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Sample records for peripheral analgesic effect

  1. Involvement of peripheral TRPV1 channels in the analgesic effects of thalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tieying; Wang, Liwen; Gu, Kunfeng; Yang, Yunliang; Yang, Lijun; Ma, Pengyu; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jianhui; Yan, Ruyv; Guan, Jiao; Wang, Chunping; Qi, Yan; Ya, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Thalidomide was introduced to the market in 1957 as a sedative and antiemetic agent, and returned to the market for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma. There are reports and studies of thalidomide as an analgesic or analgesic adjuvant in clinic. However, the underlying mechanism is quite elusive. Many studies suggest that the analgesic effect of thalidomide may be due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties as it suppresses the production of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) selectively. However, it is not clear whether any other mechanisms are implicated in the pain relief. In this study, we demonstrated that the peripheral vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel was also involved in the analgesic effect of thalidomide in different cell and animal models. During the activation by its agonist capsaicin, the cation inward influx through TRPV1 channels and the whole-cell current significantly decreased after TRPV1-overexpressed HEK293 cells or dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were pre-treated with thalidomide for 20 minutes. And such attenuation in the TRPV1 activity was in a dose-dependent manner of thalidomide. In an acetic acid writhing test, pre-treatment of thalidomide decreased the writhing number in the wild type mice, while it did not happen in TRPV1 knockout mice, suggesting that the TRPV1 channel was involved in the pain relief by thalidomide. Taken together, the study showed that TRPV1 channels were involved in the analgesic effects of thalidomide. Such alteration in the action of TRPV1 channels by thalidomide may help understand how thalidomide takes analgesic effect in the body in addition to its selective inhibition of TNF-? production. PMID:25929448

  2. Effectiveness of the association between carbamazepine and peripheral analgesic block with ropivacaine for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, L.; R. FONTES; Flores, S; Oliveira, P.; A. De Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is achieved by using adjuvant analgesics like antiepileptics, with carbamazepine (CBZ) being the first-line approach for TN patients, although side effects may be present. Other approaches using gabapentin, namely when associated with peripheral analgesic block of TN trigger points with the local anesthetic ropivacaine (ROP), resulted in decreased pain and daily drug intake (reduced side effects). This study evaluates if the association between CBZ and t...

  3. Olesoxime (cholest-4-en-3-one, oxime): Analgesic and neuroprotective effects in a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wen Hua; Zheng, Felix Y.; Bennett, Gary J.; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    Olesoxime is a small cholesterol-like molecule that was discovered in a screening program aimed at finding treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other diseases where motor neurons degenerate. In addition to its neuroprotective and pro-regenerative effects on motor neurons in vitro and in vivo, it has been shown to have analgesic effects in rat models of painful peripheral neuropathy due to vincristine and diabetes. We used a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the...

  4. Mechanism of action of suprofen, a new peripheral analgesic, as demonstrated by its effects on several nociceptive mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, B; Schupsky, J J

    1984-08-01

    Suprofen is a new potent, orally effective non-narcotic analgesic agent having a potent inhibitory action on prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis. Recent experiments have shown that suprofen inhibits uterine hyperactivity induced by the physiological substances, arachidonic acid, bradykinin (BK) and PGF2 alpha. The present study explores the possibility that the analgesic activity of suprofen may involve multiple mechanisms of interaction with PGs, inhibiting synthesis at low doses and with higher doses possibly directly interacting with PGs and other physiological mediators of nociception at a common site. Experiments in mice have shown that suprofen antagonizes abdominal stretching induced by the physiological precursor of PG release, arachidonic acid (ED50 = 0.07 mg/kg, p.o.), and by the nociceptive agents acetylcholine (ACh) (ED50 = 1.7 mg/kg, p.o.), BK (ED50 = 65 mg/kg, p.o.) acetic acid (HAC) (H+ ion; ED50 = 4.6 mg/kg, p.o.), and PGE2, itself (ED50 = 20.2 mg/kg, i.p.). In rabbits, i.a. administered suprofen (ED50 = 0.98 mg/kg) blocked the reflex discharge of spinal sensory neurons evoked by BK (2 to 8 micrograms, i.a.). The analgesic activity of suprofen may involve multiple mechanisms of interaction with PGs and other mediators, including BK; suprofen blocks the nociceptive actions of PGs by inhibiting their formation, via the cyclooxygenase pathway, and possibly at PG sites of action, probably at peripheral nerve endings. PMID:6594723

  5. Effects of peripherally and centrally acting analgesics on somato-sensory evoked potentials.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, U. J.; Marsh, V. R.; Ashton, C. H.; Seymour, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of aspirin 1000 mg, paracetamol 1000 mg, codeine 60 mg on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were measured in a four-way cross-over study. 2. SEPs were elicited by electrical stimulation of the skin overlying the digital nerve at intensities close to pain threshold. 3. Amplitudes and latencies of both early and late SEPs were recorded, as well as first sensory threshold and subjective pain threshold. 4. None of the study medications affected the amplitude or latency of the ...

  6. Analgesic effect of piracetam on peripheral neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ashish K; Bhati, Yogendra; Tripathi, Chakra D; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-08-01

    Despite immense advances in the treatment strategies, management of neuropathic pain remains unsatisfactory. Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs, used to improve cognitive impairment. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of piracetam on peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced by the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Following this, piracetam was intraperitoneally administered for 2 weeks in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, and pain was assessed by employing the behavioural tests for thermal hyperalgesia (hot plate and tail flick tests) and cold allodynia (acetone test). After the induction of neuropathic pain, significant development of thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia was observed. The administration of piracetam (50 mg/kg) did not have any significant effect on all the behavioural tests. Further, piracetam (100 mg/kg) also had no effect on the hot plate and tail flick tests; however it significantly decreased the paw withdrawal duration in the acetone test. Piracetam in a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly modulated neuropathic pain as observed from the increased hot plate and tail flick latencies, and decreased paw withdrawal duration (in acetone test). Therefore, the present study suggests the potential use of piracetam in the treatment of neuropathic pain, which merits further clinical investigation. PMID:24831122

  7. The analgesic action of topical diclofenac may be mediated through peripheral NMDA receptor antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Xu-Dong; Svensson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The analgesic mechanism underlying the efficacy of topical diclofenac in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain is incompletely understood. The present study investigated whether intramuscular injection of diclofenac (0.1mg/ml, approximately 340microM) could attenuate jaw-closer muscle nociceptor discharge and mechanical sensitization induced by activation of peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) or excitatory amino acid receptors in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Diclofenac inhibited nociceptor discharge evoked by NMDA, but had no effect on nociceptor discharge evoked by 5-hydroxytryptamine or AMPA. Subsequent experiments revealed that diclofenac-mediated inhibition of NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge was competitive. Intramuscular injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine, NMDA and AMPA also decreased nociceptor mechanical threshold, however, only the mechanical sensitization produced by NMDA was reversed by diclofenac. Co-administration of the proinflammatory prostaglandin PGE(2) did not alter the ability ofdiclofenac to significantly attenuate NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge or NMDA-induced mechanical sensitization. Intramuscular injection of either diclofenac or the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (50mM) alone could elevate nociceptor mechanical threshold for a 30min period post-injection. The present study indicates that in vivo, diclofenac can exert a selective, competitive inhibition of peripheral NMDA receptors at muscle concentrations achievable after topical administration of diclofenac containing preparations. This property may contribute to the analgesic effect of topical diclofenac when used for muscle pain.

  8. Investigation of the Central and Peripheral Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Kutajarishta, an Indian Ayurvedic formulation

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    Ashraful Kabir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kutajarishta (KTJ is an Ayurvedic formulation approved by the “National formulary of Ayurvedic Medicine 2011”, of Bangladesh. It is widely available in the Bangladeshi market as an effective preparation to treat lumbago, sciatia and arthritic pain of joints. Our present studies make an attempt toward identifying probable anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of KTJ. KTJ, at three doses, (10mL/kg, 20mL/kg, and 40mL/kg showed no involvement of the CNS in anti-nociceptive activity of KTJ. Carrageenan induced paw edema and acetic acid writhing tests both gave significant results (P ? 0.05, indicating possible peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory action. Formalin induced paw-licking test showed that KTJ had significant effect in suppressing inflammatory pain (P?0.05 but not neurogenic pain. Hence our study shows anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic action for KTJ.

  9. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm2, 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of allodynia and secondary hyperalgesia. RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant increases in erythema (P .6). There were no significant differences between treatments in regard to skin erythema (P >.8), thermal or mechanical thresholds (P >.2), thermal or mechanical pain response (P >.2), or mechanical secondary hyperalgesia (P >.2). Dexamethasone had no analgesic effects in normal skin. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that systemic administration of dexamethasone 2 hours before a burn injury does not reduce the inflammatory-mediated changes in quantitative sensory thresholds, pain perception, or skin erythema in humans.

  10. Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Claudia M; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L; Campbell, James N.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and...

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tacca integrifolia in rodents

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    Thatree Autsavakitipong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This is a preliminary investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia (TIE for the analgesic activity using writhing response in mice, tail flick test in rats and for anti-inflammatory activity using ethyl phenyl propiolate (EPP-induced ear edema, carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema, as well as cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The results showed that TIE (200 mg/kg, PO significantly inhibited pain caused by acetic acid injection (65.9% but did not exhibit effect in tail flick test in rats. These findings suggest that analgesic mechanism of TIE may act via peripherally pathway. The study of anti-inflammatory effect showed that TIE significantly inhibited ear edema induced by EPP. TIE (200 mg/kg, PO inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (55.5% and arachidonic acid (48.6% but had no effect on cotton-induced granuloma formation in rats. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of leaf of T. integrifolia possessed anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation and analgesic activity.Industrial relevant. Plants of the genus Tacca have been reported to possess many activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and, antipyretic activities. Many species have been used to treat high blood pressure, burn, gastric ulcer, and hepatitis. The scientific studies supporting the traditional uses of Tacca integrifolia for some of the alleged activities are still lacking. The screening test for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia provides scientific data to confirm the potentials of T. integrifolia as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. In addition, the outcomes may be useful to develop a new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the future. Key words. Tacca integrifolia; Taccaceae; ethyl acetate extract; analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity

  12. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  13. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

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    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  14. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthong, Ampai; Supraditaporn, Wanicha; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Taesotikul, Tawat; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2007-03-21

    Cissus quadrangularis, a medicinal plant indigenous to Asia and Africa, is used for many ailments, especially for the treatment of hemorrhoid. The effects associated with hemorrhoid, i.e. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as the venotonic effect of the methanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQ) were assessed in comparison with reference drugs. In the analgesic test, CQ provoked a significant reduction of the number of writhes in acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. CQ also significantly reduced the licking time in both phases of the formalin test. The results suggest peripheral and central analgesic activity of CQ. In acute phase of inflammation CQ elicited the inhibitory effect on the edema formation of the rats' ear induced by ethyl phenylpropiolate as well as on the formation of the paw edema in rats induced by both carrageenin and arachidonic acid. It is likely that CQ is a dual inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, CQ exerted venotonic effect on isolated human umbilical vein similarly to the mixture of bioflavonoids, i.e. 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin. The results obtained confirmed the traditional use of C. quadrangularis for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with hemorrhoid as well as reducing the size of hemorrhoids. PMID:17095173

  15. Analgesic and Anti-Arthritic Effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume

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    Mohamed M. Shabi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale (Blume, the folk medicine is used for rheumatic pain and it was selected for scientific validation. The 85% methanolic extract obtained from the whole plant of Enicostemma littorale has been assessed for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The analgesic activity has been evaluated by hot plate and tail immersion method and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities are evaluated by Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritic model. The results of the evaluation of analgesic activity in hot plate and tail immersion method revealed that the extract exhibits significant activity at 150 mg/kg body weight and the effect is found to increase dose dependently. In Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis, Enicostemma littorale is found to decrease the paw volume (15.81%. Significant protection is also observed by elevating antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, the 85% methanolic extract of Enicostemma littorale possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritic model in rats.

  16. KETAMINE HAS NO PRE-EMPTIVE ANALGESIC EFFECT

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    M E Darabi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, provides a pre-emptive analgesic effect and pre-emptive analgesia improves postoperative pain management. The aim of this study was to determine the effict of pre-incisional vs. post-incisional intravenous low dose of racemic ketamine in postoperative pain in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Seventy-five children aged 1-6 years who were scheduled for inguinal herniorrhaphy were included in a prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomly allocated to three groups (pre-incisional, post-incisional and control. Patients in pre-incisional group received an intravenous bolus of racemic ketamine (0.25 mg/kg before surgical incision and patients in post-incisional group received the same dose of racemic ketamine after surgical incision. Children of control group received intravenous boluses of normal saline. In post anesthesia care unit and pediatric surgical ward, the degree of pain and sedation, additional analgesic requirements and side effects were evaluated. There were no differences between groups with respect to demographic and hemodynamic parameters. Pain and sedation scores were not statistically different between groups during 24 h study. In addition, there was no significant difference among groups in number of supplementary analgesic requirements and postoperative nausea and vomiting in the first 24 h. No other side effects were reported during the study period. We found that low dose racemic ketamine administered prior to surgical incision has no pre-emptive effect on post-operative pain and supplementary analgesic requirement during the first 24 h after herniorrhaphy in pediatric patients. "n 

  17. Analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of Corallocarpus epigaeus

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    Subashini Uthrapathy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. The safety and efficacy profile of 85% methanolic extract of Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE was evaluated in the present study. In safety profile LD50 value was determined by carrying out an acute toxicity study. In efficacy profile, the analgesic activity was evaluated by both hot plate and tail immersion tests. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan-induced paw edema and anti-arthritic effect by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. Phytochemical screening of different CE extracts and quantitative analysis of both raw herb and 85% methanolic extract have been also carried out. The methanolic extract displayed analgesic activity by increasing the response time in both hot plate and tail immersion method. Extract exhibited 23,19% of anti-inflammatory activity and 33,59% of anti-arthritic effect in complete Freund's adjuvant induced paw edema. The CE extract increased the antioxidant level, along with a decrease of the oxidative stress developed by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. In conclusion, CE is a rich source of phytochemicals with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  18. Evaluation of the analgesic and anxiolytic effects of Dracocephalum polychaetum

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    Mojtaba Khodami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dracocephalum polychaetum bornum is exclusively found in a limited geographical area in the Kerman province; It is used by the local people for treatment of abdominal pain, meteorism and musculoskeletal pain. No study has been performed on the effects of D. polychaetum bornum, so the aim of this work was to assess the role of the extract and essential oil of this plant on pain and anxiety assessed by formalin test and elevated plus-maze (EPM, respectively, in male rats. Methods: Analgesic effects: One hundred twelve NMRI male rats were divided into 14 groups. Aqueous extract and essential oil were administered to 8 groups at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg i.p., while 2 groups were treated with normal saline, and the last 4 groups (sham positive received ASA (300 mg/kg and morphine (2.5 mg/kg. Anxiolytic effect: Forty-two NMRI male rats were divided into 7 groups. Four groups were injected intraperitoneally with 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the extract of the plant and 2 groups were injected with normal saline (control group and 1 mg/kg diazepam (positive sham. Anxiolytic effect was evaluated by EPM. Results: The results showed that the extract but not the essential oil at the dose of 200 mg/kg had a significant analgesic effect 25, 30 and 35 minutes after administration. The findings on the anxiolytic effect revealed that there was no significant difference between groups treated with different doses. Conclusion: This study showed that D. polychaetum bornum had analgesic effects.

  19. Haematological effects of non-narcotic analgesics.

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    Miescher, P A; Pola, W

    1986-01-01

    By far the largest proportion of side effects caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) belong to the category of so-called PAR (pseudo-allergic reactions). The sensitising potential of a drug is probably connected with its protein-binding capacity. The strongly protein-binding compounds are particularly liable to produce serious immunological complications. The clinical picture depends on the type of immune reaction as well as its location within the organism. Cellular immunity usually leads to skin reactions. However, it is possible that some of the haematological side effects may be caused by T lymphocytes reacting specifically with haemopoietic cells to which a drug adheres. Antibody-mediated immune reactions are more common. Currently we can distinguish five different mechanisms. IgE-mediated drug reactions usually lead to eosinophilia, sometimes with eosinophilic infiltrates in the lung. In such cases, patients frequently develop urticarial rashes. In a number of drug-induced cytopenias the underlying mechanism derives from the action of soluble immune complexes on red cells, leucocytes or platelets as in the case of type I agranulocytosis. IgG and/or IgM may be implicated in the formation of the immune complexes. In this system, blood cells are affected when incubated with the serum from an allergic subject which has previously been incubated with the offending drug or one of its metabolites. Some drugs or drug metabolites have a strong affinity for certain blood cells to which they become attached. If a patient develops antibodies to these drugs, an antibody interaction with the drug-coated cells can lead to the destruction of the cells. This mechanism may be operative not only in the periphery, but also within the bone marrow. On serological testing, preincubation of the serum with the offending drug will inhibit the reaction of the antibody to drug-coated cells. This mechanism may coexist with the immune complex type of blood cell damage. It now appears that patients may develop antibodies whose specificity depends on a drug as well as on a component of the blood cell membrane. The haematological specificity of the immune reaction would then be explained by the autoantigenic constituent of the drug-autoantigen complex. This mechanism has been demonstrated with regard to blood group specificities of certain drug reactions in the case of red cells. In the case of quinidine and quinine thrombocytopenia, the antiplatelet activity has been shown to be connected with the presence of the glycoprotein GP1b which acts as a receptor for platelet factor VIII.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3552589

  20. Comparing Early Postoperative Period Analgesic Effect of Dexketoprofene Trometamol and Lornoxicam in Mediastinoscopy Cases

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    Gonul Sagiroglu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed comparing early postoperative period analgesic effectiveness and the effects on opioid consumption of intravenous dexketoprofen and lornoxicam that are given preemptively. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, planned elective mediastinoscopy, were included in this prospective randomized study. These patients were classified in two groups, group D for dexketoprofene trometamol and group L for lornoxicam, randomly. 20 minutes before the operation 50 mg dexketoprofene trometamol and 8 mg lornoxicam were injected intravenously for group D and group L respectively. In postoperative intensive care unit, pain scores, mean arterial pressures, heart rates and peripheric O2 saturations of patients were recorded at 0, 10, 20, 60, 90 and 120th minutes. Results: When we evaluate the VAS score of the groups, there was a significant decrease in group D in all measured timesstatistically compairing to group L (p0.05. Conclusion: Since intravenous dexketoprofen, applied preemptively, has more potent analgesic effect and causing less opioid consumption in early postoperative period, is better than intravenous lornoxicam.

  1. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

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    Goyal Naveen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ?Country Mallow? is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80?C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals? models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  2. Tramadol drops in children: analgesic efficacy, lack of respiratory effects, and normal recovery times.

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, K. A.; Roelofse, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers. It has analgesic activity suitable for mild to moderate pain, part of its analgesic activity being modulated via mu receptors. Adult studies have raised the question of increased electroencephalographic activity. The study examined the analgesic efficacy, respiratory effects, and behavior plus recovery-influencing properties of tramadol in the pediatric patient. Day-case dental extraction children, aged 4-7 years having 6 or more...

  3. The Effect of Saliva Officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Analgesic Effect of Morphine in Rat

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    A Arzi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There are some reports in Iranian traditional medicine concerning the anti-inflammatory effect of Saliva Officinalis (SO. In the present study with the aim of decreasing analgesic dose of morphine, analgesic effect of different doses of SO hydroalcoholic extract alone and associated with morphine were evaluated by tail flick in rats. Subjects and Methods: Analgesic effects of SO hydroalcholic extract at doses of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/kg, i.p. were investigated. Then the influence of these doses associated with analgesic dose of morphine (2.5 mg/kg was evaluated. Rats were placed into restrainer and then transferred into the tail flick apparatus with the intensity 55 Cº and cut off time= 10 sec. In order to verify the role of opioid receptors on analgesic effect of SO extract, naloxone (1mg/kg, i.p. was administered to one group of rats 15 min before receiving 800 mg/kg extract. Then, the data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by LSD post hoc test and significant difference between groups was accepted with P<0.05. Results: The Data have shown that, the SO extract relieved pain in tail-flick test dose dependently and the most effective dose was 800 mg/kg. The maximum analgesic effect of the extract combined with morphine was observed at time point 45 min. Naloxane, opioid receptor antagonist could reduce analgesic effect of the extract. Conclusion: On the basis the results obtained in this study, it could be suggested that the SO extract potentiates morphine anti-nociceptive effect and this means that the opioid system may be involved in the analgesic effect of this plant extract. Sci Med J 2011;10(5:505-13

  4. Analgesic effect of Persian Gulf Conus textile venom

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    Nasim Tabaraki

    2014-10-01

    Results: SDS-PAGE indicated 12 bands ranged between 6 and 180 KDa. Finally, ten ng of Conus crude venom showed the best analgesic activity in formalin test. No death observed up to 100 mg/kg. Analgesic activity of crude venom was more significant (P

  5. Comparative analgesic effect of Ligusticum chuanxiong pieces and its products in mice

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    GAO Demin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken with the objective of finding out the comparative analgesic effect of Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC pieces decoction, LC formula granule decoction, liquored LC pieces decoction and liquored LC formula granule decoction. The analgesic effects were analyzed using the hot plate and acetic-induced writhing test in mice, and antidysmenorrheic effect was observed with primary dysmenorrhea model. The results showed that four kinds of LC decoction had definite effect in delaying incubation period and decreasing the writhing frequency within 30 min. They also effectively relieved dysmenorrhea. Moreover, liquored LC had better analgesic effect than crude LC in four decoctions.

  6. [Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, T.; Trezzi, P.; Cimmino, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. METHODS: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. RESULTS: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%), analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7%) patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%), inflammatory arthritis (24.2%), soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%), nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%), and connective tissue diseases (2.6%). Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5%) patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%). Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthritis were: (a) partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b) to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c) contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two). CONCLUSIONS: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis. PMID:12163885

  7. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cimmino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%, analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7% patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%, inflammatory arthritis (24.2%, soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%, nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%, and connective tissue diseases (2.6%. Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5% patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%. Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthrits were: (a partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two. Conclusions: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis.

  8. Analgesic effect of Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Raval, Nita D.; Ravishankar, B.

    2010-01-01

    Lepidium sativum Linn, which is known as “Aselio” locally, is frequently used by the villagers for the treatment of Sandhivata (osteoarthritis), with good therapeutic relief. Here, we have to observe the analgesic activity of the seed of Lepidium sativum Linn in albino rats and Swiss albino mice with different parameters. The analgesic study was performed with acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice, formaldehyde-induced paw licking response in rats and tail flick response in mice. ...

  9. Comparative analgesic effect of Ligusticum chuanxiong pieces and its products in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Demin; Xu, Lingchuan

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of finding out the comparative analgesic effect of Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC) pieces decoction, LC formula granule decoction, liquored LC pieces decoction and liquored LC formula granule decoction. The analgesic effects were analyzed using the hot plate and acetic-induced writhing test in mice, and antidysmenorrheic effect was observed with primary dysmenorrhea model. The results showed that four kinds of LC decoction had definite effect in ...

  10. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Lepidagathis Anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Sawadogo Wamtinga; Marius, Lompo; Noya, Some?; Innocent Pierre, Guissou; Germaine, Nacoulma-ouedraogo Odile

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 ...

  12. The Study of Analgesic Effect of Hydroalcoholilc Extract of vitis vinifsraseedon Rat by Formalin TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Arzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Due to the increased role of medicinal plants in therapy, the aim of this research was to study and compare the analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of the seeds of Vitis vinifera with morphine and aspirin as a common analgesic.Subjects and Methods: In this study, the hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera seed was prepared by maceration method. This study was done on male Wistar rat species. The animals were divided into 7 groups (n= 9: Negative control group received a single dose of (5mg/kg of serum physiology, two positive control groups (one group 2.5mg/kg of morphine and another 300mg/kg of aspirin, 4 treatment groups (100,200,400and 800 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of the seeds of Vitis vinifera via intraperitoneally. In this study the analgesic effect was investigated by using formalin test.Results: The results indicated that the analgesic effect of 400mg/kg of extract on the phase 1 of pain was more than the aspirin and less than the morphine. Its chronic analgesic effect on phase 2 of pain was less than morphine but there weren't any significant differences with those of the aspirin.Conclusion: The results indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinefera seed contains analgesic effect in both acute and chronic phases of pain. This can probably be due to the influence of the antioxidants of this extract.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Ceiba pentandra Gaertn

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    Romaric De Garde Elion Itou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Ceiba pentandra Gaertn (Bombacaceae were recorded in rat and mice. Inflammation was induced by carrageenan and cotton pellet. The pain was studied using analgesymeter, Koster and hot plate Methods. Aqueous extract (400 and 800 mg/kg of Ceiba pentandra presents a significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Flavono?ds present in the extract seem to be responsible for the activity.

  14. Analgesic Effect of Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Three Congolese Medicinal Plants: Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum

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    N. Okiemy-Andissa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analgesic effect of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of aeral parts of Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum, three plants used in congolese folk medicine in pain, were tested on acetic acid and hot plate tests. All extracts manifest analgesic effect on the two models used. The more active was the hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum gratissimum which is not antagonized by naloxone and could potentiate analgesic effect of paracetamol.

  15. Effects of Papaver rhoeas Extract on the Tolerance Development to Analgesic Effects of Morphine in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Shams; Hedayat Sahraei; Zohreh Faghih-Monzavi; Seyed Hossein Salimi; Seyedeh Maedeh Fatemi; Ali Pourmatabbed; Hassan Ghoshooni; Mohammad Kamalinejad

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the extract of Papaver rhoeas reduces morphine dependence, locomotor activity and reward. In present study, the effects of hydro-alcohol extract of Papaver Rhoeas on the tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine in mice have been investigated using tail flick method. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of morphine (1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/kg) induced analgesia. However, intrapretoneal administration of the hydro-alcohol extract of Papaver rhoeas (25, 50 and 100 mg/k...

  16. Effects of Papaver rhoeas Extract on the Tolerance Development to Analgesic Effects of Morphine in Mice

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    Jamal Shams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the extract of Papaver rhoeas reduces morphine dependence, locomotor activity and reward. In present study, the effects of hydro-alcohol extract of Papaver Rhoeas on the tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine in mice have been investigated using tail flick method. Subcutaneous (s.c. administration of morphine (1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/kg induced analgesia. However, intrapretoneal administration of the hydro-alcohol extract of Papaver rhoeas (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg had not an effects on analgesia. Reduction of analgesic in mice pretreated with morphine (50 mg/kg, twice daily; for 3 days, alone, indicated that tolerance has been developed. Hydro-alcohol extract of Papaver rhoeas (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. administration, 30 min before each of three daily doses of morphine, attenuated the morphine tolerance dose-independently,indicating that administration of the extract reduces morphine tolerance in mice.

  17. Assessment of ropivacaine postoperative analgesic effect after periapical maxillary incisors surgery

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    Tijani? Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ropivacaine is a relatively new longacting local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effect of topical anesthetics ropivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% with adrenaline in the postoperative treatment of periapical lesions in the maxilla. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects, divided into two groups. The study-group received 0.75% ropivacaine without a vasoconstrictor, while the control group was treated with 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (1 : 80.000. Block anesthesia for n. infraorbitalis was used and local anesthetics were applied also on the palatine side for the end branches of n. nasopalatinus. The following parameters were observed: time elapsed from the application of an anesthetic until the first occurrence of pain after the surgery and first intake of an analgesic, the intensity of initial pain, pain intensity 6 h after the application of anesthetics and the total number of analgesics taken within 24 h after the completion of surgery. Results. The pain appeared statistically significantly earlier in the patients who had been given lidocaine with adrenaline (p < 0.001, while statistically significantly higher mean values of initial postoperative pain (p < 0.05 and pain intensity 6 h after the intervention (p < 0.01 were also registered in the same group of patients. In the period of 24 h upon the intervention, the study-group patients were taking less analgesics as compared to the control-group subjects (46.6% vs 73.3%, who were given analgesics earlier, although no statistically significant differences were observed related to the number of analgesic doses taken. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate a better postoperative analgesic effect of ropivacaine as compared to lidocaine with adrenaline.

  18. A comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy. Forty patients, aged between 20-60 years and undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were enrolled into the study protocol that was carried out in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January and June 2007. General anesthesia protocol was the same in all patients. At the end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). Group L received 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and Group B received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine intra-articularly. We evaluated the level of postoperative pain (by visual analoque scale at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery), first analgesic requirement time (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), and total analgesic consumption during 24 hours. There were no significant difference in the postoperative pain scores of the patients between groups. The first analgesic requirement times were not statistically different. Twelve patients in Group L (60%) and 9 patients in Group B (45%) needed no additional analgesic during the 24 hours (p>0.05). No complications and side effects were found related to the intra-articular treatment. The results of the study show that intra-articular 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine provides effective analgesia comparable to that provided by 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. (author) (author)

  19. Seasonal Effects on HPLC-DAD-UV and UPLC-ESI-MS Fingerprints and Analgesic Activities of Vernonia Condensata Baker Extracts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sabrina, Afonso; Aldair C. de, Matos; Vitor A., Marengo; Estefânia G., Moreira; Daniely X., Soares; Héctor Henrique F., Koolen; Ieda S., Scarminio.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vernonia condensata Baker leaves have different uses in Brazilian folk medicine, including as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effects on their high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD-UV) and ultra-per [...] formance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer with an electrospray interface (UPLC-ESI-MS) fingerprints, as well as their analgesic activities in mice. There were significant seasonal effects on the relative abundances of the metabolites of the V. condensate leaves as well as on their activities. Analgesic activities in the writhing test were observed with the polar fraction of the leaf extracts collected in autumn, winter and summer (400 mg kg-1); and with the intermediate fraction of leaves collected in autumn (25 and 400 mg kg-1) and in the summer (100 mg kg-1). In conclusion, the results confirm peripherally-mediated anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities for V. condensata leaves and suggest that these are influenced by the harvesting season. N-oxides alkaloids as well as vernonioside play important roles in determining this activity.

  20. Antidepressants as analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleane, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a common accompaniment of pain, particularly when pain is unremitting. The use of a variety of antidepressant medications is associated with pain reduction, an effect that is independent of the mood-enhancing qualities of these drugs. This pain relief is a consequence of a wide variety of actions of antidepressants on the neuroregulatory mechanisms associated with pain perception and transmission. The older tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and the newer 'balanced' reuptake inhibitors (such as duloxetine) seem to be more efficacious in terms of providing pain relief than the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Unfortunately, adverse effects are not uncommon during antidepressant use, particularly with TCAs. It is now becoming apparent that TCAs can have an analgesic effect when applied topically and that this effect is produced by peripheral mechanisms rather than systemic uptake. Antidepressants remain a major therapeutic tool in the management of chronic pain. PMID:18193925

  1. Analgesic effects of melatonin : a review of current evidence from experimental and clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine, produced mainly by the pineal gland. Melatonin has been proven to have chronobiotic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anxiolytic and sedative properties. There are also experimental and clinical data supporting an analgesic role of melatonin. In experimental studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby may reduce anxiety, which leads to lower levels of pain. In this paper, we review the current evidence regarding the analgesic properties of melatonin in animals and humans with chronic pain.

  2. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Synthesized Derivatives of Ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjie; Dai, Dongyan; Qiu, Qianqian; Deng, Xin; Lin, Haiyan; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2015-05-01

    Inflammatory and pain are major areas for drug discovery. Current analgesic drugs often cause a number of side-effects. In the present study, we modified carboxylic acid group of ibuprofen, one of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, based on the common structure of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 antagonists which are considered as new candidates for analgesic drugs, and synthesized several derivatives of ibuprofen. Comprehensive evaluations of the pharmacological properties of these compounds were investigated. Compound 17 showed weak cyclooxygenase inhibition and exhibited strong transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 antagonistic activity. It was found to be capable of blocking noxious thermal nociception and capsaicin-induced nociception in mice. Besides, 17 showed less ulcerogenic action than ibuprofen did and had no hyperthermia side-effect compared with common transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 antagonists. Therefore, it suggested that 17 could be used as a safe alternative analgesic candidate for pain treatment. PMID:24618048

  3. Antiulcerogenic and analgesic effects of Maytenus aquifolium, Sorocea bomplandii and Zolernia ilicifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F G; Portela, T Y; Stipp, E J; Di Stasi, L C

    2001-09-01

    Maytenus aquifolium (Celastraceae), Sorocea bomplandii (Moraceae) and Zolernia ilicifolia (Fabaceae) are native plants from the Tropical Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica, Brazil) known as "espinheira-santa". These plants are traditionally used as analgesic and antiulcerogenic medicine, with the same traditional uses of the true "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia, Celastraceae), an efficient antiulcerogenic agent. Pharmacological and toxicological studies with these plants have not been carried out. The purpose in this study was to evaluate the efficacy (analgesic and antiulcerogenic activities), safety (acute toxicity) and quality (phytochemical profile) of these three plants. The analgesic effect was analyzed by writhing and tail flick tests, while antiulcerogenic effect was performed through ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin/bethanecol assays. LD(50) and acute toxic effects, as well as phytochemical profiles of all plants also were carried. Surprisingly, the three plants showed analgesic and antiulcerogenic effects at dose of 1000 mg/kg, v.o. Maytenus aquifolium lowering all ulcerogenic parameters (ethanol test), but increased the ulcerogenic effects in the indomethacin/bethanecol test. Sorocea bomplandii produced antiulcerogenic effects in both experimental models used, while Zolernia ilicifolia showed significant effects only in indomethacin/bethanecol-induced gastric lesions. Pre-treatment with Zolernia ilicifolia induced someone toxic effects. A phytochemical profile for each plant species was determined and its main chemical classes of compounds were described. PMID:11483377

  4. Tramadol Safer and Effective Analgesic to Treat Chronic Pain: A Review

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    Gulshan Pandey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage".Pain has now been equated to a “fifth vital sign” highlighting the significance of pain management in patient care. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic, structurally related to codeine and morphine .It is effectively used to treat moderate-to-severe acute and chronic pain in diverse conditions. Tramadol is placed on the second step of WHO analgesic ladder and in contrast to traditional opioids, exerts its analgesic activity, a dual mechanism of action inhibiting transmission as well as perception of pain. Tramadol is more suitable than NSAIDs and coxibs for patient with GI, renal and cardiovascular problems. Combined with low dependence/abuse potential, it has proven to be of significant advantage over other agents, especially in the elderly.

  5. Tramadol drops in children: analgesic efficacy, lack of respiratory effects, and normal recovery times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, K A; Roelofse, J A

    1999-01-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers. It has analgesic activity suitable for mild to moderate pain, part of its analgesic activity being modulated via mu receptors. Adult studies have raised the question of increased electroencephalographic activity. The study examined the analgesic efficacy, respiratory effects, and behavior plus recovery-influencing properties of tramadol in the pediatric patient. Day-case dental extraction children, aged 4-7 years having 6 or more extractions, were studied. Tramadol drops, 3 mg/kg, plus oral midazolam, 0.5 mg/kg, were administered 30 minutes prior to a sevoflurane in N2O and O2 anesthetic. Forty children received this premedication treatment (T) and 10 entered a placebo control group (P), where no tramadol was administered. Entry was random, double blind, and parallel. Analgesic efficacy was measured using the Oucher face pain scale (OFPS), with responders scoring three or less. Respiration was measured by rate and oxygen saturation. Behavior and ease of mask induction were assessed on a 4-point scale. Recovery was measured with the Aldrete scale. Parameters were measured from 30 minute preanesthetic to 120 minute postanesthetic. Analgesic efficacy was shown, with an OFPS score of 11.42 (SD 18.66) (T) and 29.80 (SD 25.14) (P) (P tramadol were 77.5% versus 0% on placebo (P .05), with 85% of the tramadol group being drowsy but awake versus 90% in the placebo group. Similarly satisfactory induction behavior was seen in 95% of the tramadol group and 90% of the placebo group. Recovery times were 48.6 minutes (SD 32.3) (T) and 43.1 minutes (SD 32.5) (P) (P > .05). It is concluded that tramadol at 3 mg/kg has no clinical respiratory depressant effect and that behavior and recovery times are unaffected. Analgesic efficacy is demonstrated. PMID:11692348

  6. Effect of Celecoxib on the Peripheral NO Production

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    Parichehr Hassanzadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sCelecoxib acts through both COX-2-dependent and -independent pathways. According to the paradoxical effect of NO on the inflammatory and nociceptive signal processing, the present study designed to evaluate the probable contribution of NO in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of celecoxib. Materials and MethodsDifferent intensities of inflammatory pain were induced by acute and chronic sc administration of 1%, 2.5%, or 5% formalin and spectrophotometrical analysis of the serum nitrite was performed. Then, in the pretreatment process, the effect of celecoxib (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg/ip was evaluated on the inflammatory pain induced-nitrite. Also, the effect of celecoxib alone (under non-inflammatory condition was evaluated on the peripheral NO production and the results compared with that of the vehicle. ResultsFormalin-induced inflammatory pain led to an enhancement of the serum nitrite in intensity- and time-dependent manners. Celecoxib (40 mg/kg/ip, except its ineffectiveness on the nitrite level, induced 1.5 hr after 5% formalin, reduced production of formalin-induced nitrite in other cases. Meanwhile, under non-inflammatory condition, 1.5 hr after the administration of celecoxib (40 mg/kg/ip, a considerable elevation of nitrite was observed. Celecoxib 10 or 20 mg/kg/ip did not show a significant effect on either inhibition or stimulation of the peripheral NO.ConclusionNO is involved both in the inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions. It seems that celecoxib exerts a dual effect on the peripheral NO production; it prevents overproduction of NO due to the induction of inflammatory pain, while, it stimulates NO synthesis at the early stage of its action.

  7. Post-operative analgesic effects of paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations : a topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Nielsen, R V

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary post-operative pain management, patients are most often treated with combinations of non-opioid analgesics, to enhance pain relief and to reduce opioid requirements and opioid-related adverse effects. A diversity of combinations is currently employed in clinical practice, and no well-documented 'gold standards' exist. The aim of the present topical, narrative review is to provide an update of the evidence for post-operative analgesic efficacy with the most commonly used, systemic non-opioid drugs, paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/COX-2 antagonists, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids, and combinations of these. The review is based on data from previous systematic reviews with meta-analyses, investigating effects of non-opioid analgesics on pain, opioid-requirements, and opioid-related adverse effects. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin reduced 24?h post-operative morphine requirements with 6.3 (95% confidence interval: 3.7 to 9.0)?mg, 10.2 (8.7, 11.7)?mg, 10.9 (9.1, 12.8)?mg, and???13?mg, respectively, when administered as monotherapy. The opioid-sparing effect of glucocorticoids was less convincing, 2.33 (0.26, 4.39)?mg morphine/24?h. Trials of pregabalin?>?300?mg/day indicated a morphine-sparing effect of 13.4 (4, 22.8)?mg morphine/24?h. Notably, though, the available evidence for additive or synergistic effects of most combination regimens was sparse or lacking. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, selective COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin all seem to have well-documented, clinically relevant analgesic properties. The analgesic effects of glucocorticoids and pregabalin await further clarification. Combination regimens are sparsely documented and should be further investigated in future studies.

  8. The analgesic effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics after breast surgery : a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byager, N; Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics is commonly used during breast surgery in an attempt to reduce post-operative pain and opioid consumption. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics compared with a control group on post-operative pain after breast surgery. METHODS: A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, the Cochrane database and Embase for randomised, blinded, controlled trials of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics for post-operative pain relief in female adults undergoing breast surgery. The analgesic effect was evaluated in a qualitative analysis by assessment of significant difference between groups (P < 0.05) in pain scores and supplemental analgesic consumption. RESULTS: Ten trials including 699 patients were included in the final analysis. Three trials investigated mastectomy, four trials partial or segmental mastectomy, and three trials breast reduction, excision of benign lump and unspecified breast surgery, respectively. Six trials demonstrated a small and short-lasting, but statistically significant reduction of post-operative pain scores, and four trials observed a statistically significant reduction in post-operative, supplemental opioid consumption that was, however, of limited clinical relevance. CONCLUSION: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics may have a modest analgesic effect in the first few hours after surgery. Pain after breast surgery is, however, generally mild to moderate, and other non-invasive analgesic methods may be preferable in this surgical population.

  9. Analgesic effect of intra-articular magnesium sulphate compared with bupivacaine after knee arthroscopic menisectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Radwan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular injection of magnesium sulphate (4% compared with equivalent volume of bupivacaine (0.5% after outpatient knee arthroscopic meniscectomy. Forty patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group M (n = 20 received intra-articular magnesium sulphate 4%, group B (n = 20 received bupivacaine (0.5%. Analgesic effect was evaluated by analgesic duration, and by measuring pain intensity at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h both at rest and on knee movement to 90°. The primary outcome variable was pain intensity on the VAS at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h post arthroscopy at rest and on movement (flexion of knee to 90°, although the magnesium group had lower time weighted averages (TWAs at rest and on movement, these TWAs were not statistically significant. The median duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly longer in the patients treated with magnesium sulphate (528 min than in the bupivacaine group (317 min (p < 0.0001, with less number of patients needing supplementary analgesia in magnesium group (8/20 than those of the bupivacaine group (16/20 (p < 0.022. Also analgesic consumption was significantly lower in the magnesium sulphate group (p < 0.002. We concluded that the use of magnesium sulphate is rational and effective in reducing pain, and is more physiological and shortens convalescence after outpatient arthroscopic meniscectomy, however our hypotheses that analgesic efficacy of intra-articular isotonic magnesium sulphate would be superior to intra-articular local anaesthetic cannot be supported with this study.

  10. Flexibilide Obtained from Cultured Soft Coral Has Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Analgesic Effects through the Upregulation of Spinal Transforming Growth Factor-?1 in Neuropathic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Fu Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuroinflammation plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. The compound flexibilide, which can be obtained from cultured soft coral, possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in the rat carrageenan peripheral inflammation model. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive properties of flexibilide in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI model of neuropathic pain. First, we found that a single intrathecal (i.t. administration of flexibilide significantly attenuated CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia at 14 days after surgery. Second, i.t. administration of 10-?g flexibilide twice daily was able to prevent the development of thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing deficits in CCI rats. Third, i.t. flexibilide significantly inhibited CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes, as well as the upregulated proinflammatory enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Furthermore, flexibilide attenuated the CCI-induced downregulation of spinal transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1 at 14 days after surgery. Finally, i.t. SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-? type I receptor, blocked the analgesic effects of flexibilide in CCI rats. Our results suggest that flexibilide may serve as a therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain. In addition, spinal TGF-?1 may be involved in the anti-neuroinflammatory and analgesic effects of flexibilide.

  11. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic modeling of the analgesic effect of bupredermTM, in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ok Kim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: BupredermTM?Buprenorphine transdermal delivery system (BTDS was developed for the treatment of post-operative and chronic pains. This study examined the relationship between the plasma concentration of buprenorphine and its analgesic effect (tail flick test in order to assess the usefulness of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD modeling in describing this relationship. Methods: After patch application, plasma concentrations of bu- prenorphine in mice were measured for 72 hours with a validated LC/MS/MS system, and the analgesic effects were assessed by tail flick test for the period of 24 hours. A modified two- compartment open model was used to explain the PK properties of BTDS, and the PD model was characterized by slow receptor binding. Results: The peak buprenorphine level in plasma was achieved at 1-24 h and the effective therapeutic drug concentration was maintained for 72 hours. BupredermTM induced prolongation of tail-flick latency in a dose and time dependent manner. Maximum analgesic effect was attained at 3-6 h and was maintained for 24 h after patch application. Counter-clockwise hysteresis between the plasma concentration and the analgesic efficacy of BTDS was observed after BupredermTM application, indicating there was a delay between plasma concentrations and the effect observed. From the developed PK-PD model, Kd values (0.69-0.82 nM that were derived from the pharmacodynamic parameters (Kon and Koff are similar to the reported values (Kd = 0.76 ± 0.14 nM. Good agreement between the predicted and observed values was noted for the rate of change in analgesic effect data (R2 = 0.822, 0.852 and 0.774 for 0.24, 0.8 and 2.4 mg/patch, respectively. Conclusions: The established PK- PD model successfully described the relationship between plasma concentration of buprenorphine and its analgesic efficacy measured by the tail flick test. Our model might be useful in estimation and prediction of onset, magnitude and time course of concentration and pharmacological effects of BTDS and will be useful to simulate PK-PD profiles with clinical regimens.

  12. Analgesic effect of highly reversible ?-conotoxin FVIA on N type Ca2+ channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyun Jeong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-type Ca2+ channels (Cav2.2 play an important role in the transmission of pain signals to the central nervous system. ?-Conotoxin (CTx-MVIIA, also called ziconotide (Prialt®, effectively alleviates pain, without causing addiction, by blocking the pores of these channels. Unfortunately, CTx-MVIIA has a narrow therapeutic window and produces serious side effects due to the poor reversibility of its binding to the channel. It would thus be desirable to identify new analgesic blockers with binding characteristics that lead to fewer adverse side effects. Results Here we identify a new CTx, FVIA, from the Korean Conus Fulmen and describe its effects on pain responses and blood pressure. The inhibitory effect of CTx-FVIA on N-type Ca2+ channel currents was dose-dependent and similar to that of CTx-MVIIA. However, the two conopeptides exhibited markedly different degrees of reversibility after block. CTx-FVIA effectively and dose-dependently reduced nociceptive behavior in the formalin test and in neuropathic pain models, and reduced mechanical and thermal allodynia in the tail nerve injury rat model. CTx-FVIA (10 ng also showed significant analgesic effects on writhing in mouse neurotransmitter- and cytokine-induced pain models, though it had no effect on acute thermal pain and interferon-? induced pain. Interestingly, although both CTx-FVIA and CTx-MVIIA depressed arterial blood pressure immediately after administration, pressure recovered faster and to a greater degree after CTx-FVIA administration. Conclusions The analgesic potency of CTx-FVIA and its greater reversibility could represent advantages over CTx-MVIIA for the treatment of refractory pain and contribute to the design of an analgesic with high potency and low side effects.

  13. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus Alves de Lima, Mota; José Saul Peixoto, Landim; Thiago Sousa Silva, Targino; Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro da, Silva; Sônia Leite da, Silva; Márcio Roberto Pinho, Pereira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in mice. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effect of alcoholic extracts of green tea (AE) was evaluated in a cell migration assay with four groups of six Swiss mice receiving 0.07g/Kg or 0.14g/Kg EA (trea [...] tment groups), saline (negative control) or 10mg/Kg indomethacin (positive control) by gavage. One hour later 300 µg carrageen an was administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. The analgesic effect was evaluated using four groups of six animals receiving 0.07g/Kg or 0.14g/Kg EA, saline or 10mg/Kg indomethacin subcutaneously, followed 30 minutes later by 1% acetic acid. RESULTS: When administered subcutaneously at either dose (0.07g/Kg and 0.14g/Kg), AE inhibited carrageenan-induced cell migration (p

  14. The unsolved case of “bone-impairing analgesics”: the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Raffa, Robert B; Mattia, Consalvo

    2015-01-01

    The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1) the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2) reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3) chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine). Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ?100 mg morphine daily) should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. PMID:25848298

  15. The unsolved case of "bone-impairing analgesics": the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Raffa, Robert B; Mattia, Consalvo

    2015-01-01

    The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1) the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2) reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3) chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine). Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ?100 mg morphine daily) should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. PMID:25848298

  16. Analgesic Effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Wook Lim; Jae Goo Kim; Daeseok Han; Yun Tai Kim

    2014-01-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil’s Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. The whole procedure was performed on male SD rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) test measured by von Frey filaments. Pain-related behav...

  17. Evaluation of analgesic effects of intrathecal clonidine along with bupivacaine in cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari Nikhil; Bogra Jaishri; Chaudhary Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Aims and Context: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of intrathecal clonidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia. Settings and Design : Randomized single blind trial. Methods: 210 ASA I-II pregnant females undergoing emergency cesarean section were randomized in a single-blind fashion to one of the three groups. In group I (n=70) patients received 12.5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally. In group II (n=70) pat...

  18. Compare the Analgesic Effectiveness of Diclofenac and Paracetamol in Patients with Renal Colic

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Ayan

    2013-01-01

       Aim: This retrospective study was aimed to compare the analgesic effectiveness of paracetamol and diclofenac sodium by using visual analog acale (VAS) in patients applying to emergency room with renal colic. Material and Method: Group I (n=40) patients diagnosed with renal colic and treated with diclofenac sodium (75 mg intramuscular) and Group II (n=40) patients diagnosed with renal colic and treated with paracetamol (1 g intravenous) were included in this study. In both groups,...

  19. Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem

    OpenAIRE

    Hao-Yuan Cheng; Meng-Shiou Lee; Li-Heng Pao; Wen-Huang Peng; Jiunn-Wang Liao; Jung Chao

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited a...

  20. The Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Morphine and Paracetamol in the Patients Undergoing Laparotomy, Using PCA Method

    OpenAIRE

    Siamak Yaghoubi; Reza Pourfallah; Ameneh Barikani; Hamid Kayalha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: postoperative pain increases the activity of the sympathetic system, causes hypermetabolic conditions, retains salt and water, increases glucose, fatty acid lactate and oxygen consumption, weakens the immunity system which delays wound healing. Our object was comparison of the analgesic effect of morphine and paracetamol in the patients undergoing laparotomy, using PCA method. Method: Seventy patients who had undergone laparotomy were studied using double blind randomized clinical ...

  1. Effect of various analgesics and lubricants on isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, M. F.; Johnson, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    Five preparations used as analgesics or lubricants in surgical, obstetrical, gynecological, and investigative procedures were tested for their effect on the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis. Three lignocaine preparations and a lubricating jelly containing 2% phenol were inhibitory to chlamydiae. In contrast, K-Y lubricating jelly was relatively nontoxic to chlamydiae. Since K-Y jelly also had only slight toxic activity against gonococci, it is recommended for the lubrication of instruments ...

  2. Comparing Analgesic Effects of a Topical Herbal Mixed Medicine with Salicylate in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Vafaeenasab; Mohsen Zahmatkash

    2011-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is the most common cause of disability among people and it is a common disease of joints that can lead to cartilage damage. In this study the analgesic effects of a herbal ointment containing cinnamon, ginger, mastic (Saghez) and sesame oil is compared with Salicylate ointment in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trail study. Patients with diagnosed arthritis were involved in the study and they were divided in two grou...

  3. Additive effect of combined application of magnesium and MK-801 on analgesic action of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalska-Zadro?ny, Magdalena; Duda, Kamila

    2014-01-01

    As previously reported, magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) administered in relatively low doses markedly potentiated opioid analgesia in neuropathic pain, in which the effectiveness of opioids is limited. Considering that Mg(2+) behaves like an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, the effect of this ion on the analgesic action of morphine was compared with that of MK-801. Acute pain was evoked by mechanical or thermal stimuli, whereas neuropathic hyperalgesia was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) administration. Magnesium sulphate (40 mg/kg i.p.) or MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) administered alone did not modify the nociceptive threshold to acute stimuli or the streptozotocin hyperalgesia but significantly augmented the analgesic action of morphine (5 mg/kg i.p.). Furthermore, if these drugs (i.e. magnesium sulphate and MK-801) were applied concomitantly, a clear additive effect on the analgesic action of morphine occurred in both models of pain. Possible explanations of these observations are discussed. PMID:24577345

  4. The effect of acupressure at SP6 point on analgesic taking in women during labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Samad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the potential side effects of analgesics and anaesthetic drugs to control the labour pains, it is possible to replace non-medical method for palliative treatment. The purpose of this research is to assess the effect of acupressure in spleen point 6 (SP6 on the amount of analgesic drug taking during labour. Materials and Method: We conducted one sided blind randomized clinical trial in 2008. 131 term pregnant women randomly selected and divided into three groups; including one experimental group (pressure on SP6:41 persons and two control groups (SP6 touch: 41 cases and common care: 49 persons. The data has been analyzed by using the descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS-16 software.Results: Comparing the average amounts of the consumed drug between three groups showed a significant decrease in the experimental group more than the other two control groups (p=0.006. The average amount of consumed pethidine in the experimental group showed a significant decrease (p=0.02.Conclusion: The findings of our study showed that the pressure on SP6 is an effective method to decrease the amount of analgesic consumption in labor specially pethidine

  5. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad M. Hassan; Shahneaz A. Khan; Amir H. Shaikat; Md. Emran Hossain; Md. Ahasanul Hoque; Md Hasmat Ullah; Saiful Islam

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight...

  6. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe García P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  7. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guadalupe, García P; Edgar, García S; Isabel, Martínez G; Thomas R. F., Scior; José L, Salvador; Mauro M, Martínez P; Rosa E. del, Río.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth) is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studie [...] d, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1), which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  8. Effects of the central analgesic tramadol on the uptake and release of noradrenaline and dopamine in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, B.; Reimann, W.; Giertz, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The centrally acting analgesic, tramadol, has low affinity for opioid receptors and therefore presumably other mechanisms of analgesic action. Neurotransmitter release and uptake experiments were used to characterize the effects of tramadol on the central noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. 2. Tramadol inhibited the uptake of [3H]-noradrenaline into purified rat hypothalamic synaptosomes with an IC50 of 2.8 microM; the (-)-enantiomer was about ten times more potent than the (+)-enantio...

  9. Putative physiological mechanisms underlying tDCS analgesic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Knotkova, Helena; Nitsche, Michael A.; Cruciani, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that induces changes in excitability, and activation of brain neurons and neuronal circuits. It has been observed that beyond regional effects under the electrodes, tDCS also alters activity of remote interconnected cortical and subcortical areas. This makes the tDCS stimulation technique potentially promising for modulation of pain syndromes. Indeed, utilizing specific montages, tDCS resulted in analge...

