WorldWideScience
1

Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is pr...

Zhou Yiping; Ho Suzanne C; Huang Yunchao; Wang Jianfang; Dai Shifeng; Tian Linwei; Lucas Donald; Koshland Catherine P

2008-01-01

2

Nanoquartz in Late Permian C1 coal and the high incidence of female lung cancer in the Pearl River Origin area: a retrospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pearl River Origin area, Qujing District of Yunnan Province, has one of the highest female lung cancer mortality rates in China. Smoking was excluded as a cause of the lung cancer excess because almost all women were non-smokers. Crystalline silica embedded in the soot emissions from coal combustion was found to be associated with the lung cancer risk in a geographical correlation study. Lung cancer rates tend to be higher in places where the Late Permian C1 coal is produced. Therefore, we have hypothesized the two processes: C1 coal combustion --> nanoquartz in ambient air --> lung cancer excess in non-smoking women. Methods/Design We propose to conduct a retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis above. We will search historical records and compile an inventory of the coal mines in operation during 1930–2009. To estimate the study subjects' retrospective exposure, we will reconstruct the historical exposure scenario by burning the coal samples, collected from operating or deserted coal mines by coal geologists, in a traditional firepit of an old house. Indoor air particulate samples will be collected for nanoquartz and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs analyses. Bulk quartz content will be quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Size distribution of quartz will be examined by electron microscopes and by centrifugation techniques. Lifetime cumulative exposure to nanoquartz will be estimated for each subject. Using the epidemiology data, we will examine whether the use of C1 coal and the cumulative exposure to nanoquartz are associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer. Discussion The high incidence rate of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, one of the counties in the current study area, was once attributed to high indoor air concentrations of PAHs. The research results have been cited for qualitative and quantitative cancer risk assessment of PAHs by the World Health Organization and other agencies. If nanoquartz is found to be the main underlying cause of the lung cancer epidemic in the study area, cancer potency estimates for PAHs by the international agencies based on the lung cancer data in this study setting should then be updated.

Zhou Yiping

2008-12-01

3

The inherent moisture content of South African Permian coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inherent moisture content (IM) of coals impinges on many usages but little is known about the controls on this parameter in Gondwana coals. In the Permian coals of the main Karoo Basin the chief mediator of IM (on as as-received basis) is rank, which is determined by regional and contact metamorphism, independent of burial depth. Mineral matter content and maceral composition are ancillary controls. The relationship between IM and rank is inverse up to the anthracite/meta-anthracite boundary, where development of secondary porosity causes IM to rise sharply. Northern Transvaal coals deposited in structural basis separate from the main Karoo Basin are strongly deficient in IM relative to Northern Hemisphere coals of equivalent rank and type. Pressure generated by tectonism may explain this anomaly. 37 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Roberts, D.L.

1991-06-01

4

An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of southern Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coal deposits of southern African countries (Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Nambia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania. Zambia and Zimbabwe) are reviewed. The coal seams formed during two periods, the Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) and the Late Permian (Ufimian-Kazanian). The coals are associated with non-marine terrestrial elastic sedimentary sequences, most commonly mudrock and sandstones, assigned to the Karoo Supergroup. The Early Permian coals are mainly sandstone-hosted while the younger coals typically occur interbedded with mudstones. The sediments were deposited in varying tectono-sedimentary basins such as foreland, intracratonic rifts and intercratonic grabens and half-grabens. The depositional environments that produced the coal-bearing successions were primarily deltaic and fluvial, with sonic minor shoreline and lacustrine settings. Coals vary in rank from high-volatile bituminous to anthracite and characteristically have a relatively high inertinite component, and medium- to high-ash content.

Cairncross, B. [Rand Afrikaans University, Gauteng (South Africa). Dept Geology

2001-07-01

5

An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of southern Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The coal deposits of southern Africa (Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) are reviewed. The coal seams formed during two periods, the Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) and the Late Permian (Ufimian-Kazanian). The coals are associated with non-marine terrestrial clastic sedimentary sequences, most commonly mudrock and sandstones, assigned to the Karoo Supergroup. The Early Permian coals are most commonly sandstone-hosted while the younger coals typically occur interbedded with mudstones. The sediments were deposited in varying tectono-sedimentary basins such as foreland, intracratonic rifts and intercratonic grabens and half-grabens. The depositional environments that produced the coal-bearing successions were primarily deltaic and fluvial, with some minor shoreline and lacustrine settings. Coals vary in rank from high-volatile bituminous to anthracite and characteristically have a relatively high inertinite component, and medium- to high-ash content. In countries where coal is mined, it is used for power generation, coking coal, synfuel generation, gasification and for (local) domestic household consumption.

Cairncross, B.

2001-08-01

6

Petrography, carbonate mineralogy and geochemistry of thermally altered coal in Permian coal measures, Hunter Valley, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbonate minerals commonly occur in coals of many ages and from a utilisation viewpoint can be deleterious. Several studies have been undertaken of the carbonates in the Permian coals of the Hunter Valley, Australia, but few studies use a multi-technique approach. For this study, a combined petrographic, geochemical and mineralogical approach was used to determine the distribution and residence of carbonate minerals in coal that had been intruded by a dyke. The dominant carbonate assemblages comprise primary siderite in inertinite-rich microlithotypes and secondary calcite(-ankerite-dolomite)-dawsonite in vitrinite-rich microlithotypes. The secondary carbonates were found in both the aureole of heated coal and also in an unheated mine-face sample. It is believed that the secondary carbonate minerals precipitated from magma-derived fluids percolating through the coal following the emplacement of the intrusions. The textures and distribution of the secondary carbonate minerals suggest that the temperature and pressure of the fluids may be just as important in developing fractures near dykes (particularly those that have multiple phases of geometries), cleat mineralogy and coal textures as direct heating from the intrusion. The partitioning of primary siderite with inertinite and secondary carbonates with vitrinite indicates that it can be reasonably expected that there would be a partitioning of minerals in various density fractions derived from float-sink tests and consequently a partitioning of elements with inertinite-rich fractions containing elevated Fe levels and vitrinite-rich fractions containing elevated Ca, Mg and Al. This partitioning has implications for the behaviour of the coal during washing and combustion, and the composition of combustion products. (author)

Golab, Alexandra N. [School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Hutton, Adrian C. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522 (Australia); French, David [CSIRO Energy Technology, Science and Technology Centre, Lucas Heights NSW 2234 (Australia)

2007-04-02

7

Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Chen, J.; Liu, Guilin; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, L.; Jiang, D.

2011-01-01

8

Unique organic remains from an upper Permian coal bearing sequence in the Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The playnological assemblage of coal bearing upper Permian sequence of Talcher Coalfield registers presence of some peculiar organic remains. These are described as Orissiella gen. nov., which is characterized by a vesicle with collar-like structure at the oral end, spines and or corrugations on the body. The affinity and palaeoecological significance of Orissiella is also discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 plates.

Tripathi, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

2004-07-01

9

Megaspores from coals of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation (Lower Permian), northeastern Paraná State, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the results of a detailed study of megaspores occurring in coal seams of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation at Figueira, Paraná State, Brazil. This coal-bearing sequence accumulated in a marine delta system during the Early Permian. Four species are described and illustrated: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, and Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Of these, the two species of Lagenoisporites are predominant. Relationships to othe...

RICARDI-BRANCO FRESIA; ARAI MITSURU; RÖSLER OSCAR

2002-01-01

10

Geology and Permian coal resources of the Irwin Terrace, Perth Basin, Western Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potentially economic coal seams of the Permian Irwin River Coalfield cover approximately 170 kms of the Irwin Terrace on the east flank of the north Perth Basin. Mapping, drilling and gravity interpretation reveal outcropping coals that plunge to 400 m in a weakly folded half graben that strikes north-northwest. This post-depositional extensional structure contains an interpreted 1700 m of generally southeasterly dipping permian siliciclastic rocks preserved as a consequence of left-lateral shear in transtensional setting. Refined Permian rock stratigraphy is integrated with biostratigraphic palynomorph zones. Sediment ages span Carboniferous to Early Tatarian in the Late Permian. The coals are Aktastinian and correlate with the basal coal beds in the Collie Basin, south Perth Basin, and Karoo Basin of South Africa. A possible lacuna, spanning the Kungurian Nd Ufimian Stages, exists at the unconformity between the Wagina Sandstone and the underlying Carynginia Formation. Vitrinite reflectance indicates the Early Permian coal was buried to depths of 2.7-4.3 km in an interior sag basin between 4.3 and 5.8 km deep. Gravity modelling in the Irwin River Coalfield area shows that depth to basement varies from a maximum of 1700 m in the northern part to under 300 m in the south. Given the pre-existing mapped position of the Darling Fault, it is necessary to invoke a low density body immediately east of the fault and then a higher density body farther to the east in the models of traverses G1, G2, and G3. The low density body immediately east of the Darling Fault can be explained best as the result of shearing associated with the proto Darling Fault.(author). 26 figs, 2 plates, refs.

Le Blanc Smith, G.; Mory, A.J.; Lasky, R.P

1995-09-01

11

Generation and expulsion of oils from Permian coals of the Sydney Basin, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organic geochemical and petrological assessment of coals/coaly shales and fine grained sediments, coupled with organic geochemical analyses of oil samples, all from Permo-Triassic sections of the Southern Sydney Basin (Australia), have enabled identification of the source for the widely distributed oil shows and oil seeps in this region. The Permian coals have higher hydrogen indices, higher liptinite contents, and much higher total organic matter extract yields than the fine grained sediments. A variety of source specific parameters obtained from n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids, terpanes, steranes and diasteranes indicate that the oil shows and seeps were generated and expelled predominantly from higher plant derived organic matter deposited in oxic environments. The source and maturity related biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions of the oils are similar to those of the coals. The oil-coal relationship also is demonstrated by similarities in the carbon isotopic composition of the total oils, coal extracts, and their individual n-alkanes. Extracts from the Permo-Triassic fine grained sediments, on the other hand, have organic geochemical signatures indicative of mixed terrestrial and prokaryotic organic matter deposited in suboxic environments, which are significantly different from both the oils and coal extracts. The molecular signatures indicating the presence of prokaryotic organic matter in some of the coal extracts and oils may be due to thin sections of possibly calcareous lithologies interbedded within the coal measures. The genetic relationship between the oils and coals provides new evidence for the generation and expulsion of oils from the Permian coals and raises the possibility for commercial oil accumulations in the Permian and Early Triassic sandstones, potentially in the deeper offshore part of the Sydney Basin.

Ahmed, M.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Faiz, M.; Stalker, L. [CSIRO Petrology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2009-07-15

12

Megaspores from coals of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation (Lower Permian), northeastern Parana State, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a detailed study of megaspores occurring in coal seams of the Triunfo Member, Rio Bonito Formation at Figueira, Parana State, Brazil. This coal-bearing sequence accumulated in a marine delta system during the Early Permian. Four species are described and illustrated: Lagenoisporites triunfensis, L. scutiformis, Sublagenicula cf. brasiliensis, and Setosisporites cf. furcatus. Of these, the two species of Lagenoisporites are predominant. Relationships to other megaspore species are discussed; and the temporal and spatial distributions of the four species in the Parana Basin are documented.

Ricardi-Branco, F.; Arai, M.; Rosler, O. [UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil)

2002-07-01

13

Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zheng, L.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zhang, Y.

2007-01-01

14

Depositional environment and coal petrography of the permian coal deposits in the Karoo Basins of South - West Tanzania (Ruhuhu, Songwe-Kiwira and Mhukuru Basins)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Permian coal deposits in the Karoo Basins of SW Tanzania have been investigated in terms of sedimentary environments and coal petrography. The Lower Permian (Sakmarian/Artinskian) coal deposits in the Ruhuhu and Songwe-Kiwira Basins occur in the Mchuchuma Formation (K2), which consists of Mpera Sandstone Member at the bottom, sandstone-coal facies in the middle and shale-coal-sandstone facies at the top. The Mpera Sandstone Member and the sandstone-coal facies occur only in the Ruhuhu Basin, at Ketewaka-Mchuchuma Subbasin and at Mbalawala section in the Ngaka Subbasin. They were not deposited in Mbuyura-Mkapa section (Ngaka Subbasin) and in the Songwe-Kiwira Basin. (orig.)

Zahabu Semkiwa, P.

1992-01-01

15

The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and oloral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

16

The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)

2010-08-01

17

Facies evolution and cyclicity of alluvial coal deposits in the Lower Permian of East Africa (Tanzania)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ruhuhu Basin in SW Tanzania contains several small coal basins; Mchuchuma, Ngaka North, Mbalawala, Lumecha, consisting of fault controlled half-grabens submitted to several stages of tectonic activation. All basins underwent fragmentation in the middle Jurassic and late Miocene to Pliocene. Palaeotopography of pre-Karoo basement was partly responsible for the development of coal seam thickness distribution. Facies characteristics of the lower/middle and upper Mchuchuma Formation and the Scarp sandstone of the overlying Ketewaka formation exhibit synsedimentary basin subsidence. Vitrinite reflectance data suggest similar temperature gradients and burial history for Mchuchuma and Ngaka. A computer simulation program revealed the effect of post-sedimentary tilting of depositional surfaces. In Mchuchuma back rotation of the base of the economic coal seam was calculated at -2{degree}, Ngaka showed a back rotation of -6{degree}. Cyclicity was determined for both basins. Mainly fining upward cycles prevail, characteristic for a fluvial environment. The depositional model for Mchuchuma shows a meandering river system with a lower basal channel fill and upper overbank and flood plain sediments. Ngaka is tentatively attributed to a braided river system. Thinning of coal seams and increased ash in upper stratigraphic units depict deteriorating peat formation and preservation. Swamp water chemistry was responsible for peat preservation, channel configuration and differential compaction governed coal seam geometry. A slightly warmer climate than usually described for the Gondwana coals is proposed for the Lower Permian Tanzania coals. Microfloral evolution, eustatic sea level rises in the Sakmarian of Australia and available palaeotemperature curves suggest a mean annual temperature of 10-12{degree}C for a palaeolatitude of 60{degree}S.

Kreuser, T. (Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Geologisches Inst.)

1991-01-01

18

Coal petrology of coal seams from the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Lower Permian of the Parana Basin, Brazil - Implications for coal facies interpretations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul the coal seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin, Brazil and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. This study is the first detailed investigation on the coal petrographic characterization of the coal-bearing sequence in relation to the depositional settings of the precursor mires, both in terms of whole seam characterization and in-seam variations. The study is based on the analyses of nine coal seams (I2, CI, L4, L3, L2, L1, S3, S2, S1), which were selected from core of borehole D-193, Leao-Butia and represent the entire coal-bearing sequence. The interpretation of coal facies and depositional environment is based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses using different facies-critical petrographic indices, which were displayed in coal facies diagrams. The seams are characterized by the predominance of dull lithotypes (dull, banded dull). The dullness of the coal is attributed to relatively high mineral matter, inertinite and liptinite contents. The petrographic composition is dominated by vitrinite (28-70 vol.% mmf) and inertinite (> 30 vol.% mmf) groups. Liptinite contents range from 7 to 30 vol.% (mmf) and mineral matter from 4-30 vol.%. Microlithotypes associations are dominated by vitrite, duroclarite, carbominerite and inertite. It is suggested that the observed vertical variations in petrographic characteristics (lithotypes, microlithotypes, macerals, vitrinite reflectance) were controlled by groundwater level fluctuations in the ancient mires due to different accommodation/peat accumulation rates. Correlation of the borehole strata with the general sequence-stratigraphical setting suggests that the alluvial fan system and the coal-bearing mudstone succession are linked to a late transgressive systems tract of sequence 2. Based on average compositional values obtained from coal facies diagrams, a deposition in a limno-telmatic to limnic coal facies is suggested. (author)

Silva, M.B. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Geologica, Departamento de Geociencias, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Av. Italia km 08, Campus Carreiros, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2008-02-01

19

Radiometric age determination of tonsteins and stratigraphic constraints for the Lower Permian coal succession in southern Parana Basin, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons from tonsteins interbedded with coal seams from the Candiota and Faxinal coalfields (Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil) is presented. The mean ages obtained (290.6 {+-} 1.5 Ma) are more precise than previously published intervals. Calibrations of chronostratigraphic data with radiometric ages show that the main coal succession from the southern Basin is constrained to the Middle Sakmarian. The {+-} 2 Ma time interval of deposition supports the hypothesis that the coal-generating process was quite rapid in terms of geological time. In a general context, Faxinal and Candiota coals are assigned, into the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone, besides some paleocological differences evidenced by palynological studies. This bio-interval does not correspond to a consistent palynostratigraphic tool and more accurate biostratigraphic zonation for the Carboniferous-Permian interval must be delineated. The new results have far-reaching significance for correlations of the Basin with sequences of the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and also with the Karoo Basin, with the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). This new evidence supports the presence of an active and widespread Lower Permian explosive volcanic event in western Gondwana, which is interpreted as the same volcanism which produced the Choiyoi Group in western Argentina. According to this correlation the ash-fall source is located about 1400 km to the southwest of their area of deposition. (author)

Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Hartmann, Leo Afraneo; Formoso, Milton Luis Laquintinie [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, Joao Orestes Schneider [Centre for Global Targeting, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia); Ketzer, Joao Marcelo [Instituto de Meio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Avenida Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

2008-03-03

20

Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The content of trace element in pyrite vein depends upon the content of mosaic pyrite and of trace elements in it. Many environmentally sensitive trace elements are mainly contained in the minerals in coal, and hence the physical coal cleaning techniques can remove minerals from coal and decrease the emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang, J.; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

2002-01-01

21

Palynological evidence for the age of the Permian Karoo coal deposits near Vereeniging, northern Orange Free State, South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palynological investigations of the coal-bearing strata of the Vereeniging area, Orange Free State Coalfield, have led to an interpretation of the age of the northern coal measures of the Main Karoo Basin. The sequence, part of the Vryheid Formation, is composed of three major coal seams, these being the Bottom, Middle, and Top Seams. The well-preserved palynoflora obtained from the sequence allows correlation of the Vereeniging coal seams with the coal-bearing sequence of the Witbank/Highveld coalfields. The age determination of the sequence is dependent upon comparison of the ranges of [ital Granulatisporites trisinus] Balme and Hennelly, 1956, [ital Pseudoreticulatispora pseudoreticulata] (Balme and Hennelly) Bharadwaj and Srivastava, 1969 and [ital Praecolpatites sinuosus] (Balme and Hennelly) Bharadwaj and Srivastava, 1969 with their distribution in the better understood Australian Permian sequences. An Artinskian (Aktastinian to lower Baigendzhinian) age for the Vryheid Formation is suggested. The determination of the age and correlation of these strata is important as they are associated with historically significant plant macrofossil deposits, which were important in the development of the Permian chronostratigraphy of South Africa and Gondwana. 48 refs., 4 figs.

Millsteed, B.D. (Geological Survey of South Africa, Pretoria (South Africa))

1994-03-01

22

The geology petrology, palynology and geochemistry of Permian coal basins in Tanzania. 1. Namwele-Mkomolo, Muze and Galula coalfields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permian coal-bearing strata occur in a number of intracratonic rift basins in Tanzania. This study examines coals, shales and mudstones of the Namwele-Mkomolo, Muze and Galula coalfields (Rukwan basin) by coal petrological, palynological and rock eval techniques. For the coals the focus was on the establishment of coal seam characteristics and related quality and utilization potentials, whereas the shales and mudstones were examined for age relationships, flora and related palaeodepositional environments and source rock potential. The coal seams, which have a thickness of up to 2.95 m are high in ash and have calorific values ranging from 5344 to 18947 J/g. Many seams are detrital with a high content finely disseminated clay minerals, quartz and detrital macerals. Pyrite content is variable. Vitrinite reflectance ranges from 0.43 to 0.66% R{sub random}. Use of the coals in small-scale power generation and for domestic use would greatly reduce the dependency of rural Tanzania on wood and wood-derived charcoal. Palynomorph assemblages are characterized by the predominance of nontaeniate and taeniate pollen, and trilete spores in the Namwele-Mkomolo and Muze coalfields. At Galula coalfields the palynomorph assemblages were poor. On the basis of age correlations with Karoo basins to the south and the Collie Basin of western Australia, an Artinskian to Kungurian (?) age is suggested for the coal measures in the Rukwa basin. The diversity of palynomorph assemblages suggests a variety of floras and contemporary depositional environments. This is consistent with coal petrography indicating that peat accumulation occurred in upper delta plain, braided plan and lacustrine depositional environments. Rock eval parameters indicate koergen type III for all samples investigated and indicate very poor hydrocarbon source rock potential. 59 refs., 17 figs., 6 plates, 3 tabs.

Semkiwa, P.; Kalkreuth, W.; Utting, J.; Mayagilo, F.; Mpanju, F.; Hagemann, H. [Tanzania Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals, Dodoma (Tanzania)

1998-03-01

23

Organic petrology, thermal maturity, geology, and petroleum source rock potential of Lower Permian coal, Karoo supersystem, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on data concerning organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Karoo coal measures (Lower Permian) which are of considerable importance in determining the hydrocarbon potential of sediments in the rift-valley and half-graben complexes of the Luangwa and Zambezi valleys of eastern and southern Zambia, respectively, and in the extensive sedimentary basin developed on relatively stable Precambrian basement in western Zambia, a total area in excess of 3000 km{sup 2}. Samples from seven outcrop and subsurface localities situated in the northeast (northern Luangwa Valley), east (mid-Luangwa Valley), south (mid-Zambezi Valley), and the Western Province of Zambia were studied. The coal measures are from 9 to 280 m thick, but individual coal seams are generally less than 6 m. The coal macerals contain an average of 60% vitrinite and 9% liptinite, enough to have potential to generate hydrocarbon. A few samples contain twice this amount of liptinite. Reflected-light microscopy and the thermal alteration index of spores were used to determine the thermal maturity. The organic matter in samples studied is within the oil generation zone (thermal alteration index 2{minus} to 2+; %R{sub 0} max = 0.5-0.9). The petrological and palynological data indicate that the organic matter consists of Types II (generally approximately 25% in carbonaceous shale samples), III, and IV, indicating source rock potential. Late Karoo ( ) and post-Karoo fault blocks with differential vertical displacements may have produced structural traps suitable for oil and gas accumulation.

Utting, J. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada)); Wielens, H. (Unocal Canada Exploration Ltd., 150 6th Av. SW, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

1992-10-01

24

Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paran?? Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the predominance of quartz and kaolinite (also pyrite). Gypsum, gibbsite, jarosite and calcite were also identified in some samples. Feldspar was noted but is rare. The major element distribution in the three seams (coal basis) is dominated by SiO2 (31.3wt.%, mean value), Al2O3 (14.5wt.%, mean value) and Fe2O3 (6.9 wt.%, mean value). Considering the concentrations of trace elements that are of potential environmental hazards the Barro Branco, Bonito and Irapu?? seams (coal base) are significantly enriched in Co (15.7ppm), Cr (54.5ppm), Li (59.3ppm), Mn (150.4ppm), Pb (58.0ppm) and V (99.6ppm), when compared to average trace elements contents reported for U. S. coals.Hierarchical cluster analysis identified, based on similarity levels, three groups of major elements and seven groups of trace elements. Applying discriminant analyses using trace and major element distribution, it could be demonstrated that the three seams from Santa Catarina show distinct populations in the discriminant analyses plots, and also differ from the coals of Rio Grande do Sul analyzed in a previous study. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

2010-01-01

25

Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the predominance of quartz and kaolinite (also pyrite). Gypsum, gibbsite, jarosite and calcite were also identified in some samples. Feldspar was noted but is rare. The major element distribution in the three seams (coal basis) is dominated by SiO{sub 2} (31.3 wt.%, mean value), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (14.5 wt.%, mean value) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (6.9 wt.%, mean value). Considering the concentrations of trace elements that are of potential environmental hazards the Barro Branco, Bonito and Irapua seams (coal base) are significantly enriched in Co (15.7 ppm), Cr (54.5 ppm), Li (59.3 ppm), Mn (150.4 ppm), Pb (58.0 ppm) and V (99.6 ppm), when compared to average trace elements contents reported for U. S. coals. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified, based on similarity levels, three groups of major elements and seven groups of trace elements. Applying discriminant analyses using trace and major element distribution, it could be demonstrated that the three seams from Santa Catarina show distinct populations in the discriminant analyses plots, and also differ from the coals of Rio Grande do Sul analyzed in a previous study. (author)

Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

2010-12-01

26

Enrichment of U-Se-Mo-Re-V in coals preserved within marine carbonate successions: geochemical and mineralogical data from the Late Permian Guiding Coalfield, Guizhou, China  

Science.gov (United States)

We present multi-element data on the super-high-organic-sulfur (SHOS; 5.19 % on average) coals of Late Permian age from Guiding, in Guizhou Province, China. The coals, formed on restricted carbonate platforms, are all highly enriched in S, U, Se, Mo, Re, V, and Cr, and, to a lesser extent, Ni and Cd. Although the Guiding coals were subjected to seawater influence, boron is very low and mainly occurs in tourmaline and mixed-layer illite/smectite. Uranium, Mo, and V in the coal are mainly associated with the organic matter. In addition, a small proportion of the U occurs in coffinite and brannerite. The major carrier of Se is pyrite rather than marcasite. Rhenium probably occurs in secondary sulfate and carbonate minerals. The U-bearing coal deposits have the following characteristics: the formation age is limited to Late Permian; concentrations of sulfur and rare metals (U, Se, Mo, Re, V, and in some cases, rare earth elements and Y) are highly elevated; the U-bearing coal beds are intercalated with marine carbonate rocks; organic sulfur and rare metals are uniformly distributed within the coal seams; and the combustion products (e.g., fly and bottom ash) derived from the coal deposits may have potential economic significance for rare metals: U, Se, Mo, Re, V, rare earth elements, and Y.

Dai, Shifeng; Seredin, Vladimir V.; Ward, Colin R.; Hower, James C.; Xing, Yunwei; Zhang, Weiguo; Song, Weijiao; Wang, Peipei

2015-02-01

27

Influence of localised igneous activity on cleat dawsonite formation in Late Permian coal measures, Upper Hunter Valley, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O) and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic data have been used to investigate the origin of cleat dawsonite (NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}) in the Late Permian Wittingham Coal Measures of the Upper Hunter region in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} values have a narrow range (-1.7%% to +2.4%%), with an average of +0.3%%, suggesting a magmatic source for the carbon. In contrast, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} values have a wide range (+13.6%% to +19.8%%), and decrease systematically with decreasing distance from a major intrusion. This systematic variation reflects establishment of localised hydrothermal cells. Water-rock interaction between fluids associated with these hydrothermal cells, and Rb-poor volcaniclastic detritus in the coal measures, produced mantle-like {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.705032 to 0.706464) in the dawsonite. (author)

Golab, Alexandra N.; Palamara, Daniel R. [School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522 (Australia); Carr, Paul F. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522 (Australia)

2006-04-03

28

Petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana?? Basin: 1. Santa Terezinha, Lea??o-Butia?? and Candiota Coalfields, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The current paper presents results on petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization in Permian coal-bearing strata from the Parana?? Basin, southern Brazil. Sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that peat accumulation in Permian time was closely linked to transgressive/regressive cycles, with peat accumulation occurring in a predominantly back barrier/lagoonal setting. Coal petrographic analysis indicates subbituminous coals at Candiota and Lea??o-Butia?? and high volatile bituminous coals at Santa Terezinha, where locally the coal seams are thermally altered by volcanic intrusions. Petrographic composition is highly variable, with seams at Candiota and Santa Terezinha frequently enriched in inertinite. Chemical analyses indicate that all coals are mineral matter-rich (mean 49.09 wt.%), with SiO2 and Al2O3 dominating as determined by ICP-AES. Quartz is also the predominant mineral detected by X-ray diffraction, where it is associated with feldspar, kaolinite and hematite and iron-rich carbonates. The results from Scanning Electron Microscopy are broadly consistent with the bulk chemical and mineralogical analysis. Quartz and clays are common in all samples analyzed. Other minerals observed were, amongst others, carbonates (calcite, siderite, ankerite), pyrite, monazite, kaolinite, barite, sphalerite, rutile and quartz of volcanic origin. The distribution of trace elements is well within the range typical for coal basins of other areas despite the fact that the Parana?? Basin coals are very high in ash yields. The average concentrations for elements of environmental concern (As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn) are similar to or less than the mean values for U.S. coal. However, considered on an equal energy basis, Parana?? Basin coals will produce in combustion 5 to 10 times the amount of most elements compared to an equal weight US coal. Concentrations of major and trace elements, such as Fe, B and S, appear to be controlled by depositional setting, with increasing values in coal seams overlain by brackish/marine strata. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified three groups of major minerals and seven groups of trace elements based on similarity levels. On a regional scale, the coalfields can be separated by the differences in rank (Candiota and Lea??o-Butia?? versus Santa Terezinha) and by applying discriminant analysis based on 4 trace elements (Li, As, Sr, Sb). Highest Rb and Sr values occur at Candiota and are linked to syngenetic volcanism of the area, whereas high Y and Sr values at Santa Terezinha can be related to the frequent diabase intrusions in that area. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Kern, M.; Machado, G.; Mexias, A.; Silva, M.B.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

2006-01-01

29

Petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 1. Santa Terezinha, Leao-Butia and Candiota Coalfields, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper presents results on petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization in Permian coal-bearing strata from the Parana Basin, southern Brazil. Sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that peat accumulation in Permian time was closely linked to transgressive/regressive cycles, with peat accumulation occurring in a predominantly back barrier/lagoonal setting. Coal petrographic analysis indicates subbituminous coals at Candiota and Leao-Butia and high volatile bituminous coals at Santa Terezinha, where locally the coal seams are thermally altered by volcanic intrusions. Petrographic composition is highly variable, with seams at Candiota and Santa Terezinha frequently enriched in inertinite. Chemical analyses indicate that all coals are mineral matter-rich (mean 49.09 wt.%), with SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dominating as determined by ICP-AES. Quartz is also the predominant mineral detected by X-ray diffraction, where it is associated with feldspar, kaolinite and hematite and iron-rich carbonates. The results from Scanning Electron Microscopy are broadly consistent with the bulk chemical and mineralogical analysis. Quartz and clays are common in all samples analyzed. Other minerals observed were, amongst others, carbonates (calcite, siderite, ankerite), pyrite, monazite, kaolinite, barite, sphalerite, rutile and quartz of volcanic origin. The distribution of trace elements is well within the range typical for coal basins of other areas despite the fact that the Parana Basin coals are very high in ash yields. The average concentrations for elements of environmental concern (As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn) are similar to or less than the mean values for U.S. coal. However, considered on an equal energy basis, Parana Basin coals will produce in combustion 5 to 10 times the amount of most elements compared to an equal weight US coal. Concentrations of major and trace elements, such as Fe, B and S, appear to be controlled by depositional setting, with increasing values in coal seams overlain by brackish/marine strata. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified three groups of major minerals and seven groups of trace elements based on similarity levels. On a regional scale, the coalfields can be separated by the differences in rank (Candiota and Leao-Butia versus Santa Terezinha) and by applying discriminant analysis based on 4 trace elements (Li, As, Sr, Sb). Highest Rb and Sr values occur at Candiota and are linked to syngenetic volcanism of the area, whereas high Y and Sr values at Santa Terezinha can be related to the frequent diabase intrusions in that area. (author)

Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Kern, M.; Mexias, A.; Silva, M.B. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Machado, G. [Instituto de Quimica, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin-Geoinformatik-Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

2006-08-01

30

Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Lopingian (Late Permian) coal measures in southwestern China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lopingian coal measures of southwestern China were deposited within a range of facies associations spanning a spectrum of settings from fluvial to marine carbonate platform. The transitional to terrestrial coal measures are dominated by siliciclastics, but they also contain fifteen laterally extensive marine bands (limestone beds and mudstone). These bands act as marker horizons that enable correlation between fully marine and terrestrial facies. Examination of this range of facies and their sedimentology has enabled the development of a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework. Set against the established backdrop of second-order Lopingian transgression, sixteen fourth-order sequences and three composite sequences (third-order) are recognized. Results show that, in the composite sequences, peat accumulation in the seaward parts of the study area predominantly correlates with early transgressive sequence sets (TSS), while in more landward areas it correlates with the middle TSS to late highstand sequence sets (HSS). Differences in peat-accumulation regimes within the sequence stratigraphic framework are attributed to variations in subsidence and background siliciclastic input rates in different depositional settings, with these combining to produce differences in the rate of accommodation change. The preservation of coal resources in the middle to late HSS in this area was most likely related to the rise of the regional base level throughout the Lopingian. (author)

Wang, Hao [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Shao, Longyi; Hao, Liming; Zhang, Pengfei [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Glasspool, Ian J. [Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Wheeley, James R.; Hilton, Jason [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Wignall, Paul B. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Yi, Tongsheng [Guizhou Bureau of Coal Geological Exploration, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhang, Mingquan [Coal Geology and Prospecting Institute of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan (China)

2011-01-01

31

Late Permian global coal hiatus linked to {sup 13}C depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere during the final consolidation of Pangea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a time when all continents were finally arrayed in their Pangea supercontinental configuration (250 {+-} 50 Ma), Earth`s stratigraphy records a global and very abrupt coal discontinuity. From the Tartarian stage of the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic, reduced coal productivity and/or preservation overlaps with a period of anomalous oceanic and atmospheric decrease in {sup 13}C, as recorded in marine carbonates and organic matter, and terrestrial plant and animal fossils from the Northern and Southern hemispheres. During the same short period, the peripheral margin of the entire supercontinent Pangea, except for the southern shores of Tethys, was effectively under compressive stress. This unique tectonic state caused deformation and uplift of coal-bearing foreland basins and oxidation of Pangea`s vast peat deposits. The latter resulted in a rapid, massive {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} flux into the atmosphere, which in turn may have forced global warming.

Faure, K.; Dewit, M.J.; Willis, J.P. [University of Cape Town, Rondesbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Geological sciences

1995-06-01

32

Sequence stratigraphic distribution of diagenetic alterations in coal-bearing, paralic sandstones: evidence from the Rio Bonito Formation (early Permian), southern Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Linking siliciclastic diagenesis to sequence stratigraphy allows a better understanding of the parameters controlling the spatial and temporal distribution of diagenetic alterations, and hence of reservoir quality. A study of the coal-bearing, alluvial, deltaic, estuarine and shallow-marine sandstones of the Rio Bonito Formation, early Permian, Parana Basin (southern Brazil), reveals that the distribution of diagenetic alterations and of related reservoir quality evolution can be constrained within a sequence stratigraphic framework. Calcite, dolomite, siderite, kaolinite and pyrite cementation is consistently linked to sequence and parasequence boundaries, transgressive and maximum flooding surfaces and is systematically distributed within lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Diagenesis of coal layers at parasequence boundaries has promoted the formation of stratabound calcite (detectable in resistivity wire line logs), concretionary pyrite and kaolinite and of silicate grain dissolution in sandstones located above and below these boundaries, particularly in the transgressive systems tract. Meteoric water diagenesis caused grain dissolution and the formation of kaolinite in sandstones below sequence boundaries and in lowstand systems tract sandstones. Carbonate bioclasts and low sedimentation rates in lag deposits at parasequence boundaries, transgressive and maximum flooding surfaces favoured the formation of grain-rimming siderite. The results of this study are relevant to the exploration of coal-bed methane and other coal-bearing reservoirs, where it is crucial to unravel and predict the distribution and quality of reservoirs and compartments.

Ketzer, J.M.; Holz, M.; Morad, S.; Al-Aasm, I.S. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Science

2003-10-01

33

Mineralogy and geochemistry of a Late Permian coal in the Dafang Coalfield, Guizhou, China: Influence from siliceous and iron-rich calcic hydrothermal fluids  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the influence of siliceous and iron-rich calcic low-temperature hydrothermal fluids (LTHF) on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Late Permian No. 11 Coal (anthracitic, Rr =2.85%) in the Dafang Coalfield in northwestern Guizhou Province, China. The No. 11 Coal has high contents of vein ankerite (10.2 vol.%) and vein quartz (11.4 vol.%), with formation temperatures of 85 and 180 ??C, respectively, indicating that vein ankerite and vein quartz were derived from low-temperature calcic and siliceous hydrothermal fluids in two epigenetic episodes. The vein quartz appears to have formed earlier than vein ankerite did, and at least three distinct stages of ankerite formation with different Ca/Sr and Fe/Mn ratios were observed. The two types of mineral veins are sources of different suites of major and trace metals. Scanning electron microscope and sequential extraction studies show that, in addition to Fe, Mg, and Ca, vein ankerite is the dominant source of Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the coal, and the contents of these five elements are as high as 0.09% and 74.0, 33.6, 185, and 289 ??g/g, respectively. In contrast, vein quartz is the main carrier mineral for platinum-group elements (PGEs) Pd, Pt, and Ir in the coal, and the contents of Pd, Pt, and Ir are 1.57, 0.15, and 0.007 ??g/g, respectively. Sequential extraction showed a high PGE content in the silicate fraction, up to 10.4 ??g/g Pd, 1.23 ??g/g Pt, and 0.05 ??g/g Ir, respectively. It is concluded that the formation of ankerite and quartz and the anomalous enrichment of trace elements in the No. 11 Coal in the Dafang Coalfield, Guizhou, result from the influx of calcic and siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dai, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Yue, M.; Luo, K.; Ren, D.

2005-01-01

34

Shahejie-Shahejie/Guantao/Wumishan and Carboniferous/Permian Coal-Paleozoic Total Petroleum Systems in the Bohaiwan Basin, China (based on geologic studies for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey)  

Science.gov (United States)

This report discusses the geologic framework and petroleum geology used to assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bohaiwan basin province for the 2000 World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Bohaiwan basin in northeastern China is the largest petroleum-producing region in China. Two total petroleum systems have been identified in the basin. The first, the Shahejie&ndashShahejie/Guantao/Wumishan Total Petroleum System, involves oil and gas generated from mature pods of lacustrine source rock that are associated with six major rift-controlled subbasins. Two assessment units are defined in this total petroleum system: (1) a Tertiary lacustrine assessment unit consisting of sandstone reservoirs interbedded with lacustrine shale source rocks, and (2) a pre-Tertiary buried hills assessment unit consisting of carbonate reservoirs that are overlain unconformably by Tertiary lacustrine shale source rocks. The second total petroleum system identified in the Bohaiwan basin is the Carboniferous/Permian Coal–Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, a hypothetical total petroleum system involving natural gas generated from multiple pods of thermally mature coal beds. Low-permeability Permian sandstones and possibly Carboniferous coal beds are the reservoir rocks. Most of the natural gas is inferred to be trapped in continuous accumulations near the center of the subbasins. This total petroleum system is largely unexplored and has good potential for undiscovered gas accumulations. One assessment unit, coal-sourced gas, is defined in this total petroleum system.

Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix

2012-01-01

35

Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions (Shandong Province, China): Sequence development in an epicontinental basin  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions in Shandong Province, North China in order to understand the depositional processes and sequence-stratigraphic framework in an epicontinental basin. Based on detailed analysis of eleven facies, five facies assemblages (FAs) were recognized in the studied succession. FA1-3 are present mainly in the Benxi and Taiyuan formations, and consist of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate lithofacies, representing eluvial-lagoon, barrier-lagoon, and tidal-flat environments. FA4 occurs in the Shanxi formation and consists mainly of interbedded medium to fine sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, and coal lithofacies, representing river-dominated deltaic environments. FA5 is characterized by interbeds of trough cross-stratified coarse sandstone, and silty mudstone, mainly in the Lower Shihezi Formation, which was deposited in meandering river channel and floodplain. Three third-order sequences were established based on the vertical arrangement of facies assemblages and identification of physical surfaces (i.e., subaerial unconformity, transgressive surface, and regressive surface). Each sequence comprises a transgressive systems tract (TST) and a highstand systems tract (HST). TST of sequence 1 is composed of eluvial lagoonal deposits (FA1), whereas HST formed in lagoon-barrier and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 2 formed in a barrier-lagoon system (FA2), whereas HST is characterized by repetitive accumulation of interbedded limestone, sandstone, mudstone, and coal, deposited under lagoonal and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 3 comprises FA2, and HST mainly FA4, deposited in a river-dominated shallow-water delta system. Sequence 3 is overlain by a fluvial sequence (FA5). The three third-order sequences in the Shandong region are generally correlated with those in the Taebaeksan Basin (South Korea), the eastern part of the North China Block. The relative sea-level curves established in the two regions show a generally similar long-term rising trend.

