary d13C trend matches in time and magnitude the eruption of the Siberian Traps and other contemporaneous volcanism, suggesting that volcanogenic effects, such as outgassed CO2 from volcanism and, even more, thermal metamorphism of organic-rich sediments, as the likely cause of the negative trend.

Korte, Christoph; Pande, P.

2010-01-01

347

Quantum and classical aspects of deformed c = 1 strings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantum and classical aspects of a deformed c=1 matrix model proposed by Jevicki and Yoneya are studied. String equations are formulated in the framework of the Toda lattice hierarchy. The Whittaker functions now play the role of generalized Airy functions in c<1 strings. This matrix model has two distinct parameters. Identification of the string coupling constant is thereby not unique, and leads to several different perturbative interpretations of this model as a string theory. Two such possible interpretations are examined. In both cases, the classical limit of the string equations, which turns out to give a formal solution of Polchinski's scattering equations, shows that the classical scattering amplitudes of massless tachyons are insensitive to deformations of the parameters in the matrix model. (author)

348

Trace elements in Swiss coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb and Lu in Swiss anthracitic coals and brown or lignitic coals were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In general, the ranges and mean values for the anthracitic coals were close to those for North American anthracites and for Australian bituminous coals. For the brown or lignite coals the ranges and mean values for La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Eu were similar to those for the anthracitic coals and Australian bitumous coals, whereas Tb, Dy, Yb and Lu had lower values. It is postulated that the REE are predominantly associated with the mineral matter in Swiss coals

349

Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

350

Surgical approach to C1-C2 nerve sheath tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: C1 and C2 nerve sheath tumors (NST are unique in presentation, relationship to neighbouring structures and surgical approaches when compared to their counterparts in other regions of the spine. Aim: The strategies involved in the surgery for C1-C2 NST are discussed Setting and Design: Retrospective study. Methods: 21 patients with C1 (n=6 and C2 (n=15 NST were operated based on their position with respect to the cord i.e. anterior (4, anterolateral (10, posterolateral (5, and posterior (2. The tumors had extra- and intradural components in 20 patients; while in one, the tumor was purely intradural. The operative approaches included the extreme lateral transcondylar approach (3; laminectomy with partial facetectomy (5; laminectomy (11; and, suboccipital craniectomy and laminectomy (2. Results: Total excision was performed in 13 patients; while in 7, a partial extraspinal component, and in 1, a small intradural component were left, in situ. Thirteen patients showed improvement by one or more grades in the Harsh myelopathy score; 2 patients with normal power had significant decrease in spasticity; while 5 maintained their grade. One poor-grade patient succumbed to septicemia. Conclusions: C1-C2 NST may have exuberant growth due to the capacious spinal canal and the absence of a 'true' intervertebral foramen at this level. Surgical approaches are determined by its relationship to the cord . A 'T incision' on the dura, the partial drilling of the facets, sectioning of the denticulate ligament, rotating the operating table 15 to 30 degrees, and at times sectioning the posterior nerve roots are all useful adjuncts for facilitating access.

Krishnan Prasad

2004-07-01

351

Are C1 chondrites chemically fractionated. A trace element study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six C1 chondrite samples and a C2 xenolith from the Plainview H5 chondrite were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for the elements Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Ce, Cs, Eu, Ge, In, Ir, Lu, Nd, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Sn, Tb, Te, Tl, Yb, and Zn. The data were combined with 9 earlier analyses from this laboratory and examined for evidence of chemical fractionation in C1 chondrites. A number of elements (Br, Rb, Cs, Au, Re, Os, Ni, Pd, Sb, Bi, In, Te) show small but correlated variations. Those of the first 8 probably reflect hydrothermal alteration in the meteorite parent body, whereas those of Sb, Bi, In, and Te may at least in part involve nebular processes. Br and Au show systematic abundance differences from meteorite to meteorite, which suggests hydrothermal transport on a kilometer scale. The remaining elements vary from sample to sample, suggesting transport on a centimeter scale. We present revised mean C1 abundances for 35 elements, based on the new data and a critical selection of literature data. The Plainview C2 xenolith has normal trace element abundances, except for 3 elements falling appreciably above the C2 range: Rb, Cs and Bi. The results are discussed. (author)