  10. Ziconotide: new drug. Limited analgesic efficacy, too many adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    (1) When oral morphine does not relieve severe pain and when there is no specific treatment for the underlying cause, the first option is to try subcutaneous or intravenous administration. If this standard treatment fails or is poorly tolerated, intrathecal injection is usually preferred as the direct route to the central nervous system. However, one-quarter to one-half of patients still do not achieve adequate pain relief, and adverse effects are relatively frequent; (2) Ziconotide is not an opiate and is not related to the usual classes of drugs that interfere with nervous transmission in the posterior horn of the spinal cord. Marketing authorization has been granted for "severe, chronic pain in patients who require intrathecal analgesia". The Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) recommends continuous infusion via an intrathecal catheter connected to a pump; (3) Clinical evaluation of ziconotide does not include any trials versus morphine in patients with nociceptive pain, or any trials versus tricyclic or antiepileptic drugs in patients with neurogenic pain; (4) In a trial in 220 patients in whom systemic morphine had failed, the mean pain score on a 100-mm visual analogue scale was 69.8 mm after three weeks on ziconotide, compared to 75.8 mm with placebo. This difference, although statistically significant, is clinically irrelevant. The proportion of "responders" (reduction of at least 30% in the initial pain score) was respectively 16.1% and 12.0% (no statistically significant difference); (5) The two other placebo-controlled trials included 112 patients with pain linked to cancer or HIV infection, and 257 patients with non-cancer pain. After a titration phase lasting 5 to 6 days, a combined analysis of the two trials showed that the mean pain score was 48.8 mm with ziconotide and 68.4 mm with placebo (statistically significant difference). However, many patients did not complete the titration phase. Efficacy also appeared to differ according to the type of pain; ziconotide was more effective on cancer pain than on neurogenic pain; (6) The main adverse effects of ziconotide in clinical trials were cerebellovestibular disorders such as ataxia, dizziness, and gait disorders, as well as confusion, hallucinations (increased in cases of overdose), nausea, vomiting, postural hypotension, and urine retention. About 40% of patients had an elevation in muscle creatine kinase activity, through an unknown mechanism; (7) Intrathecal administration carries a risk of infection (especially meningitis). Some patients might experience a paradoxical increase in pain with ziconotide; (8) In practice, the efficacy of ziconotide in relieving neurogenic pain remains to be established. In cancer pain, the available evidence showing that ziconotide is effective after opiate failure is too weak in view of the potential risks. It is better to re-examine and, if possible, correct the reasons for opiate treatment failure rather than prescribe ziconotide. PMID:19530373

  11. Gabapentin Increases Analgesic Effect of Chronic Use of Morphine while Decreases Withdrawal Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzumeh-Shamsi Meimandi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the role of gabapentin co-administration in morphine antinociception and withdrawal effect. Four groups of male rats were examined for latency time using tail flick test; control, morphine (M, gabapentin (GB and gabapentin-morphine (GB-M treated groups. Rats received morphine (10 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, s.c. or gabapentin (75 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, i.p. or both of them twice a day for 9 days. Control rats received normal saline as schedule time. Latency time was recorded 3 times (5 min of interval before drug injection and in 60, 65 and 70 min after drug injection in days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 by tail flick test. Percentage of Maximal Possible Effect (%MPE as antinociceptive effect was calculated for all groups. On 9th day, rats were challenged for withdrawal signs by administration of naloxone (2 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, i.p.. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference of %MPE in control and GB groups while in M and GB-M groups the %MPE was changed significantly during the days of study. Gabapentin had no analgesic effect while morphine and gabapentin-morphine had significant analgesic effect compared to control. %MPE of GB-M treated rats was significantly higher than M in days 5, 7 and 9. Also this study showed that pre-treatment with gabapentin reduced most of the opioid withdrawal signs including jumping, weight loss and fore paw tremor. The mechanism(s by which gabapentin enhances the analgesic effect of chronic use of morphine and attenuate opioid withdrawal signs remain to be establish.

  12. 5. Anti inflammatory and analgesic effect of methanolic extract of Anogeissus acuminata leaf

    OpenAIRE

    K.Hemamalini; K. Om Prasad Naik; Ashok, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of the methanol extract of Anogeissus acuminata leaf was investigated. The methanolic extracts of Anogeissus acuminata leaf were ingested orally (p.o.) in the form of suspension in 0.5% Tween 80 in two different doses, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). The anti-inflammatory effect of Anogeissus acuminata was tested in: carrageenin-induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats and formalin-induced paw oedema in Swiss albino mice and com...

  13. [A relationship between analgesic and neurotropic effects by the example of milgamma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, M V; Shikh, E V; Makhova, A A

    2012-01-01

    Combined vitamin preparations containing thiamine (vitamin B1), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) are widely used in medical practice. The results of investigations have confirmed that it is expedient to potentiate an analgesic effect due to the concurrent use of vitamin B group and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs given to relieve significant neuropathic pain. Milgamma compositum (Wörwag Pharma, Germany) is one of the most studied drugs on the Russian market, which contains a combination of vitamin B group (including benfotiamin). PMID:23480005

  14. “Safe and Effective When Used As Directed”: The Case of Chronic Use of Opioid Analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    Ballantyne, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Opioid analgesics have been used increasingly over the past 20 years for the management of chronic non-cancer pain in the USA under the assumption that they were safe and effective when used as directed. The accuracy of that assumption has not been tested against accumulated evidence. The safety of opioids used on a long-term basis has not been tested in clinical trials. Epidemiologic evidence from examinations of such use in the general population indicates that the risk of overdose increase...

  15. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.

    1999-12-16

    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  16. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  17. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Tramadol With Lidocaine When Used as Subcutaneous Local Anesthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussan Soltanimohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a double blind, controlled trial comparing postoperative analgesic effect of tramadol with lidocaine when used as subcutaneous local anesthetic. Seventy ASA physical status 1 or 2 patients aged 20-50 years, who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia with flank incision, were randomly assigned to receive either 2 mg kg-1 tramadol or 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine at the end of operation. Postoperative pain was evaluated with a Verbal Analogue Scale (VAS. First VAS and patient’s satisfaction with operation were recorded at recovery room, second record was in the ward (12 h later and third on the next day of surgery (24 h later. Local reactions, nausea and vomiting in recovery and the ward and time to first request for analgesic after operation were also recorded. Satisfaction with operation in recovery room was better in tramadol group (p = 0.016. The VAS score did not differ significantly between the two groups in recovery (p = 0.119, 12 h (p = 0.316 and 24 h after the operation (p = 0.108. Time to first analgesic requirement in tramadol group was longer (4.3±0.3 h than lidocaine group (2.1±0.9 h (p = 0.012. Ten patients in tramadol and 2 in lidocaine group had nausea in recovery room (p = 0.01. Eight and three patients had nausea in the ward, respectively (p = 0.101. There was not significant difference in vomiting between two groups in the recovery and the ward (p = 0.106 and p = 0.112, respectively. No local reactions were recorded in either group. This study showed that subcutaneous administration of tramadol provided local anesthesia equal to lidocaine with longer pain-free period after operation.

  18. Analgesic effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on postoperative and neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Yun Tai

    2014-01-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil's Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. The whole procedure was performed on male SD rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) test measured by von Frey filaments. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USVs). The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with 300 mg/kg H. procumbens extract increased significantly; on the contrary, the number of 22-27 kHz USVs of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation. After 21 days of continuous treatment with H. procumbens extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity responses by MWT, compared with the control group. These results suggest that H. procumbens extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of acute postoperative pain and chronic neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:24441655

  19. Analgesic Effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil’s Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI rats. The whole procedure was performed on male SD rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT test measured by von Frey filaments. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USVs. The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with 300 mg/kg H. procumbens extract increased significantly; on the contrary, the number of 22–27 kHz USVs of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation. After 21 days of continuous treatment with H. procumbens extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity responses by MWT, compared with the control group. These results suggest that H. procumbens extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of acute postoperative pain and chronic neuropathic pain in rats.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in adult goats and its analgesic effect in disbudded kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvast-Larsson, C; Högberg, M; Mengistu, U; Olsén, L; Bondesson, U; Olsson, K

    2011-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effect of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam (0.5?mg/kg) in goats were investigated. In a randomized, cross-over design the pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated in adult goats (n?=?8) after single intravenous and oral administration. The analgesic effect was evaluated in kids using a randomized, placebo controlled and blinded protocol. Kids received meloxicam (n?=?6) once daily and their siblings (n?=?5) got isotonic NaCl intramuscularly while still anaesthetized after cautery disbudding and injections were repeated on three consecutive days. In the adult goats after intravenous administration the terminal half-life was 10.9?±?1.7?h, steady-state volume of distribution was 0.245?±?0.06?L/kg, and total body clearance was 17.9?±?4.3?mL/h/kg. After oral administration bioavailability was 79?±?19%, C(max) was 736?±?184?ng/mL, T(max) was 15?±5?h, although the terminal half-life was similar to the intravenous value, 11.8?±?1.7?h. Signs of pain using a visual analogue scale were smaller in kids treated with meloxicam compared with kids treated with placebo on the first day after disbudding, but subsequently no difference in pain was noticeable. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations did not differ between the two groups. PMID:21219346

  1. Locally mediated analgesic effect of bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 during acute inflammatory pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaiben; Pulickal, Sachin Jose; Singh, Anurag; Gautam, Mayank; Prasoon, Pranav; Kumar, Rahul; Ray, Subrata Basu

    2014-01-01

    Opioids like morphine form the mainstay of treatment for moderate to severe burn pain. However, lack of dedicated burn care service and potentially serious side effects of opioids often compromise effective treatment. Newer drugs as well as newer routes of administration of analgesic drugs are long-felt needs in the management of burn pain. Bradykinin is a potent inflammatory mediator present at sites of tissue damage. The present study investigated the analgesic effect of bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 after direct intrawound administration in rats. Also, whether the analgesic effect was locally mediated was further evaluated. Tissue damage was produced by a surgical incision involving skin, fascia, and muscle. It has been reported that there are minor differences in inflammatory mediators underlying incision-related and burn injury-related pain. HOE 140 (1, 3, or 10 ?g/10 ?l physiological saline) was administered into the wound by a sterile micropipette. After an interval of 30 seconds, the wound was closed. HOE 140-induced analgesic effect was compared to other experimental groups of rats which did not receive any drug or those which were treated with either saline (vehicle) or water. Postincisional pain was determined by monitoring behavior, allodynia, and thermal hyperalgesia. Analgesic effect was also determined after drug administration in contralateral paw. HOE 140 (1, 3, 10 ?g) significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and guarding in comparison with vehicle-treated group. The analgesic effect of HOE 140 was locally mediated. Healing of the wound was normal. In conclusion, the results suggest that bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonists such as HOE 140 could be useful in the treatment of acute inflammatory pain. PMID:24451303

  2. Evaluation of analgesic effect of tapentadol, a central novel analgesic versus tramadol, a widely used opioid analgesic in treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Anwar Zaman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to compare efficacy and tolerability (safety of tapentadol with tramadol in the treatment of low back pain. Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized, single blinded, total 102 patients are recruited for study in which 44 patients are prescribed (50mgtwice daily tapentadol and 58 patients prescribed (50mg twice daily tramadol for 4 weeks. Follow-up was done on days 7, 14, 28 and 4 week after stoppage of treatment. Assessment of improvement were performed by Indian Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (Indian HAQDI, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and measurement of Pain Relief Rate (PRR. Adverse events were recorded. Results: Scores in Indian HAQDI, VAS and NRS improved significantly in both groups in the last visit but more so with tapentadol. PRR was reasonably higher with tapentadol [27(n=4461.36%] patients experiencing significant to complete pain relief at the end of the study, compared to tramadol [25(n=58 43.10%]. Adverse effects was less in tapentadol group [15(n=4434.09%] versus 33(n=5856.89%], p<0.05]. Conclusion: Tapentadol has better sustained efficacy and tolerability than tramadol in low back pain. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 392-396

  3. Anticonvulsant, Analgesic and Hypothermic Effects of Aridanin Isolated from Tetrapleura tetrapetra Fruit in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Aderibigbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aridanin (an N-acetylglycoside of oleanolic acid isolated from Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit was investigated for anticonvulsant, analgesic and hypothermic activities in mice. Aridanin at doses of 15 and 30 mg kg-1 by intraperitoneal administration was shown to protect animals in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure but not in strychnine and picrotoxin induced convulsions. The same dose of aridanin equally decreased rectal temperature and acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. The hypothermic action of aridanin was reversed by pretreatment with cyproheptadine (0.1 mg kg-1, atropine (2 mg kg-1, naltrexone (0.25 mg kg-1, but not with haloperidol (0.1 mg kg-1. The effect on acetic acid-induced writhes was completely blocked by naltrexone, but not by atropine, cyproheptadine and haloperidol. The results suggest that aridanin could be acting as a Central Nervous System (CNS depressant and that its anticonvulsant property is mediated through the membrane stabilizing property and not through GABA and glycine neurotransmitters respectively. Analgesic and hypothermic actions were mediated through opioids and cholinergic, 5-HT receptors, respectively.

  4. LABORATORY MODELS FOR SCREENING ANALGESICS

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    Parle Milind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a complex unpleasant phenomenon composed of sensory experiences that include time, space, intensity, emotion, cognition and motivation. Analgesics are the agents, which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS or by peripheral pain mechanisms without significantly altering consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical and technical problems. Philosophically, there is a problem that pain cannot be monitored directly in animals but can only be measured by examining their responses to nociceptive stimuli. The observed reactions are almost always motor responses ranging from spinal reflexes to complex behavior. The animal models employed for screening of analgesic agents, include Pain-state models based on the use of thermal stimuli, mechanical stimuli, electrical stimuli and chemical stimuli. The neuronal basis of most of the above laboratory models is poorly understood, however their application is profitable in predicting analgesic activity of newly discovered substances.

  5. [Co-analgesics--today and tomorrow--a receptor-based overview of therapeutical options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörner, Jakobea; Rukwied, Roman; Konrad, Christoph

    2009-11-01

    The sensation of pain arises through stimulation of peripheral nociceptors and is transmitted centrally involving several receptors and ion channels. In addition many endogenous physiologic pain-modulating mechanisms exist. Besides of classical analgesics, numerous other drugs showed analgesic properties based on diverse modes of actions along the pain pathway. These co-analgesics, administered in combination with classical drugs, are able to reduce painful states of different origin. We describe the peripheral action sites of co-analgesics, such as cannabinoids, capsaicin, bisphosphonates, steroids and somatostatin. We also summarise the effect of peripherally and centrally acting ion-channel blockers, e.g. local anaesthetics, carbamazepine and tolperisone working on sodium channels and gabapentin and pregabalin working on calcium channels. Finally, central analgesic mechanisms are discussed, for instance the inhibition of NMDA-receptors by ketamine or magnesium, the stimulation of alpha2-receptors by clonidine, tizanidine or antidepressants, the activation of GABA-receptors through baclofen and other analgesic mechanisms of i.e. ondansetron and neostigmine. PMID:19918705

  6. PK20, a new opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide that exhibits central and peripheral antinociceptive effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda Yuko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical treatment of various types of pain relies upon the use of opioid analgesics. However most of them produce, in addition to the analgesic effect, several side effects such as the development of dependence and addiction as well as sedation, dysphoria, and constipation. One solution to these problems are chimeric compounds in which the opioid pharmacophore is hybridized with another type of compound to incease antinociceptive effects. Neurotensin-induced antinociception is not mediated through the opioid system. Therefore, hybridizing neurotensin with opioid elements may result in a potent synergistic antinociceptor. Results Using the known structure-activity relationships of neurotensin we have synthesized a new chimeric opioid-neurotensin compound PK20 which is characterized by a very strong antinociceptive potency. The observation that the opioid antagonist naltrexone did not completely reverse the antinociceptive effect, indicates the partial involvement of the nonopioid component in PK20 in the produced analgesia. Conclusions The opioid-neurotensin hybrid analogue PK20, in which opioid and neurotensin pharmacophores overlap partially, expresses high antinociceptive tail-flick effects after central as well as peripheral applications.

  7. Noninterventional study of transdermal fentanyl (fentavera) matrix patches in chronic pain patients: analgesic and quality of life effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl is considered to be an effective, transdermal treatment of chronic, cancer, and noncancer pain. This noninterventional, clinical practice-based study, on 426 patients attending 42 practices, assessed a proprietary, Aloe vera-containing, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch (Fentavera), for its analgesic effects, patients' quality of life (QoL) effects, tolerability, and adhesiveness. Study outcomes were mean changes from baseline of patient (11-point scales) and physician (5-point scales) ratings. After 1 and 2 months treatment, there were significant (P 30% at 2 months (response = 2-point decrease on 11-point rating scale). In a large majority of patients, the physicians rated the matrix patch as good or very good for analgesic effect, systemic and local tolerance, and adhesiveness. There were 30 adverse events in 4.2% of patients and analgesic comedications were reduced during treatment compared to before treatment. It is concluded, from this population-based data, that the proprietary, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch is effective and safe for chronic pain management in clinical practice, with significant positive analgesic and QoL effects, while being well tolerated and exhibiting good or very good adhesiveness. PMID:25861472

  8. The unsolved case of “bone-impairing analgesics”: the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coluzzi F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flaminia Coluzzi,1,2 Joseph Pergolizzi,3,4 Robert B Raffa,5 Consalvo Mattia1,2 1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Unit of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine – Polo Pontino, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy; 2SIAARTI Study Group on Acute and Chronic Pain, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 4Naples Anesthesia and Pain Associates, Naples, FL, 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1 the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2 reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3 chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine. Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ?100 mg morphine daily should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. Keywords: opioids side effects, bone metabolism, fractures, OPIAD, endocrine system, chronic pain

  9. Assessing the Analgesic Effects of Sucrose to Cold Pressor Pain in Human Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Holder

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies report that the ingestion of highly concentrated sweet solutions produces a morphine-like analgesia in rats, human infants, and in adult males. To determine whether sweet-induced analgesia occurs with more commonly consumed substances, 30 adult males (Mage = 22.4 years were exposed to a cold pressor test and pain responsivity was assessed both before and after consuming either an 8% sucrose solution, water, or nothing. Between-groups comparisons revealed that relative to the Sucrose or Nothing groups, the Water group showed increased pain tolerance. Neither pain thresholds nor ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness on a visual analogue scale differed among groups. The results support previous findings in both humans and animals that the palatability or hedonic value of food or drink may be the key predictor of its analgesic effect.

  10. Sedative and analgesic effects of intravenous xylazine and tramadol on horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Pil; Son, Won-Gyun; Gang, Sujin; Lee, Inhyung

    2011-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine (X) and tramadol (T) intravenously (IV) administered to horses. Six thoroughbred saddle horses each received X (1.0 mg/kg), T (2.0 mg/kg), and a combination of XT (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively) IV. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), indirect arterial pressure (IAP), capillary refill time (CRT), sedation, and analgesia (using electrical stimulation and pinprick) were measured before and after drug administration. HR and RR significantly decreased from basal values with X and XT treatments, and significantly increased with T treatment (p horses in the XT treatment group displayed excited transient behavior within 5 min of drug administration. The results suggest that the XT combination is useful for sedation and analgesia in horses. However, careful monitoring for excited behavior shortly after administration is recommended. PMID:21897102

  11. The effects of a new opioid analgesic, meptazinol, on the respiration of the conscious rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlrick, I S; Shepperson, N B

    1985-05-01

    In the conscious rat arterial PCO2 was measured as an index of respiratory status. The opioid analgesic meptazinol (7.5 - 30 mg kg-1) evoked small but significant increases in arterial PCO2 which were attenuated by naloxone. Meptazinol significantly reduced the increase in arterial PCO2 evoked by morphine. The respiratory depression induced by meptazinol, but not that induced by morphine, was enhanced by pretreatment with atropine. The (+)-enantiomer, but not the (-)-enantiomer of meptazinol increased arterial PCO2. In contrast, only the (-)-enantiomer reduced the respiratory depressant effect of morphine. It is proposed that the degree of respiratory depression induced by meptazinol is limited by its opioid antagonist and cholinomimetic properties. PMID:3928006

  12. Comparative analysis of preemptive analgesic effect of dexamethasone and diclofenac following third molar surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Leonardo, Simone; Waldyr Antonio, Jorge; Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini, Horliana; Talita Girio, Canaval; Isabel Peixoto, Tortamano.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the analgesic effectiveness of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium administered preemptively after surgical removal of third molars. Forty-four ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I patients (19 men, 35 women; 16–28 years old) randomly and double-bli [...] ndly received diclofenac sodium (50?mg) or dexamethasone (8?mg) or placebo 1?h before surgery. Intensity of pain, measured with a visual analog scale (VAS), was the variable studied at different postoperative times (1?h, 2?h, 3?h, 6?h, 8?h, 12?h, 48?h, 4?d and 7?d). The total amount of rescue medication (TARM) ingested (paracetamol) was another variable of the study. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test was used. A p value of

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Leaf Extracts of Hibiscus Populnea Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hareeshbabu E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus populnea or Indian Tulip Tree or Pacific Rosewood, has been traditionally used for thetreatment of many diseases including inflammatory conditions. A number of chemical constituentsnamely, thespesin, gossypol, DL-gossypol, populnin, populneol, glycosides of quercetin, epoxylic acid,rutin, kaemferol-3-flucoside, lupenone, mansonone, myricyl alcohol, lipids and ? sitosterol have beenisolated from the plant. Many of these compounds are proved to have the claimed activities. But nowork has been specifically carried out to establish the anti inflammatory effects of the ripe and olderleaves. Hence in the present study an attempt was made, with the leaves, for the phytochemicalscreening of the methanol, pet. ether and aqueous extracts along with their anti-inflammatory andanalgesic potential also. In order to study the anti-inflammatory effects, dextran-induced paw edemamethod and carrageenan - induced paw edema methods were used. Similarly analgesic activity wastested using acetic acid writhing. Anti arthritic study was also tried. Regarding carrageenan- inducedpaw edema, the level of activity of the petroleum ether extract was less than that of the reference drugand the methanolic extract exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity. But the activity of the aqueousextract was more than that of Indomethacin. From the results of the experimentally induced arthriticstudy it was seen that the activity of the petroleum ether extract was quite stable throughout the period ofassay where as the methanolic extract was proved to be more active against the chronic phase thanagainst the acute phase. The aqueous extract was seen to be a very potent anti inflammatory agentagainst both phases of the inflammatory process with more or less the same activity as that ofindomethacin, the reference standard. The analgesic activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts werefound to be very significant (P < 0.001.

  14. The analgesic effect of pregabalin in chronic pain patients is reflected by changes in pharmaco-EEG spectral indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Carina; Olesen, SØren S

    2012-01-01

    What this paper adds What is already known about this subject • Pregabalin is an anticonvulsive agent prescribed as a secondary analgesic for patients when standard pain treatment is insufficient. • The analgesic effect resides to the central nervous system. • The central analgesic effect can be evaluated by electroencephalographic. What this study adds • The analgesic effect of pregabalin is reflected as a slowing of brain oscillations. • The slowing of brain oscillations for each individual patient is correlated to subjective pain scores. • The developed methodology may be used as a mechanistic approach to monitor the analgesic effect of pregabalin in pharmacological studies. SUMMARY: Aim: To identify electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarkers for the analgesic effect of pregabalin in patients with chronic visceral pain. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in thirty-one patients suffering from visceral pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Patients received increasing doses of pregabalin (75mg-300mg twice a day) or matching placebo during 3 weeks of treatment. Pain scores were documented in a diary based on the visual analogue scale. In addition, brief pain inventory-short form (BPI) and quality of life questionnaires were collected prior to and after the study period. Multi-channel resting EEG was recorded before treatment onset and at the end of the study. Changes in EEG spectral indices were extracted, and individual changes were classified by a support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate the pregabalin and placebo responses. Changes in individual spectral indices and pain scores were correlated. Results: Pregabalin increased normalized intensity in low spectral indices, most prominent in the theta band (3.5-7.5Hz), difference of -3.18, 95%CI -3.57, -2.80; P = 0.03. No changes in spectral indices were seen for placebo. The maximum difference between pregabalin and placebo treated patients were seen in the parietal region, with a classification accuracy of 85.7% (P = 0.009). Individual changes in EEG indices were correlated to changes in pain diary (P = 0.04) and BPI pain composite scores (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Changes in spectral indices caused by slowing of brain oscillations were identified as a biomarker for the central analgesic effect of pregabalin. The developed methodology may provide perspectives to assess individual responses to treatment in personalized medicine.

  15. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunostimulatory effects of Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) bark

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roseane Leandra da, Rosa; Geisson Marcos, Nardi; Adriana Graziele de Farias, Januário; Renata, Boçois; Katiane Paula, Bagatini; Sandro José Ribeiro, Bonatto; Andrea de Oliveira, Pinto; João Ronaldo Notargiacomo, Ferreira; Luisa Nathália Bolda, Mariano; Rivaldo, Niero; Fabíola, Iagher.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae) é utilizada para o tratamento de várias condições patológicas, entretanto, há poucos relatos sobre sua bioatividade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito anti-inflamatório e analgésico, bem como a atividade de macrófagos em camundongos tratados com extrato brut [...] o hidroalcoólico (CLD) da planta. Cromatografia em camada delgada revelou a presença de epicatequina, estigmasterol, lupeol e ?,?-amirina no material. Para avaliar a atividade anti-inflamatória e analgésica, animais foram submetidos a teste de edema de pata induzido por carragenana, teste de contorções, da formalina e da capsaicina. A atividade imunomodulatória foi avaliada pela capacidade de adesão e de fagocitose dos macrófagos, volume lisossômico e produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS), após tratamento diário com CLD por 15 dias. CLD promoveu redução do edema de pata (36,8% e 50,2%; 100 e 300 mg/kg, respectivamente; p Abstract in english Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae) is a plant widely used for treatment of various inflammatory and infectious conditions; however few reports discuss its biological properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects as well as the macrophage activity in mice t [...] reated with the hydroalcoholic crude extract of L. divaricata (CLD). Thin layer chromatography revealed presence of epicathequin, stigmasterol, lupeol and ?,?-amyrin in the extract. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, animals were subjected to paw edema induced by carrageenan test, writhing, formalin and capsaicin tests. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by adhesion and phagocytic capacity, lysosomal volume, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by peritoneal macrophages, after daily treatment with CLD for 15 days. CLD promoted reduction in paw edema (36.8% and 50.2%; p

  16. Bystander effect in ?-irradiated peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Radiation-induced bystander effects (ByEff) are still being actively researched since there are more questions than answers related to this phenomenon. There are two main approaches in studying bystander effects: transferring medium from irradiated cells to unirradiated cells and the second is by irradiation of a single cell by a microbeam. The aim of the present study is to investigate and characterize the 'bystander' effect after ?-irradiation of peripheral blood from healthy donors at molecular level. Methods: Three groups of samples: 1) ?-irradiated peripheral blood, 2) non-irradiated blood incubated with plasma from irradiated blood, and 3) additionally irradiated aliquots of the second group, were studied. The Comet Assay and UDS were performed for DNA-damage and repair analysis and lipid peroxidation assay for ROS production. Alamar Blue Microplate assay for cell viability evaluation in the presence of signal transduction pathways inhibitors, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) after rhodamine 123 accumulation, and Ca-flux measurements with Fluo 3/Fura Red were performed additionally. In these experiments immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used as a reporter cell line. Results: It was established that ByEffs contribute to radiation injury in the case of ?-irradiated whole blood. Significantly higher levels of DNA damage corresponding to decreases in DNA repair capacity were recorded. At a certainir capacity were recorded. At a certain radiation dose DSB levels were higher than SSB levels in the second and third sample groups. Involvement of ByEffs was detected only for the JNK signal transduction pathway. In all cases there was a decrease in MMP and a slight but not significant increase in Fluo3/FuraRed ratio in individual cells treated with irradiated plasma. Conclusion: Incubation with plasma from irradiated blood transforms sub-lethal damage in unirradiated cells into lethal damage and exerts a suppressive effect on DNA repair capacity to additional irradiation. Bystander signals produced by irradiated cells can induce an adaptive response in irradiated cells to a subsequent exposure to bystander signals. Probably, there is involvement of the MAPK signal transduction pathway in the radio-adaptive effects. ROS did not appear to be involved in bystander effects in low dose pre-treated reporter cells but rather take part in sensitizing the bystander cells to additional irradiation. The large individual differences and heterogeneity of bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses at present.

  17. Tapentadol hydrochloride: A novel analgesic

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Dewan Roshan; Nag, Kusha; Shetti, Akshaya N.; Krishnaveni, N.

    2013-01-01

    Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with dual mechanism of action, combining mu-opioid receptor agonism with noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the same molecule. It has an improved side effect profile when compared to opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual mechanism of action makes Tapentadol a useful analgesic to treat acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain.

  18. Translational pain research: Evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Estrup Olesen, Trine Andresen

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can be achieved through standardized experimental human pain models. Experimental pain models in healthy volunteers are advantageous for evaluation of analgesic action, as this is often difficult to asses...

  19. Participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of fentanyl in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.R.A., Rodrigues; M.S.A., Castro; J.N., Francischi; A.C., Perez; I.D.G., Duarte.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of several K+ channel blockers such as glibenclamide, tolbutamide, charybdotoxin (ChTX), apamin, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and cesium on the ability of fentanyl, a clinically used selective µ-opioid receptor agonist, to promote peripheral antin [...] ociception. Antinociception was measured by the paw pressure test in male Wistar rats weighing 180-250 g (N = 5 animals per group). Carrageenan (250 µg/paw) decreased the threshold of responsiveness to noxious pressure (delta = 188.1 ± 5.3 g). This mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced by fentanyl (0.5, 1.5 and 3 µg/paw) in a peripherally mediated and dose-dependent fashion (17.3, 45.3 and 62.6%, respectively). The selective blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels glibenclamide (40, 80 and 160 µg/paw) and tolbutamide (80, 160 and 240 µg/paw) dose dependently antagonized the antinociception induced by fentanyl (1.5 µg/paw). In contrast, the effect of fentanyl was unaffected by the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker ChTX (2 µg/paw), the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker apamin (10 µg/paw), or the non-specific K+ channel blocker TEA (150 µg/paw), 4-AP (50 µg/paw), and cesium (250 µg/paw). These results extend previously reported data on the peripheral analgesic effect of morphine and fentanyl, suggesting for the first time that the peripheral µ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive effect of fentanyl depends on activation of ATP-sensitive, but not other, K+ channels.

  20. Antiallodynic and analgesic effects of maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Francisco R; Cobos, Enrique J; Entrena, José M; Parra, Andrés; García-Granados, Andrés; Baeyens, José M

    2013-04-26

    The effects of maslinic acid (1), a pentacyclic triterpenoid obtained from Olea europaea, were studied in several tests for nociception in mice. Systemic administration of 1 reduced acetic acid-induced writhing, the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced pain, and capsaicin-induced mechanical allodynia. However, it did not induce motor incoordination in the rotarod test. The topical administration of 1 also reduced the inflammatory phase of the formalin test, indicating that at least some of its effects are mediated peripherally. The present results demonstrate for the first time that maslinic acid induces antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects. PMID:23540838

  1. [Action of red polarized light on the acupuncture point E-36 increases analgesic effect of corvitin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarova, Z A; Lymans'ky?, Iu P; Kostiuk, O I; Mitruzaeva, V A; Lymans'ka, L I

    2010-01-01

    In experiments on mice of lines C57BL/6J and CBA/CaLac, the possibility of strengthening of analgesic effect of corvitin by the action of red polarized light (PL) on the acupoint (AP) E-36 was studied. The pain behavioral response (licking of the painful area) was caused by injection of 5% formalin in hind limb (0.25 microl subcutaneously). The duration of pain response was studied before and after systemic introduction of corvitin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or joint use of corvitin and red PL (10 minute session). It is established, that after application of red PL on the antinociceptive AP E-36 in all animals an authentic strengthening of antinociceptive effect of corvitin takes place. In C57BL/6J mice, application of corvitin alone weakened the pain response by 29.7% and during combined use of red PL and corvitin, it grew up to 53.1%. Mice of line CBA/CaLac were less sensitive both to corvitin, and PL. In this line, corvitin used alone reduced the duration of pain response by 14%, and by 32.4% during combined use with red PL. Non-traumatic, without side effects, the method of influence by low-intensive PL can be recommended to patients accepting corvitin for strengthening its efficiency. PMID:21469317

  2. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of subcutaneous bupivacaine, morphine and tramadol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerçek, Arzu; Eti, Zeynep; Gö?ü?, F Yilmaz; Sav, Aydin

    2004-07-01

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of subcutaneously administered bupivacaine, morphine and tramadol on formalin-induced inflammation were compared. 0.25 % bupivacaine in Group B, 20 mg/kg tramadol in Group T, 1 mg/kg morphine in Group M and 0.9 % NaCl in Group S in a volume of 200 micro l were injected into the right hind paw of the rats (n: 40) 15 minutes before injection of 50 micro l 5 % formalin. Sedation and pain behaviour scores, number of flinches and licking-time were recorded. The degree of dermal edema, intraneural edema, vasodilation, erythrodiapedesis, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocyte/lymphocyte and mast cell counts were analyzed histopathologically. In Group T and B, circumferential changes were lower than in Group M and S. The pain behaviour scores were significantly lower in Group T and B. The number of flinches in Group T was lower than Group B and S. The vasodilation was significant only in Group M. The dermal edema was limited to deep dermis only in Group T. Preinflammational subcutaneous tramadol infiltration can provide effective analgesia and may have anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:15382006

  3. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozialeck, Walter C; Jivan, Jateen K; Andurkar, Shridhar V

    2012-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed. PMID:23212430

  4. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

    2007-01-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  5. Effect of Celecoxib on the Peripheral NO Production

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Hassanzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Objective(s)Celecoxib acts through both COX-2-dependent and -independent pathways. According to the paradoxical effect of NO on the inflammatory and nociceptive signal processing, the present study designed to evaluate the probable contribution of NO in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of celecoxib. Materials and MethodsDifferent intensities of inflammatory pain were induced by acute and chronic sc administration of 1%, 2.5%, or 5% formalin and spectrophotometrical analysis of t...

  6. Differential proteomics analysis of the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture intervention in the hippocampus following neuropathic pain in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yong-Hui; Chen Shu-Ping; Wang Jun-Ying; Qiao Li-Na; Meng Fan-Ying; Xu Qiu-Ling; Liu Jun-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence is building steadily on the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy in pain relief and repeated acupuncture-induced pain relief is accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neural synaptic plasticity. To further test the cellular and molecular changes underlying analgesic effect of acupuncture, the global change of acupuncture associated protein profiles in the hippocampus under neuropathic pain condition was profiled. Methods The chronic constrictive injury (CCI) mo...

  7. Peripheral nerve extract effects on mesenchymal cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, F. R.; Mukhopadhyay, B; Becker, G.; Daniels, K; Solursh, M

    1996-01-01

    Several common congenital limb disorders are characterized by normal tissue differentiation but abnormal somatic growth. These include: idiopathic clubfoot, idiopathic leg length discrepancy, hemi-atrophy and hemi-hypertrophy. Both clinical and research studies have suggested that peripheral nerves may be important in regulating somatic growth of limb tissues. To investigate the hypothesis that peripheral nerves convey trophic substances to mesenchymal tissues that are involved in the regulat...

  8. Relationship between serotonin transporter occupancies and analgesic effects of AS1069562, the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, and duloxetine in reserpine-induced myalgia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, N; Fushiki, H; Honda, S; Murakami, Y; Iwashita, A; Irie, M; Tamura, S; Nagakura, Y; Aoki, T

    2015-03-19

    Serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) have been implicated in the mediation of endogenous analgesic mechanisms via the descending inhibitory pain pathway in the brain, and dysfunction in both the 5-HT and NE systems has been suggested as an etiology of fibromyalgia (FM). Given that 5-HT reuptake inhibition in the brain appears to be associated with pain reduction, this mechanism might exert an analgesic effect also on pain associated with FM. In this case, it would be of interest to investigate the correlation of 5-HT transporter (SERT) occupancy with in vivo analgesic effect on pain associated with FM. Here, we investigated the relationship between SERT occupancies and the analgesic effects of AS1069562, the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, and duloxetine, which are both 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), on muscular pain in reserpine-induced myalgia (RIM) rats, an animal model of FM-like chronic pain. We also investigated the SERT occupancy level necessary for AS1069562 and duloxetine to exert analgesic effects on muscular pain. AS1069562 and duloxetine attenuated muscular hyperalgesia in RIM rats, representing the first findings to be reported regarding the analgesic effect of AS1069562 on pain associated with FM. SERT occupancy levels of AS1069562 and duloxetine increased in both dose- and plasma and brain concentration-dependent manners. SERT occupancy levels of AS1069562 and duloxetine were significantly correlated with efficacy on muscular pain thresholds in RIM rats. This finding concerning the precise correlation of SERT occupancy with in vivo analgesic effect on pain associated with FM is reported here for the first time. SERT occupancy level above 70% was necessary for AS1069562 and duloxetine to exert significant analgesic effects on muscular pain. These results suggest that SERT occupancy level is useful in determining appropriate analgesic doses of AS1069562 and duloxetine for treating pain symptoms in FM patients. PMID:25595980

  9. Efecto del zumo de Morinda citrifolia L. (noni en modelos de analgesia Effect of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni in analgesic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sánchez Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Morinda citrifolia L. (noni ha despertado gran interés y expectativa dentro de la población cubana debido a las propiedades medicinales que se le atribuyen. Investigaciones realizadas evidencian las propiedades analgésicas de algunas de sus partes. Objetivos: evaluar el efecto del zumo de noni en diferentes modelos de analgesia. Métodos: se utilizaron dosis (450, 900 y 1 800 mg/kg del zumo de noni, a partir de contenido en peso seco; se administró por vía intraperitoneal a ratones OF1 en el modelo de irritación peritoneal por ácido acético 0,6 % y se cuantificó el número de contorsiones o estiramientos. Además, se utilizó el modelo del plato caliente y el de la retirada de la cola. Resultados: el zumo de noni fue efectivo de manera dependiente de la dosis en reducir el número de contorsiones inducidas por el ácido acético. En los modelos del plato caliente y de retirada de la cola, solo la dosis más alta prolongó de manera estadísticamente significativa el tiempo de reacción. Conclusiones: los resultados sugieren que el efecto analgésico de noni es fundamentalmente de mecanismo periférico.Introduction: Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has aroused great interest and expectations in the Cuban population due to attributed medicinal properties. Several research works have suggested the analgesic effect of several parts of the plant. Objectives: to evaluate the effect of Noni juice in different analgesic models. Methods: there were used 450, 900, and 1 800 mg/kg doses of the juice, based on the dry content weight. They were administered intraperitonealy to adult male mice OF1 in the peritoneal irritation model induced by acetic acid at 0.6 % concentration, and the number of contorsions or stretchings was quantified. Additionally, the hot plate and the tail immersed in hot water models were applied. Results: the noni juice was effective in reducing the number of contortions induced by the acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. Just the highest dose of the juice increased significantly the time of reaction in the hot plate and in the tail immersion test. Conclusions: these results suggest that the analgesic effect of Noni juice is basically peripheral.

  10. Efecto del zumo de Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) en modelos de analgesia / Effect of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) in analgesic models

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nora, Sánchez Rodríguez; Margarita, Bu Wong; Héctor, Pérez-Saad; Gloria, Lara Fernández; Isidoro, Scull.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) ha despertado gran interés y expectativa dentro de la población cubana debido a las propiedades medicinales que se le atribuyen. Investigaciones realizadas evidencian las propiedades analgésicas de algunas de sus partes. Objetivos: evaluar el efecto del zum [...] o de noni en diferentes modelos de analgesia. Métodos: se utilizaron dosis (450, 900 y 1 800 mg/kg) del zumo de noni, a partir de contenido en peso seco; se administró por vía intraperitoneal a ratones OF1 en el modelo de irritación peritoneal por ácido acético 0,6 % y se cuantificó el número de contorsiones o estiramientos. Además, se utilizó el modelo del plato caliente y el de la retirada de la cola. Resultados: el zumo de noni fue efectivo de manera dependiente de la dosis en reducir el número de contorsiones inducidas por el ácido acético. En los modelos del plato caliente y de retirada de la cola, solo la dosis más alta prolongó de manera estadísticamente significativa el tiempo de reacción. Conclusiones: los resultados sugieren que el efecto analgésico de noni es fundamentalmente de mecanismo periférico. Abstract in english Introduction: Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) has aroused great interest and expectations in the Cuban population due to attributed medicinal properties. Several research works have suggested the analgesic effect of several parts of the plant. Objectives: to evaluate the effect of Noni juice in differe [...] nt analgesic models. Methods: there were used 450, 900, and 1 800 mg/kg doses of the juice, based on the dry content weight. They were administered intraperitonealy to adult male mice OF1 in the peritoneal irritation model induced by acetic acid at 0.6 % concentration, and the number of contorsions or stretchings was quantified. Additionally, the hot plate and the tail immersed in hot water models were applied. Results: the noni juice was effective in reducing the number of contortions induced by the acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. Just the highest dose of the juice increased significantly the time of reaction in the hot plate and in the tail immersion test. Conclusions: these results suggest that the analgesic effect of Noni juice is basically peripheral.

  11. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial on analgesic effect of nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GrØnbæk, Anni Birgitte; Svensson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sedative effect of nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2 O/O2 ) inhalation is relatively well established. Less in known about its analgesic effect. AIM: To determine the analgesic effect of N2 O/O2 inhalation on pulp sensitivity and jaw muscle pressure pain threshold in children. DESIGN: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial with random allocation to two sequences: atmospheric air at the first session and N2 O/O2 at the second; or N2 O/O2 at the first session and atmospheric air at the second. Measurements included reaction time, pulp pain sensitivity, jaw muscle pressure pain thresholds and a VAS score of overall discomfort from the pain tests. RESULTS: Fifty-six children (12-15 years) completed the study. N2 O/O2 inhalation increased reaction time (P 

  12. Suppressive effect of electromagnetic field on analgesic activity of tramadol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodera, P; Stankiewicz, W; Antkowiak, B; Paluch, M; Kieliszek, J; Sobiech, J; Zdanowski, R; Wojdas, A; Siwicki, A K; Skopi?ska-Rózewska, E

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been shown to alter animal and human behavior, such as directional orientation, learning, pain perception (nociception or analgesia) and anxiety-related behaviors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of electromagnetic fields of high-frequency microwaves on pain perception and anti-nociceptive activity of tramadol (TRAM) - analgetic effective in the treatment of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain states. Electromagnetic fields exposures of a)1500 MHz frequency and b) modulated, 1800 MHz (which is identical to that generated by mobile phones) were applied. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to thermal stimulus was measured in vehicle or tramadol (TRAM) treated animals before and after 30, 60 and 90 minutes from injections. The differences in the level of pain (PWL) between control group and rats exposed to EMF alone in three measurements, were not observed. Tramadol alone significantly increased PWLs to thermal stimulus in comparison to vehicle results at 30 (p < 0.001) and 60 minutes (p < 0.05) after drug injection. EMF exposure of both frequencies transiently suppressed analgesic effect of tramadol, significantly reducing paw withdrawal latency in animals treated with this drug at 30 minutes from the drug injection. PMID:22708363

  13. Analgesic, Anxiolytic and Anaesthetic Effects of Melatonin: New Potential Uses in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Marseglia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous melatonin is used in a number of situations, first and foremost in the treatment of sleep disorders and jet leg. However, the hypnotic, antinociceptive, and anticonvulsant properties of melatonin endow this neurohormone with the profile of a drug that modulates effects of anesthetic agents, supporting its potential use at different stages during anesthetic procedures, in both adults and children. In light of these properties, melatonin has been administered to children undergoing diagnostic procedures requiring sedation or general anesthesia, such as magnetic resonance imaging, auditory brainstem response tests and electroencephalogram. Controversial data support the use of melatonin as anxiolytic and antinociceptive agents in pediatric patients undergoing surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate available evidence relating to efficacy and safety of melatonin as an analgesic and as a sedative agent in children. Melatonin and its analogs may have a role in antinociceptive therapies and as an alternative to midazolam in premedication of adults and children, although its effectiveness is still controversial and available data are clearly incomplete.

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effectiveness of sitagliptin and vildagliptin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Újhelyi, Judit; Újhelyi, Zoltán; Szalai, Andrea; László, János F; Cayasso, Mayella; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Pórszász, Róbert

    2014-11-01

    To validate the potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic role of sita- and vildagliptin, five different experimental models were used in mice: i) mustard oil-induced ear edema, ii) neutrophil accumulation, iii) mechanical and iv) thermal touch sensitivity in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis and v) capsaicin-induced plasma extravasation in the urinary bladder. For the complete examination period in i) the dose of 10mg sitagliptin as well as 1-10mg vildagliptin was found to significantly decrease ear edema as compared to positive control (pVildagliptin was similarly effective in test ii) (p<0.005, n=10/group) as sitagliptin, but it failed to affect mechanical touch sensitivity. Unlike mechanical touch sensitivity, both gliptins could beneficially act on the thermal threshold (p<0.05, n=10/group). And only in tests v) could both gliptins reverse inflammation. Further studies are needed to support the suggestion that the utilization of these beneficial effects of gliptins may be considered in the treatment of Type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:25229125

  15. Validación preclínica de actividad analgésica periférica y central de la decocción de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) y Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) / Preclinical validation of the peripheral and central analgesic activity of decoction of fresh leaves of Persea americana Mill. (avocado) and Musa x paradisiaca L. (banana)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Ibis, García Hernández; Marisol, López Barreiro; Zulema, Morejón Rodríguez; Elisa, Boucourt Rodríguez; María del Carmen, Victoria Amador; Ioanna, Martínez Hormaza; Lérida Lázara, Acosta de la Luz; Abel, Doménigo González; Gisselle, Brito Alvarez; Francisco J, Morón Rodríguez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) y Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano), son dos plantas medicinales que entre sus usos tradicionales reportados, se cita, el efecto beneficioso de la decocción de las hojas frescas de aguacate para la infección urinaria, tos, bronquitis y las de plátano par [...] a la gripe, tos e inflamación. Documentado por las encuestas TRAMIL. No se encontró información preclínica suficiente en las bases de datos: SciELO, CUMED, LIS CUBA y MEDLINE para validar sus usos. Objetivos: evaluar la actividad analgésica periférica y central preclínicas de la decocción al 30 % de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) y Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano). Métodos: se colectaron las hojas frescas de P. americana y M. paradisiaca y se realizaron las decocciones al 30 %. Se evaluó la actividad analgésica periférica mediante el modelo de contorsiones inducidas por ácido acético(writhing test), y la actividad analgésica central fue evaluada aplicando el modelo de retirada de la cola por inmersión en agua 55 ºC (tail flick) en ratones, con dosis de 1, 5, y 10 gramos de material vegetal/kg de peso corporal. Resultados: las decocciones de hojas frescas de P. americana y M. paradisiaca a las dosis estudiadas, inhibieron de forma significativa la respuesta dolorosa inducida por ácido acético con p=6,909e-08 y p=2,842e-03respectivamente. En la evaluación del tail flick, la decocción de hojas frescas de P. americana, tuvo una respuesta significativa no dosis dependiente a (5g/kg), con una p=7,018e-03; las otras dosis estudiadas y la decocción de M. paradisiaca no tuvieron respuesta significativa. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos permiten realizar la validación preclínica de la actividad analgésica periférica de la decocción de hojas frescas P. americana (aguacate) y M. paradisiaca (plátano), así como de la actividad analgésica central de P. americana, lo que avala su uso tradicional. Abstract in english Introduction: Persea americana Mill. (avocado) and Musa x paradisiaca L. (banana) are medicinal plants with traditional uses in folk medicine. Reports refer to the beneficial effects of a decoction of fresh leaves of avocado in the treatment of urinary infection, coughing and bronchitis. Decoction o [...] f banana fresh leaves is used to treat the flu, coughing and inflammation. This has been documented by TRAMIL surveys. The preclinical information found in the databases SciELO, CUMED, LIS CUBA and MEDLINE was not sufficient to validate the uses listed above. Objectives: evaluate the preclinical peripheral and central analgesic activity of a 30 % decoction of fresh leaves of Persea americana Mill. (avocado) and Musa x paradisiaca L. (banana). Methods: fresh leaves of P. americana and M. paradisiaca were collected and 30 % decoctions were prepared. Peripheral analgesic activity was evaluated with the acetic acid induced writhing model (writhing test), whereas central analgesic activity was assessed with the tail flick model in mice by immersion in 55 ºC water. The doses used were 1, 5 and 10 grams of plant material / kg of body weight. Results: decoctions of fresh leaves of P. americana and M. paradisiaca at the study doses significantly inhibited the painful response induced by acetic acid with p=6.909e-08 and p=2.842e-03, respectively. In the tail flick evaluation the decoction of fresh leaves of P. americana had a significant non-dose dependent response at 5g/kg with p=7.018e-03. A significant response was not obtained from the other doses studied or from the M. paradisiaca decoction. Conclusions: results permit the preclinical validation of the peripheral analgesic activity of the decoction of fresh leaves of P. americana (avocado) and M. paradisiaca (banana), as well as the central analgesic activity of P. americana, validating the traditional use of both plants.

  16. Altered frequency distribution in the electroencephalogram is correlated to the analgesic effect of remifentanil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graversen, Carina; Malver, Lasse P; Kurita, Geana P; Staahl, Camilla; Christrup, Lona L; Sjøgren, Per; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2015-05-01

    Opioids alter resting state brain oscillations by multiple and complex factors, which are still to be elucidated. To increase our knowledge, multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was subjected to multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to identify the most descriptive frequency bands and scalp locations altered by remifentanil in healthy volunteers. Sixty-two channels of resting EEG followed by independent measures of pain scores to heat and bone pain were recorded in 21 healthy males before and during remifentanil infusion in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. EEG frequency distributions were extracted by a continuous wavelet transform and normalized into delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Alterations relative to pre-treatment responses were calculated for all channels and used as input to the MVPA. Compared to placebo, remifentanil increased the delta band and decreased the theta and alpha band oscillations as a mean over all channels (all p ? 0.007). The most discriminative channels in these frequency bands were F1 in delta (83.33%, p = 0.0023) and theta bands (95.24%, p channel EEG was able to identify frequency bands and corresponding channels most sensitive to altered brain activity during remifentanil treatment. As the EEG alterations were correlated to the analgesic effect, the approach may prove to be a novel methodology for monitoring individual efficacy to opioids. PMID:25250670

  17. The analgesic effect of electrostimulation (WoundEL(®) ) in the treatment of leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Pauline; Toussaint, Pascal; Lembelembe, Jean-Paul; Célérier, Philippe; Maillard, Hervé

    2014-02-12

    This study aims to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy of electrostimulation (ES), a recognised treatment for leg ulcers. Patients treated by ES for leg ulcers between 2011 and 2013 were included in the study. The pain score obtained with the numerical rating scale (NRS) was reported before the start of the ES (D0), after 3?days (D3) and 1?week following treatment initialisation. The analgesic treatments (AT) were reported at each assessment. Seventy-three patients were included (mean age 75·19?years): 31 venous leg ulcers, 21 mixed venous leg ulcers, 2 arterial ulcers, 17 hypertensive ischaemic ulcers, 1 Hydrea®-induced ulcer and an amputation stump ulcer. The NRS at D0 was on average 5·3 (median?=?6) while it was 2·2 at D7 (median?=?2), that is P?analgesics on D0 and D7 (P?=?0·03). This study demonstrates the rapid analgesic efficacy of ES in leg ulcers, with a clear impact on the NRS score and especially on the decrease in analgesic consumption. PMID:24618089

  18. Effect of analgesic modality on outcome following open liver surgery: a systematic review of postoperative analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M; McNally, S; McKeown, D W; Wigmore, S

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative analgesia following liver resection remains controversial. The traditional standard of care of thoracic epidural is increasingly questioned due to perceived associated complications and delays to recovery. Evidence supporting alternative analgesic techniques is emerging however best practice is not yet established. This review aimed to evaluate the literature to assess the optimum analgesic technique following liver resection. A systematic review was conducted of trials evaluating analgesic methods in open liver surgery. Primary outcome was the postoperative complication rate. Secondary outcomes were length of stay and pain scores. Fourteen trials matching the inclusion criteria were analysed. No difference was observed in systemic complication rates between analgesic modalities. Epidural was associated with prolonged length of stay when compared with continuous wound infiltration and intrathecal morphine. Epidural offered equivalent or superior pain scores when compared to alternative techniques. In summary current evidence suggests alternative analgesic modalities may provide favorable recovery outcomes following liver surgery but consistent evidence is limited. Epidurals provide superior pain relief to alternatives but this does not translate into reduced length of stay or complication rate following liver surgery. PMID:24918191

  19. Individual Difference Variables and the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Analgesic Imagery Interventions on Cancer Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Wanta, Britt; Bumpus, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Clinicians in acute care settings are often called upon to manage cancer pain unrelieved by medications. Cognitive-behavioral strategies, such as relaxation and imagery, are recommended for cancer pain management; however, there appear to be individual differences in their effects. This pilot study examined variation in pain outcomes achieved with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and analgesic imagery interventions among hospitalized patients with cancer pain, and assessed the influence of...

  20. Comparing the analgesic effect of heat patch containing iron chip and ibuprofen for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Navvabi Rigi Shahindokht; kermansaravi Fatihe; Navidian Ali; Safabakhsh Leila; Safarzadeh Ameneh; Khazaian Somaye; Shafie Shahla; Salehian Tahmineh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a common and sometimes disabling condition. In recent years, some studies aimed to improve the treatment of dysmenorrhea, and therefore, introduced several therapeutic measures. This study was designed to compare the analgesic effect of iron chip containing heat wrap with ibuprofen for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods In this randomized (IRCT201107187038N2) controlled trial, 147 students (18–30?years old) with the diagnosis of prim...

  1. Analgesic effects of electroacupuncture combined with Celebrex on rats with tibial cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-liang MAO-YING

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a proper experimental model of bone cancer pain in rat for acupuncture research, and observe the pain-relieving effect of electroacupuncture (EA and/or Celebrex on bone cancer pain in rats.Methods: The rat model of bone cancer pain was established by percutaneous direct puncture technique and inoculating the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells Walker 256 into tibial medullary cavity directly, and evaluated by detecting the bone tumor growth and mechanical allodynia. The effects of daily EA treatment and/or Celebrex treatment on the rat mechanical allodynia after intratibial Walker 256 inoculation was observed in this study.Results: Significant mechanical allodynia in ipsilateral hind paw and tumor growth in proximal end of tibial bone of rats in the untreated group were observed after intratibial Walker 256 inoculation. The mechanical allodynia thresholds in rats that received EA or 5 mg/(kg·d Celebrex treatment showed no significant difference as compared with that of rats in the untreated group. However, the mechanical allodynia thresholds of rats in 10 mg/(kg·d Celebrex group showed significant increase after 22- and 26-day treatment as compared with that in the methyl cellulose (MC group. There was significant difference between rats with EA combined with 5 mg/(kg·d Celebrex treatment and rats in the untreated group after 10-, 18- and 23-day treatment.Conclusion: EA and 5 mg/(kg·d Celebrex have synergistic effect on pain relieving and their combined use may enhance the analgesic effect on bone cancer pain.