Lv, Dawei; Chen, Jitao

2014-01-01

36

Sill-induced evaporite- and coal-metamorphism in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia, and the implications for end-Permian environmental crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the main processes behind the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses vary considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (up to 900 meters in thickness) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. Petrographic investigations of the metamorphic sediments demonstrate that widespread high temperature devolatilization took place. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was substantial and can explain the crisis.

Svensen, Henrik; Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre

2014-05-01

37

Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite  

Science.gov (United States)

Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, J.; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

2008-01-01

38

Coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

39

Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2012-01-01

40

Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The end-Permian mass extinction has been envisaged as the nadir of biodiversity decline due to increasing volcanic gas emissions over some 9 million years. We propose a different tempo and mechanism of extinction because we recognize two separate but geologically abrupt mass extinctions on land, one terminating the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) at 260.4 Ma and a later one ending the Permian Period at 251 Ma. Our evidence comes from new paleobotanical, paleopedological, and carbon isotopic studies of Portal Mountain, Antarctica, and comparable studies in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Extinctions have long been apparent among marine invertebrates at both the end of the Guadalupian and end of the Permian, which were also times of warm-wet greenhouse climatic transients, marked soil erosion, transition from high- to low-sinuosity and braided streams, soil stagnation in wetlands, and profound negative carbon isotope anomalies. Both mass extinctions may have resulted from catastrophic methane outbursts to the atmosphere from coal intruded by feeder dikes to flood basalts, such as the end-Guadalupian Emeishan Basalt and end-Permian Siberian Traps.

Retallack, G.J.; Metzger, C.A.; Greaver, T.; Jahren, A.H.; Smith, R.M.H.; Sheldon, N.D. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

2006-11-15

41

Palaeogeographic settings of Australian coal measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oldest Australian coals are Carboniferous in age and economically insignificant. All subsequent geological Periods up to the Tertiary, however, have provided at least some economic coal deposits. The most important are the Permian black coals and the Tertiary brown coals. The coals formed in a variety of palaeogeographic settings. This paper provides a brief overview of the settings of each major coal-bearing sequence and basin. 71 refs., 10 figs.

Brakel, A.T.; Wilford, G.E.; Totterdell, J.M.; Bradshaw, M. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1995-05-01

42

Extinguishing a Permian World  

OpenAIRE

At the end of the Permian, ca. 252 Ma ago, marine and terrestrial fauna were facing the most extensive mass extinction in Earth history (Raup and Sepkoski, 1982). 80%–95% of all species on Earth, on land and in the oceans, became extinct (Benton et al., 2004) within an estimated time interval of less than 200 k.y. to 700 k.y. (Huang et al., 2011; Shen et al., 2011). Among the prominent Paleozoic animal groups that vanished are fusulinid foraminifera, rugose and tabulate co...

Schneebeli-hermann, E.

2012-01-01

43

Petrographic characterisation of various coal seams belonging to different geological periods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In India, workable coal seams are reported from Karharbari formation (lower Permian), Barakar formation (lower Permian), Raniganj formation (upper Permian), Ghuneri (cretaceous), Tertiary formations and Karewa formation (pleistocene). These coals seams have formed in different geological periods. They have different petrographic composition and technological properties which influence their industrial uses. In work reported here, the authors have investigated Karharbari formation (Giridih coal basin), Barakar formation (Giridih, Jharia and West Bokaro coal basins), Raniganj formation (Jharia and Raniganj coal basins) and Tikak Parbat formation (Makum coal basin) to have find out about petrographic makeup, cleat attributes and technological properties. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

Singh, P.; Varma, A.K.; Saxena, V.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Coal Geology and Organic Petrology Laboratory

2003-02-01

44

Permian potentiometric analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties

45

Permian potentiometric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties.

Devary, J.L.

1983-09-01

46

Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arseating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

47

Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

2006-03-15

48

Controls on coal cleat spacing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between cleat spacing, cleat height and coal banding texture for Queensland Permian age coals of different rank, four of which are presented here. Whereas relationships between cleat frequency and rank, and with coal type or grade, have been reported in the past, relationships between the spacing and height among the different kinds of cleats are not quantitatively established. For other layered sedimentary rocks, joint or fracture spacing relates directly to both bed thickness and rock strength. Coal is similar to other layered rocks. Four major classes of cleats were distinguished, which were separate data populations when cleat spacing was plotted against cleat height; master cleats, single vitrain layer cleats, multiple vitrain layer package cleats, and durain (dull coal) cleats. Understanding the relationship between cleat height and spacing for specific coals, and the specific kinds of cleats within those coals, will lead to more accurate predictions of cleat density and hence coal permeability. This can improve modelling and prediction of methane gas deliverability in coal seams. In the Australian Permian coals studied, narrowly spaced cleats exist at all ranks, but the distribution of cleat spacing with cleat height is what varies for specific cleat classes. Cleat spacing was found to be directly proportional to cleat height in most cases. (author)

Dawson, G.K.W.; Esterle, J.S. [School of Earth Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

2010-06-01

49

SHRIMP ages for Permian boundaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article in Newsletter 122 (pp. 25-27) by Australian workers on the value of SHRIMP dates issues a stout defence of that technique, and if it is a little on the optimistic side, must nonetheless educe hopes for the future. At present, SHRIMP radiometric values for the Permian Period are not consistent, even using the same team and same laboratory. (author). 10 refs

50

Mongolian coal-bearing basins: Geological settings, coal characteristics, distribution, and resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents geological settings, stratigraphy, coal quality, petrography, reserves and the tectonic history of the Mongolian coal-bearing basins. This is based on a synthesis of the data from nearly 50 coal deposits. The results of ultimate and proximate analyses, and calorific value, maceral composition and vitrinite reflectance data is given. The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of the coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. The Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic coal-bearing sequences were mainly deposited in foreland basins by compressional tectonic event, whereas Cretaceous coal measures were deposited in rift valleys caused by extensional tectonic event. Petrographically, Mongolian coals are classified as humic type. Vitrinite/huminite groups of Carboniferous, Permian, and Cretaceous coal range from 44.9% to 82.9%. Inertinite group varies between 15.0% and 53.3%, but liptinite group does not exceed more than 7%. Jurassic coals are characterized by high percentages of vitrinite (87.3% to 96.6%) and liptinite groups (up to 11.7%). This might be explained by paleoclimatic conditions. Mongolian coal reserves have been estimated to be 10.2 billion tons, of which a predominant portion is lignite in the Eastern Mongolian province and coking coal in the South Gobi basin. (author)

Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea); Bat-Erdene, Delegiin; Jargal, Luvsanchultem [Faculty of Geosciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

2009-11-01

51

Distribution of twelve toxic trace elements in coals from southwest China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The content of toxic trace elements, including Be, F, Cl, Cr, Th, U, As, Se, Cd, Hg, Tl, and Pb, in 127 coal and stone coal channel samples from Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Chongqing was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS), ion-selective electrode CISE), and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results show that the coals from Yunnan of Southwest China were enriched in As; coals from Sichuan enriched in Cd; coals from Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, and Chongqing enriched in Cr and Se; coals from Sichuan and Chongqing enriched in Hg. The early Permian coals from Southwest China were enriched in F, Th, U, and Se; the Late Permian coals enriched in Th, Se, and Hg; the Late Triassic coals enriched in Cl, Th, and Hg; the coals from Tertiary coals enriched in As. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

Li Da-hua; Tang Yue-gang; Chen Kun; Deng Tao; Cheng Fang-ping; Liu Dong [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering

2006-07-01

52

Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle to bedding-parallel, have been identified along low-dipping limbs of the folds. They can be recognized due to the high colour contrast between the red-coloured Permian beds and the concentration of calcite veins in the decollements. The development of the structures above described has to be linked to the Alpine compressional tectonics. This interpretation is supported by the good correlation in geometry and orientation between the structures observed in the Permian basin and in southernmost areas of the South Pyrenean Zone, where the deformation is imprinted in Cretaceous to Tertiary rocks. In this regard, the southern border of the Anayet basin, at least in the western part, can be interpreted as a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the Alpine Orogeny. Bixel, F., 1987. Le volcanisme stephano-permien des Pyrenees petrographie, mineralogie, geochimie. Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica 11, 41-55. Gisbert, J., 1984. Las molasas tardihercínicas del Pirineo, in: Geología de España. Libro Jubilar de J. M. Ríos, Comba, J.A. (Ed.), IGME, Madrid, 168-186.

Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

2012-04-01

53

Permian Basin as a radioactive waste repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Permian Basin comprises portions of many structural basins in which halite was deposited close together aerially during the Permian Period of time. It contains at least five areas where salt beds within a formation cumulatively total greater than 200 feet, and are overlain by between 1,000 and 5,000 feet of strata: the Colorado-Kansas, Kansas, Oklahoma-Texas, Clovis and Carlsbad areas. A few other areas within the Permian Basin may contain salt beds collectively greater than 200 feet thick. The Carlsbad area contains a great thickness of salt and covers a very large area. For the Clovis and Oklahoma-Texas areas there is little data available for the Texas portions. The Kansas area has the only halite mines with rooms comparable to those of the proposed waste repository facility. There is little data available for the Colorado-Kansas area, especially for the Colorado portion. The Permian Basin major tectonic elements were formed before deposition of Permian salt beds, and only minor igneous activity and possible fault movement is along the periphery. The greatest seismic activity is associated with the Nemaha Ridge along the northeast side of the Permian Basin, and there is no proven movement, only a suggestion of movement in the form of lineaments to have caused earthquakes. All of the Permian Basin is in zone 1 of Coffman and Cloud (1970) where only distant earthquakes may cause damage to structures; therefore, ground rupture is not anticipated in the Permian Basture is not anticipated in the Permian Basin during the time that the radioactive waste is dangerous

54

Acritarchs from the Number 5 Seam in the Permian Vryheid Formation, Witbank Coalfield, South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two species of marine acritarchs, Mehlisphaeridium fibratum and Mehlisphaeridium gondwanaensis, are described from a shale parting near the top of the No. 5 Seam at Greenside Colliery, Witbank Coalfield, Republic of South Africa. The sedimentary sequence containing this coal seam consists of fine- to very coarse-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal which constitute part of the Early Permian Vryheid Formation (Karoo Supergroup). The paleoenvironmental implications of the discovery of acritarchs imply that marine conditions prevailed in the basin at the time of deposition of this particular shale unit. 56 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Venter, M.E.; Cairncross, B. [Rand Afrikaans University, Auckland Park (South Africa). Dept. of Geology

1995-12-01

55

High precision radiometric ages from the northern Sydney Basin and their implication for the Permian time interval and sedimentation rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three pyroclastic samples that bracket the coal-bearing Permian System of the northern Sydney Basin have been dated using the zircon U/Pb and hornblende K/Ar methods. The Matthews Gap Dacitic Tuff Member, situated 170 m below the base of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 309 ± 3 Ma. Its age correlates well with the Paterson Volcanics which suggests that the immediately overlying clastic sediments are equivalent to the Seaham Formation. The Awaba Tuff, which is located 50 m below the top of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 256 ± 4 Ma. An intervening horizon, the Thornton Claystone of the Tomago Coal Measures, gives a best estimate of 266 ± 0.4 Ma. The ages indicate an earlier beginning ? 299 Ma BP), an earlier termination (? 255 Ma BP) and slightly longer duration (44±13 Ma) of the Permian System in the Hunter Valley than previously suggested. Sedimentation rates of ± 65m/Ma, calculated from proximal sequence thicknesses, are only half the rate calculated from the closest maximum thicknesses. Both are considerably lower than previously quoted rates. The estimated time interval of 10 Ma between the Thornton Claystone and the Awaba Tuff is more than twice the length of time previously attributed to accumulation of the combined Tomago and Newcastle Coal Measures. 38 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

56

Uppermost Permian ammonoids from northern Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Uppermost Permian (Dorashamian) ammonoids, Pseudogastrioceras aff. P. guangxiensis Zhao et al., Paratirolites nakornsrii sp. nov. and Xenodiscus? sp. occur in the Huai Thak Formation near Lampang, northern Thailand. The stratigraphical sequence of the Huai Thak and Phra That Formations appears to extend from the Permian into the Triassic without a break from field observations. The present faunule is found at a distinct stratigraphical horizon about 50 m below the occurrence of Triassic bivalve Claraia (Lower Scythian). An Uppermost Permian Palaeofusulina fauna-bearing limestone bed is also present in the same area of Doi Pha Phlung and represents a related heteropic facies of the ammonoid-shale bed. Paleontological evidence is thus available to establish the position of the boundary between the Permian and the Triassic in this province.

Ishibashi, Takeshi; Chonglakmani, Chongpan

57

Permian radiolarian faunas from Thailand and their paleogeographic significance  

Science.gov (United States)

Chert and fine-grained clastic rocks in Thailand contain rich Permian radiolarian faunas. We have discriminated eight radiolarian assemblages in these rocks; Pseudoalbaillella bulbosa (Upper Carboniferous to lowermost Permian; Gzhelian to Asselian), Pseudoalbaillella simplex (lowermost Permian; Asselian), Pseudoalbaillella lomentaria (Lower Permian; Asselian to Sakmarian), Pseudoalbaillella scalprata (Lower Permian; Sakmarian), Follicucullus monacanthus (Middle Permian; Wordian), Follicucullus porrectus (upper Middle to lowermost Upper Permian; Capitanian to lower Wuchiapingian), Neoalbaillella ornithoformis (Upper Permian; Wuchiapingian), and Neoalbaillella optima (Upper Permian; Changsingian) assemblages in stratigraphic order. These radiolarians have a potential to contribute to understanding the history of the Paleotethys. Based on the radiolarian biostratigraphy and lithological characteristics, Lower to lower Upper Permian radiolarian-bearing cherts are thought to have been deposited in a pelagic environment in a deep basin far from land. The uppermost Permian radiolarian-bearing cherts, however, reveal differences in their depositional environments. In northern Thailand the uppermost Permian to Middle Triassic radiolarian chert was deposited in a pelagic basin, while in eastern Thailand the uppermost Permian chert and the conformably overlying clastic rocks show a change in depositional environment across the P-T boundary, from a deep pelagic or hemipelagic, to shallow seas in the Triassic.

Sashida, K.; Salyapongse, S.

2002-08-01

58

Carbon isotope variations in the upper Carboniferous - Permian Mallemuk Mountain Group, eastern North Greenland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope data from Late Palaeozoic limestones of the Wandel Sea Basin in eastern North Greenland show a variation of ?13C from 0.0 0/00 to 5.7 0/00 vs PDB. Carbonates depleted in 13C occur in the basal part of lower Moscovian, upper Moscovian and middle Gzhelian transgressive sequences. 13C enriched limestones occur later in the cycles. The most 13C enriched limestones occur in the youngest (late Early Permian-early Late Permian) part of the sequence in Amdrup Land. The isotopic data is believed to represent changes in the global carbon cycle. Thus 13C enriched carbonates correlate to periods of burial of organic carbon mostly as coal, while 13C depleted carbonates formed as the result of erosion and oxidation of organic carbon during sea-level low stands. (author)

59

Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse-greenhouse transition (Ecca Group, South Africa)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian coal-bearing formations of the South African Karoo Basin play a crucial role in the study and interpretation of Gondwana's climate history and biodiversity in this time of major global changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Here, we report on new palynological data from the No. 2 coal seam of the northern Witbank coal field, documenting the switch from Icehouse to Greenhouse conditions in the Early Permian (Lower Ecca Group). The studied postglacial fluvio-deltaic deposits of a highly proximal setting comprise coarse-grained to pebbly sandstones, partially with an abrupt upward transition into fine-grained sediments and coal, trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones, and horizontally laminated fine- to medium-grained sandstones and siltstones. The sedimentary organic matter content clearly documents stratal changes in the palynomorph assemblage and variations in the amount and in the type, size and shape of plant debris. Generally, palynofacies is characterized by a high amount of opaque phytoclasts. Amorphous organic matter is characteristic of laminated siltstones and coals. The palynological record indicates a cold climate, fern wetland community, characteristic of lowland alluvial plains, and an upland conifer community in the lower part of the coal seam. Up section, these communities are replaced by a cool-temperate cycad-like lowland vegetation and gymnospermous upland flora. Ongoing studies focus on the cyclic architecture of the coal seam, applying palynofacies analysis as high-resolution correlation tool with respect to decipher signatures of prominent climate amelioration on basin-wide, intercontinental and intra-Gondwanic scales.

Götz, Annette E.; Ruckwied, Katrin

2013-04-01

60

The Saint Martin de Belleville syncline and its uraniferous permian sandstone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation (these de specialite) is a study of the geology of the St.Martin d.B. syncline and the uranium prospect 'le Cochet' in the Carboniferous Brianconnais Zone of Savoy. Stratigraphy and sedimentology: This syncline presents continental detrital sediments ranging from U.Carboniferous to L.Triassic. In the U.Carboniferous, magmatic activity begins with the Moriaz Layers acid volcanics that are considered as a lateral equivalent of the Stephanian Courchevel Conglomerates. In Permian times, parts of an alluvial fan seem to occupy the north of the study area (gray and green conglomeratic sandstone). Southwards these inter-finger with flood plain sediments (red slate) including a locally oolitic limestone. Volcanic detritus is important in the Permian. Tourmalinite pebbles are frequent and seem to be related to the regional Permian magmatism. Albitization of feldspars is general in the Carboniferous and the Permian. The Permo-triassic typically shows microcline bearing dolomitic sandstones. In the Scythian quartzites orthoclase is the dominant feldspar. The quartzites are overlain by L.Triassic evaporites identified by the sulfur isotope ratio of their gypsum. The morphology of the zircons in the sandstones has been investigated using the typological method of J.P. Pupin. Regional Permian magmatism apparently produces volcanics of the calc-alkalic and tholeiitic series as well as a high level granitic intrusion of anatectic origin. The uranium occurrences are strata-bound on a kilometric and hecto-metric scale. They are developed almost exclusively in the gray variety of the Permian sandstones whose gray and red varieties are always barren. Within this unit, the mineralization impregnates irregularly distributed lenses and pods of coal material. Uranium is accompanied by vanadium occurring as roscoelite. The association U-V, of bio-philic character, reflects the concentration in the sedimentary environment and argues for a quite indirect relation with the source rocks. The mineralization is regarded as syn-genetic or more probably early epigenetic of Permian age, related to surface or groundwater flow that precipitated its metal content on wooden debris ('trash piles') in the host rocks. Alpine deformation resulted in folds and strong schistosity striking N2O that almost obliterate north verging transverse folds. The deformation caused plastic flow of the mineralized carbonaceous material on a metric scale. This material is now commonly found in lenses parallel to schistosity. Metamorphism is at the epizone/anchizone limit with a barrovian to high pressure gradient. It had practically no effect on the mineralization. (author)

61

A paleoclimatic simulation of the Late Permian greenhouse world and its consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sea-floor spreading assembled all the major cratonic blocks into a single supercontinent once in the Phanerozoic Eon. This unique Late Permian crustal tectonic event produced Pangaea and an enormous oceanic basin volume that dropped sea level to a global lowstand unrivaled in the Phanerozoic. Two paleoclimatic simulations using a numerical three-dimensional general circulation model tested changes in the greenhouse effect. The authors conclude that for a simulation to fit the Late Permian geologic record, the paleoatmosphere must contain an enhanced greenhouse gas effect. A third simulation tested changes of paleogeography in southern Pangaea (Gondwana) that did not appreciably alter the harsh continental paleoclimate. The simulated paleoclimatic changes provide extraordinarily warm ocean and atmosphere, and a significant reduction in continental rainfall and runoff. These conditions inevitably lead to more aridity and less vegetation on land, gradually reduce the delivery of vital nutrients from continental sources to marine margins, systematically liberate CO{sub 2} dissolved in ocean water, and incrementally increase stress on marine and terrestrial biotas. These consequences severely disrupted rates of oxygen and carbon cycling. Their quantitative paleoclimatic simulation is consistent with distributions of red beds, evaporites, coals, marine shelf areas, seawater isotope trends, and paleontologic originations and extinctions. Thus, the Pangaean plate assembly probably triggered an inexorable sequence of geophysical, geochemical, and biological events that forced an elevated greenhouse effect in the Late Permian, nearly annihilating the Phanerozoic biota.

Moore, G.T.; Jacobson, S.R.; Hayashida, D.N. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1991-03-01

62

Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito Formation, Early Permian, Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quiteria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Parana Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The record in some coal palynofloras of Striadopodocarpites fusus, a component of the Hamiapollenites karrooensis subzone, as defined in the palynostratigraphic framework for the Parana Basin, indicates a Kungurian age for the palynoflora.

Jasper, A.; Menegat, R.; Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; de Souza, P.A. [UNIVATES, Lajeado (Brazil)

2006-07-15

63

New discovery of Permian belemnoids in Hunan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fossil belemnoids described here were discovered from the Upper Permian Dalong Formation in Hunan province. There are nearly one hundred specimens, including one genus and one species. The diagnosis of the species is as follows: Genus: palaeobelemnopsis Chen, 1982; Species: Palaeobelemnosis sp. The guard is small and slender, about six times the maximum transverse diameter in length, with outline slightly hastate or fusiform. The maximum transverse diameter locates the border between the apical region and the stem region, and is nearly cycloid or slightly compressed in the anterior of the alveolus. The apical angle is about 70{degree}. The median ventral groove is wide and shallow, and is sometimes absent. Two dorso-lateral grooves are apparent and extending from the alveolus to the apex. The Phragmocone is slender. The outer shape of the guard is very similar to that of P. sinensis and P. minor. Nevertheless, this species differs from the two latters in having many transverse lines covering on the whole surface of the guard. Because all of these specimens are fossils of external mold and no inner structures have been preserved except a piece of siphuncle remains, the species is not given a new species name. Permian belemnoids are rarely found and the Palaeobelemnopsis is a primitive genus of belemnoids, therefore these specimens have important significance for research on the origin of COLEOIDEA. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Liu, Z.; Su, L. [Xiangtan Mining Institute, Hunan (China). Dept. of Geology

1999-06-01

64

High influx of carbon in walls of agglutinated foraminifers during the Permian-Triassic transition in global oceans  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian–Triassic mass extinction is postulated to be related to the rapid volcanism that produced the Siberian flood basalt (Traps). Unrelated volcanic eruptions producing several episodes of ash falls synchronous with the Siberian Traps are found in South China and Australia. Such regional eruptions could have caused wildfires, burning of coal deposits, and the dispersion of coal fly ash. These eruptions introduced a major influx of carbon into the atmosphere and oceans that can be recognized in the wallstructure of foraminiferal tests present in survival populations in the boundary interval strata. Analysis of free specimens of foraminifers recovered from residues of conodont samples taken at aPermian–Triassic boundary section at Lung Cam in northern Vietnam has revealed the presence of a significant amount of elemental carbon, along with oxygen and silica, in their test wall structure, but an absence of calcium carbonate. These foraminifers, identified as Rectocornuspira kalhori, Cornuspira mahajeri, and Earlandia spp. and whose tests previously were considered to be calcareous, are confirmed to be agglutinated, and are now referred to as Ammodiscus kalhori and Hyperammina deformis. Measurement of the 207Pb/204Pb ratios in pyrite clusters attached to the foraminiferal tests confirmed that these tests inherited the Pb in their outer layer from carbon-contaminated seawater. We conclude that the source of the carbon could have been either global coal fly ash or forest fire-dispersed carbon, or a combination of both, that was dispersed into the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean immediately after the end-Permian extinction event.

Nestell, Galina P.; Nestell, Merlynd K.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Basu, Asish R.; Ghosh, Nilotpal; Phuong Lan, Luu Thi; Rowe, Harry D.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Ratcliffe, Kenneth T.

2015-01-01

65

Phreatomagmatic Pipes of the Tunguska basin (Siberia): Improvement of End-Permian Mass Extinction Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is regarded as key phenomena responsible for the end-Permian mass extinction. Extinct event was accelerating due to release of enormous amount of gases throughout numerous basalt pipes, originated from contact aureoles of dolerite sills intruded into Tunguska Basin. Tunguska sedimentary basin consists of Precambrian and Paleozoic evaporites, carbonates and terrigenous rocks including Late Paleozoic coal-bearing strata. Precambrian and early Paleozoic oil source rocks contain numerous high potential oil and gas fields. Paleozoic evaporites contain rock and potassium salts deposits of commercial grade. Tunguska Basin evaporites are considered as a regional seal for the mineralizing brines. Permian-Triassic volcaniclastic rocks overlie this sequence and intrusive rocks have the numerous evidences of magma-sediment interaction result in basalt pipes formation. Compilation of available Russian literature gives us a chance to make a conclusion that hundreds of basalt pipes occur in the Tunguska Basin. The basalt pipes cross over all known dolerite intrusions and are filled with breccias of magmatic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks altered to varying extents. Pipes from the Tunguska Basin south have a phreatomagmatic origin that is supported by ubiquitous occurrence of altered sedimentary clasts and volcaniclastic lapilli, corroded by brine during initial stages of magma-evaporite (brine) interaction. Corroded lapilli rimmed by diopside, chlorine-bearing hornblende, apatite and magnetite. Our recent study of magnetite-rich coarse lapilli tuffs revealed the garnet lapilli rimmed with magnetite cemented by altered clay groundmass enriched by native metals (Cu, Sn, Zn). This result corroborates our hypothesis about magnetite formation during initial stage of magma-sediment-brine interaction. We suggest that these observations could shed light on end-Permian aerosol flux originated from basalt pipes and could provide new information for improvement of our model.

Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Jerram, Dougal

2014-05-01

66

Clastic sedimentary environments and organic petrology of coals in the Orange Free State, South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coal measures of the Orange Free State Coalfield occur in post-glacial Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary environments of the Karoo Basin. Pre-Karoo geology and palaeotopography are the overriding controls on sedimentation and coal distribution. The more important coal-bearing sediments occur within the Vryheid Formation of the Karoo Sequence in paralic depositional environments. Sedimentation is cyclothemic in character and four regressive cycles are recognized. Each basinward progradation is separated from the following one by a major coal seam. The basal Dwyka coal has a moderate to extremely high inertinite content and the Bottom, Middle and Top coals have high vitrinite contents. The petrographic distinction between the coals is also evident in their microlithotype compositions, the Dwyka coal having less than 40% vitrite plus clarite, the others, more than 50% vitrite plus clarite. This major variation in petrographic type may be due to climatically controlled diversity in sedimentary environments and plant type. The Dwyka seam was deposited in cold conditions associated with glaciation in the Early Permian; the overlying coals were deposited in a more temperate climate. However, within these two major climatic subdivisions, petrographic compositions vary with depositional environment. Comparison has been made of the Orange Free State coals with Permian coals from the Copper Basin, Australia, that have formed in a post-glacial, cratonic environment. The Cooper Basin coals were similar, petrographically, to those of the Dwyka seam, irrespective of palaeodepositional environment. 12 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Stavrakis, N.; Smyth, M. (Southern Witwatersrand Exploration Co. Ltd., Gallo Manor (South Africa))

1991-07-01

67

Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

The Grassi Detachment Fault is located in the Orobic Alps east of Lake Como and was described by Froitzheim et al. (2008) as an Early Permian extensional structure. Many issues still remained unclear, like the exact timing of faulting and the extension from the well-exposed part of the detachment towards west. The Grassi Detachment Fault separates the Variscan Basement in its footwall from the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Early Permian Collio Formation within its hanging wall, marked by a mylonitic and cataclastic layer whose textures indicate top-to-the-southeast displacement. The footwall basement is formed by the Variscan Morbegno Gneiss and two granitic intrusions, the Val Biandino Quarz Diorite (VBQD) and the Valle Biagio Granite (VBG). The former is syntectonic with respect to the detachment, whereas for the latter, the relation to the detachment is unknown. The age of the VBQD is poorly defined as 312 Ma ± 48 Ma (Thöni et al. 1992); the VBG has not been dated. Volcanic rocks of the Collio Formation in the hanging wall may represent the extrusive part of the magmatic system. In our study area west of Val Biandino, several faults and shear zones are exposed: (1) The Grassi Detachment Fault is represented by mylonites and cataclasites with top-SE shear sense, between basement rocks and the Collio Volcanics. Towards NW, it is truncated by the unconformably overlying Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. This may reflect the eroded culmination of a Permian metamorphic core complex. (2) A steeply NW-dipping, brittle normal fault is found further west in the footwall between VBQD and VBG. It is sealed by the basal unconformity of the Verrucano Lombardo and therefore should also be of Early Permian age (Sciunnach, 2001). It may represent an antithetic fault with respect to the detachment, accommodating the uplift of the magmatically inflated core complex. (3) The Biandino Fault is a steeply SE-dipping reverse fault, affecting also the Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

2014-05-01

68

Provenance evolution recorded by fine-grained Permian clastics, central Transantarctic Mountains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During austral summer 1985-1986, the authors collected approximately 310 samples of fine-grained clastics from 24 measured sections in the Permian sequence of the central Transantarctic Mountains. The objective is to extract provenance and paleoclimatic information from these fine-grained sediments, using their mineral and chemical compositions as well as principles established by other workers. Because the Permian sequence in the central Transantarctic Mountains records the transition from a glacial regime (Pagoda Formation), through subaqueous clastic (deltaic) deposits (Mackellar Formation), to fluvial sequences (Fairchild Formation) with coals (Buckley Formation), such an examination promises to provide valuable insight into the timing and nature of this paleoenvironmental change. Samples that have experienced minimal post-depositional alteration have been recognized on the basis of five criteria: presence of kaolinite; low illite crystallinity index, indicating relatively abundant less-ordered illites; low illite polytype parameter, indicting relatively abundant less-ordered (i.e., low temperature) 1Md illites; low vitrinite reflectance value, indicating limited heating of organic components; and high organic carbon content.

Krissek, L.A.; Horner, T.C. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1987-01-01

69

Effects of Igneous Intrusion on Microporosity and Gas Adsorption Capacity of Coals in the Haizi Mine, China  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120?m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance...

Jingyu Jiang; Yuanping Cheng

2014-01-01

70

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 393, May (2014), s. 243-253. ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Latest Permian extinction * gas hydrates * carbon isotope shift Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.724, year: 2013

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Šafanda, Jan; Beauchamp, B.

2014-01-01

71

Association of organic matter with uranium mineralization in the Permian sandstones of the Western Carpathians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mineralization is present in organic rich grey arkosic sandstones in the Permian strata of the Kozie Chrbty Mts. in the Western Carpathians. Dominant ore minerals are uraninite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tennantite, galena and sphalerite. The organic matter was analyzed by microphotometry., Rock-Eval pyrolysis and gas chromatography. The organic matter is of humic type at a stage of thermal maturity corresponding to medium volatile bituminous coal. Uraninite formed from solutions that evidently infiltrated the tissues of terrestrial plants at a very early diagenetic stage. Organic matter acted both as a sorbent and a reducing agent. The bands of uraninite grains in vitrinite are cut by younger quartz-dolomite-sulfide veinlets. The temperature to which the rocks were exposed during deepest burial is estimated at 100-150 degC. (author) 14 figs., 36 refs

72

A long geoclimatic record from the Permian  

Science.gov (United States)

A 260,000-year, continuous, annual geoclimatic time series has been compiled from the varved Permian Castile and Bell Canyon Formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico, and southwestern Texas. The last 200,000 years of the record was obtained from calcite-laminated anhydrite and anhydrite-laminated halite, which formed as a result of seasonal and annual deposition in the evaporite basin. The time series is based on measured thickness of individual varves. Analyses of calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and organic matter were made on 50-year intervals in the evaporite part of the sequence. Time series of the major components were examined by using smoothed graphic plots, variance spectra, and moving correlation coefficients. The longest oscillation recorded in the series that may be of climatic origin has a period of about 100,000 years. The calcium sulfate record contains 9-11 distinct oscillations with an average period of about 20,000 years. The strongest oscillation has a preferred spectral period of 2700 years and is recorded throughout the series as thickness changes in calcium sulfate, as events controlling halite deposition, and as episodes of basin freshening. A broad spectral response near a period of about 200 years reflects changes in sulfate, carbonate, and halite thickness. Shorter periods do not have consistent spectra. The time series contains no preferred periods that have not already been identified in previously described records. The climatic changes appear to be the result of a deterministic response to orbital effects at the longer periods and stochastic processes at the shorter periods. An unusually strong response near 2700 years is associated with episodic freshening of the basin. This period has been well established in the Holocene paleoclimatic record, and its presence in the Permian suggests a deterministic origin.

Anderson, Roger Y.

1982-08-01

73

Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F-T plant development in the U.S. is in the Alaskan oil fields.

Gerald P. Huffman

2000-10-27

74

Petrological and geochemical characterization of Candiota coal seams, Brazil - Implication for coal facies interpretations and coal rank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seven coal seams, from cores of the borehole M-IV-C-101, Candiota Coalfield located in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern part of the Parana Basin were analyzed by coal petrographical and organic geochemical methods. The seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. The composition, rank, coal facies and depositional environment characterization were made based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses. The data were then used in the definition of different types of facies-critical petrographical indices and were displayed in diagrams of coal facies. In addition, coal seams samples from Candiota Mine were analyzed by proximate, total moisture and gross calorific values and were classified using the United Nations-Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE) classification. In addition, Rock-Eval Pyrolysis, Liquid Chromatography, GC and GC-MS analyses were made to obtain independent parameters on coal rank and organic matter composition and environment of deposition. The results suggest deposition in open mires, with elevated contents of detrital macerals and clay minerals and also limno-telmatic coal facies. Coal-bearing sequence of coal seams represent a back-barrier setting. According to the International Classification (UN-ECE), Candiota coals are in the subbituminous (or low rank coal A) stage. Results from geochemical analyses showed that terrestrial organic matter is predominant as indicated by hydrogen and oxygen indices, carbon preference indices and the sterane distribution. Geochemical maturity parameters such as the 20 S/(20 S+20 R) and {alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) ratios for C{sub 29} regular steranes support the low level of rank (maturity) as indicated by the vitrinite reflectance measurements (0.41-0.45%) and gross calorific values (<24 MJ/kg, m, af). (author)

Silva, M.B.; Kalkreuth, W. [Laboratorio de Analises de Carvao e de Rochas Geradoras de Petroleo, Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP.: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2005-11-10

75

Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Shanxi province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Shanxi province, located in the center of China, is the biggest coal base of China. There are five coal-forming periods in Shanxi province: Late Carboniferous (Taiyuan Formation), Early Permian (Shanxi Formation), Middle Jurassic (Datong Formation), Tertiary (Taxigou Formation), and Quaternary. Hundred and ten coal samples and a peat sample from Shanxi province were collected and the contents of 20 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) (As, B, Ba, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography spectrometry, and wet chemical analysis. The result shows that the brown coals are enriched in As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, F and Zn compared with the bituminous coals and anthracite, whereas the bituminous coals are enriched in B, Cl, Hg, and the anthracite is enriched in Cl, Hg, U and V. A comparison with world averages and crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that the Quaternary peat is highly enriched in As and Mo, Tertiary brown coals are highly enriched in Cd, Middle Jurassic coals, Early Permian coals and Late Carboniferous coals are enriched in Hg. According to the coal ranks, the bituminous coals are highly enriched in Hg, whereas Cd, F and Th show low enrichments, and the anthracite is also highly enriched in Hg and low enrichment in Th. The concentrations of Cd, F, Hg and Th in Shanxi coals are more than world arithmetic means of concentrations for the corresponding elements. Comparing with the United States coals, Shanxi coals show higher concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Se and Th. Most of Shanxi coals contain lower concentrations of PHTEs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhang, J.Y.; Zheng, C.G.; Ren, D.Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, R.-S.; Wang, Z.P.; Zhao, F.H.; Ge, Y.T.

2004-01-01

76

Gondwana basins and their coal resources in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fault bounded five Gondwana basins have been discovered in the north western Bangladesh. Among these basins show considerable amount of coal deposits. The Gondwana rocks are highly formed during the Permo-carboniferous diastrophism and later on acquired dynamic characters. In almost all basins, the Permian rocks overlie the Precambrian basement and underlie either the Tertiary or the Cretaceous sediments, structural, stratigraphic, and depositional history of these basins is more or less similar. The sedimentary sequences are composed of light to dark gray, fine to very coarse grained, sub angular to sub rounded felspathic sandstone, dark grey carbonaceous shale and sandstone, variegated conglomerate and thick coal seams (single seam max. 42.38m). The rocks are often alternated and bear the characteristics of cyclic sedimentation. The depositional environments varied from restricted drainage to open fluvial dominated low to moderate sinuous drainage system. The coal bearing basins were flanked by vegetated and swampy over bank. Age of these coals is suggested to be the late permian. Proved and probable reserves of coal in Jamalganj-Paharpur basin are 670 and 1,460 million metric tons, in Barapukuria basin 303 and 3899 million metric tons; in Barapukuria basin 303 and 389 million metric tons; and in Khalaspir basin 143 and 685 million metric tons respectively. The coal is high volatile, low sulphur, bituminous type. It can be used for different forms of thermal converssed for different forms of thermal conversion. (author)

77

Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Permian Basin locatd in the western part of Texas. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

78

Coal Fires  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an introduction to the environmental hazards presented by coal fires. Topics include natural and human-related causes of coal fires, their potential impacts, the global distribution of coal fires, spontaneous combustion, and gaseous emissions produced by coal fires. There are also discussions of coal fires in China and India, a photo gallery, links to news articles, and a frequently-asked-questions feature.

Anumpa Prakash

79

Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Charcoal fóssil foi encontrado na Mina do Faxinal, Permiano Inferior, Formação Rio Bonito, na porção sul da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Foram descritos três tipos de lenhos gimnospérmicos picnoxílicos originários de um único nível de tonstein, o que confirma a ocorrência de paleoincêndios vegetacionais [...] nesta área. Uma redução da concentração de charcoal da base para o topo no nível de tonstein indica que a quantidade de combustível diminuiu durante a deposição, provavelmente devido ao consumo da vegetação existente pelo fogo. A presença de inertinita na camada de carvão, em níveis sobrepostos e sotopostos ao tonstein , indica que incêndios não estavam restritos ao intervalo de deposição da cinza vulcânica. A integração dos novos dados aqui apresentados com outros publicados anteriormente acerca da Mina do Faxinal, demonstra que eventos vulcânicos ocorridos nas áreas circunvizinhas podem ser identificados como potenciais fatores de ignição para os incêndios. A presença de chacoal em sedimentos associados a níveis de carvão em diferentes localidades no Permiano, demonstra que incêndios vegetacionais foram relativamente comuns nos ambientes formadores dos depósitos de carvão da Bacia do Paraná. Abstract in english Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in t [...] his area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumption of vegetation by the fire. The presence of inertinite in coals overlying and underlying the tonstein layer indicates that fire-events were not restricted to the ash fall interval. The integration of the new data presented in the current study with previously published data for the Faxinal Coalfield demonstrates that volcanic events that occurred in the surrounding areas can be identified as one potential source of ignition for the wildfires. The presence of charcoal in Permian sediments associated with coal levels at different localities demonstrates that wildfires have been relatively common events in the peat-forming environments in which the coal formation took place in the Paraná Basin.

André, Jasper; Dieter, Uhl; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Abdalla M. B, Abu Hamad; Neli T. G, Machado.