352

Safety and surgical techniques of C1 lateral mass screws  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the proper insertion techniques of C1 lateral mass screws. Eighteen consecutive patients were examined after upper cervical fusion using twenty-nine C1 lateral mass screws. Screws were placed by three different techniques; Goel's technique (4), Tan's technique (20), Notching technique (5). Pre and post-operative CT scans with multiplanar reconstruction were used to detect cortical breaches and direction of screws. No transverse foramen and vertebral groove violation was found in CT scans. Three had breached superior articular facet of the atlas. However, the range of motion (R.O.M) of atlanto-occipital joints had not changed postoperatively. Theses screws were inserted with Tan's technique and two of three were directed medially. It is feasible to safely insert C1 lateral mass screws when correct insertion point and direction are considered preoperatively. However, care should be taken because screws can violate the atlanto-occipital joint especially with Tan's technique. (author)

353

Rare Earth Elements of the Permian-Triassic Conodonts from Shelf Basin to Shallow Platform: Implications for Oceanic Redox Conditions immediately After the End-Permian Mass Extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare-earth elements (REEs) can provide information regarding the influence of weathering fluxes and hydrothermal inputs on seawater chemistry as well as processes that fractionate REEs between solid and aqueous phases. Of these, cerium (Ce) distributions may provide information about variations in dissolved oxygen in seawater, and thus assess the redox conditions. The short residence times of REEs in seawater (~300-1,000 yr) can result in unique REE signatures in local watermasses. REE patterns preserved in biogenic apatite such as conodonts are ideal proxies for revealing original seawater chemistry. Here, we measured the REE content of in-situ, single albid crowns using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in combination with an ArF (?=193 nm) excimer laser (Lambda Physiks GeoLas 2005) and quadrupole ICP-MS (Agilent 7500a). LA-ICP-MS is ideally suited for analyzing conodonts due to its ability to measure compositional variation within single conodont elements. It has the capability to determine, with high spatial resolution, continuous compositional depth profiles through the concentric layered structure of component histologies. To evaluate paleoceanographic conditions immediately after the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) mass extinction in various depositional settings, we sampled a nearly contemporaneous strata unit, the P-Tr boundary bed, just above the extinction horizon from six sections in South China. They represent various depositional settings from shelf basin (Chaohu and Daxiakou sections), lower part of ramp (Meishan section), normal shallow platform (Yangou section), and platform microbialite (Chongyang and Xiushui sections). The sampled unit is constrained by conodonts Hindeodus changxingensis, H. parvus, and H. staeschei Zones in Meishan. REE results obtained from conodont albid crowns show that the seawater in lower ramp and shelf basin settings contains much higher REE concentrations than that in shallow platform. Ce/Ce* ratios in shelf basin and lower ramp are similar to one another, ranging from 0.7-1.0. The same ratios, however, are much lower in shallow platform and microbialite settings, ranging from 0.17-0.22 and 0.2-0.45, respectively. Eu/Eu+ ratios also show similar patterns: 0.7-1.0 in shelf basin and lower ramp and 0.3-0.7 in shallow platform. If the Ce/Ce* was truly influenced by environmental redox conditions, then Ce/Ce* values of 0.7-1.0 in shelf basin and lower ramp settings are indicative of a suboxic to anoxic depositional system, while the same proxy of 0.17-0.45 in shallow platform and microbialite points to a well-oxygenated setting immediately after the P-Tr mass extinction.

Li, Y.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, Y.