  2. Synthesis and Analgesic Effects of ?-TRTX-Hhn1b on Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ?-TRTX-Hhn1b (HNTX-IV is a 35-amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of the spider, Ornithoctonus hainana. It inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, which has been considered as a therapeutic target for pain. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the analgesic effects of synthetic ?-TRTX-Hhn1b on animal models of pain. The peptide was first synthesized and then successfully refolded/oxidized. The synthetic peptide had the same inhibitory effect on human Nav1.7 current transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells as the native toxin. Furthermore, the analgesic potentials of the synthetic peptide were examined on models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. ?-TRTX-Hhn1b produced an efficient reversal of acute nociceptive pain in the abdominal constriction model, and significantly reduced the pain scores over the 40-min period in the formalin model. The efficiency of ?-TRTX-Hhn1b on both models was equivalent to that of morphine. In the spinal nerve model, the reversal effect of ?-TRTX-Hhn1b on allodynia was longer and higher than mexiletine. These results demonstrated that ?-TRTX-Hhn1b efficiently alleviated acute inflammatory pain and chronic neuropathic pain in animals and provided an attractive template for further clinical analgesic drug design.

  3. Comparing Analgesic Effects of a Topical Herbal Mixed Medicine with Salicylate in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

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    Mohammad Reza Vafaeenasab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis is the most common cause of disability among people and it is a common disease of joints that can lead to cartilage damage. In this study the analgesic effects of a herbal ointment containing cinnamon, ginger, mastic (Saghez and sesame oil is compared with Salicylate ointment in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trail study. Patients with diagnosed arthritis were involved in the study and they were divided in two groups via block randomization method. For six weeks, twice a day, intervention group applied herbal ointment and control group used Salicylate ointment. The severity of pain, morning stiffness and limited motion were measured using Visual Analog Pain Scale. In order to analyze the trends of these three indexes, repeated measurement test was used. Ninety two participates with the mean age of 52.2 (12.4 years and with the mean disease period of 30.45 (30.3 months were involved in the study. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding the distribution of sex, weight, height, BMI and the duration of illness. No statistical difference was observed between two groups regarding pain relief, morning stiffness and limited motion; nevertheless in repeated measurements during second, forth and sixth weeks in both groups the decreasing trend of these three indexes had been statistically significant (p<0.0001. It seems that using this herbal combination is clinically effective for patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis in order to decrease their pain, morning stiffness and limited motion; its effect is comparable with Salicylate ointment.

  4. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanolic Root Extract of Hippocratea africana

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    Jude E. Okokon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic root extract of Hippocratea africana (200-600 mg kg-1 was evaluated for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. The extract dose dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking and thermally -induced pain in mice. The extract also inhibited fresh egg albumin, carrageenin and xylene-induced inflammation in mice. These inhibitions were statistically significant (p<0.05 when compared to control. The roots extracts was also found to reduce pyrexia in rats. The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the extract may be related to its active constituents such as tannins, saponins, steroid and flavonoids.

  5. Effect of oral clonidine premedication on perioperative haemodynamic response and post-operative analgesic requirement for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Singh Shivinder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonidine has anti-hypertensive properties and augments the effects of anaesthesia, hence we considered it to be an ideal agent to contain the stress response to pneumoperitoneum. We studied the clinical efficacy of oral clonidine premedication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Fifty patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive premedication with either oral clonidine 150 ?g (Group I, n = 25 or placebo (Group II, n = 25 90 minutes prior to induction. The patients were managed with a standard general anaesthetic. The two groups were compared with respect to haemodynamic parameters, isoflurane concentration, pain and sedation scores, time to request of analgesic and cumulative analgesic requirements. Oral clonidine was found to be significantly better in terms of maintaining stable haemodynamics, having an isoflurane sparing effect and having a prolonged time interval to the first request of analgesia postoperatively compared to the control group. Administration of oral clonidine 150 ?g as a pre-medicant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy results in improved perioperative haemodynamic stability and a reduction in the intra-operative anaesthetic and post-operative analgesic requirements.

  6. Analgesic effect of Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis and Piper methysticum for orofacial pain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Cristina, Nowacki; Paulo Roberto, Worfel; Paulo Francisco Arant, Martins; Rosane Sampaio dos, Santos; José, Stechman-Neto; Wesley Mauricio de, Souza.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate in vivo the association of hypericum Hypericum perforatum, valerian Valeriana officinalis and kava Piper methysticum with analgesia by assessing their effects in reducing orofacial pain as well as the possible hepatic, hematologic and biochemical alterations induced by regular admi [...] nistration of these extracts. METHODS: Orofacial pain was induced in mice with the administration of 2.5% formalin in the upper lip. After 60 min, the animals were treated with saline, carbamazepine and hydroalcoholic plant extracts. The nociceptive intensity was determined by the timing at which the animal remained rubbing the injected area. To assess the hepatotoxic effect, mice were chronically treated for 25 days with saline, carbamazepine and hydroalcoholic extract. The animals were euthanized and the liver weighed, followed by a differential count of leukocytes and measurement of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. RESULTS: The evaluation of analgesic activity in phase 1 reduced the time of rubbing compared to the control by 86% 0.05 mL/10 g and 76% 0.10 mL/10 g. In phase 2, the extracts reduced rubbing time by 94% and 85%, respectively. In the evaluation of alkaline phosphatase, the groups treated with extracts at doses of 0.05 mL/10 g and 0.1 mL/10 g increased by 16.1% and 9.5% compared to the control group and a reduction of 8.5% and 9.1% in the evaluation of alanine transaminase respectively. It was demonstrated that in the differential counts showed an increase in eosinophils in the treated group with 0.05 mL/10 g. CONCLUSIONS: The use of hydroalcoholic extract of the associated plants reduced the orofacial formalin-induced pain with better results than carbamazepine, at both the neural conductor level of pain phase 1 and in inflammatory or later pain phase 2 without presenting hepatotoxicity. The observed eosinophilia is suggestive of a phenomenon called hormesis.

  7. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus

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    H.P. Aithal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II. The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min. Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II, and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

  8. Induction of anesthesia in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine

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    Elif Basagan-Mogo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine by comparing it with propofol starting at the induction of anesthesia until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. INTRODUCTION: Anesthetic induction and maintenance may induce myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. A primary goal in the anesthesia of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is both the attenuation of sympathetic responses to noxious stimuli and the prevention of hypotension. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were randomized to receive either ketamine 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K or propofol 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group P during induction of anesthesia. Patients also received standardized doses of midazolam, fentanyl, and rocuronium in the induction sequence. The duration of anesthesia from induction to skin incision and sternotomy, as well as the supplemental doses of fentanyl and sevoflurane, were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, stroke work index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indices were obtained before induction of anesthesia; one minute after induction; one, three, five, and ten minutes after intubation; one minute after skin incision; and at one minute after sternotomy. RESULTS: There were significant changes in the measured and calculated hemodynamic variables when compared to their values before induction. One minute after induction, mean arterial pressure and the systemic vascular resistance index decreased significantly in group P (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between groups in the consumption of sevoflurane or in the use of additional fentanyl. The combination of ketamine, midazolam, and fentanyl for the induction of anesthesia provided better hemodynamic stability during induction and until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  9. Analgesic effects of maxillary and inferior alveolar nerve blocks in cats undergoing dental extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Joana; Chebroux, Alexandre; Martinez-Taboada, Fernando; Leece, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of maxillary and/or inferior alveolar nerve blocks with lidocaine and bupivacaine in cats undergoing dental extractions. Twenty-nine cats were enrolled. Using an adapted composite pain scale, cats were pain scored before the dental procedure and 30 mins, and 1, 2 and 4 h after isoflurane disconnection. Cats were sedated with buprenorphine (20 µg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and acepromazine (20 µg/kg) intramuscularly. Anaesthesia was induced using alfaxalone (1-2 mg/kg) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Each cat was randomly assigned to receive maxillary and/or inferior alveolar nerve blocks or no nerve blocks prior to dental extractions. Each nerve block was performed using lidocaine (0.25 mg/kg) and bupivacaine (0.25 mg/kg). Heart rate, systolic arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, end tidal carbon dioxide and isoflurane vaporiser settings were recorded 5 mins before and after the dental extractions, and the difference calculated. Group mean differences (mean ± SD) for heart rate (-9.7 ± 10.6 vs 7.6 ± 9.5 beats/min [nerve block vs control group, respectively], P postoperative pain scores (median [interquartile range]) at 2 h (3 [1.75-4.00] vs 1 [0-2], P = 0.008) and 4 h (4 [2-6] vs 2 [1-2], P = 0.006) after the dental extractions. Maxillary and inferior alveolar nerve blocks with lidocaine and bupivacaine administered prior to dental extractions resulted in a reduction in heart rate and blood pressure while allowing for a reduction in isoflurane. Cats receiving nerve blocks had lower postoperative pain scores than the group without nerve blocks. PMID:24820999

  10. Altered Frequency Distribution in the Electroencephalogram is Correlated to the Analgesic Effect of Remifentanil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Carina; Malver, Lasse P

    2015-01-01

    Opioids alter resting state brain oscillations by multiple and complex factors, which are still to be elucidated. To increase our knowledge, multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was subjected to multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to identify the most descriptive frequency bands and scalp locations altered by remifentanil in healthy volunteers. Sixty-two channels of resting EEG followed by independent measures of pain scores to heat and bone pain were recorded in 21 healthy males before and during remifentanil infusion in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study. EEG frequency distributions were extracted by a continuous wavelet transform and normalized into delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Alterations relative to pre-treatment responses were calculated for all channels and used as input to the MVPA. Compared to placebo, remifentanil increased the delta band and decreased the theta and alpha band oscillations as a mean over all channels (all P?0.007). The most discriminative channels in these frequency bands were: F1 in delta (83.33%, P=0.0023) and theta bands (95.24%, P<0.0001), and C6 in the alpha band (80.95%, P=0.0054). These alterations were correlated to individual changes in heat pain in the delta (P=0.045), theta (P=0.038) and alpha (P=0.039) bands, and to bone pain in the alpha band (P=0.0092). Hence, MVPA of multi-channel EEG was able to identify frequency bands and corresponding channels most sensitive to altered brain activity during remifentanil treatment. As the EEG alterations were correlated to the analgesic effect, the approach may prove to be a novel methodology for monitoring individual efficacy to opioids. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of analgesic effects of intrathecal clonidine along with bupivacaine in cesarean section

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    Kothari Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Context: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of intrathecal clonidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia. Settings and Design : Randomized single blind trial. Methods: 210 ASA I-II pregnant females undergoing emergency cesarean section were randomized in a single-blind fashion to one of the three groups. In group I (n=70 patients received 12.5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally. In group II (n=70 patients received intrathecal mixture of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (8 mg and clonidine 50 ?g. In group III (n=70 , patients received 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (10 mg intrathecally along with 50 ?g of clonidine. Statistical Analysis Used: Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test. The proportion of adverse events was compared using the chi-square test (?2 =57.2410. Results: On adding 50 ?g clonidine, we were able to reduce intrathecal dose of bupivacaine for cesarean section to 8 mg. Patients receiving intrathecal clonidine along with bupivacaine had significantly long lasting analgesia with lower bupivacaine dose [246.21±5.15 min. (group II vs 146.0±4.55 min (group I, P=0.021; 95% confidence interval: 238.01-257.40, group II and 134.99-157.0 group I]. Conclusions: Addition of intrathecal clonidine causes some sedation in the postoperative period, but it provides adequate analgesia and motor paralysis at lower dose of bupivacaine. It also significantly prolongs postoperative pain relief.

  12. Induction of anesthesia in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elif, Basagan-Mogo; Suna, Goren; Gulsen, Korfali; Gurkan, Turker; Fatma Nur, Kaya.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine by comparing it with propofol starting at the induction of anesthesia until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. INTRODUCTION: A [...] nesthetic induction and maintenance may induce myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. A primary goal in the anesthesia of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is both the attenuation of sympathetic responses to noxious stimuli and the prevention of hypotension. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were randomized to receive either ketamine 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K) or propofol 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group P) during induction of anesthesia. Patients also received standardized doses of midazolam, fentanyl, and rocuronium in the induction sequence. The duration of anesthesia from induction to skin incision and sternotomy, as well as the supplemental doses of fentanyl and sevoflurane, were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, stroke work index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indices were obtained before induction of anesthesia; one minute after induction; one, three, five, and ten minutes after intubation; one minute after skin incision; and at one minute after sternotomy. RESULTS: There were significant changes in the measured and calculated hemodynamic variables when compared to their values before induction. One minute after induction, mean arterial pressure and the systemic vascular resistance index decreased significantly in group P (p

  13. Elucidation of possible mechanism of analgesic action of Valeriana wallichii DC chemotype (patchouli alcohol) in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Mathela, Chandra S; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2010-03-01

    Valeriana wallichii (Family Valerianaceae), popularly named as Indian valerian, exists as three chemotypes. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of V. wallichii chemotype (patchouli alcohol) extract (DCME) and essential oil (VPAEO) on experimental models of nociception and to elucidate its possible mechanism of action. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing and tail flick model. DCME and VPAEO (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the number of writhings as compared to vehicle treated group. None of the doses of DCME and VPAEO exhibited any effect in tail flick model suggesting only peripheral analgesic activity. When studied for mechanism of action in acetic acid induced writhing, subeffective dose of essential oil significantly potentiated the effect of aspirin while no potentiation was seen in case of extract. These data suggest that essential oil VPAEO exerted peripheral analgesic via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. PMID:21046983

  14. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of calcitonin on neuropathic pain interacting with its peripheral receptors

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    Ito Akitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is clinically well known for its ability to relieve neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome. Mechanisms for its analgesic effect, however, remain unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism of anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Results Subcutaneous injection of elcatonin, a synthetic derivative of eel calcitonin, relieved hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the CCI provoked the upregulation of tetrodotoxin (TTX-sensitive Nav.1.3 mRNA and downregulation of TTX-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA on the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion (DRG, which would consequently increase the excitability of peripheral nerves. These changes were reversed by elcatonin. In addition, the gene expression of the calcitonin receptor and binding site of 125I-calcitonin was increased at the constricted peripheral nerve tissue but not at the DRG. The anti-hyperalgesic effect and normalization of sodium channel mRNA by elcatonin was parallel to the change of the calcitonin receptor expression. Elcatonin, however, did not affect the sensitivity of nociception or gene expression of sodium channel, while it suppressed calcitonin receptor mRNA under normal conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that the anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin on CCI rats could be attributable to the normalization of the sodium channel expression, which might be exerted by an unknown signal produced at the peripheral nerve tissue but not by DRG neurons through the activation of the calcitonin receptor. Calcitonin signals were silent in the normal condition and nerve injury may be one of triggers for conversion of a silent to an active signal.

  15. The analgesic effect of Magnesium Sulfate in postoperative pain of inguinal hernia repair

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    Mehraein A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4 has been used as a pharmacologic agent in different situations for many years in the treatment of tachyarrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, preeclampsia, and tocolysis among others. The analgesic effect of MgSO4 for postoperative pain has been used since the 1990s. Postoperative pain is one of the most common complications in the perioperative period and can result in serious consequences in different organs if left untreated. Inguinal herniorrhaphy is among the most common surgeries and is almost always accompanied by severe pain. The object of this study is to determine the effect of a pre-induction infusion of MgSO4 on the reduction of postsurgical pain after herniorrhaphy. Methods: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial included 105 ASA class I and class II herniorrhaphy patients at Shariati Hospital in years 2004 and 2005. For statistical analysis, the ?2 and T tests were used. The patients were divided into three groups based on block randomization. Patients in the following groups received: Group A, 200 ml of normal saline infusion (placebo; Group B, 25 mg/kg MgSO4 in 200 ml of normal saline; Group C, 50 mg/kg MgSO4 in 200 ml of normal saline. All groups were infused twenty minutes before induction of anesthesia using identical methods and dosage in all three groups. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP at pre- and postintubation and so at skin incision time were charted. Visual analog scale (VAS pain score, nausea, vomiting and the amount of morphine used before recovery room discharge and in six, twelve and twenty-four hours after recovery discharge was recorded. Results: The average age for the different groups was as follows: Group A: 33.6, Group B: 37.37, Group C: 32.74. Nausea and vomiting between the case and control groups were not statistically different (60% vs. 71.4%, p=0.0499, nor was the amount of Morphine used. On recovery room discharge, the VAS scores were 8.1, 7.2, and 5.5 for the first, second and third groups, respectively (P<0.001. However, no statistical significance was found for the VAS scores six hours after recovery room discharge. Conclusion: The results in this study show that pre-induction with MgSO4 has no remarkable effect on decreasing postoperative pain or morphine use for inguinal herniorrhaphy.

  16. Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of carprofen in medetomidine premedicated dogs undergoing ovariectomy

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    Seliškar Alenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of pre-operative administration of carprofen were investigated in 16 medetomidine-premedicated dogs undergoing elective ovariectomy. Dogs were randomly allocated into carprofen (n=8; 4 mg/kg, intramuscularly or placebo group (n = 8. After medetomidine (1000 [xg/m2, intramuscularly premedication, they were induced with propofol (1 mg/kg, intravenously and maintained with isoflurane (FE'ISO 1.0 % in 100% oxygen. During anaesthesia, the analgesia was assessed in terms of changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure as a response to the surgery. Assessments of post-operative sedation (simple numerical rating scale and pain (multifactorial pain scale were made at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1,2,3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after the surgery. In addition, pulse rate, respiratory rate and body temperature were measured at the same time. During anaesthesia, lower heart rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial blood pressure and higher tidal volume of respiration were observed in the carprofen group. Post-operative pain score was relatively low in both groups of dogs, however it was higher, but not significantly, in the placebo group. There was no difference between the groups in terms of respiratory and pulse rate after surgery. The post-operative sedation score was higher in the placebo group only in the early post-operative period most probably due to misinterpretation of pain behaviour. Carprofen together with other anaesthetic drugs provided sufficient intra-operative analgesia only until major painful surgical stimulus occurred, after which analgesia had to be supplemented with a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine. Comparing to that analgesia was insufficient in the placebo group throughout the procedure. The post-operative pain scoring system was probably not sensitive enough to detect the differences between the groups; however, the effects of other drugs that extended in the post-operative period may be responsible for a low post­operative pain score in both groups of dogs.

  17. The effects of a new opioid analgesic, meptazinol, on the respiration of the conscious rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowlrick, I. S.; Shepperson, N B

    1985-01-01

    In the conscious rat arterial PCO2 was measured as an index of respiratory status. The opioid analgesic meptazinol (7.5 - 30 mg kg-1) evoked small but significant increases in arterial PCO2 which were attenuated by naloxone. Meptazinol significantly reduced the increase in arterial PCO2 evoked by morphine. The respiratory depression induced by meptazinol, but not that induced by morphine, was enhanced by pretreatment with atropine. The (+)-enantiomer, but not the (-)-enantiomer of meptazinol ...

  18. Effects of epidural nalbuphine on intraoperative isoflurane and postoperative analgesic requirements in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabricio de Oliveira, Frazilio; Rafael, DeRossi; Paulo Henrique de Affonseca, Jardim; Beatriz Candolo, Marques; Alessandro Rodrigues de Carvalho, Martins; Larissa Correa, Hermeto.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To measure the change in the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (EtISO) associated with epidural nalbuphine and the postoperative analgesic requirements in dogs after ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty four healthy female dogs were randomly assigned to receive saline or nal [...] buphine at 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg (n=8 for each group) administered via lumbosacral epidural catheter introduced cranially into the epidural canal. Changes in heart and respiratory rates and arterial blood pressure during surgery were recorded along with the corresponding EtISO. Immediately after tracheal extubation, analgesia, sedation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure were measured at predetermined intervals and every 60 min thereafter until the first rescue analgesic. RESULTS: A significant decrease in EtISO was associated with epidural nalbuphine at 0.3 mg/kg (26.3%) and 0.6 mg/kg (38.4%) but not with saline in ovariohysterectomized dogs. In the postoperative period, VAS and Colorado analgesic scores were lower for the dogs that received the higher nalbuphine dose, which only required supplemental analgesia 10 h following its administration, compared with dogs that received the lower dose. CONCLUSION: Epidural nalbuphine significantly reduces the intra-operative isoflurane requirement and provides prolonged postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

  19. The influence of women's attachment style on the chronobiology of labour pain, analgesic consumption and pharmacological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Martins, José Manuel; Pereira, Marco; Martins, Henriqueta; Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Coelho, Rui; Tavares, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Circadian variation in biological rhythms has been identified as affecting both labour pain and the pharmacological properties of analgesics. In the context of pain, there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting the importance of adult attachment. The purpose of this study was to examine whether labour pain, analgesic consumption and pharmacological effect are significantly affected by the time of day and to analyse whether this circadian variation is influenced by women's attachment style. This prospective observational study included a sample of 81 pregnant women receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Attachment was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale - Revised. The perceived intensity of labour pain in the early stage of labour (3?cm of cervical dilatation and before the administration of PCEA) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Pain was also indirectly assessed by measuring the consumption of anaesthetics. The latency period and the duration of effect were recorded for a chronopharmacology characterisation. Pain, as assessed with the VAS, was significantly higher in the night-time group than in the daytime group. An insecure attachment style was significantly associated with greater labour pain at 3?cm of cervical dilatation (p?analgesic consumption and lower pharmacological efficacy (p?effect: the latency period was longer at night, and the duration of the pharmacological effect was longer during the daytime. The interaction between time of day and attachment style was not significant for any of the study variables. Our results provide evidence of the importance of circadian variation in studying labour pain and the pharmacological effect of labour analgesia involving epidural blockage with a PCEA regimen. Moreover, although there was no evidence that attachment style influenced the circadian variation, these data emphasise that insecure attachment patterns are a risk factor for greater labour pain and analgesic consumption, which should be considered in pain management approaches. PMID:24673295

  20. Analgesic Effect of Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Three Congolese Medicinal Plants: Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum

    OpenAIRE

    Okiemy-andissa, N.; Miguel, M. L.; Etou, A. W.; Ouamba, J. M.; Gbeassor, M.; Abena, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Analgesic effect of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of aeral parts of Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum, three plants used in congolese folk medicine in pain, were tested on acetic acid and hot plate tests. All extracts manifest analgesic effect on the two models used. The more active was the hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum gratissimum which is not antagonized by naloxone and could potentiate analgesic effect of paracetamol.

  1. A comparison of the analgesic effects of butorphanol with those of meloxicam after elective ovariohysterectomy in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Caulkett, Nigel; Read, Matt; Fowler, David; Waldner, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the analgesic effects of butorphanol with those of meloxicam following ovariohysterectomy. Fifteen dogs were premedicated with 0.05 mg/kg body weight (BW) of acepromazine by intramuscular (IM) injection, plus 0.2 mg/kg BW of meloxicam by subcutaneous (SC) injection. Fifteen dogs were premedicated with 0.05 mg/kg BW of Acepromazine, IM, plus 0.2 mg/kg BW of butorphanol, IM. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental, and dogs were maintained on halothane. All pai...

  2. Relevancia clínica de las acciones tópicas de los opioides / Clinical relevance of peripheral opioid effects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Carvajal Valdy.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de una práctica frecuente en algunos centros, es aún poca la evidencia que justifica el uso de formulaciones tópicas a base de un enfoque local en el tratamiento analgésico de condiciones dolorosas consiste en aplicar medicamentos localmente en el sitio de origen del dolor. Esto puede alcan [...] zarse mediante la aplicación tópica de una crema, loción, gel, aerosol o parche para sitios somáticos o mediante la utilización de enjuagues en el caso de lesiones de la mucosa oral. Estos métodos de aplicación permiten una mayor concentración local del fármaco en el sitio de iniciación del dolor y disminuye los niveles sistémicos del fármaco a niveles mínimos o insignificantes, teóricamente disminuyendo el riesgo de efectos adversos sistémicos. El presente artículo pretende revisar información clínica y preclínica relevante para la prescripción de opioides tópicos. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27:(2)59-65) Abstract in english Although it is a common practice in some centers, there is still little evidence that validates the use of topical analgesic formulations based on opioids for treatment painful skin and mucous conditions. A local focus on the analgesic treatment of painful conditions consists of applying drugs direc [...] tly in the peripheral site of pain origin. This can be achieved through the topical application of a cream, lotion, gel, spray or patch for somatic sites or through the use of mouthwash in the case of lesions of the oral mucosa. These methods allow a greater local concentration of the drug at the painful site and decrease the systemic levels of the medication to minimum or negligible levels, theoretically reducing the risk of systemic adverse effects. This article aims to review relevant clinical and preclinical information on topical opioid prescribing. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27:(2)59-65)

  3. A comparision of nalbuphine with morphine for analgesic effects and safety : meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zheng; Lu, Jianhua; Shu, Chang; Chen, Yuanli; Guo, Tong; Wu, Qing-Ping; Yao, Shang-Long; Yin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Although morphine is the standard opioid analgesic for pain control and has been widely used, certain drug-induced adverse effects have been reported as intolerable and need to be addressed. Nalbuphine may have a few advantages over morphine in this respect. We aimed to describe the effect of nalbuphine as well as its saftey compared to morphine by analyzing published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with meta-analysis approach. We analysed 15 trials (820 patients). Overall, there was no evidence to show that the effect of pain relief had any difference between nalbuphine and morphine (pooled relative risks [RRs], 1.01; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.11; P?=?0.90). On the other hand, the incidences of pruritus, nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression were significantly lower in nalbuphine group compared with morphine group, and the pooled RRs were 0.78(95%CI, 0.602-0.997; P?=?0.048) for nausea, 0.65(95%CI, 0.50-0.85; P?=?0.001) for vomiting, 0.17(95%CI, 0.09-0.34; P?depression. The analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine is comparable to morphine, but nalbuphine provides a better safety profile than morphine in the aspect of certain side-effects, especially related to pruritus and respiratory depression. PMID:26039709

  4. The Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Morphine and Paracetamol in the Patients Undergoing Laparotomy, Using PCA Method

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    Siamak Yaghoubi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: postoperative pain increases the activity of the sympathetic system, causes hypermetabolic conditions, retains salt and water, increases glucose, fatty acid lactate and oxygen consumption, weakens the immunity system which delays wound healing. Our object was comparison of the analgesic effect of morphine and paracetamol in the patients undergoing laparotomy, using PCA method. Method: Seventy patients who had undergone laparotomy were studied using double blind randomized clinical trial (35 patients received morphine and 35 paracetamol in the Shahid Rajaee Center and Velayat Hospital (Qazvin, Iran. People using opioids, painkillers and sedatives regularly and in large doses and patients with a history of lung or liver problems did not participate in this project. The parameters of the severity of pain and nausea (VAS, hemodynamic changes (BP and HR, pruritus, arterial oxygen desaturation and patient satisfaction (VAS of both groups were measured by a third party (trained colleague. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16 statistical software then descriptive results were extracted and ultimately the groups were compared using the following statistical tests: student’s T-test, chi 2 and Fisher’s exact test (P<0.05. Findings: The mean age of the participants was 45±12.5 years. Women constituted 24.3% of the patients and men 75.7%. The average pain severity for morphine and paracetamol groups (VAS was 5.3±2.2and 6.37±1.7 after2 hours and reached 1.91±1.3 and 2.49±1.3 after 8 hours (after the operation respectively. There was a significant difference between the groups after 2 and 4 hours in terms of pain severity (after 2 hours P=0.007 and after 4 hours P=0.047. However there was no significant difference between the average pain severity of the studied groups (after 6 hours P=0.4 and 8 hours P=0.08. After 8 hours, the average nausea severity was the minimum in both groups being 1.71±1.6 and 1.43±1.1 in morphine and paracetamol groups respectively. Nausea severity was higher after 2 hours in paracetamol group. In morphine group, it was higher after 4, 6 and 8 hours. Difference between the groups was not significant. The average satisfaction level (VAS for morphine and paracetamol groups reached from 5.29±2.3 and 4.2±2.4 after 2 hours, to 7.94±1.8 and 7.69±2.1 after 8 hours (after the operation, respectively. The average satisfaction level of patients was higher in morphine group in 2,4,6 and 8 hours and except for, after 4 hours (P=0.01, the satisfaction difference between both groups was not significant in other hours (P=0.06 after 2 hours, P=0.6 after 6 hours and P=0.5 after 8 hours Conclusion: Morphine seems to be more effective at 2 and 4 hours, but after 4 hours they have similar effects, the satisfaction difference between both groups was not significant in the patients. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  5. An analytical study, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Harpagophytum procumbens and Harpagophytum zeyheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdikian, B; Lanhers, M C; Fleurentin, J; Ollivier, E; Maillard, C; Balansard, G; Mortier, F

    1997-04-01

    The iridoids of Harpagophytum procumbens and Harpagophytum zeyheri were studied by CLHP. Harpagoside is the main iridoid for both drugs whereas 8-p-coumaroylharpagide is a representative iridoid of Harpagophytum zeyheri only. The ratio harpagoside/8-p-coumaroylharpagide can be used to distinguish chemically both species. For commercial dried aqueous extracts this ratio is intermediate because they are probably prepared from a mixture of H. procumbens and H. zeyheri drugs. The aqueous extracts of both drugs show similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Harpagophytum procumbens and Harpagophytum zeyheri should be accepted as sources for the drug Harpagophyti radix. PMID:9140234

  6. Analgesic Treatment in Patients With Acute Extremity Trauma and Effect of Training

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    Funda KARBEK AKARCA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies indicate that emergency physicians (EP under-evaluate and undertreat the pain experienced by their patients. The objective of this study was to investigate how EPs treat pain in adult patients with limb trauma and to determine if their behavior could be affected by training in the short-term. Methods: All consecutive adult patients admitted to the university-based emergency department (ED within two months were enrolled in the study. The patients were asked to rate their level of pain on the NRS in triage. NRS scores were noted again after 30 minutes and 60 minutes, and on discharge. Patient prescriptions were also tracked to identify any analgesics. After completion of the pre-education phase, four hours of training on pain evaluation and treatment were undertaken under the leadership of experienced staff faculty. The aforementioned outcomes were gathered again in a 30-day period after training and we compared the pre and post training periods. Results: A hundred and forty-three patients (81 female were enrolled in the pre-education phase, and 130 patients (58 female were eligible for the post-education phase. The mean NRS scores of the females noted on admission were significantly higher than those of the males (7.4±2.3 vs. 6.7±2.5, respectively; p=0.020. Patients included in the first phase received analgesia less frequently (42.7% vs. 70.0%, respectively; p<0.001. The mean period of time between admission and initial analgesic administration was shorter in the second phase (41.3 vs. 19.3 minutes, respectively; p<0.001. The ratio of patients receiving analgesia within thirty minutes was greater after training. All patients in the second phase received analgesia within 60 minutes. The residents prescribed analgesics more frequently after training. Conclusions: A four-hour training program resulted in apparent changes in the residents’ management of pain in patients with extremity trauma. In addition to a more timely administration, the rates of analgesic treatment increased.

  7. Efecto analgésico del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Analgesic effect of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

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    Pedro Barzaga Fernández

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Drogas con capacidad de inhibir la síntesis o acción de mediadores como los eicosanoides, histamina, bradicinina, entre otras, impiden la acción sensibilizadora de éstos sobre las terminaciones nerviosas nociceptivas. Teniendo en cuenta la actividad antiinflamatoria demostrada del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L., fue objetivo de este trabajo evaluar sus propiedades analgésicas en modelos animales. Dosis de O. tenuiflorum de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg fueron evaluadas en modelos de inducción del dolor por vías química y térmica. Como resultado de este estudio se obtuvo que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O tenuiflorum mostró efecto analgésico en los modelos del plato caliente a la dosis de 1 000 mg/kg; en el de contorsiones por ácido acético en ratones y foco calorífico en ratas a las dosis de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg. Estos resultados indicaron que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O. tenuiflorum ejerce un efecto antinociceptivo, preferentemente sobre la vía periférica.Drugs with the capacity of inhibiting the synthesis or action of mediators such as eikosanoids, histamine, bradycine, and others, hinder the sensitizing action of them on the nociceptive nervous terminationes. Taking into account the shown antiinflammatory activity of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., it was the objective of this paper to evaluate the analgesic properties of it in animal models. Doses of O. tenuiflorum of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were evaluated in pain-induction models by chemical and thermic ways. As a result of this study it was observed that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum. had an analgesic effect in the hot dish model at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg, and in that of contortions by acetic acid in mice and calorific focus in rats at doses of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg. These results indicated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum has an antinociceptive effect, mainly on the peripheral pathway.

  8. Analgesic effects of botulinum neurotoxin type A in a model of allyl isothiocyanate- and capsaicin-induced pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvisetto, Siro; Vacca, Valentina; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    We evaluate analgesic effects of BoNT/A in relation to the two main transient receptor potentials (TRP), the vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and the ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), having a role in migraine pain. BoNT/A (15 pg/mouse) was injected in the inner side of the medial part of hindlimb thigh of mice, where the superficial branch of femoral artery is located. We chosen this vascular structure because it is similar to other vascular structures, such as the temporal superficial artery, whose perivascular nociceptive fibres probably contributes to migraine pain. After an interval, ranging from 7 to 30 days, capsaicin (agonist of TRPV1) or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; agonist of TRPA1) were injected in the same region previously treated with BoNT/A and nocifensive response to chemicals-induced pain was recorded. In absence of BoNT/A, capsaicin and AITC induced extensive nocifensive response, with a markedly different temporal profile: capsaicin induced maximal pain during the first 5 min, while AITC induced maximal pain at 15-30 min after injection. Pretreatment with BoNT/A markedly reduced both the capsaicin- and AITC-induced pain for at least 21 days. These data suggest a long lasting analgesic effect of BoNT/A exerted via prevention of responsiveness of TRPV1 and TRPA1 toward their respective agonists. PMID:25529549

  9. Comparing the analgesic effect of heat patch containing iron chip and ibuprofen for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial

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    Navvabi Rigi Shahindokht

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a common and sometimes disabling condition. In recent years, some studies aimed to improve the treatment of dysmenorrhea, and therefore, introduced several therapeutic measures. This study was designed to compare the analgesic effect of iron chip containing heat wrap with ibuprofen for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods In this randomized (IRCT201107187038N2 controlled trial, 147 students (18–30?years old with the diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea were enrolled considering the CONSORT guideline. Screening for primary dysmenorrhea was done by a two-question screening tool. The participants were randomly assigned into one of the intervention groups (heat Patch and ibuprofen. Data regarding the severity and emotional impact of the pain were recorded by a shortened version of McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ. Student's?t test was used for statistical analysis. Results The maximum and minimum pain severities were observed at 2 and 24?hours in both groups. The severity of sensual pain at 8, 12, and 24?hours was non-significantly less in the heat Patch group. There was also no significant difference between the groups regarding the emotional impact of pain at the first 2, 4, 8, 12 and 12?hours of menstruation. Conclusions Heat patch containing Iron chip has comparable analgesic effects to ibuprofen and can possibly be used for primary dysmenorrhea. Trial registration IRCT201107187038N2

  10. Phytochemical profile and analgesic evaluation of Vitex cymosa leaf extracts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzana Guimarães, Leitão; Tereza Cristina dos, Santos; Franco, Delle Monache; Maria Eline, Matheus; Patrícia Dias, Fernandes; Bruno Guimarães, Marinho.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitex cymosa Bertero ex Spreng., Lamiaceae, is found in Central and Amazon regions of Brazil, where it is popularly used as antirheumatic. Extracts from the leaves of V. cymosa were tested in analgesia models such as abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid and formalin to test peripheral analge [...] sia; as well as the tail flick and hot plate models, to test spinal and supraspinal analgesia. A significant reduction was observed in the number of contortions with all extracts and in all doses. In the formalin model, a reduction in the second phase (inflammatory) was observed with all extracts, whereas only the n-butanol extract was able to act in the first, neurogenic, phase. In the tail flick model, all extracts increased latency time. Naloxone treatment reverted analgesic effect of all extracts with the exception of the dichloromethane one. All extracts developed peripheral and central analgesic activity. In the hot plate model no antinociceptive effect was observed for all tested extracts. All these results taken together suggest that V. cymosa leaf extracts were able to promote peripheral and central antinociceptive activity mediated by the opioid system.Twenty three substances were isolated and identified in the extracts and include flavonoids (C-glucosyl flavones, flavones and flavonols), triterpene acids from ursane and oleanane types, iridoids (free and glucosides), as well as simple phenols.

  11. Phytochemical profile and analgesic evaluation of Vitex cymosa leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Guimarães Leitão

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitex cymosa Bertero ex Spreng., Lamiaceae, is found in Central and Amazon regions of Brazil, where it is popularly used as antirheumatic. Extracts from the leaves of V. cymosa were tested in analgesia models such as abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid and formalin to test peripheral analgesia; as well as the tail flick and hot plate models, to test spinal and supraspinal analgesia. A significant reduction was observed in the number of contortions with all extracts and in all doses. In the formalin model, a reduction in the second phase (inflammatory was observed with all extracts, whereas only the n-butanol extract was able to act in the first, neurogenic, phase. In the tail flick model, all extracts increased latency time. Naloxone treatment reverted analgesic effect of all extracts with the exception of the dichloromethane one. All extracts developed peripheral and central analgesic activity. In the hot plate model no antinociceptive effect was observed for all tested extracts. All these results taken together suggest that V. cymosa leaf extracts were able to promote peripheral and central antinociceptive activity mediated by the opioid system.Twenty three substances were isolated and identified in the extracts and include flavonoids (C-glucosyl flavones, flavones and flavonols, triterpene acids from ursane and oleanane types, iridoids (free and glucosides, as well as simple phenols.

  12. Absence of analgesic effect of intravenous melatonin administration during daytime after laparoscopic cholecystectomy : a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Kücükakin, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether melatonin administered intraoperatively reduced pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. SETTING: Two surgical departments in Copenhagen. PATIENTS: 44 women between 18 and 70 years of age, who were surgical candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were anesthetized by a standard protocol and received a standard multimodal postoperative analgesic regimen. Patients undergoing surgery were admitted on the day of surgery and were discharged the day after surgery. Ten mg of intravenous (IV) melatonin or placebo were administered at the time of surgical incision. MEASUREMENTS: Pain was assessed by a set of questionnaires documenting "pain at rest" using a visual analog scale (VAS). The use of rescue medication was recorded. Sleep quality and general well-being were measured on separate VAS scales. Sleepiness was assessed by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-four patients were included and randomized to the study. Three patients did not complete the study. No differences in VAS pain scores, sleep quality, general well-being, or sleepiness were found between the two groups in the postoperative period. The use of postoperative rescue medication did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of 10mg of IV melatonin administered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy did not affect postoperative pain or use of analgesic medication.

  13. Peripheral antinociceptive effects of morphine after burn injury.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØiniche, S; Dahl, J B

    1993-01-01

    In a double-blind study, 2 mg of morphine in saline, or saline only, was given subcutaneously into a second-degree bilateral leg-burn injury in 12 volunteers. Heat-pain thresholds and pressure-pain thresholds were significantly increased by local morphine administration. These results confirm experimental data demonstrating a peripheral antinociceptive effects of opioids in inflamed tissue.

  14. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of morphine after intravenous infusion in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Foster, David J R

    2014-01-01

    Using a modelling approach, this study aimed to (i) examine whether the pharmacodynamics of the analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of morphine differ; (ii) investigate the influence of demographic, pain sensitivity and genetic (OPRM1) variables on between-subject variability of morphine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in human experimental pain models. The study was a randomized, double-blind, 5-arm, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. The psychophysical cutaneous pain tests, electrical pain tolerance (EPTo) and secondary hyperalgesia areas (2HA) were studied in 28 healthy individuals (15 males). The subjects were chosen based on a previous trial where 100 subjects rated (VAS) their pain during a heat injury (47°C, 7 min., 12.5 cm(2) ). The 33% lowest- and highest pain-sensitive subjects were offered participation in the present study. A two-compartment linear model with allometric scaling for weight provided the best description of the plasma concentration-time profile of morphine. Changes in theEPTo and 2HA responses with time during the placebo treatment were best described by a linear model and a quadratic model, respectively. The model discrimination process showed clear evidence for adding between-occasion variability (BOV) on baseline and the placebo slope for EPTo and 2HA, respectively. The sensitivity covariate was significant on baseline EPTo values and genetics as a covariate on the placebo slope for 2HA. The analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of morphine were pharmacologically distinct as the models had different effect site equilibration half-lives and different covariate effects. Morphine had negligible effect on 2HA, but significant effect on EPTo.

  15. Effects of the central analgesic tramadol on the uptake and release of noradrenaline and dopamine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, B; Reimann, W; Giertz, H

    1993-03-01

    1. The centrally acting analgesic, tramadol, has low affinity for opioid receptors and therefore presumably other mechanisms of analgesic action. Neurotransmitter release and uptake experiments were used to characterize the effects of tramadol on the central noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. 2. Tramadol inhibited the uptake of [3H]-noradrenaline into purified rat hypothalamic synaptosomes with an IC50 of 2.8 microM; the (-)-enantiomer was about ten times more potent than the (+)-enantiomer. Results with the principal metabolite O-desmethyltramadol were very similar. Inhibition of dopamine uptake into purified rabbit caudate nucleus synaptosomes was very weak with 62% inhibition of 100 microM. 3. Rat occipital cortex slices were preincubated with [3H]-noradrenaline and rabbit caudate nucleus slices with [3H]-dopamine, then superfused and stimulated electrically. Tramadol, 1 and 10 microM, enhanced the stimulation-evoked [3H]-noradrenaline overflow by 25 and 69%, respectively; the (-)-enantiomer was more potent than the racemate or the (+)-enantiomer. Tramadol, 10 microM, had no effect on dopamine release. 4. The effects of tramadol on the stimulation-evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release were abolished when uptake sites were already blocked by a high concentration of cocaine. 5. The metabolite O-desmethyltramadol showed a slight facilitation of the stimulation-evoked noradrenaline release; the effect was more pronounced in the presence of a high concentration of naloxone. In the presence of cocaine, inhibition of the release was observed similar to the effect of morphine but less potent. 6. The results show that tramadol blocks noradrenaline uptake with selectivity as compared to dopamine uptake. The interaction with the noradrenaline transporter is stereoselective. The principal metabolite O-desmethyltramadol shows in addition to noradrenaline uptake inhibition, opioid inhibition of noradrenaline release. PMID:8467366

  16. Pharmacological characterization of standard analgesics on oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Nakamura, Saki; Miyake, Takahito; So, Kanako; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Tokuyama, Shogo; Narita, Minoru; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an acute peripheral neuropathy triggered by cold in almost all patients during or within hours after its infusion. We recently reported that a single administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hypersensitivity 2 h after the administration in mice. In this study, we examined whether standard analgesics relieve the oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity. Gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate significantly inhibited and morphine and milnacipran decreased the acute cold hypersensitivity, while diclofenac and amitriptyline had no effects. These results suggest that gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate are effective against oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24671055

  17. Peripheral Effects of Nesfatin-1 on Glucose Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Yin, Yue; Xiang, Xinxin; Li, Yin; Zhao, Jing; Mulholland, Michael; Zhang, Weizhen

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The actions of peripherally administered nesfatin-1 on glucose homeostasis remain controversial. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanisms by which peripheral nesfatin-1 regulates glucose metabolism. Methods The effects of nesfatin-1 on glucose metabolism were examined in mice by continuous infusion of the peptide via osmotic pumps. Changes in AKT phosphorylation and Glut4 were investigated by Western blotting and immnuofluorescent staining. Primary myocytes, adipocytes and hepatocytes were isolated from male mice. Results Continuous peripheral infusion of nesfatin-1 altered glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice fed either normal or high fat diet, while central administration of nesfatin-1 demonstrated no effect. Nesfatin-1 increases insulin secretion in vivo, and in vitro in cultured min6 cells. In addition, nesfatin-1 up-regulates the phosphorylation of AKT in pancreas and min6 islet cells. In mice fed normal diet, peripheral nesfatin-1 significantly increased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver; similar effects were observed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in mice fed high fat diet. At basal conditions and after insulin stimulation, peripheral nesfatin-1 markedly increased GLUT4 membrane translocation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in mice fed either diet. In vitro studies showed that nesfatin-1 increased both basal and insulin-stimulated levels of AKT phosphorylation in cells derived from skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that nesfatin-1 alters glucose metabolism by mechanisms which increase insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity via altering AKT phosphorylation and GLUT 4 membrane translocation in the skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver. PMID:23967220

  18. Effects of SOD on the peripheral blood in irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogs were exposed to 0.6 Gy of 60Co-gamma-rays daily and 10 min after exposure, SOD was injected intramuscular to them. Such treatment continued for 5 days and the effect of SOD on the hemogram of peripheral blood was observed in exposed dogs. The results show that there was a certain protective effect for those exposed dogs to which a double equivalent dose of SOD was injected

  19. Evaluation of efficacy of sedative and analgesic effects of single IV dose of dexmedetomidine in post-operative patients

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    Manasa CR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the post-operative period, it has always been an important consideration for clinicians, to keep the patient comfortable, calm and pain free. So there is a constant need for an ideal sedative for postoperative patients. Alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonists such as dexmedetomidine could provide an answer to this problem because they have several relevant physiological properties like sedation, anxiolysis, analgesia and arousability. Hence, the current study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in post-operative patients in order to avoid polypharmacy.Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who were operated under general anesthesia electively were randomly selected . All patients received 1 ?g/kg bodyweight of dexmedetomidine intravenously with normal saline making up to 10 ml over 20 minutes. If the verbal numerical scale (VNS of pain was mild (i.e. 1 to 3 one hour after extubation. The patients were assessed for degree and duration of sedation, hemodynamic changes, episodes of side effects, requirement of analgesics at every 5 min for first 30 min, every 10 min for next 1hr, every 15 min for next 1 h, and eve-ry 30 min for next 1h, every 1 h for 3h and 6th hourly till 24h. The need for rescue analgesic was noted.Results: The mean duration of sedation was 129.6 ± 41.02 min, degree of sedation was -1 at 30 min, duration of analgesia 241.5 min, and mean degree of analgesia was 0 at 30 min, mean degree of sedation was -1. Mean time of administration of rescue analgesia was 170 min. Mean heart rate was 67.8 ± 5.24/min and mean arterial pressure was 78.0 ± 8.97mm of Hg, mean respiratory rate was 15.8 ± 2.33 breaths/min, mean partial pressure of oxygen SpO2 was 99.5 ± 0.56%. No patient had any episode of shivering, vomiting, hypotension and respiratory depression.Conclusion: Single IV dose of dexmedetomidine could provide adequate sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects with no accompanying respiratory depression, thereby minimizing polypharmacy.

  20. Supra-spinal FAAH is required for the analgesic action of paracetamol in an inflammatory context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmann, Romain; Daulhac, Laurence; Antri, Myriam; Eschalier, Alain; Mallet, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most commonly used analgesic in the world. Recently, a new view of its action has emerged: that paracetamol would be a pro-drug that should be metabolized by the FAAH enzyme into AM404, its active metabolite. However, this hypothesis has been demonstrated only in naive animals, a far cry from the clinical pathologic context of paracetamol use. Moreover, FAAH is a ubiquitous enzyme expressed both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Thus, we explored: (i) the involvement of FAAH in the analgesic action of paracetamol in a mouse model of inflammatory pain; and (ii) the contributions of central versus peripheral FAAH in this action. The analgesic effect of paracetamol was evaluated in thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by an intra-plantar injection of carrageenan (3%) in FAAH knock-out mice or their littermates. Moreover, the contribution of the central and peripheral enzymes was explored by comparing the effect of a global FAAH inhibitor (URB597) to that of a peripherally restricted FAAH inhibitor (URB937) on paracetamol action. Here, we show that in a model of inflammatory pain submitted to different stimuli, the analgesic action of paracetamol was abolished when FAAH was genetically or pharmacologically inhibited. Whereas a global FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (0.3 mg/kg), reduced the anti-hyperalgesic action of paracetamol, a brain-impermeant FAAH inhibitor, URB937 (0.3 mg/kg), had no influence. However, administered intracerebroventricularly, URB937 (5 ?g/mouse) reduced the action of paracetamol. These results demonstrate that the supra-spinally-located FAAH enzyme is necessary for the analgesic action of paracetamol. PMID:25448494

  1. Differential proteomics analysis of the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture intervention in the hippocampus following neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yong-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is building steadily on the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy in pain relief and repeated acupuncture-induced pain relief is accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neural synaptic plasticity. To further test the cellular and molecular changes underlying analgesic effect of acupuncture, the global change of acupuncture associated protein profiles in the hippocampus under neuropathic pain condition was profiled. Methods The chronic constrictive injury (CCI model was established by ligature of the unilateral sciatic nerve in adult Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into normal control (NC group, CCI group, and CCI with electroacupuncture (EA stimulation group. EA was applied to bilateral Zusanli (ST36 and Yanglingquan (GB34 in the EA group. Differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus in the three groups were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The functional clustering of the identified proteins was analyzed by Mascot software. Results After CCI, the thermal pain threshold of the affected hind footpad was decreased and was reversed gradually by 12 sessions of acupuncture treatment. Following EA, there were 19 hippocampal proteins identified with significant changes in expression (>2-fold, which are involved in metabolic, physiological, and cellular processes. The top three canonical pathways identified were “cysteine metabolism”, “valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation” and “mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling”. Conclusions These data suggest that the analgesic effect of EA is mediated by regulation of hippocampal proteins related to amino acid metabolism and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  2. Effect of Erythropoietin on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

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    Mustafa OZKAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of erythropoietin (EPO on a sciatic nerve injury model. The effect of single or repeated doses was also determined. Twenty-one Wistar rats were anesthetised and the sciatic nerve was transected 1 cm above the trifurcation and the nerve was repaired with four epineural 10/0 nylon sutures placed at 90 degrees intervals under microscope magnification.The rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the sham,the saline, the single dose EPO and the multiple dose EPO. The skin was incised and closed and no treatment was given in sham group. In the saline group, 1 mL saline was given intraperitoneally; in the single EPO group, 5000 U/kg EPO was given intraperitoneally immediately after the procedure. In the multiple EPO group, 5000 U/kg EPO was given after the procedure and the same dose was repeated after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks. Functional recovery was evaluated by static sciatic functional index(SSI.Single EPO group had greater myofibril size, axon number, diameter, and ratio M than the saline group. The multiple EPO treatment was not found to be more effective than single EPO treatment. However, no significant difference was found between the single EPO, multiple EPO, and saline groups based on the 3rd and 4th postoperative month SSI scores. Thus, EPO treatment increased axonal regeneration in our study. However, repeated dose therapy was not found to be more effective than single dose therapy. The optimum dose and duration should be researched in further studies.

  3. EVALUATION OF CNS DEPRESSANT AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF PIPER LONGUM LINN. LEAVES

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    Md. Rafikul Islam et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study reports CNS depressant and analgesic activities of methanol extract obtained from the leaves of Piper longum L (MEPL. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by using open field and hole cross tests at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight while peripheral analgesic activity was evaluated by using acetic acid induced writhing method and formalin test respectively in rat model at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the plant extract had significant (p<0.01 dose dependent CNS depressant and analgesic activities. Locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of rats in hole cross and open field test were decreased in the test group comparing the control group indicating CNS depressant effect of the extract which was comparable with the standard drug diazepam. The extract also showed better analgesic effects at both doses characterized by reduction in the number of writhes in the acetic acid-induced writhing model and reduction of licking time in the formalin test when compared to the control group. The extract, at the dose of 200 mg/kg, exerted a maximum of 57.58% inhibition of writhing response and 58.8% inhibition was observed for reference drug Indomethacin. So, the present results suggest that the methanol extract of P. longum leaves possesses remarkable CNS depressant and analgesic activities.

  4. Comparing analgesic and hemodynamic effects of unilateral spinal levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine-fentanyl and levobupivacaine-morphine combinations for arthroscopic procedures

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    Özlem Özorak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of the study was to compare the analgesic and hemodynamic effects of levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine-fentanyl, levobupivacaine-morphine for arthroscopic knee surgery under unilateral spinal anesthesia.Methods: A total of 44 ASA I/II patients scheduled for arthroscopy were included in the study. After prehydration patients kept in a lateral position on the nondependent side. Spinal puncture was performed at L3–4/L4–5 intervertebral space. Patients divided into three subgroups: Group L (n=14 received 0.5% levobupivacaine 1 ml+1 ml distilled water; Group LF (n=15, 25 mcg fentanyl (0.5 ml+0.5 ml distilled water; and Group LM (n=15, 0.01 mg morphine (0.5 ml+0.5 ml distilled water. Patients remained in that position for 15 minutes. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before and 1st, 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and 30th minutes after the block and every 15 minutes during the operation. Motor blockade and sensorial level, side effects, motor block regression time (MBRT, first urination time and first analgesic need (FAN were recorded.Results: Group LM had the longest MBRT, but difference with other groups did not reach to a significant level (p>0.05. Group LM had significantly longer FAN time compare with other groups (p<0.05. The first urination time was latest in Group LM (p<0.05. Motor blockade was least in Group L (p<0.05 and almost 50% patients had not motor block.Conclusion: All three groups had successful anesthesia. Morphine group added group had significantly longer analgesia without significant urinary retention and motor blockade regression time. We concluded that additional low doses of morphine will be a better choice.

  5. Intrathecal tramadol added to bupivacaine as spinal anesthetic increases analgesic effect of the spinal blockade after major gynecological surgeries

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    Chakraborty Susmita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic effect of the centrally acting opioid, tramadol, is well-known. It has been shown in clinical studies that using tramadol epidurally can provide longer duration of analgesia, without the common side effects of opioids. The study was undertaken to evaluate the duration of analgesia and/or pain free period produced by intrathecal tramadol added to bupivacaine in patients undergoing major gynecological surgery in a randomized double blind placebo controlled protocol. Fifty patients ASA I & II scheduled for Wardmayo?s operation and Fothergill?s operation were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Group A (n=25 received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (15 mg with 0.2 ml of normal saline and Group B (n=25 received 3 ml 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 0.2 ml (20 mg tramadol by intrathecal route at L3-4 inter space. Standard monitoring of the vital parameters was done during the study period. Levels of sensory block and sedation score were recorded every two minutes for the first 20 minutes, and then every ten minutes for the rest of the surgical procedure. Assessment of pain was done using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The study was concluded when the VAS was more than 40 mm, postoperatively. The patient was medicated and the time was recorded. Duration of analgesia or pain free period was estimated from the time of completion of spinal injection to administration of rescue analgesic or when the VAS score was greater than 40 mm. In Group B patients, the VAS score was significantly lower, as compared to Group A patients. The duration of analgesia was 210 ± 10.12 min in Group A; whereas, in Group B, it was 380 ± 11.82 min, which was found to be significant.