2011-06-01

80

The Permian mega floras of Uruguay.A synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Permian megafloras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the microfloral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called ''transition xilotaphofloras'' as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

81

Upper Permian (Late Changhsingian) marine strata in Nan Province, northern Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Upper Permian of northeastern Thailand (Loei Province), continental plants have been found and to the north in Laos near Luang Prabang, continental vertebrates (Dicynodon species) have been discovered. The Middle Permian is in sharp contrast to this as it is represented only by marine sediments. West of these areas in the province of Nan in Thailand, the Upper Permian is represented by marine sediments which extend to a high level in the Upper Permian and continental beds appear to be entirely absent, at least at Pha Dang Khwai, a locality where limestone extends from the end of the Lower Permian to the Triassic.

Fontaine, Henri; Hoang, Thi Than; Kavinate, Sathaporn; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Vachard, Daniel

2013-10-01

82

Water mass denitrification during the latest Permian extinction in the Panthalassic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest Permian extinction (LPE) event, about 252 Myr ago, resulted in the disappearance of >90 % of marine and terrestrial species. Possible explanations invoke, Siberian Trap volcanism, anoxia, H2S poisoning draw down of bioessential elements or a combination of these. Recent observation of coal ash dispersion into global oceans prior to LPE suggest global ash fall could have created toxic marine (terrestrial) conditions. Recent work also suggests volcanic mercury emissions may have added to toxic marine conditions. While development of marine euxinic conditions in the Tethyan region across the LPE is widely accepted, inferences on the redox and environmental conditions of the Panthalassic Ocean more equivocal. Indications of (photic zone) euxinia occur in marginal areas of Panthalassa. In central pelagic areas, however, expansion of low oxygen conditions across the LPE may be restricted to the oxygen minimum zone rather than towards the photic zone or the seafloor. Here, we report the ?15N isotopic signature in Late Permian - Early Triassic sediments from the Buchanan Lake section in the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic. Deep water marine sedimentation in the Sverdrup Basin, connected to Panthalassa via a western seaway, allows inferences on the nitrogen cycling across the LPE. We confirm that expansion of low oxygen conditions in the Panthalassic Ocean began prior to the paleo-Tethys Ocean. Further, the detailed correspondence of changes in denitrification, nitrate utilization/fixation across the LPE in both oceans indicate rapid reorganization of the marine ecosystem in response to changes in nutrient inventories, probably mediated through the eruption of the Siberian Traps.

Knies, J.; Grasby, S.; Beauchamp, B.; Schubert, C.

2012-04-01

83

The elemental and isotopic composition of sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal combustion is an important atmospheric pollution source in most Chinese cities, so systematic studies on sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese coals are needed. The sulfur contents in Chinese coals average 0.9 {+-} 1.0%, indicating that most Chinese coals are low in sulfur. A nearly constant mean {delta}{sup 34}S value is observed in low sulfur (TS < 1) Chinese coals of different ages (D, P-1, T-3 and J{sup 3}). High sulfur Chinese coals (OS > 0.8%), often found at late Carboniferous and late Permian in southern China, had two main sulfur sources (original plant sulfur and secondary sulfur). The wide variety of {delta}{sup 34}S values of Chinese coals (-15 parts per thousand to +50 parts per thousand) is a result of a complex sulfur origin. The delta N-15 values of Chinese coals ranged from -6 parts per thousand to +4 parts per thousand, showing a lack of correlation with coal ages, whereas nitrogen contents are higher in Paleozoic coals than in Mesozoic coals. This may be related to their original precursor plant species: high nitrogen pteridophytes for the Paleozoic coals and low nitrogen gymnosperms for the Mesozoic coals. Different to {delta}{sup 34}S values, Chinese coals showed higher {delta} {sup 15}N values in marine environments than in freshwater environments.

Xiao, H.Y.; Liu, C.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

2011-01-15

84

Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C1) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C1 to C5), while only C1 and C2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C2-C3, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presencetions from confined coals and the presence of C2 was detected in all samples while C3-C5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

85

Influence of palaeotopography on the distribution of coal in the Western Coalfield, Sydney basin, Australia: comparison with South African coals  

Science.gov (United States)

The Western Coalfield of New South Wales, centred on the town of Lithgow, is one of several areas of the Sydney Basin (Australia) that produces Permian coals for export and for domestic: use. The lowermost seam of the Illawarra Coal Measures, the Lithgow seam, was deposited in an alluvial fan to proximal braidplain complex. The style of clastic sedimentation and coal seam development was strongly influenced by the palaeotopography, especially basement highs which represent erosional remnants of the pre-Permian erosional cycle. The influence of the palaeotopography is seen in the distribution of the basal conglomerate, the thickness of the basal Shoalhaven Group (which is thinnest on and near the basement highs), the location of the alluvial fan facies of the Illawarra Coal Measures (which are adjacent to the highs and received a large proportion of the clastic detritus from these highs) and the development of the coal seams (which are distal to the basement highs). Of great significance is the location of economic sections of the Lithgow seam with respect to palaeotopographic highs. Adjacent to the highs the Lithgow seam is either too thin or contains too many claystone bands to allow mining. Between the highs: and further to the east and north of the highs, where the precursor peats formed on the floodplain and interfan areas, the seam is of significantly better quality and has been mined.

Hutton, A. C.; Feldtmann, R.

1996-07-01

86

Permian palynostratigraphy and palaeoclimate of Lingala-Koyagudem coalbelt, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Godavari Graben, one of the biggest basins among several Gondwana basins of India, holds a unique position not only because of its geographical location in South India, but also due to the presence of almost complete succession from Permian to Cretaceous sediments. The Graben is traversed by many small faults due to which the dating and correlation of coal bearing horizons is difficult in this area. As palynology is one of the most reliable parameter for dating, correlation and characterization of continental deposits, palynological studies have been carried out in order to date and correlate the coal bearing horizons of Gundala, Mamakannu and Kachinapalli areas from Lingala-Koyagudem coalbelt of Godavari Graben.The distributional pattern of various palynotaxa has suggested the occurrence of eight distinct palynozones in five borecores of Gundala (MLG-23, MLG-24, and MLG-28), Mamakannu (MMK-19) and Kachinapalli (MGK-6) areas. These palynozones are comparable to Talchir, Lower Karharbari, Upper Karharbari, Barakar and Raniganj palynoflora of Indian Lower Gondwana. Palynozone-1 is equivalent to Parasaccites Assemblage of Talchir Palynoflora; Palynozone-2 is correlatable with Callumispora + Parasaccites Assemblage of Lower Karharbari palynoflora; Palynozone-3 corresponds well with Parasaccites + Scheuringipollenites Assemblage of Upper Karharbari palynoflora; Palynozone-4 is comparable to Scheuringipollenites Assemblage of Barakar palynoflora; Palynozone-5 is correlatable with Faunipollenites + Striatopodocarpites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora; Palynozone-6 is comparable with Striasulcites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora; Palynozone-7 shows its equivalence with Parasaccites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora and Palynozone-8 corresponds well with the Crescentipollenites Assemblage of Raniganj palynoflora. On the basis of palynofloral evidences, it has been suggested that palaeoclimate during Palynozone 1-3 was cool but humidity was more in Palynozone-3 in comparison to Palynozone-2. Warmer phase started during Palynozone-4 with thick coal deposits, while Palynozones 5-8 representing Raniganj palynoflora indicate warm climate with very high humidity.

Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

2013-03-01

87

Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. (Texas Christian Univ., Ft. Worth, TX (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-02-01

88

Carboniferous and permian noeggerathialean plants and their spores; preliminary report.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Prague : National Museum, 2006. ISBN 80-7036-198-0. [European Palaeobotany-Palynology Conference /7./. 06.09.2006-11.09.2006, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA3013902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Noeggerathiales * in situ spores * Palaeozoic-Permian Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

Bek, Ji?í; Wang, J.

89

Thermal conductivity of Permian Basin embedded salt at elevated pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report on the results of measurements of thermal conductivity made on five core samples of bedded rock salt from the Permian Basin in Texas. This work was done in line with the premise that rock salt formations are among the leading contenders as sites for nuclear waste disposal

90

Predicting methane accumulations generated from humic Carboniferous coals in the Donbas fold belt (Ukraine)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The numerical modeling of the Ukrainian part of the Donbas fold belt indicates that the coalification pattern was controlled mainly by the maximum burial depth of coal seams and the heat flow (HF) (40-75 mW/m{sup 2}) during the Permian. The coalification pattern was overprinted by magmatic events during the Late Permian in the south syncline (150 mW/m{sup 2}) and during the Permian-Triassic in the north of the Krasnoarmeisk region (120 mW/m{sup 2}). The coalification pattern shows a strong increase in vitrinite reflectance values toward the east and southeastern parts of the study area likely caused by (1) an eastward increase in burial depth, (2) a probable eastward increase in HF, and, (3) probable magmatic activity. An increase in total erosion toward the eastern and southeastern parts was also observed with a maximum erosional amount of approximately 8 km (5 mi) in the southeastern part of the study area. The basin modeling of this area predicts that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred during the Carboniferous-Early Permian subsidence. The magmatic events that occurred during the Permian-Triassic caused renewed pulses of hydrocarbon generation. A large amount of the generated hydrocarbons was lost to the surface because of a lack of seals. However, the numerical simulation predicts accumulations of about 2 tcf (57 billion m{sup 3}) of methane generated from Carboniferous coals in the south and main synclines, where Lower Permian seal rocks are preserved. Finally, this study provides data on methane resources along the northern flank

Alsaab, D.; Elie, M.; Izart, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Privalov, V.A. [Paradigm Co., Nancy (France)

2008-08-15

91

The Permian Whitehill Formation (Karoo Basin, South Africa): deciphering the complexity and potential of an unconventional gas resource  

Science.gov (United States)

A key energy policy objective of the South African government is to diversify its energy mix from coal which constitutes 85% of the current mix. Gas will play a key role in the future South African economy with demand coming from electricity generation and gas-to-liquids projects. A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2011 concluded that there could be as much as 485 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the South African Karoo Basin. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. The present study compiles existing data from literature review and new data from outcrop analogue studies on the Permian Whitehill Formation, the main target formation for future shale gas production, including thickness, depth, maturity, TOC, lithologies, sedimentary and organic facies, and dolerite occurrence to provide a first reference dataset for further investigations and resource estimates.

Götz, Annette E.

2014-05-01

92

Latest Permian Deep-Water Ostracod (Crustacea) Fauna from South China  

OpenAIRE

As the other marine organisms, ostracods suffered drastic change during the end-Permian mass extinction, the largest event among the "Big Five" in the Phanerozoic history. In South China, Late Permian strata are well and widely exposed, which provides the great availability for related studies. Previous studies on Late Permian shallow water ostracod faunas in South China have been evolved in the taxonomy, biostratigraphy and palaeoenvironment. These studies have greatly increased our knowledg...

Yuan, Aihua

2008-01-01

93

A first record of late Middle Permian actinopterygian fish from Anatolia, Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The Middle-Upper Permian of the Gomaniibrik Formation, of the Tanin Group, in south-east Anatolia, close to the Iraq border, yielded moderately preserved fish remains. Two species, Palaeoniscum freieslebeni and Pygopterus cf. nielseni, known so far only from the Upper Permian deposits of the Zechstein Basin in western Central Europe, were recognised. This late Middle Permian Anatolian record significantly widens the geographical range of these actinopterygians into the equatorial Palaeotethys Realm.

Ho?gör, Izzet; Štamberg, Stanislav

2014-06-01

94

Selection of nuclear waste repository sites in the Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since late 1977, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting environmental and geologic studies in order to identify potential sites for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste from commercial reactors. The DOE proposes to bury the waste deep underground in conventionally-mined repositories located in stable geologic deposits such as salt formations. Geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic studies led to the identification of two potentially suitable repository sites in the Permian bedded salt formation of west Texas. Detailed multi-disciplinary studies will be required to confirm the ability of these sites to isolate the high-level nuclear waste from the human environment for a period of 10,000 years in an environmentally sound manner. This report provides a description and discussion of the multi-step site selection process that identified the two 9 square mile (23 square kilometer) sites from the 80,000 square mile (26,000 square kilometer) Permian salt formation

95

Injection technology increases oil recovery at Permian Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article provided a brief overview of the positive field results of the Powerwave injection technology at an oil field in the Permian Basin. The patented injection technology uses pulses of fluid pressure to create momentary elastic flexure of the pore structure to improve the flow of fluids in sedimentary soils and fractured rock, thereby optimizing the performance of chemical enhanced oil recovery technologies, liquid carbon dioxide injection, water injection, and surfactant/polymer flooding to effectively increase oil recovery. In the example of the West Texas waterflood, the Powerwave technology generated an overall production increase of nearly 50 percent. The significant improvements in production and the increased profitability that resulted from the installation of the Powerwave equipment are expected generate interest in the technology from other operators seeking to maximize oil recovery in their fields. The Edmonton-based company is actively pursuing other contracts in the Permian Basin. 1 fig., 1 ref.

Anon.

2010-09-15

96

The Karoo Basin of South Africa: type basin for the coal-bearing deposits of southern Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coal-bearing sediments and coal seams of the Karoo Basin, Southern Africa are described. The Karoo Basin is bounded on its southern margin by the Cape Fold Belt, onlaps onto the Kaapvaal Craton in the north and is classified as a foreland basin. Coal seams are present within the Early Permian Vryheid Formation and the Triassic Molteno Formation. The peats of the Vryheid Formation accumulated within swamps in a cool temperate climatic regime. Lower and upper delta plain, back-barrier and fluvial environments were associated with peat formation. Thick, laterally extensive coal seams have preferentially accumulated in fluvial environments. The coals are in general inertinite-rich and high in ash. However, increasing vitrinite and decreasing ash contents within seams occur from west to east across the coalfields. The Triassic Molteno coal seams accumulated within aerially restricted swamps in fluvial environments. These Molteno coals are thin, laterally impersistent, vitrinite-rich and shaly, and formed under a warm temperate climatic regime. Palaeoclimate, depositional systems, differential subsidence and basin tectonics influence to varying degrees, the maceral content, thickness and lateral extent of coal seams. However, the geographic position of peat-forming swamps within a foreland basin, coupled with basin tectonics and differential subsidence are envisaged as the primary controls on coal parameters. The Permian coals are situated in proximal positions on the passive margin of the foreland basin. Here, subsidence was limited which enhanced oxidation of organic matter and hence the formation of inertinitic coals. The coals in this tectonic setting are thick and laterally extensive. The Triassic coals are situated within the tectonically active foreland basin margin. Rapid subsidence and sedimentation rates occurred during peat formation which resulted in the preservation of thin, laterally impersistent, high ash, vitrinite-rich, shaly coals. 82 refs., 14 figs.

Cadle, A.B.; Cairncross, B.; Christe, A.D.M.; Roberts, D.L. (Witwatersrand University, Wits (South Africa). Geology Department)

1993-09-01

97

Palynostratigraphic correlation of the Sardhai Formation (Permian) of Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

Palynological assemblages from the Sardhai Formation shale (Permian), lying between the red-bed Warchha Formation and the Amb Formation limestones in the Salt and Khisor ranges of Pakistan contain abundant bisaccate pollen grains and few spores. In particular, well-preserved specimens of Florinites? balmei, a bilaterally symmetrical monosaccate pollen grain, are common. The presence of this pollen and the stratigraphic context suggest that the Sardhai Formation correlates with the Khuff trans...

Jan, Irfan U.; Stephenson, Michael H.; Khan, Fazli R.

2009-01-01

98

Hooked: Habits of the Chinese Permian gigantopterid Gigantonoclea  

Science.gov (United States)

Based upon anatomical evidence, Permian aged gigantopterid fossils are in general reconstructed as climbing or scrambling plants. Gigantonoclea, a genus of adpressed gigantopterid foliage from the Permian of northern China, has been reported to co-occur with hook-like organs that were interpreted as indicating a scrambling/climbing habit. We reinvestigated these hook-like structures and re-evaluated the nature of the co-occurrences in context with the flora preserved in each plant-bearing fossil 'bed' in the North China sedimentary succession. New findings show that the species Gigantonoclea hallei probably climbed using specially adapted clusters of compound grappling hook-like shoots borne on the stems. This structural arrangement comprising shoots of hooks is new to the scrambling/climbing concept in gigantopterids. However, a key figured specimen previously reported as showing intermediate hook-tipped leaf morphology on a sole pinnule tip is discounted as such and is reinterpreted as a 'normal' pinnule partially hidden under sediment that results in an unusual appearance to this pinnule tip. Adaptations for climbing or scrambling based upon 'hooked leaves' observed in Gigantonoclea lagrelii are no longer supported and are reinterpreted as incompletely expanded leaves where the vernation process was interrupted. These data weaken prior interpretations of G. lagrelii as a climber/scrambler and raise doubts about the ubiquity of hooks amongst the gigantopterids as structures enabling them to climb or scramble their way through the Permian world.

Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Hilton, Jason

2014-04-01

99

Permian tectonic framework and palaeogeography of SE Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal continental lithospheric terranes, now comprising SE Asia and that existed in the Permian, are the South China/Indochina Super Terrane, and the Sibumasu, Simao, West Burma and SW Borneo/Semitau terranes. The Simao Terrane is here regarded a separate terrane, derived from South China by back-arc spreading in the Lower Carboniferous, rather than as an extension of Indochina. The main Palaeo-Tethys ocean in Thailand is identified as being represented by the Chiang Mai and Sra Kaeo sutures, and the eastern boundary of the Sibumasu Terrane is thus interpreted to lie farther west in Thailand than previously inferred. The Nan-Uttaradit Suture is interpreted as representing a marginal back-arc basin, and contiguous with the Ailaoshan and Jinshajiang sutures in SW China. The South China/Indochina Super Terrane, and the Simao Terrane were located within the Palaeo-Tethys in equatorial latitudes during the Permian, where they, together with North China, exhibit Cathaysian floras and faunas. The Sibumasu Terrane was located on the NW Australian margin of Gondwana until the Sakmarian. Major shifts in faunal affinities from Gondwana province faunas to an independent Sibumasu Province and then to assimilation into the Cathaysian Province, records the separation and rapid northward drift of Sibumasu after the Late Sakmarian. The principal Permian palaeogeographic models for the region are assessed for internal consistencies and conflicts.

Metcalfe, I.

2002-08-01

100

Gondwana's climate history inferred from the palynological record of South Africa's coal deposits: the Early Triassic wet intermezzo  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian-Triassic coals of the South African Karoo Basin play a central role in the study and interpretation of Gondwana's climate history and related vegetational changes in time and space. The palynological record of the coal-bearing formations reveals major phases of climate amelioration succeeding the Permo-Carboniferous Gondwana glaciations. Subsequent to the melting of the Dwyka ice, cold to cool-temperate climate conditions prevailed during the Early Permian and a continuous change to hot and dry climate conditions of the Late Permian and Triassic was inferred from sedimentological and palaeontological data so far. The here presented new palynological and geochemical data from the Early Triassic Molteno coal (Stormberg Group) point to a short-term switch from dry to wet climate conditions. To date, this wet intermezzo of Gondwana's early Mesozoic climate history has been overlooked in the Molteno coal of the Karoo Basin. The spore/pollen ratios, used as a proxy for humidity changes, indicate a significant climatic change corresponding to a prominent C-isotope excursion. Ongoing studies will provide a detailed palynological inventory of the Early Triassic coal deposits on an intra-Gondwanic scale, contributing to the interpretation of early Mesozoic palaeoclimates.

Götz, Annette E.

2013-04-01

101

Permian U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages from Australia and China: Constraining the time scale of environmental and biotic change  

Science.gov (United States)

In eastern Australia, the interconnected Bowen and Sydney Basins are filled with terrestrial sediments of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. These sedimentary units record significant evolutionary events of eastern Gondwana during the time interval between two major mass extinctions (end Middle Permian and Permian-Triassic), and also provide lithological evidence for the Carboniferous-Permian Late Paleozoic Ice Age of southern Pangea, considered to be divisible into up to seven discrete glaciation events in Australia [e.g., 1]. These glaciations are currently assigned ages that indicate that the last of the glaciations predate the end Middle Permian mass extinction at ca. 260 Ma. However, the estimates for the time and durations are largely based on biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy that, in the absence of robust and precise radioisotopic ages, are unacceptably fragile for providing an accurate high-resolution framework. Interbedded with the sediments are numerous tuff layers that contain zircon, many of which are associated with extensive coal measures in the Sydney and Bowen Basins. Published SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages [2, 3] have been shown to be less precise and inaccurate when compared to ages applying the CA-TIMS method to the same horizons. Also within the late Middle Permian, the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts in SW China has been proposed to have caused the end Middle Permian mass extinction [e.g., 4], though a causal link between these events demands a rigorous test that can only be provided by high-resolution geochronology. We present new U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages on tuff layers from the Sydney and Bowen Basins, with the purpose of generating a timescale for the Upper Permian of Australia to allow correlation with different parts of the world. Initial results, with permil precision, date a tuff layer within the uppermost Bandanna Fm. to ca. 252 Ma, a tuff within the Moranbah Coal Measures to ca. 256 Ma, and a tuff within the Ingelara Fm. to ca. 257 Ma, the latter two units lying stratigraphically below the latest identified glacial deposits. U-Pb (CA-TIMS) results on zircons from the Emeishan flood basalts and related volcanic products confirm the end-Guadalupian age (ca. 260 Ma) of the magmatism, and based on present data, place the Emeishan volcanic event (and its possibly associated mass extinction) within the occurrence of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. This study’s primary goal is the establishment of a chronostratigraphic framework that would allow the integration of calibrated records from both terrestrial and marine units from different parts of the world in order to constrain the timing and rates of extinctions and recoveries in different locations and physical environments. [1] Fielding et al. (2008), J. Geol Soc. Lon., v. 165, pp. 129-140 [2] Michaelsen et al. (2001), Aus. J. Earth Sci., v. 48, pp. 183-192 [3] Roberts et al. (1996), Aus. J. Earth Sci., v. 43, pp. 401-421 [4] He et al. (2007), EPSL, v. 255, pp. 306-323

Denyszyn, S. W.; Mundil, R.; Metcalfe, I.; He, B.

2010-12-01

102

C1-2 arthrography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred patients with the following conditions were studied: cervical pain or neuralgia without radiographic changes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylarthritis and diverse conditions. The technique consists of lateral puncture of the posterior aspect of the C1-2 joint with a 20-gauge needle under fluoroscopic control, arthrography using 1 ml contrast medium, and a 1-ml long-acting steroid injection subsequently. The articular cavity has an anterior and a posterior recess. Sometimes the posterior recess is large. In 18% of cases the contralateral joint also opacifies. C1-2 arthrography appears to be an efficient and safe technique for the treatment of upper cervical pain due to C1-2 articular disorders. (orig.)

103

The marine Permian of East and Northeast Asia: an overview of biostratigraphy, palaeobiogeography and palaeogeographical implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian marine biostratigraphy, faunal successions and mutual correlations (where possible) throughout East and Northeast Asia are synthesized, region by region, based on both published literature and the author's field observations in certain parts of the region. The correlation of the Permian marine successions of NE Asia with the Permian international timescale and, in particular, with Gondwanan Permian marine sequences remains a major challenge, due to profound marine provincialism during the Permian. However, by employing biogeographically mixed faunas from East Asia (SE Mongolia, NE China, South Primorye of Far East Russia and the South Kitakami Terrane of Japan) as 'biostratigraphic gateways', coupled with some bipolarly and bi-temperately shared Permian marine taxa and faunas, it has been possible to correlate, with reasonable confidence, some of the high-palaeolatitude Permian marine rock units and faunas of NE Asia with those of the Tethyan region and Gondwana. Palaeobiogeographically, the Permian marine faunas of East and NE Asia are assigned to four major provinces: Verkolyman, Sino-Mongolian-Japanese, Cathaysian and Panthalassan provinces, on the basis of their palaeogeographical distribution patterns and characteristics of faunal assemblages. Of these, the Sino-Mongolian-Japanese Province has considerable significance for regional palaeogeographical, plate tectonic and palaeoceanographical reconstructions during the Middle Permian, because of its conspicuously mixed cool- and warm-water marine biota. The origin of this biogeographically mixed marine biota is interpreted to have resulted from a combination of some key factors, including the increased tectonic convergence between the Bureya-Jiamusi Terrane and the Sino-Korean Platform during the Permian and the intermingling of both warm- and cold-water ocean currents off the eastern coastal areas of the Bureya-Jiamusi Terrane and the Sino-Korean Platform during the Middle Permian.

Shi, G. R.

2006-03-01

104

Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

Ross, D.S.

1989-12-21

105

Coal Rank and Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian Coal and Coaly Shale Samples, Young County, North-Central Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.

Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.

2007-01-01

106

Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal tar is derived from coal. It is a byproduct of the production of coke, a solid fuel that contains mostly carbon, and coal gas. Coal tar is used primarily for the production of refined chemicals and coal-tar products, such as creosote and coal-tar pitch. Certain preparations of coal tar have long been used to treat various skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

107

Paleozoic of the post-Variscan platform in the Bohemian Massif and its environs: Upper Permian.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Prague : Czech Geological Survey, 2010 - (Cháb, J.), s. 215-216 ISBN 978-80-7075-747-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Permian * Upper Permian * Bohemian Massif * post-Variscan platform Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

Cháb, J.; Zajíc, Jaroslav

108

Coal Sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.

109

Coal - 97  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract pricsame as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards

110

[Insects at the borderline between the Permian and the early triassic (Urzhum - Olenek age) and the problem of Permian-Triassic biodiversity crisis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution of 115 insect families is considered in 15 local assemblages of European Russia, Siberia, Australia and South Africa. The assemblage ages embrace the Urzhum stage of the Middle Permian, the Late Permian, and the transitional Permian-Triassic interval. The assemblages are ordered statistically using two criteria. Ordination after the appearance of a fauna, that is, relation of the number of younger vs. older families, is found to be generally consistent with the stratigraphic data. The method of minimizing the gaps (ghost ranges) in distribution of the families is useful in interpreting the results. Urzhum time is characterized by the balance of emergence and extinction of families (counted as their first and latest appearances, respectively). In Severodvinsk and particularly in Vyatka time, the number of first appearances was decreasing resulted in prevailing extinction. In the transitional Permian-Triassic interval, the emergence of new families accelerated. Initially, the appearance of assemblages was typically Paleozoic (with older families prevailed). It changed gradually, so as by the end of Vyatka time it turned to be quite post-Paleozoic. Diversity was the highest in Severodvinsk time, and it halved at Vyatka time and at the transition interval. However, if we consider transitional families (those not found on a particular interval, but known before and after), the extinction rate reduces to one-third. And when normalized after the material volume, the diversity drop decreases up to a quarter. There was no mass extinction found at the end of the Permian, and the less so at the Permian-Triassic boundary and during the Lower Triassic. Structure of the Permian-Triassic diversity crisis is similar to that of the Cretaceous crisis in many respects. Since the Middle Triassic and up to now, the biodiversity kept increasing quickly and continuously. This implies that the Permian-Triassic crisis resulted in profound modification of the biosphere structure, so as its capacity increased manifold. PMID:23659113

Rasnitsyn, A P; Aristov, D S; Rasnitsyn, D A

2013-01-01

111

Main: C1MOTIFZMBZ2 [PLACE  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available C1MOTIFZMBZ2 S000237 23-Sep-1999 (last modified) kehi C1-motif; Similar to Myb-box; Found in the ... promoter region of maize (Z.m.) Bronze2 ( glutathione ... S-transferase) gene; C1 binding; C1-motif and R-mo ... z2 promoter; S=C or G; C1-motif; Bronze2; Myb-box; glutathione ... S-transferase; C1; seed; maize (Zea mays) TAACTSAG ...

112

The paleoclimate of the Kazanian (early Late Permian) world  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kazanian (early Late Permian, 258-253 m.y.) marked the onset of a unique interval in the Phanerozoic, distinguished by a classic end-member case of continental assembly, the megacontinent Pangaea. Compilation of biostratigraphic and lithofacies data indicate a warm, extensively arid world, largely ice free, and characterized by the onset of atmospheric conditions that were exceedingly stressful to the biosphere, the worst of the eon. Using Chevron's version of the Community Climate model, the authors report here on two Kazanian paleoclimate seasonal simulations, one using 200 ppm CO{sub 2} and the other with 2,000 ppm CO{sub 2}. The authors consider the knowledge of plate assembly back to the Permian accurate enough to allow employment of a seasonal model. Simulation of a warmer Earth with an elevated greenhouse effect (modeled as CO{sub 2}) fits the observed geology and isotope signals. The increased CO{sub 2} experiment warmed the entire planet with the greatest increases north of 50{degree} latitude and least changes in the tropics. The warming caused the poleward retreat of sea ice in both hemispheres. Precipitation and evaporation increased, but runoff was confined to areas of very intense rainfall. Monsoons are limited to the southern hemisphere, associated with the western Tethys sea and the eastern equatorial Panthalassa ocean. Extreme southeastern Pangaea (northern Australia) was a focus of precipitation throughout the year. Precipitation occurred in the higher latitudes (50-55{degree}) on the western coast, of Pangaea where storm tracks make landfall. High evaporation rates characterized the restricted Permian (US), Zechstein, and Perm (Soviet Union) basins, a time of evaporite, deposition. Interior Pangaea at middle to high latitudes endured frigid winters ({minus}40{degree}C) and torrid summers (60{degree}C).

Moore, G.T. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA)); Peoples, C.J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-05-01

113

Coalbed methane (CBM) potential in Brazil: coal characteristics and associated gas volumes in test well CBM001-ST- RS, Santa Terezinha Coal field, RS, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Santa Terezinha coal field in Rio Grande do Sul, a coal occurrence assigned to the Early Permian Rio Bonito Formation of the Parana Basin, has been target of a research project focusing on the CBM potential of that area. Sequence stratigraphic analysis has shown that peat accumulation was closely linked to transgressive / regressive cycles, with peat accumulation occurring in a predominantly back barrier type setting. To make an assessment of the CBM potential of the coal-bearing strata, computer-aided 3 D modeling of the main coal-bearing para sequences of the Terezinha coal field, and data from a pioneer test well were used for the evaluation of the CBM potential for an area of approximately 20 x 40 km in size. Based on coal volume and averaged methane desorption values it is suggested that in excess of 5 Billion m3 methane are contained in the coal seams of the study area and as such will contribute significantly to Brazil's known natural gas resources. Preliminary results from CO 2 adsorption experiments show that the adsorption capacities of the Parana Basin coals are 3-4 times higher than the adsorption capacities determined for methane, suggesting that the coal seams may serve as storage reservoirs for CO 2. (author)

Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Holz, Michael; Levandowski, Janaina; Casagrande, Junia; Oliveira, Tiago Agne de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Kern, Marcio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernd [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal

2008-07-01

114

Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earth’s history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and po¬tentially into the open ocean realm. These events of¬ten coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing from the Siberian Traps. We measured redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, Cu, U) and the speciation of iron [Fe-HR/Fe-T and Fe-PY/ Fe- HR] in marine sediments from Svalbard (Festningen). We compare these data to additional, new, high-lati-tude data from eastern Greenland and the equatorial Tethys realm in Iran. We show that the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary at Svalbard is marked by 2 phases of euxinic (sulfidic) ocean conditions. An initial short phase at the onset of atmospheric carbon release is separated from a subsequent longer phase by a re¬turn to ferruginous ocean conditions (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland and Iran. It sug¬gests a strongly decreased global ocean molybdenum (and possibly also ocean sulfate) inventory by massive molybdenum drawdown (and possibly pyrite buri¬al) at the onset of end-Permian atmospheric carbon release and leading up to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. We compare these oceanographic changes to similar observations for the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction and discuss environmental forcing, poten¬tially inherent to major volcanic events and leading to global environmental change and extinction

Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.

2013-01-01

115

Coal -98  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replac Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx-burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the environmental influence will lead to more efficient power generatio

116

Permian dust in Oklahoma: Source and origin for Middle Permian (Flowerpot-Blaine) redbeds in Western Tropical Pangaea  

Science.gov (United States)

Analogous to many Permian units globally, the Middle Permian of Oklahoma (Flowerpot Shale and Blaine Formation) contains voluminous fine-grained redbeds. These units have long been interpreted to record marine to marginal-marine deposition owing to minor evaporite/dolomite strata; this interpretation, however, disregards the predominant siliciclastic material. Siltstone predominates, and all siliciclastic material is of inferred aeolian origin owing to the fine and remarkably uniform grain size, internally massive structure, blanket-like geometry, and common palaeosols, especially in the Flowerpot Shale. Previously suggested alternative environments for such abundant fine-grained material, such as distal deltaic deposition, are inconsistent with the absence of key sedimentary structures (e.g., graded beds), associated facies (e.g., channelised units), and vertical or lateral trends (e.g., upward coarsening). The minor claystone and associated evaporite and dolomite facies of the Blaine Formation exhibit evidence for subaqueous deposition, but with aeolian delivery of the siliciclastic component. An aeolian dust origin for the siliciclastic material reinforces the interpretation of generally semiarid conditions for this equatorial region of western Pangaea. Whole-rock geochemical and detrital-zircon geochronological data on the siliciclastic units indicate a mixed provenance that includes a mafic component exhibiting a composition similar to reference populations from the Ouachita orogen. The dominant zircon populations reflect transport from easterly/southeasterly directions, with fewer grains likely derived from basement located to the west. Combining an aeolian delivery with the provenance signal indicates predominant equatorial easterlies during deposition of the study units, and subordinate westerlies, consistent with Pangaean monsoonal circulation. Permian redbeds preserved in many parts of former low-latitude Pangaea bear attributes similar to those of the units documented here, suggesting a possible greater role for dust deposition during this time than previously appreciated.

Sweet, Alisan C.; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Sweet, Dustin E.; Soreghan, Michael J.; Madden, Andrew S.

2013-02-01

117

Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west

118

Panjal Paleomagnetism: Implications for Early Permian Gondwana break-up  

Science.gov (United States)

The mid-Early Permian represents an important phase in Pangaea's development marking the time when the >13,000 km-long string of terranes that are collectively known as 'Cimmeria' separated from Gondwana's Tethyan margin (northern Africa-NE Arabia-northern India-NW and northern Australia). The ~289 Ma Panjal Traps of NW India (Kashmir) are one of a number of mafic suites (Abor, Sikkim etc.) that were erupted onto the Indian block possibly during the separation of the Lhasa/SE Qiangtang block. Herein, we report data from the first modern paleomagnetic study of the unit. Results from four quarry sections (15 individual cooling units) from a locality close to Srinagar together form a tectonically coherent sequence spanning 2-3 km of stratigraphy. The derived direction and paleopole yield key new information concerning (1) the Early Permian location of India, and by inference that of central Gondwana, and (2) inform debates related to Cimmeria's breakup from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, they provide a new independent control for assessing NW Greater India's extent prior to its collision with Asia and the amount of vertical-axis rotation this sector of the Himalayan range experienced in the mid to late Cenozoic.

Stojanovic, D.; Aitchison, J.; Ali, J. R.; Ahmad, T.; Ahmad Dar, R.; Agarwal, A.; Roeder, T.

2013-12-01

119

Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects.  

Science.gov (United States)

A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian. PMID:25783809

Schachat, Sandra R; Labandeira, Conrad C

2015-04-01

120

Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects  

Science.gov (United States)

A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

Schachat, Sandra R.; Labandeira, Conrad C.

2015-04-01

121

Composition and quality of coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China, is one of the largest coalfields in China. The coals of Permian age are used mainly for power generation. Coal compositions and 47 trace elements of the No. 10 Coal of the Shanxi Formation, the No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals of the Lower Shihezi Formation, and the No. 3 Coal of the Upper Shihezi Formation from the Huaibei Coalfield were studied. The results indicate that the Huaibei coals have low ash, moisture, and sulfur contents, but high volatile matter and calorific value. The ash yield increases stratigraphically upwards, but the volatile matter and total sulfur contents show a slight decrease from the lower to upper seams. Magmatic intrusion into the No. 5 Coal resulted in high ash, volatile matter, and calorific value, but low moisture value in the coal. Among the studied 47 trace elements, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, V, and Zn are of environmental concerns. Four elements Hg, Mo, Zn, and Sb are clearly enriched in the coals as compared with the upper continental crust. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zheng, L.; Liu, Guilin; Wang, L.; Chou, C.-L.

2008-01-01

122

The effect of pulverised coal’s devolatilisation conditions on char physical characteristics  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the effect of pulverised coal fuel devolatilisation conditions on char’s physical characteristics. A devolatilisation system was thus designed and built where three bituminous coals were devolatilised at three different times (100, 150 and 300 ms) and at three temperatures (900°C, 1,000°C and 1,100°C). The resul- ting char was characterised regarding porosity, pore volume, surface area and particle size distribution. It was found that char porosity and pore volume inc...

Andrés Felipe Rojas González; Juan Manuel Barraza Burgos

2010-01-01

123

Catagenesis of organic matter of oil source rocks in Upper Paleozoic coal formation of the Bohai Gulf basin (eastern China)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bohai Gulf basin is the largest petroliferous basin in China. Its Carboniferous-Permian deposits are thick (on the average, ca. 600 m) and occur as deeply as 5000 m. Coal and carbonaceous shale of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation formed in inshore plain swamps. Their main hydrocarbon-generating macerals are fluorescent vitrinite, exinite, alginite, etc. Coal and carbonaceous shale of the Permian Shanxi Formation were deposited in delta-alluvial plain. Their main hydrocarbon-generating macerals are vitrinite, exinite, etc. The carbonaceous rocks of these formations are characterized by a high thermal maturity, with the vitrinite reflectance R{sub 0} > 2.0%. The Bohai Gulf basin has been poorly explored so far, but it is highly promising for natural gas.

Li, R.X.; Li, Y.Z.; Gao, Y.W. [Changan University, Xian (China)

2007-05-15

124

The application of FAMM (Fluorescence Alteration of Multiple Macerals) analyses for evaluating rank of Parana Basin coals, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combining vitrinite reflectance (VR) and fluorescence alteration of multiple macerals (FAMM) analyses provide insights into the chemical nature of vitrinites (i.e., perhydrous vs. orthohydrous vs. subhydrous compositions) in Permian Gondwana coals of the Parana Basin, Brazil. The FAMM-derived equivalent VR (EqVR) values and relationships with VR can be determined according to calibration curves based largely on Permian Gondwana coals of eastern Australia.The analytical results indicate that vitrinites in the Parana Basin coals studied generally range from orthohydrous to perhydrous, with interpreted VR suppression ranging up to 0.2% absolute for the most perhydrous case. The EqVR values of the Santa Catarina coals, which range from about 0.85% to 0.95% differ from VR values by about 0.10-0.15% absolute, potentially having significant implications on coal utilization. The causes of vitrinite reflectance suppression in the Parana Basin coals are as yet poorly understood, but are likely to be related to a combination of factors.