2013-12-01

354

Origins of microspherules from the Permian-Triassic boundary event layers in South China  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcanism and impact scenarios are two of the most plausible ways of interpreting the causes of the largest biological mass extinction at the end-Permian. Microspherules have previously been widely reported from tens of different Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections in South China and some other regions. These microspherules have been interpreted as either the product of volcanic eruptions or an impact event. In order to test these scenarios, we collected 60 samples from 12 intensively-studied PTB sections in South China. In addition, four soil samples close to these PTB layers were also collected for comparison. Our investigation indicates that abundant microspherules with mosaic or dot shape crystals on rounded surface are present in the surface samples in the PTB layers at Meishan, Meili, and Shatian sections and most soil background samples in South China. Those microspherules consist of four different types based on their main chemical composition, surface features, and internal structure including iron, magnetite-silicate, glassy, pyrite microspherules and framboids. In contrast, microspherules have not been found in a few sections in remote areas such as the Selong Xishan section in Tibet and the Dalongkou section in Xinjiang, Northwest China, in the deeply-excavated samples at the Shangsi section and the hard tuff layers around the PTB at the Xiaochehe Section in Guiyang. Microspherules decrease in abundance with depth in PTB clay beds. All these microspherules except the pyrite microspherules and framboids are found in both the PTB layers and the nearby soil background samples. The iron microspherules are pure iron oxides such as magnetite, hematite or maghemite and contain low concentrations of nickel and chromium, and lack an Ni-Fe core and general extraterrestrial mineral wüstite. All these external and chemical characteristics suggest that most of iron microspherules previously reported from PTB sections in South China are modern industrial fly ashes. A low ratio of Fe3 +/FeTotal in crystals of magnetite-silicate microspherules and high ZnO contents can identify them as industrial contaminants. The pyrite microspherules and framboidal pyrite found from bed 24e and bed 26 at the Meishan sections are of depositional or/and diagenetic origins, and only the rounded quartz and the fragments containing extremely high SiO2 and TiO2 are possibly of volcanic origin.

Zhang, Hua; Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zheng, Quan-feng

2014-09-01

355

Rare-earth elements in the Permian Phosphoria Formation: Paleo proxies of ocean geochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The geochemistry of deposition of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation (MPM) in southeast Idaho, USA, a world-class sedimentary phosphate deposit of Permian age that extends over 300,000 km2, is ascertained from its rare earth element (REE) composition. Ratios of REE:Al2O3 suggest two sources-seawater and terrigenous debris. The seawater-derived marine fraction identifies bottom water in the Phosphoria Sea as O2-depleted, denitrifying (suboxic) most of the time, and seldom sulfate-reducing (anoxic). This interpretation is supported by earlier research that showed progressively greater ratios in the marine sediment fraction of Cr:Ni>V:Ni???Mo:Ni, relative to their ratios in seawater; for which marine Cr, V, and Mo can have a dominantly O2-depleted bottom-water source and Ni a photic-zone, largely algal, source. The water chemistry was maintained by a balance between bacterial oxidation of organic matter settling through the water column, determined largely by primary productivity in the photic zone, and the flux of oxidants into the bottom water via advection of seawater from the open ocean. Samples strongly enriched in carbonate fluorapatite, the dominant REE host mineral, have variable Er/Sm, Tm/Sm, and Yb/Sm ratios. Their distribution may represent greater advection of seawater between the Phosphoria Sea and open ocean during deposition of two ore zones than a center waste and greater upwelling of nutrient-enriched water into the photic zone. However, the mean rate of deposition of marine Ni, a trace nutrient of algae, and PO43-, a limiting nutrient, indicate that primary productivity was probably high throughout the depositional history. An alternative interpretation of the variable enrichments of Er, Tm, and Yb, relative to Sm, is that they may reflect temporally variable carbonate alkalinity of open-ocean seawater in Permian time. A more strongly negative Ce anomaly for all phosphatic units than the Ce anomaly of modern pelletal phosphate is further indicative of an elevated O2 concentration in the Permo-Carboniferous open ocean, as proposed by others, in contrast to the depletion of O2 in the bottom water of the Phosphoria Sea itself. The oceanographic conditions under which the deposit ac