  6. Peripheral Prism Glasses: Effects of Dominance, Suppression and Background

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    Ross, Nicole C.; Bowers, Alex R.; Optom, M.C.; Peli, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Unilateral peripheral prisms for homonymous hemianopia (HH) place different images on corresponding peripheral retinal points, a rivalrous situation in which local suppression of the prism image could occur and thus limit device functionality. Detection with peripheral prisms has primarily been evaluated using conventional perimetry where binocular rivalry is unlikely to occur. We quantified detection over more visually complex backgrounds and examined the effects of ocular dominance. Methods Detection rates of 8 participants with HH or quadranopia and normal binocularity wearing unilateral peripheral prism glasses were determined for static perimetry targets briefly presented in the prism expansion area (in the blind hemifield) and the seeing hemifield, under monocular and binocular viewing, over uniform gray and more complex patterned backgrounds. Results Participants with normal binocularity had mixed sensory ocular dominance, demonstrated no difference in detection rates when prisms were fitted on the side of the HH or the opposite side (p>0.2), and had detection rates in the expansion area that were not different for monocular and binocular viewing over both backgrounds (p>0.4). However, two participants with abnormal binocularity and strong ocular dominance demonstrated reduced detection in the expansion area when prisms were fitted in front of the non-dominant eye. Conclusions We found little evidence of local suppression of the peripheral prism image for HH patients with normal binocularity. However, in cases of strong ocular dominance, consideration should be given to fitting prisms before the dominant eye. Although these results are promising, further testing in more realistic conditions including image motion is needed. PMID:22885783

  7. Qigong Effects on Heart Rate Variability and Peripheral Vasomotor Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2014-05-27

    Population aging is occurring worldwide, and preventing cardiovascular event in older people is a unique challenge. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week qigong (eight-form moving meditation) training program on the heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor response of middle-aged and elderly people in the community. This was a quasi-experimental study that included the pre-test, post-test, and nonequivalent control group designs. Seventy-seven participants (experimental group = 47; control group = 30) were recruited. The experimental group performed 30 min of eight-form moving meditation 3 times per week for 12 weeks, and the control group continued their normal daily activities. After 12 weeks, the interaction effects indicated that compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited significantly improved heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor responses. PMID:24869492

  8. Analgesic effect and side effects of celecoxib and meloxicam in canine hip osteoarthritis

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    Víctor Molina D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the pharmacological, clinical and toxicological effects of celecoxib and meloxicam for analgesia for 30 days in dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients were evaluated, 75% were females with an average age of 7.16 ± 2.06 years and twenty five percent were males with an average age of 7.83 ± 2.22 years. All patients had hip osteoarthritis and they were randomized into two groups; one group received oral celecoxib 5 mg/kg every 12 hours during one month and the second group received oral meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg every 24 hours during 1 month. The patients were evaluated for analgesia, and hematological, renal, liver, and coagulation tests on days 0, 10th and 30th after treatment initiation, and a gastric endoscopy on day 30. Statistical analysis was performed using a HSD Tukey test and c2 with a 5% level of statistical significance. Results. Both drugs reduced articular pain according to the Melbourne scale during the 30 days of treatment (p?0.05. Hematological, renal, hepatic and coagulation tests were normal in both treatment groups. All patients presented chronic gastritis on endoscopy on day 30th. Conclusions. Both drugs decreased pain at day 30th without causing alterations in hematological, renal, hepatic or coagulation tests after 30 days of treatment. However, both drugs induced chronic gastritis.

  9. Analgesic and antisympathetic effects of clonidine in burn patients, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Ostadalipour Abbas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Unlike most other Analgesic drugs, ?2 adrenoceptor agonists are capable of producing analgesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Analgesic and antisympathetic effects of clonidine, an ?2 adrenoceptor agonist in burn patients. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed on one hundred burn patients in Zarea Hospital, Mazandaran, Iran from august 2004 to July 2005. All patients divided in two groups. Case group (n=50 received oral clonidine, 3.3?g/kg TDS and controls (n=50 received placebo. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure and pain severity Visual analogue score (VAS, were recorded after clonidine administration. Statistical analysis was done by means of Mann Witney U test. Results: 50 patients (mean age 28.96±10 years in case group, and 50 patients (mean age 27.60±11.4 years in control group were studied. VAS pain scores and heart rate in the clonidine group were significantly lower than the control group (P< 0.0001, P< 0.02.there were no significant difference in systolic blood pressure between the two groups on the first and second day but on third day the systolic blood pressure in clonidine group, was lower than controls significantly (P=0.002. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the use of oral clonidine affects the hemodynamic response to pain in burn patients. Our study demonstrated that clonidine can produce good analgesia and decreased in sympathetic over activity in burn patients, and also reduce opioid dose requirements.

  10. Effects of the extracts from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves on analgesic and behavioral activities in experimental animals

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    Kitja Sawangjaroen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (M. speciosa were extracted with methanol to give methanol extract. The methanol extract was made in acid and then in alkaline and extracted with chloroform to give alkaloid extract. The effects of the methanol and alkaloid extracts on analgesic activities in hot plate test in mice and tail flick test in rats and behavioral activities in locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, were examined. In acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of oral administration of the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves in mice were 4.90 g/kg and 173.20 mg/kg, respectively. Oral administration (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract of M. speciosa leaves significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response on hot plate test in mice. The alkaloid extract of M. speciosa also increased the pain response latency at the dose of 20 mg/kg but less potent than those of the methanol extract (100 mg/kg in mice (comparing 5-10 mg/kg alkaloid extract with corresponding to approximately 200 mg/kg of methanol extract. The antinociceptive action of either methanol extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. or alkaloid extract (20 mg/kg, p.o. of M. speciosa leaves was blocked by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. Neither the methanol extract nor the alkaloid extract significantly prolonged latency of nociceptive response on tail flick test in rats. Both of the extracts had no significant change on spontaneous motor activity or pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, respectively. These results suggest that the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves possess the analgesic activity which partly acted at opioid receptors in the supraspinal opioid system.

  11. Structure-property effects of novel bioresorbable hybrid structures with controlled release of analgesic drugs for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Maoz; Zilberman, Meital

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decades, wound dressings have developed from the traditional gauze dressing to tissue-engineered scaffolds. A wound dressing should ideally maintain a moist environment at the wound surface, allow gas exchange, act as a barrier to micro-organisms and remove excess exudates. In order to provide these characteristics, we developed and studied bioresorbable hybrid structures which combine a synthetic porous drug-loaded top layer with a spongy collagen sublayer. The top layer, prepared using the freeze-drying of inverted emulsions technique, was loaded with the analgesic drugs ibuprofen or bupivacaine, for controlled release to the wound site. Our investigation focused on the effects of the emulsion's parameters on the microstructure and on the resulting drug-release profile, as well as on the physical and mechanical properties. The structure of the semi-occlusive top layer enables control over vapor transmission, in addition to strongly affecting the drug release profile. Release of the analgesic drugs lasted from several days to more than 100 days. Higher organic:aqueous phase ratios and polymer contents reduced the burst release of both drugs and prolonged their release due to a lower porosity. The addition of reinforcing fibers to this layer improved the mechanical properties. Good binding of the two components, PDLGA and collagen, was achieved due to our special method of preparation, which enables a third interfacial layer in which both materials are mixed to create an "interphase". These new PDLGA/collagen structures demonstrated a promising potential for use in various wound healing applications. PMID:24316366

  12. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: The influence of emotion and cognitive style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a superior analgesic effect of favorite music over other passive or active distractive tasks. However, it is unclear what mediates this effect. In this study we investigated to which extent distraction, emotional valence and cognitive styles may explain part of the relationship. Forty-eight healthy volunteers received heat stimuli during an active mental arithmetic task (PASAT), and passive listening to music (Mozart), environmental sounds (rain and water), and control (noise). The participants scored the conditions according to affective scales and filled out questionnaires concerning cognitive styles (Baron – Cohen and self-report). Active distraction with PASAT led to significantly less pain intensity and unpleasantness as compared to music and sound. In turn, both music and sound relieved pain significantly more than noise. When music and sound had the same level of valence they relieved pain to a similar degree. The emotional ratings of the conditions were correlated with the amount of pain relief and cognitive styles seemed to influence the analgesia effect. These findings suggest that the pain relieving effect previously seen in relation to music may be at least partly mediated by distraction, emotional factors and cognitive styles rather than by the music itself.

  13. Effects of the central analgesic tramadol and its main metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol, on rat locus coeruleus neurones.

    OpenAIRE

    Sevcik, J.; Nieber, K.; Driessen, B.; Illes, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic with low opioid receptor affinity and, therefore, presumably additional mechanisms of analgesic action. Tramadol and its main metabolite O-desmethyltramadol were tested on rat central noradrenergic neurones of the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), which are involved in the modulation of nociceptive afferent stimuli. 2. In pontine slices of the rat brain the spontaneous discharge of action potentials of LC cells was recorded extracellularly. (-)-Tramadol...

  14. Analgesic effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B in a murine model of chronic degenerative knee arthritis pain

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    Stephanie Anderson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Anderson1,2, Hollis Krug1,2, Christopher Dorman1, Pari McGarraugh1, Sandra Frizelle1, Maren Mahowald1,21Rheumatology Section, Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2Division of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAObjective: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B (BoNT/B in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain.Methods and materials: Chronic arthritis was produced in adult C57Bl6 mice by intra-articular injection of Type IV collagenase into the left knee. Following induction of arthritis, the treatment group received intra-articular BoNT/B. Arthritic control groups were treated with intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Pain behavior testing was performed prior to arthritis, after induction of arthritis, and following treatments. Pain behavior measures included analysis of gait impairment (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness evaluation (evoked pain response. Strength was measured as ability to grasp and cling.Results: Visual gait analysis showed significant impairment of gait in arthritic mice that improved 43% after intra-articular BoNT/B, demonstrating a substantial articular analgesic effect. Joint tenderness, measured with evoked pain response scores, increased with arthritis induction and decreased 49.5% after intra-articular BoNT/B treatment. No improvement in visual gait scores or decrease in evoked pain response scores were found in the control groups receiving intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Intra-articular BoNT/B was safe, and no systemic effects or limb weakness was noted.Conclusions: This study is the first report of intra-articular BoNT/B for analgesia in a murine model of arthritis pain. The results of this study validate prior work using intra-articular neurotoxins in murine models. Our findings show chronic degenerative arthritis pain can be quantitated in a murine model by measuring gait impairment using visual gait analysis scores (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness scores (evoked pain responses. Reduction of joint pain seen in this study is consistent with our hypothesis of inhibition of release of pain mediators by intra-articular BoNT/B, supporting further investigation of this novel approach to treatment of arthritis pain with intra-articular neurotoxins.Keywords: intra-articular BoNT/B, osteoarthritis

  15. Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries

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    Andras Buki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. In addition to its more classic role as a neuromodulator, PACAP functions as a neurotrophic factor. Several neurotrophic factors have been shown to play an important role in the endogenous response following both cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury and to be effective when given exogenously. A number of studies have shown the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different models of ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases and retinal degeneration. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings on the neuroprotective potential of PACAP in models of different traumatic nerve injuries. Expression of endogenous PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor is elevated in different parts of the central and peripheral nervous system after traumatic injuries. Some experiments demonstrate the protective effect of exogenous PACAP treatment in different traumatic brain injury models, in facial nerve and optic nerve trauma. The upregulation of endogenous PACAP and its receptors and the protective effect of exogenous PACAP after different central and peripheral nerve injuries show the important function of PACAP in neuronal regeneration indicating that PACAP may also be a promising therapeutic agent in injuries of the nervous system.

  16. Evaluation of in vitro effects of some analgesic drugs on erythrocyte and recombinant carbonic anhydrase I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Ba?ak; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay; Turko?lu, Sumeyye Aydogan; Alper, Meltem; Köçkar, Feray

    2012-02-01

    The in vitro effects of the injectable form of analgesic drugs, dexketoprofen trometamol, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, metamizole sodium, diclofenac sodium, thiocolchicoside, on the activity of purified human carbonic anhydrase I and II were evaluated. The effect of these drugs on erythrocyte hCA I and hCA II was compared to recombinant hCA I and hCA II expressed in Ecoli. IC(50) values of the drugs that caused inhibition were determined by means of activity percentage diagrams. The IC(50) concentrations of dexketoprofen trometamol and dexamethasone sodium phosphate on hCA I were 683 ?M and 4250 ?M and for hCA II 950 ?M and 6200 ?M respectively. Conversely, the enzyme activity was increased by diflofenac sodium. In addition, thiocolchicoside has not any affect on hCA I and hCA II. The effect of these drugs on erythrocyte hCA I and hCA II were consistent with the inhibition of recombinant enzymes. PMID:21534860

  17. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Reza Heidari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was performed on 32 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic, melatonin-treated diabetic and vitamin E-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (50 mg/kg injection. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p. and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 2 weeks after 21st day of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, pain-related behavior was assessed using 0.5% formalin test according to two spontaneous flinching and licking responses. The levels of lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were evaluated in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.ResultsFormalin-evoked flinching and total time of licking were increased in both acute and chronic phases of pain in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, whereas treatment with melatonin or vitamin E significantly reduced the pain indices. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in diabetic rats. Both antioxidants reversed the biochemical parameters toward their control values.ConclusionThese results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to induction of pain in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidants, melatonin and vitamin E, can reduce peripheral neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  18. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, S F; Dirksen, Asger

    1979-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo effects of therapeutical doses of acetylsalicylic acid on lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood were investigated with the following results: Acetylsalicylic acid caused both in vitro and in vivo a reduction of complement receptor bearing lymphocytes and of lymphocytes identified with fluorescent rabbit antibody to human Ig (polyvalent) and to human IgG. Sheep red blood cell receptor bearing lymphocytes, and lymphocytes identified with antibody to human IgM and IgD were unaffected by acetylsalicylic acid.

  19. The Evaluation of the Analgesic Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Solanum Melongena in Syrian Mice Using Tail Flick Test

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    H Falah-Tafti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, many researches are being conducted in order to evaluate the analgesic effects of different plants which have been used as sedative in traditional medicine. Solanum Melongena is a plant with different theories about its analgesic effects. In this experimental trial research, the effects of intraperitoneal(IP injection of hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena were assessed and compared with different doses of morphine and distilled water in Syrian mice. Methods: The effects of different doses of Solanum Melongena (1, 10, 100, and 1000µg/Kg, different doses of morphine sulfate (1, 2, and 4 µg/Kg and distilled water on acute pain was assessed in Syrian mice. Tail flick latency after IP injection was measured for 75 minutes as the index of pain tolerance, using a tail flick apparatus which projects a condensed light stimulus on the animal's tail. Results: Our findings showed that different doses of Solanum increased analgesia index. This effect was more prominent in 45-60 minutes after IP injections which was significantly greater than the control group (p<0.05(. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena produces analgesic effect in a dose- related manner.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of a Novel Biflavonoid from Shells of Camellia oleifera

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    Yong Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum (p < 0.01, revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  1. Analgesic effects of methanolic extracts of the leaf or root of Moringa oleifera on complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Manaheji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Moringa oleifera (family Moringaceae) has been widely used in African folk medicine, and researchers have recently revealed its anti-inflammatory effects in human. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of methanolic extracts of M. oleifera in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 220 g, were used in this study. Adjuvant arthritis was induced on day 0 by a single subcutaneous injection of CFA. T...

  2. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formukong, E A; Evans, A T; Evans, F J

    1988-08-01

    Two extracts of Cannabis sativa herb, one being cannabinoid-free (ethanol) and the other containing the cannabinoids (petroleum), were shown to inhibit PBQ-induced writhing in mouse when given orally and also to antagonize tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced erythema of mouse skin when applied topically. With the exception of cannabinol (CBN) and delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC), the cannabinoids and olivetol (their biosynthetic precursor) demonstrated activity in the PBQ test exhibiting their maximal effect at doses of about 100 micrograms/kg. delta 1-THC only became maximally effective in doses of 10 mg/kg. This higher dose corresponded to that which induced catalepsy and is indicative of a central action. CNB demonstrated little activity and even at doses in excess of 10 mg/kg could only produce a 40% inhibition of PBQ-induced writhing. Cannabinoid (CBD) was the most effective of the cannabinoids at doses of 100 micrograms/kg. Doses of cannabinoids that were effective in the analgesic test orally were used topically to antagonize TPA-induced erythema of skin. The fact that delta 1-THC and CBN were the least effective in this test suggests a structural relationship between analgesic activity and antiinflammatory activity among the cannabinoids related to their peripheral actions and separate from the central effects of delta 1-THC. PMID:3169967

  3. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effect of ropivacaine during continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, C J; Sjövall, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ropivacaine (2.5 mg/ml) during a 24-h continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief in 20 patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were characterized using an open-label, increasing-dose design. METHODS: Through an epidural catheter inserted at T10-T12, a test dose of 7.5 mg ropivacaine was given 3 min before a bolus dose of 42.5 mg and immediately followed by a 24-h continuous epidural infusion with either 10 or 20 mg/h. Peripheral venous plasma samples were collected up to 48 h after infusion, and urinary excretion was followed up to the end of infusion. Postoperative pain at rest, on coughing, and at mobilization was assessed by means of a visual analog scale 2,4,6,8,12, and 24 h after the end of surgery. Sensory (pinprick) and motor block (modified Bromage scale) were assessed at the same intervals. RESULTS: The total plasma concentrations of ropivacaine increased markedly and consistently during the 24-h epidural infusion, in contrast to stable unbound concentrations. Both total and unbound plasma concentrations at the end of infusion were proportional to the total dose, although only the latter was proportional to the infusion rate. The total and unbound plasma clearance was independent of dose. Total mean clearance decreased on average by 21% (P < 0.001) during the last 12 h of epidural infusion, i.e., from 539 +/- 191 ml/min to 418 +/- 138 ml/min, indicating time-dependent kinetics. The unbound clearance also varied between estimates after 8 h of infusion and the end of treatment, i.e., a 5.3% decrease from 10.4 +/- 5.3 l/min to 9.5 +/- 3.9 l/min (P < 0.05). The unbound fraction of ropivacaine in plasma decreased during treatment, and this was related to the increase in alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Pain was generally well controlled, and median visual analog scale scores during mobilization were less than 30 mm in patients receiving ropivacaine at 20 mg/h. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine were independent of dose, but total clearance decreased with time over 24 h. The consistent increase in total plasma concentration during the postoperative epidural infusion contrasted to much less variation in the unbound plasma concentrations of ropivacaine.

  4. Gabapentina en dolor raquídeo crónico: Valoración de su eficacia analgésica Gabapentin in chronic rachidian pain: Assessment of its analgesic effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cartagena

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Valorar la eficacia analgésica de la gabapentina (GBP en pacientes con dolor raquídeo crónico (DRC, que no han respondido adecuadamente a los tratamientos farmacológicos habitualmente empleados (antiinflamatorios no esteroideos -AINE-, opioides menores o mayores, relajantes musculares, antidepresivos, etc.. Material y métodos: Se han estudiado de modo prospectivo y aleatorio 41 pacientes afectos de DRC (cervical, dorsal y/o lumbar, independientemente de su etiología, con o sin radiculopatía asociada, que no hubieran respondido previamente a los tratamientos farmacológicos habituales. No obstante, durante el estudio, por razones éticas y, en un intento de obtener la mayor eficacia analgésica posible con tales fármacos, se permitió el empleo de los mismos, aunque realizando, previamente, un reajuste de las dosis por parte de un especialista de la Unidad de Dolor. Si tras este ajuste no se obtenía una respuesta adecuada, se iniciaba el tratamiento con gabapentina de manera gradual hasta alcanzar una dosis de 300 mg cada 8 h; dicha dosis se fue incrementando hasta obtener una respuesta terapéutica (con un máximo de 2400 mg.día-1 o la aparición de efectos secundarios intolerables. A partir del inicio del tratamiento con gabapentina se realizó un seguimiento durante tres meses en el que se valoraban características del dolor, localización, irradiación, y se cuantificaba mediante una escala analógica visual -EVA- (100 mm y test de Lattinen. Asimismo, se evaluó la calidad del sueño mediante una EVA modificada. Se recogieron también la dosis utilizadas para el control del dolor así como los efectos secundarios aparecidos y las causas de abandono. Resultados: Desde el primer mes de tratamiento y ya con dosis bajas de gabapentina se observó una mejoría significativa en los valores de la EVA del dolor, test Lattinen y calidad de sueño, incluso en aquellos pacientes en los que no existía radiculopatía asociada o dolor de características neuropáticas claras. Dicha mejora en los parámetros mencionados fue progresiva incluso sin necesidad de seguir aumentando la dosis de gabapentina. La tolerancia fue muy buena no siendo preciso interrumpir en ningún caso el tratamiento por los efectos secundarios, los cuales han sido en general leves y autolimitados. Conclusión: La gabapentina, como coadyuvante de la terapia habitual, es un fármaco eficaz en pacientes con dolor crónico raquídeo, no precisando dosis elevadas y presentando buena tolerancia con una baja incidencia de efectos secundarios.Objectives: To assess the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin (GBP in patients with chronic rachidian pain (CRP refractory to standard pharmacological therapies (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs, minor and major opiates, muscular relaxants, antidepressants, etc.. Material and methods: Forty one patients with CRP (cervical, dorsal and lumbar pain refractory to prior standard drug therapies were prospectively and randomly studied, regardless their etiology, with or without associated radiculopathy. However, during the study, due to ethical reasons and in order to obtain the greatest analgesic effectiveness as possible with such drugs, their use was allowed, although with a prior dose titration performed by the Pain Unit specialist. If the response was inadequate even after dose titration, treatment with gabapentin was gradually introduced up to a dose of 300 mg each 8 hours; such dose was increased until obtaining a therapeutic response (up to a maximum of 2400 mg.day-1 or causing intolerable side effects. From the beginning of the treatment with gabapentin, a three-month follow-up was conducted in which pain features, location and irradiation were assessed and quantified using a visual analogical scale (VAS (100 mm and the Lattinen's test. Quality of sleep was also determined using a modified VAS. Doses required to relief pain, as well as side effects reported and dropout causes were also recorded. Results: Since the first month of therapy and with low doses of gabapentin, a

  5. Gabapentina en dolor raquídeo crónico: Valoración de su eficacia analgésica / Gabapentin in chronic rachidian pain: Assessment of its analgesic effectiveness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Cartagena; J. P., Vicente; E., Borrás; J. A., Castillo; G., Motos.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Valorar la eficacia analgésica de la gabapentina (GBP) en pacientes con dolor raquídeo crónico (DRC), que no han respondido adecuadamente a los tratamientos farmacológicos habitualmente empleados (antiinflamatorios no esteroideos -AINE-, opioides menores o mayores, relajantes musculares, [...] antidepresivos, etc.). Material y métodos: Se han estudiado de modo prospectivo y aleatorio 41 pacientes afectos de DRC (cervical, dorsal y/o lumbar), independientemente de su etiología, con o sin radiculopatía asociada, que no hubieran respondido previamente a los tratamientos farmacológicos habituales. No obstante, durante el estudio, por razones éticas y, en un intento de obtener la mayor eficacia analgésica posible con tales fármacos, se permitió el empleo de los mismos, aunque realizando, previamente, un reajuste de las dosis por parte de un especialista de la Unidad de Dolor. Si tras este ajuste no se obtenía una respuesta adecuada, se iniciaba el tratamiento con gabapentina de manera gradual hasta alcanzar una dosis de 300 mg cada 8 h; dicha dosis se fue incrementando hasta obtener una respuesta terapéutica (con un máximo de 2400 mg.día-1) o la aparición de efectos secundarios intolerables. A partir del inicio del tratamiento con gabapentina se realizó un seguimiento durante tres meses en el que se valoraban características del dolor, localización, irradiación, y se cuantificaba mediante una escala analógica visual -EVA- (100 mm) y test de Lattinen. Asimismo, se evaluó la calidad del sueño mediante una EVA modificada. Se recogieron también la dosis utilizadas para el control del dolor así como los efectos secundarios aparecidos y las causas de abandono. Resultados: Desde el primer mes de tratamiento y ya con dosis bajas de gabapentina se observó una mejoría significativa en los valores de la EVA del dolor, test Lattinen y calidad de sueño, incluso en aquellos pacientes en los que no existía radiculopatía asociada o dolor de características neuropáticas claras. Dicha mejora en los parámetros mencionados fue progresiva incluso sin necesidad de seguir aumentando la dosis de gabapentina. La tolerancia fue muy buena no siendo preciso interrumpir en ningún caso el tratamiento por los efectos secundarios, los cuales han sido en general leves y autolimitados. Conclusión: La gabapentina, como coadyuvante de la terapia habitual, es un fármaco eficaz en pacientes con dolor crónico raquídeo, no precisando dosis elevadas y presentando buena tolerancia con una baja incidencia de efectos secundarios. Abstract in english Objectives: To assess the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin (GBP) in patients with chronic rachidian pain (CRP) refractory to standard pharmacological therapies (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs, minor and major opiates, muscular relaxants, antidepressants, etc.). Material and methods [...] : Forty one patients with CRP (cervical, dorsal and lumbar pain) refractory to prior standard drug therapies were prospectively and randomly studied, regardless their etiology, with or without associated radiculopathy. However, during the study, due to ethical reasons and in order to obtain the greatest analgesic effectiveness as possible with such drugs, their use was allowed, although with a prior dose titration performed by the Pain Unit specialist. If the response was inadequate even after dose titration, treatment with gabapentin was gradually introduced up to a dose of 300 mg each 8 hours; such dose was increased until obtaining a therapeutic response (up to a maximum of 2400 mg.day-1) or causing intolerable side effects. From the beginning of the treatment with gabapentin, a three-month follow-up was conducted in which pain features, location and irradiation were assessed and quantified using a visual analogical scale (VAS) (100 mm) and the Lattinen's test. Quality of sleep was also determined using a modified VAS. Doses required to relief pain, as well as side effects reported and dropout causes were also recorded. Results: Since the first month

  6. Analgesic effect of iridoid glycosides from Paederia scandens (LOUR.) MERRILL (Rubiaceae) on spared nerve injury rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Zhou, Lanlan; Chen, Zhiwu; Hu, Caibiao

    2012-09-01

    Iridoid glycosides of Paederia scandens (IGPS) is a major active component isolated from traditional Chinese herb P. scandens (LOUR.) MERRILL (Rubiaceae). The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic effect of IGPS on spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain. The SNI model in rats was established by complete transection of the common peroneal and tibial distal branches of the sciatic nerve, leaving the sural branch intact. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) in response to mechanical stimulation was measured by electronic von Frey filaments on day 1 before operation and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 after operation, respectively. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production of spinal cord were measured by spectrophotometry and its cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) content by radioimmunoassay, mRNA expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and protein kinase G type I (PKG-I, including PKG ?? and PKG I?) of spinal cord were analyzed by RT-PCR. There was a marked mechanical hypersensitivity response observed on day 1 after operation in SNI model, which accompanied with decreased MWT. Treatment with IGPS (70, 140, 280 mg/kg) significantly alleviated SNI-induced mechanical hypersensitivity response evidenced by increased MWT; as well as markedly decreased NOS activity, NO and cGMP levels. At the same time, IGPS (70, 140, 280 mg/kg) could also inhibit mRNA expression of iNOS, PKG ?? and PKG I? in the spinal cord. The results suggested that IGPS possesses antinociceptive effect, which may be partly related to the inhibition of NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway in the rat SNI model of neuropathic pain. PMID:22698486

  7. Effective connectivity predicts future placebo analgesic response: A dynamic causal modeling study of pain processing in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevel, Landrew S; O'Shea, Andrew M; Letzen, Janelle E; Craggs, Jason G; Price, Donald D; Robinson, Michael E

    2015-04-15

    A better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying pain processing and analgesia may aid in the development and personalization of effective treatments for chronic pain. Clarification of the neural predictors of individual variability in placebo analgesia (PA) could aid in this process. The present study examined whether the strength of effective connectivity (EC) among pain-related brain regions could predict future placebo analgesic response in healthy individuals. In Visit 1, fMRI data were collected from 24 healthy subjects (13 females, mean age=22.56, SD=2.94) while experiencing painful thermal stimuli. During Visit 2, subjects were conditioned to expect less pain via a surreptitiously lowered temperature applied at two of the four sites on their feet. They were subsequently scanned again using the Visit 1 (painful) temperature. Subjects used an electronic VAS to rate their pain following each stimulus. Differences in ratings at conditioned and unconditioned sites were used to measure placebo response (PA scores). Dynamic causal modeling was used to estimate the EC among a set of brain regions related to pain processing at Visit 1 (periaqueductal gray, thalamus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Individual PA scores from Visit 2 were regressed on salient EC parameter estimates from Visit 1. Results indicate that both greater left hemisphere modulatory DLPFC?PAG connectivity and right hemisphere, endogenous thalamus?DLPFC connectivity were significantly predictive of future placebo response (R(2)=0.82). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the value of EC in understanding individual differences in PA, and may suggest the potential modifiability of endogenous pain modulation. PMID:25659463

  8. The Analgesic Effects of Apitoxin and its Mechanism via JOR and Measuring Expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and TPH using RT-PCR

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    Cho Kwang Ho

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to prove the analgesic effects of apitoxin and its mechanism via jaw-opening reflex(JOR and measuring expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and Tryptophan hydroxylase(TPH using RT-PCR. The experiments were carried out on Sprague-Dawley rats(300-400g and mastocytoma (P-185 HTR for JOR and RT-PCR, respectively. Rats anesthetized with thiopental sodium (80mg/kg were used in the Tooth Pulp stimulation induced JOR. The amplitude of a digastric electromyogram (dEMG was recorded during the stimulation at an intensity of 1.5 times the threshold for JOR. Apitoxin used in this experiment was diluted with normal saline by 1:1000. Apitoxin was injected intravenously into the test group while normal saline to the control group. However, it was injected directly into the cell of mastocytoma. We referred to base sequence registered in Genbank in designing primers for RT-PCR. The results were as follows; (1Compared with control group, analgesic effect started to show right after Sprague-Dawely rats were treated with apitoxin(71.50±8.08 and lasted for 50 minutes. (2As a result of the experiment of RT-PCR, we witnessed significant changes in the degree of expression of phospholipase or rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of prostaglandins with 10?g/? apitoxin.(31.74±18.98%, P<0.05 (3As a result of the experiment of RT-PCR, we witnessed significant changes in the degree of expression of TPH or rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of serotonin with 10?g/? apitoxin.(131.37±16.87%, P<0.05. These results suggest that 10?g/? apitoxin have the most analgesic effects. This study showed that apitoxin has analgesic effects and held good for 50 minutes. The injection of apitoxin has brought out changes in the degree of expression of phospholipase and TPH. These results strongly suggest that analgesic mechanism by apitoxin is closely related to prostaglandins and serotonin.

  9. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

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    Apurba Mukherjee, Meghali Chaliha and Swarnamoni Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  10. A novel automated method for measuring the effect of analgesics on formalin-evoked licking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama, Yojiro; Sujaku, Tetsujo; Furuta, Akihiro

    2008-01-30

    The behavioral assessment of pain is essential for the analysis of pain mechanisms and the evaluation of analgesic drugs. The formalin test is one of such methods widely used as a model of injury-induced pain in rodents. This test is manually demanding and the recording of results is left to the subjectivity of the experimenters. Thus we developed a novel automated method to estimate the pharmacological response in formalin-induced licking behavior in rats using a multicolor detection technique. Two color markers were preliminarily applied to rats-yellow dye on the mouth and fluorescent green tape on the right hind paw. Behaviors of the animals were recorded from both above and below the subject, by a dual-view digital video camera system. After injection with formalin into the hind paw, rats exhibited a biphasic display of licking behavior. Licking time was measured by the sum of frames where the distance between these markers was less than an appropriate threshold of distance (TD). The split-plot analysis of variance demonstrated that the sum of squares of differences in licking time between manual and automated measurement was minimized when TD = 20mm. In addition, frames in which moving velocity of these markers is less than 2.5mm/s was neglected for calculation in order to eliminate sedative effect on the recorded data. On these conditions, subcutaneous administration of morphine in rats dose-dependently decreased formalin-elicited nociceptive responses. These results suggest that under optimal conditions the automated technique when applied to pharmacological studies are more reliable and efficient than if they are manually recorded. PMID:17881061

  11. Comparing the painlessness effects of spinal (sufentanil and epidural(bupivacaine plus lidocaine analgesic methods in labour and delivery

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    A. Shafiee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: This study was designed in order to compare the effects of spinal and epidural analgesia on labour and also several maternal and fetal factors in vaginal delivery.Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized clinical trail and participatnts were 120 gravid 1 and gravid 2 women in the active phase of delivery, admitted to the labour room of Fatemieh Hospital in Hamedan in 1381-1382.Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30, analgesia was induced by single spinal sufentanil injection in one group and, bupivacaine plus lidocaine injection in the other group.Maternal vital signs and pain score were recorded (VAS at 1, 5, 15 and 30 minutes after administration of analgesia and every 30 minutes thereafter. Fetal heart rate every 15 minutes, vaginal examination every hour, urinary output every 4 hours after delivery and the incidence of headache and back pain, one week after delivery were the variables under study.Results: Both groups were matched regarding demographic, gravida and Parity factors. There was no significant difference between groups regarding pain score, (based on VAS,duration of the first and second delivery phase, the incidence of fetal distress, meconium excretion, apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes after delivery, abnormal laboar, operative or assisted delivery. Average analgesic duration was longer in spinal analgesia than single epidural injection analgesia.Conclusion: Considering the difficulty of the technique, the need for anaestheticianHs supervision and injection repeatition in epidural analgesia, it seems that spinal analgesia is a suitable replacement which is more practical, less expensive, easy to perform and induces a desirable analgesia.

  12. Experimental designs and brain mapping approaches for studying the placebo analgesic effect

    OpenAIRE

    De Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The placebo effect has intrigued scientists since it was proposed. The debate has now centered on how it works. Significant progress has been made and most of our knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms comes from the field of pain and analgesia. The appropriateness of the experimental/clinical paradigms is crucial when we want to investigate the mechanisms of the placebo phenomenon. Recently, functional imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imagi...

  13. PUTATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION (TDCS)

    OpenAIRE

    HelenaKnotkova; MichaelA.Nitsche; RicardoACruciani

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that induces changes in excitability, and activation of brain neurons and neuronal circuits. It has been observed that beyond regional effects under the electrodes, tDCS also alters activity of remote interconnected cortical and subcortical areas. This makes the tDCS stimulation technique potentially promising for modulation of pain syndromes. Indeed, utilizing specific montages, tDCS resulted in ana...

  14. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus)

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Aithal; P Kinjavdekar; A.M. Pawde; K. Pratap

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg) and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg) and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II). The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory r...

  15. Effects of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in rats

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    Jin-ling YIN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in Wistar rats.Methods A total of 100 Wistar rats(180-220g were exposed to microwave with different average power densities of 5,10,30 and 60 mW/cm2,and sham exposure of 0mW/cm2 was performed in a control group at the same time.At day 1,7,14 and 28 after microwave irradiation,the changes in peripheral CD3+,CD4+,CD8+ T cells,ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and CD45RA+ B lymphocyte in rats were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM.Results The CD3+ T cells decreased significantly in 10-30mW/cm2 groups at day 7 and in 5-30 mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05,and CD4+ T cells decreased significantly in 10mW/cm2 group at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.01.From day 1 to day 14 after radiation,CD8+ T cells showed a reduction in number in all irradiated groups when compared with the control,but statistical significance was only found in the 30mW/cm2 group(P < 0.05.The CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased in 5mW/cm2 group on day 1,while decreased significantly in 5-30mW/cm2 groups on day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05.After microwave exposure,however,CD45RA+ B cells in 30mW/cm2 group at day 1 and in 30-60mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion A definite dosage of microwave radiation,ranging from 5-60mW/cm2,may induce changes in subpopulations of peripheral lymphocytes and cause acute immune function impairment in rats.

  16. Gabapentin Increases Analgesic Effect of Chronic Use of Morphine while Decreases Withdrawal Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Manzumeh-Shamsi Meimandi; Mina-Mobasher; GholamReza-Sepehri; Ashrafganjooei Narges

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the role of gabapentin co-administration in morphine antinociception and withdrawal effect. Four groups of male rats were examined for latency time using tail flick test; control, morphine (M), gabapentin (GB) and gabapentin-morphine (GB-M) treated groups. Rats received morphine (10 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, s.c.) or gabapentin (75 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, i.p.) or both of them twice a day for 9 days. Control rats received normal ...

  17. NATURAL AND PARTIALLY SYNTETIC ANALGESICS

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    Stevan Glogovac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a long hystory of stimulating and mind-altering substances use. Depressive drugs, including morphine and other narcotics, barbiturates and ethanol, are strongly addictive for susceptible individuals. The phenomenon is most striking in the case of opiates. Morphine is an alkaloid of opium. Named after the Roman god of dreams, Morpheus, the compound has potent analgesic properties toward all types of pain. By supstitution of two hydroxylic groups of morphine many natural and semysyntetic derivatives with different pharmacological activity and analgesic action are obtained. Determinations and quantifications of narcotic analgesics in drug addicts are important in forensic medicine and clinical toxicology. With development of highly sensitive chromatography technique (HPLC-GC, GH-MS, more and more substances are determined, including opioid drugs: morphine, codeine, dyhydrocodeine, and heroin and 6-monoacetyl morphine. Hair analysys by HPLC/MS spectroscopy is an effective forensic tool for determining the use of abused drugs. The “fingerprint” for heroin in the mixture with the other substances(1-10 components is determined by 1D-TOCSY NMR.

  18. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Thoracic Epidural Morphine and Fentanyl

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    Gönül Sa??ro?lu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to compare epidural morphine and fentanyl analgesia and the side effects in post-thoracotomy pain management. Material and Methods: Forty patients, planned for elective thoracotomy were included. Bupivacain- morphine was administered through an epidural catheter to the patients in Group-M while bupivacain-fentanyl was given in Group-F. Pain assessment was carried out with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and VAS-I and VAS-II were assessed in 0, 4, 16 and 24th hour in the postoperative unit. Adverse effects were recorded after the 24th hour. Statistical analyses were performed by using Two-sample independent-t test, Mann Whitney-U test, Wilcoxon-signed ranks test and Pearson chi-squared tests. Results: Although, the VAS-I and VAS-II scores were lower in Group-M than Group-F, the difference was not significant statistically (p>0.05. When other hours were compared with initial states, beginning from the 4th hour, in both groups there was a statistically significant drop in VAS-I and VAS-II scores at all times (p<0.001. Comparing the complications between the groups, in Group-M nausea-vomiting (p<0.015 and bradycardia (p<0.012 were found significantly more frequently than in Group-F. Conclusion: We concluded that, in pain management after thoracic surgery, either morphine or fentanyl may be chosen in thoracal epidural analgesia but, especially in the early postoperative hours, close follow-up is necessary due to the risk of bradycardia development.

  19. Effect of analgesic therapy on clinical outcome measures in a randomized controlled trial using client-owned dogs with hip osteoarthritis

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    Malek Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver placebo effect is typically evident. However, little is known about effect sizes of common outcome-measures in canine clinical trials evaluating treatment of OA pain. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with hip OA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective trial. After a 1 week baseline period, dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment (ABT-116 – transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 antagonist, Carprofen – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, Tramadol - synthetic opiate, or Placebo for 2 weeks. Outcome-measures included physical examination parameters, owner questionnaire, activity monitoring, gait analysis, and use of rescue medication. Results Acute hyperthermia developed after ABT-116 treatment (P P ? 0.01 and tramadol (P ? 0.001 led to improved mobility assessed by owner questionnaire. Nighttime activity was increased after ABT-116 treatment (P = 0.01. Kinetic gait analysis did not reveal significant treatment effects. Use of rescue treatment decreased with treatment in the ABT-116 and Carprofen groups (P R ? ±0.40, P ? 0.005. Placebo treatment effects were evident with all variables studied. Conclusion Treatment of hip OA in client-owned dogs is associated with a placebo effect for all variables that are commonly used for efficacy studies of analgesic drugs. This likely reflects caregiver bias or the phenomenon of regression to the mean. In the present study, outcome measures with significant effects also varied between groups, highlighting the value of using multiple outcome measures, as well as an a priori analysis of effect size associated with each measure. Effect size data from the present study could be used to inform design of future trials studying analgesic treatment of canine OA. Our results suggest that analgesic treatment with ABT-116 is not as effective as carprofen or tramadol for treatment of hip arthritis pain in client-owned dogs.

  20. AS1069562, the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, but not duloxetine has a curative-like analgesic effect in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Nobuhito; Aoki, Toshiaki; Tamura, Seiji; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hamakawa, Nozomu; Matsuoka, Nobuya

    2014-04-01

    AS1069562 is the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, which had been clinically used as a cerebral activator for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases with serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (SNRI) and neuroprotection. Here, we compared the analgesic effects of repeated treatment with AS1069562 and duloxetine, a selective SNRI, on pain-related behavior in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathy. Further, we also evaluated the effects on the expression of neurotrophic factors and nerve conduction velocity. AS1069562 and duloxetine by single daily administration for 4 weeks significantly improved mechanical allodynia in STZ-induced diabetic rats and did not affect plasma glucose level or body weight. Interestingly, the analgesic effect of AS1069562 continued after a consecutive 1-week treatment discontinuation, although the plasma concentration of AS1069562 was reduced to undetectable levels. In contrast, the efficacy of duloxetine disappeared after treatment discontinuation. Expression analysis demonstrated that AS1069562 significantly restored decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 and fibroblast growth factor 2 mRNA levels in dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord, respectively, whereas duloxetine did not affect the expression levels of neurotrophic factors. In addition, AS1069562 reversed the slowing of nerve conduction velocity. The results of this study indicate that the analgesic effect of repeated dosing of AS1069562 but not duloxetine is persistent even after a 1-week drug discontinuation in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Restoration of neurotrophic factors may be involved in the curative-like pharmacological effect of this agent. Thus, AS1069562 may potentially offer a better treatment option for patients with painful diabetic neuropathy than duloxetine via different mechanisms. PMID:24211301

  1. [An atypical opioid analgesic: tramadol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinbora, Kader; Aydinli, I?ik

    2006-01-01

    Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic, consists of two enantiomers, both of which contribute to analgesic activity via different mechanisms. (+) Tramadol and the metabolite (+) -O- desmethyl-tramadol (M1) are agonists of the mu opioid receptor. (+) Tramadol also stimulates presinaptic release of serotonin and inhibits serotonin reuptake whereas (-) tramadol inhibits norepinephrine reuptake. Thus tramadol enhances inhibitory effects on pain transmission both by opioid and monoaminergic mechanisms. The complementary and synergistic actions of the two enantiomers improve the analgesic efficacy and tolerability profile of the racemate. Following oral administration the bioavailability of tramadol is high and with new slow release preparations twice daily administration enables effective pain control. The recommended maximum daily dose of tramadol is 400 mg/day. Tramadol is characterised by low plasma protein binding and quite extensive tissue distribution. Elimination is primarily by the hepatic route (metabolism by CYP2D6) and partly by the renal route. It is effective in different types of moderate-to-severe acute and chronic pain, including neuropathic pain, low back pain, osteoarthritis pain and breakthrough pain. It also causes fewer opioid-type adverse effects, e.g. nausea, drowsiness, vomiting, dry mouth and constipation. Although trials in literature demonstrate immune-stimulating effects of tramadol, there are also trials suggesting immunesuppressive effects that are lesser than morphine. Owing to its pharmacological properties, tramadol is more appropriate than NSAIDs for patients suffering from gastrointestinal and renal problems. Besides its proven clinical efficacy tramadol is a safe drug as respiratory depression, cardiovascular side effects, drug abuse and dependence are of minor clinical relevance, unlike some other opioids. PMID:16783663

  2. Antidepressants as analgesics: a review of randomized controlled trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    This review provides an overview of 59 randomized placebo-controlled trials that examined the analgesic effect of antidepressants. To summarize, there is significant evidence that the tricyclic group of antidepressants is analgesic and that trazodone is not; the data regarding selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are conflicting. To date, there are no randomized controlled trials examining the potential analgesic action of nefazodone or venlafaxine, but on the basis of initial clinical rep...

  3. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanolic Root Extract of Hippocratea africana

    OpenAIRE

    Okokon, Jude E.; Antia, Bassey S.; Emem Umoh

    2008-01-01

    The ethanolic root extract of Hippocratea africana (200-600 mg kg-1) was evaluated for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. The extract dose dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking and thermally -induced pain in mice. The extract also inhibited fresh egg albumin, carrageenin and xylene-induced inflammation in mice. These inhibitions were statistically significant (p<0.05) when compared to control. The roots extracts was al...

  4. Assessment of the Analgesic Effects of Extrapleural Infusion of Ropivacaine in Neonates with Esophageal Atresia (EA) Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mirkheshti, Alireza; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghi, Afsaneh; Tavassoli, Azita; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Insufficient control of post-thoracotomy pain can produce breathing dysfunction and long term staying in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). It can increase the incidence of pulmonary complications such as atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure. The aim of this study was to determine the analgesic effect of continuous extrapleural nerve block, using ropivacaine, in neonates younger than 7 days old with esophageal atersia (EA) and the incidence of atelectasis and duration of hospitalization in NICU. For this purpose, from February 2007 till January 2009 in Mofid children’s hospital, 68 neonates under 7 days old whom were candidate for thoracotomy due to esophageal atresia were, randomly divided into two groups in a controlled clinical trial. The cases received extrapleural infusion of ropivacaine 0.5% (0.1 mL/kg/h for 48 h) and controls received acetaminophen 20 mg/kg three times a day via the rectal route. Hemodynamically unstable patients and those who suffered from hospital infections were excluded from the study. After the surgery, all patients had spontaneous breathing without endotracheal tube and stable hemodynamic in NICU. Pain level was determined for each neonate, based on the neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS) grading. The incidence of atelectasis in the first 48 h after operation and throughout the NICU staying were also determined. Results showed that there were no significant difference in the mean age, sex proportions and mean weight between the two groups. The mean pain score in the group received ropivacaine (1.9 ± 0.7) was significantly less than the control group (5.2 ± 0.6) (p < 0.001). Five percent of cases (n = 1) and 100% of the control group (n=20) had pain scores equal or greater than 3 (p < 0.001). The incidence of atelectasis among cases was less than the control group (35% vs. 65% respectively; p = 0.58). Duration of hospitalization in the case group (12 ± 5.6 days) had no significant difference from the control group (13.6 ± 4.8 days) (p = 0.3) In conclusion, the results showed that continuous extrapleural infusion of ropivacaine reduces the pain noticeably and atelectasis relatively, after thoracotomy in neonates younger than 7 days suffering from EA, compared to the acetaminophen group. PMID:24363744

  5. TRPV1: A Target for Next Generation Analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Louis S; Sikand, Parul

    2008-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a Ca2+ permeant non-selective cation channel expressed in a subpopulation of primary afferent neurons. TRPV1 is activated by physical and chemical stimuli. It is critical for the detection of nociceptive and thermal inflammatory pain as revealed by the deletion of the TRPV1 gene. TRPV1 is distributed in the peripheral and central terminals of the sensory neurons and plays a role in initiating action potentials at the nerve terminals and modulating neurotransmitter release at the first sensory synapse, respectively. Distribution of TRPV1 in the nerve terminals innervating blood vessels and in parts of the CNS that are not subjected to temperature range that is required to activate TRPV1 suggests a role beyond a noxious thermal sensor. Presently, TRPV1 is being considered as a target for analgesics through evaluation of different antagonists. Here, we will discuss the distribution and the functions of TRPV1, potential use of its agonists and antagonists as analgesics and highlight the functions that are not related to nociceptive transmission that might lead to adverse effects. PMID:19305794

  6. Distant cancer effects on standardised testing of peripheral vision

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, W.; Jordan, B.; Marsh, R.; Hazariwala, K.; Flowers, F.; Fang, T.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Profound central-retinal visual losses have been a major presenting factor reported in cancer and melanoma associated retinopathies (CAR, MAR). However, it is well established that standardised tests of peripheral retinal function are often the most sensitive detectors of early eye disease. This is a preliminary investigation of the responsiveness of the peripheral retina to "distant" (non-eye or CNS) cancers using easily obtained standardised tests.?METHODS—The design is a s...

  7. The Analgesic Effects of Apitoxin and its Mechanism via JOR and Measuring Expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and TPH using RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Cho Kwang Ho; Lee Jae-Dong; Park Dong-Suk; Ahn Byoung-Chou

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prove the analgesic effects of apitoxin and its mechanism via jaw-opening reflex(JOR) and measuring expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and Tryptophan hydroxylase(TPH) using RT-PCR. The experiments were carried out on Sprague-Dawley rats(300-400g) and mastocytoma (P-185 HTR) for JOR and RT-PCR, respectively. Rats anesthetized with thiopental sodium (80mg/kg) were used in the Tooth Pulp stimulation induced JOR. The amplitude of a digastric electromyogram (dEM...

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo, the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mu Hong; Choi, Hyun Mi; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Her, Erk; Yang, Hyung-In; Yoo, Myung Chul; Kim, Kyoung Soo

    2012-10-01

    Taheebo, the purple inner bark of the Bignoniaceae tree Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb, which is found in tropical rain forests in northeastern Brazil, has been used as a traditional medicine for various diseases for more than 1,500 years. In the current study, various animal models were used to demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of its ethanolic extract, thereby investigating its potential as a therapeutic treatment for diseases with pain and inflammation. In the hot plate and writhing tests for the in vivo analgesic effect test of Taheebo, a 200 mg/kg dose of the extract induced a significant anti-nociceptive effect and increased the pain threshold by approximately 30% compared with the control. In vascular permeability and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)?, arachidonic acid- and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests for anti-inflammatory effects, treatment with 200 mg/kg Taheebo led to significant anti-inflammatory effects and inhibited inflammation by 30-50% compared with the control. At 100 mg/kg, the extract decreased the levels of pain and inflammation in all tested models, but the degree of inhibition was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic or supportive drug against diseases with accompanying pain and inflammation, including osteoarthritis. PMID:22825254

  9. CR4056, a new analgesic I2 ligand, is highly effective against bortezomib-induced painful neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meregalli C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Meregalli,1 Cecilia Ceresa,1 Annalisa Canta,1 Valentina Alda Carozzi,1 Alessia Chiorazzi,1 Barbara Sala,1 Norberto Oggioni,1 Marco Lanza,2 Ornella Letar,i2 Flora Ferrari,2 Federica Avezza,1 Paola Marmiroli,1 GianFranco Caselli,2 Guido Cavaletti11Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Technologies, University of Milan-Bicocca, 2Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Rottapharm | Madaus Research Center, Monza, ItalyAbstract: Although bortezomib (BTZ is the frontline treatment for multiple myeloma, its clinical use is limited by the occurrence of painful peripheral neuropathy, whose treatment is still an unmet clinical need. Previous studies have shown chronic BTZ administration (0.20 mg/kg intravenously three times a week for 8 weeks to female Wistar rats induced a peripheral neuropathy similar to that observed in humans. In this animal model of BTZ-induced neurotoxicity, the present authors evaluated the efficacy of CR4056, a novel I2 ligand endowed with a remarkable efficacy in several animal pain models. CR4056 was administered in a wide range of doses (0.6–60 mg/kg by gavage every day for 2–3 weeks in comparison with buprenorphine (Bupre (28.8 µg/kg subcutaneously every day for 2 weeks and gabapentin (Gaba (100 mg/kg by gavage every day for 3 weeks. Chronic administration of BTZ reduced nerve conduction velocity and induced allodynia. CR4056, Bupre, or Gaba did not affect the impaired nerve conduction velocity. Conversely, CR4056 dose-dependently reversed BTZ-induced allodynia (minimum effective dose 0.6 mg/kg. The optimal dose found, 6 mg/kg, provided a constant pain relief throughout the treatment period and without rebound after suspension, being effective when coadministered with BTZ, starting before or after allodynia was established, or when administered alone after BTZ cessation. A certain degree of tolerance was seen after 7 days of administration, but only at the highest doses (20 and 60 mg/kg. Bupre was effective only acutely, since tolerance was evident from the fourth day onwards. Gaba showed a significant activity only at the fourth day of treatment. CR4056, over the range of concentrations of 3–30 µM, was unable to hinder BTZ cytotoxicity on several tumor cell lines, which could indicate that this substance does not directly interfere with BTZ antitumor activity. Therefore, CR4056 could represent a new treatment option for BTZ-induced neuropathic pain.Keywords: imidazoline I2 receptor ligand, antinociception, allodynia, neuropathic pain, bortezomib

  10. Efeito analgésico de antagonistas do receptor da histamina H2 em modelo de dor provocada por formalina em ratos / Analgesic effect of hystamine H2 receptor antagonists in formalin-induced pain model in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deutsch, Fernanda; Hazem Adel, Ashmawi; Cláudia Carneiro de Araújo, Palmeira; Irimar de Paula, Posso.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Antagonistas de receptor de histamina apresentam efeitos sobre a dor. Antagonistas de receptor H1 apresentam efeito analgésico local, o papel de antagonistas de receptor H2 sobre a dor no sistema nervoso periférico ainda não está claro. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avali [...] ar os efeitos de diferentes antagonistas H2 sobre a dor induzida pela administração de formalina na pata de ratos. MÉTODO: Foram estudados ratos machos divididos em grupos que receberam formalina na pata e diferentes antagonistas de receptor H2 - ranitidina, cimetidina e loxtidina, injetados na pata em diferentes concentrações (0,05 ?mol, 0,25 ?mol ou 1 ?mol). Foi avaliado o número de elevações da pata pelo período de 45 minutos. RESULTADOS: A loxtidina inibiu o número de elevações da pata nas duas fases do teste a partir das três concentrações utilizadas, a ranitidina diminuiu o número de elevações da pata a partir da concentração de 0,25 ?mol na fase II, a cimetidina não inibiu esse comportamento doloroso. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com os resultados deste estudo, alguns antagonistas do receptor H2 apresentaram efeito analgésico local fármaco específico e não classe farmacológica específica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Histamine receptor antagonists affect pain perception. H1 receptor antagonists present local analgesic effect, but the role of H2 receptor antagonists on pain in the peripheral nervous system is not clear yet. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different H2 rece [...] ptor antagonists on pain induced by formalin paw injection in rats. METHOD: Male rats were studied and divided into groups that received formalin and different H2 receptor antagonists - ranitidine, cimetidine and loxtidine, injected in the paw at different concentrations (0.05 mol, 0.25 mol or 1 mol). The number of flinches was evaluated during 45 minutes. RESULTS: Loxtidine inhibited the number of flinches in both phases of the test with the three different concentrations. Ranitidine decreased the number of flinches in phase II as from 0.25 mol. Cimetidine did not affect pain behavior. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, some H2 receptor antagonists presented local analgesic effects, which seem to be drug-related and not pharmacological class-specific.