Kalkreuth, W.; Cioccari, G.; Correa da Silva, Z.; Silva, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, RS 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Sherwood, N. [CSIRO Petroleum, P.O. Box 136, North Ryde, 1670 NSW (Australia); Zhong, N. [Department of Geoscience, University of Petroleum, Chang Ping, Beijing 102200 (China); Zufa, L. [School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2004-03-23

125

The Late Permian Ocean: What's the Big Stink?  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the ocean is (and has been) sulfate rich, the development of basinal to global anoxia is often associated with the buildup of hydrogen sulfide in anoxic waters. Bacterial sulfate reduction begins to dominate after oxygen and nitrate have been depleted, producing hydrogen sulfide. Hence, low atmospheric oxygen content, warm surface ocean temperatures, and high O2 demand reduce oceanic oxygen content and favor the establishment of euxinia. Biomarker evidence for photic zone sulfide and biogeochemical calculations suggest that the end-Permian mass extinction was one interval during which extreme anoxia may have led to H2S buildup. We hypothesize that H2S release to the atmosphere would be possible if the upward flux of sulfide from deep water in a largely euxinic ocean exceeded the oxygen flux into the surface ocean from wind mixing. In this scenario, destabilization of the chemocline (oxygen-sulfide interface) would cause sulfide poisoning in both the marine and terrestrial realms and contribute to the extinction. We used the end-Permian configuration of GENIE (www.genie.ac.uk), an energy-moisture-balance atmosphere model coupled to a 3-D, non-eddy-resolving, frictional geostrophic model to evaluate this hypothesis. This model includes marine biogeochemistry and capably simulates processes associated with the transition to oceanic anoxia. We performed a series of simulations designed to identify the conditions necessary for widespread euxinia and chemocline destabilization. We characterized the magnitude of hydrogen sulfide flux as a function of increasing oceanic phosphate content resulting from P release from sediments in anoxic environments. Significant ocean-atmosphere fluxes of H2S result from 6- to 10-fold increases in ocean phosphate at modern oxygen levels. These fluxes are focused in upwelling regions, although toxic H2S concentrations are also observed in the surface waters of nearshore equatorial regions. Our initial simulations support the hypothesis that extreme euxinia and episodic H2S eruptions can result from modest changes in the ocean's nutrient budget and may have contributed to the end-Permian mass extinction. Ongoing work addresses additional feedbacks involving sulfur utilization by sulfur-oxidizing phototrophs and the role of the nitrogen cycle during the transition to anoxia.

Meyer, K. M.; Ridgwell, A.; Kump, L. R.

2006-12-01

126

U/Pb zircon geochronology and tempo of the end-permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The mass extinction at the end of the Permian was the most profound in the history of life. Fundamental to understanding its cause is determining the tempo and duration of the extinction. Uranium/lead zircon data from Late Permian and Early Triassic rocks from south China place the Permian-Triassic boundary at 251.4 +/- 0.3 million years ago. Biostratigraphic controls from strata intercalated with ash beds below the boundary indicate that the Changhsingian pulse of the end-Permian extinction, corresponding to the disappearance of about 85 percent of marine species, lasted less than 1 million years. At Meishan, a negative excursion in delta13C at the boundary had a duration of 165,000 years or less, suggesting a catastrophic addition of light carbon. PMID:9582110

Bowring; Erwin; Jin M W Martin YG; Davidek; Wang

1998-05-15

127

Did the Middlesboro, Kentucky, bolide impact event influence coal rank?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Middlesboro Basin, southeastern Kentucky, occurs on the Cumberland Overthrust Sheet and includes a ca. 5.5-km diameter impact structure. The Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata are faulted, with some evidence for shock metamorphism. The event post-dated the latest-Pennsylvanian-early-Permian thrusting and was likely prior to late-Mesozoic entrenchment of drainages. The impact of a 0.5-km meteor traveling at ca. 60,000??km/h would release about 1??EJ, the approximate equivalent of the instantaneous combustion of 30??Mt of coal. The coal rank, while increased slightly above the regional level, still is within the upper portion of the high volatile A bituminous rank range. This helps to constrain the depth of burial at the time of the impact. The coal would have had to have been at a depth of a few kilometers to have avoided a more substantial rank increase. In addition, it is possible that some of the coal rank increase might be attributable to movements along the cross-cutting Rocky Face fault, unrelated to the impact. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J.C.; Greb, S.F.; Kuehn, K.W.; Eble, C.F.

2009-01-01

128

Coal industry annual 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

129

Coal industry annual 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

130

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01

131

Coal industry annual 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

132

Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review  

OpenAIRE

Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI). A great attention has been given to the negative ?13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1) and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE) data are reporte...

Aymon Baud

2005-01-01

133

Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea  

OpenAIRE

The medial Permian (?270–260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permia...

Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-gu?ven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S.; S?engo?r, A. M. Cela?l; Schultz, Cesar L.

2012-01-01

134

The Mont Collon mafic complex (Austroalpine Dent Blanche nappe): permian evolution of the Western European mantle  

OpenAIRE

The early Permian Mont Collon mafic complex (Dent Blanche nappe, Austroalpine nappe system) is one of the best preserved examples of the Permian mafic magmatism in the Western Alps. It is composed of discontinuous exposures and a well-preserved magmatic layering (the Dents de Bertol cliff) crops out in the center part of the complex. It mainly consists of cumulative mafic rocks, which represent 95 vol-% of the mafic complex (ol- and cpx-bearing gabbros and rare anorthositic layers, troctolite...

Monjoie, Philippe; Lapierre, Henriette; Pfeifer, Hans-rudolf

2005-01-01

135

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

136

Coal gasification technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews coal gasification processes and technology. Sources of more detailed information in specific areas are suggested. The merits and disadvantages of incorporating coal gasification into power generation plants are discussed. The recent history of coal gasification technology and the current state of projects are summarized. The potential for large-scale coal gasification, small-scale coal gasification and cogasification of coal with biomass and/or wastes in the current economic climate is discussed.

Hotchkiss, R. [Innogy Plc, Swindon (United Kingdom)

2003-07-01

137

Fossil Fuels: Coal  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

John Pratte

138

Raining lead around 250mya a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction  

CERN Document Server

Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mine...

Standard, J C

2003-01-01

139

A high-pyrite semianthracite of Late Permian age in the Songzao Coalfield, southwestern China: Mineralogical and geochemical relations with underlying mafic tuffs  

Science.gov (United States)

The No. 12 Coal (Late Permian) in the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, southwestern China, is characteristically high in pyrite and some trace elements. It is uniquely deposited directly above mafic tuff beds. Samples of coal and tuffs have been studied for their mineralogy and geochemistry using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, plasma low-temperature ashing plus powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.The results show that the minerals of the No. 12 Coal are mainly composed of pyrite, clay minerals (kaolinite, chamosite, and illite), ankerite, calcite, and trace amounts of quartz and boehmite. Kaolinite and boehmite were mainly derived from sediment source region of mafic tuffs. Chamosite was formed by the reaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. The high pyrite (Sp,d=8.83%) in the coal was related to marine transgression over peat deposits and abundant Fe derived from the underlying mafic tuff bed. Ankerite and calcite were precipitated from epigenetic fluids.Chemical compositions of incompatible elements indicate that the tuffs were derived from enriched mantle and the source magmas had an alkali-basalt character. Compared to other coals from the Songzao Coalfield and common Chinese coals, the No. 12 Coal has a lower SiO2/Al2O3 (1.13) but a higher Al2O3/Na2O (80.1) value and is significantly enriched in trace elements including Sc (13.5??g/g), V (121??g/g), Cr (33.6??g/g), Co (27.2??g/g), Ni (83.5??g/g), Cu (48.5??g/g), Ga (17.3??g/g), Y (68.3??g/g), Zr (444??g/g), Nb (23.8??g/g), and REE (392??g/g on average). Above mineralogical compositions, as well as similar ratios of selected elements (e.g., SiO2/Al2O3 and Al2O3/Na2O) and similar distribution patterns of incompatible elements (e.g., the mantle-normalized diagram for incompatible elements and chondrite-normalized diagram for rare earth elements) of coal and tuff, indicated that enriched trace elements above were largely derived from mafic tuffs, in addition to a minor amount from the Kandian Oldland. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Dai, S.; Wang, X.; Chen, W.; Li, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, Chen; Li, H.; Zhu, X.; Xing, Y.; Zhang, W.; Zou, J.

2010-01-01

140

A high-pyrite semianthracite of Late Permian age in the Songzao Coalfield, southwestern China: Mineralogical and geochemical relations with underlying mafic tuffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The No. 12 Coal (Late Permian) in the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, southwestern China, is characteristically high in pyrite and some trace elements. It is uniquely deposited directly above mafic tuff beds. Samples of coal and tuffs have been studied for their mineralogy and geochemistry using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, plasma low-temperature ashing plus powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results show that the minerals of the No. 12 Coal are mainly composed of pyrite, clay minerals (kaolinite, chamosite, and illite), ankerite, calcite, and trace amounts of quartz and boehmite. Kaolinite and boehmite were mainly derived from sediment source region of mafic tuffs. Chamosite was formed by the reaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. The high pyrite (S{sub p,d} 8.83%) in the coal was related to marine transgression over peat deposits and abundant Fe derived from the underlying mafic tuff bed. Ankerite and calcite were precipitated from epigenetic fluids. Chemical compositions of incompatible elements indicate that the tuffs were derived from enriched mantle and the source magmas had an alkali-basalt character. Compared to other coals from the Songzao Coalfield and common Chinese coals, the No. 12 Coal has a lower SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1.13) but a higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}O (80.1) value and is significantly enriched in trace elements including Sc (13.5 {mu}g/g), V (121 {mu}g/g), Cr (33.6 {mu}g/g), Co (27.2 {mu}g/g), Ni (83.5 {mu}g/g), Cu (48.5 {mu}g/g), Ga (17.3 {mu}g/g), Y (68.3 {mu}g/g), Zr (444 {mu}g/g), Nb (23.8 {mu}g/g), and REE (392 {mu}g/g on average). Above mineralogical compositions, as well as similar ratios of selected elements (e.g., SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}O) and similar distribution patterns of incompatible elements (e.g., the mantle-normalized diagram for incompatible elements and chondrite-normalized diagram for rare earth elements) of coal and tuff, indicated that enriched trace elements above were largely derived from mafic tuffs, in addition to a minor amount from the Kandian Oldland. (author)

Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Xibo; Chen, Wenmei [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, (China); Li, Dahua [Research Center of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Chongqing 400042, (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey (Emeritus), 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, (United States); Zhou, Yiping [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218, (China); Zhu, Changsheng; Li, Hang [Research Center of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Chongqing 400042, (China); Zhu, Xingwei; Xing, Yunwei; Zhang, Weiguo; Zou, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, (China)

2010-09-01

141

Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (?98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for ?98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in ?98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced oxic conditions throughout the LPE event, while anoxic conditions developed in the deep ocean. Hence, anoxic marine waters did not extend globally onto shelf environments and as such ocean anoxia cannot have been the main driver of the extinction event. While global systems were stressed by anoxia, the anoxic conditions may better represent a symptom of Siberian Trap eruptions that had catastrophic impact on the environment, potentially through nutrient loading and deposition of toxic substances into marine and terrestrial systems. Proemse et al., 2013: Molybdenum isotopic evidence for oxic marine conditions during the latest Permian extinction. Geology 41, 967-970.

Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

2014-05-01

142

Paleomagnetism of Permian sediments and volcanic rocks from Sardinia  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Late Carboniferous, large granitic bodies were emplaced on Sardinia related to a change of the tectonic setting from compressional to extensional. Simultaneously the newly formed fault-bounded basins were filled with continental clastic sediments, paleontologoically and radiometrically dated to be Late Carboniferous to Early Permian in age. These basins provide an ideal testing ground for tectonic models such as the controversial Pangea B to A transition, which should have occurred prior to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Jurassic. The mega-shear zone required for this transition has been postulated to be situated in today's Mediterranean (Arthaud and Matte, 1977). If this is valid, Sardinia should have been caught within this shear zone and suffered massive internal deformation. Here we report paleomagnetic data from six Permian basins from different Sardinian regions: in the NW (Nurra), N (Gallura), SW (Iglesiente-Sulcis) and SE (Gerrei-Sarcidano). About 200 samples from 23 sites covering mostly continental redbeds and subordinate acidic volcanics were thermally demagnetised. The overwhelming majority of the specimens studied displayed rather simple directional behaviour. A positive intraformational conglomerate test (Gerrei-Sarcidano) as well as the general improvement of the between-site scatter after correcting for minor tilt supports the primary character of the magnetisation. The resulting mean direction for five sites from Nurra (Dec: 126°, Inc: -24°, ?95: 8°, k: 118) is in perfect agreement with data published earlier by Vigliotti et al. (1990). Three sites of the Gallura area farther to the east yield a mean site direction (Dec: 158°, Inc: -34°, ?95: 23°, k: 28) which is rotated clockwise with respect to the data of Vigliotti et al. (1990). Seven sites from southern Sardinia (SW and SE) yield a mean direction with a declination of 82° and inclination of 12° (?95: 12°, k: 25). These results imply crustal coherence of Nurra and southern Corsica. The mean direction for Gallura, however, indicates significant clockwise rotation with respect to Nurra. The new data from southern Sardinia indicate approximately 40° or more degrees of counterclockwise rotation with respect to Nurra. These results are essentially coherent with the paleomagnetic data for the Late Paleozoic dyke swarms (Emmer et al., 2005) from the island of Sardinia and support the interpretation that Sardinia cannot longer be considered as a coherent block, but suffered massive internal deformation of pre-Triassic age.

Moser, E.; Emmer, B.; Bachtadse, V.; Kent, D. V.; Muttoni, G.; Ronchi, A.

2005-12-01

143

Geochemical evidence from bio-apatite for multiple oceanic anoxic events during Permian-Triassic transition and the link with end-Permian extinction and recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed, 20 myr redox history of Permian to Triassic oceans (Changhsingian to Carnian stages) has been constructed using Ce-anomaly (?Ce) and Th/U ratios from conodont albid crown apatite material. The results show that the well-established phenomenon of intense ocean anoxia (coincident with the end-Permian mass extinction) is faithfully recorded in conodont ?Ce and Th/U data. Extending this conodont redox record shows that end-Permian anoxia persisted possibly into the earliest Dienerian Stage and that two intense oceanic anoxic events also occurred later in the Early Triassic (earliest Smithian-earliest Spathian, and middle Spathian), followed by a weaker manifestation of anoxia in the Anisian Stage, seen in ?Ce data. Marine benthic radiation, following the end-Permian mass extinction, began after the Smithian-earliest Spathian anoxic event suggesting a suppression of evolution prior to this due to these inimical conditions. The failure of the middle Spathian anoxic event to retard the evolutionary rebound implies shallow shelf seas remained well ventilated at this time even if the oceans did not. Other attributes of the Early Triassic record also closely coincide with redox fluctuations: phases of anoxia intensification saw the proliferation of microbial carbonates and major negative carbon isotope swings that can be attributed to chemocline shallowing causing alkalinity pulses and enrichment in light, remineralised carbon and/or indicate a trigger meachnaims related to increased fluxes of light C from Siberian volcanic sources.

Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Bond, David P. G.; Song, Huyue; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Yanlong

2012-11-01

144

Fullerenes and interplanetary dust at the Permian-Triassic boundary.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently presented new evidence that an impact occurred approximately 250 million years ago at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), triggering the most severe mass extinction in the history of life on Earth. We used a new extraterrestrial tracer, fullerene, a third carbon carrier of noble gases besides diamond and graphite. By exploiting the unique properties of this molecule to trap noble gases inside of its caged structure (helium, neon, argon), the origin of the fullerenes can be determined. Here, we present new evidence for fullerenes with extraterrestrial noble gases in the PTB at Graphite Peak, Antarctica, similar to PTB fullerenes from Meishan, China and Sasayama, Japan. In addition, we isolated a (3)He-rich magnetic carrier phase in three fractions from the Graphite Peak section. The noble gases in this magnetic fraction were similar to zero-age deep-sea interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and some magnetic grains isolated from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The helium and neon isotopic compositions for both the bulk Graphite Peak sediments and an isolated magnetic fraction from the bulk material are consistent with solar-type gases measured in zero-age deep-sea sediments and point to a common source, namely, the flux of IDPs to the Earth's surface. In this instance, the IDP noble gas signature for the bulk sediment can be uniquely decoupled from fullerene, demonstrating that two separate tracers are present (direct flux of IDPs for (3)He vs. giant impact for fullerene). PMID:12804366

Poreda, Robert J; Becker, Luann

2003-01-01

145

Late Permian brachiopoda fauna in north-western Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La secuencia marina del Pérmico superior en el noroeste de Irán y el este de Azerbaiyán, sección estatigráfica de Zal, fue seleccionada para este estudio de braquiópodos. Las muestras fueron tomadas en las formaciones Ali Bashi y Jolfa. Se reconocieron 27 especies de 13 géneros de braquiópodos en es [...] te análisis. Las muestras recolectadas fueron comparadas con sus similares de otras regiones de Irán y de la región del Tetis, lo que sugirió el período de tardío de Dzhulfan como la proveniencia de estos depósitos. Los braquiópodos reconocidos en este trabajo pertenecen a las familias de Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida y Strophomenida. Abstract in english The Late Permian marine sequence in the north- west of Iran, in eastern Azerbaijan province in the Zal stratigraphic section, was selected for studying brachiopods. Samples were collected from the Ali Bashi and Jolfa Formation.S. Twenty-seven species from 13 brachiopoda genera were recognised in thi [...] s study.The recognised fossil community was compared to brachiopod communities in some regions of Iran and the Tethyan region, suggesting the Late Dzhulfian period as the age for the deposits being studied. Recognized brachiopods belonge to the orders Athyris, Rhynconellida, Productida and Strophomenida.

Yousefirad, Mostafa; Khamooshi, Touran; Shaabanian, Rahim.

2013-06-01

146

Petrographic studies of Permian carbonates in southern Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed petrographic studies were conducted on Permian carbonates from four areas: Ratburi, Prachuab Khirikhan, Ko Ang Thong, and Surat Thani-Phang Nga. Six carbonate facies were identified in these areas—mudstone, wackestone, packstone, grainstone, algal boundstone, and intramicrite. The allochems of these carbonates are similar and composed of bioclastic and non-bioclastic grains. The bioclastic grains are blue-green algae (stromatolite), green algae (dasycladacean), tabulate corals, solitary corals, crinoids, foraminiferas ( Shanita sp. and Hemigordius sp.), brachiopods, bryozoan, gastropods and unidentified skeletal fragments. The non-bioclastic grains are ooids, peloids, and intraclasts. Three phases of paragenesis were observed: micritization and neomorphism, dolomitization and non-ferroan/ferroan calcite fractures and veinlets. Micritization, neomorphism, and dolomitization are extensive. Rhombic and mosaic-crystalline dolomites had replaced carbonate mud, sparry calcite cement as well as the allochems. Abundant non-ferroan calcite veinlets cross cut allochems, mud matrix, and dolomite rhombs which suggests they postdate dolomitization. These carbonate facies were interpreted as interior-platform carbonate with a generally well developed shoaling-upward sequence starting from mudstone to wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. Local algal boundstone or algal mound and intramicrite could indicate low energy, regressive cycles.

Chinoroje, Owas

147

Diagenesis of Permian alluvial fan deposits of Northern Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fine-grained sandstones of Permian alluvial fan deposits from three Nagra boreholes (Weiach, Riniken, Kaisten) and an exploration well, drilled at Wintersingen are clast supported, moderately sorted arkosic greywackes containing typically 2-20 % clayey matrix. Petrographic studies indicate that the origin of this clayey matrix is postdepositional. Mechanical infiltration of fines and diagenetic reddening of detrital and authigenic iron oxides are the earliest recorded events. Additionally, nodular calcites of calcrete origin and fibrous illitic clays are also ascribed to the eogenetic environment. The present strong compaction fabric results from general lack of eogenetic framework supporting cements. During mesogenesis, secondary porosity was generated through partial removal of early calcite. At the same time, a first generation of syntaxial quartz cementation and a subsequent fibrous illite authigenesis took place. Leaching of detrital K-feldspars post-dating compaction is recorded throughout the studied boreholes. The following burial diagenetic events differ between the various boreholes: in Weiach and Wintersingen kaolinite, illite, prismatic quartz and ankerite/siderite are recorded; in Riniken K-feldspar, illite, prismatic quartz and dolomite developed; whilst in Kaisten K-feldspar and microcrystalline quartz-cement dominate. These differences reflect the chemistry, pH and ionic strength of the pore fluids. Filling of veins by dolomite/ankerite, iron-rich and veins by dolomite/ankerite, iron-rich and subsequent iron-poor calcite is the latest recorded event. (author) 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

148

Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During Permian Stage 6 (Wordian, Kazanian) the Pangaean supercontinent was surrounded by a superocean - Panthalassa. An ocean general circulation model has been coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model to simulate the sensitivity of the Wordian climate ({proportional_to}265 million years ago) to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, high latitude geography, and Earth orbital configurations. The model shows a high sensitivity of the ocean circulation to changes in the greenhouse gas forcing, ranging from a forceful southern circulation at low CO{sub 2} concentration (present level) to a more symmetric circulation cell with deep water formation in both hemispheres at high CO{sub 2} concentration (8 x present level). The simulated climate with 4 x present level CO{sub 2} concentration agrees generally well with climate-sensitive sediments and phytogeographic patterns. In this experiment, the model simulates strong subtropical gyres with similarities to the modern South Pacific circulation and moderate surface temperatures on the southern continent Gondwana, resulting from a strong poleward heat transport in the ocean. An even more moderate climate can be generated if high latitude land is removed so that ocean currents can penetrate into the polar regions or if orbital configurations favor high summer insolation over Gondwana. (orig.)

Winguth, A.M.E.; Kutzbach, J.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Center for Climatic Research; Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Rowley, D.; Rees, A.; Ziegler, A.M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

2001-05-01

149

Fullerenes and Interplanetary Dust at the Permian-Triassic Boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently presented new evidence that an impact occurred ~250 million years ago at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), triggering the most severe mass extinction in the history of life on Earth. We used a new extraterrestrial tracer, fullerene, a third carbon carrier of noble gases besides diamond and graphite. By exploiting the unique properties of this molecule to trap noble gases inside of its caged structure (helium, neon, argon), the origin of the fullerenes can be determined. Here, we present new evidence for fullerenes with extraterrestrial noble gases in the PTB at Graphite Peak, Antarctica, similar to PTB fullerenes from Meishan, China and Sasayama, Japan. In addition, we isolated a 3He-rich magnetic carrier phase in three fractions from the Graphite Peak section. The noble gases in this magnetic fraction were similar to zero-age deep-sea interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and some magnetic grains isolated from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The helium and neon isotopic compositions for both the bulk Graphite Peak sediments and an isolated magnetic fraction from the bulk material are consistent with solar-type gases measured in zero-age deep-sea sediments and point to a common source, namely, the flux of IDPs to the Earth's surface. In this instance, the IDP noble gas signature for the bulk sediment can be uniquely decoupled from fullerene, demonstrating that two separate tracers are present (direct flux of IDPs for 3He vs. giant impact for fullerene).

Poreda, Robert J.; Becker, Luann

2003-01-01

150

Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m-3) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m-3 in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m-3). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system

151

Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permian and Triassic were key time intervals in the history of life on Earth. Both periods are marked by a series of biotic crises including the most catastrophic of such events, the end-Permian mass extinction, which eventually led to a major turnover from typical Palaeozoic faunas and floras to those that are emblematic for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Here we review patterns in Permian-Triassic bony fishes, a group whose evolutionary dynamics are understudied. Based on data from primary literature, we analyse changes in their taxonomic diversity and body size (as a proxy for trophic position) and explore their response to Permian-Triassic events. Diversity and body size are investigated separately for different groups of Osteichthyes (Dipnoi, Actinistia, 'Palaeopterygii', 'Subholostei', Holostei, Teleosteomorpha), within the marine and freshwater realms and on a global scale (total diversity) as well as across palaeolatitudinal belts. Diversity is also measured for different palaeogeographical provinces. Our results suggest a general trend from low osteichthyan diversity in the Permian to higher levels in the Triassic. Diversity dynamics in the Permian are marked by a decline in freshwater taxa during the Cisuralian. An extinction event during the end-Guadalupian crisis is not evident from our data, but 'palaeopterygians' experienced a significant body size increase across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary and these fishes upheld their position as large, top predators from the Late Permian to the Late Triassic. Elevated turnover rates are documented at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and two distinct diversification events are noted in the wake of this biotic crisis, a first one during the Early Triassic (dipnoans, actinistians, 'palaeopterygians', 'subholosteans') and a second one during the Middle Triassic ('subholosteans', neopterygians). The origination of new, small taxa predominantly among these groups during the Middle Triassic event caused a significant reduction in osteichthyan body size. Neopterygii, the clade that encompasses the vast majority of extant fishes, underwent another diversification phase in the Late Triassic. The Triassic radiation of Osteichthyes, predominantly of Actinopterygii, which only occurred after severe extinctions among Chondrichthyes during the Middle-Late Permian, resulted in a profound change within global fish communities, from chondrichthyan-rich faunas of the Permo-Carboniferous to typical Mesozoic and Cenozoic associations dominated by actinopterygians. This turnover was not sudden but followed a stepwise pattern, with leaps during extinction events. PMID:25431138

Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen

2014-11-27

152

Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.

Dawit, Enkurie L.

2014-11-01

153

Tectono-metamorphic map of the Mont Morion Permian metaintrusives (Mont Morion - Mont Collon - Matterhorn Complex, Dent Blanche Unit), Valpelline - Western Italian Alps  

OpenAIRE

The presented map displays the structural and metamorphic evolution of lithotypes from pre-Permian to present. We distinguish pre-Permian rocks (e.g., amphibolite, biotite-bearing gneiss and acid granulite) preserved as roof pendants (i.e., xenoliths) within Permian intrusives. Permian intrusives and hosted xenoliths are then re-equilibrated during Alpine evolution, producing coronitic to mylonitic metaintrusives, due to meter to kilometer-scale fabric gradients, and associated white mica-, g...

Zucali, Michele

2011-01-01

154

Diagenetic and detrital origin of moretane anomalies through the Permian-Triassic boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

Many biogeochemical anomalies coincide with the Late Permian Extinction (LPE; 252.28 Ma). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the moretane/hopane anomaly that has been identified in samples from Meishan GSSP section in southeastern China. Here, we report homohopane, 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopane and lithological data for a drill core from the Meishan section in southeastern China. Three intervals of elevated C30 moretane/hopane ratios are recorded in the Lungtan, Yinkeng and Helongshan Formations. Moretane/hopane ratios of C31-34 homohopanes and the 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopanes display the same stratigraphic patterns as the C30 moretane/hopane record. In light of the multiple and parallel moretane anomalies for the homohopane and 2?- and 3?-methylhomohopane series, enhanced input from higher plant organic matter, such as coal and peat, does not adequately explain the observed isomer patterns. Correlation of high moretane/hopane ratios with low C35 Homohopane Index (HHI) and high hopane/sterane values suggest increased input of hopanoids from oxic soils. Additionally, moretane/hopane ratios show excellent correlations with total clay percentages and specific clay types, particularly chlorite, illite, and mixed layer illite/smectite. We conclude that a combination of episodic hopanoid input from soil bacteria and diagenetic effects related to redox and detrital clays generated the unique moretane/hopane patterns at Meishan. Similar relationships of Ts/(Ts + Tm) with redox, source indicators, and lithology indicate that Ts/(Ts + Tm) is affected by the same factors controlling the moretane/hopane ratios. Berthierine, a clay that requires reducing conditions for formation, was detected in samples from the Lungtan Formation. We are unable to determine from our results whether the berthierine is authigenic or detrital, but future determination of the origin of berthierine at Meishan may offer additional environmental insight. No link between diasteranes and lithology was observed in this study suggesting that diasteranes are relatively unaffected by the detrital clay component of the Meishan sediments. In total, the results point toward the complex role of source input, lithology, and depositional redox conditions in the transformation of organic matter during maturation. Future work is required to elucidate the lithological effects on diagenetic processes, including biomarker genesis isomerization, and thermal degradation.

French, Katherine L.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Cao, Changqun; Summons, Roger E.

2012-05-01

155

Palaeoecology of selected South African export coals from the Vryheid Formation, with emphasis on the role of heterosporous lycopods and wildfire derived inertinite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of six bulk coal samples from the Early Permian Vryheid Formation of the Karoo Basin, South Africa has revealed the importance of wildfire in this coal-forming environment. Inertinite is a major constituent of these coals and was predominantly produced by wildfire. The accumulation of the peat in this setting was both autochthonous and hypautochthonous/allochthonous, conditions varying between the occurrence of standing water and desiccation. Woody gymnosperms and also lycopods were important components of the coal swamp vegetation, of which the diversity and abundance of the lycopods may be tentatively assessed by the distribution of megaspores in the coals. Consistent with lycopod reproductive strategy, these megaspores are more abundant and diverse where the vitrinite content is greater. 59 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Ian Glasspool [Royal Holloway University of London, Egham (United Kingdom). Department of Geology

2003-05-01

156

Fossil footprints from the Late Permian of Brazil: An example of hidden biodiversity  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Late Permian tetrapods are relatively common around the world, few taxa are known in rocks of this age in South America. So far, the study of the tetrapod paleofaunas in the Permian of Brazil has provided significant chronological data, though knowledge about them is still incipient. These studies generally take into account only body fossil records, but the ichnological record can provide new biostratigraphic elements for correlation. In Brazil, fossil tracks were first recorded in Rio do Rasto and Corumbataí Formations (Late Permian from Paraná Basin), but to date these tracks have not been studied in an ichnotaxonomic, morphofunctional, paleoenvironmental and chronological context. The study of these tracks became possible due to a considerable increase in the number of taxa from the Late Permian of Brazil, including Chelichnus isp. (Synapsida: Caseidae?), Procolophonichnium isp. (Procolophonoidea), Rhynchosauroides gangresci isp. nov. (basal Diapsida), Dicynodontipus penugnu isp. nov. (Dicynodontia) and Incertae sedis (Amphibia?). With the exception of Dicynodontia, the remaining recorded taxa are unknown through fossil skeletons, showing that the Brazilian Permian faunas were much more diverse than was previously reported and demonstrating the potential of South American fossil vertebrates for global correlations.

da Silva, Rafael Costa; Sedor, Fernando Antonio; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos Sequeira

2012-10-01

157

The last "pelycosaur": a varanopid synapsid from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone, Middle Permian of South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a partial varanopid skull and mandible from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone of the Beaufort Group, in the South African Karoo Basin, which is probably latest Middle Permian (Capitanian) in age. This mycterosaurine is not only the youngest known varanopid from the Southern Hemisphere, but it is also the youngest known "pelycosaur" (i.e., non-therapsid synapsid). Like all other members of this clade of hypercarnivores, the teeth are strongly flattened, recurved, and have finely serrated cutting edges. The anterior dentary teeth form a caniniform region, and the splenial features a foramen intermandibularis oralis, the first ever to be described in a "pelycosaur." The last varanopids were the smallest carnivores of latest Middle Permian continental faunas. Occupation of the small carnivore guild appears to have allowed varanopids to achieve a nearly cosmopolitan distribution throughout the Middle Permian, between the great Early Permian radiation of basal synapsids and the spectacular diversification of therapsid synapsids in the Late Permian and Early Triassic. PMID:22009069

Modesto, Sean P; Smith, Roger M H; Campione, Nicolás E; Reisz, Robert R

2011-12-01

158

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

159

Coal yearbook 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

160

Permian tetrapods from the Sahara show climate-controlled endemism in Pangaea.  

Science.gov (United States)

New fossils from the Upper Permian Moradi Formation of northern Niger provide an insight into the faunas that inhabited low-latitude, xeric environments near the end of the Palaeozoic era (approximately 251 million years ago). We describe here two new temnospondyl amphibians, the cochleosaurid Nigerpeton ricqlesi gen. et sp. nov. and the stem edopoid Saharastega moradiensis gen. et sp. nov., as relicts of Carboniferous lineages that diverged 40-90 million years earlier. Coupled with a scarcity of therapsids, the new finds suggest that faunas from the poorly sampled xeric belt that straddled the Equator during the Permian period differed markedly from well-sampled faunas that dominated tropical-to-temperate zones to the north and south. Our results show that long-standing theories of Late Permian faunal homogeneity are probably oversimplified as the result of uneven latitudinal sampling. PMID:15829962

Sidor, Christian A; O'Keefe, F Robin; Damiani, Ross; Steyer, J Sébastien; Smith, Roger M H; Larsson, Hans C E; Sereno, Paul C; Ide, Oumarou; Maga, Abdoulaye

2005-04-14

161

Coal data: A reference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

1995-02-01

162

Terrestrial paleoenvironment characterization across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China  

Science.gov (United States)

Well-preserved marine fossils in carbonate rocks permit detailed studies of the end-Permian extinction event in the marine realm. However, the rarity of fossils in terrestrial depositional environments makes it more challenging to attain a satisfactory degree of resolution to describe the biotic turnover on land. Here we present new sedimentological, paleontological and geochemical (X-ray fluorescence) analysis from the study of four terrestrial sections (Chahe, Zhejue, Mide and Jiucaichong) in Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan (Yangtze Platform, South China) to evaluate paleoenvironmental changes through the Permian-Triassic transition. Our results show major differences in the depositional environments between the Permian Xuanwei and the Triassic Kayitou formations with a change from fluvial-lacustrine to coastal marine settings. This change is associated with a drastic modification of the preservation mode of the fossil plants, from large compressions to small comminuted debris. Plant fossils spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary show the existence of two distinct assemblages: In the Xuanwei Formation, a Late Permian (Changhsingian) assemblage with characteristic Cathaysian wetland plants (mainly Gigantopteris dictyophylloides, Gigantonoclea guizhouensis, G. nicotianaefolia, G. plumosa, G. hallei, Lobatannularia heinanensis, L. cathaysiana, L. multifolia, Annularia pingloensis, A. shirakii, Paracalamites stenocostatus, Cordaites sp.) is identified. In the lowermost Kayitou Formation, an Early Triassic (Induan) Annalepis-Peltaspermum assemblage is shown, associated with very rare, relictual gigantopterids. Palynological samples are poor, and low yield samples show assemblages almost exclusively represented by spores. A ?1 m thick zone enriched in putative fungal spores was identified near the top of the Xuanwei Formation, including diverse multicellular forms, such as Reduviasporonites sp. This interval likely corresponds to the PTB 'fungal spike' conventionally associated with land denudation and ecosystem collapse. While the floral turnover is evident, further studies based on plant diversity would be required in order to assess contribution linked to the end-Permian mass extinction versus local paleoenvironmental changes associated with the transition between the Xuanwei and Kayitou formations.

Bercovici, Antoine; Cui, Ying; Forel, Marie-Béatrice; Yu, Jianxin; Vajda, Vivi

2015-02-01

163

Origin of the Permian-Triassic komatiites, northwestern Vietnam  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare examples of Phanerozoic komatiites are found in the Song Da zone, NW Vietnam. These komatiites were erupted through continental crust and may belong to the SE extension of the Permo-Triassic Emeishan volcanic province located in SW China. They provide a good opportunity to study the source characteristics of starting plume magmas in a continental flood basalt province. Erupted on late-Permian carbonate rocks, the komatiitic rocks are interbedded with low-Ti olivine basalts. Basaltic komatiites display pyroxene spinifex textures, while more magnesian rocks (MgO up to 32 wt.%) are porphyritic, containing a single, cognate population of euhedral to elongated olivine phenocrysts with Fo up to 93.0%. This suggests a highly magnesian parental magma with 22-23 wt.% MgO. In terms of major and minor elements, the komatiites are similar to the ca. 89 Ma old Gorgona Island komatiites of Colombia. The Song Da komatiites are also strongly light-rare-earth-element- (LREE) depleted (CeN/YbN 0.30-0.62) and have unfractionated heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns. The komatiites have high Os concentrations (up to 7.0 ppb), low but variable Re/Os ratios, and define an isochron with an age of 270+/-21 Ma, and an initial 188Os/187Os ratio of 0.12506+/- 0.00041 (?Os=+0.02+/-0.40). The Os isotopic systematics of the komatiites show no effects of crustal contamination. In contrast, their initial ?Nd values range from +3 to +8, reflecting varying but generally small degrees of contamination with Proterozoic sialic basement material. Associated low-Ti basalts have low initial ?Nd values (-0.8 to -7.5), high initial ?Os values (>=15), flat or LREE-enriched REE patterns, and Nb-Ta depletion. These characteristics are also attributed to variable extents of crustal contamination.

Hanski, Eero; Walker, Richard J.; Huhma, Hannu; Polyakov, Gleb V.; Balykin, Pavel A.; Tran Trong Hoa; Ngo Thi Phuong

164

The first record of Upper Permian and Lower Triassic scorpions from Russia (Chelicerata: Scorpiones.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several small fragments of fossil scorpions are reported from two localities in Vologda Province, Russia, representing the Upper Permian (Severodvinian, correlated to Wuchiapingian (Isady and Lower Triassic just above the Permian-Triassic boundary (Induan (Nedubrovo. Most observed structures are not diagnostic at genus or family level. The Isady leg fragment possesses ungues (claws, which are both denticulated and setaceous, and resembles a Carboniferous Eobuthus sp. (Eobuthidae. It is the latest record of this type of ungues, which are known in some Paleozoic scorpions (extinct suborder Mesoscorpiones; all extant scorpions have smooth claws without enticulation or setation.

Fet, V.

2011-08-01

165

Large perturbations of the carbon cycle during recovery from the end-permian extinction.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution carbon isotope measurements of multiple stratigraphic sections in south China demonstrate that the pronounced carbon isotopic excursion at the Permian-Triassic boundary was not an isolated event but the first in a series of large fluctuations that continued throughout the Early Triassic before ending abruptly early in the Middle Triassic. The unusual behavior of the carbon cycle coincides with the delayed recovery from end-Permian extinction recorded by fossils, suggesting a direct relationship between Earth system function and biological rediversification in the aftermath of Earth's most devastating mass extinction. PMID:15273391

Payne, Jonathan L; Lehrmann, Daniel J; Wei, Jiayong; Orchard, Michael J; Schrag, Daniel P; Knoll, Andrew H

2004-07-23

166

Permian continental basins in the Southern Alps (Italy) and peri-mediterranean correlations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Late Carboniferous to Permian continental successions of the Southern Alps can be subdivided into two main tectono-sedimentary Cycles, separated by a marked unconformity sealing a Middle Permian time gap, generally estimated at over 10 Ma. The lower cycle (1), between the Variscan crystalline basement and the Early Permian, is mainly characterised by fluvio-lacustrine and volcanic deposits of calc-alkaline acidic-to-intermediate composition, which range up to a maximum thickness of more than 2,000 m. The upper cycle (2), which is devoid of volcanics, is mostly dominated through the Mid?-Late Permian by alluvial sedimentation which covered the previous basins and the surrounding highs, giving rise to the subaerial Verrucano Lombardo-Val Gardena (Gröden) red-beds, up to about 800 m thick. The palaeontological record from the terrigenous deposits of both the above cycles consists mainly of macro- and microfloras and tetrapod footprints. The age of the continental deposits is widely discussed because of the poor chronological significance of a large number of fossils which do not allow reliable datings; however, some sections are also controlled by radiometric calibrations. The comparison with some selected continental successions in southern Europe allows to determine their evolution and set up correlations. A marked stratigraphic gap shows everywhere between the above-mentioned Cycles 1 and 2. As in the Southern Alps, the gap reaches the greatest extent during the Mid-Permian, near the Illawarra Reversal geomagnetic event (265 Ma). In western Europe, however, such as in Provence and Sardinia, the discussed gap persists upwardly to Late Permian and Early Triassic or slightly younger times, i.e. to the onset of the "Alpine sedimentary Cycle", even though in northeastern Spain (Iberian Ranges, Balearic Islands) this gap results clearly interrupted by late Guadalupian-Lopingian deposits. The above two major tectonosedimentary cycles reflect, in our view, two main geodynamic events that affected the southern Europe after the Variscan orogenesis: the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian transformation of the Gondwana-Eurasia collisional margin into a diffuse dextral transform margin and the Middle-Late Permian opening of the Neotethys Ocean, with the onset of a generalised extensional tectonic regime and the progressive westward marine ingression.