  11. [Caffeine in analgesics--myth or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K U

    2013-12-16

    Caffeine as an analgesic adiuvant has been discussed for many years. In a recent Cochrane review based on 19 studies with a total of 7238 patients, caffeine enhanced the efficacy of paracetamol, ibuprofen or aspirin with a number needed to treat (NNT) of about 16, comparable to the effect of doubling the dose of the primary analgesic, reported by other authors. Analgesia by caffeine is best explained by antagonism at adenosine receptors. Recent studies confirmed a favourable tolerability profile of caffeine when consumed in "normal" quantities (e.g. 300 mg or about 3 cups of coffee per day), including possible cardiovascular risks, effects on bone density, and exposure in pregnancy. Beneficial effects are known,e.g.,in Parkinson's disease and liver cirrhosis and fibrosis. Caffeine remains an analgesic adiuvant with a favourable risk-benefit balance. PMID:24934064

  12. Analgesic Activity of Psidium guajava root extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta1, Manisha Bhatia, Randhir Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural products constitute the major division of pharmacotherapy. Psidium guajava Linn. has received much attention due to a variety of potential beneficial effects. Numerous polyphenolic compounds, triterpenoids and other chemical compounds are present in this plant. So the present study was designed to investigate the analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract of Psidium guajava in rats. In the present study, analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract of roots of Psidiium guajava L. was evaluated for the first time. Extracts were prepared by cold maceration process. The analgesicactivity was evaluated by using the tail immersion test andEddy's hot plate method. Different doses (100, 150 and200 mg/kg of petroleum ether extract (PEE and chloroform extract (CE of root of Psidiium guajava L were used for the study. Different doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of PEE of Psidium guajava produced a significant increase in withdrawal time in mice in tail immersion test and effect was found to be dose dependent. Similar results were observed with different doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of CE of Psidium guajava. The Evaluation of analgesic activity in Eddy's hot plate method revealed that PEE and CE has significant analgesic activity. Theincrease in time was found be dose dependent. The resultsobtained from the study indicate that PEE and CE ofPsidium guajava have significant analgesic activity.

  13. Effects of Dioscoreae Rhizoma (SanYak on Peripheral Neuropathy and its Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Min-jung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature for the safety and efficacy of Dioscoreae Rhizoma (DR for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Literature searches were performed in MEDLINE and three Korean medical databases up to April 2013. All studies evaluating the effects on peripheral neuropathy or the safety of DR monopreparations were considered. Results: Three studies - DR extract per os (po on diabetic neuropathy in mice, DR extract injection on the peripheral sciatic nerve after crush injury in rats and DR extract injection to patients with peripheral facial paralysis proved that DR treatments were effective for the treatment of nerve injuries. Conclusions: In conclusion, we found the DR has a strong positive potential for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, but studies addressing direct factors related to the nerve still remain insufficient.

  14. Evolution in pharmacologic thinking around the natural analgesic palmitoylethanolamide: from nonspecific resistance to PPAR-? agonist and effective nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink Department of Pharmacology, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany Abstract: The history of development of new concepts in pharmacology is a highly interesting topic. This review discusses scientific insights related to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and its progression over a period of six decades, especially in light of the work of the science sociologists, Ludwig Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. The discovery of the cannabis receptors and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was the beginning of a completely new understanding of many important homeostatic physiologic mechanisms in the human body. These discoveries were necessary for us to understand the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of PEA, a body-own fatty amide. PEA is a nutrient known already for more than 50 years. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and has a multitude of physiologic functions related to metabolic homeostasis. PEA was identified in the 1950s as a therapeutic principle with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Since 1975, its analgesic properties have been noted and explored in a variety of chronic pain states. Since 2008, PEA has been available as a nutraceutical under the brand names Normast® and PeaPure®. A literature search on PEA meanwhile has yielded over 350 papers, all referenced in PubMed, describing the physiologic properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacologic and therapeutic profile. This review describes the emergence of concepts related to the pharmacologic profile of PEA, with an emphasis on the search into its mechanism of action and the impact of failing to identify such mechanism in the period 1957–1993, on the acceptance of PEA as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound. Keywords: palmitoylethanolamide, sociology, science, paradigm, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, nutraceutical

  15. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  16. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the essential oil of the unique plant Zhumeria majdae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghazadeh, Seyyedeh Ghazal; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Asgarpanah, Jinous

    2015-04-01

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Zhumeria majdae essential oil were investigated in mice and rats. The analgesic activity of the oil was assessed by acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot plate methods while the acute anti-inflammatory effect was investigated by inflammatory paw edema in rat. Z majdae oil significantly decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhes in mice compared with animals that received vehicle only. Also it exhibited a central analgesic effect as evidenced by a significant increase in reaction time in the hot plate method. The oil also significantly reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The inhibitory activity of Z. majdae essential oil was found to be very close to that of the standard drug, diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg). The studied oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and seventeen constituents were identified, representing 99.2% of the oil. The major components of the oil were characterized as linalool (63.4%) and camphor (27.5%), which might be responsible for these observed activities. The results suggest that Z. majdae essential oil possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have significant activity against acute inflammation and have central and peripheral antinociceptive effects which support the ethnomedicinal claims of the plant application in the management of pain and inflammation. PMID:25973506

  17. [Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of saponins of Argania spinoza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Lagorce, J F; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of saponins of Argania spinosa cakes in mice and rats. With oral doses of 50 to 300 mg/kg, we found peripheric analgesic actions equivalent to the acetyl salicylic acid ones. The maximum protection was obtained with 500 mg/kg per os. There is no morphine-like central analgesic effect. Antiinflammatory studies were done in vivo using oedema due to carrageenine or experimental trauma in rats. There was a decrease in the paw swelling at doses of 10 mg/kg per os. At doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg per os, the antiinflammatory effect was similar to the one of indomethacin at doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg per os. In vitro, there was an inhibition of beef synovial fluid degradation by OH. radicals. The inhibition action is evaluated with an IC20 > or = 6 microM. Argania spinosa saponins have also an antiradical action against DPPH (IC25 = 85 mM) and against OH. radicals (IC25 = 0.56 M). Since they do not have any inhibition effect on PGE2 synthesis, their antiinflammatory activity can be explained by their action on leucotriens in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid. PMID:9805822

  18. Differential analgesic effects of low-dose epidural morphine and morphine-bupivacaine at rest and during mobilization after major abdominal surgery.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J

    1992-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized study, epidural infusions of low-dose morphine (0.2 mg/h) combined with low-dose bupivacaine (10 mg/h) were compared with epidural infusions of low-dose morphine (0.2 mg/h) alone for postoperative analgesia at rest and during mobilization and cough in 24 patients after elective major abdominal surgery. All patients in addition received systemic piroxicam (20 mg daily). No significant differences were observed between the groups at any assessment of pain at rest (P greater than 0.05), whereas pain in the morphine/bupivacaine group was significantly reduced during mobilization from the supine into the sitting position 12 and 30 h after surgical incision and during cough 8, 12, and 30 h after surgical incision (P less than 0.05). We conclude, that low-dose epidural bupivacaine potentiates postoperative low-dose epidural morphine analgesia during mobilization and cough. Evaluation of postoperative analgesic regimens should include assessment of pain during various activities as different analgesics may have differential effects on pain at rest and during mobilization.

  19. Possible analgesic effect of vigabatrin in animal experimental chronic neuropathic pain / Possível efeito analgésico da vigabatrina na dor neuropática crônica experimental animal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NILZA D., ALVES; CARLOS M. DE, CASTRO-COSTA; ALBA M. DE, CARVALHO; FRANKLIN J. C., SANTOS; DELANO G., SILVEIRA.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de anticonvulsivantes no tratamento de neuralgias despertou um interesse em testar novas drogas anticonvulsivantes, e dentre essas a vigabatrina por possuir mecanismo de ação gabaérgico. Para isso, foram usados 41 ratos Wistar e em 25 deles induziu-se neuropatia ciática constritiva (modelo de [...] Bennett & Xie). Para testar sintomas de dor, foram quantificados comportamentos espontâneos (coçar-se) e evocados, por meio de estímulos térmicos nocivos (46oC) e não-nocivos (40oC). Além disso, realizou-se estudo comparativo da vigabatrina com outros anticonvulsivantes analgésicos. Os resultados mostraram um possível efeito analgésico, dose-dependente, de vigabatrina (gama-vinil-GABA) em dor neuropática experimental. Isso foi evidenciado pela diminuição significativa (p Abstract in english Since anticonvulsants have been used for treating neuralgias, an interest has arisen to experimentally test vigabatrin for its gabaergic mechanism of action. For this, 41 Wistar rats were used, and in 25 of them a constrictive sciatic neuropathy was induced (Bennet & Xie model). For testing pain sym [...] ptoms, spontaneous (scratching) and evoked behaviors to noxious (46o C) and non-noxious (40o C) thermal stimuli were quantified. Moreover, a comparative pharmacological study of vigabatrin with other analgesic anticonvulsant drugs was also performed. The results showed a possible dose-dependent analgesic effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl-GABA) on experimental neuropathic pain, as shown by the significant (p

  20. Analgesic Activity of Abelmoschus manihot Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Surana Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural products served as important sources of medicines now a day increasing, as they possess the therapeutic activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot (Malvaceae leaves using hot plate and tail immersion model. The air-dried, powdered leaves (1000 g were extracted over Soxhlet with petroleum ether and methanol. The crude dried petroleum ether (10 g and methanol (25 g extracts was prepared at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 and evaluated for analgesic activity using the hot plate and tail immersion test. The results obtained indicate that the extracts possessed significant (p-1 dose as compared with the standard drug. This study showed that the petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Abelmoschus manihot leaves possess potential pharmacological active constituents responsible for inhibition of the analgesic effect.

  1. Analgesic effect of switching from oral opioids to a once-a-day fentanyl citrate transdermal patch in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Osamu; Oguri, Tetsuya; Maeno, Ken; Yokoyama, Midori; Hijikata, Hisatoshi; Uemura, Takehiro; Ozasa, Hiroaki; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Miyazaki, Mikinori; Niimi, Akio

    2013-11-01

    A new once-a-day fentanyl citrate transdermal patch was developed in Japan. We retrospectively investigated analgesic and adverse effects of this drug in 24 patients with lung cancer. All patients were started on this patch by switching from an oral opioid. The mean pain score before switching was 2.45 (0-5); 48 hours after switching, 15 of the 24 patients showed a decreased pain score and the mean score (2.00) was significantly lower than that before switching. Of the 16 patients who had adverse effects of oral opioids, 7 patients showed improvement in their symptoms after switching. Two patients showed adverse effects of the drug but their symptoms were mild, and no patient required dose decrease. This new transdermal patch could be a useful treatment option for cancer pain. PMID:23264661

  2. Analgesic effects of methanolic extracts of the leaf or root of Moringa oleifera on complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

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    Homa Manaheji

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Moringa oleifera (family Moringaceae has been widely used in African folk medicine, and researchers have recently revealed its anti-inflammatory effects in human. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of methanolic extracts of M. oleifera in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 220 g, were used in this study. Adjuvant arthritis was induced on day 0 by a single subcutaneous injection of CFA. The prepared extracts from both the root and leaf (200, 300 and 400 mg/kg of M. oleifera were administered intraperitonealy to rats in the treatment groups 0, 3 and 6 d after CFA injection and indomethacin (5 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were evaluated for the analgesic effect 0, 3 and 6 d after CFA injection. Combined methanolic root and leaf extracts of M. oleifera (200 mg/kg were also tested for the analgesic effect.Results: The potency of the root or leaf extracts of M. oleifera (300 and 400 mg/kg was similar to that of indomethacin, resulted in significant reductions in both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in rats with CFA-induced arthritis compared with the control group after 3 and 6 d, respectively (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Combined root and leaf extracts (200 mg/kg of M. oleifera resulted in a significant reduction in thermal hyperalgesia compared with the control group after 3 and 6 d, respectively (P<0.01. Prophylactic injections of combined root and leaf extracts of M. oleifera (200 mg/kg resulted in a significant reduction in thermal hyperalgesia compared with the control group, the root extracts group, and the leaf extracts group after 3 and 6 d, respectively (P<0.01. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of the root or leaf of M. oleifera are effective in the reduction of pain induced by CFA in rats. A comparison of single and combination therapies of root and leaf extracts also showed a synergistic effect on pain reduction.

  3. Inhibition of spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation correlates with the analgesic effects of ketamine in neuropathic pain

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    Wang Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that inhibition of astrocytic activation contributes to the analgesic effects of intrathecal ketamine on spinal nerve ligation (SNL-induced neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family, has been reported to be critical for spinal astrocytic activation and neuropathic pain development after SNL. Ketamine can decrease lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced phosphorylated JNK (pJNK expression and could thus exert its anti-inflammatory effect. We hypothesized that inhibition of astrocytic JNK activation might be involved in the suppressive effect of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocytic activation. Methods Immunofluorescence histochemical staining was used to detect SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression and localization. The effects of ketamine on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia were confirmed by behavioral testing. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot were used to quantify the SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression after ketamine administration. Results The present study showed that SNL induced ipsilateral pJNK up-regulation in astrocytes but not microglia or neurons within the spinal dorsal horn. Intrathecal ketamine relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia without interfering with motor performance. Additionally, intrathecal administration of ketamine attenuated SNL-induced spinal astrocytic JNK activation in a dose-dependent manner, but not JNK protein expression. Conclusions The present results suggest that inhibition of JNK activation may be involved in the suppressive effects of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocyte activation. Therefore, inhibition of spinal JNK activation may be involved in the analgesic effects of ketamine on SNL-induced neuropathic pain.

  4. Efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona sobre a hiperalgesia persistente induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático em ratos: participação do óxido nítrico / Long term analgesic effect of dipyrone on the persistent hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats: involviment of nitric oxide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio José, Reis; Noeli Pereira, Rocha.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona foi avaliado em um modelo de dor neuropática assim como a participação da via óxido nítrico-GMPc neste mecanismo analgésico. Uma única administração intraplantar de dipirona (80 µg), no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática induzida pe [...] la constrição do nervo ciático exerceu um efeito analgésico, significativo e de longa duração. A inibição da óxido nítrico sintetase com L-NAME (50 ou 100 µg/pata), ou do óxido nítrico (NO) endógeno com hemoglobina (10 ou 30 µg/pata), bloquearam o desenvolvimento do efeito analgésico da dipirona. A L-arginina (500 µg/pata) reverteu o efeito do L-NAME. Cloreto de metiltionínio (azul de metileno) (500 µg/pata), ODQ (50 µg/pata) (bloqueadores da guanilil ciclase) ou glibenclamida (100, 200 ou 300 µg/pata) (bloqueador de canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP) inibiram o efeito analgésico da dipirona. O nitroprussiato de sódio administrado no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática também exerceu efeito analgésico de longa duração, semelhante ao observado com a dipirona. Sugerimos que a ação analgésica periférica e de longa duração da dipirona, neste modelo experimental, ocorra devido a provável dessensibilização dos nociceptores, envolvendo a via óxido nítrico - GMPc e canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP. Abstract in english The long term analgesic effect of dipyrone was evaluated on a model of neuropathic pain and the role of nitric oxide/GMPc pathway in this antinociceptive mechanism. One intraplantar dipyrone administration (80 mg), at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, induced a sig [...] nificant and long term analgesic effect. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with L-NAME (50 or 100 mg/paw) or scavenging of the endogenous NO with hemoglobin (10 or 30 mg/paw) inhibited the development of the dipyrone analgesia. L-arginine (500 mg/paw) could reverted the effect of L-NAME. Metylene blue (500 mg/paw) or ODQ (50 mg/paw) (blockers of guanyl cyclase), or glybenclamide (100, 200 or 300 mg/paw) (blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels) inhibited the development of dipyrone analgesia. The sodium nitroprussiate administered at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve also induced a long term analgesic effect similar to that of dipyrone. Our data may support the suggestion that the peripheral and the long term analgesic action of dipyrone on this model experimental occurs due to a probable nociceptor desensitisation with involviment of activation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, followed by an opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

  5. Efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona sobre a hiperalgesia persistente induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático em ratos: participação do óxido nítrico Long term analgesic effect of dipyrone on the persistent hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats: involviment of nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio José Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona foi avaliado em um modelo de dor neuropática assim como a participação da via óxido nítrico-GMPc neste mecanismo analgésico. Uma única administração intraplantar de dipirona (80 µg, no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático exerceu um efeito analgésico, significativo e de longa duração. A inibição da óxido nítrico sintetase com L-NAME (50 ou 100 µg/pata, ou do óxido nítrico (NO endógeno com hemoglobina (10 ou 30 µg/pata, bloquearam o desenvolvimento do efeito analgésico da dipirona. A L-arginina (500 µg/pata reverteu o efeito do L-NAME. Cloreto de metiltionínio (azul de metileno (500 µg/pata, ODQ (50 µg/pata (bloqueadores da guanilil ciclase ou glibenclamida (100, 200 ou 300 µg/pata (bloqueador de canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP inibiram o efeito analgésico da dipirona. O nitroprussiato de sódio administrado no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática também exerceu efeito analgésico de longa duração, semelhante ao observado com a dipirona. Sugerimos que a ação analgésica periférica e de longa duração da dipirona, neste modelo experimental, ocorra devido a provável dessensibilização dos nociceptores, envolvendo a via óxido nítrico - GMPc e canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP.The long term analgesic effect of dipyrone was evaluated on a model of neuropathic pain and the role of nitric oxide/GMPc pathway in this antinociceptive mechanism. One intraplantar dipyrone administration (80 mg, at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, induced a significant and long term analgesic effect. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS with L-NAME (50 or 100 mg/paw or scavenging of the endogenous NO with hemoglobin (10 or 30 mg/paw inhibited the development of the dipyrone analgesia. L-arginine (500 mg/paw could reverted the effect of L-NAME. Metylene blue (500 mg/paw or ODQ (50 mg/paw (blockers of guanyl cyclase, or glybenclamide (100, 200 or 300 mg/paw (blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels inhibited the development of dipyrone analgesia. The sodium nitroprussiate administered at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve also induced a long term analgesic effect similar to that of dipyrone. Our data may support the suggestion that the peripheral and the long term analgesic action of dipyrone on this model experimental occurs due to a probable nociceptor desensitisation with involviment of activation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, followed by an opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION FOR ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF MAMSYADI KWATHA

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    Shreevathsa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Siddha Yoga Sangraha of Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, states about Mamsyadi kwatha, an Ayurvedic formulation which is said to be effective in minor mental disorders. The ingredients of Mamsyadi kwatha are Jatamamsi (Nardistachys jatamansi DC, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn and Parasika yavani (Hyoscymus niger Linn, in 8:4:1 ratio respectively. The test formulation was subjected to assess its analgesic effect. The model selected for the assessment of analgesic effect was tail flick test, in albino mice. The test formulation possesses analgesic effect, which is mainly due to its component Parasika yavani.

  7. Analgesic effect of morphine microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus after electrolytic lesion of nucleus cuneiformis in tail-flick and formalin tests in rat

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    Leila Ahmad-Molaei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The antinociceptive effect of morphine is, in part, mediated through the activation of a descending pathway. One of the major components of this pathway is the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM. Our previous study demonstrated the involvement of NRM in the analgesic effect of morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis (NCF in a descending manner. The aim of the current study was to investigate another aspect of the interaction between these two nuclei in both acute and chronic inflammatory pain models. Methods: In order to calculate 50% effective dose (ED50 of morphine, animals received bilateral morphine injections (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 ?g/0.5 ?l saline into the NRM. The obtained ED50 of morphine was applied into the NRM with/without bilateral electrolytic lesion (500 ?A, 30 sec of the NCF. Tail-flick and formalin tests were applied as behavioral analgesic tests in this study. Results: Results interestingly showed that the intra-NRM morphine injection (ED50; 1 ?g/0.5 ?l saline resulted in an increase in tail flick latencies (morphine-induced antinociception at 30-min intervals, while bilateral electrolytic lesions in the NCF could notably decreased the morphine-induced antinociception during 30-90 min after the injection of morphine. Data also showed that bilateral morphine microinjected into the NRM, dose-dependently increases the antinociceptive responses during both early and late phases of formalin test. The antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjected into the NRM was significantly attenuated at the late phase but not early phase following the bilateral destruction of NCF in formalin test. Conclusion: It could be concluded that there is a reciprocal interaction between NRM and NCF during morphine - induced antinociception in both acute and chronic inflammatory pain models in rat.

  8. An effect of wrapping peripheral nerve anastomosis with pedicled muscle flap on nerve regeneration in experiment

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    Naumenko L.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite intrinsic capacity of peripheral nerves to regenerate, functional outcomes of peripheral nerves injury remain poor. Nerve ischemia, intra-/perineurial fibrosis and neuroma formation contribute a lot to that. Several authors demonstrated beneficial effects of increased vascularization at the site of injury on peripheral nerves regeneration. The use of highly vascularized autologous tissues (greater omentum as a source of peripheral nerves neovascularization shows promising re-sults. We proposed a surgical technique in which injured peripheral nerves anastomosis was wrapped in a pedicled muscular flap and performed morphological assessment of the efficacy of such technique with the aid of immunohistochemistry. 14 rats (which underwent sciatic nerve transection were operated according to proposed technique. Another 14 rats, in which only end-to-end nerve anastomosis (without muscular wrapping was performed served as controls. Morphological changes were evaluated at 3 weeks and 3 months periods. Higher blood vessel and axon counts were observed in experimental groups at both checkpoints. There was also an increase in Schwann cells and macrophages counts, and less collagen content in pe-ripheral nerves of experimental groups. Axons in neuromas of experimental groups showed a higher degree of arrangement. We conclude that proposed surgical technique provides better vascularisation of injured peripheral nerves, which is beneficial for nerve regeneration.

  9. Evidence for a peripheral component in the sympatholytic effect of clonidine in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M. J.; Harland, D.

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to assess separately the peripheral and central effects of clonidine on cardiovascular parameters and plasma catecholamine levels, the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (RX 781094) was given either intravenously (i.v.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to anaesthetized rats before administration of intravenous clonidine. Plasma noradrenaline and plasma growth hormone concentrations were used as indices of peripheral sympathetic nervous activity and central a...

  10. Full inhibition of spinal FAAH leads to TRPV1-mediated analgesic effects in neuropathic rats and possible lipoxygenase-mediated remodeling of anandamide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Among those tested, the 200 µg/rat dose of URB597 was the only one that elevated the levels of the FAAH non-endocannabinoid and anti-inflammatory substrates, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and of the endocannabinoid FAAH substrate, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and fully inhibited thermal and tactile nociception, although in a manner blocked almost uniquely by TRPV1 antagonism. Surprisingly, this dose of URB597 decreased spinal AEA levels. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses demonstrated altered spinal expression of lipoxygenases (LOX), and baicalein, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX, significantly reduced URB597 analgesic effects, suggesting the occurrence of alternative pathways of AEA metabolism. Using immunofluorescence techniques, FAAH, 15-LOX and TRPV1 were found to co-localize in dorsal spinal horn neurons of CCI rats. Finally, 15-hydroxy-AEA, a 15-LOX derivative of AEA, potently and efficaciously activated the rat recombinant TRPV1 channel. We suggest that intrathecally injected URB597 at full analgesic efficacy unmasks a secondary route of AEA metabolism via 15-LOX with possible formation of 15-hydroxy-AEA, which, together with OEA and PEA, may contribute at producing TRPV1-mediated analgesia in CCI rats. PMID:23573230

  11. AS1069562, the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, exerts analgesic effects in a rat model of neuropathic pain with unique characteristics in spinal monoamine turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Nobuhito; Aoki, Toshiaki; Tamura, Seiji; Sekizawa, Toshihiro; Kakimoto, Shuichiro; Tsukamoto, Mina; Oe, Tomoya; Enomoto, Ryugo; Hamakawa, Nozomu; Matsuoka, Nobuya

    2014-03-01

    AS1069562 [(R)-2-[(1H-inden-7-yloxy)methyl]morpholine monobenzenesulfonate] is the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, which had been used clinically for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases with multiple pharmacological actions, including serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibition. Here we investigated the analgesic effects of AS1069562 in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the spinal monoamine turnover. These effects were compared with those of the antidepressants duloxetine and amitriptyline. AS1069562 significantly elevated extracellular 5-HT and NE levels in the rat spinal dorsal horn, although its 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibition was much weaker than that of duloxetine in vitro. In addition, AS1069562 increased the ratio of the contents of both 5-HT and NE to their metabolites in rat spinal cord, whereas duloxetine slightly increased only the ratio of the content of 5-HT to its metabolite. In CCI rats, AS1069562 and duloxetine significantly ameliorated mechanical allodynia, whereas amitriptyline did not. AS1069562 and amitriptyline significantly ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia, and duloxetine tended to ameliorate it. Furthermore, AS1069562, duloxetine, and amitriptyline significantly improved spontaneous pain-associated behavior. In a gastric emptying study, AS1069562 affected gastric emptying at the same dose that exerted analgesia in CCI rats. On the other hand, duloxetine and amitriptyline significantly reduced gastric emptying at lower doses than those that exerted analgesic effects. These results indicate that AS1069562 broadly improved various types of neuropathic pain-related behavior in CCI rats with unique characteristics in spinal monoamine turnover, suggesting that AS1069562 may have potential as a treatment option for patients with neuropathic pain, with a different profile from currently available antidepressants. PMID:24338505

  12. A Cost-Consequences analysis of the effect of Pregabalin in the treatment of peripheral Neuropathic Pain in routine medical practice in Primary Care settings

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    Torrades Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain (NeP is a common symptom of a group of a variety of conditions, including diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, or postherpetic neuralgia. Prevalence of NeP has been estimated to range between 5-7.5%, and produces up to 25% of pain clinics consultations. Due to its severity, chronic evolution, and associated co-morbidities, NeP has an important individual and social impact. The objective was to analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB on pain alleviation and longitudinal health and non-health resources utilization and derived costs in peripheral refractory NeP in routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS in Spain. Methods Subjects from PCS were older than 18 years, with peripheral NeP (diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia or trigeminal neuralgia, refractory to at least one previous analgesic, and included in a prospective, real world, and 12-week two-visit cost-of-illness study. Measurement of resources utilization included both direct healthcare and indirect expenditures. Pain severity was measured by the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ. Results One-thousand-three-hundred-fifty-four PGB-naive patients [58.8% women, 59.5 (12.7 years old] were found eligible for this secondary analysis: 598 (44% switched from previous therapy to PGB given in monotherapy (PGBm, 589 (44% received PGB as add-on therapy (PGB add-on, and 167 (12% patients changed previous treatments to others different than PGB (non-PGB. Reductions of pain severity were higher in both PGBm and PGB add-on groups (54% and 51%, respectively than in non-PGB group (34%, p Conclusion In Spanish primary care settings, PGB given either add-on or in monotherapy in routine medical practice was associated with pain alleviation leading to significant longitudinal reductions in resource use and total costs during the 12-week period of the study compared with non-PGB-therapy of patients with chronic NeP of peripheral origin. The use of non-appropriate analgesic therapies for neuropathic pain in a portion of subjects in non-PGB group could explain partially such findings.

  13. Effect of peripheral nerve action currents on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Roth, Bradley J

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have attempted to detect neural currents directly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The action currents of a peripheral nerve create their own magnetic field that can cause the phase of the spins to change. Our goal in this paper is to use the measured magnetic field of a nerve to estimate the resulting phase shift in the magnetic resonance signal. We examine three cases: the squid giant axon, the frog sciatic nerve, and the human median nerve. In each case, the phase shift is much less than one degree, and will be very difficult to measure with current technology. PMID:19963781

  14. Steroid metabolism and effects in central and peripheral glial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Melcangi, Cosimo; Magnaghi, Valerio; Martini, Luciano

    1999-01-01

    Hormonal steroids participate in the control of a large number of functions of the central nervous system (CNS); recent data show that they may also intervene at the level of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Both the CNS and the PNS metabolize endogenous as well as exogenous steroids; one of the major enzymatic system is represented by the 5alpha-reductase-3alpha-hydroxysteroid complex. This is a versatile system, since every steroid possessing the delta 4-3keto configuration (e.g., testo...

  15. Effects of GADD45A gene expression in Human peripheral blood after 60Co ?-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the changes of GADD45A gene expression in human peripheral blood induced by 60Co ? ray irradiation and offer the fundamental materials for the research of boimarker in early diagnosis of radiation damage. Methods: Human peripheral blood was irradiated to 0.05-3 Gy 60Co ?-ray and changes of GADD45A genes in peripheral blood were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Results: After irradiation, the expression of GADD45A genes in human peripheral blood changes significantly. Specifically, from 0.05 Gy to 0.6 Gy, the expression of GADD45A genes decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. And from 1 Gy to 3 Gy, the expression of GADD45A genes increased with the increase of irradiation dose compared with the control. Conclusion: 60Co ? ray irradiation can induce the changes of GADD45A gene expression in human peripheral blood. And the changes of GADD45A gene shows fine dose-effect relationship from 1 Gy to 3 Gy. From 0.05 Gy to 0.2 Gy, peripheral blood lymphocytes showed stimulation effect. (authors)

  16. Supplemental Interscalene Blockade to General Anesthesia for Shoulder Arthroscopy: Effects on Fast Track Capability, Analgesic Quality, and Lung Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoremba, Martin; Kratz, Thomas; Dette, Frank; Wulf, Hinnerk; Steinfeldt, Thorsten; Wiesmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. After shoulder surgery performed in patients with interscalene nerve block (without general anesthesia), fast track capability and postoperative pain management in the PACU are improved compared with general anesthesia alone. However, it is not known if these evidence-based benefits still exist when the interscalene block is combined with general anesthesia. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a prospective cohort data set of 159 patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy with general anesthesia alone (n = 60) or combined with an interscalene nerve block catheter (n = 99) for fast track capability time. Moreover, comparisons were made for VAS scores, analgesic consumption in the PACU, pain management, and lung function measurements. Results. The groups did not differ in mean time to fast track capability (22 versus 22?min). Opioid consumption in PACU was significantly less in the interscalene group, who had significantly better VAS scores during PACU stay. Patients receiving interscalene blockade had a significantly impaired lung function postoperatively, although this did not affect postoperative recovery and had no impact on PACU times. Conclusion. The addition of interscalene block to general anesthesia for shoulder arthroscopy did not enhance fast track capability. Pain management and VAS scores were improved in the interscalene nerve block group. PMID:26064898

  17. Tapentadol-ER for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Gina; Hutchison, Amber

    2013-10-01

    With the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increasing, pathologic complications such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are also becoming more common. Of those diagnosed with DM, 10% to 20% of patients suffer from painful DPN. Until recently, only pregabalin and duloxetine possessed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this condition. However, FDA recently approved tapentadol-ER [extended release] (Nucynta ER) for painful DPN. Tapentadol-ER is an opioid analgesic commonly used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain that contains a unique dual mechanism acting as both a weak mu-opiod receptor agonist and norepinephine-reuptake inhibitor. It is by way of this unique dual mechanism that allows for effective analgesic effects with increased tolerability. This new FDA approval provides an additional therapeutic option to treat DPN in symptomatic patients. PMID:24129223

  18. Can quantitative sensory testing predict responses to analgesic treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, K; Fischer, Iben W. Deleuran

    2013-01-01

    The role of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in prediction of analgesic effect in humans is scarcely investigated. This updated review assesses the effectiveness in predicting analgesic effects in healthy volunteers, surgical patients and patients with chronic pain. A systematic review of English written, peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and Embase (1980-2013). Additional studies were identified by chain searching. Search terms included 'quantitative sensory testing', 'sensory testing' and 'analgesics'. Studies on the relationship between QST and response to analgesic treatment in human adults were included. Appraisal of the methodological quality of the included studies was based on evaluative criteria for prognostic studies. Fourteen studies (including 720 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were observed between responses to analgesics and several QST parameters including (1) heat pain threshold in experimental human pain, (2) electrical and heat pain thresholds, pressure pain tolerance and suprathreshold heat pain in surgical patients, and (3) electrical and heat pain threshold and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic pain. Heterogeneity among studies was observed especially with regard to application of QST and type and use of analgesics. Although promising, the current evidence is not sufficiently robust to recommend the use of any specific QST parameter in predicting analgesic response. Future studies should focus on a range of different experimental pain modalities rather than a single static pain stimulation paradigm.

  19. Tramadol as an analgesic for mild to moderate cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    In most cancer patients, pain is successfully treated with pharmacological measures such as opioid analgesics alone or opioid analgesics combined with adjuvant analgesics (co-analgesics). Opioids for mild-to-moderate pain (formerly called weak opioids) are usually recommended in the treatment of cancer pain of moderate intensity. There is a debate whether the second step of the WHO analgesic ladder, which, in Poland, is composed of opioids such as tramadol, codeine, dihydrocodeine (DHC), is still needed for cancer pain treatment. One of the most interesting and useful drugs in this group is tramadol. Its unique mechanism of action, analgesic efficacy and profile of adverse effects are responsible for its successful use in patients with different types of acute and chronic pain, including neuropathic pain. The aim of this article is to summarize the data regarding pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, possible drug interactions, adverse effects, dosing guidelines, equipotency with other opioid analgesics and clinical studies comparing efficacy, adverse reactions and safety of tramadol to other opioids in cancer pain treatment. PMID:20081232

  20. Analgesic, Sedative and Hemodynamic Effects of Dexmedetomidine Following Major Abdominal Surgeries: A Randomized, Double Blinded Comparative Study with Morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Taha

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This was a randomized double-blinded study; in which 60 ASAI-II adult patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries (colostomy, radical cystectomy, major gynecological surgery, and abdominal vascular surgery were received standard general anesthesia. Twenty minutes before the anticipated end of surgery, patients were randomized into two equal groups: dexmedetomidine group (group D and morphine group (group M. Group D received dexmedetomidine IV infusion 4µg/kg/h for 15 minutes (1µg/Kg followed by 0.4µg/kg/h for 3h. Group M received morphine sulfate IV (0.07mg/kg. All patients were given a morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA pump in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU, delivering IV morphine 2mg with a lockout time of 5 minutes if pain score assessed through visual analog scale (VAS was more than 5 at any given 5-min assessment. During the PACU recovery period, morphine consumption; pain and sedation scores; hemodynamic variables (heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate; and postoperative nausea, retching and vomiting (PONV were recorded every 30 min for 3h (study period by a member of staff blinded to the treatment. The study demonstrated that the use of dexmedetomidine led to significant decrease in the total amount of morphine consumed throughout the entire PACU recovery period (P0.05; significant decrease in mean arterial pressure (P0.05; without any significant changes in oxygen saturation (P<0.05 or respiratory rate (P<0.05. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine exhibited both analgesic and sedative properties. The associated cardiovascular protective pharmacological profile and the lack of respiratory depression made it potentially extremely interesting for postoperative analgesia after major abdominal surgeries.

  1. Bovine dehorning: assessing pain and providing analgesic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matthew L; Baldridge, Sarah L; Griffin, Dee; Coetzee, Johann F

    2013-03-01

    Dehorning or disbudding in cattle is performed for a variety of reasons using various methods. Pain associated with this procedure has been mostly evaluated through behavioral, physiologic, and neuroendocrine changes following dehorning. Analgesics, including local nerve blockades, anti-inflammatories, and opioids have demonstrated an effective attenuation of the cortisol response. The administration of sedatives with analgesic properties has been indicated in the attenuation of the acute phase of pain associated with dehorning. Following a literature review, this article recommends a multimodal approach to analgesia for dehorning procedures, including the use of a local anesthetic and anti-inflammatory and, when possible, a sedative-analgesic. PMID:23438402

  2. Effect of successful 131I treatment on the peripheral blood picture in hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of successful 131I therapy on the levels peripheral blood picture in hyperthyroid patients. Methods: Serum T3, T4, TSH (with ACCESS microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay) and blood Hb, RBC, WBC and DC, Plt (with COULTER three assortments) counts were determined in 110 controls and 210 hyperthyroid patients both before and after 131I therapy. Results: 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism in this group of patients was very successful (P131I therapy. Conclusion: The application of 131I to treat hyperthyroidism was very successful with no remarkable effect on peripheral blood picture. (authors)

  3. The effects of stress on the enzymes of peripheral leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leise, E. M.; Gray, I.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work showed an early response of rabbit and human leukocyte enzymes to the stress of bacterial infection. Since these represented a mixed population of leukocytes and since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased in these preparations, it was necessary to establish whether the observed increase in lactate dehydrenase (LDH) and protein was the result of an increase in any one particular cell type or in all cells. The need for the development of a simple reproducible method for the differential separation of peripheral leukocytes for the furtherance of our own studies was apparent. It was also becoming increasingly apparent that morphologically similar cells, such as small lymphocytes (L) and macrophages, were capable of different biological functions. A dextran gradient centrifugation method was developed which has provided an easily reproducible technique for separating L from PMN. During the course of this work, in which over 250 rabbits were examined, the pattern of daily leukocyte protein and enzyme variation became increasingly more apparent. This information could have some impact on future work with leukocyte enzymes, by our group and by other workers. The differences in normal protein and enzyme levels maintained by some individuals, and some inbred strains, were evaluated and reported separately. It has been shown that one type of leukocyte may react more to a given stress than other leukocytes.

  4. Peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites on striated muscles of the rat: Properties and effect of denervation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to test the hypothesis that peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites mediate some direct effects of benzodiazepines on striated muscles, the properties of specific 3H-Ro 5-4864 binding to rat biceps and rat diaphragm homogenates were investigated. In both tissues a single population of sites was found with a Ksub(D) value of 3 nmol/l. The density of these sites in both muscles was higher than the density in rat brain, but was considerably lower than in rat kidney. Competition experiments indicate a substrate specificity of specific 3H-Ro 5-4864 binding similar to the properties already demonstrated for the specific binding of this ligand to peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites in many other tissues. The properties of these sites in the rat diaphragm are not changed after motoric denervation by phrenicectomy. It is concluded that peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites are not involved in direct effects of benzodiazepines on striated muscles. (Author)

  5. Diferentes doses de tramadol em cães: ações analgésicas, sedativas e sobre o sistema cardiorrespiratório / Different doses of tramadol in dogs: analgesic, sedative and cardiopulmonary effects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Jesus, Paolozzi; Renata Navarro, Cassu; Fernando Silvério Ferreira da, Cruz; Letícia Rodrigues, Parrilha.

    1417-14-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos cardiorrespiratório, analgésico e sedativo de diferentes doses de tramadol em cadelas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia (OSH). Foram avaliadas 24 cadelas SRD, adultas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos de oito animais, tratados com tramadol pela via i [...] ntravenosa (IV) nas doses de 1, 2 e 4mg kg-1 (T1, T2 e T4, respectivamente). Na medicação pré-anestésica, foi administrada acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1 IV). Vinte minutos após, a anestesia foi induzida com propofol (4mg kg-1 IV), com posterior manutenção anestésica com isofluorano. O tramadol foi administrado 5 minutos antes da incisão cirúrgica em todos os tratamentos. Foram mensurados: frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, temperatura retal, pressão arterial sistólica, grau de analgesia, grau de sedação, concentração sérica de cortisol e efeitos adversos. Mínimas alterações cardiorrespiratórias foram observadas, sem diferença entre os tratamentos. O cortisol, o grau de sedação e o grau de analgesia não variaram entre os tratamentos, com exceção da terceira hora pós-cirúrgica, em que menores escores de dor foram observados no T4. Vômito foi observado em 50% dos animais do T4. Conclui-se que as diferentes doses de tramadol induziram efeitos analgésicos semelhantes, com discreto efeito sedativo e mínimas alterações cardiorrespiratórias. Paralelamente, a dose de 4mg kg-1 de tramadol induziu alta incidência de vômito em cadelas submetidas à OSH. Abstract in english The aim of this study was compare the cardiopulmonary, analgesic and sedative effects of different doses of tramadol in bitches undergoing to ovariohysterectomy. Twenty four adult crossbreed bitches were randomly assigned to three treatments of 8 animals and received intravenously (IV) tramadol 1, 2 [...] or 4mg kg-1 (T1, T2 and T4, respectively). Pre-anesthetic medication was acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1 IV). Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4mg kg-1 IV) and maintained with isoflurane delivered in oxygen. Tramadol was administered 5 minutes before surgical incision in all groups. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, systolic blood pressure, degree of analgesia and sedation, serum cortisol concentration and adverse effects were measured. Mild changes were observed in cardiopulmonary variables in all treatments. The pain score was lower in T4 in the 3rd hour after surgery in relation to other treatments. Sedation degree was not different among the treatments. The serum cortisol did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, different doses of tramadol promoted similar analgesic effects, with mild sedative and cardiopulmonary effects. However, high incidence of vomiting was observed with tramadol at 4mg kg-1 in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  6. Diferentes doses de tramadol em cães: ações analgésicas, sedativas e sobre o sistema cardiorrespiratório Different doses of tramadol in dogs: analgesic, sedative and cardiopulmonary effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Jesus Paolozzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos cardiorrespiratório, analgésico e sedativo de diferentes doses de tramadol em cadelas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia (OSH. Foram avaliadas 24 cadelas SRD, adultas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos de oito animais, tratados com tramadol pela via intravenosa (IV nas doses de 1, 2 e 4mg kg-1 (T1, T2 e T4, respectivamente. Na medicação pré-anestésica, foi administrada acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1 IV. Vinte minutos após, a anestesia foi induzida com propofol (4mg kg-1 IV, com posterior manutenção anestésica com isofluorano. O tramadol foi administrado 5 minutos antes da incisão cirúrgica em todos os tratamentos. Foram mensurados: frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, temperatura retal, pressão arterial sistólica, grau de analgesia, grau de sedação, concentração sérica de cortisol e efeitos adversos. Mínimas alterações cardiorrespiratórias foram observadas, sem diferença entre os tratamentos. O cortisol, o grau de sedação e o grau de analgesia não variaram entre os tratamentos, com exceção da terceira hora pós-cirúrgica, em que menores escores de dor foram observados no T4. Vômito foi observado em 50% dos animais do T4. Conclui-se que as diferentes doses de tramadol induziram efeitos analgésicos semelhantes, com discreto efeito sedativo e mínimas alterações cardiorrespiratórias. Paralelamente, a dose de 4mg kg-1 de tramadol induziu alta incidência de vômito em cadelas submetidas à OSH.The aim of this study was compare the cardiopulmonary, analgesic and sedative effects of different doses of tramadol in bitches undergoing to ovariohysterectomy. Twenty four adult crossbreed bitches were randomly assigned to three treatments of 8 animals and received intravenously (IV tramadol 1, 2 or 4mg kg-1 (T1, T2 and T4, respectively. Pre-anesthetic medication was acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1 IV. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4mg kg-1 IV and maintained with isoflurane delivered in oxygen. Tramadol was administered 5 minutes before surgical incision in all groups. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, systolic blood pressure, degree of analgesia and sedation, serum cortisol concentration and adverse effects were measured. Mild changes were observed in cardiopulmonary variables in all treatments. The pain score was lower in T4 in the 3rd hour after surgery in relation to other treatments. Sedation degree was not different among the treatments. The serum cortisol did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, different doses of tramadol promoted similar analgesic effects, with mild sedative and cardiopulmonary effects. However, high incidence of vomiting was observed with tramadol at 4mg kg-1 in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  7. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment on chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits induced by ?-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment on chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits induced by 60Co ?-rays irradiation were studied. It was found that there is no effect of HBO itself on chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes, and definite promotion effect of HBO treatment on recovery of chromosome damage in preipheral lymphocytes in rabbits induced by irradiation

  8. Principles of analgesic drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papich, M G

    1997-05-01

    The drugs most often used for pain relief in animals are the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and the opioid analgesics. The NSAIDS are effective, inexpensive, and long-acting drugs, but their degree of analgesia is limited by the adverse effects at high doses. The most common adverse effect from NSAIDS is gastritis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ulceration. This is most common from high doses, or from using NSAIDS not appropriate for dogs such as ibuprofen or indomethacin. The NSAIDS used in dogs include aspirin, phenylbutazone, naproxen, piroxicam, ketoprofen, and carprofen. Carprofen is a new drug with a low incidence of side effects and its popularity is increasing at a fast rate. For more acute pain, especially acute pain from surgery or trauma, opioids are frequently administered. Opioids have the advantage of higher efficacy when the dose is increased. The incidence of adverse effects is low, but side effects of sedation are common. An important disadvantage of opioids is their short duration and low oral absorption, which necessitates a frequent injection or i.v. infusion for most patients. Recent studies have established other applications for administration of opioids such as a transdermal fentanyl patch. These applications offer new possibilities for convenient administration. PMID:9159065

  9. Salsolinol and the peripheral sympathetic activity: the effects of hypophysectomy, adrenalectomy and adrenal medullectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székács, Dániel; Bodnár, Ibolya; Nagy, György M; Fekete, Márton I K

    2007-03-30

    The endogenous isoquinoline salsolinol (SALS) is a recently identified prolactin (PRL) releasing factor, a selective and potent stimulator of PRL secretion both in vivo and in vitro. SALS decreased the peripheral tissue dopamine (DA) level dose dependently, consequently increased the NE/DA ratio, indicating reduced release of newly formed norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic terminals. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of adrenal medullectomy (MEDX), adrenalectomy (ADX) and hypophysectomy (HYPOX) on the action of SALS on the PRL secretion, and on the catecholamine concentration of the selected sympathetically innervated peripheral tissues (atrium, spleen, etc). The experiments were done in male rats of 200-300 g body weight kept in air conditioned room with regular lighting. We used high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) for measurement of NE and DA concentrations, and radioimmunoassay for prolactin measurement. In MEDX as well as in ADX rats, SALS (25 mg/kg i.p.) was able to reduce DA level and increase the NE/DA ratio. The changes of prolactin secretion (increase by SALS) were not affected either by ADX or MEDX. Therefore the presence of the adrenal gland is not required for the changes of prolactin secretion, nor for the reduction of peripheral sympathetic activity induced by SALS. Investigating the possible effect of pituitary hormones on the peripheral sympathetic system, the action of SALS has been tested in HYPOX rats. We have found that the effect of SALS on peripheral sympathetic terminals is not affected by HYPOX, consequently the role of pituitary hormones in the effect of SALS on the peripheral catecholamine metabolism may be excluded. PMID:17451060

  10. Antinociceptive effect of 7-hydroxymitragynine in mice: Discovery of an orally active opioid analgesic from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horie, Syunji; Ishikawa, Hayato; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Aimi, Norio; Ponglux, Dhavadee; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2004-03-12

    Mitragynine is an indole alkaloid isolated from the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa. We previously reported the morphine-like action of mitragynine and its related compounds in the in vitro assays. In the present study, we investigated the opioid effects of 7-hydroxymitragynine, which is isolated as its novel constituent, on contraction of isolated ileum, binding of the specific ligands to opioid receptors and nociceptive stimuli in mice. In guinea-pig ileum, 7-hydroxymitragynine inhibited electrically induced contraction through the opioid receptors. Receptor-binding assays revealed that 7-hydroxymitragynine has a higher affinity for micro-opioid receptors relative to the other opioid receptors. Administration of 7-hydroxymitragynine (2.5-10 mg/kg, s.c.) induced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in tail-flick and hot-plate tests in mice. Its effect was more potent than that of morphine in both tests. When orally administered, 7-hydroxymitragynine (5-10 mg/kg) showed potent antinociceptive activities in tail-flick and hot-plate tests. In contrast, only weak antinociception was observed in the case of oral administration of morphine at a dose of 20 mg/kg. It was found that 7-hydroxymitragynine is a novel opioid agonist that is structurally different from the other opioid agonists, and has potent analgesic activity when orally administered. PMID:14969718

  11. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral neuritis; Neuropathy - peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy ... tube that is inserted into your bladder (urinary catheter). You may take medicines. Medicines can often help ...

  12. Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

  13. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Comparison of Amitriptyline, Duloxetine, and Pregabalin in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, J.; Eriksson, Mev; Gribble, L.; Gouni, R.; Johnsen, S.; Coppini, Dv; Kerr, D.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVEChronic diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP) is difficult to treat, with treatment regimens often inadequate at controlling pain and limited by side effects and drug tolerance. Secondary parameters, such as quality of sleep and mood, may also be important for successful DPNP management. The objectives of this study were to compare the analgesic efficacy of pregabalin, amitriptyline, and duloxetine, and their effect on polysomnographic sleep, daytime functioning, and quality of...

  14. The Analgesic Potential of Cannabinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Elikottil, Jaseena; Gupta, Pankaj; Gupta, Kalpna

    2009-01-01

    Historically and anecdotally cannabinoids have been used as analgesic agents. In recent years, there has been an escalating interest in developing cannabis-derived medications to treat severe pain. This review provides an overview of the history of cannabis use in medicine, cannabinoid signaling pathways, and current data from preclinical as well as clinical studies on using cannabinoids as potential analgesic agents. Clinical and experimental studies show that cannabis-derived compounds act ...

  15. Analgesics as Reinforcers with Chronic Pain: Evidence from Operant Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ewan, Eric E.; Martin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should ser...

  16. A Study of Scientific Reasoning in a Peripheral Context: The Discovery of the Raman Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Deepanwita

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reconstruct how C.V. Raman, a peripheral scientist in the early 20th century colonial India, managed to develop a research programme in physical optics from his remote colonial location. His attempts at self-training and self-education eventually led him to the discovery of the Raman Effect and to the Nobel Prize in…

  17. Analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after total abdominal hysterectomy : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RØjskjaer, Jesper O; Gade, Erik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ropivacaine compared with placebo as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial following the CONSORT criteria. SETTING: Hvidovre University Hospital. PATIENTS: Forty-six women scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy. INTERVENTION: Women received either ropivacaine 0.75%, 20 mL (n = 24) or 0.9% saline, 20 mL (n = 24) in the transversus abdominis plane on each side. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the 24-h postoperative morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were pain scores at rest and during coughing, postoperative nausea and vomiting at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h, and time to first mobilization. RESULTS: There was no difference in the mean 24-h postoperative morphine consumption between the two groups (p = 0.733). The ropivacaine group had significantly lower median pain scores at 1 h (p = 0.008) and 2 h (p = 0.027) postoperativelyat rest and at 8 h (p = 0.028) during coughing. There was no significant difference in other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: There was no reduction in 24-h morphine consumption when using an ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. As part of a multimodal regimen the transversus abdominis plane block showed some effect on pain scores at rest only in the early postoperative period.

  18. Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (?= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

  19. Synthesis and analgesic activity of novel hydrazide and hydrazine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri Koopaei, Mansur; Assarzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Almasirad, Ali; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Amini, Mohsen; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Nassiri Koopaei, Nasser; Ghadimi, Maryam; Tabei, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The uses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are limited by a variety of side effects. So research on preparing new analgesic agents is important. According to some reports about the analgesic activity of hydrazide and hydrazine derivatives a new series of these compounds were synthesized in order to obtain new analgesic compounds. The final compounds 10a-10e and 15a-15d were prepared by condensation of corresponding hydrazides 7,8 and 11-14 with different aldehydes 9a-9e. The structures of all synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of FT-IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectra. All compounds were evaluated for their analgesic activities by abdominal constriction test (writhing test). Most of the synthesized compounds induced significant reduction in the writhing response when compared to control and compound 15 was more potent than mefenamic acid in the writhing test. PMID:24523751

  20. Beneficial effect of fish oil on blood viscosity in peripheral vascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, B. E.; Smith, E.; Lambert, W H; Jones, W M; Galloway, J. H.; Greaves, M.; Preston, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    Reports suggest that the low incidence of ischaemic heart disease in Greenlandic Eskimos is related to the effect of a diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid on platelet reactivity and plasma lipid concentrations. A double blind randomised investigation was therefore conducted of the effects on blood viscosity of dietary supplementation with an oil rich in this fatty acid (1.8 g/day, given as fish oil) and an eicosapentaenoic acid poor oil (as corn/olive oil) in patients with peripheral arterial ...

  1. Lack of effect of domperidone on gastrin release: evidence for a peripheral activity of the drug.

    OpenAIRE

    Masci, E.; Caldara, R.; Testoni, P. A.; Guslandi, M.; Cambielli, M.; Passaretti, S.; Tittobello, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of intravenous administration of domperidone, a dopamine receptor antagonist with peripheral activity, on basal and submaximal pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and gastrin release has been evaluated in healthy volunteers. No significant changes were observed in the parameters studied. The lack of effect on gastrin release appears to confirm that domperidone is unable to penetrate the blood brain barrier in appreciable amounts in adults.

  2. Influência da naloxona e metisergida sobre o efeito analgésico do laser em baixa intensidade em modelo experimental de dor / Influence of naloxone and methysergide on the analgesic effects of low-level laser in an experimental pain model / Influencia de la naloxona y la metisergida sobre el efecto analgésico del láser en baja intensidad en modelo experimental de dolor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Peres e, Serra; Hazem A, Ashmawi.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A fototerapia com laser (LPT) é um método analgésico promissor, embora seu mecanismo de ação não seja totalmente conhecido. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a ação da LPT é dependente da ativação de receptores opioides ou serotoninérgicos periféricos. MÉTODO: Foram u [...] tilizados ratos Wistar machos. A dor produzida foi de caráter inflamatório, através da injeção de carragenina na pata posterior esquerda dos ratos. O laser utilizado foi o Photon Lase III em meio ativo InGaAIP (660 nm), fluência de 2,5 J.cm-2. Analisou-se a hiperalgesia mecânica utilizando filamentos de von Frey. Os animais foram separados em cinco grupos: Carragenina; Laser (LPT); Luz não coerente; LPT + Naloxona e LPT + Metisergida. RESULTADOS: A fototerapia com laser em baixa intensidade mostrou-se um método analgésico eficaz, enquanto o emprego de fonte de luz não coerente não mostrou ter efeito analgésico. O uso de naloxona bloqueou o efeito analgésico do LPT; já o uso de metisergida não afetou a analgesia do LPT. CONCLUSÕES: A LPT nos parâmetros utilizados apresentou efeito analgésico. A analgesia da LPT é mediada por receptores opioides periféricos. A LPT parece não interagir com receptores serotoninérgicos periféricos. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La fototerapia con láser (LPT) es un método analgésico promisorio, aunque su mecanismo de acción no se conozca en su totalidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si la acción de la LPT es dependiente de la activación de receptores opioides o serotoninérgicos periféri [...] cos. MÉTODO: Se usaron ratones Wistar machos. El dolor generado fue de carácter inflamatorio, a través de la inyección de carragenina en la pata posterior izquierda de los ratones. El láser utilizado fue el GaIAsAl (660 nm), fluencia de 2,5 J.cm-2. Se analizó la hiperalgesia mecánica utilizando filamentos de von Frey. Los animales se dividieron en cinco grupos: Carragenina; Láser (LPT); Luz no coherente; LPT + Naloxona y LPT + Metisergida. RESULTADOS: La fototerapia con láser en baja intensidad demostró ser un método analgésico eficaz, mientras que el uso de la fuente de luz no coherente no demostró poseer ningún efecto analgésico. El uso de naloxona bloqueó el efecto analgésico del LPT, mientras que el uso de metisergida no afectó la analgesia del LPT. CONCLUSIONES: La LPT en los parámetros utilizados tuvo un efecto analgésico. La analgesia de la LPT es mediada por receptores opióides periféricos. La LPT parece que no interactúa con los receptores serotoninérgicos periféricos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the mechanism of action of laser phototherapy (LPT) is not known, it is a promising analgesic method. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the action of LPT depends on the activation of peripheral opioid or serotonergic receptors. METHOD: Inflammatory pai [...] n was induced through the injection of carrageenin in the left posterior paw of male Wistar rats. The InGaAIP visible laser diode (660 nm) with fluency of 2.5 J.cm-2 was used. Von Frey filaments were used to analyze mechanical hyperalgesia. Animals were separated into five groups: Carrageenin; Laser (LPT); Non-coherent light; LPT + Naloxone; and LPT + Methysergide. RESULTS: Low-Level Laser phototherapy proved to be an effective analgesic method, while non-coherent light did not show a similar effect. The use of naloxone blocked the analgesic effect of LPT, while methysergide did not affect LPT-induced analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: According to the parameter used in this study, LPT produced analgesia. Analgesia induced by laser phototherapy is mediated by peripheral opioid receptors. Laser phototherapy does not seem to interact with peripheral serotonergic receptors.

  3. Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pechanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS. The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology.

  4. Pharmacogenomics and Opioid Analgesics: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Variation exists in patient response on analgesic treatment in terms of efficacy and safety. This variation may be in part explained by pharmacogenomics. This paper aimed to review data on pharmacogenomics of opioid analgesics focusing on the effect of genetic variation on the efficacy and safety of these agents. Current evidence suggests that pharmacogenomics contribute to variation in efficacy and safety of opioids. However, most data come from case control studies and case reports. In addition, a recognized drawback in the field of pharmacogenomics is the common occurrence of false positive association between polymorphisms and the investigated outcome. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the clinical implications of available data as well as to define the guidelines for the clinical application of pharmacogenomic data. Furthermore, basic research should focus on the identification of biologically meaningful polymorphisms enabling a hypothesis with biological plausibility driven research in the field of pharmacogenomics of analgesics. Moreover, the publication of relevant negative results should be favoured. PMID:26075211

  5. Comparison of the analgesic effect of ibuprofen with mesalamine after discectomy surgery in patients with lumbar disc herniation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toroudi Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain management is an important component in the postoperative period following discectomy. Aims: We hypothesized that mesalamine considering its better safety profile, is likely to be a better choice, if it would be as effective as ibuprofen in controlling post-discectomy pain. Settings and Design: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed on patients who underwent lumbar discectomy surgery. Materials and Methods: Of the 58 patients who had lumbar discectomy, 27 patients were randomized to oral ibuprofen 500 mg and 31 patients to mesalamine 400 mg, three times a day for nine days following surgery. There was no placebo group. Severity of pain was assessed by using 10- cm visual analogue scale (VAS, once before operation and for nine days after. Statistical Analysis: Mean ± SD pain scores were compared between groups and the statistical difference was estimated by Student?s test using SPSS (Version 13. We also calculated the power of each t-test. Repeated measure ANOVA was performed for measuring the effect of time. Results: The age range of the patients was 35 to 60 years (mean: 42.2 years. Mean ± SD preoperative pain scores for ibuprofen or mesalamine-treated groups were 7.852 ± 2.441 and 7.806 ± 2.892, respectively. At the end of day 9, mean ± SD of pain score was 2.704 ± 2.284 and 2.717 ± 2.273 for ibuprofen and mesalamine-treated groups respectively. Both drugs significantly reduced postoperative pain and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.Conclusions: Since both drugs showed almost equal analgesic effect, considering its safety profile mesalamine, seems to be the preferred choice to alleviate post-discectomy surgery pain.

  6. The effect of the use of ultrasound in the success of peripheral venous catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?smailo?lu, Elif Günay; Zaybak, Ayten; Akarca, Funda Karbek; K?yan, Selahattin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterisation in patients where difficulty was experienced in peripheral venous catheterisation. The study was conducted in the emergency department at a university hospital in ?zmir Turkey. After obtaining institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 60 patients with a history or suspicion of difficult cannulation were enrolled with 30 patients in traditional and 30 in ultrasound group. In the ultrasound group, peripheral intravenous catheterisation was performed using a portable ultrasound device with 13.5?MHz ultrasound probe and 20 gauge intravenous catheter. The success rate of peripheral venous catheterisation was 30% in the control group and 70% in the treatment group. The success rate was significantly higher among the treatment group. The mean intensity of felt pain was 6.00?±?1.98 in the control group and 4.77?±?1.74 in the treatment group. The mean intensity of felt pain was significantly lower in the treatment group. The state of chronic disease affected the success rate in patients in the treatment group. PMID:25175514

  7. The effect of sarsasapogenine on peripheral lymphocyle ?-adrenoceptors in rabbit hydrocortisone models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sarsasapogenine (SAR), an active principle of Anemorrhenae Rhizome, on peripheral lymphocyte ?-adrenoceptors (?-AR) and serum cortisol contents were studied in rabbit hydrocortisone models produced by repeated injections of therapeutic doses of hydrocortisone. The lymphocyte ?-AR binding sites (SB) were measured with 125I-PIN binding assay and the serum cortisol contents were estimated with radioimmunoassay. Experimental data revealed that hydrocortisone treatment markedly elevated the lymphocyte SB (0.65 ± 0.03 and 1.48 ± 0.13 fmol/106 cells before and after treatment) as well as the serum cortisol (128 ± 21 and 239 ± 45 nmol/1 before and after treatment). Oral administration of SAR for 6 days decreased the lymphocyte ?-AR significantly (1.48 ± 0.13 and 0.76 ± 0.06 fmol/106 cells before and after administration). On the contrary, SAR showed no significant effect on serum cortisol contents. Therefore the down-regulation effect of SAR on peripheral lymphocyte ?-AR, which might reflect one of the clinical effects of Anemorrhenae Rhizome for treating 'Yin Deficiency'syndrome, is unlikely to be mediated through an influence on serum cortisol content. The mechanism of the down-regulation effect of SAR on peripheral lymphocyte ?-AR remains to be studied

  8. Evaluation of Analgesic and Antioxidant Potency of Various Extracts of Cinnamomum iners Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramanathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple traditional uses with fewer scientific investigations about C. iners bark made imperative to further exploit this plant for the evaluation of its therapeutic value. Analgesic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic, aqueous and alkaloid extracts prepared from C. iners bark was studied using both in vivo and spectrometric experimental models. Results of hot plate and tail flick studies show that all the screened extracts are devoid of central analgesic activity. However, promising findings regarding the peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was revealed from the formalin induced pain method with alkaloid extract possessing significant activity followed by ethanolic and aqueous extract. Moreover, the results of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was also confirmed the presence of higher amount polyphenolic content in ethanolic extract with significant antioxidant activity. The observed peripheral analgesic activity by ethanolic and aqueous extract might be due to the presence of higher amount polyphenolic present in them. Results of this study also supported the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of pain. Hence, it was concluded from the study that C. iners bark extract can be utilized as new source of peripheral analgesic in the treatment of pain.

  9. Analgesic effect of perioperative escitalopram in high pain catastrophizing patients after total knee arthroplasty : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient pain treatment remains a challenge after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), especially in high pain catastrophizing patients. Serotonergic signaling may be involved in pain processing, but the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on well-defined postoperative pain has not previously been investigated. The authors hypothesized that perioperative escitalopram would reduce pain after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. METHODS: A total of 120 pain catastrophizing patients (selected using the pain catastrophizing scale as preoperative screening tool) scheduled for TKA were randomized in a double-blind manner to either 10 mg escitalopram or placebo daily from preanesthesia to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest from 2 to 48 h and from days 2 to 6, morphine equivalents, anxiety, depression, and sideeffects. RESULTS: Pain upon ambulation (mean [95% CI]) 24 h after surgery in the escitalopram versus placebo group was 58 (53 to 64) versus 64 (58 to 69), the mean difference being -5 (-13 to 3), P = 0.20. Overall pain upon ambulation and at rest from days 2 to 6 was lower in the escitalopram versus placebo group, as was depression score at day 6 (all P ? 0.01 in analyses uncorrected for multiple tests). Side effects were nonsignificant except for reduced tendency to sweat and prolonged sleep in the escitalopram group. No other between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Escitalopram did not reduce pain upon ambulation 24 h after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. Future studies on optimal timing, dose, and duration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment might be warranted.

  10. Analgesic Effect of Perioperative Escitalopram in High Pain Catastrophizing Patients after Total Knee Arthroplasty : A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient pain treatment remains a challenge after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), especially in high pain catastrophizing patients. Serotonergic signaling may be involved in pain processing, but the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on well-defined postoperative pain has not previously been investigated. The authors hypothesized that perioperative escitalopram would reduce pain after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. METHODS: A total of 120 pain catastrophizing patients (selected using the pain catastrophizing scale as preoperative screening tool) scheduled for TKA were randomized in a double-blind manner to either 10 mg escitalopram or placebo daily from preanesthesia to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest from 2 to 48 h and from days 2 to 6, morphine equivalents, anxiety, depression, and sideeffects. RESULTS: Pain upon ambulation (mean [95% CI]) 24 h after surgery in the escitalopram versus placebo group was 58 (53 to 64) versus 64 (58 to 69), the mean difference being -5 (-13 to 3), P = 0.20. Overall pain upon ambulation and at rest from days 2 to 6 was lower in the escitalopram versus placebo group, as was depression score at day 6 (all P ? 0.01 in analyses uncorrected for multiple tests). Side effects were nonsignificant except for reduced tendency to sweat and prolonged sleep in the escitalopram group. No other between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Escitalopram did not reduce pain upon ambulation 24 h after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. Future studies on optimal timing, dose, and duration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment might be warranted.

  11. The in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of remeron on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizadeh Tazehkand, Mostafa; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2014-08-26

    Abstract Remeron (Mirtazapine) is an antidepressant drug which exerts its action by blocking presynaptic ?-2-adrenergic receptors and postsynaptic serotonin types 2 and 3 receptors. In this in vitro analysis, human peripheral blood lymphocytes was treated by remeron (10, 25, 40 and 55 ?g/mL) for 24 hours and 48 hours periods, then it was attempted to study of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the substance on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by some tests such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal abnormalities (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. Also proliferating effect of the substance was investigated. Remeron didn't significantly cause chromosomal abnormalities and sister chromatid exchange while caused micronucleus at 40 ?g/mL concentration and 24?h periodic time and increased proliferation index of the both 24 and 48 hours treated cells was decreased in a concentration manner. Also, exposing to the remeron for 24 and 48 hours leaded to a decrease in mitotic index and nucleus division index in the cells by concentration dependent manner. These findings showed that remeron did not have significantly genotoxic effects on human peripheral blood lymphocytes while it showed cytotoxic effects on the cells, which is the first report on genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of remeron. PMID:25156279

  12. Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Sellner, S; Moller, S; Kovacevic, S; Welsch, C; Hajdukovic, D; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Knudsen, H; Comor, J; Beyer, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

  13. Effect of analgesics, antidepressants and their combinations on changes of structures' of the central nervous system activity in animals with simulated depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomiak O.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out on outbred rabbits of both sexes using neurophysiological methods. We resurched the ability of analgesics, antidepressants and their combinations tochange parameters of electrophysiological brain activity under conditions of normal functioning of the central nervous system and on the background ofsimulated depression. Found that in brain pathology combination analgesics with amitriptyline caused activation of the reticular formation (RF and in-creased excitability of dorsomedial tonsils (DMT in comparison with its action in intact rabbits. Analysis of these data on reserpine showed the change of the sign of excitability in the frontal cortex (FC, RF (from inhibition to activation, and re-duction in the dorsal hippocampus (DH, or leveling DMT increased excitability of brain structures under the influence of this combination. Functional relationships between structures were characterized by increasing activating influence of RFon the FC and inhibiting influence of RFon DMT (increasing analgesic activity and reduce brake control DH on FC (increase antidepressant properties. Notably, the combination of celecoxib with the amitriptyline caused fewer changes in excitability of brain structures and intracentral relationships between them that assotiates with less manifested analgesic activity com-pared with the combination of" meloxicam +amitriptyline."

  14. Rapid Sensitization of Physiological, Neuronal, and Locomotor Effects of Nicotine: Critical Role of Peripheral Drug Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir, Magalie; Tang, Jeremy S.; Amina S. Woods; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2013-01-01

    Repeated exposure to nicotine and other psychostimulant drugs produces persistent increases in their psychomotor and physiological effects (sensitization), a phenomenon related to the drugs' reinforcing properties and abuse potential. Here we examined the role of peripheral actions of nicotine in nicotine-induced sensitization of centrally mediated physiological parameters (brain, muscle, and skin temperatures), cortical and VTA EEG, neck EMG activity, and locomotion in freely moving rats. Re...

  15. Effects of pneumonia and malnutrition on the frequency of micronuclei in peripheral blood of pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayh, Khalid I.; Sayed, Douaa M.; Zahran, Asmaa M.; Saad, Khaled; Badr, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bacterial pneumonia and malnutrition on the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood of pediatric patients through flow cytometric analysis. The study was an analytical case-control study carried out on 35 malnourished children with bacterial pneumonia and 20 well-nourished children with bacterial pneumonia, in addition to 20 healthy children as controls. Complete physical examination including; anthropometric measurement, Chest ro...

  16. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Centella asiatica extract in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Seema chaitanya Chippada; Meena Vangalapati

    2012-01-01

    Centella asiatica (CA) is a medicinal herb which has been valued in ayurvedicmedicine for its different activities. In the present studies, CA methanolic extract wasprepared by Soxhlet extraction and then evaluated for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity incultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mitotic Index (MI) Cell ProliferationKinetics (CPK) and Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) were scored to measure thecytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the CA extract in cultures set up from the thre...

  17. The analgesic/antinociceptive action mechanisms of tricyclic antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya DALGIÇ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerous reports and controlled clinical studies revealed analgesic efficacy of tricyclic antidepresants in neurogenic pain syndroms (painful diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, headaches, facial pain, central pain, in rheumatological disorders and in cancer pain. These clinical studies indicate an intrinsic analgesic activity of tricyclic antidepresants independent from their psychotropic effect. Such conclusions are substantiated by following findings; a significant pain relief in nondepressive patients; an analgesic effect in healty volunteers in acute experiments; a faster onset of analgesia than antidepressant effect; the analgesic doses lower than those used for the treatment of depression. Although tricyclic antidepresants are used in the management of pain, the site and the mechanism of their analgesic action remain unclear. There has been considerable discussion at the experimental level about the nature and underlying mechanism of tricyclic antidepressant analgesia. The modulation of nociception by tricyclic antidepresants is probably centrally mediated, but the involvement of spinal and/or supraspinal structures is at present not well established. Nevertheless, in the light of current knowledges, the pain-relieving effect of the tricyclic antidepresants may involve serotoninergic, adrenergic and opioid mechanisms and may modulate various neurotransmitters (GABA, adenosine, NMDA,cholesystokinin and ion channels (Na+, K+, Ca++.

  18. Analgesic Effects of Tramadol, Tramadol–Gabapentin, and Buprenorphine in an Incisional Model of Pain in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mckeon, Gabriel P.; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Long, Charles T.; Howard, Antwain M.; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Yeomans, David C.; Felt, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative pain management in laboratory animals relies heavily on a limited number of drug classes, such as opioids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Here we evaluated the effects of saline, tramadol, tramadol with gabapentin, and buprenorphine (n = 6 per group) in a rat model of incisional pain by examining thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing daily for 6 d after surgery. All drugs were administered preemptively and continued for 2 consecutive days after surgery. Rats treated w...

  19. EVALUATION OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF ABUTILON INDICUM FOR ITS ANALGESIC AND SEDATIVE PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepraj Paul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydro alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Abutilon Indicum was tried for its efficacy as analgesic and sedative property. Several pain models namely Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test, tail clip test and hot water immersion test were tried and for sedative property actophotometer test was performed. As the extract has shown very significant (P?0.01 result in Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test and hot water immersion test hence it is believed that the extract has certain central and peripheral analgesic property which may be mediated either by closing Na+ or/and Ca2+ channels or by facilitating chloride Cl- influx by acting on GABAA receptor. As the extract has significantly reduced loco motor activity hence the mechanism of action of the extract is believed to be mediated by opening of Cl- channel, indicating that the extract may have GABA mimetic or facilitating effect. As following the administration of the extract no straub reaction was observed hence may be in future it will gain more popularity to be used as a substitute for narcotics to treat pain and also as a good sedative.

  20. Analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of Corallocarpus epigaeus / Efeito analgésico e antiartrítico de Corallocarpus epigaeus / Efecto analgésico y antiartrítico de Corallocarpus epigaeus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Subashini, Uthrapathy; Mohamed M, Shabi; Gayathri, Krishnamoorthy; Dhevi, Ravindhran; Victor G, Rajamanickam; Govindha, Pillay Dubey.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A artrite eumatóide é uma doença inflamatória crônica das articulações que se encontra associada ao desenvolvimento de estresse oxidativo e inflamação. No presente estudo é avaliado o perfil de segurança e de eficácia de um extrato metanólico a 85% de Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE). No perfil de segura [...] nça foi determinado o valor de DL50 levando a cabo um estudo de toxicidade aguda. No perfil de eficácia, a atividade analgésica foi avaliada tanto pelo método de prato quente como por meio do teste de imersão da cauda. Foi avaliada a atividade antiinflamatória por edema de pata induzido por carragenina e o efeito antiartrítico mediante artrite induzida por adjuvante completo de Freund. Também se têm levado a cabo a análise fitoquímica das famílias de compostos presentes em diferentes extratos de CE e a análise quantitativa da erva crua e do extrato metanólico a 85%. O extrato metanólico apresentou atividade analgésica ao aumentar o tempo de resposta tanto no método do prato quente como no teste de imersão da cauda. O extrato exibiu 23,19% de atividade antiinflamatória e 33,59% de efeito antiartrítico em edema de pata induzido por adjuvante completo de Freund. O extrato de CE aumentou o nível antioxidante, ao mesmo tempo que diminuiu o estresse oxidativo desenvolvido pela artrite induzida pelo adjuvante completo de Freund. Em conclusão, CE é uma fonte rica de compostos fitoquímicos com atividades analgésicas, anti-inflamatórias e antioxidantes. Abstract in spanish La artritis reumatoidea es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de las articulaciones que se encuentra asociada con el desarrollo de estrés oxidativo e inflamación. En el presente estudio se evalúa el perfil de seguridad y de eficacia de un extracto metanólico al 85% de Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE). E [...] n el perfil de seguridad se determinó el valor de DL50 llevando a cabo un estudio de toxicidad aguda. En el perfil de eficacia, la actividad analgésica se evaluó tanto por el método de plato caliente como por medio de la prueba de inmersión de la cola. Se evaluó la actividad antiinflamatoria por edema de pata inducido por carragenina y el efecto antiartrítico mediante artritis inducida por adyuvante completo de Freund. También se han llevado a cabo el análisis fitoquímico de las familias de compuestos presentes en diferentes extractos de CE y el análisis cuantitativo de la hierba cruda y del extracto metanólico al 85%. El extracto metanólico presentó actividad analgésica al incrementar el tiempo de respuesta tanto en el método del plato caliente como en la prueba de inmersión de la cola. El extracto exhibió 23,19% de actividad antiinflamatoria y 33,59% de efecto antiartrítico en edema de pata inducido por adyuvante completo de Freund. El extracto de CE aumentó el nivel antioxidante al tiempo que disminuyó el estrés oxidativo desarrollado por la artritis inducida por el adyuvante completo de Freund. En conclusión, CE es una fuente rica de compuestos fitoquímicos con actividades analgésicas, antiinflamatorias y antioxidantes. Abstract in english Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. The safety and efficacy profile of 85% methanolic extract of Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE) was evaluated in the present study. In safety profile LD50 value was determined [...] by carrying out an acute toxicity study. In efficacy profile, the analgesic activity was evaluated by both hot plate and tail immersion tests. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan-induced paw edema and anti-arthritic effect by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. Phytochemical screening of different CE extracts and quantitative analysis of both raw herb and 85% methanolic extract have been also carried out. The methanolic extract displayed analgesic activity by increasing the response time in both hot plate and tail immersion method. Extract exhibited 23,19% of anti-inflammatory activity and 33,59% of a

  1. EFEITO ANALGÉSICO DO BUTORFANOL NA DOR SOMÁTICA EM GATOS ANESTESIADOS COM PROPOFOL ANALGESIC EFFECT OF BUTORPHANOL ON SOMATIC PAIN IN CATS ANESTHETIZED WITH PROPOFOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Ciniello Araujo

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O propofol é um agente anestésico intravenoso usado para indução e manutenção da anestesia, mas produz analgesia limitada, havendo a necessidade do uso concomitante de analgésicos. Avaliou-se o efeito analgésico do butorfanol na dor somática em gatos anestesiados com doses fracionadas de propofol. Foram utilizados 16 animais, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo controle foram pré-tratados com 0,2mg/kg de acepromazina por via IM e, após 15 minutos, receberam 6mg/kg de propofol por via IV. Os animais do grupo tratamento foram pré-medicados com uma combinação de acepromazina (0,2mg/kg e butorfanol (0,8mg/kg, administrados na mesma seringa por via IM, e, após 15 minutos, receberam 6mg/kg de propofol por via IV. Em ambos os grupos, a manutenção da anestesia foi feita com administrações de propofol, na dose de 3mg/kg, por via IV, sempre que necessário, durante 60 minutos. A necessidade de readministração de propofol foi verificada pela resposta apresentada ao pinçamento cutâneo, através de uma pinça de Kocher. Avaliaram-se também as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial média, saturação de oxiemoglobina e temperatura retal. A administração de butorfanol causou apenas redução nas freqüências cardíaca e respiratória e na saturação de oxiemoglobina, em comparação com o grupo controle,sem exercer influência significativa sobre o período hábil, a dose total administrada e o período de recuperação do propofol. Concluiu-se que a adição de butorfanol não produziu analgesia somática em gatos anestesiados com doses fracionadas de propofol.Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia but produces limited analgesia, and concomitant use of analgesics is necessary. The analgesic effect of butorphanol in somatic pain in cats anesthetized with intermittent doses of propofol was evaluated. Sixteen animals were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Control group animals were premedicated with IM acepromazine (0,2mg/kg and after 15 minutes IV propofol (6mg/kg was administered. Treatment group animals were premedicated with IM acepromazine (0,2mg/kg and butorphanol (0,8mg/kg, mixed in the same syringe and after 15 minutes IV propofol (6mg/kg was administered. In both groups anesthesia was maintained with repeated injections of propofol (3mg/kg as needed, during 60 minutes. The need to complement propofol doses was determined by reactions to a skin pinch with a Kocher hemostatic forceps.Heart rate, respiratory rate, mean blood pressure, rectal body temperature and oxyhemoglobin saturation were also recorded. Administration of butorphanol caused minimal changes in cardiopulmonary variables compared to control group and did not affect duration of anesthesia and total dose of propofol or recovery period. We concluded that addition of butorphanol did not produce somatic analgesia during anesthesia maintained with repeated injections of propofol in cats.

  2. Cervical analgesic facet joint arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on our experience with cervical analgesic facetjoint arthrography in 11 patients (30 joints), of whom nine had previous spinal surgery. In this type of patients we have found the procedure to be a diagnostic test as well as a preoperative duide to the neurosurgeon, but not a permanent therapy. (orig.)

  3. Inhibitory effect of mitragynine, an analgesic alkaloid from Thai herbal medicine, on neurogenic contraction of the vas deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Leonardo T; Watanabe, Kazuo; Yano, Shingo; Shan, Jie; Pang, Peter K T; Ponglux, Dhavadee; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Horie, Syunji

    2005-11-26

    The effect of an indole-alkaloid mitragynine isolated from the Thai medicinal herb kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) on neurogenic contraction of smooth muscle was studied in guinea-pig vas deferens. Mitragynine inhibited the contraction of the vas deferens produced by electrical transmural stimulation. On the other hand, mitragynine failed to affect the responses to norepinephrine and ATP. Mitragynine did not reduce KCl-induced contraction in the presence of tetrodotoxin, prazosin and alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Mitragynine inhibited nicotine- or tyramine-induced contraction. By using the patch-clamp technique, mitragynine was found to block T- and L-type Ca2+ channel currents in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. In the Ca2+ measurement by a fluorescent dye method, mitragynine reduced KCl-induced Ca2+ influx in neuroblastoma cells. The present results suggest that mitragynine inhibits the vas deferens contraction elicited by nerve stimulation, probably through its blockade of neuronal Ca2+ channels. PMID:16107269

  4. Comparative clinical study of light analgesic effect on temporomandibular disorder (TMD) using red and infrared led therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhoca, Vitor Hugo; Lizarelli, Rosane de Fatima Zanirato; Nunez, Silvia Cristina; Pizzo, Renata Campi de Andrade; Grecco, Clovis; Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely applied in pain relief in several clinical situations, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the effects of LED therapy on TMD has not been investigated. This study aims to evaluate the effects of red and infrared LEDs on: (1) tissue temperature in ex vivo and (2) pain relief and mandibular range of motion in patients with TMD. Thirty patients between 18 and 40 years old were included and randomly assigned to three groups. The two experimental groups were: the red LED (630?±?10 nm) group and the infrared LED (850?±?10 nm) group. The irradiation parameters were 150 mW, 300 mW/cm(2), 18 J/cm(2), and 9 J/point. The positive control group received an infrared laser (780 nm) with 70 mW, 1.7 W/cm(2), 105 J/cm(2), and 4.2 J/point. LED and laser therapies were applied bilaterally to the face for 60 s/point. Five points were irradiated: three points around the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), one point for the temporalis, and one near the masseter. Eight sessions of phototherapy were performed, twice a week for 4 weeks. Pain induced by palpating the masseter muscle and mandibular range of motion (maximum oral aperture) were measured at baseline, immediately after treatment, 7 days after treatment, and 30 days after treatment. There was an increase in tissue temperature during both the red and the infrared LED irradiation in ex vivo. There was a significant reduction of pain and increase of the maximum oral aperture for all groups (p???0.05). There was no significant difference in pain scores and maximum oral aperture between groups at baseline or any periods after treatment (p???0.05). The current study showed that red and infrared LED therapy can be useful in improving outcomes related to pain relief and orofacial function for TMD patients. We conclude that LED devices constitute an attractive alternative for LLLT. PMID:24197518

  5. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF PICRORHIZA KURROA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rupali laxman shid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Methodology:-The selected drug from the authentic literature is in form of dried roots of Picrohiza kurroa belonging to family scrophulariaceae.  Analgesic  activity of root powder is extracted with alcohol for 7 days.  The extracts in these dose levels of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg were tested.  The analgesic activity was studied by using the Hot plate and Acetic acid induced-writhing method in albino mice of either sex. The writhing are measured within 10 min. Results:- The 500mg/kg drug of picrorhiza kurroa having similar effect to the standard drug pentazocin at ½ hrs.pentazocin is agonist-antagonist type of analgesic drug.in hot plate method the 500mg/ kg drug of picrorhiza kurroa is effective at the ½ hrs than the 250mg/ kg Conclusions:-Dose effective of ethanolic extract of  picrorhiza kurroa 500 mg/kg. by Hot    plate method and Acetic acid induced writhing method.

  6. Involvement of Heme Oxygenase-1 Participates in Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Ling; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lin, Wang-Ching; Liao, Jung-Chun; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2012-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis (AHT) were used in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-)stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and carrageenan (Carr-)induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with AHT together with LPS, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that AHT blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), significantly. In the animal test, AHT decreased the paw edema at the 4th and the 5th?h after Carr administration, and it increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated AHT decreased the NO, TNF-?, and PGE2 levels on the serum level at the 5th h after the Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that AHT decreased Carr-induced iNOS, and COX-2, and increased HO-1 expressions at the 5th h in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that AHT has excellent anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo and thus it has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products. PMID:22778769

  7. Factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use - a population-based study of more than 45,000 Danish women and men 18-45 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Andersen, Tina Veje

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of and serious adverse effects associated with use of analgesics accentuates the need to consider factors related to analgesic use. The objective of this study was to describe continuous regular analgesics use and examine factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use.

  8. Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on Peripheral Nerve: In Situ Compound-Action Potentials Study in a Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dole, Kenneth C.; Chen, Qun; HETZEL, FRED W.; WHALEN, LAWRENCE R.; BLANC, DOMINIQUE; Huang, Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Our aim is to investigate the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on peripheral nerve conductivity. Background Data: Interstitial PDT has been demonstrated as a promising treatment modality for prostate cancer. However, the sensitivity of nerves, in the immediate vicinity of the prostate gland, to PDT procedures has not been studied. This study attempts to establish an in situ canine model to evaluate direct PDT effect on peripheral nerves. Methods: PDT was performed by irradiati...

  9. Effect of propranolol on the splanchnic and peripheral renin angiotensin system in cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkíria Wingester Vilas-Boas, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira Jr, Renata da Cunha Ribeiro, Renata Lúcia Pereira Vieira, Jerusa Almeida, Ana Paula Nadu, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Robson Augusto Souza Santos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of ?-blockade on angiotensins in the splanchnic and peripheral circulation of cirrhotic patients and also to compare hemodynamic parameters during liver transplantation according to propranolol pre-treatment or not.METHODS: Patients were allocated into two groups: outpatients with advanced liver disease(LD and during liver transplantation(LT. Both groups were subdivided according to treatment with propranolol or not. Plasma was collected through peripheral venipuncture to determine plasma renin activity(PRA, Angiotensin(Ang?I, Ang II, and Ang-(1-7 levels by radioimmunoassay in LD group. During liver transplantation, hemodynamic parameters were determined and blood samples were obtained from the portal vein to measure renin angiotensin system(RAS components.RESULTS: PRA, Ang?I, Ang II and Ang-(1-7 were significantly lower in the portal vein and periphery in all subgroups treated with propranolol as compared to non-treated. The relationships between Ang-(1-7 and Ang?I?levels and between Ang II and Ang?I?were significantly increased in LD group receiving propranolol. The ratio between Ang-(1-7 and Ang II remained unchanged in splanchnic and peripheral circulation in patients under ?-blockade, whereas the relationship between Ang II and Ang?I?was significantly increased in splanchnic circulation of LT patients treated with propranolol. During liver transplantation, cardiac output and index as well systemic vascular resistance and index were reduced in propranolol-treated subgroup.CONCLUSION: In LD group, propranolol treatment reduced RAS mediators, but did not change the ratio between Ang-(1-7 and Ang II in splanchnic and peripheral circulation. Furthermore, the modification of hemodynamic parameters in propranolol treated patients was not associated with changes in the angiotensin ratio.

  10. EFFECT OF MODERATE ALTITUDE ON PERIPHERAL MUSCLE OXYGENATION DURING LEG RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN YOUNG MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Training at moderate altitude (~1800m is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL. They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (% from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 % than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %. SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 % than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %. Differences (SL - 1800AL in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660. These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore , that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles.

  11. Comparison of analgesic effect of intrathecal morphine alone or in combination with bupivacaine and fentanyl in patients undergoing total gastrectomy: A prospective randomised, double blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovi? Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Combined spinal-epidural-general anesthesia has several advantages over general anesthesia alone. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of intrathecal (IT morphine alone, or in combination with bupivacaine and fentanyl, as part of a combined spinal-epidural (CSE analgesia, in patients undergoing elective total gastrectomy. Methods. This prospective, randomized double-blind study included 60 patients undergoing total gastrectomy under general anesthesia and CSE. We compared the analgesic effect of lumbar IT morphine 300 ?g (the group M, n = 20 vs morphine 300 ?g + bupivacaine 2 mg (the group MB, n = 20 vs morphine 300 ?g + bupivacaine 2 mg + fentanyl 25 ?g (the group MBF, n = 20 given after thoracic epidural catheter placement (T6-7 but before general anesthesia induction. Pain visual analogue scale (VAS at rest (R, with movement (M and with cough (C, and the number of analgesia requests were assessed for 72 h and after epidural catheter removal. Results. Compared to other groups, the MBF group required significantly fewer additional intra-operative epidural bupivacaine doses (p < 0.001, whereas the M group required significantly more supplemental intraoperative intravenous fentanyl, compared with the MBF (p = 0.022 and MB groups (p = 0.005. Postoperative pain relief was satisfactory in all the groups at all the time. VAS-R and VAS-M did not differ significantly among the groups. Compared to the M group, VAS-C scores 30 min postoperatively were significantly lower in the MBF (p = 0.029 and MB groups (p = 0.002. Duration of analgesia was longer in the MBF and MB groups, but the difference reached no significance. The number of supplemental analgesia requests was similar in all the groups in the first 12 h and during 72 h. Additional analgesia requests after epidural catheter removal were similar in all the groups, and side effects were infrequent. Conclusion. Compared to IT morphine alone, triple IT combination administered as part of CSE provided better intraoperative analgesia, but conferred no benefit with regards to postoperative analgesia.

  12. Analgésicos tópicos Analgésicos tópicos Topical analgesics

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    Murilo Pereira Flores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O tratamento da dor envolve a utilização de analgésicos opioides, analgésicos comuns, anti-inflamatórios não hormonais (AINH's e analgésicos adjuvantes. Tradicionalmente, estes fármacos são administrados por via sistêmica ou no neuroeixo. Entretanto, quando aplicados por estas vias, estão associados a efeitos colaterais importantes, os quais podem inviabilizar o seu uso. A administração tópica de analgésicos é uma alternativa. O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir os analgésicos tópicos, seus mecanismos de ação e eficácia clínica. CONTEÚDO: Trata-se de um trabalho de revisão que aborda a utilização tópica de anestésicos locais, capsaicina, clonidina, antidepressivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides e canabinoides, discutindo o seu mecanismo de ação e a sua eficácia. CONCLUSÕES: Os analgésicos tópicos são promissores como estratégia para o tratamento da dor, já que estão associados à menor incidência de efeitos colaterais. O benefício dos anestésicos locais, dos AINH's e da capsaicina está bem estabelecido, entretanto, a eficácia de clonidina, antidepressivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides e canabinoides ainda é questionável. Trabalhos demonstram que a abordagem multimodal é uma alternativa, porém estudos são necessários para confirmar esta hipótese.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El tratamiento del dolor involucra la utilización de analgésicos opioides, analgésicos comunes, antiinflamatorios no hormonales (AINH's y analgésicos adyuvantes. Tradicionalmente, esos fármacos son administrados por vía sistémica o en el neuro eje. Sin embargo, cuando se aplican por esas vías, están asociados a los efectos colaterales importantes, los cuales pueden impedir su uso. La administración tópica de analgésicos es una alternativa. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir los analgésicos tópicos, sus mecanismos de acción y la eficacia clínica. CONTENIDO: Se trata de un trabajo de revisión que aborda la utilización tópica de anestésicos locales, capsaicina, clonidina, antidepresivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides y canabinoides, discutiendo su mecanismo de acción y su eficacia. CONCLUSIONES: Los analgésicos tópicos son promisorios como una estrategia para el tratamiento del dolor, ya que están asociados con una menor incidencia de efectos colaterales. El beneficio de los anestésicos locales, de los AINH's y de la capsaicina está muy bien establecido, sin embargo, la eficacia de la clonidina, los antidepresivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides y canabinoides, todavía es cuestionable. Algunos trabajos demuestran que el abordaje multimodal es una alternativa, pero más estudios son necesarios para poder confirmar esa hipótesis.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain treatment involves the usage of common and opioid analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and adjuvant analgesics. Traditionally, these drugs are administered systemically or into the neuraxis. However, when analgesics are applied through these pathways, they are associated with significant side effects, which can hinder its use. Topical administration of analgesics is an alternative. The objective of this paper is to discuss topical analgesics, the mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. CONTENT: This is a review paper addressing the usage of the topical local anesthetics: capsaicin, clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids, discussing mechanism of action and effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Topical analgesics are promising as a strategy for pain treatment, as they are associated with lower incidence of side effects. The benefit of local anesthetics, NSAID's and capsaicin is well established. However, the efficacy of clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids is still questionable. Studies have shown that the multimodal approach is an alternative, but studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  13. Analgésicos tópicos / Topical analgesics / Analgésicos tópicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murilo Pereira, Flores; Anita Perpetua Carvalho Rocha de, Castro; Jedson dos Santos, Nascimento.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O tratamento da dor envolve a utilização de analgésicos opioides, analgésicos comuns, anti-inflamatórios não hormonais (AINH's) e analgésicos adjuvantes. Tradicionalmente, estes fármacos são administrados por via sistêmica ou no neuroeixo. Entretanto, quando aplicados por [...] estas vias, estão associados a efeitos colaterais importantes, os quais podem inviabilizar o seu uso. A administração tópica de analgésicos é uma alternativa. O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir os analgésicos tópicos, seus mecanismos de ação e eficácia clínica. CONTEÚDO: Trata-se de um trabalho de revisão que aborda a utilização tópica de anestésicos locais, capsaicina, clonidina, antidepressivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides e canabinoides, discutindo o seu mecanismo de ação e a sua eficácia. CONCLUSÕES: Os analgésicos tópicos são promissores como estratégia para o tratamento da dor, já que estão associados à menor incidência de efeitos colaterais. O benefício dos anestésicos locais, dos AINH's e da capsaicina está bem estabelecido, entretanto, a eficácia de clonidina, antidepressivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides e canabinoides ainda é questionável. Trabalhos demonstram que a abordagem multimodal é uma alternativa, porém estudos são necessários para confirmar esta hipótese. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El tratamiento del dolor involucra la utilización de analgésicos opioides, analgésicos comunes, antiinflamatorios no hormonales (AINH's) y analgésicos adyuvantes. Tradicionalmente, esos fármacos son administrados por vía sistémica o en el neuro eje. Sin embargo, cuando se [...] aplican por esas vías, están asociados a los efectos colaterales importantes, los cuales pueden impedir su uso. La administración tópica de analgésicos es una alternativa. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir los analgésicos tópicos, sus mecanismos de acción y la eficacia clínica. CONTENIDO: Se trata de un trabajo de revisión que aborda la utilización tópica de anestésicos locales, capsaicina, clonidina, antidepresivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides y canabinoides, discutiendo su mecanismo de acción y su eficacia. CONCLUSIONES: Los analgésicos tópicos son promisorios como una estrategia para el tratamiento del dolor, ya que están asociados con una menor incidencia de efectos colaterales. El beneficio de los anestésicos locales, de los AINH's y de la capsaicina está muy bien establecido, sin embargo, la eficacia de la clonidina, los antidepresivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides y canabinoides, todavía es cuestionable. Algunos trabajos demuestran que el abordaje multimodal es una alternativa, pero más estudios son necesarios para poder confirmar esa hipótesis. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain treatment involves the usage of common and opioid analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and adjuvant analgesics. Traditionally, these drugs are administered systemically or into the neuraxis. However, when analgesics are applied through these pathw [...] ays, they are associated with significant side effects, which can hinder its use. Topical administration of analgesics is an alternative. The objective of this paper is to discuss topical analgesics, the mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. CONTENT: This is a review paper addressing the usage of the topical local anesthetics: capsaicin, clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids, discussing mechanism of action and effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Topical analgesics are promising as a strategy for pain treatment, as they are associated with lower incidence of side effects. The benefit of local anesthetics, NSAID's and capsaicin is well established. However, the efficacy of clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids is still questionable. Studies have shown that the multimodal approach is an alternative, but studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. An evaluation of the analgesic effects of meloxicam in addition to epidural morphine/mepivacaine in dogs undergoing cranial cruciate ligament repair

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, David; Isakow, Kevin; Caulkett, Nigel; Waldner, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    The analgesic efficacy of an epidural morphine/mepivacaine combination alone versus epidural morphine/mepivacaine in combination with meloxicam administered prior to the onset of anesthesia was assessed in 20 dogs undergoing cranial cruciate ligament repair. Numerical and visual analog pain scores were performed prior to anesthesia and at 6, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hours after epidural administration by a trained observer, blinded to treatment. An analgesiometer was used to determine the amount of ...

  15. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of the Extract and Fractions of Astragalus hamosus in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaii, Asie; Motaghinejad, Majid; Norouzi, Sima; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the hydro-alcoholic extract of the pods of Astragalus hamosus (HAAH), a plant used in Iranian traditional medicine, and antinociceptive effects of different fractions in animal models. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by the rat paw edema induced by formalin. Also the analgesic effect was examined by the acetic-acid-induced writhing response and hot plate test. The analgesic effects of chlo...

  16. Clinical Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Guduchi (Tinospora Cordifolia) Using Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Bhomik; Pathak, Nishant; Nim, Dwividendra Kumar; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Dixit, Rakesh Kumar; Chaurasia, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pain is a very well-known signal of ill health and analgesics are the drugs that are used to relieve pain. The main problem with these drugs remains that of side effects. Safer alternatives are natural herbs. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) is one such plant with analgesic potential but few studies are there.

  17. Analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block commenced prior to operative fixation of fractured neck of femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szucs Szilard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB in patients with FNF. Methods Following institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1 or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2. Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score at 30?min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10. The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later. Results Of 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7 vs 27.5(14.2 h, P?=?0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4 vs 31(28, P?=?0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30?min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6?h 30.7(23.4 vs 67.0(32.0, P?=?0.004]. Cumulative morphine consumption over 72?h was less in Group 2. Patient satisfaction scores were greater in Group 2 [9.4(1.1 vs 7.6(1.8, P?=?0.014]. Conclusions CFNB provides more effective perioperative analgesia than a standard opiate-based regimen for patients undergoing fixation of FNF. It is associated with lesser opiate use and greater patient satisfaction.

  18. Analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block commenced prior to operative fixation of fractured neck of femur

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szucs, Szilard

    2012-06-27

    AbstractBackgroundPeripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF) is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) in patients with FNF.MethodsFollowing institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1) or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2). Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score) at 30?min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10). The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later.ResultsOf 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7) vs 27.5(14.2) h, P?=?0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4) vs 31(28), P?=?0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30?min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6?h 30.7(23.4) vs 67.0(32.0), P?=?0.004]. Cumulative morphine consumption over 72?h was less in Group 2. Patient satisfaction scores were greater in Group 2 [9.4(1.1) vs 7.6(1.8), P?=?0.014].ConclusionsCFNB provides more effective perioperative analgesia than a standard opiate-based regimen for patients undergoing fixation of FNF. It is associated with lesser opiate use and greater patient satisfaction.

  19. Effects of peripheral and spinal ?-opioid receptor stimulation on the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Steven W; Stone, Audrey J; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Kaufman, Marc P

    2014-08-01

    The exercise pressor reflex is greater in rats with ligated femoral arteries than it is in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. The exaggerated reflex in rats with ligated arteries is attenuated by stimulation of ?-opioid and ?-opioid receptors on the peripheral endings of thin-fiber muscle afferents. The effect of stimulation of ?-opioid receptors on the exercise pressor reflex is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that stimulation of ?-opioid receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated, but not freely perfused, femoral arteries. The pressor responses to static contraction were compared before and after femoral arterial or intrathecal injection of the ?-opioid receptor agonist U62066 (1, 10, and 100 ?g). Femoral arterial injection of U62066 did not attenuate the pressor responses to contraction in either group of rats. Likewise, intrathecal injection of U62066 did not attenuate the pressor response to contraction in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. In contrast, intrathecal injection of 10 and 100 ?g of U62066 attenuated the pressor response to contraction in rats with ligated femoral arteries, an effect that was blocked by prior intrathecal injection of the ?-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. In rats with ligated femoral arteries, the pressor response to stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors by sodium cyanide was not changed by intrathecal U62066 injections, indicating that these injections had no direct effect on the sympathetic outflow. We conclude that stimulation of spinal, but not peripheral, ?-opioid receptors attenuates the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated femoral arteries. PMID:24920732

  20. Glutamate and capsaicin effects on trigeminal nociception I: Activation and peripheral sensitization of deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, David K.; Sessle, Barry J.; Hu, James W.

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the effect of the peripheral application of glutamate and capsaicin to deep craniofacial tissues in influencing the activation and peripheral sensitization of deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents. The activity of single trigeminal nociceptive afferents with receptive fields in deep craniofacial tissues were recorded extracellularly in 55 halothane-anesthetized rats. The mechanical activation threshold (MAT) of each afferent was assessed before and after injection of 0.5M g...

  1. The effect of the acute combined action of radiation and some pesticides on the peripheral blood of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the combined action of external gamma radiation and certain pesticides on peripheral blood were studied in rats. The pesticides introduced into the stomach were the organophosphoric compound Dipterex, the organochlorine compound Lindane or tetramethyl-thiuram disulphide. In the peripheral blood, the quantity of haemoglobin, red blood corpuscles and white blood corpuscles, and the leucocyte formula were defined and qualitative changes in the white blood cells revealed according to the frequency with which atypical cells were encountered. (UK)

  2. Effects of Cordyceps extract on cytokines and transcription factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of asthmatic children during remission stage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of Cordyceps extract in regulating the imbalance of Th1/Th2 ratio and inhibiting the inflammatory reaction, and to find the theoretical basis of Cordyceps extract for treating asthma in remission stage.Methods: A total of 20 peripheral venous blood samples (3 mL) were collected from 20 asthmatic children during remission stage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated by Ficoll method. PBMCs were separated into three groups (blank group, ...

  3. A simple effective interaction for peripheral heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very simple phenomenological nucleon-nucleon effective interaction is derived by folding-model analyses of 36 sets of heavy-ion elastic-scattering data at energies E/A between 10 and 100 MeV. It is represented by a single Yukawa term with a complex strength that varies slowly with energy. It is appropriate for peripheral collisions at intermediate energies. It is proposed for use in consistent analyses of elastic- and inelastic-scattering measurements. The possible role of spin-orbit coupling in heavy-ion elastic scattering at the higher energies is discussed. ((orig.))

  4. Tramadol as an Analgesic to Treat Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain has now been equated to a fifth vital sign highlighting the significance of pain management in patient care. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic which is structurally related to codeine and morphine. It is effectively used to treat moderate to severe acute and chronic pain in diverse conditions. Tramadol is placed on the second step of WHO analgesic ladder and in contrast to traditional opioids, exerts its analgesic activity, a dual mechanism of action inhibiting transmission as well as perception of pain. Tramadol is more suitable than NSAID’s and coxib’s for patient with GI, renal and cardiovascular problems. Combined with low dependence/abuse potential, it has proven to be of significant advantage over other agents especially in the elderly.

  5. The effect of Ginkgo extract EGb761 in cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in cisplatin (cis-diamminedi-chloroplatinum, or CDDP)-induced peripheral neuropathy was investigated. Swiss albino mice were treated with CDDP, 2 mg/kg ip twice a week for nine times. One group of the animals also received EGb761 in the drinking water at an estimated dosage of 100 mg/kg per day. Two other groups received vehicle (control) or EGb761 only. Development of neuropathy was evaluated with changes in sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Following the treatments, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) were microscopically examined and some were cultured for 3 days. EGb761 proved effective in preventing the reduction in NCV (P < 0.0001) caused by CDDP. CDDP caused a decrease in the number of migrating cells (P < 0.01) and in the length of outgrowing axons (P < 0.01) while EGb761 treatment prevented the latter. CDDP led to smaller nuclear and somatic sizes in neurons (P < 0.01), while with EGb761 co-administration, both were close to control values. Animals having EGb761 only had similar results with controls. In conclusion, EGb761 was found to be effective in preventing some functional and morphological deteriorations in CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy

  6. Eficacia y efectos secundarios de 3 técnicas analgesicas en el control del dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia de rodilla Efficacy and side effects of three analgesic techniques for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Illescas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia total de rodilla, aún considerándose uno de los más severos, es un reto por resolver. Con nuestro estudio pretendemos analizar y comparar la eficacia analgésica, incidencia y severidad de efectos secundarios de una pauta epidural, otra consistente en bloqueo femoral y una pauta intravenosa con morfina. Material y métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se revisan 359 hojas de seguimiento de pacientes sometidos a artroplastia total de rodilla. Según la pauta analgésica que recibieron en el postoperatorio fueron asignados a tres grupos diferentes: a Grupo Femoral (n=56 a los que se realizó bloqueo femoral continuo con ropivacaina al 0,2 %. En todos los casos se asoció un bloqueo del nervio ciático mediante punción única medio-femoral con ropivacaina al 0,2%. b Grupo epidural (n=135 a los que se coloca catéter epidural lumbar mediante el cuál se administra bupivacaina al 0,07%+ fentanilo 2 µg/ml. c Grupo intravenoso (n=168 a los que se administra morfina intravenosa. En todas las pautas el modo de administración es mediante perfusión continua con PCA. Todos los pacientes recibieron como analgesia complementaria Paracetamol IV 1g/6h. Valoramos el grado de analgesia en reposo, náuseas y vómitos, bloqueo motor, sedación, prurito y necesidad de analgesia de rescate en las primeras 24 horas del postoperatorio. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a eficacia analgésica entre las 3 pautas analizadas. Igualmente, no encontramos diferencias significativas respecto a sedación ni naúseas y vómitos, siendo el bloqueo motor y el prurito superiores en los casos de bloqueo femoral y epidural respectivamente. Conclusiones: Aunque el perfil de efectos secundarios sea discretamente mayor en cuanto a prurito en el grupo epidural y bloqueo motor en el grupo femoral, no podemos afirmar la superioridad en cuanto a eficacia analgésica de ninguna estrategia con respecto a otra.Purpose: Despite the fact that it is expected and intense, postoperative pain after knee arthroplasty is still an unresolved challenge. In our study we intend to analyse and compare analgesic efficacy, incidence and severity of adverse effects resulting from three different techniques: a Epidural analgesia , bFemoral block, and c intravenous analgesia with mor-phine. Patients and Methods: An observational and retrospective study is presented, re-viewing data obtained from 359 patients who had a total knee arthroplasty: Patients were assigned to three different groups, according to the method of pain relief that was prescribed for each of them: a Femoral group (n=56.A continuous femoral block was performed using ropivacaine 0.2%. Sciatic block was associated on each patient (single injection at middle femoral point with ropivacaine 0.2%. b Epidural group (n=135.This figure includes patients in whom an epidural catheter was inserted and bupivacaine 0.07% plus fentanyl 2 mc./mi was administered through the catheter. c Intravenous group (n=168. Intravenous morphine was administered to this group of patients. Each analgesic plan included continuous perfusión of drugs via PCA devices, and paracetamol (lg iv every 6 hourly was prescribed as complementary analgesia in all the cases. Parameters to evalúate: analgesia obtained at rest, nausea and vomiting, motor blockade, sedation, pruritus and complementary analgesia given in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Results: Significative differences were not appreciated at the moment of evaluation of the analgesic efficieney of the three analgesic plans. Equally, sedation, nausea and vomiting had the same incidence in all groups. Motor blockade and pruritus appeared more frequently in the cases treated with femoral block and epidural catheter respectively. Conclusión: We can not assert that any of the analgesic strategies was superior to the others as to its analgesic effectiveness, although pruritus appeared in the epidural group and motor blockade did in the femoral group, as adve

  7. Eficacia y efectos secundarios de 3 técnicas analgesicas en el control del dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia de rodilla / Efficacy and side effects of three analgesic techniques for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Illescas; J. R., Ríos; R., Rodríguez de la Torre; I., Mojarroa; J. I., Gallego; M., Gil-Fernández.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia total de rodilla, aún considerándose uno de los más severos, es un reto por resolver. Con nuestro estudio pretendemos analizar y comparar la eficacia analgésica, incidencia y severidad de efectos secundarios de una pauta epidural, otra consistente en [...] bloqueo femoral y una pauta intravenosa con morfina. Material y métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se revisan 359 hojas de seguimiento de pacientes sometidos a artroplastia total de rodilla. Según la pauta analgésica que recibieron en el postoperatorio fueron asignados a tres grupos diferentes: a) Grupo Femoral (n=56) a los que se realizó bloqueo femoral continuo con ropivacaina al 0,2 %. En todos los casos se asoció un bloqueo del nervio ciático mediante punción única medio-femoral con ropivacaina al 0,2%. b) Grupo epidural (n=135) a los que se coloca catéter epidural lumbar mediante el cuál se administra bupivacaina al 0,07%+ fentanilo 2 µg/ml. c) Grupo intravenoso (n=168) a los que se administra morfina intravenosa. En todas las pautas el modo de administración es mediante perfusión continua con PCA. Todos los pacientes recibieron como analgesia complementaria Paracetamol IV 1g/6h. Valoramos el grado de analgesia en reposo, náuseas y vómitos, bloqueo motor, sedación, prurito y necesidad de analgesia de rescate en las primeras 24 horas del postoperatorio. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a eficacia analgésica entre las 3 pautas analizadas. Igualmente, no encontramos diferencias significativas respecto a sedación ni naúseas y vómitos, siendo el bloqueo motor y el prurito superiores en los casos de bloqueo femoral y epidural respectivamente. Conclusiones: Aunque el perfil de efectos secundarios sea discretamente mayor en cuanto a prurito en el grupo epidural y bloqueo motor en el grupo femoral, no podemos afirmar la superioridad en cuanto a eficacia analgésica de ninguna estrategia con respecto a otra. Abstract in english Purpose: Despite the fact that it is expected and intense, postoperative pain after knee arthroplasty is still an unresolved challenge. In our study we intend to analyse and compare analgesic efficacy, incidence and severity of adverse effects resulting from three different techniques: a )Epidural a [...] nalgesia , b)Femoral block, and c) intravenous analgesia with mor-phine. Patients and Methods: An observational and retrospective study is presented, re-viewing data obtained from 359 patients who had a total knee arthroplasty: Patients were assigned to three different groups, according to the method of pain relief that was prescribed for each of them: a) Femoral group (n=56).A continuous femoral block was performed using ropivacaine 0.2%. Sciatic block was associated on each patient (single injection at middle femoral point with ropivacaine 0.2%). b) Epidural group (n=135).This figure includes patients in whom an epidural catheter was inserted and bupivacaine 0.07% plus fentanyl 2 mc./mi was administered through the catheter. c) Intravenous group (n=168). Intravenous morphine was administered to this group of patients. Each analgesic plan included continuous perfusión of drugs via PCA devices, and paracetamol (lg iv every 6 hourly) was prescribed as complementary analgesia in all the cases. Parameters to evalúate: analgesia obtained at rest, nausea and vomiting, motor blockade, sedation, pruritus and complementary analgesia given in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Results: Significative differences were not appreciated at the moment of evaluation of the analgesic efficieney of the three analgesic plans. Equally, sedation, nausea and vomiting had the same incidence in all groups. Motor blockade and pruritus appeared more frequently in the cases treated with femoral block and epidural catheter respectively. Conclusión: We can not assert that any of the analgesic strategies was superior to the others as to its analgesic effectiveness, although pruritus appeared in the epidural group a

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cheiloclinium cognatum root barks Efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório das cascas das raízes de Cheiloclinium cognatum

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    Elson A. Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheiloclinium cognatum (Hippocrateaceae has been used in folk medicine to treat fever and edema. In this paper, we report the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the crude dichloromethane extract (DECc from C. cognatum root barks collected in Auguste de Saint Hilaire wood at Universidade Federal de Goiás. Doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of croton oil-induced ear edema in mice equivalent to 21, 30 and 51%, respectively. There was a significant increase in analgesic-meter-induced tail flick test equivalent to 105, 189 and 200% of increase tail flick reaction time. These results allowed to suggest that C. cognatum could be a source of new compounds which anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.Cheiloclinium cognatum é uma planta da família das Hippocrateaceae, popularmente conhecida como bacupari, usada popularmente no tratamento de febre e edemas. Neste artigo, descrevemos as atividades antiinflamatória e analgésica do extrato bruto diclorometânico das cascas das raízes (DECc, coletadas no bosque Auguste de Saint Hilaire, localizado na Universidade Federal de Goiás. Doses de 0,1, 0,3 e 1,0 g/kg causaram uma redução de 21, 30 e 51%, respectivamente, no edema de orelha de camundongos, induzido pelo óleo de cróton. No método algesimétrico, flexão de cauda, observou-se um significativo aumento no tempo para reação ao estímulo térmico equivalente a 105, 189 e 200%. Estes resultados sugerem que C. cognatum pode ser uma fonte de novos compostos com atividades antiinflamatória e analgésica.