Cassinis, Giuseppe; Perotti, Cesare R.; Ronchi, Ausonio

2012-01-01

167

Changes in geochemistry and mineralogy of thermally altered coal, Upper Hunter Valley, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Igneous intrusions thermally and geochemically alter coal, commonly causing economic and safety problems for many coal mines. The effects of two dykes on the inorganic content of the Late Permian bituminous Upper Wynn seam were determined from analyses of 44 samples that were collected along transects approaching the intrusions. Petrographic and XRD data were used to determine sample mineralogy, and INAA and XRF spectrometry were utilised to determine the contents of 57 elements. The mineralogy of the unaltered coal, altered coal and dyke is dominated by carbonates, particularly dawsonite, which formed by epigenetic precipitation at a late stage, after thermal alteration. Ankerite and siderite are the products of thermal alteration and are restricted to the altered coal and dykes. Principal component analysis, correlations and compositional trends approaching the intrusions were used to subdivide the elements into groups and to identify the mineralogical affinity of each group. Geochemical data are more sensitive than mineralogy for defining the size of the alteration halo, and three zones ranging from unaltered coal, through altered coal to highly coked coal are recognised as each intrusion is approached.The alteration halos differ in extent (9.5 and 56 m wide), but their size is not a multiple of the size of the causative intrusion. At the contact between coal and intrusion, concentrations of elements with affinities to some aluminosilicates, oxides, carbonates, sulphides and organic components are enriched, while other aluminosilicate-related elements are depleted. In the altered coal towards the edge of the alteration halo, some aluminosilicate elements are enriched and oxide elements are depleted.

Golab, Alexandra N.; Carr, Paul F. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522 (Australia)

2004-03-23

168

Conditions for the formation and atmospheric dispersion of a toxic, heavy gas layer during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits by sill intrusion  

Science.gov (United States)

There is compelling evidence for massive discharge of volatiles, including toxic species, into the atmosphere at the end of the Permian. It has been argued that most of the gases were produced during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits in the East Siberia Tunguska basin following sill intrusion (Retallack and Jahren, 2008; Svensen et al., 2009). The release of the volatiles has been proposed as a major cause of environmental and extinction events at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009) Here we consider the conditions required for the formation and dispersion of toxic, heavier than air, gas plumes, made up of a mixture of CO2, CH4, H2S and SO2 and formed during the thermal metamorphism of C- and S- rich sediments. Dispersion models and density considerations within a range of CO2/CH4 ratios and volatile fluxes and temperatures, for gas discharge by both seepage and from vents, allow the possibility that following sill emplacement much of the vast East Siberia Tunguska basin was - at least intermittently - covered by a heavy, toxic gas layer that was unfavorable for life. Dispersion scenarios for a heavy gas layer beyond the Siberian region during end-Permian times will be presented. REFERENCES G. J. Retallack and A. H. Jahren, Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events, Journal of Geology, volume 116, 1-20, 2008 H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 2009

Storey, Michael; Hankin, Robin K. S.

2010-05-01

169

Coal information 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions te based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

170

Inversion tectonics in the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)  

Science.gov (United States)

During Permian times the Pyrenees were characterized by extensional tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries. The Anayet Permian basin crops out in the western Spanish Axial Zone between the Aragon and Tena valleys. It is WNW-trending and it is filled by a continental Permian succession that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area. Permian deposits rest discordantly over Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. In the Anayet basin, Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, mainly composed of sandstones and conglomerates, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987). Due to the lithological characteristics of the Permian rocks in this region, there are almost no accurate age constraints for these units. A detailed structural study of the area, including mapping and balanced cross-sections, shows increasingly older rocks to the west of the Anayet basin. Moreover, it can be deduced a mean slope of around 11 % to the west for the basin. These data confirm that the basin depocenter was located to the west and that the Anayet basin was partitioned by N10 °E-trending normal faults. Although the contacts between the Permian and the Devono-Carboniferous rocks are covered by quaternary deposits in most of its extent, a fault contact can also be recognized. The fault contact is a 3 m thick shear zone oriented N120 ° E and dipping 60° to the North. It develops breccias, fault gouges and sigmoidal S-C tectonites indicating a reverse motion. The contact places Permian slates and sandstones over Carboniferous limestones and is almost parallel to the alpine cleavage deforming Permian rocks. The slope of the contact together with the presence of younger rocks in the hangingwall of the reverse fault points out that the original contact was a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the Alpine Orogeny. The high dip of the contact produced a buttressing effect during the alpine compression that concentrated the deformation near the fault zone and generated the cleavage of the hangingwall. Moreover, the higher abundance of fractures and calcite veins near the contact in the Carboniferous limestones of the footwall can be interpreted as an incipient stage to the formation of a short-cut-fault related with the buttressing effect. This process can explain the uncommon thickness of the fault zone, if we compare it with other alpine thrusts in this region. The structural features described above support the interpretation of the southern limit of the Anayet Permian basin as a normal fault originated during the Permian rifting and inverted during the compressional tectonics due to the Alpine Orogeny. Bixel, F., 1987. Le volcanisme stephano-permien des pyrenees petrographie, mineralogie, geochimie. Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica 11, 41-55. Gisbert, J., 1984. Las molasas tardihercínicas del Pirineo, in: Geología de España. Libro Jubilar de J. M. Ríos, Comba, J.A. (Ed.). IGME, Madrid, 168-186.

Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

2012-04-01

171

Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe: Chapter U in Global mineral resource assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits could occur within 2.5 kilometers of the surface, (2) provide a database of known reduced-facies-type sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and significant prospects, and (3) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of undiscovered copper that could be present within each tract. This assessment is a contribution to a global assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Zientek, Michael L.; Oszczepalski, S?awomir; Parks, Heather L.; Bliss, James D.; Borg, Gregor; Box, Stephen E.; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Spieth, Volker; Taylor, Cliff D.

2015-01-01

172

U Pb ages and source composition by Hf-isotope and trace-element analysis of detrital zircons in Permian sandstone and modern sand from southwestern Australia and a review of the paleogeographical and denudational history of the Yilgarn Craton  

Science.gov (United States)

Detrital zircons from the Permian Collie Coal Measures and modern sands on the northern part of the Albany Province have been analysed for U-Pb ages by a laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LAM-ICPMS) and for Hf-isotope compositions by a laser ablation microprobe multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LAM-MC-ICPMS). Trace elements were determined by analysis on the electron microprobe (EMP) and the ICPMS's. This combination of techniques makes it possible to determine for each grain not only the age but the nature and source of the host magma, whether crustal or juvenile mantle, and a model age ( TDM) based on a depleted-mantle source, which gives a minimum age for the source material of the magma from which the zircon crystallised. The integrated analysis, applied to suites of detrital zircon, gives a more distinctive, and more easily interpreted, picture of crustal evolution in the provenance area than age data alone. Zircons from Permian and Triassic sediments already analysed for U-Pb ages by a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) were also analysed for Hf isotopes and trace elements. Zircons from Collie and Permian and Early Triassic rocks of the northern Perth Basin have an age spectrum with a peak at about 1200 Ma that can be traced to the Albany Province. Differences, however, in Hf-isotope composition indicate that the Collie Coal Measures and the northern Perth Basin sandstones were not derived from the northern part of the Albany Province or from the coastal strip of felsic granitoids. The Perth Basin samples have a second peak age of 600-500 Ma that can be traced to the Leeuwin Block. One of the modern sands has a major peak at 2616 Ma that can be traced to the Yilgarn Craton. Compiled with previously published U-Pb zircon age spectra, the analyses provide insights into the paleogeographical history. The Yilgarn Craton sloped from the north at 1700 Ma, from the southeast at 1350-1140 and 490 Ma, its eastern part to the east at 300 Ma, and the southern part to the northwest from the Albany Province at 300-255 Ma. Denudational data from apatite fission-track analysis and vitrinite-reflectance studies suggest that the Yilgarn Craton was covered by a ˜5-km-thick blanket of Permian and Mesozoic sedimentary rock that was almost entirely removed by the Cenozoic, possibly because the craton was situated between the shoulders of rift systems that grew into the eastern and southeastern Indian Ocean. Ordovician, Permian, Early Triassic, and Quaternary sediment of the Perth Basin came from Proterozoic orogens. Only the Late Permian sample contains significant populations of Archean (Yilgarn) zircons but whether they came direct from the craton or were recycled from the postulated sedimentary cover is not known. The increased influx of sediment during the Jurassic matched by a peak in the denudation rate would seem to require a primary supply from the craton. This question could be resolved by dating zircon from the rapidly accumulated Jurassic formations.

Veevers, J. J.; Saeed, A.; Belousova, E. A.; Griffin, W. L.

2005-01-01

173

On the string equation at c=1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analogue of the string equation which specifies the partition function of c=1 string with a compactification radius ? is an element of Z?1 is described in the framework of Toda lattice hierarchy. (author)

174

Nonuniform hyperbolicity for C^1-generic diffeomorphisms  

CERN Document Server

We study the ergodic theory of non-conservative C^1-generic diffeomorphisms. First, we show that homoclinic classes of arbitrary diffeomorphisms exhibit ergodic measures whose supports coincide with the homoclinic class. Second, we show that generic (for the weak topology) ergodic measures of C^1-generic diffeomorphisms are nonuniformly hyperbolic: they exhibit no zero Lyapunov exponents. Third, we extend a theorem by Sigmund on hyperbolic basic sets: every isolated transitive set L of any C^1-generic diffeomorphism f exhibits many ergodic hyperbolic measures whose supports coincide with the whole set L. In addition, confirming a claim made by R. Man\\'e in 1982, we show that hyperbolic measures whose Oseledets splittings are dominated satisfy Pesin's Stable Manifold Theorem, even if the diffeomorphism is only C^1.

Abdenur, Flavio; Crovisier, Sylvain

2008-01-01

175

String Interactions in c=1 Matrix Model  

CERN Document Server

We study string interactions in the fermionic formulation of the c=1 matrix model. We give a precise nonperturbative description of the rolling tachyon state in the matrix model, and discuss S-matrix elements of the c=1 string. As a first step to study string interactions, we compute the interaction of two decaying D0-branes in terms of free fermions. This computation is compared with the string theory cylinder diagram using the rolling tachyon ZZ boundary states.

De Boer, J; Verlinde, E; Yee, J T; Boer, Jan de; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Verlinde, Erik; Yee, Jung-Tay

2004-01-01

176

Nonuniform hyperbolicity for C^1-generic diffeomorphisms  

OpenAIRE

We study the ergodic theory of non-conservative C^1-generic diffeomorphisms. First, we show that homoclinic classes of arbitrary diffeomorphisms exhibit ergodic measures whose supports coincide with the homoclinic class. Second, we show that generic (for the weak topology) ergodic measures of C^1-generic diffeomorphisms are nonuniformly hyperbolic: they exhibit no zero Lyapunov exponents. Third, we extend a theorem by Sigmund on hyperbolic basic sets: every isolated transiti...

Abdenur, Flavio; Bonatti, Christian; Crovisier, Sylvain

2008-01-01

177

Coal Combustion Science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01

178

International perspectives on coal preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

NONE

1997-12-31

179

Ichnological analysis in San Gregorio deposits (Lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area Uruguayan north basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ichnological analysis in deposits corresponding to San Gregorio Fm.(lower Permian) in the Guazunambi hills area (Cerro Largo Department, Uruguay) was made.Trace fossils in sandstones and mud stones outcrops were studied.The ichnofossil assemblage studied allows to propose a shallow marine environment. (author)

180

Development of the Permian-Triassic sequence in the basin Fringe area, southern Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological studies in the fringe area of the southern Permian basin led to new insights in the distribution and development of the Permian-Triassic sequence. During the Permian, the fringe area formed a platform, attached to the London-Brabant Massif, while during the Triassic it is characterized by strongly subsiding half grabens. In the southern Netherlands, Rotliegende sandstones and conglomerates have a much wider distribution than previously recognized. The Rotliegende deposits are capped by claystones and carbonates of the Upper Permian Zechstein. In the offshore, an important feeder system of clastics from the London-Brabant Massif was active during deposition of the Rotliegende and the Zechstein. In course of time, the location of major sandstone deposition shifted westward. Deposition of the Triassic Buntsandstein was controlled by the development of a large feeder system, which transported clastics from the Vosges northward, through the Roer Valley Graben and West netherlands Basin into the Off Holland Low. This system was responsible for the deposition of the economically important sheet sandstones of the Volpriehausen, Detfurth, Hardegsen, and Solling formations. A regional unconformity occurs below the Solling Formation. The sandstones are capped by claystones, evaporites, and sandstones of the Rot Formation. During deposition of the Muschelkalk, the differences in subsidence decreased and shallow marine sediments are interbedded with evaporites. Several unconformities occur within the Keuper. In the previous half grabens in the southern Netherlands, the Keuper is incomplete, which may be indicative for a possible reversal of the tectonic movements during this period.

Geluk, M.; Van Doorn, D.; Plomp, A.; Duin, E. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

1993-09-01

181

Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four components, we detected increased provincialism between our Permian and Triassic datasets. In southern Pangea, a more homogeneous and broadly distributed fauna in the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian, ?257 Ma) was replaced by a provincial and biogeographically fragmented fauna by Middle Triassic times (Anisian, ?242 Ma). Importantly in the Triassic, lower latitude basins in Tanzania and Zambia included dinosaur predecessors and other archosaurs unknown elsewhere. The recognition of heterogeneous tetrapod communities in the Triassic implies that the end-Permian mass extinction afforded ecologically marginalized lineages the ecospace to diversify, and that biotic controls (i.e., evolutionary incumbency) were fundamentally reset. Archosaurs, which began diversifying in the Early Triassic, were likely beneficiaries of this ecological release and remained dominant for much of the later Mesozoic. PMID:23630295

Sidor, Christian A; Vilhena, Daril A; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Huttenlocker, Adam K; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Peecook, Brandon R; Steyer, J Sébastien; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A

2013-05-14

182

Anatomy of a Permian Erg sequence: the De La Cuesta Formation (northwestern Argentina)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is about the Permian red beds of the La Cuesta Formation (Sierra de Narvaez, northwestern Argentina) which is composed of sandstones associated with mud stones and subordinate conglomerates. The sediments obtained from the interaction between aeolian and ephemeral fluvial systems, are represented by aeolian dune, dry aeolian inter dune and aeolian sand sheet, mud flat, wet aeolian inter dune, and fluvial deposits

183

Permian basalts and trachytes from Esterel (SE France): a transitional tholeiitic suite emplaced during lithosphere thinning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geochemical (major, trace and rare earth elements) and isotopic (143Nd/144Nd) compositions of lavas emplaced in the Esterel Massif (eastern Provence, France) at the end of the Permian allow to estimate the evolution of the continental lithosphere between the end of the Hercynian orogenesis and the beginning of the Tethyan rifting. Basalts from Agay basin and trachyte from Batterie des Lions belong to a transitional tholeiitic suite, characterized by negative Nb and Ta anomalies (relative to N-MORB) and homogeneous ?Nd(T=250Ma) ratios, close to the Bulk Earth. This suggests that the basalts from Agay basin and trachyte from Batterie des Lions derived from the partial melting of a mantle contaminated by lower continental crust. Maure Vieille trachytes differ from the differentiated rocks of the transitional suite by higher heavy rare earth abundances and ?Nd(T=250Ma) of +4/+5. These high ?Nd ratios suggest that the Maure Vieille trachytes could derive from the partial melting of a more depleted source, likely an asthenospheric mantle. The isotopic compositions of the Permian lavas from Esterel suggest the thinning (and perhaps the disappearance) of the lithospheric mantle which is associated at the surface with a NNW-SSE extension. The progressive change recorded in Agay basin from a stretching regime to a strike-slip regime may be related to the end of the lithospheric thinning and of the Permian magmatism. (authors) the Permian magmatism. (authors)

184

Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The medial Permian (~270-260 Ma: Guadalupian) was a time of important tetrapod faunal changes, in particular reflecting a turnover from pelycosaurian- to therapsid-grade synapsids. Until now, most knowledge on tetrapod distribution during the medial Permian has come from fossils found in the South African Karoo and the Russian Platform, whereas other areas of Pangaea are still poorly known. We present evidence for the presence of a terrestrial carnivorous vertebrate from the Middle Permian of South America based on a complete skull. Pampaphoneus biccai gen. et sp. nov. was a dinocephalian "mammal-like reptile" member of the Anteosauridae, an early therapsid predator clade known only from the Middle Permian of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and South Africa. The genus is characterized, among other features, by postorbital bosses, short, bulbous postcanines, and strongly recurved canines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Brazilian dinocephalian occupies a middle position within the Anteosauridae, reinforcing the model of a global distribution for therapsids as early as the Guadalupian. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Brazilian species to dinocephalians from South Africa and the Russian Platform suggests a closer faunistic relationship between South America and eastern Europe than previously thought, lending support to a Pangaea B-type continental reconstruction. PMID:22307615

Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Abdala, Fernando; Atayman-Güven, Saniye; Rubidge, Bruce S; ?engörc, A M Celâl; Schultz, Cesar L

2012-01-31

185

Crinum coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Crinum project was given approval to proceed in January 1993. The mine is expected to produce its first coal in the second half of 1994, leading to full production by mid-1996, when total product coal from the Gregory Joint Venture leases is designed to reach 4.5 million tonnes per annum. Development work will be performed by continuous miner machines, progressing to a longwall underground mining operation. Crinum and Gregory coals will be processed in Gregory's recently modified preparation plant to produce three products - a low ash coking coal, a weak coking coal and a by-product thermal coal for world markets. Crinum coal will augment production from Gregory mine's remaining open cut coal reserves. 2 figs.

1994-03-01

186

Turning brown coal green  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With vast reserves of brown coal, the state of Victoria, Australia, is among the leading supporters of CCS and other clean coal technologies. The paper describes the state's initiatives to meet the carbon challenge.

Philpot, R. [Invest Victoria (Australia)

2009-07-15

187

Inorganic Constituents in Coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

Ra?enovi? A.

2006-02-01

188

Self-scrubbing coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are per examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

189

Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area and causes rotation of older probably Paleozoic sediments and creates syn-tectonic sediment wedges. The syn-tectonic wedges most probably contain volcaniclastic sediments of the Karl Formation or sandstones of the Auk Formation, but it cannot be excluded that the earliest late Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment of the E-W striking fault system are generally planar and strike parallel to the fault with a southward dip geometrically similar to antithetic faults. In contrast, the intrusions in the footwall segment show a much more complex pattern striking at a high angle to the E-W basement fault and outlining a sill complex, which in certain areas resembles a poorly outlined composite cone. The intrusions are not observed in the syn-tectonic sedimentary wedges and this combined with the general age of the intrusions suggests that the syn-tectonic wedges are of latest early Permian or earliest late Permian age. The study demonstrates Paleozoic intrusions with a systematic orientation and geometry that most likely was directly controlled by the basement faulting. Syn-tectonic hanging-wall deformation represented by antithetic fractures is suggested to be the most important controlling factor for the intrusions at the hanging-wall. At the footwall a more composite geometry of the intrusions is observed, resulting in a much more complex compartmentalization of the Paleozoic sediments due to intrusions compared to the hanging-wall segment. The intrusions and especially the compartmentalization must be taken into account during evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Paleozoic.

Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul

190

Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

Marie-Beatrice FOREL

2012-08-01

191

The petroleum generation potential and effective oil window of humic coals related to coal composition and age  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A worldwide data set of more than 500 humic coals from the major coal-forming geological periods has been used to analyse the evolution in the remaining (Hydrogen Index, HI) and total (Quality Index, QI) generation potentials with increasing thermal maturity and the 'effective oil window' ('oil expulsion window'). All samples describe HI and QI bands that are broad at low maturities and that gradually narrow with increasing maturity. The oil generation potential is completely exhausted at a vitrinite reflectance of 2.0-2.2%R{sub o} or T{sub max} of 500-510{sup o}C. The initial large variation in the generation potential is related to the original depositional conditions, particularly the degree of marine influence and the formation of hydrogen-enriched vitrinite, as suggested by increased sulphur and hydrogen contents. During initial thermal maturation the HI increases to a maximum value, HI{sub max}. Similarly, QI increases to a maximum value, QI{sub max}. This increase in HI and QI is related to the formation of an additional generation potential in the coal structure. The decline in QI with further maturation is indicating onset of initial oil expulsion, which precedes efficient expulsion. Liquid petroleum generation from humic coals is thus a complex, three-phase process: (i) onset of petroleum generation, (ii) petroleum build-up in the coal, and (iii) initial oil expulsion followed by efficient oil expulsion (corresponding to the effective oil window). Efficient oil expulsion is indicated by a decline in the Bitumen Index (BI) when plotted against vitrinite reflectance or T{sub max}. This means that in humic coals the vitrinite reflectance or T{sub max} values at which onset of petroleum generation occurs cannot be used to establish the start of the effective oil window. The start of the effective oil window occurs within the vitrinite reflectance range 0.85-1.05%R{sub o} or T{sub max} range 440-455{sup o}C and the oil window extends to 1.5-2.0%R{sub o} or 470-510{sup o}C. For general use, an effective oil window is proposed to occur from 0.85 to 1.7%R{sub o} or from 440 to 490{sup o}C. Specific ranges for HI{sub max} and the effective oil window can be defined for Cenozoic, Jurassic, Permian, and Carboniferous coals. Cenozoic coals reach the highest HI{sub max} values (220-370mg HC/g TOC), and for the most oil-prone Cenozoic coals the effective oil window may possibly range from 0.65 to 2.0%R{sub o} or 430 to 510{sup o}C. In contrast, the most oil-prone Jurassic, Permian and Carboniferous coals reach the expulsion threshold at a vitrinite reflectance of 0.85-0.9%R{sub o} or T{sub max} of 440-445{sup o}C. (author)

Petersen, Henrik I. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), OEster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

2006-07-03

192

Coal production 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29

193

Coal washing - Indian Scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status of coal beneficiation in India is surveyed. Beneficiation of non-coking coal for use in thermal power plants results in less wear and tear of power stations and reduces cost of transport, handling of coal, and operation and maintenance of the power plant. (M.G.B). 5 refs

194

Considerations on coal gasification  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

Franzen, J. E.

1978-01-01

195

Using conodont elements to distinguish Permian-Triassic boundary disconformity near Haftad Gholleh, central Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El presente estudio se enfoca en la estatigrafía del Límite Pérmico-Triásico en el área de Haftad Gholleh, al este de Arak y al norte de Mahallat, centro de Irán. Este límite de discordancia erosiva, al igual que en otras secuencias iraníes relacionadas al período Pérmico, contiene calizas dolomías, [...] esquistos y areniscas discordantes localizadas debajo de la secuencia Triásica. En una medida estratigráfica detallada del área de estudio se encontraron conodontas del Límite Pérmico-Triásico (PTB, por sus siglas en inglés). Se reconocieron tres áreas de conodontas, lo que ubica esta sección del PTB como bioestatigráfica precisa. Una de las secuencias superiores del Pérmico pertenece al período Guadalupiense. La secuencia Triásica consiste en calizas con capas vermiculitas coloreadas de esquisto que pertenecen al período Triásico temprano. La discordancia del Límite Pérmico Triásico, entonces, representa un lapso cercano a los 10 millones de años. Abstract in english The present study focuses on the stratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Haftad Gholleh area in eastern Arak and north of Mahallat,located in central Iran. This boundary of erosional unconformity or disconformity and as in other Iranian sequences related to the Permian period, contains [...] dolomitic limestone and shale and sandstone disconformably located below the Triassic sequence. A detailed measured stratigraphic section has provided conodonts from the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sequences in the area being studied. Three conodont areas have been recognied which place the PTB in this section by precise biostratigraphy. One of the most upper Permian sequences belongs to the Guadalupian period. The Triassic sequence consists of vermiculate limestone layers with coloured shale inter beds belonging to the Early Triassic period; unconformity at the Permian-Triassic boundary therefore represents a hiatus of about 10 million years.

Mostafa, Yousefirad; Somayeh, Ghanbari; Mahnaz, Parvanehnejad Shirazi.

2013-06-01

196

Microbialites and global environmental change across the Permian-Triassic boundary: a synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites (PTBMs) are thin (0.05-15 m) carbonates formed after the end-Permian mass extinction. They comprise Renalcis-group calcimicrobes, microbially mediated micrite, presumed inorganic micrite, calcite cement (some may be microbially influenced) and shelly faunas. PTBMs are abundant in low-latitude shallow-marine carbonate shelves in central Tethyan continents but are rare in higher latitudes, likely inhibited by clastic supply on Pangaea margins. PTBMs occupied broadly similar environments to Late Permian reefs in Tethys, but extended into deeper waters. Late Permian reefs are also rich in microbes (and cements), so post-extinction seawater carbonate saturation was likely similar to the Late Permian. However, PTBMs lack widespread abundant inorganic carbonate cement fans, so a previous interpretation that anoxic bicarbonate-rich water upwelled to rapidly increase carbonate saturation of shallow seawater, post-extinction, is problematic. Preliminary pyrite framboid evidence shows anoxia in PTBM facies, but interbedded shelly faunas indicate oxygenated water, perhaps there was short-term pulsing of normally saturated anoxic water from the oxygen-minimum zone to surface waters. In Tethys, PTBMs show geographic variations: (i) in south China, PTBMs are mostly thrombolites in open shelf settings, largely recrystallised, with remnant structure of Renalcis-group calcimicrobes; (ii) in south Turkey, in shallow waters, stromatolites and thrombolites, lacking calcimicrobes, are interbedded, likely depth-controlled; and (iii) in the Middle East, especially Iran, stromatolites and thrombolites (calcimicrobes uncommon) occur in different sites on open shelves, where controls are unclear. Thus, PTBMs were under more complex control than previously portrayed, with local facies control playing a significant role in their structure and composition. PMID:22077322

Kershaw, S; Crasquin, S; Li, Y; Collin, P-Y; Forel, M-B; Mu, X; Baud, A; Wang, Y; Xie, S; Maurer, F; Guo, L

2012-01-01

197

US coal mining analysed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earlier this year Lehman Brothers produced a report analysing the US coal industry and examining its competitiveness with other fuels. It found that operating costs of coal-fired power plants were 21% lower than nuclear plants, 24% lower than natural gas plants and 60% lower than oil-fired plants. Lehman expects coal to maintain its share of electricity generation beyond 2010. The report discusses coal reserves, productivity of US coal mining, changes in ownership with the industry and transportation costs. This article summarises its content.

NONE

1996-07-12

198

Radionuclides in US coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

1984-03-01

199

Coal and public perceptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

200

Indonesian coal export potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

201

Quinoid groups in coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes a method for determining quinoid groups in black coal. The following types of black coal from the Donbass were used in experiments: D, G, Zh, OS, anthracite and coke. Iron solution in alkali triethanolamine was used as analytical reagent for determining quantity of quinoid groups. Testing procedure was based on procedure for determining quinoid groups in humic acids. Equipment used for tests and reagent proportions are given. Effects of coal oxidation on investigation results were also tested. Coal oxidized at 150 C was used. Effects of iron sulfates formed during pyrite oxidation on accuracy of quinoid group determination are analyzed. The optimum conditions for coal sample treatment for preventing negative pyrite effects were determined (temperature, reaction time, reagent proportions). Investigation results are given in 3 tables. Analyses show that using iron solution in alkali triethanolamine for determining quinoid groups in black coal produces accurate results, which are not negatively influenced by mineral matter in coal. (25 refs.)

Sapunov, V.A.; Kucherenko, V.A.

1982-05-01

202

Gasification of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief discussion on the chemical reactions and mechanisms involved in coal gasification is followed by an analysis of the low-rank coal characteristics which influence the design and performance of the process, rendering these coals good gasification feedstocks. Gasification processes and technologies are described in reasonable detail. Principal processes such as fixed-bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed and molten bath are explained. The many processes in commercial operation and also those under development, are discussed, backed up with performance data for low-rank coals. Underground coal gasification technology is described in some detail. The article is based on part of the book 'Clean use of coals. Low-rank coal technologies' to be published by MultiScience Publishing Co. Ltd., in 2000. 92 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.

Vamvuka, D. [Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece)

1999-07-01

203

Structure and depositional environments of Permian-Triassic terrigeneous complex of the Barents Sea shelf  

Science.gov (United States)

Permian-Triassic complex of the Barents Sea shelf composed of up to 8-12 km of clastic sediments has a great interest for geology as it contains hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs and source rocks. It is drilled on shelf margins and structural highs; it outcrops in adjoining archipelagos. However within depositional centers like the South-Barents basin where Permian-Triassic reaches maximum thickness and burial, its structure can only be understood from seismic data. We present an evaluation of structure, depositional environments and cyclicity of Permian-Triassic terrigeneous complex based on interpretation of 18 000 km of regional seismic profiles with record length of 10-12 s acquired by MAGE in 2007-09 in the south-east shelf. Transgressive-regressive sequences were identified and correlated using well log analysis for 17 wells, descriptions of well sections and outcrops in Franz Josef Land, Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya archipelagos. Cooling of the climate throughout Sakmarian-Artinskian (Lower Permian), marine transgression, and Ural orogeny in the south-east had interrupted carbonate deposition and initiated the deposition of terrigeneous (East Barents) and spiculite, siliceous-carbonate, and siliciclastic (West Barents) sediments (Geological history, 2009). Triassic is represented by clastic lithologies all over the basin. On seismic data lower boundary of Permian-Triassic complex is a high-amplitude reflector (Ia) and downlap surface corresponding to the top of Lower Permian carbonates. Upper boundary is related to Rhaetian erosional unconformity best pronounced in the pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep, Kola monocline and Pechora Sea. Permian is represented by 5 transgressive-regressive sequences with upward regressive trend and total thickness of 100-800 m. Low-angle clinoforms prograding from south-east (Ural provenance) and east were interpreted on seismic. Increasing thickness of Permian towards Novaya Zemlya is consistent with up to 4 km of sediments in the archipelago's outcrops and indicates Kara provenance. In the south-eastern basin margin Permian-Triassic boundary is well-traced due to its erosional origin and downlapping of overlaying Induan clinoforms. Triassic sediments were formed in deltaic, shallow-marine to deep shelf environments in the large epicontinental basin with vast transgressions and significant lateral shift of the shoreline during sea level changes. Interpreted Triassic horizons correspond to Induan/Olenekian (top Havert), Lower/Upper Olenekian, Olenekian/Anisian (top Klappmyss) and Ladinian/Carnian boundaries. These relatively continuous reflectors were formed as transgressive shaly packages overlaid sequence boundaries. During Induan clinoforms (height ~100 s) had prograded to the north-west and west compensating the steady subsidence of the South- and North Barents depressions and pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep. We traced migration of the clinoform break (platform margin) of several Induan prograding sequences across the South-Barents basin towards Norwegian Barents Sea, where the area of non-compensated deposition in deep shelf environments was delineated (Glorstad-Clark, 2010). During Olenekian and Middle Triassic the clinoform break persisted in the western shelf, thus no clinoforms are observed in the south-east of the Barents Sea where deltaic environments had prevailed. Late Triassic was characterized by shallowing of the basin, spreading of deltas and filling of previously non-compensated area in the north-west. Maximum thickness of Triassic is related to Lower Triassic within South Barents basin and Lower-Middle Triassic within the pre-Novaya Zemlya foredeep.

Norina, Daria; Stoupakova, Antonina

2014-05-01

204

A sulfur and strontium isotopic investigation of Lower Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lower Permian Wolfcamp and Wichita carbonates and anhydrites, Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle, record a change from a normal marine evaporite depositional environment. Isotopic compositions of S and Sr in anhydrite were determined to investigate the age of Wolfcamp and Wichita strata and the paragenesis of eight anhydrite forms. Bedded nodular mosaic (Wichita) and replacive nodular (Wolfcamp) anhydrites have S and Sr isotopic compositions that record precipitation from Early Permian (Wolfcampian to Leonardian) seawater. Silicified nodular, coarsely crystalline nodular, fossil-filling, and vein-filling anhydrites have enriched S isotopic compositions relative to Permian seawater, whereas euhedral and anhedral replacive anhydrites have depleted S. The Sr isotopic composition of most anhydrite forms indicates an Early Permain marine origin, however, Sr in anhydrite veins is slightly radiogenic compared to Permian seawater. The Sr isotopic composition of bedded nodular mosaic anhydrite indicates a Leonardian seawater source of material. (author)

205

78 FR 16569 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC, Permian Basin Railways, and San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Corporate...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Monterey Bay Railway Company; and (7) West Texas & Lubbock Railway. \\2\\ See Iowa Pac. Holdings, LLC & Permian Basin Rys.--Control Exemption--Cape Rail, Inc. & Mass. Coastal R.R., FD 35684 (STB served October 26,...

2013-03-15

206

Gwembe Coal Formation, Karoo Supergroup, Mid-Zambezi valley, southern Zambia; a fluvial plain environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gwembe Coal Formation of Permian age belongs to the Lower Karoo Group of the Karoo Supergroup (Permo-Carboniferous to early Jurassic), which crops out in the mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia. The formation has a maximum thickness of 280 m. It was formed in a fluvial depositional environment in which sandstones, siltstones and mudstones were deposited in channels and flood plains. One sandstone body (A Sandstone) indicates a change in fluvial style from a proximal braided system to a high-sinuosity meandering stream system. The productive coals (Main Seam) with thicknesses from 5 to 12 m were deposited in shallow swampy areas of the flood plain. Peat deposition was interrupted by channel, crevasse channel and splay, levee and overbank deposition. Rootlets observed in basal sandstones indicate an insitu origin for the Main Seam.

Nyambe, I.A.; Dixon, O. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01

207

Beneficiation of coal from impounded coal waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential for recovery and purification of fine coal particles from the impounded waste of a coal cleaning plant using a two-stage, two-solvent system was investigated. The two-solvent system consisted of a first-stage fluid (a mixture of n-dodecane and 2-propanol) used to separate fine coal particles from ash-forming impurities, and a second-stage fluid, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) solvents, used to remove sulfur and mineral impurities from the recovered coal. The degree of separation of organic matter from inorganic impurities was examined as a function of the fraction of n-dodecane in the first-stage fluid, and settling time. The results show a general trend of increasing organic matter recovery with increasing fraction of n-dodecane. The most ash removal was obtained with a first-stage fluid of 4% n-dodecane and 96% 2-propanol by volume. Mineral and sulfur removal from the recovered coal was negligible. Further treatment with TCLP solvents in the second stage showed significant removal from the recovered coal (over 70%) of iron, manganese, and sodium. Sulfur and calcium removal was poor (less than 50%); it is likely that these are bound in the organic matrix. The energy content of the final recovered coal product was 34.9 MJ/kg, an increase of 22.2% over the 28.59 MJ/kg of the impounded waste.

Ikwut-Ukwa, U. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil Engineering; Atalay, A. [Environmental Solutions, Norman, OK (United States); Everett, J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science

1997-04-01

208

Coal to gas substitution using coal?!  

Science.gov (United States)

Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UC? s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

2010-05-01

209

Sudden changes in fluvial style across the Permian / Triassic boundary in the eastern Iberian Ranges, Spain: Analysis of possible causes  

OpenAIRE

The sedimentary record of the Late Permian and Early Triassic of the eastern Iberian Ranges shows four major, sudden, or very rapid, vertical changes in fluvial style. The Late Permian sedimentary cycle starts with the Boniches Formation, of alluvial fan-braided fluvial origin, which grades vertically over within a few metres into the Alcotas Formation, deposited by low to high sinuosity, avulsion-prone rivers with extensive floodplains. The Alcotas Formation contains calcimorphic so...

Arche, Alfredo; Lo?pez Go?mez, Jose?

2005-01-01

210

Late Permian-early Middle Triassic back-arc basin development in West Qinling, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Late Permian-early Middle Triassic strata of the northern West Qinling area, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, are composed of sediment gravity flow deposits. Detailed sedimentary facies analysis indicates these strata were deposited in three successive deep-marine environments. The Late Permian-early Early Triassic strata of the Maomaolong Formation and the lowest part of the Longwuhe Formation define a NW-SE trending proximal slope environment. Facies of the Early Triassic strata composing the middle and upper Longwuhe Formation are consistent with deposition in a base-of-slope apron environment, whereas facies of the Middle Triassic Anisian age Gulangdi Formation are more closely associated with a base-of-slope fan depositional environment. The lithofacies and the spatial-temporal changes in paleocurrent data from these strata suggest the opening of a continental margin back-arc basin system during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the northern West Qinling. U-Pb zircon ages for geochemically varied igneous rocks with diabasic through granitic compositions intruded into these deep-marine strata range from 250 to 234 Ma. These observations are consistent with extensional back-arc basin development and rifting between the Permian-Triassic Eastern Kunlun arc and North China block during the continent-continent collision and underthrusting of the South China block northward beneath the Qinling terrane of the North China block. Deep-marine sedimentation ended in the northern West Qinling by the Middle Triassic Ladinian age, but started in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi to the south. We attribute these observations to southward directed rollback of Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere, continued attenuation of the West Qinling on the upper plate, local post-rift isostatic compensation in the northern West Qinling area, and continued opening of a back-arc basin in the southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi. Rollback and back-arc basin development during Late Permian to early Middle Triassic time in the West Qinling area explains: the truncated map pattern of the Eastern Kunlun arc, the age difference of deep-marine sediment gravity flow deposits between the Late Permian-early Middle Triassic northern West Qinling and the late Middle Triassic-Late Triassic southern West Qinling and Songpan-Ganzi, and the discontinuous trace of ophiolitic rocks associated with the Anyemaqen-Kunlun suture.

Li, Lin; Meng, Qingren; Pullen, Alex; Garzione, Carmala N.; Wu, Guoli; Wang, Yanling; Ma, Shouxian; Duan, Liang

2014-06-01

211

Sensitivity of Late Permian climate to bathymetric features and implications for the mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from stratigraphic sections of the Panthalassa, Paleo-Tethys and Neo-Tethys suggests that the oceans experienced widespread anoxia during the Late Permian, which likely contributed to the extinction of ~ 90% of marine and ~ 70% of terrestrial species. The Late Permian and Early Triassic were also characterized by significant carbon isotope excursions implying that considerable perturbations in the carbon cycle occurred. Bathymetric features of the Panthalassa during this period are not well known since most of the ocean floor has been subducted; however, tectonic reconstructions suggest that active marine subduction zones surrounded Pangea. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that there was an active mid-ocean ridge system located in Panthalassa during the Late Permian. In this study, the impact of such a spreading center within Panthalassa on the climate and carbon cycle is investigated using a comprehensive climate system model for the end-Permian. This is a novel approach because a majority of previous simulations assumed a flat bottom for the Panthalassa deep-sea. The mid-ocean ridge (MOR) simulation enhanced vertical mixing and topographic steering of the currents near the ridge-axis but in comparison with the simulation using a flat bottom, changes in the global distribution of water masses and circulation in the Panthalassa were insignificant. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were not considerably affected by the implementation of the mid-ocean ridge. Thus the approximation of using a flat-bottom topography in ocean models for the Late Permian remains valid. In a second sensitivity study, the effect of a sill between the deep Paleo-Tethys and Panthalassa on water mass distribution and oxygen content has been investigated. Model results suggest that the introduction of a sill led to enhanced stratification, as well as an increase in salinity and temperature in the Paleo-Tethys. An associated reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration to dysoxic to near-anoxic conditions below 1800 m suggests that the changes in sill height between the Paleo-Tethys and Panthalassa may have been a contributing factor of regional importance to the Permian-Triassic mass extinction.

Osen, Angela K.; Winguth, Arne M. E.; Winguth, Cornelia; Scotese, Christopher R.

2013-06-01

212

Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China  

Science.gov (United States)

Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. ?13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). ?34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive ?13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ?REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in ?13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of ?34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior to the main extinction horizon may have been caused by oceanic oxygen-minimum zone expansion and upward movement of the chemocline5. The coupled increases in Eu/Eu* and Baxs may record hydrothermal influence, possibly accompanied by increased ocean acidity and high seawater temperatures. Collectively, our results document major changes in seawater chemistry during the Changhsingian prior to the main end-Permian crisis.

Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

2013-12-01

213

No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Multiple observations have revealed that environmental disturbances may have been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and delayed biotic recovery. Biogeochemical constraints on the temporal and spatial changes of oceanic redox chemistry during the Permian–Triassic interval are essential to evaluate global significance of previous hypotheses and to improve our understanding of extinction and recovery processes. To investigate redox ocean chemistry change associated with the end-Permian extinction and subsequent delayed biotic recovery, we examine framboidal pyrites as well as sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrites from the East Greenland Basin. The size distributions of framboidal pyrites in sediments from a continuous section across the Permian–Triassic boundary reveal that sulfidic conditions in water columns were established about 0.7 m above the extinction event in the East Greenland Basin. Our detailed examination of framboidal pyrites challenges a leading hypothesis that euxinia in the photic zonecaused the end-Permian ecosystem collapse. We identify several positive and negative S-isotopic shifts before and after the extinction event and demonstrate that a positive S-isotopic shift is not indicative of an abrupt change of redox chemistry in water columns, in contrast to previous claims. The integration of isotope and framboidal pyrite data provides a nearly continuous record of ocean chemistry evolution and new insights into the end-Permian extinction and delayed biotic recovery in the East Greenland Basin.

Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y

2010-01-01

214

Episodic euxinia in the Changhsingian (late Permian) of South China: Evidence from framboidal pyrite and geochemical data  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiproxy study of a new Upper Permian-Lower Triassic section (Xiaojiaba) in Sichuan Province, China, documents large changes in marine productivity, redox conditions and detrital input prior to the latest Permian mass extinction. Marine productivity, as proxied by total organic carbon content (TOC), biogenic SiO2, and excess barium, displays a long-term decline through most of the Changhsingian stage (late late Permian), culminating in very low values around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Concurrently, redox proxies including pyrite framboid, ?34Spy, Moauth and Uauth, and Corg/P document a shift from suboxic to dysoxic/oxic conditions that was interrupted by several episodes of benthic euxinia, and detrital siliciclastic proxies (Al, Hf, Nb, and REEs) suggest an increased flux of weathered material from land areas. The long-term changes in productivity, redox conditions, and terrigenous detrital fluxes were probably caused by a regional sea-level fall across the South China Craton. On the other hand, the brief euxinic episodes occurring during the late Permian had oceanographic causes, probably related to the transient upward expansion of the chemocline at the top of the oceanic oxygen-minimum zone. These euxinic episodes may have been harbingers of the more widespread anoxia that developed concurrently with the latest Permian mass extinction and that may have played a major role in triggering the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic.

Wei, Hengye; Algeo, Thomas J.; Yu, Hao; Wang, Jiangguo; Guo, Chuan; Shi, Guo

2015-04-01

215

Origin of Permian gabbroic intrusions in the southern margin of the Altai Orogenic belt: A possible link to the Permian Tarim mantle plume?  

Science.gov (United States)

Zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions, whole-rock and mineral geochemistry, as well as field and petrographic observations, are reported for the Permian gabbroic intrusions in the southern margin of the Altai orogenic belt. Similar zircon ages (~ 280 Ma) of these intrusions to that of the Permian Tarim mantle plume suggest a possible link to the Tarim plume. Olivine grains from the intrusions have Fo contents ranging from 69 to 81 and NiO from 0.05 to 0.21 wt.%, indicating the crystallization from evolved mafic magmas. Clinopyroxene grains from the intrusions have 0.3 to 1.5 wt.% TiO2 and display a rift- to arc-like affinity. The intrusions are tholeiitic and have slightly LREE-depleted to LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns. Zircons from the intrusions have ?Hf(t) values higher than + 8.0, whereas the whole-rock ?Nd(t) values range from + 2.7 to + 7.0. Rocks from the intrusions have Nb/La of 0.2 to 0.8, consistent with the derivation from a depleted sub-lithospheric mantle with variable degrees of crustal contamination. The presence of primary hornblende and/or biotite in the rocks indicates metasomatism by slab-derived fluids/melts in the mantle source. We propose that upwelling of asthenospheric mantle in the Permian Tarim mantle plume along the Irtish suture zone, resulted in partial melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Based on a comparison between the Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing Kalatongke complex and un-mineralized intrusions, we suggest that Ni-Cu sulfide mineralized intrusions in the Altai orogenic belt are characterized by the enrichments of LREEs and LILEs and by the presence of primary water-bearing minerals.

Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Zou, Hai-Bo; Yao, Chun-Yan; Dong, Yong-Guan

2014-09-01

216

Clean coal technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

217

Coal in South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

South Africa has more than 70 per cent of the coal resources of Africa, and coal forms the back-bone of the South African industry. In terms of the norms generally accepted for the Carboniferous coals of the Northern Hemisphere, South African coal has long been regarded as "abnormal". However, these apparent abnormalities can be adequately explained in terms of the petrography which in turn reflects the conditions of peat formation and the subsequent metamorphism under a steep palaeogeothermal gradient. In common with other Gondwana coals South African coals are generally rich in material transitional between vitrinite and inertinite ( sensu stricto). This transition material is partly reactive during technological processes like carbonisation, and is therefore regarded as semi-reactive. South African coals are generally low in sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus, and in the case of the first two the contents are dependent on maceral composition and rank. On account of the low basisity of the coal ash the ash fusion temperatures are generally high and this is an advantage in most areas of coal utilisation. A review is given of adverse geological conditions affecting coal exploitation, and of methods that can possibly be used to recognise and predict of even eliminate these conditions for purposes of mine planning.

Snyman, C. P.; Botha, W. J.

1993-02-01

218

Coal prices rise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

219

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30

220

Imbricate structure of the Permian Yoshii Group in the Otakeyama area, Okayama Prefecture, southwest Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yoshii Group of the Akiyoshi terrane is distributed over the Otakeyama area, Okayama Prefecture, southwest Japan. The Yoshii Group is composed of siliceous rocks and clastics, comprising chert-clastic sequences. The Yoshii Group is divided into four structural units (Units Ot 1, Ot 2, Ot 3, and Ot 4) in structurally ascending order. Lithological similarities and radiolarian age suggest that these units exhibit almost identical ocean plate stratigraphy. These units are structurally-repeated to form an imbricate structure. This structure was possibly formed by off-scrape accretion at a toe of an accretionary complex. Additionally, a review of previous studies indicates that an imbricate structure is common in the Akiyoshi terrane. The presence of an imbricate structure in the Akiyoshi terrane, Permian accretionary complex, indicates the possibility that a specific horizon of Permian pelagic sequences acted as a décollement zone.

Ito, Tsuyoshi; Matsuoka, Atsushi

2015-03-01

221

Sulfur and oxygen isotopes in Italian marine sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaporitic sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from Italian occurrences were analyzed for sulfur and oxygen isotopes in order to supplement the corresponding isotope-age curves and to use isotopic data to trace the origin of the sulfate in hydrologic systems. The sulfur-isotopic composition-age relationships obtained in this study generally agree with those found throughout the world. In two cases, i.e. in samples from the Carniola di Bovegno Formation (Bergamo and Brescia Alps) and from the lower part of the Gracilis Formation (Recoaro, Vicenza), sulfur isotopes suggest different ages for the rocks than the formerly ascribed ones. Oxygen-isotopic compositions show the same range from approximately +10.5 to +18.5per thousand, without any consistent relationship with sulfur. These ranges of values are almost identical to those published previously for sulfates of Permian and Triassic ages from other locations. (Auth.)

222

Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

Rychel, Dwight

2013-09-30

223

Biogeochemical controls on photic-zone euxinia during the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science.gov (United States)

Geochemical, biomarker, and isotopic evidence suggests thatthe end-Permian was characterized by extreme oceanic anoxiathat may have led to hydrogen sulfide buildup and mass extinction.We use an earth system model to quantify the biogeochemicaland physical conditions necessary for widespread oceanic euxiniaand hydrogen sulfide release to the atmosphere. Greater thanthreefold increases in ocean nutrient content combined withnutrient-trapping ocean circulation cause surface-water H2Saccumulation in the paleo-Tethys Ocean and in areas ofstrong upwelling. Accounting for the presence of sulfide-oxidizingphototrophs in the model suppresses but does not prevent widespreadrelease of H2S to the atmosphere. Evidence from the geologicrecord is consistent with modeled geochemical distributionsof widespread nutrient-induced euxinia during the end-Permian,suggesting H2S toxicity and hypercapnia may have provided thekill mechanism for extinction.

Meyer, K. M.; Kump, L. R.; Ridgwell, A.

2008-09-01

224

Beneficiated coals' char morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

Diana Vargas

2012-09-01

225

Sampling the coal chain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Coal is a complex heterogeneous commodity that can be mined in a number of ways and needs to be processed to a homogeneous quality that satisfies the customer's requirements, while attempting to maximize revenues. Only a small proportion of coal is suitable for metallurgical use. Export coals cover [...] a wide range of qualities and some coals can be used optimally in the raw state for energy production. Critical quality parameters vary and can be a combination of heat value, ash, volatiles, sulphur, phosphorus, sizing, amongst others. The level of beneficiation is generally dictated by the washability of the coal, mining contamination, and the target product quality. The steps in the coal chain covered in this paper comprise exploration, mining selections, production, the washing process, and product delivery. Many points of sampling are needed to maximize yield at the correct quality, and some of these will be described in the paper.

P.E., Hand.

2014-01-01

226

Coal, culture and community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

NONE

1993-11-01

227

Coal tar in dermatology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

2007-07-01

228

Coal comes clean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

229

Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

230

Evidence for a western extension of the Angaran phytogeographic province in the Early Permian  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A newly described Early Permian fossil plant assemblage in the Mt. Dall conglomerate in the Farewell terrane (Alaska Range, USA) is analyzed from a paleobiogeographic perspective. These data constitute the youngest paleontological dataset yet discovered in this terrane, represent the terrane's only predominantly terrestrial fossil assemblage, and are the only plant macrofossil remains of Early Permian age within a > 1500 km radius today. A suite of multivariate statistical analyses comparing the Mt. Dall paleoflora to similar age (Asselian-Artinskian) collections from the Angaran, Euramerican, and Cathaysian Permian phytogeographic provinces reveals that the Mt. Dall paleoflora has a paleobiogeographic affinity with Sub-Angaran plant fossil assemblages collected from Mongolia and the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. The paleoflora has dual importance in the construction and testing of hypotheses for which there are geographically and temporally few controls. First, these data may be used in association with other faunal and floral remains to test models of the assembly of Alaska, which seek, in part, an understanding of the paleogeographic and lithological origins of accreted terranes. That the Mt. Dall paleoflora indicates mixed Eurasia-North America paleobiogeographic affinity among individual taxa and plots in multivariate space with mid-latitude assemblages on northern Pangea may suggest deposition in that latitudinal belt. Second, contrary to the well-sampled fossil plant-bearing Permo-Carboniferous of the paleotropics and the northeastern temperate Pangean regions (Angaraland), terrestrial biome structure and vegetation type of northwestern Pangea are poorly known. This lack of understanding is due to the paucity of paleofloral collections from this region in this time period and the paleogeographic uncertainty of their position along the ancient active margin of Laurentia. The Mt. Dall paleoflora's phytogeographic affinity to paleobotanical collections from the northeastern Pangea therefore suggests that the Angaran province extended meridionally westward in the Early Permian into what is now northern North America. (author)

Sunderlin, David [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)

2010-08-01

231

Notes on the Permian to Recent Geology of the Kruger National Park  

OpenAIRE

Permian to Recent rocks form narrow, roughly north- south and east-south-east trending belts in the north-eastern Transvaal. The rocks consist of a thin succession of Karoo sediments, a thick overlying succession of mafic and felsic volcanics referred to as the Lebombo Group, isolated outcrops of Cretaceous sediments and fairly extensive Tertiary-Recent Gravels and sediments. These rocks are in general well exposed along the eastern margin of the Kruger National Park and also crop out in the ...

Venter, F. J.; Bristow, J. W.

1986-01-01

232

Sponge assemblage of some Upper Permian reef limestones from Phrae province (Northern Thailand)  

OpenAIRE

The sponge fauna of uppermost Permian reef or reefal limestones of the Phrae province in northern Thailand include representatives of hexactinellida, sclerospongea,"sphinctozoans", and "inozoans". The "sphinctozoans" and "inozoans"are described in detail. Following taxa are new:"Sphinctozoans": Phraethalamia tubulara n. gen., n. sp., Ambithalamia pérmican. gen., n. sp."Inozoans": Bisiphonella tubulara n. sp., Solutossaspongia crassimuralis n.gen., n. sp.The genus name Belyaevaspongia nom. no...

Baba Senowbari-Daryan; Rucha Ingavat-Helmcke

1994-01-01

233

Volcanic relicts in the permian-filled deposits of the Lodeve basin: metallogenic occurrences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petrographical and mineralogical studies of the various lithological Permian facies of the uraniferous Lodeve basin show evidence of volcanic activity, as witnesses by the existence of pumices, shards, perlites particularly in sedimentary formations of the Upper Thuringian where volcanism has not been described so far. Major and trace chemistry of the most inert elements contributing towards alteration and diagenesis confirm the volcanic contribution to the sedimentation

234

Reproductive biology of the Permian Glossopteridales and their suggested relationship to flowering plants.  

OpenAIRE

The discovery of permineralized glossopterid reproduction organs from Late Permian deposits in the Beard-more Glacier region (central Transantarctic Mountains) of Antarctica provides anatomical evidence for the adaxial attachment of the seeds to the megaasporophyll in this important group of Late Paleozoic seed plants. The position of the seeds is in direct contradiction to many earlier descriptions, based predominatly on impression/compression remains. The attachement of the ovules on the ad...

Taylor, E. L.; Taylor, T. N.

1992-01-01

235

A new Early Permian reptile and its significance in early diapsid evolution  

OpenAIRE

The initial stages of evolution of Diapsida (the large clade that includes not only snakes, lizards, crocodiles and birds, but also dinosaurs and numerous other extinct taxa) is clouded by an exceedingly poor Palaeozoic fossil record. Previous studies had indicated a 38 Myr gap between the first appearance of the oldest diapsid clade (Araeoscelidia), ca 304 million years ago (Ma), and that of its sister group in the Middle Permian (ca 266 Ma). Two new reptile skulls from the Richards Spur loc...

Reisz, Robert R.; Modesto, Sean P.; Scott, Diane M.

2011-01-01

236

Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction  

OpenAIRE

In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four ...

Sidor, Christian A.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Huttenlocker, Adam K.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Peecook, Brandon R.; Steyer, J. Se?bastien; Smith, Roger M. H.; Tsuji, Linda A.

2013-01-01

237

Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous-Permian volcanosedimentary sequences of the Northern Pamir, Tajikistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The point of view on two angular unconformities in the section of the Lower Carboniferous volcanosedimentary sequences of the northern Pamir is disproved. Two terrigenous sequences in contrast to one Beleuli sequence of shales are present in the Beleuli River basin. The first Carboniferous sequence conformably overlaps limestones with Serpukhovian goniatites and the second Permian sequence may be correlated with the Pshikharv Formation of shales from the western regions of the northern Pamir and contacts by the thrust Carboniferous rocks.

Leven, E. Ja.

2013-11-01

238

Abrupt environmental and climatic change during the deposition of the Early Permian Haushi limestone, Oman  

OpenAIRE

During the late Sakmarian (Early Permian), the Haushi limestone was deposited in a shallow embayment of the Neotethys Ocean covering what is now north Oman and parts of southeast Saudi Arabia. The sea persisted through the late Sakmarian, but by the time of the deposition of the ?Artinskian Middle Gharif Member, limestone deposition had ceased and generally arid fluvial and minor lacustrine palaeonvironments in a low accommodation space setting had become established. Analysis of three subsur...

Stephenson, Michael; Angiolini, Lucia; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; Berra, F.; Jadoul, F.; Gambacorta, G.; Verna, V.; Al Beloushi, B.

2008-01-01

239

Depositional environment of Upper Carboniferous – Lower Permian beds in the Karavanke Mountains (Southern Alps, Slovenia)  

OpenAIRE

Late Paleozoic rocks were studied in detail in the Dovžanova soteska section. The Upper Carboniferous sedimentary succession, correlated with upper part of Auernig and SchulterkofelFm. in the Carnic Alps, indicates cyclic clastic-carbonate deposition in a coastal to shallow marine ramp setting with strong influenceofcoarse-grainedfluvial-deltaicsilici-clastics from the hinterland, storm dominated regime of nearshore sediments, and offshore algal buildups. The Lower Permian sequence is develo...

Matevž Novak

2007-01-01

240

International correlation of Early Permian palynofloras from the Karoo sediments of Morupule, Botswana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is the first published account of Palaeozoic palynological assemblages from Botswana. Palynological assemblages of the lower Karoo Morupule Main Seam of the Morupule Colliery in Botswana are similar to those of the Striatopodocarpites fusus Biozone of the Collie Basin, Western Australia and the 3a Microfloral Biozone of the northern Karoo Basin, South Africa. This indicates an Aktastinian (Early Permian) age for the strata of Morupule. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Stephenson, M.H.; McLean, D. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

1999-03-01

241

Stratigraphy and paleontology of Lower Permian rocks north of Cananea, northern Sonora, Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Lower Permian carbonate and overlying red bed clastic rocks are present in a 2 km 2 stratigraphic window in the vicinity of Rancho La Cueva, Santa Cruz sheet (scale 1:50,000), northern Sonora, Mexico. This exposure lies unconformably beneath predominantly intermediate Upper Cretaceous volcanics yielding 40Ar/ 39Ar ages of 73.4±0.18 and 71.1±0.35 Ma. The lower part of the Permian succession consists of light- to medium-gray colored limestones of the Colina Limestone, with a minimum thickness of 235 m. Sedimentary features suggest shallow water, slightly restricted depositional environments. Although lacking observable fossils for the most part, two intervals of richly fossiliferous, silicified shell beds are present near the base and top of the Colina Limestone. The lower fauna consist mostly of gastropods and bivalves. The presence of a new microdomatid gastropod species, Glyptospira sonorensis n. sp., close to Glytospira arelela Plas, suggests a late Wolfcampian age for this horizon. The upper fauna are predominantly molluscan dominated (gastropods and bivalves), but some brachiopods (productids and the rhynchonellid genus Pontisia) are also present. Gastropod genera include Bellerophon, Warthia, Euomphalus (represented by the species, Euomphalus kaibabensis Chronic), Baylea, Worthenia, Naticopsis, Goniasma, Kinishbia, Cibecuia, and Glyptospira. The gastropods suggest a Leonardian (late Early Permian) age for this horizon, and many of the species have previously been recorded from the Supai Group and Kaibab Formation of northern and central Arizona. The Colina Limestone is conformably overlain by 11.2 m of light-gray lime mudstone and dolostone, assigned here to the Epitaph Dolomite, which in turn is succeeded by 58.8 m of red-colored sandstone and gray lime mudstone, assigned here to the Scherrer Formation. This Lower Permian succession is significant because it further strengthens the stratigraphic ties of southeastern Arizona rocks with those of northern Sonora and confirms the presence of North American cratonal stratigraphy in the northern part of the state of Sonora, Mexico.

Blodgett, Robert B.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gray, Floyd

2002-09-01

242

Evidence of a therapsid scavenger in the Late Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Dicynodonts are an extinct group of herbivorous non-mammalian therapsids (‘mammal-like’ reptiles) that are widely known from terrestrial Permo-Triassic strata throughout Pangaea. Dicynodont fossil remains are common within the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin in South Africa. A large, partially articulated dicynodont skeleton recovered from the TropidostomaAssemblage Zone is taphonomically important in having an unusual disarticulation pattern, bone surface punctures and a b...

Nicholas Fordyce; Mr Roger Smith; Anusuya Chinsamy

2012-01-01

243

Charcoal remains from a tonstein layer in the Faxinal Coalfield, Lower Permian, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Fossil charcoal has been discovered in the Faxinal Coalfield, Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, in the southernmost portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Three types of pycnoxylic gymnosperm woods recovered from a single tonstein layer are described and confirm the occurrence of paleowildfire in this area. A decrease of the charcoal concentration from the base to the top within the tonstein layer indicates that the amount of fuel declined during the deposition probably due to the consumpti...

André Jasper; Dieter Uhl; Margot Guerra-Sommer; Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Machado, Neli T. G.

2011-01-01

244

Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?  

OpenAIRE

Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1) problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, wh...

Marie-Béatrice Forel; Pierre-Yves Collin; Yue Li; Stephen Kershaw; Sylvie Crasquin

2012-01-01

245

Multicritical Behavior of $c=1$ Matrix Model  

OpenAIRE

We discuss multicritical behavior of $c=1$ matrix model, extending the recent work of ref. \\cite{CIO} on a nonperturbative completion of the density of states function. For the odd orders of multicriticality, we are able to determine the higher genus contributions and a nonperturbative completion from the WKB wave function of the multicritical periodic potential. The expression for the contributions as a function of the scaled chemical potential is found to be the same as t...

Itoyama, H.; Koike, M.

1994-01-01

246

Intrinsic geometry of c=1 random surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Employing baby universe surgery we study numerically the fractal structure of the intrinsic geometry of random surfaces coupled to matter field with c=1. We simulate surfaces of the size up to 260000 triangles. We observe the first indication that the branching and Haussdorff dimensions saturate. We estimate the branching dimension dB?2.6 and get a lower bound for the Hausdorff dimension dH>3.0. ((orig.))

247

A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: 'quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our 'quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints

248

A new Early Permian reptile and its significance in early diapsid evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial stages of evolution of Diapsida (the large clade that includes not only snakes, lizards, crocodiles and birds, but also dinosaurs and numerous other extinct taxa) is clouded by an exceedingly poor Palaeozoic fossil record. Previous studies had indicated a 38 Myr gap between the first appearance of the oldest diapsid clade (Araeoscelidia), ca 304 million years ago (Ma), and that of its sister group in the Middle Permian (ca 266 Ma). Two new reptile skulls from the Richards Spur locality, Lower Permian of Oklahoma, represent a new diapsid reptile: Orovenator mayorum n. gen. et sp. A phylogenetic analysis identifies O. mayorum as the oldest and most basal member of the araeoscelidian sister group. As Richards Spur has recently been dated to 289 Ma, the new diapsid neatly spans the above gap by appearing 15 Myr after the origin of Diapsida. The presence of O. mayorum at Richards Spur, which records a diverse upland fauna, suggests that initial stages in the evolution of non-araeoscelidian diapsids may have been tied to upland environments. This hypothesis is consonant with the overall scant record for non-araeoscelidian diapsids during the Permian Period, when the well-known terrestrial vertebrate communities are preserved almost exclusively in lowland deltaic, flood plain and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. PMID:21525061

Reisz, Robert R; Modesto, Sean P; Scott, Diane M

2011-12-22

249

Impact of Siberian Trap volcanism on the end-Permian and Early Triassic carbon cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

The Siberian Traps are the largest of the large igneous provinces, covering approximately 5 million km2. The timing of this volcanic episode is indistinguishable from the end-Permian mass extinction, and the event likely both directly and indirectly impacted marine ecosystems, leading to the largest extinction of Earth history. Recent studies suggest record volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases were released from both lava degassing and degassing due to heating of Tunguska Basin sediments. In this study, we use Genie-1, an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (http://wwww.genie.ac.uk), to examine the impact of volcanic volatile release on the sedimentary carbon isotope record and end-Permian carbonate system under a wide range of volumes, rates, and isotope compositions of CO2 input. These model experiments place quantitative constraints on the magnitude and rates of CO2 addition that can account for the sedimentary and C isotope records of the end-Permian and Early Triassic.

Meyer, K. M.; Kump, L.; Cui, Y.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Payne, J.

2011-12-01

250

Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in the Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of the Permian Basin. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Permian Basin is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal material used in the seal system in the repository-level rooms and tunnels is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate in response to closure of the repository rooms, to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For Permian Basin Unit 4 salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 700 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 200 years for a seal located in a main passageway within the repository. These analyses are based on uncertain laboratory data regarding intact salt creep rates and crushed salt consolidation characteristics, and must be regarded as preliminary. Bulkheads composed of concrete, as well as bentonite-rich earth fill, are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period requirelow permeability during the period required for salt consolidation

251

Mid-Permian Phosphoria Sea in Nevada and the Upwelling Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Phosphoria Sea extended at least 500 km westward and at least 700 km southwestward from its core area centered in southeastern Idaho. Throughout that extent it displayed many characteristic features of the core: the same fauna, the same unique sedimentary assemblage including phosphate in mostly pelletal form, chert composed mainly of sponge spicules, and an association with dolomite. Phosphoria-age sediments in Nevada display ample evidence of deposition in shallow water. The chief difference between the sediments in Nevada and those of the core area is the greater admixture of sandstone and conglomerate in Nevada. Evidence of the western margin of the Phosphoria Sea where the water deepened and began to lose its essential characteristics is located in the uppermost part of the Upper Devonian to Permian Havallah sequence, which has been displaced tectonically eastward an unknown distance. The relatively deep water in which the mid-Permian part of the Havallah was deposited was a sea of probably restricted east-west width and was floored by a very thick sequence of mainly terrigenous sedimentary rocks. The phosphate content of mid-Permian strata in western exposures tends to be relatively low as a percentage, but the thickness of those strata tends to be high. The core area in and near southeastern Idaho where the concentration of phosphate is highest was separated from any possible site of upwelling oceanic waters by a great expanse of shallow sea.

Ketner, Keith B.

2009-01-01

252

Environmental characterization of bedded salt formations and overlying areas of the Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report constitutes one input to the first stage of site qualification studies. It presents a general environmental characterization of the region that is underlain by the Permian bedded salt formation. The formation covers portions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Permian bedded salt formation is one of a number of deep, stable geologic formations being studied for potential locations for nuclear waste repositories. These studies will not necessarily lead to selection of a site. They are intended only to provide information necessary to evaluate the suitability of locations for repositories. The report is intended as a general characterization of the existing environmental setting of the Permian Region with emphasis on land, water, and air characteristics; resources; plant and animal life; and man's organizations and activities. The report provides background information about the role that this regional study will play in the overall plan for environmental impact assessments and statements deemed necessary as input to the decision-making process. Background information on the present concept of nuclear waste repository design and function is also included. The information presented in this report has been summarized from open literature readily accessible to the public. No field work was conducted nor new data used in developing the descriptions contained herein

253

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

Science.gov (United States)

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01

254

Investigating gaseous coal oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article critically evaluates laboratory equipment used for investigations of gasous oxidation of coal. Two systems are compared: coal sample and air used for oxidation are closed in a thermostat, oxidating air flows through a coal grain layer. Disadvantages of the two systems are described. A laboratory system with a moving coal layer developed by the authors is evaluated. A coal sample closed in a reaction tube is placed in a thermostat. Mechanical vibrations (25 Hz frequency) are used for improving coal grain contact with air flowing through the thermostat. Water and carbon dioxide are separated from air by means of magnesium perchlorate and Ascarite. A quartz tube placed in a laboratory furnace (750 C) is filled with chromic oxide on pumice which is a catalyst for carbon monoxide oxidation and formation of carbon dioxide. Trace amounts of other combustion products are separated by silica gel and molecular sieve. Pressure changes in the system are caused only by coal oxidation. Errors in determining kinetics of coal gaseous oxidation by the laboratory system with a moving coal layer are low. (16 refs.)

Chuprina, V.S.; Sapunov, V.A.; Kucherenko, V.A.

1982-05-01

255

Developing Canadian coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the recent completion of a comprehensive feasibility study and the receipt of government approvals, the Willow Creek Project in British Columbia, Canada is ready for development. The article describes the development of the plant since the reactivation of work in 1993, based on surface mining of coal, as a joint venture between BCR Ventures, Mitsui Matsushima Canada and Falls Mountain Coal, a subsidiary of Globaltex Industries. Pine Valley Coal is the operator. The geology of Willow Creek is described and the planning of mine and mine equipment selection discussed. Coal preparation and handling facilities are described. 1 ref., 4 figs.

Fawcett, D. [Pine Valley Coal (Canada)

1999-03-01

256

Pyrolysis of Coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

Ra?enovi?, A.

2006-07-01

257

Optimal coal import strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

258

Outlook for coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author feels that the utility sector is still the key to the coal market. Demand will be slow from 1992-2000, but will increase rapidly after 2000 because utilities will need new baseload capacity. Natural gas prices and the aging of nuclear power plants will be factors. The paper gives data on coal demand by sector, planned capacity additions by fuel type, existing non-utility capacity, coal and natural gas generation cost projections, existing non-utility generation projects and planned new coal-fired non-utility generation projects

259

Effects of igneous intrusion on microporosity and gas adsorption capacity of coals in the Haizi Mine, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120?m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (R(o)) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054?cm(3)/g to a maximum of 0.0146?cm(3)/g and then decreased to 0.0079?cm(3)/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60-160?m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine. PMID:24723841

Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping

2014-01-01

260

Coal combustion technology in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

261

Palaeochannels (stone-rolls) in coal seams: modern analogues from fluvial deposits of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, southern Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two varieties of fluvial sandstones are associated with coal seams in the Permian Witbank Coalfield of South Africa. The first comprises lenticular channel-fill sandstone, minor conglomerate and siltstone encased entirely within the coal seams. Medium- to coarse-grained arkosic sandstones are structured by planar cross-bedding and fine upwards into carbonaceous siltstone and overlying coal. These palaeochannel-fill deposits are 5 km wide in proximal basin areas and narrow down palaeoslope to less than 1 km in width. The second variety of channel fill consists of medium- to coarse-grained sandstone which occurs either in sub-parallel groups or as isolated shoe-string type bodies at the coal-floor rock contact. Both features are referred to as stone-rolls in colliery terminology. These ancient deposits are compared with active and abandoned fluvial systems from the Okavango Delta in Botswana, southern Africa. Active channels are flanked by extensive peat swamps which effectively confine and stabilize the channel margins. Clastic sedimentation is therefore completely confined to the channels by the vegetation and deposition occurs by vertical aggradation. Recently abandoned channels in the Okvango Delta display a variety of well preserved bed-forms which alternate with scoured depressions along the thalweg producing an undulating topography to the channel floor. These features provide a modern analogue for the stone-rolls in the coalfield deposits. The subsequent channel abandonment, vegetation encroachment and peat formation over the sand bodies would form a coal seam superimposed on the irregular surface, provided channel abandonment was followed by subsidence, overlying sediment deposition, compaction and coalification of the peat. Although the Okavango rivers are narrower and transport finer-grained sand than their Permian counterparts, the mechanism of formation and style of deposition was similar for both systems. 21 refs., 10 figs.

Cairncross, B.; Stanistreet, I.G.; McCarthy, T.S.; Ellery, W.N.; Ellery, K.; Grobicki, T.S.A.

1988-05-01

262

Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as sporinite and cutinite with an oil generation potential typical of type II kerogen contribute to the source rock potential of the Um Irna Formation which is equivalent to the Khuff Formation in the oil provinces of Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (thermal maturity of dispersed OM ranges between 0.48 and 0.55% R{sub r} giving rise to the mature stage of oil generation). Additionally, Botryococcus-type algae point towards the presence of type I kerogen. Moreover the presence of solid bitumen and oil droplets (petroleum fluid expulsions) in the sediments of the Um Irna Formation indicates formation of hydrocarbons. Organic chemistry not only supported the coal petrographic findings but also indicated inhospitable aquatic conditions near the P/Tr boundary evidenced by PAHs present in the sample and by lots of charcoal. The tropical areas were affected by vast wildfires raging in the forest and swamps during the late Permian. They contributed to a highly toxic atmosphere, a decrease of the oxygen contents speeded up by dead OM spilled into the water and creating anoxia approaching the P/Tr boundary. The elevated geothermal gradient sparking hydrothermal alteration in the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation during the Late Permian may be accounted for as related to a precursor stage of the Dead Sea Rift, which is still active today in terms of migration of hot brines and hydrocarbons. (author)

Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

2010-01-07

263

The Indonesian coal industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majorit, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

264

Characterization of coal-derived hydrocarbons and source-rock potential of coal beds, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal beds are considered to be a major source of nonassociated gas in the Rocky Mountain basins of the United States. In the San Juan basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado, significant quantities of natural gas are being produced from coal beds of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and from adjacent sandstone reservoirs. Analysis of gas samples from the various gas-producing intervals provided a means of determining their origin and of evaluating coal beds as source rocks. The rank of coal beds in the Fruitland Formation in the central part of the San Juan basin, where major gas production occurs, increases to the northeast and ranges from high-volatile B bituminous coal to medium-volatile bituminous coal (Rm values range from 0.70 to 1.45%). On the basis of chemical, isotopic and coal-rank data, the gases are interpreted to be thermogenic. Gases from the coal beds show little isotopic variation (??13C1 values range -43.6 to -40.5 ppt), are chemically dry (C1/C1-5 values are > 0.99), and contain significant amounts of CO2 (as much as 6%). These gases are interpreted to have resulted from devolatilization of the humic-type bituminous coal that is composed mainly of vitrinite. The primary products of this process are CH4, CO2 and H2O. The coal-generated, methane-rich gas is usually contained in the coal beds of the Fruitland Formation, and has not been expelled and has not migrated into the adjacent sandstone reservoirs. In addition, the coal-bed reservoirs produce a distinctive bicarbonate-type connate water and have higher reservoir pressures than adjacent sandstones. The combination of these factors indicates that coal beds are a closed reservoir system created by the gases, waters, and associated pressures in the micropore coal structure. In contrast, gases produced from overlying sandstones in the Fruitland Formation and underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone have a wider range of isotopic values (??13C1 values range from -43.5 to -38.5 ppt), are chemically wetter (C1/C1-5 values range from 0.85 to 0.95), and contain less CO2 (beds and carbonaceous shales of the Fruitland Formation has hydrogen indexes from Rock-Eval pyrolysis between 100 and 350, and atomic H:C ratios between 0.8 and 1.2. Oxygen indexes and atomic O:C values are less than 24 and 0.3, respectively. Extractable hydrocarbon yields are as high as 7,000 ppm. These values indicate that the coal beds and carbonaceous shales have good potential for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Voids in the coal filled with a fluorescent material that is probably bitumen is evidence that liquid hydrocarbon generation has taken place. Preliminary oil-source rock correlations based on gas chromatography and stable carbon isotope ratios of C15+ hydrocarbons indicate that the coals and (or) carbonaceous shales in the Fruitland Formation may be the source of minor amounts of condensate produced from the coal beds at relatively low levelsof thermal maturity (Rm=0.7). ?? 1989.

Rice, D.D.; Clayton, J.L.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

1989-01-01

265

Biostimulators from coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report is presented on a meeting of the Bureau of the Scientific Council of the Ministry of Coal Industry of the USSR on chemistry of fossil fuels held on 21-22 November 1983 in Moscow. Papers delivered during the meeting are evaluated. Chemistry of black and brown coal from the USSR was analyzed. Chemical coal properties which are of particular significance for coal use as an agricultural fertilizer (biostimulator of plant growth) were investigated. Brown and black coal with the highest oxidation level used as a fuel by power plants could be used for production of fertilizers with a high content of humic acids. Tests carried out in the USSR in various climatic zones (in the North and in Central Asia) showed that biostimulators from coal improved plant growth, reduced ripening period, increased crops, improved physical properties of soils (prevented moisture losses). Utilizing selected wastes from coal processing for production of biostimulators was also discussed. Methods for coal preparation for biostimulant production (crushing, screening, chemical processing) were evaluated. Prospects of biostimulator use in land reclamation were discussed.

Semenov, L.V.

1984-04-01

266

On coal market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation that has taken shape on the world coal market in 1996 is considered in brief. Tendencies in the fields of mining, consumption, export, as well as prices for power-grade and coking coal in the European Union countries (Germany, Great Britain, Spain, France), Australia, USA, South Africa, China, Poland, former USSR countries and India, are discussed

267

Coal in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

268

Petroleum and coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article reviews research on analytical chemistry of petroleum and coal from the articles published in `Chemical Abstracts` since the last review. All the articles cited were written in or translated into English. The review is divided into six sections on: coal; crude oil and shale oil; natural gas and refined products; lubricants; and source rocks. 752 refs.

Mansfield, C.T.; Barman, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Mehotra, A.K.; Philp, R.P. [Texaco USA Inc., Port Arthur, TX (United States). Fuels and Lubricants Technology Dept.

1997-06-15

269

Hydrogen production from coal  

Science.gov (United States)

The gasification reactions necessary for the production of hydrogen from montana subbituminous coal are presented. The coal composition is given. The gasifier types mentioned include: suspension (entrained) combustion; fluidized bed; and moving bed. Each gasification process is described. The steam-iron process, raw and product gas compositions, gasifier feed quantities, and process efficiency evaluations are also included.

1975-01-01

270

The Geology of Coal  

Science.gov (United States)

In this video, a geologist describes how coal, a sedimentary rock, was formed when organic materials piled up in swamps millions of years ago. Over time, heat and pressure transformed the buried materials into forms of coal that cause acid mine drainage when exposed to oxygen.

KET

2011-01-11

271

Polymeric character of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have measured the internal friction spectrum of a number of coals through the range bituminous to anthracite. Damping peaks are seen which bear great similarity in position and height to those found for many polymers. This manifestation of polymer-like character adds to our understanding of the macromolecular character of the coal structure

272

Coal for the world  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With reserves of 7 billion t of coal, Colombia is the world's fourth-largest exporter of bituminous coal and has the potential to grow further. The paper discusses current production and the future potential of the La Guajira reserves with Carbones del Cerrejon Ltd., Colombia. 1 ref.

NONE

2009-01-15

273

LIBS Analysis for Coal  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal is a non-uniform material with large inherent variability in composition, and other important properties, such as calorific value and ash fusion temperature. This quality variability is very important when coal is used as fuel in steam generators, since it affects boiler operation and control, maintenance and availability, and the extent and treatment of environmental pollution associated with coal combustion. On-line/in situ monitoring of coal before is fed into a boiler is a necessity. A very few analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis are available commercially with enough speed and sophistication of data collection for continuous coal monitoring. However, there is still a need for a better on-line/in situ technique that has higher selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and that is safer and has a lower installation and operating costs than the other options. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is ideal for coal monitoring in boiler applications as it need no sample preparation, it is accurate and precise it is fast, and it can detect all of the elements of concern to the coal-fired boiler industry. LIBS data can also be adapted with advanced data processing techniques to provide real-time information required by boiler operators nowadays. This chapter summarizes development of LIBS for on-line/in situ coal applications in utility boilers.

E. Romero, Carlos; De Saro, Robert

274

Biodesulphurisation of coal  

OpenAIRE

The emission of sulphur oxides during the combustion of coal is one of the causes of an environmental problem known as acid rain. Biodesulphurisation technology applied as a method to remove sulphur before coal combustion was investigated in this work. The desulphurisation abilities of three specific bacterial strains including Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8, R. erythropolis X309 and Shewanella putrefaciens strain NCIMB 8...

Prayuenyong, P.

2001-01-01

275

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

Gerald P. Huffman

2001-04-30

276

Multicritical behavior of c = 1 matrix model  

CERN Document Server

Abstract: We discuss multicritical behavior of c=1 matrix model, extending the recent work of ref. \\cite{CIO} on a nonperturbative completion of the density of states function. For the odd orders of multicriticality, we are able to determine the higher genus contributions and a nonperturbative completion from the WKB wave function of the multicritical periodic potential. The expression for the contributions as a function of the scaled chemical potential is found to be the same as the one at the lowest critical point. We point out a strange scaling behavior.