  9. The Effect of Exogenous Testosterone Administration on Peripheral Nerves Regeneration after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rat

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    M. Tehranipour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are extensive evidences those axonal processes of the nervous system (peripheral and/or central may degenerate after nerve injuries. Wallerian degeneration and choromatolysis are the most conspicuous phenomena that occur in response to injuries. In this study the effects of exogenous testosterone administration on peripheral neurons regeneration after sciatic nerve compression in rat was investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats divided to 4 group (control, compression, compression+castrated, compression+subcutaneous administration testosterone n = 8. After 4 weeks the lumber segments of spinal cord were sample, processed, sectioned serially and stained with toluidine blue (pH = 4.65. By using sterological quantitative technique (physical dissector, the number of alpha motoneurons in the right ventral horns of spinal cord were counted and compared with each other. Statistical analysis showed that the number of motor neurons in compression group reduced significantly. In castration animal compression induced remarkable reduction in compare with control group. Treatment of testosterone (100 mg kg-1 at 4 week significantly (p<0.05 reduced neuronal damage and testosterone has a neuroprotective effect on motor neurons degeneration after sciatic nerve injury.

  10. Cytogenetic investigation of contrast media effects in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present investigation is to detect the cytogenetic effect in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients subjected to radiodiagnostic examination with contrast media. Material and method: The investigation was performed on 17 patients subjected to radio diagnostic examinations with different kinds of contrast media.The skin dose obtained by diagnostic x-ray exposure is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Cytogenetic analyses are performed before, as well as immediately after the examination. Chromosomal aberrations are used as a bio marker for cytogenetic effects analysis. Results show an increase of mean level of chromosomal damage after the radio diagnostic examination in comparison to the mean level before exposure. This increase is statistically significant. Further work on the investigation of cytogenetic effects of diagnostic dose x-rays and contrast media used in invasive radiological examinations is in progress. (authors)

  11. Effects for hematopoietic stem cells and peripheral blood by low dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematopoietic system is one of the radiosensitive tissues. It is known that a irreversible injury for blood cells is induced by a high dose-rate radiation. But the effects of the low dose-rate radiation on the hematopoietic system have not been revealed. First of all, we evaluated the number of blood cells induced by 0.5 Gy of the low dose-rate (1.1 mGy/hr) or the high dose-rate (0.45 Gy/min) radiation on the number of peripheral blood cells: a significant decrease of erythrocytes was observed at the high dose-rate while no reduction of the number of erythrocytes was shown at the low dose-rate. Secondary, the variation of the number of peripheral blood cells and hematopoietic stem cells in C57BL/6N mice were analyzed after whole body irradiation at low dose-rate (1.1 mGy/hr). The number of erythrocytes was transiently decreased when the low dose-rate irradiation reached 42 days (1 Gy total). But it recovered by the time reached 140 days (3 Gy total). The CD34- KSL cells, which were known for the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells were not decreased under the low dose-rate condition. These results indicated that the low dose-rate irradiation induces transient decreasing of the peripheral blood cells and multipotential progenitor cells but did not affect an ability of hematopoiesis of hematopoietic stem cells in the longer term. (author)

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF GABAPENTIN A CONVENTIONAL ANTICONVULSANT WITH CONVENTIONAL ANALGESIC TREMADOL IN VISCERAL PAIN MODEL OF RODENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Kansal; Priti Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Carabmazepine is an established drug for trigeminal neuralgia while gabapentin has been tried in postoperative pain but its effectiveness in visceral pain and when compared to conventional analgesics needs to be evaluated.The present study was planned to study the analgesic effects of gabapentin in animal pain model of visceral nociception like writhing test and to compare it with conventional analgesic tremadol. This study has been carried out for evaluation of role of gabapentin in visceral...

  13. Efecto Analgésico Postexodoncia Simple del Extracto de Morinda citrifolia (Noni): Ensayo Clínico Aleatorizado de Grupos en Paralelo / Post Exodontia Analgesic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A Randomized Clinical Trial in Parallel Groups

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milagros del Pilar, Cornejo Ferradas; Angel Steven, Asmat Abanto; Segundo Guillermo, Ruíz Reyes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el efecto analgésico post exodoncia simple del extracto de Morinda citrifolia (Noni) de 30 g vs. 15 g. Este ensayo clínico paralelo aleatorizado, se desarrolló en la Clínica Estomatológica de la Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego (Trujillo, Perú). Los pacient [...] es, quienes requerían exodoncia simple, fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos de 17 sujetos cada uno: Noni a dosis de 30 g, de 15 g y grupo testigo (ibuprofeno). El procedimiento fue estandarizado, evaluándose el efecto analgésico mediante la Escala Visual Analógica, a las 2, 8, 24 y 48 horas posteriores a la primera toma del fármaco. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba T de Student para comparación de medias para una p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to compare the post exodontia analgesic effect of the Morinda citrifolia (Noni) extract of 30 g vs. 15 g. This randomized parallel clinical trial, was developed in the Dental Clinic of Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego (Trujillo, Peru). Patients who required simple d [...] ental extraction, were randomized into three groups of 17 subjects each one: Noni at doses of 30 g, 15 g and control group (ibuprofen). The procedure was standardized and the analgesic effect was evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale at 2, 8, 24 and 48 hours after the first dose of the drug. Statistical analysis was performed using Student 's t test for comparison of means with p

  14. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Cimmino, M A; P. Trezzi; Maio, T

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%), analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7%) patients. The number of...

  15. Contrasting effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on central and peripheral visual fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago L; Gualtieri, Mirella; Barboni, Mirella T S; Katayama, Rafael K; Boggio, Paulo S; Ventura, Dora F

    2015-05-01

    Recent research suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can affect visual processing and that it can be useful in visual rehabilitation. Nevertheless, there are still few investigations on the subject. tDCS selectivity and the extent of its outcomes on visual perception are still to be assessed. Here, we investigate whether central and peripheral visual fields are equally affected by tDCS. We also tried to reproduce a previous work that has evaluated tDCS effects on the central visual field only (Kraft et al. 207:283-290, 2010). Fifteen healthy subjects participated in this randomized repeated-measure design study and received 1.5-mA anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation in different sessions, while performing 10-2 and 60-4 protocols in an automated perimeter. Anodal tDCS significantly decreased thresholds, but was limited to the most eccentric regions of the visual field measured (60°). This suggests that tDCS might be used for rehabilitation of peripheral visual field losses. We did not replicate the excitatory tDCS effect in the central visual field as previously reported by another group. Instead, we observed a trend toward an inhibitory (yet not statistically significant) effect of anodal tDCS on the central field. This might be explained by methodological differences. These results highlight that although tDCS is a technique with a low focality in the spatial domain, its effects might be highly focal in a functional domain. When taken together with previous findings, this also suggests that tDCS may have a differential effect on different retinotopic areas in the brain. PMID:25650104

  16. [Repair of peripheral nerve effect by direct suture after elongation of nerve by traction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Wang, H; Chen, J

    1998-05-01

    To find new technique for repair of peripheral nerve defect, the nerve elongation repair technique was adopted. Two cases with nerve defect were treated by this method. One was a 12 year old male, the defect length of right radial nerve was 7.2 cm at the elbow. The other one was a 28 year old male, the defect length of left ulnar nerve the was 5 cm at elbow. In this method, the nerve was elongated by slow stretch from distal and proximal end of the ruptured nerve. After a few days, the nerve was repaired by direct suture. After operation, the function of nerves were recovered in 119 days and 114 days respectively. Follow-up for 5 years, the function of the effected limbs were recovered to the normal side. It was concluded that: (1) the peripheral never can be elongated by slow stretch; (2) to stretch the nerve end in a rubber tube can prevent adhesion and connective tissue blocking; (3) strength and supporting point of stretching should be designed carefully. PMID:10437049

  17. Peripheral signals mediate the beneficial effects of gastric surgery in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja-Fernández, Silvia; Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Leis, Rosaura; Casanueva, Felipe F; Seoane, Luisa M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is nowadays a public health problem both in the industrialized world and developing countries. The different treatments to fight against obesity are not very successful with the exception of gastric surgery. The mechanism behind the achievement of this procedure remains unclear although the modifications in the pattern of gastrointestinal hormones production appear to be responsible for the beneficial effect. The gastrointestinal tract has emerged in the last time as an endocrine organ in charge of response to the different stimulus related to nutritional status by the modulation of more than 30 signals acting at central level to modulate food intake and body weight. The production of some of these gastric derived signals has been proved to be altered in obesity (ghrelin, CCK, and GLP-1). In fact, bariatric surgery modifies the production of both gastrointestinal and adipose tissue peripheral signals beyond the gut microbiota composition. Through this paper the main peripheral signals altered in obesity will be reviewed together with their modifications after bariatric surgery. PMID:25960740

  18. A Novel Behavioral Fish Model of Nociception for Testing Analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana D.; Cunha, Sérgio R.; Scholze, Martin; Stevens, E. Don

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a major symptom in many medical conditions, and often interferes significantly with a person's quality of life. Although a priority topic in medical research for many years, there are still few analgesic drugs approved for clinical use. One reason is the lack of appropriate animal models that faithfully represent relevant hallmarks associated with human pain. Here we propose zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a novel short-term behavioral model of nociception, and analyse its sensitivity and robustness. Firstly, we injected two different doses of acetic acid as the noxious stimulus. We studied individual locomotor responses of fish to a threshold level of nociception using two recording systems: a video tracking system and an electric biosensor (the MOBS system). We showed that an injection dose of 10% acetic acid resulted in a change in behavior that could be used to study nociception. Secondly, we validated our behavioral model by investigating the effect of the analgesic morphine. In time-course studies, first we looked at the dose-response relationship of morphine and then tested whether the effect of morphine could be modulated by naloxone, an opioid antagonist. Our results suggest that a change in behavioral responses of zebrafish to acetic acid is a reasonable model to test analgesics. The response scales with stimulus intensity, is attenuated by morphine, and the analgesic effect of morphine is blocked with naloxone. The change in behavior of zebrafish associated with the noxious stimulus can be monitored with an electric biosensor that measures changes in water impedance.

  19. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

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    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of pyeongwisan on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages and mouse models of acetic acid-induced writhing response and xylene-induced ear edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You-Chang; Jeong, Yun Hee; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Pyeongwisan (PW) is an herbal medication used in traditional East Asian medicine to treat anorexia, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhea caused by gastric catarrh, atony and dilatation. However, its effects on inflammation-related diseases are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of PW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and on local inflammation in vivo. We investigated the biological effects of PW on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, we evaluated the analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). In addition, PW strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and inhibited NF-?B activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Also, PW suppressed TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? cytokine production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, PW showed an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on mice ear edema. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages as well as inhibitory activity of PW in vivo for the first time. Our results suggest the potential value of PW as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance. PMID:25569097

  1. Peripheral degenerative joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilzio Antonio da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is the most commonrheumatic disorder mainly in a geriatric population. Manifestationsare pain, stiffness and functional loss in the affected joint.According to etiology it is classifi ed as primary (or idiopathicand secondary. Some risk factors for disease development aregenetics, race, age, sex, obesity, occupational activities andarticular biomechanics. Pathogenesis is the same for any cause orlocalization, being catabolic alterations, with synthesis, inhibitionand reparing intent of the cartilage matrix. Metalloproteinases andcytokines (IL-1,IL-6,TNF-? actions promote infl ammatory reactionand cartilage degradation. Pain, the most important symptom,does not correlate with radiologic fi ndings. Peripheral osteoarthritisoccurs predominantly in the knee, hip and hand. Diagnosis is basedon clinical features, laboratorial tests and radiological changes.Rheumatological associations’ guidelines for treatment includenon-pharmacologic (education, physiotherapy, assistive devices,and pharmacologic (analgesics, anti-infl ammatory drugs therapyand surgery. Arthroplasty seems to work better than medicines, butshould be used if other treatments have failed.

  2. The effects of teriflunomide on lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Jingchun; Delohery, Thomas; Zhang, Donghui; Arendt, Christopher; Jones, Catherine

    2013-12-15

    Teriflunomide is an inhibitor of dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), and is hypothesized to ameliorate multiple sclerosis by reducing proliferation of stimulated lymphocytes. We investigated teriflunomide's effects on proliferation, activation, survival, and function of stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in vitro. Teriflunomide had little/no impact on lymphocyte activation but exerted significant dose-dependent inhibition of T- and B-cell proliferation, which was uridine-reversible (DHODH-dependent). Viability analyses showed no teriflunomide-associated cytotoxicity. Teriflunomide significantly decreased release of several pro-inflammatory cytokines from activated monocytes in a DHODH-independent fashion. In conclusion, teriflunomide acts on multiple immune cell types and processes via DHODH-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:24182769

  3. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L.) STEM BARK

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ashraf Ali et al.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF) stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p.) and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o.) were used as reference drugs for comparison....

  4. Peripheral PDLIM5 expression in bipolar disorder and the effect of olanzapine administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Mohd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the genes suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BPD is PDLIM5, which encodes LIM domain protein. Our main objective was to examine the effect of olanzapine treatment on PDLIM5 mRNA expression in the peripheral blood leukocytes of BPD patients. Methods We measured the expression of PDLIM5 mRNA from 16 patients with BPD Type I after 0, 4, and 8 weeks of treatment with olanzapine using quantitative real-time PCR. The Young Mania Rating Scale was used to evaluate the severity of manic symptoms in BPD patients. We also compared PDLIM5 mRNA expression in treatment-naïve BPD patients with that in healthy control subjects. Results No significant difference was found in PDLIM5 mRNA expression between patients before olanzapine treatment and following 4 and 8 weeks of treatment (p>0.05. Although we observed a significant reduction in the severity of manic symptoms in all BPD patients (pPDLIM5 mRNA (p>0.05. Interestingly, PDLIM5 mRNA expression differed significantly between treatment-naïve BPD patients and healthy control subjects (p=0.002. Conclusion PDLIM5 mRNA expression did not appear to be a reflection of the efficacy of olanzapine in reducing the manic symptoms of BPD. The significant difference in expression of PDLIM5 mRNA in the peripheral blood leukocytes of treatment-naïve BPD patients versus that of healthy control subjects, however, suggests that it may be a good biological marker for BPD.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the analgesic therapy of postoperative pain / Análise custo-efetividade da terapia analgésica utilizada na dor pós-operatória / Análisis de costo-efectividad en el tratamiento analgésico para dolor post-operatorio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Regina, Secoli; Kátia Grillo, Padilha; Júlio, Litvoc.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo realizou-se a analise custo-efetividade para comparar esquemas analgésicos administrados a 89 pacientes submetidos a hemorroidectomia, no 1º dia de pós-operatório. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo realizado em Hospital Geral de São Paulo. Para realização da análise [...] custo-efetividade identificou-se os 5 esquemas analgésicos mais utilizados na clinica. O principal desfecho foi ausência de escapes de dor. No cálculo dos custos foram considerados os analgésicos e dispositivos associados à administração. O esquema codeina 120mg + acetaminofeno 2000mg mostrou-se mais custo-efetivo, apresentando o menor custo por paciente sem escape de dor ($65,23). A análise incremental apontou que o padrão codeína 120 mg+acetamenofeno 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg apresentou um custo adicional de $238,31 para se obter um benefício extra de efetividade. A análise mostrou que a escolha do esquema analgésico deve contemplar, além dos aspectos econômicos e clínicos das opções terapêuticas, a disponibilidade de recursos da instituição. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio utilizó el análisis de costo-efectividad para comparar los esquemas analgésicos administrados en 89 pacientes sometidos a hemorroidectomía, durante el 1º día del post-operatorio. Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo realizado en el Hospital General de São Paulo. Para efectuar este [...] análisis se identificaron los 5 esquemas analgésicos más utilizados por el servicio. El efecto principal fue la ausencia de dolor. Para calcular los costos fueron incluidos los analgésicos y los materiales utilizados para la administración. El esquema codeína 120mg + acetaminofen 2000mg fue más efectivo, siendo de menor costo para el paciente sin dolor ($65,23). Este incremento mostró que la mezcla codeína 120 mg+acetamenofen 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg tuvo un costo adicional de $238,31 para poder obtener un beneficio extra de efectividad. A través del análisis, la selección del esquema analgésico requiere además de ser económico y clínico, la disponibilidad de recursos de la propia institución. Abstract in english The study aimed to compare cost-effectiveness of analgesic schemes administered to 89 patients submitted to hemorrhoidectomy, on the 1st postoperative day. The descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in a General Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In order to carry out the cost-effectiveness a [...] nalysis, the five most frequently used analgesic schemes were identified in practice. The main outcome was the absence of breakthrough pain episodes. While calculating the costs, analgesics and all devices related to the schemes were taken into consideration. Codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg was the most effective therapy with the lowest cost per patient with no breakthrough pain episodes ($65.23). Incremental analysis indicated that codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg+ketoprofen 200mg involved the additional cost of $238.31 in case an extra effectiveness benefit was needed. The analysis showed that the most suitable choice of analgesic therapy should consider the resources available at the institution along with economic and clinical aspects.

  6. Seismic analysis of high arch dams considering contraction-peripheral joints coupled effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad; Mirzabozorg, Hasan; Kianoush, M.

    2013-09-01

    Dam-reservoir interaction is one of the classic coupled problems in which two various environments with different physical characteristics are in contact with each other on interface boundary. Consideration of such interaction is important in design of new dams as well as on safety evaluation of the existing ones. In the present study, the effect of hydrodynamic pressures at various reservoir operational levels on seismic behavior of an arch dam is investigated. Dez ultra-high arch dam in Iran was selected as case study and all contraction and peripheral joints were simulated using node-to-node contact elements which have the ability of opening/closing and tangential movement. In addition, stage construction effects including joint grouting based on available construction reports were considered. The reservoir was assumed to be compressible and the foundation rock was modeled to account for its flexibility. The TABAS earthquake record was used to excite the finite element model of dam-reservoir-foundation system. It was found that dam-reservoir interaction has significant structural effects on the system and generally, operating the considered arch dam at different water levels can highly affects the distribution of the crack prone area under the maximum credible earthquake.

  7. Pharmacodynamic analysis of the analgesic effect of capsaicin 8% patch (QutenzaTM in diabetic neuropathic pain patients: detection of distinct response groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian Martini1,*, Ashraf Yassen2,*, Erik Olofsen1, Paul Passier2, Malcom Stoker3, Albert Dahan1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 2Global Clinical Pharmacology and Exploratory Development, Astellas Pharma Global Development Europe, Leiderdorp, The Netherlands; 3Global Medical Sciences, Astellas Pharma Global Development Europe, Leiderdorp, The Netherlands*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Treatment of chronic pain is associated with high variability in the response to pharmacological interventions. A mathematical pharmacodynamic model was developed to quantify the magnitude and onset/offset times of effect of a single capsaicin 8% patch application in the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 91 patients. In addition, a mixture model was applied to objectively match patterns in pain-associated behavior. The model identified four distinct subgroups that responded differently to treatment: 3.3% of patients (subgroup 1 showed worsening of pain; 31% (subgroup 2 showed no change; 32% (subgroup 3 showed a quick reduction in pain that reached a nadir in week 3, followed by a slow return towards baseline (16% ± 6% pain reduction in week 12; 34% (subgroup 4 showed a quick reduction in pain that persisted (70% ± 5% reduction in week 12. The estimate of the response-onset rate constant, obtained for subgroups 1, 3, and 4, was 0.76 ± 0.12 week-1 (median ± SE, indicating that every 0.91 weeks the pain score reduces or increases by 50% relative to the score of the previous week (= t½. The response-offset rate constant could be determined for subgroup 3 only and was 0.09 ± 0.04 week-1 (t½ 7.8 weeks. The analysis allowed separation of a heterogeneous neuropathic pain population into four homogenous subgroups with distinct behaviors in response to treatment with capsaicin. It is argued that this model-based approach may have added value in analyzing longitudinal chronic pain data and allows optimization of treatment algorithms for patients suffering from chronic pain conditions.Keywords: diabetic neuropathic pain, capsaicin 8%, modeling, mixture model

  8. Protective effect of hydrogen on diabetic peripheral neuropathy by suppressing nulcear factor-kappaB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAO Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of hydrogen on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rat models with peripheral neuropathy and explore the possible mechanism. Methods Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into model group (N = 6, hydrogen-treated group (N = 6 and normal control group (N = 6. After fasting for 12 h, experimental diabetic rat models were established by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg of single dose, while normal control group only received a same dose of citrate buffer. Diabetes was confirmed with a fasting plasma glucose more than 16.67 mmol/L 48 h after STZ injection. After diabetic models were established successively, hydrogen-rich saline (5 ml/kg was administered by intraperitoneal injection in hydrogen-treated group daily in 7th and 8th week after diabetes induction. Corresponding model and normal control groups received a same dose of normal saline. Changes of sciatic function and pain behavior in rats of different groups were measured to investigate the effect of hydrogen-rich saline. Proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B p65 expression were then determined to clarify the possible mechanism of hydrogen-mediated protection. Results 1 Compared with normal control group, body weight in model group decreased significantly, while plasma glucose levels increased significantly (P = 0.000, for all 8 weeks after STZ induction. Hydrogen did not show any effects on body weight and plasma glucose levels of treated rat models in comparison with model group (P = 0.256, 0.821. 2 Compared with normal control group, motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV, heat pain threshold (HPT and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT decreased significantly in model group (P = 0.000, for all, but increased significantly in hydrogen-treated group when compared with model group in the 8th week (P = 0.000, for all. 3 Hydrogen also reduced the positively expressed cells of NF-?B p65 (P = 0.000 as well as levels of TNF-? and IL-6 (P = 0.000, for all. Conclusion Inflammation may participate and exaggerate painful diabetic neuropathy. Besides, hydrogen has the protective potential of ameliorating neuroinflammation and peripheral nerve injury by suppressing NF-?B pathway and its downstream inflammatory cytokines.

  9. The Role of Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, José de; Del Moral, Alicia; Cobo, Irina; Borgeat, Alain; Blumenthal, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    A continuous peripheral nerve block (cPNB) is provided in the hospital and ambulatory setting. The most common use of CPNBs is in the peri- and postoperative period but different indications have been described like the treatment of chronic pain such as cancer-induced pain, complex regional pain syndrome or phantom limb pain. The documented benefits strongly depend on the analgesia quality and include decreasing baseline/dynamic pain, reducing additional analgesic requirements, decrease of po...

  10. Modulatory effects of neurotoxic insecticides on the peripheral and central GABA-ergic actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Jasmina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On the terminal part of the guinea-pig ileum GABA produces contraction whereas on the preterminal it produces an initial short-lasting contraction followed by a prolonged relaxation. The increasing range of concentrations of GABA produces a concentration-dependent decrease in contractions and an increase in contractions of the preterminal ileum. Both contractions and relaxations can be blocked by atropine, indicating the cholinergic nature of the responses. These effects are due to the action on GABAA receptors. Depending on the duration of the incubation period (3 and 60 sec GABA produced either potentiation or depression of the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the ileum. All the three neurotoxic insecticides (lindan malathion, permethrine affect the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the ileum. Lindan and permetrine antagonized the contractile effects of acetylcholine, whereas malathion produced a potentiation. Malathion significantly depressed the contractile effects of the electrical field stimulation of the ileum. This effect is probably realized through the local release of GABA. Both lindan and permethrine were found to decrease the duration of the barbiturate sleeping time, whereas malathion significantly prolonged its duration. The action of lindan and permethrine is presumably realized by blocking or interfering with the function of GABAA receptors. Malathion is an anticholinesterase, thus producing an accumulation of acetylcholine at the critical sites, consequently producing a prolongation of the barbiturate sleeping time. In conclusion, neurotoxic insecticides (lindan, permethrine, malathion affect both central and peripheral GABA-ergic systems. They can produce either depression or stimulation of these systems. They also highly significantly modulate the activity of the cholinergic system in the isolated guinea-pig ileum.

  11. [Analgesic remedies in the Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsch, S H

    2007-08-01

    The knowledge of analgesic remedies, sleeping drugs, and narcotics is well attested by numerous prescriptions in the medical literature since the early Middle Ages. The variety of analgesic remedies and the preferred use of particular plants (such as mandrake, henbane, and poppy) is just as remarkable as the many different forms of application: drug-soaked sponges, compresses and plasters, oils, ointments, smoke and smelling salts, drinks and waters, pills and troches, powders, electuaries, and confections. Various examples from different sources illustrate clearly that medieval physicians not only knew about analgesic remedies but really put their knowledge into practice. PMID:17657514

  12. The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO on peripheral blood mononuclear and leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO (VB-BO) and photoirradiation on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied. The cells were preincubated with VB-BO followed by photoirradiation and overnight culture. The highest percentage of dead cells (propidium iodide assay in flow cyctometry) was seen in the monocyte population. The lymphocytes showed a lower sensitivity to VB-BO photodynamic action than the monocytes (12% vs 80% of PI-positive cells). The effect of VB-BO and phototreatment on lymphocyte function was studied using a mitogen-induced proliferation assay. A decrease of mitogen response was observed. The VB-BO and photoirradiation were also used on leukemic cells. The leukemic cells from acute myeloid leukemia and B precursors leukemia were sensitive to VB-BO photodynamic action. The high VB-BO sensitivity of monocytes and leukemic cells (myeloid and lymphoid B derived) suggests possible application of VB-BO for selective depletion of monocytes or sensitive leukemic cells. (author)

  13. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Centella asiatica extract in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema chaitanya Chippada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (CA is a medicinal herb which has been valued in ayurvedicmedicine for its different activities. In the present studies, CA methanolic extract wasprepared by Soxhlet extraction and then evaluated for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity incultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mitotic Index (MI Cell ProliferationKinetics (CPK and Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE were scored to measure thecytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the CA extract in cultures set up from the three differenthealthy donors. The treatment of the cell culture was done employing two different CAmethanolic extract concentrations (500 & 1000 ?g/ml and the control (did not receive anyadditive. Our present studies revealed that the MI, CPK and SCES for control are 4.28,0.49 and 6.08 respectively where as the CA extracts has the MI, CPK and SCES for500?g/ml are 4.07, 0.47 and 5.84 respectively and for 1000 ?g/ml are 3.96, 0.46 and 5.52respectively. From the results, we can conclude that the MI and frequency of SCES of CAmethanolic extracts are almost similar to that of control which indicates that the CA plantextracts has no significant cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects in cultured humanperipheral blood lymphocytes.

  14. Age and gender effects on DNA strand break repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous and endogenous damage to DNA is constantly challenging the stability of our genome. This DNA damage increase the frequency of errors in DNA replication, thus causing point mutations or chromosomal rearrangements and has been implicated in aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, efficient DNA repair is vital for the maintenance of genome stability. The general notion has been that DNA repair capacity decreases with age although there are conflicting results. Here, we focused on potential age-associated changes in DNA damage response and the capacities of repairing DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Of these lesions, DSBs are the least frequent but the most dangerous for cells. We have measured the level of endogenous SSBs, SSB repair capacity, ?-H2AX response, and DSB repair capacity in a study population consisting of 216 individuals from a population-based sample of twins aged 40-77 years. Age in this range did not seem to have any effect on the SSB parameters. However, ?-H2AX response and DSB repair capacity decreased with increasing age, although the associations did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for batch effect across multiple experiments. No gender differences were observed for any of the parameters analyzed. Our findings suggest that in PBMCs, the repair of SSBs is maintained until old age, whereas the response to and the repair of DSBs decrease

  15. Antioxidant and Analgesic Activities of Lannea coromandelica Linn. Bark Extract

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    Julia Rea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of Lannea coromandelica Linn. bark (MLCB was subjected to evaluate its antioxidant and analgesic properties. The analgesic activity was determined for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions using hotplate as well as tail immersion method and acetic acid-induced writhing test with formalin induced pain in mice, respectively. To evaluate antioxidant potential of MLCB, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as total Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and assessment of reducing power were used. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1, produced a significant (p50 value of 12.32±0.16 and 34.72±0.48 ?g mL-1, respectively with a good reducing power. In conclusion this study demonstrated the strong antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of the bark of L. coromandelica. Altogether, these results suggest that the MLCB could be used as a potential antinociceptive agent along with its antioxidant potentiality.

  16. Effects of heterogenous suberect spatholobus stem on peripheral blood cell counts of 60Co ? ray irradiated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong WANG

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of heterogenous suberect spatholobus stem (Spatholobus suberectu, Mucuna birdwoodiana, Millettia oosperma and Millettia dielsiana on peripheral blood cell counts of mice with bone marrow suppression induced by 60Co ? ray irradiation. Methods: Bone marrow suppression was induced by sublethal dose of 60Co ? ray in mice. White blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC and platelet (PLT counts in peripheral blood of the mice were detected one day, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after intragastric administration of different doses of the four kinds of suberect spatholobus stem, respectively. Results: A slowdown of the decrease of WBC, RBC and PLT counts in peripheral blood of the mice with bone marrow suppression was observed after intragastric administration. The WBC, RBC and PLT counts in the Mucuna birdwoodiana-treated and Spatholobus suberectu-treated groups were significantly higher than those in the untreated group (P?0.05. Conclusion: All the four kinds of heterogenous suberect spatholobus stem can accelerate the recovery of WBC, RBC and PLT counts in peripheral blood of mice with bone marrow suppression, while the effects of Spatholobus suberectu and Mucuna birdwoodiana are relatively good.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E isoforms against chronic alcohol-induced peripheral neurotoxicity: possible involvement of oxidative-nitrodative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vinod; Kuhad, Anurag; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2012-11-01

    Small-fiber painful peripheral neuropathy is one of the long-term complications of alcohol for which there is no reliable successful therapy available. The precise mechanisms by which chronic alcohol consumption produces peripheral nerve fiber damage and loss remain unclear. Emerging data from clinical and preclinical studies suggest that increased oxidative-nitrodative stress mediated release of proinflammatory cytokines from damaged neural tissues may play a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effect of both the isoforms of vitamin E (?-tocopherol and tocotrienol) against chronic alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. Ethanol treated rats showed a significant decrease in paw-withdrawal threshold in both Randall-Selitto and von-Frey hair tests along with a significant reduction in tail flick latency in the tail-immersion test. A decreased pain threshold was associated with significant alterations in oxidative-nitrodative stress markers and an increase in proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?). The 4-week treatment with tocotrienol significantly ameliorated behavioral, biochemical and molecular alterations in alcohol treated rats. However, ?-tocopherol failed to produce any protective effect. The results of the present study suggest that oxidative-nitrodative stress mediated cytokine signaling may be responsible for alcohol-induced peripheral neurotoxicity and tocotrienol treatment might be beneficial in chronic alcoholics exhibiting neuropathy. PMID:22422517

  18. Peripheral reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral collisions, that is, collisions involving a small amount of overlap of nuclear matter, are discussed including inclusive interactions, the magnitude of the peripheral cross section, fragmentation, a compilation of experiments and available data, limiting fragmentation, factorization, some models, fragment momentum distributions, and future research directions

  19. Differentiating spatial and object-based effects on attention: an event-related brain potential study with peripheral cueing.

    OpenAIRE

    He, X.; Humphreys, G.; Fan, S.; Chen, L.; Han, S.

    2008-01-01

    Do spatial attention and object attention modulate visual processing in similar ways? Previously we have found a dissociation between these two forms of attention on ERP measures of sensory processing under conditions of peripheral cueing, with spatial attention effects associated with changes over anterior scalp regions and object attention effects associated with changes over posterior regions (He, X., Fan, S., Zhou, K., Chen, L., 2004. Cue validity and object-based attention. J. Cogn. Neur...

  20. Antigen-specific demyelination and significance of the bystander effect in peripheral nerves.

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, H. C.; Braheny, S. L.; Hughes, R.A.; Lampert, P W

    1984-01-01

    In an experiment designed to evaluate bystander demyelination in peripheral nerve, immune reactions to tuberculin and albumin failed to induce demyelination, except in animals previously sensitized to a myelin component. The peripheral nerves of tuberculin-sensitized rats and guinea pigs and rabbits were examined at intervals from 8 to 144 hours after intraneural challenge with purified protein derivative (PPD). The results were compared with the immune reaction produced by endoneurial inject...

  1. 77 FR 6567 - Assessment of Analgesic Treatment of Chronic Pain-A Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...the Division of Dockets Management between 9 a.m. and...analgesia provided by opioid analgesics, and how...non-cancer pain, and opioid analgesics in particular...Can individuals at high risk for adverse effects be...the Division of Dockets Management (see Comments)....

  2. Efeitos cardiovasculares e analgésicos da administração epidural de ropivacaína isolada ou associada à morfina, em felinos / Cardiovascular and analgesic effects of epidural administration of ropivacaine alone or in combination with morphine in cats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Doughlas, Regalin; Marina, Moresco; Vanessa Sasso, Padilha; Ronise, Tocheto; Nilson, Oleskovicz.

    2228-22-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares e analgésicos de dois protocolos epidurais em felinos submetidos à OSH, 16 gatas mestiças, adultas, que, após indução à anestesia geral, receberam anestesia epidural (L7 - S1) com 0,26mL kg-1 de ropivacaína 0,75%, isolada (GR) ou associada a 0,1mg kg-1 mor [...] fina (GRM). A ETCO2, f, FC, PAS, T°R e relaxamento muscular foram avaliados no momento basal, 30 minutos após epidural, após incisão de pele, ligadura dos pedículos ovarianos e cérvix, final da celiorrafia e cirurgia, sendo administrado fentanil, caso ocorresse aumento de 20% na PAS, FC ou f em relação ao momento basal. Ao final do procedimento, foram avaliados, com auxílio de uma escala multidimensional de dor aguda em felinos, durante 12 horas, e, quando a pontuação fosse ?8, era realizado resgate analgésico com morfina 0,2mg kg-1. Não ocorreram diferenças entre ETCO2, f, T°C e relaxamento muscular. A PAS aumentou em ambos os grupos durante o pinçamento dos pedículos ovarianos e cérvix, quando 100% dos animais do GR e 87,5% do GRM necessitaram fentanil transoperatório. Em 100% dos animais do GR, houve necessidade de morfina pós-operatória às 2 e 4 horas de avaliação, comparados com 50% e 37,5% no GRM. Nos momentos seguintes aos resgates, o somatório de pontos foi semelhante entre grupos. Conclui-se que a administração epidural de ropivacaína associada à morfina em gatas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia reduz o requerimento analgésico pós-operatório em até 56,2%, durante as primeiras 4 horas, e promove analgesia adequada durante 12 horas, quando comparado à ropivacaína isolada Abstract in english Seeking to evaluate the cardiovascular and analgesic effects of two epidural protocols in cats undergoing OH, 16 female adult mixed-breed cats were induced to general anesthesia, and then epidural was achieved with 0,26mL kg-1 of isolated ropivacaine (GR) (0,75%) or associated with 0,1mg kg-1 morphi [...] ne (GRM). ETCO2, RR, HR, SAP, T° and muscular relaxation were evaluated in baseline, 30 minutes after epidural; after skin incision, ovarian pedicles and uterine cervix ligation; end of laparohraphy; and end of surgery. They received fentanyl if SAP, HR or f, rise in 20% of baseline. At the end of OH, a multidimensional pain scale for cats was used during 12 hours, and rescued with morphine 0,2mg kg-1, when the scale score was ?8 points. There were no differences in ETCO2, RR, T°C and muscular relaxation. SAP increased in both groups during the ovarian pedicle and cervix clamping. In 100% of the animals in GR and 87.5% of the GRM, it was necessary fentanyl during surgery. In 100% of GR animals was required analgesic rescue with morphine at 2 and 4 hours of postoperative evaluation, compared with 50% and 37,5% in GRM, where after the analgesic rescue, in the next hours, the sum of points was similar between groups. It was concluded that epidural administration of morphine and ropivacaine in cats submitted to OH, reduces post operatory analgesic requirements to 56,2% during the first four hours, and promote adequate analgesia for 12 hours in cats submitted to OH, when compared to ropivacaine alone

  3. Human experimental pain models for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of analgesic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Pain models in animals have shown low predictivity for analgesic efficacy in humans, and clinical studies are often very confounded, blurring the evaluation. Human experimental pain models may therefore help to evaluate mechanisms and effect of analgesics and bridge findings from basic studies to the clinic. The present review outlines the concept and limitations of human experimental pain models and addresses analgesic efficacy in healthy volunteers and patients. Experimental models to evoke pain and hyperalgesia are available for most tissues. In healthy volunteers, the effect of acetaminophen is difficult to detect unless neurophysiological methods are used, whereas the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be detected in most models. Anticonvulsants and antidepressants are sensitive in several models, particularly in models inducing hyperalgesia. For opioids, tonic pain with high intensity is attenuated more than short-lasting pain and nonpainful sensations. Fewer studies were performed in patients. In general, the sensitivity to analgesics is better in patients than in healthy volunteers, but the lower number of studies may bias the results. Experimental models have variable reliability, and validity shall be interpreted with caution. Models including deep, tonic pain and hyperalgesia are better to predict the effects of analgesics. Assessment with neurophysiologic methods and imaging is valuable as a supplement to psychophysical methods and can increase sensitivity. The models need to be designed with careful consideration of pharmacological mechanisms and pharmacokinetics of analgesics. Knowledge obtained from this review can help design experimental pain studies for new compounds entering phase I and II clinical trials.

  4. A novel SOD1-ALS mutation separates central and peripheral effects of mutant SOD1 toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter I; Mcgoldrick, Philip; Saccon, Rachele A; Weber, William; Fratta, Pietro; West, Steven J; Zhu, Ning; Carter, Sarah; Phatak, Vinaya; Stewart, Michelle; Simon, Michelle; Kumar, Saumya; Heise, Ines; Bros-Facer, Virginie; Dick, James; Corrochano, Silvia; Stanford, Macdonnell J; Luong, Tu Vinh; Nolan, Patrick M; Meyer, Timothy; Brandner, Sebastian; Bennett, David L H; Ozdinler, P Hande; Greensmith, Linda; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham

    2015-04-01

    Transgenic mouse models expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been critical in furthering our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, such models generally overexpress the mutant protein, which may give rise to phenotypes not directly relevant to the disorder. Here, we have analysed a novel mouse model that has a point mutation in the endogenous mouse Sod1 gene; this mutation is identical to a pathological change in human familial ALS (fALS) which results in a D83G change in SOD1 protein. Homozgous Sod1(D83G/D83G) mice develop progressive degeneration of lower (LMN) and upper motor neurons, likely due to the same unknown toxic gain of function as occurs in human fALS cases, but intriguingly LMN cell death appears to stop in early adulthood and the mice do not become paralyzed. The D83 residue coordinates zinc binding, and the D83G mutation results in loss of dismutase activity and SOD1 protein instability. As a result, Sod1(D83G/D83G) mice also phenocopy the distal axonopathy and hepatocellular carcinoma found in Sod1 null mice (Sod1(-/-)). These unique mice allow us to further our understanding of ALS by separating the central motor neuron body degeneration and the peripheral effects from a fALS mutation expressed at endogenous levels. PMID:25468678

  5. Varied effects of thoracic irradiation on peripheral lymphocyte subsets in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the influence of thoracic irradiation on immunological competence in patients with lung cancer, we examined the changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 15 patients before and after radiation therapy by two-color flow cytometry techniques. After radiation therapy, the percentage and the absolute number of CD4+CD45RA+ cells (naive T cells) and CD56+and/orCD16+ cells (NK cells) decreased. The percentage of CD4+ human leukocyte antigen-DR(HLA-DR)+ cells (activated CD4T cells) and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells (activated CD8T cells) increased, although the absolute number did not change significantly. Naive T cells may be more selectively damaged than memory T cells by thoracic irradiation, through their recirculation behavior. The reduction of natural killer (NK) cells is disadvantageous for anti-tumor immunity. The percentage of HLA-DR positive T lymphocytes was significantly increased, and thus the possibility of HLA-DR enhancement by irradiation cannot be excluded. Therefore, thoracic irradiation has numerous varied effects on the immunological system of lung cancer patients. (author)

  6. Biological radiation dose estimation by chromosomal aberrations analysis in human peripheral blood (dose-effect curve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to draw a dose-effect curve, experimentally gamma ray induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes from eight healthy people were studied. Samples from 4 males and 4 females were irradiated in tubes with 0.15, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 gray of gamma ray (Co60 at dose rate 0.3 Gy/min). Irradiated and control samples were incubated in 37 centigrade for 48 hours cell cultures. Cell cultures then were stopped and metaphases spread, Giemsa stained to score the induced chromosomal aberrations. Chromosomal aberrations from 67888 metaphases were scored. Curves from the total number of dicentrics, dicentrics + rings and total numbers of breaks in cell for each individual or for all people were drawn. An increase of all chromosomal aberrations types with the elevation of the doses was observed. The yield of chromosome aberrations is related to the dose used. These curves give a quick useful estimation of the accidentally radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Protective Effect of Melatonin Against Mitomycin C-Induced Genotoxic Damage in Peripheral Blood of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ortega-Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitomycin C (MMC generates free radicals when metabolized. We investigated the effect of melatonin against MMC-induced genotoxicity in polychromatic erythrocytes and MMC-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver homogenates. Rats (N = 36 were classified into 4 groups: control, melatonin, MMC, and MMC + melatonin. Melatonin and MMC doses of 10?mg/kg and 2?mg/kg, respectively, were injected intraperitoneally. Peripheral blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours posttreatment and homogenates were obtained at 96 hours posttreatment. The number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE per 1000 PCE was used as a genotoxic marker. Malondialdehyde (MDA plus 4-hydroxyalkenal (4-HDA levels were used as an index of lipid peroxidation. The MMC group showed a significant increase in MN-PCE at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours that was significantly reduced with melatonin begin coadministrated. No significant differences were found in lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that MMC-induced genotoxicity can be reduced by melatonin.

  8. Peripheral blood RNA expression profiling in illicit methcathinone users reveals effect on immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikk, Katrin; Kõks, Sulev; Soomets, Ursel; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Haldre, Sulev; Aquilonius, Sten-Magnus; Taba, Pille

    2011-01-01

    Methcathinone (ephedrone) is relatively easily accessible for abuse. Its users develop an extrapyramidal syndrome and it is not known if this is caused by methcathinone itself, by side-ingredients (manganese), or both. In the present study we aimed to clarify molecular mechanisms underlying this condition. We used microarrays to analyze whole-genome gene expression patterns of peripheral blood from 20 methcathinone users and 20 matched controls. Gene expression profile data were analyzed by Bayesian modeling and functional annotation. Of 28,869 genes on the microarrays, 326 showed statistically significant differential expression with FDR adjusted p-values below 0.05. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed differential expression for the most of the genes selected for validation. Functional annotation and network analysis indicated activation of a gene network that included immunological disease, cellular movement, and cardiovascular disease functions (enrichment score 42). As HIV and HCV infections were confounding factors, we performed additional stratification of subjects. A similar functional activation of the "immunological disease" category was evident when we compared subjects according to injection status (past versus current users, balanced for HIV and HCV infection). However, this difference was not large therefore the major effect was related to the HIV status of the subjects. Mn-methcathinone abusers have blood RNA expression patterns that mostly reflect their HIV and HCV infections. PMID:22303338

  9. Spontaneous temporal changes and variability of peripheral nerve conduction analyzed using a random effects model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KrØigård, Thomas; Gaist, David

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: The reproducibility of variables commonly included in studies of peripheral nerve conduction in healthy individuals has not previously been analyzed using a random effects regression model. We examined the temporal changes and variability of standard nerve conduction measures in the leg. Peroneal nerve distal motor latency, motor conduction velocity, and compound motor action potential amplitude; sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and sensory conduction velocity; and tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency were examined in 51 healthy subjects, aged 40 to 67 years. They were reexamined after 2 and 26 weeks. There was no change in the variables except for a minor decrease in sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and a minor increase in tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency. Reproducibility was best for peroneal nerve distal motor latency and motor conduction velocity, sural nerve sensory conduction velocity, and tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency. Between-subject variability was greaterthan within-subject variability. Sample sizes ranging from 21 to 128 would be required to show changes twice the magnitude of the spontaneous changes observed in this study. Nerve conduction studies have a high reproducibility, and variables are mainly unaltered during 6 months. This study provides a solid basis for the planning of future clinical trials assessing changes in nerve conduction.

  10. Single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Ra; Derry, S.; Mcquay, Hj; Wiffen, Pj

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thirty-five Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials testing the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain have been published. This overview brings together the results of all those reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. OBJECTIVES: To summarise data from all Cochrane Reviews that have assessed the effects of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery, who have been given ...

  11. Preclinical Evaluation of the Abuse Potential of the Analgesic Bicifadine

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Katherine L.; Balster, Robert L.; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P.; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S.

    2009-01-01

    The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, ...

  12. Novel analgesic interventions in cancer-induced bone pain

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Gillian Laura

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP), due to bony metastases, is a major clinical problem, significantly reducing quality of life in cancer patients. Current therapies often provide inadequate analgesia or unacceptable side effects. The aim of this thesis was to characterise behaviours of a preclinical model of CIBP and test novel analgesic interventions in this model. A secondary aim was to investigate the involvement of the N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors and TRP channels ...

  13. Personalized Medicine and Opioid Analgesic Prescribing for Chronic Pain: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Bruehl, Stephen; Apkarian, A Vania; Ballantyne, Jane C.; Berger, Ann; Borsook, David; Chen, Wen G.; John T. Farrar; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Horn, Susan D.; Michael J. Iadarola; Inturrisi, Charles E; Lixing LAO; Mackey, Sean; Mao, Jianren; Sawczuk, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Use of opioid analgesics for pain management has increased dramatically over the past decade, with corresponding increases in negative sequelae including overdose and death. There is currently no well-validated objective means of accurately identifying patients likely to experience good analgesia with low side effects and abuse risk prior to initiating opioid therapy. This paper discusses the concept of data-based personalized prescribing of opioid analgesics as a means to achieve this goal. ...

  14. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-jia Chiu; Chia-Yu Liu; Tai-Hung Huang; Ying-Chih Lin; Jung-Chun Liao; Tsung-Chun Lu; Wen-Huang Peng

    2011-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin (PC) is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat not only common cold, nausea and diarrhea but also headache and fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of standardized PC methanol extract (PCMeOH) in vivo. Investigations were performed in mice with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid-induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested by ?-carragee...

  15. Oral melatonin decreases need for sedatives and analgesics in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mistraletti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The analgesic/sedative therapy is necessary notwithstanding presents important side effects. Critically ill frequently present alterations of the circadian rhythm, delirium and agitation episodes with the risk of receiving additional sedation. The dramatically reduced endogenous blood melatonin level (both in the basal levels and in night peaks) could play a role in this context. OBJECTIVES. Reducing the need for sedatives and analgesic drugs by the oral administr...

  16. Effects of the L/N-type calcium channel antagonist cilnidipine on morning blood pressure control and peripheral edema formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Sumito; Yoshioka, Yasuko; Ide, Atsumi; Kadokami, Toshiaki; Momii, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Masayoshi; Ando, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    The L/N-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine has unique effects including sympathetic nerve suppression and the balanced vasodilatation of arteries and veins that may alleviate morning hypertension (MHT) or peripheral edema caused by calcium channel antagonists. We used ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and a unique peripheral edema measurement to evaluate the effect of morning and bedtime cilnidipine in patients with MHT. Forty-three patients with MHT (60 ± 12 years) were randomly assigned to a morning or bedtime cilnidipine (10-20 mg/day). MHT was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) ? 135 mm Hg by ABPM within 2 hours after awaking. After 3 months, greater SBP reductions were observed in the bedtime administration group (versus the morning administration group) at 3:30-6:00 AM (-24 ± 20 mm Hg vs. -10 ± 4 mm Hg; P Cilnidipine had a greater effect on MHT, without causing significant leg edema, when administered at bedtime. PMID:21640687

  17. The role of continuous peripheral nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, José; Del Moral, Alicia; Cobo, Irina; Borgeat, Alain; Blumenthal, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    A continuous peripheral nerve block (cPNB) is provided in the hospital and ambulatory setting. The most common use of CPNBs is in the peri- and postoperative period but different indications have been described like the treatment of chronic pain such as cancer-induced pain, complex regional pain syndrome or phantom limb pain. The documented benefits strongly depend on the analgesia quality and include decreasing baseline/dynamic pain, reducing additional analgesic requirements, decrease of postoperative joint inflammation and inflammatory markers, sleep disturbances and opioid-related side effects, increase of patient satisfaction and ambulation/functioning improvement, an accelerated resumption of passive joint range-of-motion, reducing time until discharge readiness, decrease in blood loss/blood transfusions, potential reduction of the incidence of postsurgical chronic pain and reduction of costs. Evidence deriving from randomized controlled trials suggests that in some situations there are also prolonged benefits of regional anesthesia after catheter removal in addition to the immediate postoperative effects. Unfortunately, there are only few data demonstrating benefits after catheter removal and the evidence of medium- or long-term improvements in health-related quality of life measures is still lacking. This review will give an overview of the advantages and adverse effects of cPNBs. PMID:22761615

  18. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 ?g /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  19. Cytological and cytochemical effects of sodium benzoate and gamma irradiation on human peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies of human peripheral lymphocytes were conducted to elucidate and compare the effects of a suspected chemical clastogen, sodium benzoate, widely used in the food industry as an antimicrobial food additive, to that of a well-known physical mutagen, gamma rays. Blood from ten normal donors, five males and five females, was collected and treated with various doses of the two agents independently and in combination during G0 or G1 phase. Induction of structural chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and unscheduled DNA synthesis were used as parameters to monitor the effects of the two agents. Sodium benzoate at the same concentrations used in the food industry (0.05% and 0.10%) caused inhibition of mitosis and induced chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks). The frequency of aberrations increased as the concentration of sodium benzoate increased. No increase in SCEs over the control level was observed as either concentration tested. The relative amount of DNA damage inflicted in the treated lymphocytes estimated as 3H-tritiated thymidine incorporation (unscheduled DNA synthesis) was highly significant. In contrast, blood irradiated with 300, 600, or 900 rad 60Co gamma rays produced chromatid and chromosome aberrations in cultured lymphocytes, dicentrics being the most frequent exchange event. The aberration yield was found to be dose-dependent and to fit the quadratic model. Unscheduled D to fit the quadratic model. Unscheduled DNA synthesis as measured by lymphocyte 3H-TdR incorporation following gamma irradiation was highly significantly increased with the largest uptake occurring during the first hour of incubation. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation plus 0.05% sodium benzoate did not increase the aberration frequencies over the independent irradiation treatments and had no effect on SCEs frequencies

  20. Local Peripheral Effects of ?-Caryophyllene through CB2 Receptors in Neuropathic Pain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Kuwahata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ?-Caryophyllene (BCP is known as a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous food plants and primary component in Cannabis. In this study, we investigated the effect of local intraplantar (i.pl. injection of BCP on mechanical hypersensitivity induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL in mice. Relative to sham operation controls, mice with the PSNL displayed a maximum level of hyperresponsiveness to von Frey metallic filament on post-operative day 7. PSNL-induced allodynia was seen in the ipsilateral side of nerve ligation, but not in the contralateral side. The i.pl. injection of BCP into the ipsilateral hindpaw to PSNL attenuated mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. BCP injection into the contralateral hindpaw did not produce anti-allodynic effects, suggesting a local peripheral anti-allodynic effect of BCP. Anti-allodynic effects induced by i.pl. injection of BCP were prevented by pretreatment with the cannabinoid (CB2 receptor antagonist AM630, but not by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. These data suggest that i.pl. injection of BCP could produce anti-allodynia by activating peripheral CB2 receptors, but not CB1 receptors in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Taken together, these results suggest that peripheral CB2 receptors may contribute to the effectiveness of BCP in the treatment of neuropathic pain disorders.