Itoyama, H

1994-01-01

277

Coal Formation and Geochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal is one of the most complex and challenging natural materials to analyze and to understand. Unlike most rocks, which consist predominantly of crystalline mineral grains, coal is largely an assemblage of amorphous, degraded plant remains metamorphosed to various degrees and intermixed with a generous sprinkling of minute syngenetic, diagenetic, epigenetic, and detrital mineral grains, and containing within its structure various amounts of water, oils, and gases. Each coal is unique, having been derived from different plant sources over geologic time, having experienty -45ced different thermal histories, and having been exposed to varying geologic processes. This diversity presents a challenge to constructing a coherent picture of coal geochemistry and the processes that influence the chemical composition of coal.Despite the challenge coal presents to geochemists, a thorough understanding of the chemistry and geology of this complex natural substance is essential because of its importance to our society. Coal is, and will remain for sometime, a crucial source of energy for the US and for many other countries (Figure 1). In the USA, more than half of the electricity is generated by coal-fired power plants, and almost 90% of the coal mined in the USA is sold for electricity generation (Pierce et al., 1996). It is also an important source of coke for steel production, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and even perfumes ( Schobert, 1987). It may also, in some cases, be an economic source of various mineral commodities. The utilization of coal through mining, transport, storage, combustion, and the disposal of the combustion by-products, also presents a challenge to geochemists because of the wide range of environmental and human health problems arising from these activities. The sound and effective use of coal as a natural resource requires a better understanding of the geochemistry of coal, i.e., the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the coal that control its technological behavior, by-product characteristics, and environmental and human health impacts. In this chapter, we will try to make geochemical sense of this wonderfully complex and important resource. (5K)Figure 1. Photograph of a low rank coal bed (lignite of Pliocene age) from southwestern Romania.

Orem, W. H.; Finkelman, R. B.

2003-12-01

278

State coal profiles, January 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

1994-02-02

279

Changcun coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changcun Coal Mine is located in the south-east part of Shanxi province, which is administrated by Luan Coal Mine Bureau. The mine is approximately 17 km long, 5.4 km wide and covers an area of 83.7 km{sup 2}. Its geological reserves amount to 881.25 million tons, among which 413 million tons are mineable reserves with a service life of more than 80 years. The principal seam is seam No. 3, which is 6.05 m thick. The coal in this area is ranked as lean coal with a calorific value of 8500 k cal/kg and it is excellent for use in chemical industries and power generation. The article briefly describes the longwall mining operation at the mine and the equipment used for mining, transport and coal preparation. 1 photo.

Zhou Jucheng

1995-12-31

280

Coal and uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains an overview of the relevant aspects concerning the use of coal and uranium for the generation of electricity and brings together factual material and analyses published in the subject up until mid 1978. The various chapters discuss the following aspects: research, energy saving, energy safety and the distribution of energy supply; the future electricity production plants and the associated choice of fuel, as well as a consideration concerning the terms of decision forming; supply certainty concerning coal and uranium; cost comparison of electricity production from coal and uranium, as well as the effects on the balance of payments; consequences for society from using coal and uranium; the waste problems of coal and uranium; risk analysis; and gaps in factual knowledge. (C.F.)

281

Industrial coal utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

None

1979-01-01

282

The renaissance of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

283

Enzymatic desulfurization of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

1991-05-16

284

The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous link between them. Post-Variscan, Late Carboniferous-Early Permian wrench tectonics is the oldest and main identified cause for regional basin formation in Central Europe. This relatively short-lived tectonic regime cannot explain the observed common history of subsidence of the Permian Basins during the 200 My that followed. Our analysis demonstrates that transfer faults that both follow and cross rheological transitions and inherited fault zones continued to be active after the early Permian. We therefore suggests that crustal-scale transfer faults may be the missing link that explains the common subsidence history of basins with a fundamentally different crustal architecture and structural history.

Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

2014-05-01

285

Similarities of Chinese smoked coal and Kuznetsk Basin lean coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China has relative large reserves of smoked coal which are used not only as a fuel but as a source of carbon in metallurgy. In metallurgy, the coal is used without enrichment or any heat treatment. Recently, there has been growing interest in its use as a reducing agent during ferroalloy production. Chinese smoked coal is investigated. It is related to high-metamorphic lean coal. An analogous Kuznetsk Basin coal is T coal from the Krasnogorsk mine in the Tom-Usinsk region. In view of its composition and properties, such Chinese coal may be regarded as a satisfactory source of carbon for many metallurgical processes.

V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15

286

APEC trends in coal and clean coal technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) organization accounts for almost 60 percent of world coal consumption and the largest share of coal related environmental pollution. APEC dominated growth of world coal consumption over the past decade and is likely to remain the largest growth area to 2010. Coal consuming economics of the APEC region are actively involved in a range of activities to reduce undesirable emissions from coal burning and to increase the efficiency of coal use. The increasing role of clean coal technologies in the APEC region is examined with emphasis on Asia.

Johnson, C.J. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1994-12-31

287

Classical complement pathway component C1q: purification of human C1q, isolation of C1q collagen-like and globular head fragments and production of recombinant C1q-derivatives. Functional characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The classical complement pathway (CCP) activation is a multimolecular complex, composed of three subcomponents namely C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q is the recognition subunit of this complex and its binding to the specific targets leads to the formation of active C1, which in turn activates the CCP in an immunoglobulin-dependent or -independent manner. C1q is a hexameric glycoprotein composed of 18 polypeptide chains of three different types (A, B, and C), organized in two fragments-collagen-like (CLR) and globular head (gC1q) possessing different functional activity. The contemporary knowledge of the C1q structure allows the isolation and purification of a C1q molecule from serum by combination of different chromatography procedures including ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity chromatography, as well as the isolation of CLR and gC1q by limited enzymatic hydrolysis of the native C1q molecule. In this chapter, we described methods for purification of human C1q and its CLR and gC1q fragments, as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production and purification of recombinant C1q derivatives ghA, ghB, and ghC (globular fragments of the individual C1q chains) are also presented. PMID:24218248

Kojouharova, Mihaela

2014-01-01

288

The Carboniferous - Permian basins of Central and Western Bohemia, the Krkonoše Mt. foreland and the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic : part I.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 46, ?. 1 (2014), s. 14-54. ISSN 1433-1284. [Field Meeting on Carboniferous and Permian Nonmarine – Marine Correlation. Freiberg, 21.07.2014-27.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Carboniferous * Permian * excursion guide Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

Opluštil, S.; Martínek, K.; Lojka, R.; Rosenau, N.; Zajíc, Jaroslav; Šim?nek, Z.; Drábková, J.; Štamberg, S.

2014-01-01

289

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2005-03-31

290

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-03-31

291

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

292

Evidence of a new narrow resonance decaying to ?(c1)? in B??(c1)?K.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurements of B??(c1)?K and ?(c2)?K decays using 772×10(6) BB[over ¯] events collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e(+)e(-) collider. Evidence of a new resonance in the ?(c1)? final state is found with a statistical significance of 3.8?. This state has a mass of 3823.1±1.8(stat)±0.7(syst) MeV/c(2), a value that is consistent with theoretical expectations for the previously unseen 1(3)D(2) cc[over ¯] meson. We find no other narrow resonance and set upper limits on the branching fractions of the X(3872)??(c1)? and ?(c2)? decays. PMID:23909309

Bhardwaj, V; Miyabayashi, K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Bhuyan, B; Bischofberger, M; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bra?ko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S-K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, D; Dutta, K; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Frey, A; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwashita, T; Julius, T; Kah, D H; Kang, J H; Kato, E; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y-J; Lange, J S; Lee, S-H; Li, J; Li, Y; Liu, C; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Panzenböck, E; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petri?, M; Piilonen, L E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rostomyan, A; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Seidl, R; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T-A; Shiu, J-G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y-S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stari?, M; Steder, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Urquijo, P; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M-Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, C C; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

2013-07-19

293

The international coal trade pattern  

OpenAIRE

Climate policies may reduce the coal demand in some of the major coal importing countries (e.g., Western Europe and Japan). This paper analyses how a shift in the import demand for coal will affect the trade pattern in the international coal market. The following issues are covered: a) Is coal a homogenous good in the sense that it is easy for coal importers to switch between suppliers in different countries? b) Is the USA still a swing supplier in the world coal market, as claimed by Ellerma...

Mæstad, Ottar; Strandenes, Siri Pettersen

2003-01-01

294

Industrial coal users yearbook 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Yearbook provides listings of companies, products and services to assist coal users in obtaining the best results from their boiler plant. Included are names and addresses of UK companies concerned with boiler installation, repair cleaning and welding, coal distributors, consultants, heat service contractors, second hand boiler plant etc. The booklet includes short articles entitled: energy efficiency and you; energy in the 1990s - the challenge for the coal industry; the coal distribution trade - British Coal's link with the consumer; business hots up for CES (Coal and Energy Services of British Coal).

1991-01-01

295

Coal in Zimbabwe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wankie Colliery, Zimbabwe`s only coal producer, is celebrating its centenary year. It operates an open pit and an underground mine. Equipment used for opencast mining is described. Wankie is investigating a plant upgrade to unlock the full potential of its coking coal. Its washing plant has been modified to permit the mine to produce a lower ash coking coal with an ash content of less than 6%. The processing plant is described in the article. At present 25,000 t/m of washed, blended coal is fed into two coke ovens at Wankie and 65,000 t/m is supplied to Zirco`s coking operation. Osborn MMD has been commissioned to design and build a dry screening plant for Wankie Colliery. Multotec Manufacturing has supplied screening ponds for the upgrading of the coal processing plant. The shortage of coking coal in South Africa enhances the importance of coking coal from Wankie, primarily for the iron and steel and ferro-alloy industries. An updated bankable feasibility study for Wankie`s No. 3 Main shaft should be completed in early 2000. Meanwhile the `M-Block` underground project is intended to be a `bridge` between the No. 3 colliery which recently closed and the No. 3 Main Shaft project. Developments will be affected when a decision is reached on the Gokwe North power station project. 2 figs., 5 photos.

NONE

1999-11-01

296

Coal in Zimbabwe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wankie Colliery, Zimbabwe's only coal producer, is celebrating its centenary year. It operates an open pit and an underground mine. Equipment used for opencast mining is described. Wankie is investigating a plant upgrade to unlock the full potential of its coking coal. Its washing plant has been modified to permit the mine to produce a lower ash coking coal with an ash content of less than 6%. The processing plant is described in the article. At present 25,000 t/m of washed, blended coal is fed into two coke ovens at Wankie and 65,000 t/m is supplied to Zirco's coking operation. Osborn MMD has been commissioned to design and build a dry screening plant for Wankie Colliery. Multotec Manufacturing has supplied screening ponds for the upgrading of the coal processing plant. The shortage of coking coal in South Africa enhances the importance of coking coal from Wankie, primarily for the iron and steel and ferro-alloy industries. An updated bankable feasibility study for Wankie's No. 3 Main shaft should be completed in early 2000. Meanwhile the 'M-Block' underground project is intended to be a 'bridge' between the No. 3 colliery which recently closed and the No. 3 Main Shaft project. Developments will be affected when a decision is reached on the Gokwe North power station project. 2 figs., 5 photos.

1999-01-01

297

Coal Mines Security System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

Ankita Guhe

2012-05-01

298

Cofiring waste with coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new IEA report looks at the experience worldwide of cofiring waste material, including biomass with coal. The report looks at various types of material and how their use affects the combustion behaviour, slagging, fouling and corrosion of boilers emissions and ash quality. However, environmental regulations may be stifling the development of cofiring of some waste fuels. Although tests have demonstrated the feasibility of cofiring different by products and wastes, regulatory licensing requirements could hinder or prevent cofiring in power stations. Overly stringent standards can obstruct compliance with the operation of coal-fired plants where achievable realistic limits for coal/waste mixtures would appear different from waste combustion standards

299

A calcium isotope test of end-Permian ocean acidification using biogenic apatite  

Science.gov (United States)

Submarine erosional truncation of uppermost Permian carbonate strata has been interpreted to reflect ocean acidification coincident with the end-Permian mass extinction. Although this scenario is consistent with carbon isotope and paleontological data, several alternative scenarios, such as ocean overturn or collapse of the biological pump, can also account for the carbon isotope and paleontological evidence. Calcium isotopes provide a geochemical proxy to test between acidification and alternative scenarios. Specifically, a negative shift in the calcium isotope composition (?44/40Ca) of seawater is predicted under the acidification scenario but not the alternatives. The ?44/40Ca of carbonate rocks from south China exhibits a negative excursion of approximately 0.3%, but this shift could result from either a change in the ?44/40Ca of seawater or a change in carbonate mineralogy because calcite and aragonite exhibit substantially different fractionation factors relative to seawater. To test whether the negative shift in ?44/40Ca reflects seawater ?44/40Ca or carbonate mineralogy, we measured the ?44/40Ca of conodont microfossils (calcium hydroxyapatite) from the global stratotype section for the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan, China. The conodont ?44/40Ca record shows a negative excursion similar in stratigraphic position and magnitude to that previously observed in carbonate rocks. Parallel negative excursions in the ?44/40Ca of carbonate rocks and conodont microfossils cannot be accounted for by a change in carbonate mineralogy but are consistent with a negative shift in the ?44/40Ca of seawater. These data add further support for the ocean acidification scenario, pointing toward strong similarities between the greatest catastrophe in the history of animal life and anticipated global change during the 21st century.

Hinojosa, J.; Brown, S. T.; DePaolo, D. J.; Paytan, A.; Shen, S.; Chen, J.; Payne, J.

2011-12-01

300

Upper Permian magnetic stratigraphy of the lower Beaufort Group, Karoo Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

We carried out a magnetostratigraphic and geochronological study of late Permian sediments in the Karoo Basin of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A continuous, ~700 m thick section of deltaic sediments of the upper Waterford Formation (uppermost Ecca Group) and the fluvial sediments of the Abrahamskraal Formation (lowermost Beaufort Group) were sampled at the meter scale. U-Pb dating of zircons from interbedded volcanic ash beds by ion microprobe (SHRIMP) provided absolute age constraints on the age of the sedimentary rocks. Paleomagnetic analysis reveals a partial overprint of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) that is tentatively ascribed to the emplacement of the Karoo Large Igneous Province in the Western Cape region during the middle Jurassic. A stable component of the NRM was found at temperatures higher than 450 °C and was interpreted as a Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) acquired during deposition, supported by a positive reversals test for this dual polarity ChRM. The virtual geomagnetic pole position for the Waterford and Abrahamskraal Formations computed from the average ChRM direction is in general agreement with the late Permian directions for stable Gondwana. A significantly different average inclination, and thus paleomagnetic pole position, is obtained by correcting the inclination shallowing error by the Elongation-Inclination method (Tauxe and Kent, 2004). The presence of both normal and reversed polarity zones indicate deposition after the end of the Kiaman Superchron, moreover the polarity sequence is in good agreement with the Illawarra sequence of Steiner (2006). Our results indicate a Capitanian (late Guadalupian) age for the Abrahamskraal Fm., in agreement with the Late Permian age, based on presence of Glossopteris flora and Dicynodont fauna, traditionally assigned to the fluvial-lacustrine sediments of the Beaufort Group. However, the U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 264-268 Ma suggest an age of 269 Ma for the top of the Kiaman superchron.

Lanci, L.; Tohver, E.; Wilson, A.; Flint, S.

2013-08-01

301

Cyclic sedimentation in the shallow marine Upper Permian Kennedy Group, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Permian Kennedy Group of the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, was deposited while the Merlinleigh Sub-basin was undergoing thermal subsidence, and the global climate was warming from the Carboniferous-Permian glaciation to the Mesozoic Greenhouse conditions. The Kennedy Group comprises siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, dominated by sandstones in the lower part, with coarsening-up cycles from mudstones to very coarse sandstones and granule conglomerates in the upper part. Cycles were observed and logged in the field, and although many types of cycles were found, three main motifs describe most of the cycles. Cycle motifs are defined based on the dominance of the various facies: Mooka motif cycles are dominated by fine-grained and bioturbated facies (interpreted as deposition during relative sea-level highstand) with only thin laminated or cross-bedded sandstones (interpreted as deposited during relative sea-level fall); Binthalya motif cycles are dominated by laminated and cross-bedded sandstones; and Coolkilya motif cycles consist of alternating laminated and bioturbated beds. A hierarchy of cycles was observed in the field, and this correlated well with spectral analysis of logged parameters. Spectral analysis of section log data and data sets corrected for the effects of compaction and sedimentation rates detected regular cyclicity. Geochronology of the Kennedy Group is not well enough constrained to allow the cycle periods in time to be calculated, but ratios of the different scale cycle thicknesses correlate well with ratios of the Milankovitch orbital cycles that have been calculated for the Permian. The presence of regular cyclicity and even bed thicknesses across large distances are not consistent with tectonic or autocyclic models of cycle formation. The cycles are more likely to have been caused by fluctuating eustatic sea levels, perhaps enhanced by changing amounts or seasonality of precipitation. Both sea levels and climatic fluctuations would ultimately be controlled by the Milankovitch orbital cycles.

Lever, Helen

2004-11-01

302

Notes on the Permian to Recent Geology of the Kruger National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Permian to Recent rocks form narrow, roughly north- south and east-south-east trending belts in the north-eastern Transvaal. The rocks consist of a thin succession of Karoo sediments, a thick overlying succession of mafic and felsic volcanics referred to as the Lebombo Group, isolated outcrops of Cretaceous sediments and fairly extensive Tertiary-Recent Gravels and sediments. These rocks are in general well exposed along the eastern margin of the Kruger National Park and also crop out in the extreme north. Emplacement of the Lebombo volcanics and subsequent deposition of the Cretaceous rocks was intimately associated with the fragmentation of Gondwanaland.

F.J. Venter

1986-12-01

303

Geotectonic implications of Permian and Triassic carbonate successions in the Central Plain of Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Two carbonate successions constituting Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement rocks distributed in the Nakhon Sawan-Uthai Thani area in the Chao Phraya Central Plain of Thailand were investigated to understand basic geotectonic subdivision of the area. Of them, we newly proposed the term Khao Pathawi Limestone for a Triassic succession exposed in eastern Uthai Thani Province, from which a rich foraminiferal fauna consisting of Aulotortus sinuosus, A. friedli, Tetrataxis inflata, Diplotermina subangulata, Agathammina austroalpina, Ammobaculites rhaeticus, Alpinophragmium perforatum, Gaudryina triadica, and others was discriminated. They clearly suggest a Late Triassic age and highly probably Norian/Rhaetian. This limestone succession is considered to have formed a carbonate platform and is comparable to those on the Triassic Lampang-Phrae Basin in the Sukhothai Zone of Northern Thailand. In contrast, the Uthai Thani Limestone exposed just west of the Khao Pathawi Limestone, in the form of NNW-SSE trending monadnocks, represents a slightly metamorphosed, thick-bedded Permian succession. Its outcrop alignment is distinct from the north-south trending Khao Pathawi Limestone, suggesting their structural separation. The Uthai Thani Limestone is correlated to the Sai Yok Formation and the Ratburi Limestone, both of which are well-known as typical Permian successions on the Sibumasu Block. By integrating these data from the carbonates, together with available geological information from other Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement units in the Central Plain, such as petrochemical properties of granitoids and volcanic/volcaniclastic rocks and litho- and chronostratigraphic characteristics of sedimentary successions, including the Permian Khao Gob Chert, we explain that the central part of the Nakhon Sawan-Uthai Thani area where the Khao Pathawi Limestone and the Khao Gob Chert are distributed, corresponds geotectonically to the direct southern extension of the Sukhothai Zone of Northern Thailand. Thus, as is the case of Northern Thailand, we recognized three geotectonic domains also in the Central Plain; they are the Indochina Block (part of Cathaysialand), Sukhothai Zone (Permian-Triassic island arc system), and Sibumasu Block (part of Gondwanaland) from east to west. To the south, the Sukhothai Zone probably extends to the Klaeng Zone of Southeast Thailand. In this paper, Endotriada martiniae Ueno, Miyahigashi and Charoentitirat, n. sp. from the Khao Pathawi Limestone is also described.

Ueno, Katsumi; Miyahigashi, Akira; Kamata, Yoshihito; Kato, Miyako; Charoentitirat, Thasinee; Limruk, Seranee

2012-11-01

304

Late Pennsylvanian and early permian chondrichthyan microremains from San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla, Mexico)  

Science.gov (United States)

The San Salvador Patlanoaya section (Puebla State, Mexico) is known for its richness of many fossil groups. Among them, the calcareous shells have been principally investigated. This paper deals with Missourian-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) and Leonardian (late Early Permian) Mexican fish remains. A discussion about Helicoprion and related genera, is followed by the systematic description of the revised or discovered taxa: Cooperella typicalis, Moreyella cf. M. typicalis, M. (?) sp., "Sturgeonella" quinqueloba, Hybodontidae gen. sp. 1 and 2, scale indet. Palaeobiogeographic implications are suggested. ?? 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

Derycke-Khatir, C.; Vachard, D.; Degardin, J.-M.; Flores de Dios, A.; Buitron, B.; Hansen, M.

2005-01-01

305

Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.

Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

2014-10-01

306

Synthrusting deposition of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Strathearn Formation, Northern Carlin Trend, Nevada  

Science.gov (United States)

The middle Upper Pennsylvanian and middle Lower Permian Strathearn Formation belongs to the overlap assemblage of the Antler orogen in Nevada. At Beaver Peak, near the Carlin Trend of gold deposits, it contains synorogenic conglomerate deposits associated with emplacement of a regionally extensive, 1-km-thick tectonic wedge that is floored by the Coyote thrust. Normal marine conodont biofacies throughout the Strathearn Formation suggest middle shelf or deeper, depositional environments. The allochthon floored by the Coyote thrust has been thrust above a middle Upper Pennsylvanian, lower conglomerate unit of the Strathearn Formation. A middle Lower Permian upper conglomerate unit, the highest unit recognized in the Strathearn Formation, as well as similarly aged dolomitic siltstone, onlap directly onto Ordovician quartzarenite of the Vinini Formation that makes up most of the Coyote allochthon. Quartz grains and quartzarenite fragments of variable roundness and shape in the conglomerate units were derived from the presently adjoining tectonic lobe of mostly quartzarenite that advanced southeast (present geographic coordinates) during the late Paleozoic into the developing Strathearn basin. Chert fragments in the conglomerates probably were derived mostly from Devonian Slaven Chert, including a widespread thick mélange unit of the Slaven Chert in the footwall of the Coyote thrust. Lithologic and shape ratio data from approximately 4200 clasts at 17 sites of the two major conglomerate units in the Strathearn Formation at Beaver Peak are roughly similar in that they contain only chert and quartzarenite clasts, and chert clasts predominate in both units. They differ in the relative proportion of the two lithologies whereby quartzarenite clasts increase sixfold in the upper unit (middle Lower Permian) versus its content in the lower conglomerate unit. Relations at the unconformity between the upper conglomerate unit and its underlying quartzarenite shows quartzarenite fragments actually breaking away from an immediately subjacent source. Ordovocian quartzarenite, which forms a tectonically uplifted wedge with the Coyote thrust at its base, became a source region for much of the quartzarenite detritus deposited preferentially in the upper parts of the Strathearn Formation. The conglomerate units of the Strathearn Formation temporally bracket emplacement of the Coyote thrust. Thrusting related to contractional reactivation of the Robert Mountains thrust system largely was completed by middle Early Permian.

Theodore, Ted G.; Berger, Vladimir I.; Singer, Donald A.; Harris, Anita G.; Stevens, Calvin H.

2004-03-01

307

Improvements in direct coal liquefaction using beneficiated coal fractions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beneficiated coal fractions from Point of Ayr coal (North Wales) were liquefied in order to determine their effect on conversion, product and metal distribution in coal extract solutions. The coal fractions were obtained in a dense medium cyclone separation unit, using aqueous solutions of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, as medium of relative density 1.26. The original coal and the coal fractions were liquefied in an autoclave with hydrogenated anthracene oil (HAO) as solvent. Liquefaction results show an improvement in conversion for the overflow fractions over the feed coal, together with a shift in the net product distribution toward higher oils content and lower asphaltenes and preasphaltenes material in the liquid products. A marked decrease in the proportion of Al, Mg, Mn and Si was found in the extracts using overflow coal. However, Ti and Ca, which are deactivating elements of the hydrocracking catalyst used to upgrade the coal liquids, increased their proportion. 17 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Barraza, J.; Cloke, M.; Belghazi, A. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1997-12-31

308

Coal Industry Bill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Privatization of the British hardcoal mining industry enters into the final stage. The statutory basis will be created by the 'Coal Industry Bill' being discussed at present in Parliament and which will probably be signed by the Queen in summer 1994 and then become a law. The 'Coal Industry Bill' stipulates in detail in which way British Coal will be dissolved and which competences will be transferred to the newly created coal authority. The allocation of powers and responsibilities to successor organizations will be determined as well as the role of the state for e.g. pension and concessionary commitments. Another important subject is the distribution of the charges for mining damages, and reclamation and environmental protection. (orig.)

309

Quarterly coal report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Young, P.

1996-05-01

310

Petroleum and coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reviews research on analytical chemistry of petroleum and coal, from articles published in `Chemical Abstracts` since the last review. All the articles were written in or translated into English.

Mansfield, C.T.; Barman, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Mehrotra, A.K.; McCann, J.M. [Equilon Enterprises LLC, Houston, TX (United States). Westholow Technology Center

1999-06-15

311

Isotope dilution analysis of exchangeable water in coal, coal char, and activated coal char  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope dilution analysis techniques were employed for the determination of the quantity of exchangeable water in moist subbituminous coal, non-activated coal and activated coal char; the latter two products were prepared from the subbituminous coal used in this study. The determination was made by equilibrating tritiated water with the solids draining the water from the solids, and measuring the reappearance of the tritium activity in the initially non-radioactive water equilibrated with the coal

312

Uranium in coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

United States production of coal in 1977 was 695 million short tons of which 477 million tons were burned in power plants. The ash from these power plants was about 67 million tons containing an estimated 900 tons U3O8, assuming 14 percent ash from the type of coal used by utilities and 12 ppM U contained in ash. Perhaps 1 to 3 percent of the domestic uranium requirement could be met from coal ash, provided processing technology could be developed for uranium recovery at acceptable costs. However, the environmental problems for disposal of the slimy leached ash would be enormous. The average uranium grade of coal in the United States is less than half of that of the Earth's crust. Burning the coal concentrates the contained uranium in the ash from 2 to 20 times. However, even at 20 times concentration, the percent uranium in coal ash is less than 1/100 of the grade of the uranium ore being processed today from conventional deposits. Although it is conceivable that some coal ash might contain enough uranium to make the ash an economic source of uranium, this is not now the case for ash from any major coal-fired power plant in the United States. During 1963 to 67, about 180,000 tons of uranium-bearing carbonaceous rock from the southwestern part of the Williston Basin were mined and processed to recover about 1 million pounds of U3O8. None of this material has been mined since 1967. The uranium reserves of the area are small, e uranium reserves of the area are small, and the environmental problems with calcining the lignitic material may be prohibitive. Some other uraniferous coal and lignite could be mined and processed as a uranium ore, but less than half of one percent of the domestic $30 reserves are in coal. A few samples of mid-continent coal have been reported to contain about 100 ppM U but little is known about the size of such deposits or the likelihood that they will be mined and used for power plant fuel to produce a high-uranium ash

313

Political economy of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a book on applied energy economics. Coal is the principal topic, but the reader will also find self-contained and thorough surveys of the world oil market, nuclear energy and uranium, and natural gas. A chapter on electricity is especially designed for teaching purposes. The final chapter contains a short summary of the book in the form of an up-to-date analysis of the world coal market

314

American coal imports 2015  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

Frank Kolojeski [TransGlobal Ventures Corp. (United States)

2007-09-15

315

Coal transporting systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Installation of transporting systems in coal open pits in Macedonia was connected with construction and purchasing of the equipment from foreign companies. During 1998 Electric Power Company of Macedonia in connection with needs of the Oslomej Thermal Power Plant and delivery conditions,decided to give this task to domestic companies. This paper presents the planning activities an the implementation of the new coal transporting system. (Author)

316

Coal liquefaction process  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01

317

Beneficiated coals' char morphology  

OpenAIRE

This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation) from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira), La Jagua (Cesar), Guachinte (Valle del Cauca) and Nechí (Antioquia). Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thicknes...

Diana Vargas; Deisy Chaves Sanchez; Maria Patricia Trujillo Uribe; Jorge Luis Piñeres Mendoza; Juan Manuel Barraza Burgos

2012-01-01

318

Coal gasification plus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An evaluation is presented of engineering and economic factors associated with integrated coal gasification combined cycle technologies, including: Texaco, British Gas/Lurgi, Shell and Dow. Their performance is compared with that of conventional coal power plants that have flue gas desulfurization. Based on current assumptions it is expected that some gasification processes will produce electricity more cheaply than conventional plants with scrubbers. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Spencer, D.F.; Alpert, S.B.; Gluckman, M.J. (EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1989-07-01

319

Integrated coal preparation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

320

Moderate temperature coal hydrogenation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroliquefaction of two bituminous coals was explored to obtain information on the chemistry of liquefaction. Tests were conducted in the temperature range of 275 to 325/sup 0/C and at 20.7 MPa hydrogen pressure. No donor solvent was added to the reactant to simplify product analysis and the evaluation of the results. The results and conclusions are summarized below: 1. Exploratory tests showed that at a liquefaction temperature of 325/sup 0/C, high conversion to oil can be obtained with few side reactions resulting in gas or coke formation. 2. Of the two bituminous coals tested, the lower rank coal (C = 80%) was much more reactive and gave 50% higher oil yield than the higher rank coal. 3. It was shown in experiments made with the higher rank coal that the metal components of the autoclave (linear and impeller) had a strong catalytic effect on the liquefaction reaction. 4. Catalysis by nickel, applied as nickel acetate impregnated into the coal, gave significantly different results from those obtained in the metal-lined reactor. Overall conversion to soluble products was higher using the nickel catalyst (94% versus 87%). However, nickel catalysis gave lower conversion to oil (40% versus 48%). 5. The oil produced in the nickel-catalyzed hydrogenation was significantly more aliphatic in character than the product from the metal-surface catalyzed reactions.

Skowronski, R.P.; Heredy, L.A.

1986-09-01

321

Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills  

OpenAIRE

For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input ob...

Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

2005-01-01

322

Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

NONE

2013-03-15

323

Coal market outlook in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

324

Recent investigations of coal utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lignites of Balkan countries for steam power stations in which they are burnt represent important energy resource of today and well into the 21st century. Coal combustion and other coal utilization technologies are in a state of very rapid changes towards higher efficiency use of coal and overcoming poor characteristics of today's coal utilization. Recent investigations of coal utilization performed at the Vinca Institute are presented in the paper. Three points characterized research of coal utilization: improvement of pulverized coal combustion and NOx reduction, fluidized bed combustion, monitoring of furnace slagging and fouling and the improvements of soot blowing. The main experimental results of performed investigations of pulverized coal and fluidized bed coal combustion, using experimental facilities, are presented. A boiler furnace expert system development for optimization of utility boiler furnace operation, including flame position monitoring module and boiler surface fouling assessment module, is presented too. (Author)

325

Platelet C1- inhibitor. A secreted alpha-granule protein.  

OpenAIRE

In order to characterize which proteins of the contact phase of coagulation interact with platelets, human platelets were studied immunochemically and functionally to determine if they contain C1- inhibitor. By means of monospecific antibody to C1- inhibitor, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) was developed to measure directly platelet C1- inhibitor. With the CELISA, from 33 to 115 ng of C1- inhibitor antigen per 10(8) platelets from 15 normal donors was quantified in ly...

Schmaier, A. H.; Smith, P. M.; Colman, R. W.

1985-01-01

326

Leaiid conchostracans from the uppermost Permian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil: Chronostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Conchostracan fossils are abundant and relatively diversified in the Rio do Rasto Formation (Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil), but leaiids (' Leaia pruvosti' [Reed, F.R.C., 1929. Novos Phyllopodos Fósseis do Brasil. Boletim do Serviço Geológico e Mineralógico do Brasil 34, 2-16]) were previously found at only one locality of the formation in the northern Santa Catarina State. New specimens of the Family Leaiidae, collected from two outcrops in central Paraná State near the top of the formation, stimulated a revision of related taxa. Both the new and the previously known leaiids are herein assigned to Hemicycloleaia mitchelli [Etheridge Jr., R., 1892. On Leaia mitchelli Etheridge. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 7, 307-310] based on the presence of three carinae and subovate shape. This species was originally recorded in the upper Tatarian (Wuchiapingian, Late Permian) of Sydney Basin, eastern Australia and therefore corroborates the interpretation that the leaiid bearing strata of the Rio do Rasto Formation cannot be younger than Permian. H. mitchelli possibly was one of the most widespread, eurytopic and conservative Late Paleozoic conchostracans of Gondwana (although records from Africa, India and Antarctica must still be confirmed) and it was also found in the Tatarian of Russia. The sudden disappearance of leaiids after their apparent success is consistent with the hypothesis about the biotic crisis around the Permo-Triassic boundary.

Ferreira-Oliveira, Luis Gustavo; Rohn, Rosemarie

2010-03-01

327

Research on genesis of pyrite near the Permian-Triassic boundary in meishan, Zhejiang, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The content and crystal forms of pyrite and sulfur isotope composition of pyrite sulfur as well as its vertical distribution near the Permian-Triassic (P/T) boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing county, Zhejiang province, China were studied using geological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical methods (techniques). The result showed that the genesis of abundant pyrites in bed 24e2 at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation in the Meishan section may be related to volcanic activity. In bed 24e2 of the Meishan section, pyrite has its highest content of 1.84% and the sulfur isotope composition has the highest ??34S value at + 2.2??? which is very similar to that of the average value of volcanic gas. There are some volcanic products such as ??-quartz, siliceous cylinders and siliceous spherules which coexisted with pyrites in beds 24e2 and 24f. It can be concluded that a large quantity of volcanic ash fell into the South China Sea and was incorporated into marine sediments during the formation of limestone at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation. The volcanic eruption with massive amounts of H2S and S02 gas at the end of the Permian period resulted in the enrichment of H2S in the South China Sea areas. The reaction of H2S with reactive iron minerals formed the mass of abundant pyrites.

Jiang, Y.-F.; Tang, Y.-G.; Chou, C.-L.

2006-01-01

328

Biostratigraphic correlation in the Karoo: The case of the Middle Permian parareptile Eunotosaurus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The richness of fossil tetrapods from the Beaufort Group of South Africa has enabled biostratigraphic subdivision of this Permo-Triassic succession, with global applicability. Despite being the thickest of the seven biozones recognised, attempts at further subdivision of the Middle Permian Tapinocep [...] halus Assemblage Zone (Abrahamskraal Formation) have not been successful, largely because the exact stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa are unknown. This gap in knowledge has limited stratigraphic correlation of the Abrahamskraal Formation and hindered understanding of Middle Permian Karoo basin development. Currently, the lowermost Beaufort Group is split between an eastern and a western stratigraphic scheme and, because of poor outcrop and the relative paucity of fossils in the east, stratigraphic correlation between the two areas has been uncertain. Recent fossil discoveries of the parareptile Eunotosaurus africanus in the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces have extended its known geographic range in the east. An additional specimen from the lower Middleton Formation in the Eastern Cape has, for the first time, enabled the biostratigraphic correlation of this unit with the Poortjie Member of the Teekloof Formation in the west. These finds confirm the diachroneity of the boundary between the marine Ecca Group and the terrestrial Beaufort Group.

Mike, Day; Bruce, Rubidge; John, Almond; Sifelani, Jirah.

329

Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary, 251 million years (Myr) ago, is accepted as the most profound loss of life on record. Global data compilations indicate a loss of 50% of families or more, both in the sea and on land, and these figures scale to a loss of 80-96% of species, based on rarefaction analyses. This level of loss is confirmed by local and regional-scale studies of marine sections, but the terrestrial record has been harder to analyse in such close detail. Here we document the nature of the event in Russia in a comprehensive survey of 675 specimens of amphibians and reptiles from 289 localities spanning 13 successive geological time zones in the South Urals basin. These changes in diversity and turnover cannot be explained simply by sampling effects. There was a profound loss of genera and families, and simplification of ecosystems, with the loss of small fish-eaters and insect-eaters, medium and large herbivores and large carnivores. Faunal dynamics also changed, from high rates of turnover through the Late Permian period to greater stability at low diversity through the Early Triassic period. Even after 15 Myr of ecosystem rebuilding, some guilds were apparently still absent-small fish-eaters, small insect-eaters, large herbivores and top carnivores. PMID:15525988

Benton, M J; Tverdokhlebov, V P; Surkov, M V

2004-11-01

330

Functional diversity of marine ecosystems after the Late Permian mass extinction event  

Science.gov (United States)

The Late Permian mass extinction event about 252 million years ago was the most severe biotic crisis of the past 500 million years and occurred during an episode of global warming. The loss of around two-thirds of marine genera is thought to have had substantial ecological effects, but the overall impacts on the functioning of marine ecosystems and the pattern of marine recovery are uncertain. Here we analyse the fossil occurrences of all known benthic marine invertebrate genera from the Permian and Triassic periods, and assign each to a functional group based on their inferred lifestyle. We show that despite the selective extinction of 62-74% of these genera, all but one functional group persisted through the crisis, indicating that there was no significant loss of functional diversity at the global scale. In addition, only one new mode of life originated in the extinction aftermath. We suggest that Early Triassic marine ecosystems were not as ecologically depauperate as widely assumed. Functional diversity was, however, reduced in particular regions and habitats, such as tropical reefs; at these smaller scales, recovery varied spatially and temporally, probably driven by migration of surviving groups. We find that marine ecosystems did not return to their pre-extinction state, and by the Middle Triassic greater functional evenness is recorded, resulting from the radiation of previously subordinate groups such as motile, epifaunal grazers.

Foster, William J.; Twitchett, Richard J.

2014-03-01

331

Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

332

No link between the Panjal Traps (Kashmir) and the Late Permian mass extinctions  

Science.gov (United States)

Voluminous Late Permian flood basalt eruptions are contemporaneous with the mid-Capitanian (260 Ma) and end-Permian (251 Ma) mass extinction events. The Panjal Traps of Kashmir are thought to be correlative to the mid-Capitanian mass extinction however no radiometric age has been determined. We report a single zircon U-Pb laser ablation ICP-MS date of a rhyolite from the lower-middle part of the volcanic sequence. Twenty-four individual zircon crystals yield a mean 206U/238Pb age of 289 ± 3 Ma. The results show that the Panjal Traps are considerably older than previously interpreted and not correlative to post-Neo-Tethys rifting of the Gondwanan margin or the mid-Capitanian mass extinction and are, in fact, correlative to the opening of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. In contrast to other similarly size large igneous provinces, the Panjal Traps are not coincident with a mass extinction event and therefore casts doubt on the direct relationship between continental flood basalt volcanism and ecosystem collapse.

Shellnutt, J. G.; Bhat, G. M.; Brookfield, M. E.; Jahn, B.-M.

2011-10-01

333

EIA projections of coal supply and demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

334

Coal fires in Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as demonstrations to the Indonesian Government. Successful demonstrations obtained visible benefits for a large number of local interests and received overwhelmingly favorable public response. This built the public and political support needed to continue this work.These successes encouraged the Ministry to officially assume the responsibility for coal fire management by Decree 1539/20/MPE/1999. The Ministry reallocated internal funds to support portions of the immediate suppression projects and committed a portion of the Coal Royalty Fund to provide long-term support for coal fire suppression activities. Coal fires continue to present a serious risk to Indonesia's ecosystems, population and forest resources. The Ministry and local governments in East Kalimantan are still working on the coal fire inventory. It presently contains 164 coal fires, but it is far from complete. Unless these coal fires are managed or extinguished, they will add to the already catastrophic cycle of anthropogenic forest fires that further reduce Indonesia's forest resources and endangered species while contributing unnecessarily to global carbon emissions.

Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

2004-07-12

335

Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-11-15

336

Complement, c1q, and c1q-related molecules regulate macrophage polarization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complement is a critical system of enzymes, regulatory proteins, and receptors that regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Natural mutations in complement molecules highlight their requirement in regulation of a variety of human conditions including infectious disease and autoimmunity. As sentinels of the immune system, macrophages are specialized to respond to infectious microbes, as well as normal and altered self, and dictate appropriate immune responses. Complement components such as anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and opsonins [C3b, C1q, mannan binding lectin (MBL)] influence macrophage responses. While anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a trigger inflammasome activation, opsonins such as C1q and related molecules (MBL and adiponectin) downregulate inflammasome activation and inflammation, and upregulate engulfment of apoptotic cells consistent with a pro-resolving or M2 macrophage phenotype. This review summarizes our current understanding of the influence of the complement system on macrophage polarization with an emphasis on C1q and related molecules. PMID:25191325

Bohlson, Suzanne S; O'Conner, Sean D; Hulsebus, Holly Jo; Ho, Minh-Minh; Fraser, Deborah A

2014-01-01

337

Summary of session C1: experimental gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fact that gravity is a metric theory follows from the Einstein equivalence principle. This principle consists of (i) the universality of free fall, (ii) the universality of the gravitational redshift and (iii) the local validity of Lorentz invariance. Many experiments searching for deviations from standard general relativity test the various aspects of the Einstein equivalence principle. Here we report on experiments covering the whole Einstein equivalence principle. Until now all experiments have been in agreement with the Einstein equivalence principle. As a consequence, gravity has to be described by a metric theory. Any metric theory of gravity leads to effects such as perihelion shift, deflection of light, gravitational redshift, gravitational time delay, Lense-Thirring effect, Schiff effect, etc. A particular theory of that sort is Einstein's general relativity. For weak gravitational fields which are asymptotically flat any deviation from Einstein's general relativity can be parametrized by a few constants, the PPN parameters. Many astrophysical observations and space experiments are devoted to a better measurement of the effects and, thus, of the PPN parameters. It is clear that gravity is best tested for intermediate ranges, that is, for distances between 1 m and several astronomical units. It is highly interesting to push forward our domain of experience and to strengthen the experimental foundation of gravity also beyond these scales. This point is undeso beyond these scales. This point is underlined by the fact that many quantum gravity and unification-inspired theories suggest deviation from the standard laws of gravity at very small or very large scales. In this session summary we briefly outline the status and report on the talks presented in session C1 about experimental gravitation

338

The mechanism of phospholipase C?1 activation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phospholipase C is an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2 into second messengers inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins(1,4,5P3 and diacylglycerol (DAG. These messengers then promote the activation of protein kinase C and release of Ca2 from intracellular stores, initiating numerous cellular events including proliferation, differentiation, signal transduction, endocytosis, cytoskeletal reorganization or activation of ion channels. There have been identified 14 isozymes of PLC among which PLC?1 and PLC?2 are of particular interest. PLC? contains catalytic region XY and a few regulatory domains: PH, EF and C2. The most unique features of these two enzymes are the Src homology domains (SH2, SH3 and split PH domain within the catalytic barrel. PLC?1 and PLC?2 have an identical domain structure, but they differ in their function and occurrence. Phospholipase C?1 is expressed ubiquitously, especially in the brain, thymus and lungs.PLC?1 can be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (i.e.: PDGFR, EGFR, FGFR, Trk, as well as non-receptor protein kinases (Src, Syk, Tec or phosphatidic acid, tau protein and its analogue.The molecular mechanism of PLC?1 activation includes membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, rearrangements and activation in the presence of growth factors.In reference to PLC?1 regulation, a number of positive and negative modulators have been considered. The most important positive modulator is phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5P2. Protein kinase A and C, tyrosine phosphatases (SHP-1, PTP-1B and Cbl, Grb2, Jak2/PTP-1B complex proteins have been described as negative regulators of PLC?1 activation.

Pawe? Krawczyk

2011-08-01

339

A mid-Permian chert event: widespread deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiolarian and conodont of Permian siliceous rocks from twenty-three areas in teh the circum-Pacific and Mediterranean regions reveal a widespread Permian Chert Event during the middle Leonardian to Wordian. Radiolarian- and (or) sponge spicule-rich siliceous sediments accumulated beneath high productivity zones in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins. Most of these deposits now crop out in fault-bounded accreted terranes. Biogenic siliceous sediments did not accumulate in terranes lying beneath infertile waters including the marine sequences in terranes of northern and central Alaska. The Permian Chert Event is coeval with major phosphorite deposition along the western margin of Pangea (Phosphoria Formation and related deposits). A well-known analogue for this event is middle Miocene deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments beneath high productivity zones in many parts of the Pacific and concurrent deposition of phosphatic as well as siliceous sediments in basins along the coast of California. Interrelated factors associated with both the Miocene and Permian depositional events include plate reorientations, small sea-level rises and cool polar waters. ?? 1992.

Murchey, B.L.; Jones, D.L.

1992-01-01

340

A new morphological type of operculate microspore, Discinispora sinensis gen. nov., from the Permian petrified Noeggerathialean strobilus Discinites sinensis Wang.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 128, ?. 1 (2004), s. 1-17. ISSN 0034-6667 Grant ostatní: Chinese National Natural Science Foundation(CN) 40102002; NIGPAS(CN) 003102; NIGPAS(CN) 023117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : in situ spores * Noeggerathiales * Permian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2004

Wang, J.; Zhang, G.; Bek, Ji?í; Pfefferkorn, H. W.

2004-01-01

341

Climatic and biotic changes around the Carboniferous/Permian boundary recorded in the continental basins of the Czech Republic.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 119, ?. 1 (2013), s. 114-151. ISSN 0166-5162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biotic change * Bohemian Massif * Carboniferous-Permian transition * continental basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2013

Opluštil, S.; Šim?nek, Z.; Zajíc, Jaroslav; Mencl, V.

2013-01-01

342

Volcanism in South China during the Late Permian and its relationship to marine ecosystem and environmental changes  

Science.gov (United States)

A deep-shelf section at Xinmin (Guizhou Province, South China) records numerous volcanic ashfall events both preceding and following the latest Permian mass extinction. Each ash layer was associated with ecosystem and environmental changes, including significant declines in biogenic silica and carbonate production and shifts toward somewhat more reducing conditions within a generally suboxic facies. The extinction horizon itself, which coincided with an ashfall event, shows evidence of much larger changes, including a sharp and sustained reduction in radiolarian productivity, a shift from suboxic to mostly oxic conditions (although punctuated by episodic euxinic events), and an increase in weathering intensity due to increased climatic humidity. Ash layers of Late Permian-Early Triassic age at Xinmin and elsewhere in South China are thought to have had a regional volcanic source, perhaps in subduction-zone magmatic arcs along the margins of the South China Craton. The Xinmin section provides evidence that volcanically generated stresses were repeatedly imposed on marine systems of the South China Craton during the Late Permian, possibly weakening their resilience in advance of the Permian-Triassic boundary crisis.

Shen, Jun; Algeo, Thomas J.; Hu, Qing; Xu, Guozhen; Zhou, Lian; Feng, Qinglai

2013-06-01

343

The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middle-late Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:21183583

Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; Lü, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J

2011-08-01

344

77 FR 57188 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Continuance in Control Exemption-Rusk...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company, upon its becoming a Class III rail carrier. Iowa Pac. Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Rys.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Ry., FD 35632 (STB served Aug. 17, 2012). IPH...

2012-09-17

345

Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor for the treatment of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE).  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of C1 inhibitor function that results in excessive production of bradykinin causing the angioedema seen in hereditary angioedema (HAE) is well established. Several drugs have been developed to treat and prevent attacks in patients suffering from HAE due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE). Plasma-derived C1INH has been used to replace the deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1INH) and has been approved for both treatment of attacks and for prophylactic therapy to prevent attacks. Plasma kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide) and bradykinin receptor antagonist (icatibant) are both effective for treatment of acute attacks, but their short half-life limits the use for prophylaxis. Androgens, in particular danazol, are effective for long-term prophylaxis, but adverse event profile can limit its use. Recombinant C1 inhibitor derived from transgenic rabbits has recently been approved for use in treatment of C1-INH-HAE attacks and is effective and appears safe with minimal adverse event profile. PMID:25669442

Sabharwal, Geetika; Craig, Timothy

2015-03-01

346

Raman and cathodoluminescence spectroscopic investigations on Permian fossil wood from Chemnitz—a contribution to the study of the permineralisation process  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of different three-dimensionally preserved fossil plants ( Medullosa sp., Dadoxylon sp., Calamodendron striatum, Psaronius sp.) from the Lower Permian petrified forest of Chemnitz were examined with regard to their chemical composition and structural order. Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence microscopy are shown to be powerful tools for such investigations. Silicified wood from Chemnitz-Hilbersdorf generally shows yellow cathodoluminescence (CL) of the cell walls and only weak yellow-brownish CL of the cell lumina. By time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, a secondary mineralisation of hydrothermal origin was recognized. The latter is shown by short-lived blue CL at the cell walls extinguishing the yellow signal. Therefore, after the primary silicification step a secondary mineralisation step initiated by hydrothermal processes, seems to have taken place at probably slightly higher temperatures. The resulting silica matrix consists of phanerocrystalline and microcrystalline ?-quartz as well as microcrystalline moganite, both partially associated with iron oxides. Dadoxylon sp. is a prominent example for parallel permineralisation by ?-quartz and fluorspar, which is outstanding for the Chemnitz Petrified Forest. CL on this samples shows parallel silicification and fluoritisation, followed by infiltration of iron oxides. Permineralised samples show very low percentage of original organic remains. The seed fern Medullosa, for example, shows dispersed carbon, which is mainly restricted to the centres of the typical star-shaped vascular bundles. Raman spectroscopy revealed that these carbonaceous particles are of an anthracite structure. For experimental confirmation coal samples of different rank, especially anthracite from different geological times and localities, were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The remaining pith of the vascular bundles is white-coloured and consists of ?-quartz and moganite, whereas surrounding tracheides exhibit white and reddish coloured parts. The reddish parts, mainly found in the rays, additionally contain ?-Fe 2O 3 and Fe 3O 4 among the SiO 2 polymorphs of ?-quartz and moganite. Sometimes iron oxides could have dominated permineralisation processes as the peak intensities of distinct parts of the samples suggest.

Witke, Klaus; Götze, Jens; Rößler, Ronny; Dietrich, Dagmar; Marx, Günter

2004-10-01

347

A contribution to petrology of dark grey to black interbeds within Upper Permian and Triassic carbonate rocks in the area between Ljubljana and Bloke, Central Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of macroscopic, microscopic, chemical, and isotopic investigations of 12 samples ofdark grey to black coloured interbeds occurring within Upper Permian and Triassic lime-, dolo- and marlstones inan area of Outer Dinarides between Ljubljana and Bloke in Central Slovenia. An additional sample is anthracite ofthe Carnian age from the Orle locality. Concentration of Corg in four samples is below 1 %, and in seven samples itvaries between 1 and 2.3 %. Only in one sample, in the black Carnian limestone of the Lesno Brdo area, it is somewhathigher than 5 %. The highest Corg content, 30.61 %, was analysed in the Orle anthracite.Chemical analysis of major elements (as oxides showed that four samples are clearly siliciclastic mudrocks,with 65–80 % SiO2 + Al2O3. Three samples are typical calcite rich – dolomite poor rocks, with high loss on ignition(LOI about 40 % derived from calcite decomposition. Four samples are calcite – dolomite characterized rocks withLOI of 34–43 %. One sample, from the Slugovo quarry, is composed of quartz, dolomite and calcite. The anthracitesample from Orle has inorganic matter composed almost exclusively of SiO2 + Al2O3 (clays, and some iron and sulphurwhich form pyrite.Isotopic composition of the calcite carbon ranges from ?13CCaCO3 -5.7 to 1.9 ‰, whereas isotopic composition ofthe organic carbon varies between ?13Corg -34.7 and -21.6 ‰. The most negative ?13Corg value of -34.7 ‰ was analysedin a sample, which is the most organic-rich limestone. Isotopic investigations of nitrogen, expressed by ?15N values,also did not express notable differences in respect to lithology. They vary between 4.6 and 9.1 ‰.Microscopy of polished surface samples showed clearly fine grained siliciclastic, carbonate and coal compositionof the treated rocks.

Stevo Dozet

2012-06-01

348

Sedimentary conditions of Upper Permian volcano-clastic rocks of Ayan-Yrahskiy anticlinorium (Verhoyansk-Kolyma orogen)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedimentation conditions of upper Permian volcano-clastic rocks of Ayan-Yurakhsky anticlinorium are the reason of discussions between researchers. It is important to correctly solve this problem. Investigation allows us to conclude that upper Permian sediments was formed due to high rate deltaic sedimentation on shelf and continental slope of epicontinental sea basin. More than 45 outcrops of upper Permian sediments were described within Ayan-Yurakhsky anticlinorium. Termochemical and X-ray phase, lithological facies, stadial, paleogeographic and others were applied. Investigation allows to classify following types: tuffs, tuffites of andesites, andesi-dacites, sandstone tuffs, siltstone tuffs and claystone tuffs. Two facies were deliniated in the research area: 1) delta channel facies 2) epicontinental sea shelf edge and continental slope. Delta channel facies are located on the south-west part of Aian-Yrahskiy anticlinorium. It is composed of silty packsand and psammitic tuff-siltstone alternation and gravel-psammitic andesi-dacitic tuffute and tuff-breccia bands. Sediments have cross-bedding, through cross-bedding, curvilinear lamination structures. Facies occurred during high rate deltaic sedimentation on the shelf of epicontinental sea. Epicontinental sea shelf edge and continental slope facies are located on the south-west part. Sediments are represented by large thickness tuff-siltstone with tuff-sandstone, tuff-madstone, tuff, tuffite bands and lenses. Large number of submarine landslides sediments provide evidence that there was high angle sea floore environment. 30-50 m diametr eruption centers were described by authors during geological traverses. They are located in Kulu river basin. Their locations are limited by deep-seated pre-ore fault which extended along Ayan-Yurakhsky anticlinorium. U-Pb SHRIMP method showed that the average age of circons, taken from eruption centers, is Permian (256,3±3,7 ma). This fact confirms our emphasis that eruption centers were the centre of underwater effusive explosions which had been occurred in late Permian time. Gold ore deposits mainly localized in the south of Ayan-Yurakhsky anticlinorium and associated with upper Permian deltaic facies sediments. Taking into account lithological facies feature and volcanoclastic origin of sediments it is reasonable to suggest expelled-catagenesis model of gold mineralization. Gold was entered in sedimentary basin with piroclastic material. During catagenesis stage gold migrated from complex of shelf edge and continental slope to fan delta front complex in conjunction with expelled water. The emplacement of ore gold deposits related with upper Permian sediments can be successfully predicted, using this model and associated techniques.

Astakhova, Anna; Khardikov, Aleksandr

2013-04-01

349

Coal production, 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

350

Bright outlook for coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

351

Coal liquefaction processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

1979-07-01

352

Coal fire interferometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

353

Termination of a continent-margin upwelling system at the Permian-Triassic boundary (Opal Creek, Alberta, Canada)  

Science.gov (United States)

Models of mass extinctions caused by greenhouse warming depend on the ability of warming to affect the oxygenation of the ocean, either through slowing circulation or changes in biological productivity and the organic carbon budget. Opal Creek, Alberta, Canada is a biostratigraphically continuous Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) section deposited in deep water on an outer shelf setting in the vast and understudied Panthalassic Ocean, along the western margin of Pangaea. The latest-Permian extinction is here represented as the disappearance of the previously dominant benthic fauna (siliceous sponges). On the basis of nitrogen and reduced sulfur isotopes as well as productivity-sensitive trace elements, the Middle Permian at Opal Creek is interpreted as a highly productive coastal upwelling zone where vigorous denitrification and sulfate reduction occurred in a mid-water oxygen minimum. Similar conditions appear to have continued into the latest Permian until the onset of a euxinic episode represented by a discrete pyrite bed and several trace element indicators of high productivity. This euxinic pulse is followed by the extinction of benthic fauna and a shift in nitrogen and sulfur isotopes to more normal marine values, suggesting the cessation of coastal upwelling and the consequent weakening of the mid-water oxygen minimum. The Lower Triassic appears to be a dysoxic, relatively unproductive environment with a bottom water oxygen minimum. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics show a minimum of radiogenic Os near the main extinction event, which may be due to volcanic input, and increasingly radiogenic values approaching the PTB, possibly due to increased continental erosion. The Opal Creek system demonstrates that, while the biogeochemical crisis in the latest Permian was capable of impacting the coastal upwelling modality of ocean circulation, a transient increase in productivity likely drove the system toward euxinia and, ultimately, extinction.

Schoepfer, Shane D.; Henderson, Charles M.; Garrison, Geoffrey H.; Foriel, Julien; Ward, Peter D.; Selby, David; Hower, James C.; Algeo, Thomas J.; Shen, Yanan

2013-06-01

354

Utilisation of chemically treated coal  

OpenAIRE

The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - th...

Be?ovská Mária; Èurillová Dana; Machajová Zlatica

2002-01-01

355

Coal: the dinosaur wakes up  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

356

Coal analysis by nuclear technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low energy gamma ray transmission measurements on coal samples from 17 different coal mines in India gave ash contents varying from 13.5 per cent to 42.5 per cent. This variation is due to varying contents of mineral oxides and silicates present in coal. The measured value of ash contents in coal samples of different origin shows good agreement when compared, with the values obtained by chemical method. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

357

Drying kinetics of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low rank coal contains relatively high moisture. To facilitate its handling, transportation, and/or to improve the combustion performance, drying is needed. The drying is usually performed using either steam or hot air as drying agent. The present study is concerned with an experimental investigation of the drying characteristics of coal using hot air under different drying variables. The drying parameters include the temperature and the air velocity. The sample used in this study is subbituminous coal from Jambi Province. The mean particle diameters used are 12 and 22 mm. For each run, the decrease in mass is recorded during the drying. The results are plotted in terms of the characteristic drying curves (CDC) that correlates the dimensionless drying rates versus the dimensionless moisture contents. No significant influence of the drying parameters on the CDC is observed in the falling rate phase. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Pratoto, A. [Andalas University, Padang (Indonesia). Mechanical Engineering Department

2004-07-01

358

TEKO returns to coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

359

Coal fired power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal cycle efficiency, availability, reliability, high load change and startup capabilities are the most important factors influencing the economical operation of a coal-fired power plant. The most effective way of improving the thermal cycle efficiency is to increase the design main steam pressure. Combined gas and steam turbine power plants (combined cycle units) are advanced power plant concepts with a higher thermal cycle efficiency than of usual power plants. In the Federal Republic of Germany there exist three different types of combined cycle units at different development stages: combined cycle with coal fired steam generators in series, combined cycle with supercharged steam generator and combined cycle with atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Combined cycle technology with integrated coal gasification might be realized in a commercial power plant in the near future.

Waldmann, H.

1980-01-01

360

Occurrence of non-mineral inorganic elements in macerals of low-rank coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electron microprobe study of individual macerals in low-rank coals of Permian to Tertiary age from Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia and Thailand has shown that measurable proportions of inorganic elements are consistently found in organic components, especially the vitrinite macerals, in which no minerals or mineral inclusions are visible under the microscope. The vitrinites of such coals have been found to contain up to around 0.5% Al, 1.5% Ca, 0.1% Mg, 0.7% Fe and 0.2% Ti. The Al occurs without measurable proportions of Si, and hence does not represent sub-micron clay minerals within the maceral components. Inertinite macerals in the coals, such as fusinite, typically contain lesser proportions of these elements, and often have no more than background (< 0.05%) concentration levels. Except where soluble minerals such as carbonates are also present, the proportion of Ca, Al and Fe indicated from microprobe analysis in the macerals, especially in the vitrinites, is very close to the mobile proportion of the same elements indicated in previous studies from selective leaching techniques. This suggests that the elements occur as an inherent part of the organic structure in the macerals, possibly as a combination of exchangeable ions, carboxylates, chelates and other organometallic compounds; they may also be held by physical absorption and adsorption mechanisms, or may possibly represent inorganic nanoparticles. The proportions of Al, Ca and Fe in the vitrinites of the samples studied decrease with coal rank. Although there are exceptions, these and other non-mineral inorganic elements (Mg, Ti) are also not usually detected by the microprobe in higher rank coals (above 75% carbon in vitrinite or around 0.6% vitrinite reflectance). Their absence is probably a consequence of expulsion from the maceral structures during the progressive aromatization associated with rank advance, by processes such as dehydration, decarboxylation and dehydroxylation. (author)

Li, Zhongsheng; Ward, Colin R.; Gurba, Lila W. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 (Australia)

2010-04-01

361

New C1q mutation in a Tunisian family.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hereditary C1q deficiency (C1qD) is the most penetrant genetic factor predisposing to the development of lupus pathology with more than 93% of C1q deficient patients developing this autoimmune pathology throughout their life. It is a rare autosomal recessive deficiency, with only 67 cases reported so far including one Tunisian girl who died at the age of three from complications resulting from severe systemic lupus erythematosus. Although C1qD was confirmed in the serum of this patient using C1q ELISA and classical pathway specific functional assays, no DNA sample had been obtained from this patient. Here we report the analysis of sera and DNA of members of this patient's closer family. Our analysis identified a homozygous mutation within the gene encoding the C-chain of C1q leading to a deficiency of C1q in an older sister of our original patient. This mutation, termed g.5580G4C, represents a single basepair substitution in exon 1 of the C1q C chain gene which changes the codon of Gly61 to Arg 61. Amongst the other 14 mutations leading to C1qD, g.5580G4C represents the first reported transversion leading to human C1qD. PMID:24331529

Jlajla, Hend; Sellami, Maryam Kallel; Sfar, Imen; Laadhar, Lilia; Zerzeri, Yousr; Abdelmoula, Mohamed Slim; Gorgi, Yousr; Dridi, Marie-Françoise; Makni, Sondes

2014-03-01

362

Direct interaction between CD91 and C1q  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

C1q-mediated removal of immune complexes and apoptotic cells plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune conditions. It has been suggested that C1q mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells through a receptor complex assembled from CD91 (alpha-2- macroglobulin receptor, or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein) and calreticulin, with CD91 being the transmembrane part and calreticulin acting as the C1q-binding molecule. In the present study, we observe that C1q binds cells from a CD91 expressing monocytic cell line as well as monocytes from human blood. C1q binding to monocytes was shown to be correlated with CD91 expression and could be inhibited by the CD91 chaperone, receptor-associated protein. We also report data showing a direct interaction between CD91 and C1q. The interaction was investigated using various protein interaction assays. A direct interaction between purified C1q and CD91 was observed both by ELISA and a surface plasmon resonance assay, with either C1q or CD91 immobilized. The interaction showed characteristics of specificity because it was time-dependent, saturable and could be inhibited by known ligands of both CD91 and C1q. The results obtained show for the first time that CD91 recognizes C1q directly. On the basis of these findings, we propose that CD91 is a receptor for C1q and that this multifunctional scavenger receptor uses a subset of its ligand-binding sites for clearance of C1q and C1q bound material.

Duus, Karen; Hansen, Erik W

2010-01-01

363

Coal -- Energy and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings are grouped into the following 31 sessions: Coal processing and utilization; Ash use interactions in soils and plants; Coal preparation I; Coal preparation II - reconstitution processes; Ash use in mine reclamation; Pre/post utilization; Direct liquefaction catalysts; Coal conversion retrospective; Coal characterization and its significance to utilization; Integrated gasification combined cycle; Non-fuel use of coal; Conversion technologies; Expert systems, advanced controls and instrumentation for coal combustion systems; Combustion 2000; Fluidized beds/co-firing; Coal technology from an international perspective; Computer methodologies and software applied to the use of coal; Combustion systems in power plants; Clean Coal Technology Program; Combustion systems; Design of scrubbers for CAAA Round One; Effects of reauthorization of Clean Water Act and regulations of 1990 CAAA; Air toxics; SOx and NOx emission control; Environmental/regulatory issues related to ash use in mine reclamation; Global climate change -- Scientific, economic and policy perspectives; Environmental systems and policies; Coal storage and handling; Coal characterization and its significance to utilization; Slurry technology; and Special topics. 248 papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base

364

INEZ, KENTUCKY COAL SLURRY SPILL  

Science.gov (United States)

On October 11th, 2000, a breach of a coal slurry impoundment released approximately 210 million gallons of coal slurry ( a mixture of fine coal particles, silt, clay, sand and water) into the Big Andy Branch, Wolf Creek, and Coldwater Fork. Approximately 75 river miles were affec...

365

Natural radioactivity in coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

366

Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii Rohn and Rösler (ver Vieira et al. 2004, foi previamente assinalada para estratos do Permiano Superior da Bacia do Paraná (formações Estrada Nova e Rio do Rasto. Portanto, uma idade neopermiana é tentativamente proposta para os níveis da Formação Chutani que contém a associação estudada. As implicações fitogeográficas deste novo achado são brevemente analisadas.

Roberto Iannuzzi

2004-03-01

367

Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia): II. The morphogenus Glossopteris  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia). Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descr [...] ição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii Rohn and Rösler (ver Vieira et al. 2004), foi previamente assinalada para estratos do Permiano Superior da Bacia do Paraná (formações Estrada Nova e Rio do Rasto). Portanto, uma idade neopermiana é tentativamente proposta para os níveis da Formação Chutani que contém a associação estudada. As implicações fitogeográficas deste novo achado são brevemente analisadas. Abstract in english Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group), near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). This paper presents the [...] first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004), was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil). Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.

Roberto, Iannuzzi; Carlos E. L., Vieira; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Enrique, Díaz-Martínez; George W., Grader.

2004-03-01

368

Lipid Biomarker Records Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary from Kap Stosch, Greenland  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian extinction was the most severe in the past 500 million years of the Earth's history and evidence that an oceanic anoxic event (OAE) occurred contemporaneously has been presented previously [1,2]. OAEs have, therefore, been proposed as responsible for the mass mortality, and if the anoxic ocean was also euxinic, the release of hydrogen sulfide during upwelling and/or transgression provides an extinction agent in the ocean as well as on land. Chlorobiaceae, as indicators of photic zone euxinia (PZE), utilize hydrogen sulfide as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The detection of isorenieratane and a series of short-chain monoaromatic aryl isoprenoids, biomarkers for Chlorobiaceae, in sediments indicates the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the photic zone of the water column during sediment deposition. The Kap Stosch area in Eastern Greenland was identified as a Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) outcrop of homogeneous shale, silty shale, and siltstone facies [3]. Another late Permian section in Eastern Greenland, the Ravnefjeld Formation, has framboidal pyrites indicative of sulfidic deep water [4]. A sample suite from the Kap Stosch region was studied using standard organic geochemistry methods including stable isotopic analyses of organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and biomarker hydrocarbon analysis. Aryl isoprenoids, including isorenieratane, were present in all samples studied and the concentrations were observed to fluctuate in tandem with TOC, similar to other Mesozoic OAEs. The molecular ratios of pristane/phytane and hopanes/steranes as well as the 2-methyl-hopane index (2-MHI) fluctuated dramatically through this section as they do at the type section at Meishan and in the Perth Basin [5]. The 2-MHI shows an inverse pattern to the total aryl isoprenoids, perhaps indicative of instability in the form of primary productivity in the water column during euxinic episodes. This can result in nitrogen limitation and a competitive advantage of cyanobacteria over microalgae for nutrient resources [6]. Overall, the biomarker patterns in these samples indicate the presence of PZE at this location leading up to and continuing through the PTB. 1. Isozaki Y., 1997. Science 276, 235. 2. Wignall P. and R. Twichett, 1996. Science 272, 1155. 3. Teichert C. and B. Kummel, 1972. Bull. Canadian Petrol. Geol. 20, 659. 4. Nielsen J. and Y. Shen, 2004. Geology 32, 1037. 5. Grice K., et al., 2005. Science 307, 706. 6. Kuypers M., et al., 2004. Geology 32, 853.

Hays, L. E.; Love, G. D.; Foster, C. B.; Grice, K.; Summons, R. E.

2006-12-01

369

Plankton and productivity during the Permian-Triassic boundary crisis: An analysis of organic carbon fluxes  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in marine primary productivity following the latest Permian mass extinction (LPME) have been debated at length, with little resolution to date owing to a paucity of quantitative data. Herein, we report total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and organic carbon accumulation rates (OCAR) for 40 Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections with a near-global distribution and consider their implications for changes in marine productivity during the boundary crisis. Many sections in South China exhibit abrupt declines in TOC and OCAR from the Changhsingian (latest Permian) to the Griesbachian (earliest Triassic), a pattern not observed for sections in other regions. This pattern cannot be explained through secular changes in sedimentation rates, sedimentary facies, or redox conditions, all of which would have favored higher (rather than lower) TOCs and OCARs during the Griesbachian. Further, back-calculation of OC fluxes demonstrate that this pattern cannot be attributed to diagenetic loss of OC in the sediment or, possibly, to OC remineralization in the water column. The most likely explanation is a collapse of marine primary productivity across the South China region concurrently with the LPME and continuing for an extended interval into the Early Triassic. The productivity crash as well as the coeval decimation of benthic marine fauna coincided with deposition of the "boundary clay" at Meishan D, suggesting that both events were related to a large explosive volcanic eruption of uncertain provenance. In other PTB sections having a wide geographic distribution, OCARs increased on average by a factor of ~ 4 × across the LPME, largely owing to a concurrent increase in bulk accumulation rates (BARs). Radiometric dating uncertainties can account at most for only a fraction of the secular change in BARs, which are likely to reflect an increase in subaerial weathering rates and elevated fluxes of detrital material to Early Triassic marine systems. Intensification of chemical weathering relative to physical weathering may have increased the flux of nutrients to the Early Triassic ocean, enhancing marine productivity and contributing to the widespread development of marine dysoxia-anoxia.

Algeo, Thomas J.; Henderson, Charles M.; Tong, Jinnan; Feng, Qinglai; Yin, Hongfu; Tyson, Richard V.

2013-06-01

370

Formation and exhumation of Permian granulites: case study from the polyphase Campo Unit (Central Alps)  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on Wilson cycles usually focused on the formation, destruction and final integration of oceanic domains in orogens whereas the subsequent dismantling of mountain ranges and its importance for rift-systems is yet less understood. How orogenic inheritance influences the crustal thinning during rifting and the final architecture of rifted margins remains poorly depicted. To answer this question, we initiated a multidisciplinary research project coupling structural geology, igneous and metamorphic petrology and geochronology in selected areas of the Austroalpine nappes in SE-Switzerland and N-Italy, where remnants of a Jurassic continental margin have been previously described. We chose to focus on the Campo unit, due to a complete record of events from at least the Variscan orogeny to middle-Jurassic rifting, and a low-grade Alpine metamorphism. The Campo basement is composed of metamorphic rocks (metasediments and metabasites) of unknown age (probably Variscan), equilibrated in amphibolite-facies conditions. A gabbroic plutonic complex (the Sondalo gabbro), composed of gabbro-norites, quartz-diorites, olivine-gabbros was set in place in late-Carboniferous and early-Permian times between 280 and 300 Ma. This intrusion produced a metamorphic contact aureole. In its vicinity, surrounding crust was melted (as indicated by muscovite decomposition, abundant garnet and sillimanite crystallization). As consequence, granulitic rocks can be found in intra-plutonic positions. Interactions between mafic liquids and metapelites-derived liquids lead to complex magmatic patterns, including magma mingling and hybridization. The connection of acid melts produced by the partial melting of the crust causes the intrusion of granitoids (e.g. Val Ferrata granite). These structures are cross-cut by the Eita shear zone, which exhumed the Campo unit during the Jurassic rifting phase near to the seafloor. This exhumation is responsible for 40Ar/39Ar ages on muscovite and biotite, which are ranging between 180 and 200 Ma. Studying the Permian intrusions and their relation to the host rocks enables to establish a snapshot of the crust in Permian time and consequently to determine the pre-rift crustal structure and conditions. In order to get better constrains on P-T-t conditions before and during the rifting, we will use thermodynamic modeling and 40Ar/39Ar dating. This study will enable us to characterize more precisely the crustal evolution between the collapse of the Variscan orogen and the Mesozoic rifting, which is a prerequisite to understand and model the evolution of hyper-extended rifted margins.

Petri, B.; Mohn, G.; Manatschal, G.; Wijbrans, J.; Schulmann, K.

2012-04-01

371

Hydrothermally treated coals for pulverized coal injection. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project investigated the suitability of hydrothermally dried low-rank coals for pulverized fuel injection into blast furnaces in order to reduce coke consumption. Coal samples from the Beluga coalfield and the Usibelli Coal Mine, Alaska, were used for the study. Crushed coal samples were hydrothermally treated at three temperatures, 275, 300 and 325{degrees}C, for residence times of 10, 60 and 120 minutes. Products were characterized to determine their suitability for pulverized coal injection. Characterization included proximate and ultimate analyses, vitrinite reflectance and TGA reactivity. A literature survey was also conducted.

Walsh, D.E.; Rao, P.D.; Ogunsola, O.; Lin, H.K.

1995-10-01

372

National Coal Resource Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) is a project of the US Geological Survey Energy Program. The project's homepage has lots of information and documents about the five main regions that were the focus of the study. Many professional papers, executive summaries, and factsheets are free for download. There are area maps of each region, as well as photographs that show current and historical views of mining practices. The Mining Info/Videos section has a link to an interesting paper -- Surface Mining and Reclamation Operations for Fort Union Coal; it could take a while to download on a slow connection, though.

373

Micronized coal burner facility  

Science.gov (United States)

A combustor or burner system in which the ash resulting from burning a coal in oil mixture is of submicron particle size is described. The burner system comprises a burner section, a flame exit nozzle, a fuel nozzle section, and an air tube by which preheated air is directed into the burner section. Regulated air pressure is delivered to a fuel nozzle. Means are provided for directing a mixture of coal particles and oil from a drum to a nozzle at a desired rate and pressure while means returns excess fuel to the fuel drum. Means provide for stable fuel pressure supply from the fuel pump to the fuel nozzle.

Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W. (inventors)

1984-01-01

374

Hydrogasification of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogasification of coal is a key process in SNG production. The hydrogen required for the process can be produced by steam gasification of the residual coke obtained in hydrogasification as well as by a HTR reactor. Messrs. Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke in Cologne have operated a semi-industrial test plant for coal hydrogasification since 1976. So far, operation of this plant has yielded important information on the correlation between gasifier performance and the main process parameters. A pilot plant on this basis is being planned which will take up operation in 1981. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

375

Reaction engineering in direct coal liquefaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Processes for direct coal liquefaction by solvent extraction are considered along with the structure and properties of coal and the mechanism of coal liquefaction, heteroatom removal during liquefaction, kinetic models for donor-solvent coal liquefaction, the design of coal liquefaction reactors, and the refining of coal liquids. Attention is given to the catalytic hydrogenation of coal in the presence of a solvent, the origin and character of coal, laboratory reactors for rate measurements, reaction networks based on lumped fractions, free-radical reaction models, reactor types, the compatibility of coal-derived liquids and petroleum fuels, the stability of coal liquids, thermal cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic cracking, and catalytic reforming.

Shah, Y. T.

376

Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

377

Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture estimator is verified on a couple sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content.

Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

2005-01-01

378

Robust transitivity and topological mixing for $C^1$-flows  

OpenAIRE

We prove that non-trivial homoclinic classes of $C^r$-generic flows are topologically mixing. This implies that given $\\Lambda$ a non-trivial $C^1$-robustly transitive set of a vector field $X$, there is a $C^1$-perturbation $Y$ of $X$ such that the continuation $\\Lambda_Y$ of $\\Lambda$ is a topologically mixing set for $Y$. In particular, robustly transitive flows become topologically mixing after $C^1$-perturbations. These results generalize a theorem by Bowen on the basic...

Abdenur, Flavio; Avila, Artur; Bochi, Jairo

2002-01-01

379

Coal mining technology in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper consists of a two-page text plus a set of 25 slides/overheads outlining the presentation to the conference. It first discussed world coal resources and production trends and the issues of achieving a stable supply of coal. The main part of the paper discussed features of Japanese coal mining technology and coopertive projects carried out by JCOAL with China, Indonesia, Australia, Vietnam and elsewhere on topics including exploration techniques, prevention of explosions, monitoring and control of belt conveyors and other mine equipment, dust control, coal mine methane recovery and utilization, and coal cleaning.

Furukawa, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan). Resources Dept.

2006-03-15

380

Measuring ash content of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An apparatus for measuring the ash content of coal is claimed. It comprises a means for irradiating a known quantity of coal in a transport container with a known dose of neutrons, a means for detecting ?-rays having a predetermined energy emitted by the irradiated coal, the ?-rays being indicative of the presence of an ash-forming element in the coal, a means for producing a signal related to the intensity of the ?-ray emission and a means responsive to the signal to provide an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming element in the coal

381

Coal: Demand up - prices down  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1992 was a year in which demand for traded coal moved upward in the steam-coal sector though it remained stagnant for metallurgical coal. Both Australia and South Africa exported record volumes and new extrants to the market came from Indonesia and Venezuela. Despite this upward movement in demand, coal prices slipped relentlessly downward to the point where at the year-end, significant mine closures were occurring throughout the world. The main question for 1993 is how long can the producers go on hurting before the prices start to move up? The overall world demand for steam coal is discussed

382

Evidence for Cape Fold Belt overprinting of the Groot Haelkraal granite during the Upper Permian  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Groot Haelkraal granite crops out along the coast between Danger Point and Quoin Point, South Africa, and occupies an area of 120 sq. km offshore. Cape Peninsula granites have been dated at around 550 m.y. and the original formation of the groot Haelklraal granite is assumed to be a similar age. However, age spectrum analysis of biotite from a dredged sample from station 1824 (34 degrees 48 minutes South, 19 degrees 29 minutes East) has shown that the granite was involved in a tectonic event around 248 plus minus 2 m.y. in upper Permian times. This event is considered to have been of major importance and to represent Cape Fold Belt overprinting of the basement

383

Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

1999-09-23

384

Middle Permian cephalopods from central Peninsular Malaysia: implications for faunal migration through the southern Tethys  

Science.gov (United States)

A Wordian (Middle Permian) cephalopod fauna consisting of four ammonoid species, Tauroceras aff. scrobiculatum (Gemmellaro), Agathiceras sp., Bamyaniceras orientale n. sp. and Pronoritidae gen. and sp. indet., and two nautiloid species, Tainoceras sp. and Orthocerida fam. indet., were recovered from the Bera South area, southern Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. The outcrop represents the southernmost extent of the Bera Formation. Bamyaniceras and Tainoceras are recorded in Malaysia for the first time. The presence of T. aff. scrobiculatum suggests a regional correlation with an ammonoid-bearing bed of Sungai Cheroh, western Pahang, and permits global correlations with strata of northeastern Iraq, northern Oman and Sicily (Italy). A possible eastwards faunal migration through the southern Tethys is suggested.

Sone, Masatoshi; Leman, Mohd Shafeea; Ehiro, Masayuki

2001-10-01

385

Methanogenic Blow-up in the End-Permian Carbon Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

The end-Permian extinction is associated with a mysterious disruption to Earth's carbon cycle. Here we identify causal mechanisms via three observations. First, we show that geochemical signals indicate an incipient singular blow-up of the marine inorganic carbon reservoir, coincident with the extinction and consistent with the evolutionary expansion of a new microbial metabolic pathway. Second, we show that the fast acetoclastic pathway in Methanosarcina, limited by nickel and responsible for most modern biogenic methane, emerged at a time statistically indistinguishable from the extinction. Finally, we show that nickel concentrations in South China sediments increased sharply at the extinction, probably as a consequence of massive Siberian volcanism and enabling the blow-up. Collectively, these results suggest that a specific microbial innovation instigated Earth's greatest mass extinction.

Rothman, D.; Fournier, G.; French, K. L.; Alm, E.; Boyle, E. A.; Cao, C.; Summons, R. E.

2012-12-01

386