  1. A Novel Behavioral Fish Model of Nociception for Testing Analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Don Stevens

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a major symptom in many medical conditions, and often interferes significantly with a person’s quality of life. Although a priority topic in medical research for many years, there are still few analgesic drugs approved for clinical use. One reason is the lack of appropriate animal models that faithfully represent relevant hallmarks associated with human pain. Here we propose zebrafish (Danio rerio as a novel short-term behavioral model of nociception, and analyse its sensitivity and robustness. Firstly, we injected two different doses of acetic acid as the noxious stimulus. We studied individual locomotor responses of fish to a threshold level of nociception using two recording systems: a video tracking system and an electric biosensor (the MOBS system. We showed that an injection dose of 10% acetic acid resulted in a change in behavior that could be used to study nociception. Secondly, we validated our behavioral model by investigating the effect of the analgesic morphine. In time-course studies, first we looked at the dose-response relationship of morphine and then tested whether the effect of morphine could be modulated by naloxone, an opioid antagonist. Our results suggest that a change in behavioral responses of zebrafish to acetic acid is a reasonable model to test analgesics. The response scales with stimulus intensity, is attenuated by morphine, and the analgesic effect of morphine is blocked with naloxone. The change in behavior of zebrafish associated with the noxious stimulus can be monitored with an electric biosensor that measures changes in water impedance.

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrus aurantium L. blossoms essential oil (neroli): involvement of the nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhsh, Pariya; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Asgarpanah, Jinous

    2015-07-01

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus aurantium L. blossoms essential oil (neroli) were investigated in mice and rats. The analgesic activity of neroli was assessed by acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot plate methods, while acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effects were investigated by inflammatory paw edema in rat and the cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue model, respectively. Mechanistic studies were conducted using L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Neroli significantly decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhes in mice compared to animals that received vehicle only. Also, it exhibited a central analgesic effect, as evidenced by a significant increase in reaction time in the hot plate method. The oil also significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The inhibitory activity of neroli (especially at 40 mg/kg) was found to be very close to the standard drug, diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg). In cotton pellet-induced granuloma, neroli was effective regarding the transudate and granuloma formation amount. Neroli was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and twenty-three constituents, representing 91.0 % of the oil, were identified. The major components of neroli were characterized as linalool (28.5 %), linalyl acetate (19.6 %), nerolidol (9.1 %), E,E-farnesol (9.1 %), ?-terpineol (4.9 %), and limonene (4.6 %), which might be responsible for these observed activities. The results suggest that neroli possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have significant activity against acute and especially chronic inflammation, and have central and peripheral antinociceptive effects which support the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammation. PMID:25762161

  3. Effect of Interleukin-29 on Interferon-? Secretion by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cellsammatory Root Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Hyun Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of interleukin (IL-29, a new therapeutic agent similar to type I interferons (IFNs, on IFN-? secretion of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify the effect of IL-29 on IFN-? secretion of pDCs using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in the presence of cytosine-phosphate-guanosinemotif-containing oligodeoxy nucleotides (CpG. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and prospective study, PBMCs were obtained from 11 healthy volunteers and divided into four culture conditions: I. control, II. CpG treatment, III. IL-29 treatment and IV. CpG plus IL-29 treatment. The amount of IFN-? secretion was measured from each culture supernatant by flow cytometry using the flowcytomix apparatus (eBioscience, Vienna, Austria. Fractional IFN-? production of the cultured PBMCs was measured by intracellular staining using the cytomics FC 500 system (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA, USA with CXP Software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD of supernatant IFN-? secretion per pDC/?L was 5.7 ± 9.3 pg/mL/count/?L for condition I, 1071.5 ± 1026.6 pg/mL/count/?L for condition II, 14.1 ± 21.1 pg/mL/count/?L for condition III, and 1913.9 ± 1525.9 pg/mL/count/?L for condition IV. There were statistically significant differences between conditions I and II as well as betweenconditions II and IV. Intracellular IFN-? production was only detectable in the pDC fraction from one culture; the production amount was similar between the cells treated with CpG and those treated with CpG plus IL-29. Natural killer (NK cell production of IFN-? was observed in two out of three cultures and one culture showed IFN- ? production in the monocyte fraction. Conclusion: IL-29 alone did not show any effect on IFN-? secretion of PBMCs. However, the addition of CpG along with IL-29 enhanced IFN-? secretion of PBMCs. Given that pDCs are the major secretors of IFN-? in peripheral blood, this result has suggested the possibility that IL-29 has an enhancing effect in human pDC IFN-? secretion. Although the supernatant IFN-? secretion was not directly correlated with pDCs’s intracellular IFN-? production in this study, prolonged incubation of pDC and other PB subsets with CpG or IL-29 for over 4 hours could be applied in future studies. These studies would help to elucidate the mechanism of action of IL-29 in human pDCs associated with viral infections.

  4. Effects of traditional Chinese medicine Tenghuanglin on peripheral T and B lymphocyte subsets in microwave irradiated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong MA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ?To observe the effect of Tenghuanglin (THL on peripheral T and B lymphocyte subsets in microwave irradiated rats, and explore the protective effect of THL on injury to immunity induced by microwave irradiation and its mechanism. Methods ?Eighty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=20: normal control group (CON, radiation group (RAD, radiation + Anduolin (positive control drug treatment group (ADL, and radiation + THL treatment group (THL. Rats in ADL and THL groups received gavage of the individual drug once a day for 7 days, and then exposed to 30mW/cm2 microwave whole body for 15min. Rats in RAD group received same dose of microwave irradiation, and those in CON group received sham irradiation. The animals were sacrificed on 7th and 14th day after irradiation, and the changes in peripheral blood smear was observed, and CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets, and CD45RA+ B lymphocyte subset were determined. Results ?Fourteen days after irradiation, peripheral red blood cells in RAD group was obviously lower than those in CON, ADL and THL groups, and there was no statistically significant difference of red cell count between CON, ADL and THL groups. Seven days after irradiation, peripheral CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in RAD group were lower in number than those in CON group, and they did not return to normal level up to 14th day. The peripheral CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in THL and ADL groups were obviously higher than those in RAD group, and peripheral CD3+, CD4+ T cells were still higher than those in RAD group 14d after irradiation, while the peripheral CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in THL and ADL groups were similar both at 7th and 14th day. Seven days after irradiation, the CD4/CD8 ratio was lower in RAD group than that in CON and THL groups (P<0.05, while the ratio in CON, ADL and THL groups was similar. The CD4/CD8 ratio in 4 groups was similar on 14th day after irradiation. Peripheral CD45RA+ B lymphocytes were lower in number in RAD group than in CON group on 7th and 14th days (P<0.05, while they were higher in ADL group on 7th day and in THL group on 7th and 14th days than in RAD group (P<0.05, but they were similar to CON group. Conclusions ?Peripheral T and B lymphocytes reduce in number, and CD4/CD8 ratio lowers early after the microwave irradiation, resulting in immunosuppression and immune imbalance in rats. Traditional Chinese medicine THL could increase the peripheral T and B lymphocyte counts and improve the CD4/CD8 ratio after microwave irradiation in rats. The present study provides a new basis for the research on drugs for preventing and treating micro-wave irradiation injury. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.13

  5. Further studies on the effects of acamprosate on tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine and NO synthesis in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Sepúlveda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate whether acamprosate modifies the expression of the enzyme responsible for neuronal NO synthesis (nNOS in the nucleus accumbens (NAc of mice chronically treated with morphine and during the abstinence syndrome induced by naloxone. The enzyme was monitored by the NADPH diaphorase method. The number of cells stained for NADPH diaphorase in the NAc of mice was counted in 40 ?m thick coronal brain slices at 40X. The intensity of the histochemical reaction of stained cells from naive morphine plus saline and morphine plus acamprosate treated mice was analyzed by Image Pro Plus 4.5.1. Morphine administered in a slow release preparation increased the stain intensity of the positive neurons. The increase in the NADPH staining persisted after naloxone was given to mice chronically treated with morphine. Acamprosate antagonized the effects induced by chronic morphine treatment in the NAc of mice. These results indicate that up-regulation of nNOS in the NAc is a consequence of the sustained effects of morphine stimulation, which, in turn, may result from an increased in glutamate release during the abstinence syndrome.

  6. Peripheral Dose Heterogeneity Due to the Thread Effect in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Verneris, Michael R. [Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Dusenbery, Kathryn E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Wilke, Christopher T. [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Storme, Guy; Weisdorf, Daniel J. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Hui, Susanta K., E-mail: huixx019@umn.edu [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To report potential dose heterogeneity leading to underdosing at different skeletal sites in total marrow irradiation (TMI) with helical tomotherapy due to the thread effect and provide possible solutions to reduce this effect. Methods and Materials: Nine cases were divided into 2 groups based on patient size, defined as maximum left-to-right arm distance (mLRD): small mLRD (?47 cm) and large mLRD (>47 cm). TMI treatment planning was conducted by varying the pitch and modulation factor while a jaw size (5 cm) was kept fixed. Ripple amplitude, defined as the peak-to-trough dose relative to the average dose due to the thread effect, and the dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters for 9 cases with various mLRD was analyzed in different skeletal regions at off-axis (eg, bones of the arm or femur), at the central axis (eg, vertebrae), and planning target volume (PTV), defined as the entire skeleton plus 1-cm margin. Results: Average ripple amplitude for a pitch of 0.430, known as one of the magic pitches that reduce thread effect, was 9.2% at 20 cm off-axis. No significant differences in DVH parameters of PTV, vertebrae, or femur were observed between small and large mLRD groups for a pitch of ?0.287. Conversely, in the bones of the arm, average differences in the volume receiving 95% and 107% dose (V95 and V107, respectively) between large and small mLRD groups were 4.2% (P=.016) and 16% (P=.016), respectively. Strong correlations were found between mLRD and ripple amplitude (rs=.965), mLRD and V95 (rs=?.742), and mLRD and V107 (rs=.870) of bones of the arm. Conclusions: Thread effect significantly influences DVH parameters in the bones of the arm for large mLRD patients. By implementing a favorable pitch value and adjusting arm position, peripheral dose heterogeneity could be reduced.

  7. Peripheral Dose Heterogeneity Due to the Thread Effect in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report potential dose heterogeneity leading to underdosing at different skeletal sites in total marrow irradiation (TMI) with helical tomotherapy due to the thread effect and provide possible solutions to reduce this effect. Methods and Materials: Nine cases were divided into 2 groups based on patient size, defined as maximum left-to-right arm distance (mLRD): small mLRD (?47 cm) and large mLRD (>47 cm). TMI treatment planning was conducted by varying the pitch and modulation factor while a jaw size (5 cm) was kept fixed. Ripple amplitude, defined as the peak-to-trough dose relative to the average dose due to the thread effect, and the dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters for 9 cases with various mLRD was analyzed in different skeletal regions at off-axis (eg, bones of the arm or femur), at the central axis (eg, vertebrae), and planning target volume (PTV), defined as the entire skeleton plus 1-cm margin. Results: Average ripple amplitude for a pitch of 0.430, known as one of the magic pitches that reduce thread effect, was 9.2% at 20 cm off-axis. No significant differences in DVH parameters of PTV, vertebrae, or femur were observed between small and large mLRD groups for a pitch of ?0.287. Conversely, in the bones of the arm, average differences in the volume receiving 95% and 107% dose (V95 and V107, respectively) between large and small mLRD groups were 4.2% (P=.016) and 16% (P=.016), respectively. Strong correlations were found between mLRD and ripple amplitude (rs=.965), mLRD and V95 (rs=?.742), and mLRD and V107 (rs=.870) of bones of the arm. Conclusions: Thread effect significantly influences DVH parameters in the bones of the arm for large mLRD patients. By implementing a favorable pitch value and adjusting arm position, peripheral dose heterogeneity could be reduced

  8. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed In Vitro to Neonicotinoid Insecticides News

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Méndez-Pérez; Enrique Bañuelos-Ruíz; María Isabel Rodríguez-Romero; Diana Flores-Ramírez; Rocío García-Martínez; Josefina Cortés-Eslava; María del Carmen Calderón-Ezquerro; Yolanda Carbajal-López; Carmen Martínez-Valenzuela; Sandra Gómez-Arroyo; Rafael Villalobos-Pietrini; María Elena Calderón-Segura

    2012-01-01

    Calypso (thiacloprid), Poncho (clothianidin), Gaucho (imidacloprid), and Jade (imidacloprid) are commercial neonicotinoid insecticides, a new class of agrochemicals in México. However, genotoxic and cytotoxic studies have not been performed. In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of the four insecticides. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated using the alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. D...

  9. Effects of Blood Transportation on Human Peripheral Mononuclear Cell Yield, Phenotype and Function: Implications for Immune Cell Biobanking

    OpenAIRE

    Posevitz-Fejfár, Anita; Posevitz, Vilmos; Gross, Catharina C.; Bhatia, Urvashi; Kurth, Frank; Schütte, Verena; Bar-Or, Amit; Sven G Meuth; Wiendl, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Human biospecimen collection, processing and preservation are rapidly emerging subjects providing essential support to clinical as well as basic researchers. Unlike collection of other biospecimens (e.g. DNA and serum), biobanking of viable immune cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and/or isolated immune cell subsets is still in its infancy. While certain aspects of processing and freezing conditions have been studied in the past years, little is known about the effect o...

  10. Effect on the gonads and peripheral blood of mice at independent and combined treatment with adaptogens before radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantev, T.; Topalova, S. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1984-01-01

    The independent and combined effect of pharmacopeial preparations such as Torphot, Aloe, placenta extract and eleouterococcus have been investigated. The preparations was introduced prophylactically within 28 days, read according to the weight and cellular quality of the testicles on 28th day following 3 Gy gamma irradiation. A comparative analysis has been made between the data obtained and the ones received earlier on leucocytes dynamics in the peripheral blood.

  11. Potential Analgesic & Anti-Pyretic Herbal drugs: A Comparative Review of Marketed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Analgesic from the family of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have probably been used for more than 2000 years. In the 1900 ASA become an established treatment for pain and migraine. The detection of the main mechanism of the clinical effect of ASAs in John R.Vane’s group in 1972(who received the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1982 for his discovery of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition gave a new and persistent drive to the development of other chemically different NSAID. The currently available analgesic and antipyretic drugs in allopathic system of medicine are not so effective in combating wide variety of complications. The remedial measure may lie in the ayurvedic system of medicine. The various herbal drugs such as Acacia nilotica, Bauhinia racemosa Linn. Cleome viscose, Hippobromus panciflorus etc known for their potential analgesic and antipyretic activity shall be discussed. The various branded herbal formulations like Rumalaya, Charak, Rumartho, Arthrella, and Reosto etc available in the market as analgesic and antipyretic remedies are also discussed along with their clinical merits. It may be concluded that since ayurvedic formulations contain number of ingredients in which one ingredient may act to enhance the action of other ingredient. Also as a result of so many ingredients present in the particular ayurvedic formulation it helps in combating other diseases in addition to analgesic and antipyretic activity.

    Keywords: Analgesic, Ayurvedic system, Herbal drugs, Antipyretic.

  12. The effect of CD4 puffing on the peripheral scrape-off layer in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A connection has been found between puffing of CD4 at the outer mid-plane of JET and a rise in scrape-off layer (SOL) peripheral electron density. This observation led to the proposal that CD4 puffing might be used to improve lower hybrid coupling in optimized shear discharges. Results described elsewhere have demonstrated that this is indeed the case. The focus of this paper is on the causes of this peripheral density rise using two-dimensional fluid modelling and local measurements of turbulent transport in the JET SOL. (author)

  13. Analgesic effect and side effects of celecoxib and meloxicam in canine hip osteoarthritis / Efectos analgésicos y secundarios de celecoxib y meloxicam en osteoartritis de cadera canina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor, Molina D; David, Álzate V; Jhon, Ruíz B; Manuela, Urrea A; Juan, Tobón J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto farmacológico, clínico y toxicológico de celecoxib y meloxicam utilizados como analgésicos durante 30 días en caninos con osteoartritis de cadera. Materiales y métodos. Fueron evaluados 24 pacientes, 75% hembras, con edad de 7.16 ± 2.06 años, y el 25% machos; con edad de [...] 7.83 ± 2.22 años, todos tenían osteoartritis de cadera, se asignaron aleatoriamente a dos grupos; un grupo recibió celecoxib 5 mg/kg oral cada 12 horas durante 1 mes y el segundo grupo recibió 0.2 mg/kg de meloxicam, oral cada 24 horas durante 1 mes. Todos fueron evaluados por grado de analgesia y pruebas renales, hepáticas y de coagulación al día 0, 10 y 30. Se realizó una endoscopía gástrica al día 30. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el test HSD Tukey y c², con nivel significancia del 5%. Resultados. Ambos tratamientos redujeron el dolor articular durante los 30 días, según la escala Melbourne (p?0.05). Las variables hemáticas, renales, hepáticas y de coagulación estuvieron dentro de los valores normales sin diferencia. Todos presentaron gastritis crónica por endoscopia a los 30 días. Conclusiones. Ambos fármacos redujeron el dolor, ninguno tuvo efectos sobre la hematología, función renal, hepática y de coagulación a los 30 días; sin embargo, hubo gastritis crónica a los 30 días. Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate the pharmacological, clinical and toxicological effects of celecoxib and meloxicam for analgesia for 30 days in dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients were evaluated, 75% were females with an average age of 7.16 ± 2.06 years and twenty five p [...] ercent were males with an average age of 7.83 ± 2.22 years. All patients had hip osteoarthritis and they were randomized into two groups; one group received oral celecoxib 5 mg/kg every 12 hours during one month and the second group received oral meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg every 24 hours during 1 month. The patients were evaluated for analgesia, and hematological, renal, liver, and coagulation tests on days 0, 10th and 30th after treatment initiation, and a gastric endoscopy on day 30. Statistical analysis was performed using a HSD Tukey test and c² with a 5% level of statistical significance. Results. Both drugs reduced articular pain according to the Melbourne scale during the 30 days of treatment (p?0.05). Hematological, renal, hepatic and coagulation tests were normal in both treatment groups. All patients presented chronic gastritis on endoscopy on day 30th. Conclusions. Both drugs decreased pain at day 30th without causing alterations in hematological, renal, hepatic or coagulation tests after 30 days of treatment. However, both drugs induced chronic gastritis.

  14. The effect of catechol on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Bo?ena; Micha?owicz, Jaromir; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Catechol also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene is formed endogenously in the organism from neurotransmitters including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. It is also a metabolite of many drugs like DOPA, isoproterenol or aspirin and it is also formed in the environment during transformation of various xenobiotics. We evaluated in vitro the effect of catechol on the structure and function of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cells were incubated with xenobiotic at concentration range from 2 to 500?g/mL for 1h. Human blood mononuclear cells were obtained from leucocyte-platelet buffy coat taken from healthy donors in the Blood Bank of ?ód?, Poland. Using flow cytometry we have evaluated necrotic, apoptotic and morphological changes in PBMCs incubated with catechol. Moreover, we have estimated changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation in the cells studied. The compound studied provoked necrotic (from 250?g/mL), apoptotic (from 100?g/mL), and morphological changes (from 250?g/mL) in the incubated cells. We have also noted that catechol decreased H2DCF oxidation at 2 and 10?g/mL but at higher concentrations of 250 and 500?g/mL it caused statistically significant increase in the oxidation of this probe. We also observed an increase in lipid peroxidation (from 250?g/mL) and protein carbonylation (from 50?g/mL) of PBMCs. It was observed that catechol only at high concentrations was capable of inducing changes in PBMCs. The obtained results clearly showed that catechol may induce change in PBMCs only in the caste of poisoning with this compound. PMID:25528409

  15. Effects of Lithium on Peripheral Neuropathy Induced by Vincristine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sharifzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vincristine (VCR as a frequently used antimitotic agent which is commonly prescribed for wide spectrum of neoplasm, causes mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. Several evidences show lithium could be a neuroprotective agent, therefore to assess whether a pretreatment and at subtherapeutic dose it could prevent the peripheral neuropathy produced by VCR, rats were treated with VCR 0.1mg/kg i.p. for 3 alternative doses and / or lithium chloride (20mg/kg or 40 mg/kg i.p. daily from the first day to the day of sacrifice. Erythrocyte lithium concentration (ELC and plasma lithium concentration (PLC were measured at the seventh day of study and the day of scarification. After seventh day of lithium administration, PLC and ELC reached to a steady state at subtheraputic dose and they did not significantly change at normal housing situation. Hot plate, open field test and nerve conduction velocity were used to evaluate the sensory and motor neuropathy. Only VCR treated rats showed behavioral, electrophysiological and histological evidences of a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy by significant increase in hot plate latencies and a marked decrease in total distance moved and conduction velocities in both sensory and motor nerves. Lithium at the dose of 20mg/kg and specially 40mg/kg robustly reduced the rate of mortality, general toxicity and was able to ameliorate mixed sensorimotor neuropathy induced by VCR. These results suggest that lithium at dose of 20mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, potentially by its effects on cell survival pathways such as inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3?, can prevent both motor and sensory components of VCR neuropathy.

  16. Cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in peripheral lymphocytes of ISS crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra; Obe, Günter; Horstmann, Markus

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). The effect of the increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required.The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second sample was drawn within 3 days after return from their flights. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Metaphases were Giemsa stained or hybridised using multicolour FISH probes. All types of chromosome changes were scored in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to cosmic radiation exposure. Overall significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed in long-term crew members. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short-term stays on-board the ISS.

  17. Analgesia e ação antiinflamatória da Arnica montana 12CH comparativamente ao cetoprofeno em cães Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Arnica montana 12CH in comparison with ketoprofen in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Navarro Cassu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório da Arnica montana 12CH comparativamente ao cetoprofeno em cadelas submetidas à ovariossalpingohisterectomia (OSH. Foram avaliadas 16 cadelas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de oito animais cada, tratados por via oral com 1mg kg-1 de cetoprofeno (TC e com cinco glóbulos de Arnica montana 12CH (TA. Decorridos 60 minutos, os animais foram tranquilizados com acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1, IV, seguindo-se indução e manutenção anestésica com propofol (5mg kg-1, IV e isofluorano, respectivamente. Foram mensurados: frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, pressão arterial sistólica, concentração final expirada de dióxido de carbono, concentração final expirada de isofluorano, variáveis hemogasométricas, concentração sérica de cortisol, grau de analgesia e de inflamação. Em casos de analgesia insuficiente, foi realizada suplementação com morfina (0,5mg kg-1, IM. A estatística foi realizada com ANOVA e teste de Tukey (PThis study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Arnica montana 12CH comparatively to ketoprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Sixteen female dogs were randomly distributed in two groups of eight animals and received 1mg kg-1 of ketoprofen (TC and 5 globules of Arnica montana 12CH (TA by oral route. After 60 minutes, the dogs were sedated with acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1, IV, followed by anesthetic induction with propofol (5mg kg-1 IV and maintained with isoflurane. Heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, arterial blood gases, serum cortisol concentration and degree of analgesia and inflammation were measured. Additional morphine (0.5mg kg-1IM was given when the analgesia was insufficient. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (P<0.05. Cardiopulmonary stability was observed in both treatments during the surgery. The degree of analgesia and inflammation did not differ between groups. Rescue analgesia was administered to two dogs from each group. It was concluded that Arnica montana 12CH provides similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects when compared with ketoprofen, suggesting that this treatment is a safe and effective option to dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  18. Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David MØbjerg; Hass, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    ; BACKGROUND: More than half of pregnant women in the Western world report intake of mild analgesics, and some of these drugs have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in animal experiments. Intrauterine exposure to anti-androgens is suspected to contribute to the recent increase in male reproductive problems, and many of the anti-androgenic compounds are like the mild analgesics potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, it appears imperative to further investigate the potential endocrine disrupting properties of mild analgesics. ; METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study, 2297 Danish and Finnish pregnant women completed a questionnaire and 491 of the Danish mothers participated in a telephone interview, reporting on their use of mild analgesics during pregnancy. The testicular position of newborns was assessed by trained paediatricians. In rats, the impact of mild analgesics on anogenital distance (AGD) after intrauterine exposure was examined together with the effect on ex vivo gestational day 14.5 testes. ; RESULTS: In the Danish birth cohort, the use of mild analgesics was dose-dependently associated with congenital cryptorchidism. In particular, use during the second trimester increased the risk. This risk was further increased after the simultaneous use of different analgesics. The association was not found in the Finnish birth cohort. Intrauterine exposure of rats to paracetamol led to a reduction in the AGD and mild analgesics accordingly reduced testosterone production in ex vivo fetal rat testes. ; CONCLUSION: There was an association between the timing and the duration of mild analgesic use during pregnancy and the risk of cryptorchidism. These findings were supported by anti-androgenic effects in rat models leading to impaired masculinization. Our results suggest that intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders.

  19. Comparación de la Eficacia Analgésica de Codeína más paracetamol vs Tramadol en el Tratamiento del Dolor por Cáncer / Comparison of the analgesic effectiveness of codeine plus paracetamol vs Tramadol in the Treatment of Cáncer Pain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. F., Rodríguez; Luís E., Bravo; A. M., Ángel; M. F., Rodríguez; M. E., León.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El dolor es el síntoma más importante en 70% de pacientes que padecen cáncer avanzado. La terapia con analgésicos utilizada en forma adecuada, controla el dolor en 80-90% de los pacientes. Objetivos. Comparar la eficacia analgésica y seguridad de la codeína más acetaminofén (CA) y Clorhidrato de Tra [...] madol (T) en el alivio del dolor por cáncer. Método. Se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado doble ciego, en pacientes con dolor por cáncer de intensidad moderada o severa. En forma aleatoria se asignó un grupo de pacientes para ser tratados con la combinación de Codeína más paracetamol, mientras que el otro grupo recibió Clorhidrato de Tramadol por un periodo de tres semanas. La intensidad del dolor fue medida con una escala numérica de cero a diez, considerándose como dolor de intensidad moderada el marcado en la escala entre 5-7 y de intensidad severa de 8-10. El tratamiento analgésico se consideró eficaz cuando el dolor desapareció o disminuyó a una intensidad leve, comprendida entre 1-4. Resultados. Se incluyeron 115 pacientes: 59 recibieron CA y 56 recibieron T. En el grupo de pacientes que recibió CA 58% aliviaron con una dosis inicial de codeína de 150 mg/día y 8% con la dosis doblada; 34% no aliviaron. En el grupo de pacientes tratado con T el dolor alivió en 62% de los pacientes con la dosis inicial de 200mg/día y 11% con la dosis doblada, mientras que 27% no experimentó alivio. Las diferencias entre los dos grupos no fueron significativas en cuanto a su eficacia analgésica. El grupo que recibió Tramadol presentó en forma significativa, mayor incidencia de efectos colaterales de intensidad leve: náusea (p: 0.05, RR: 0.62; IC95%: 0.38-1.01), mareo (p: 0.04; RR: 0.58; IC95%: 0.33-1.01) y pérdida de apetito (p: 0.001; RR: 0.08; IC95%: 0.01-0.59). Conclusión. No existen diferencias en cuanto a la eficacia analgésica de CA y T en el tratamiento del dolor por cáncer. Con el uso de T se presentó una mayor incidencia de efectos colaterales de intensidad leve. Abstract in english Pain is the principal symptom in 70% of patients with severe cáncer. Analgesics therapy with a proper management controls pain in 80-90% of patients. Objective. Compare the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of codeine plus acetaminophen (CA) and tramadol clorhydrate (T) in the relief of cáncer pai [...] n. Method. A double blind, randomize controlled clinical trial was perform in patients with modérate to severe pain intensity. Randomly patients were assigned in a group for receiving codeine plus acetaminophen and in other group for receiving tramadol chlorhydrate for a three weeks period. Pain intensity was measure using a numeric scale from zero to ten in which modérate pain goes from 5-7, and severe pain goes from 8-10. Analgesic treatment was considered to be effective when pain disappear or become mild, 1-4 in the numeric scale. Results. One hundred fifteen patients participated, 59 receive CA and 56 T. In the group of patients that receive CA, 58% achieved pain relief with the initial dose of 150 mg/d and 8% responded to the double dose; 34% didn't experience pain relief. In the group patients treated with T pain relief occurred in 62% of patients with the initial dose of 200mg/d and 11% with the double dose; 27% didn't experienced pain relief. Differences between both groups were not significant in the analgesic efficacy. The tramadol group experienced in a significant way a higher incidence of adverse events of mild intensity: nausea (p: 0.05, RR: 0.62; IC95%: 0.38-1.01), dizziness (p: 0.04; RR: 0.58; IC95%: 0.33-1.01) and lost of appetite (p: 0.001; RR: 0.08; IC95%: 0.01-0.59). Conclusion. Efficacy of C and T during a treatment of 23 days was similar, no statistical differences were found. There were no differences in the analgesic effectiveness between CA and T in the management of cáncer pain. With the use of T a higher incidence of adverse events of mild intensity were reported.

  20. Effect of central and peripheral cholinergic antagonists on chlorpyrifos-induced changes in body temperature in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J; Grantham, T A

    1999-12-20

    Exposure to the organophosphate (OP)-based pesticide chlorpyrifos (CHP) in the rat results in an initial period of hypothermia lasting scopolamine (MS) and central antagonist, scopolamine (S) were administered during the period of CHP-induced hypothermia and fever. The hypothermia was attenuated by scopolamine but not by methyl scopolamine. The delayed fever was augmented by scopolamine but blocked by methyl scopolamine. The results indicate that CHP-induced hypothermia is mediated by cholinergic stimulation of heat loss pathways in CNS thermoregulatory centers. Peripheral cholinergic pathways appear to have a minimal role in mediating chlorpyrifos-induced hypothermia. On the other hand, the chlorpyrifos-induced fever appears to be mediated by a peripheral pathway that is blocked by methyl scopolamine. The data provides a possible explanation for the persistent fever in humans exposed to OP pesticides and treated with atropine. Methyl atropine or methyl scopolamine may be a more effective therapy in the treatment of the fever. PMID:10647915

  1. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is concerned with the health risks to astronauts, particularly those risks related to radiation exposure. Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of (A) peripheral leukocyte distribution; (B) plasma cytokine levels; (C) cytokine production profiles following whole blood stimulation of either T cells or monocytes.

  2. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC POTENTIAL OF KIGELIA PINNATA LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Namita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the analgesic activity of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata on wistar rats. Analgesic activity of the leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata at a dose of 200 mg/kg & 400 mg/kg was evaluated against the standard drug pentazocine at a dose of 10mg/kg. Wistar rats of either sex of five numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated by hot plate and tail flick method. The both doses of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata was found to produce significant (p < 0.001 analgesic activity. In hot plate method, the analgesia began at 60 min, remained for 120 min and the peak effect was noted at 90 min in comparison to control but in tail flick method, the extract at 200mg/kg showed significant analgesic activity (P<0.001 after 60 minutes and remained for 90 min. The results showed significant analgesic activity. The leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata have potential analgesic activity against stimuli in the tested animals. So, it can be recommened for further studies.

  3. A new analgesic method, two-minute sciatic nerve press, for immediate pain relief: a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Fenglin; Jiang Xianrong; Wu Bin; He Jiman; Zhao Tao; Zhang Wenlon

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Current analgesics have drawbacks such as delays in acquisition, lag-times for effect, and side effects. We recently presented a preliminary report of a new analgesic method involving a two-minute sciatic nerve press, which resulted in immediate short-term relief of pain associated with dental and renal diseases. The present study investigated whether this technique was effective for pain associated with other disease types, and whether the relief was effective for up to o...

  4. Avaliação do efeito analgésico preemptivo do lumiracoxibe comparado com placebo nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório / Evaluation of the analgesic effects of the lumiracoxib compared with placebo in the 24 first postoperative hours

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vilmar, Molon; Cleber Dario Pinto, Kruel; Desiré Tarso, Maioli; Juliana Zanrosso, Caran; Raquel Cristina, Lovison.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar o lumiracoxibe, utilizado preemptivamente contra um placebo, e analisar o consumo de analgésicos (dipirona e tramadol) nas primeiras 24h do pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Sessenta pacientes submetidas à mamoplastia de aumento, sob anestesia peridural, foram selecionadas e divididas de for [...] ma randomizada em dois grupos - GI e GII. Sessenta minutos antes da operação, por via oral, as 30 pacientes do GI receberam um comprimido de lumiracoxibe 400mg, e as 30 do GII um comprimido de placebo. A dor pós-operatória foi avaliada através da escala analógica visual, graduada de 0 (sem dor) a 10 (dor de maior intensidade), sendo aplicada sempre que houvesse referência de dor. Para escores obtidos iguais ou menores que 4, a paciente recebia 15mg/kg de dipirona, até máximo de um grama, via venosa. Para escores de 5, 6 ou 7, recebia 50mg de tramadol por via venosa. Escores de 8 ou mais eram tratados com 0,5mg/kg de meperidina endovenosa. RESULTADOS: Os escores obtidos no GI foram significativamente menores que os do GII dentro das primeiras 24 horas, resultando em consumo 20% menor de dipirona e 56% menor de tramadol. Da mesma forma, observou-se que o tempo para solicitação de analgésicos pela primeira vez no pós-operatório foi de 191 minutos maior no GI. CONCLUSÃO: O emprego do lumiracoxibe preemptivamente mostrou-se efetivo no combate à dor pós-operatória, reduzindo consideravelmente o consumo global de analgésicos nesse período e aumentando o tempo de solicitação de analgésico pela primeira vez. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To test lumiracoxib used preemptively against a placebo,and to analyse the analgesic administration (dipirona and tramadol) in the 24 first postoperative hours. METHODS: Sixty patients undergone to a breast aumentation, under epidural anesthesia, were selected and put randomly in two gro [...] ups - GI and GII. Sixty minutes before the surgery, it was administered orally, one pill of lumiracoxib 400mg to the 30 GI patients and one pill of placebo to the 30 GII patients. The postoperative pain was evaluated through the visual analogic scale, ranged from 0 (painless) to 10 (most intensive pain), being applied to the patient whenever having pain. For the same scores or under 4, it was administered intravenously 15mg/kg of dipirona up to a maximum of 1g. For scores of 5, 6 or 7, the patient had intravenously 50mg of tramadol.Scores 8 or more were treated intravenously with 0,5 mg/kg of meperidine. RESULTS: The scores in GI were significantly lower than the ones obtained in GII within the first 24 hours, with the need of 20% less dipirona and 56% of tramadol in this period of time. In the same way, it was observed that analgesic solicitation for the first time had a delay of 191 minutes in GI in comparison to GII. CONCLUSION: The use of lumiracoxib preemptively, was effective in the treatment of postoperative pain, reducing considerably the consume of analgesics, and enlarging the time for the first medication.

  5. EFECTIVIDAD DE ANESTESIA DE PLEXO CERVICAL SUPERFICIAL PREOPERATORIO PARA CONTROL DE DOLOR POSTOPERATORIO EN CIRUGÍA DE TIROIDES / Analgesic effects of bilateral superficial cervical plexus block with Bupivacaine after thyroidectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicolás, Ávalos J; Carolina, Cabrera Sch; Irini, Semertzakis P; Silvia, Schmied P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La cirugía de la glándula tiroides es reconocida como un procedimiento que produce un dolor leve a moderado. El bloqueo bilateral de plexo cervical superficial es una técnica simple, poco invasiva, que pudiera ser beneficioso en estos pacientes como modelo de analgesia preventiva. Obje [...] tivos: Evaluar la calidad de la analgesia del postoperatorio de la cirugía de tiroides, con el uso de bloqueo bilateral del plexo cervical superficial. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron pacientes ASA I y II propuestos para cirugía de tiroides bajo anestesia general. En todos los pacientes se hizo anestesia general balanceada con Fentanyl, Propofol, Vecuronio e Isoflurano. En forma aleatoria y ciega se asignaron los pacientes en 2 grupos: grupo A, Bupivacaína 0,25% 20 ml y grupo B placebo. Se evaluó características demográficas, dolor postoperatorio, necesidad de analgésicos de rescate, náuseas, vómitos y satisfacción del paciente. Resultados: 35 pacientes, 7 hombres y 28 mujeres. Con edad promedio de 55,3 ± 14,8 ASA I y 27 ASA II. Quince pacientes en grupo A y 20 pacientes grupo B. Comparables en variables demográficas. El uso promedio de morfina fue de 10,4 mg en grupo B y 5,8 mg en grupo A (p Abstract in english Background: Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block is a simple non-invasive technique that can be used as preventive analgesia in the perioperative period of thyroidectomy. Aim: to assess the analgesic effects of the technique during the postoperative period of thyroidectomy. Material and Metho [...] ds: Patients with indication of total thyroidectomy, with a low operative risk according to the American Society of Anesthesiology, were studied. All were operated with general anesthesia using Fentanyl, Propofol, Vecuronium and Isoflurane. Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to superficial cervical plexus block using Bupivacaine 0.25% or to a placebo injection. Postoperative pain, need for analgesics and patient satisfaction were assessed. Results: Thirty five patients aged 55 + 15 years (28 women) were studied. Mean use of morphine in the Bupivacaine and placebo groups was 5.8 and 10.4 mg, respectively (p

  6. The pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7) in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla involves multiple peripheral mechanisms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita C., Oliveira; Maria J., Campagnole-Santos; Robson A. S., Santos.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the peripheral mechanism that mediates the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla was investigated. METHOD: Angiotensin-(1-7) (25 pmol) was bilaterally microinjected in the rostral ventrolateral medulla near the ventral surface in ur [...] ethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats that were untreated or treated (intravenously) with effective doses of selective autonomic receptor antagonists (atenolol, prazosin, methyl-atropine, and hexamethonium) or a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH2)5 -Tyr(Me)-AVP] given alone or in combination. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, the pressor response produced by angiotensin-(1-7) (16 ± 2 mmHg, n = 12), which was not associated with significant changes in heart rate, was not significantly altered by peripheral treatment with prazosin, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, hexamethonium or methyl-atropine. Similar results were obtained in experiments that tested the association of prazosin and atenolol; methyl-atropine and the vasopressin V1 antagonist or methyl-atropine and prazosin. Peripheral treatment with the combination of prazosin, atenolol and the vasopressin V1 antagonist abolished the pressor effect of glutamate; however, this treatment produced only a small decrease in the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7) at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The combination of hexamethonium with the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist or the combination of prazosin, atenolol, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist and methyl-atropine was effective in blocking the effect of angiotensin-(1-7) at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that angiotensin-(1-7) triggers a complex pressor response at the rostral ventrolateral medulla that involves an increase in sympathetic tonus, release of vasopressin and possibly the inhibition of a vasodilatory mechanism.

  7. Time-effect relationship of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cell after X ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the time-effect of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray, human peripheral whole blood samples were collected from two healthy individuals, and exposed to X rays with dose from 0 to 10 Gy. The genomic DNAs were isolated from the whole-blood samples, and the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and copy number of total mtDNA in the DNA samples were detected by Real-time PCR after irradiation at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that the copy number of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and total mtDNA, and the rates of mtDNA 4977bp deletion increase with incubation time with dose at 5 Gy after irradiation. Moreover, they increased with dose from 0 to 10 Gy after irradiation at 24 h and 72 h, respectively. The results suggested that the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and the copy number of total mtDNA in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray were accumulated with incubation time and dose increase, respectively. (authors)

  8. Effects of thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy: a randomized parallel-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Plandee, Piyawan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complications of diabetic patients and leads to loss of plantar cutaneous sensation, movement perception, and body balance. Thai foot massage is an alternative therapy to improve balance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned into either the Thai foot massage or control groups. The Thai foot massage group received a modified Thai traditional foot massage for 30 min, 3 days per week for 2 weeks. We measured timed up and go (TUG), one leg stance: OLS), the range of motion (ROM) of the foot, and foot sensation (SWMT) before treatment, after the first single session, and after the 2-week treatment. RESULTS After the single treatment session, only the Thai foot massage group showed a significant improvement in TUG. After the 2-week treatment, both Thai foot massage and control groups showed a significant improvement of TUG and OLS (Pmassage group showed better improvement in TUG than the control group (pmassage group also showed significant improvements in ROM and SWMT after the 2-week treatment. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that Thai foot massage is a viable alternative treatment for balance performance, ROM of the foot, and the foot sensation in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25892354

  9. Laser Doppler flowmetry signals to quantify effects of isoflurane on the peripheral cardiovascular system of healthy rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Anne; Fizanne, Lionel; Roux, Jérôme; Asfar, Pierre; Cales, Paul; Rousseau, David; Chapeau-Blondeau, François

    2007-12-01

    The optical Doppler effect resulting from interactions between laser light photons and red blood cells of the microcirculation is used to characterize the influence of isoflurane, an halogenated volatile anesthetic, on the peripheral cardiovascular system. After having recorded laser Doppler flowmetry blood perfusion signals on isoflurane-induced anesthetized healthy rats, wavelet analyses show a significant decrease of the myogenic and neurogenic activities when isoflurane dose increases from 1.5% to 3%. Moreover, the approximate entropy shows a weak decrease of signal irregularity when dose of isoflurane increases. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of the optical Doppler effect in physiological and pharmacological applications.

  10. Effect of peripheral vision training on the attack of beginner indoor soccer players: a study during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted within the context of Human Motor Skill Science, in the area of Biophysical Dimension and following the research line of the Study of Learning Mechanisms and Processes and of Motor Conduct within the epistemological construct of phenomenological explanation. The objective of this study was to investigate peripheral vision training (PVT and its effect on attack runs during indoor soccer, taking into account dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function in both learning speed andoffensive skills. Ten beginner indoor soccer players aged 10.4 ± 2.31 years, from Lar da Criança Padre Franz Neumair, Ititioca, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participated in the study. The boys were divided into an experimental group (EG, n = 5 and a controlgroup (CG, n = 5 with similar dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function (H (EG: 80% left H and 20% right H, CG: 60% left H and 40% right H. The players underwent nine training sessions, followed by a championship, and then six additional sessions, followed by a second championship. Each championship was filmed for scoutvideo analysis. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in peripheral vision during offensive runs between CG and EG, with marked acquisition of peripheral vision in EG. The quality of the attack runs was significant (two-way ANOVA. EG was the better team at the beginning of the attack runs and during attack development, whereas CG was better at attack finalization during the first championship. EG showed more competence in attack run finalization during the second championship. No significant difference in the number of goals scored was observed between the two groups (two-wayANOVA, p>0.05. The frequency of participation in the training sessions was significant (t-test for independent samples, p?0.05, with EG attending more sessions. In conclusion, EG acquired peripheral vision, a finding suggesting that PVT improves the attack capacity of indoor soccer players.

  11. Effect of low-dose methylprednisolone on peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells and its significance in rats after brain injury

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    Bin ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of low-dose methylprednisolone(MP treatment after traumatic brain injury(TBI in rats on the number of peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs and injury area of the brain.Methods One hundred and fifty-four adult male Wistar rats were involved in the present study,and they were randomly divided into normal control group(n=18,TBI control group(n=38,MP control group(n=30,MP+TBI group(n=30 and TBI+MP group(n=38.The TBI model was reproduced by fluid percussion injury(FPI.MP(5mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered once a day for 4 days.Peripheral venous blood samples were taken on day 1,3,7 and 14,and the counts of EPCs were determined by flow cytometry.The rats were sacrificed on day 1 and 3,brain edema was estimated by dry-wet weight method,and the blood-brain barrier(BBB permeability was determined by Evans-blue extravasation.Results The counts of peripheral blood EPCs were significantly higher in MP control group,MP+TBI group and TBI+MP group on day 1,3 and 7 than that in normal control and TBI control group,and it returned to the level of normal control group on day 14.The BBB permeability was improved and brain edema alleviated in MP+TBI and TBI+MP group on day 3.Conclusion The administration of low-dose MP may increase the count of peripheral blood EPCs in rats,decrease BBB damage,and alleviate brain edema.

  12. Screening of Anti-Arthritic, Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of a Polyherbal Formulation

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    S. Meera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Arthosansar (AS, a polyherbal formulation was evaluated and validated in various animal models. Arthritis was induced by Complete Freund`s Adjuvant (CFA injection in metatarsal footpad of Sprague-Dawley rats. Degree of inflammation was evaluated by hind paw swelling and body weight, estimation of AST, ALT and TP supported by histopathology of knee joint. AS reduced hind paw swelling, body weight, AST, ALT and TP Histopathology revealed significant reduction in mononuclear infiltration, pannus formation and bone erosion. AS decreased the paw volume in carageenan treated rats. As shows moderate central and peripheral analgesic activities in hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method in mice.

  13. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO. PMID:20645831

  14. Effect of intratumoral application of methotrexate in vivo on frequency of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes

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    Novakovi? Tanja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methotrexate is a cytostatic drug belonging to the group of antimetabolites; it is an antagonist of folic acid with an intensive application in gynecology practice. METHODS: The frequency of micronuclei (MN in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 30 patients with myoma uteri was analyzed before and after intratumoral application of methotrexate (MTX in total dose from 50 to 115 mg. Analysis of micronuclei was performed by the application of cytokinesis-block technique (CB. RESULTS: Average frequency of MN in lymphocytes of patients before the therapy was 4.6±0.4 MN/1000 analyzed cells. After the completion of therapy with six separate doses during six consecutive menstrual average frequency of MN increased 1.5 times (7.0±0.6 in comparison to control frequency before the therapy. Statistically significant difference (p<0.001 was established by the Student t test. CONCLUSION: Methotrexate intratumoral treatment of the myoma uteri significantly increased micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  15. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF GABAPENTIN A CONVENTIONAL ANTICONVULSANT WITH CONVENTIONAL ANALGESIC TREMADOL IN VISCERAL PAIN MODEL OF RODENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kansal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabmazepine is an established drug for trigeminal neuralgia while gabapentin has been tried in postoperative pain but its effectiveness in visceral pain and when compared to conventional analgesics needs to be evaluated.The present study was planned to study the analgesic effects of gabapentin in animal pain model of visceral nociception like writhing test and to compare it with conventional analgesic tremadol. This study has been carried out for evaluation of role of gabapentin in visceral nociception in mice . In the writhing test, a significant reduction in number of writhes have been observed in pretreated groups of mice reflects antinociceptive efficacy of gabapentin in acetic acid induced visceral nociception

  16. Management of cancer pain: 1. Wider implications of orthodox analgesics

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    Lee SK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Susannah K Lee,1 Jill Dawson,2 Jack A Lee,3 Gizem Osman,4 Maria O Levitin,5 Refika Mine Guzel,5 Mustafa BA Djamgoz5,61Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA; 2Healthcare Communications Consultancy, Danville, CA, USA; 3College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; 5Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Neuroscience Solutions to Cancer Research Group, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK; 6Cyprus International University, Biotechnology Research Centre, Haspolat, North Cyprus, Mersin, TurkeyAbstract: In this review, the first of two parts, we first provide an overview of the orthodox analgesics used commonly against cancer pain. Then, we examine in more detail the emerging evidence for the potential impact of analgesic use on cancer risk and disease progression. Increasing findings suggest that long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly aspirin, may reduce cancer occurrence. However, acetaminophen may raise the risk of some hematological malignancies. Drugs acting upon receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and GABA “mimetics” (eg, gabapentin appear generally safe for cancer patients, but there is some evidence of potential carcinogenicity. Some barbiturates appear to slightly raise cancer risks and can affect cancer cell behavior in vitro. For cannabis, studies suggest an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, larynx, and possibly lung. Morphine may stimulate human microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis; it is not clear whether this might cause harm or produce benefit. The opioid, fentanyl, may promote growth in some tumor cell lines. Opium itself is an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and possibly cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung. It is concluded that analgesics currently prescribed for cancer pain can significantly affect the cancer process itself. More futuristically, several ion channels are being targeted with novel analgesics, but many of these are also involved in primary and/or secondary tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to elucidate possible cellular and molecular effects of orthodox analgesics and their possible long-term impact, both positive and negative, and thus enable the best possible clinical gain for cancer patients.Keywords: NSAIDs, cannabinoids, opioids, GABA-ergic drugs, GABA mimetics, ion channels

  17. Effect of mixed ?-plus neutron-radiation on permeability to taurine of peripheral blood leukocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of permeability to taurine of cellular membranes of peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro under normal conditions and 24 k following mixed ?-plus neutron-irradiation in a dose of 3.5 Gy. It was established that radiation increases the taurine content of cells. The protein content of leukocytes also increases probably due to a better sorption of serum proteins of blood

  18. Effects of a transmitted light device for pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki S; Tomita S; Watanabe M.; Kawaai H; Shimamura K

    2011-01-01

    Shinya Yamazaki1, Shu Tomita1, Masahiro Watanabe1, Hiroyoshi Kawaai1, Kazuhiro Shimamura2 1Department of Dental Anesthesiology; 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Ohu University Dental Hospital, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Abstract: Pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are difficult. However, successful venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are absolutely required for pediatric clinical risk management. This study assessed the success rate of venipu...

  19. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Bart

    2010-01-01

    Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB) has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC), and cord blood (CB) are compared as rega...

  20. Effect of intratumoral application of methotrexate in vivo on frequency of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Novakovi? Tanja; Miloševi?-?or?evi? Olivera M.; Gruji?i? Darko V.; Marinkovi? Dragoslav M.; Jankovi? Slobodan; Arsenijevi? Slobodan N.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methotrexate is a cytostatic drug belonging to the group of antimetabolites; it is an antagonist of folic acid with an intensive application in gynecology practice. METHODS: The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 30 patients with myoma uteri was analyzed before and after intratumoral application of methotrexate (MTX) in total dose from 50 to 115 mg. Analysis of micronuclei was performed by the application of cytokinesis-block technique (CB). RESULTS: ...

  1. Peripheral Blood RNA Expression Profiling in Illicit Methcathinone Users Reveals Effect on Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Sikk, Katrin; Kõks, Sulev; Soomets, Ursel; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Fernandes, Cathy; Haldre, Sulev; Aquilonius, Sten-Magnus; Taba, Pille

    2011-01-01

    Methcathinone (ephedrone) is relatively easily accessible for abuse. Its users develop an extrapyramidal syndrome and it is not known if this is caused by methcathinone itself, by side-ingredients (manganese), or both. In the present study we aimed to clarify molecular mechanisms underlying this condition. We used microarrays to analyze whole-genome gene expression patterns of peripheral blood from 20 methcathinone users and 20 matched controls. Gene expression profile data were analyzed by B...

  2. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC), and cord blood (CB) are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis ...

  3. The effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Prangos ferulacea on formalin-induced pain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Prangos ferulacea has been used for GI disorders in traditional medicine. It has been known as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory herb among the communities. However, the analgesic effect of this plant has not been scientifically evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of Prangos ferulacea in mice.Material and Methods:30 minutes after intraperitoneal administration of different doses of aqueous or methanolic extracts of Prangos ferulacea, its analgesic effect was evaluated in mice using formalin test. The durations of paw licking and biting were recorded at 5 min. intervals for 30 min. after injection of formalin.Results:The aqueous extract at the dose of 100mg/kg reduced pain at phase 2 and at doses of 300, 900 and 1350 mg/kg it reduced pain at phases 1 and 2 of formalin test. The methanolic extract reduced pain at the dose of 200mg/kg at phase 2, and at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg at phases 1 and 2 of formalin test. Conclusion:The results of this study showed that the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Prangos ferulacea have analgesic properties. Both extracts contain compounds which exert both peripheral and central analgesia. Future studies are needed to isolate the effective compound and to find the analgesic mechanism of this plant.

  4. The association between anticholinergic load and cognitive performance, elevated blood pressure and the presence of peripheral anticholinergic side effects.

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    Jeff Hughes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:To quantify the association between anticholinergic drug use (burden or load and cognitive function (MMSE, bloodpressure and the presence of anticholinergic side effects.METHODS:The medical records of 182 aged care home residents in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia werereviewed retrospectively to obtain demographic data, past and current medical problems, history of use of agentswith anticholinergic effects and the following medication-related problems: cognitive impairment (as determined byMini Mental State Examination {MMSE} score, blood pressure elevation and the presence of anticholinergic sideeffects. Anticholinergic load was calculated, and the relationship between the anticholinergic load and the presenceof anticholinergic side effects was assessed using stepwise multiple regression and multiple logistic regressionanalysis.RESULTS:Increasing anticholinergic load was associated with the presence of peripheral anticholinergic side effects includinghypertension (AOR=1.53, dry mouth (AOR=1.38, dry eyes (AOR=1.30, constipation (AOR=1.24 and urinaryhesitancy (AOR=1.21 (all p values ?0.05. The anticholinergic load was not associated with blurred vision (p=0.084and Mini Mental State Examination score decline (p=0.142.CONCLUSIONS:The anticholinergic load was associated with statistically significantly increased risk of peripheral anticholinergicadverse effects in older aged care residents, however not with cognitive decline.

  5. Thermal and mechanical antinociceptive action of spinal vs peripherally administered clonidine in the rat inflamed knee joint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkle, H; Schäpsmeier, M; Bantel, C; Marcus, M A; Wüsten, R; Van Aken, H

    1999-09-01

    It has been demonstrated recently that in addition to its spinal analgesic actions, the alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine also has peripheral analgesic activity. Few data are available regarding the antinociceptive effects of spinal vs peripherally delivered clonidine in inflammatory pain. Thus we have studied spinal (intrathecal = i.t.) and peripheral (intra-articular = i.a.) administration of clonidine in the rat inflamed knee joint model. Thermal and mechanical antinociception was assessed in rats over 28 h using a modified Hargreaves box and von Frey hairs after induction of tonic persistent inflammatory pain by injection of a kaolin-carrageenan mixture into the right knee joint. Thirty minutes after injection of kaolin-carrageenan, clonidine was administered via an i.t. catheter or by i.a. injection into the right inflamed knee joint or by subcutaneous injection (s.c.) (highest effective intra-articular dose). The specific site of action was assessed using the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine i.t., i.a. or s.c. Clonidine i.t. resulted in thermal and mechanical antinociception during ongoing inflammation, which was not enhanced by inflammation. In contrast, i.a. delivery of clonidine, which also produced a dose-dependent thermal and mechanical antinociceptive effect, revealed a leftward shift in the antinociceptive activity produced by ongoing inflammation. Yohimbine inhibited the antinociceptive action of clonidine at the site of delivery. We suggest that clonidine produces potent thermal and mechanical antinociception regardless of the route of administration. However, chronic inflammatory processing appears to enhance the antinociceptive efficacy of the peripheral alpha 2 agonist. PMID:10655915

  6. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Derry, CJ; Derry, S.; Moore, RA

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine has been added to common analgesics such as paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin, in the belief that it enhances analgesic efficacy. Evidence to support this belief is limited and often based on invalid comparisons. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative efficacy in acute pain of a single dose of any analgesic plus caffeine against the same dose of analgesic alone. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to January 2012, and al...

  7. THE IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS (PBMCS OF ALLERGIC PATIENTS

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    Somaya M. El Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases represent major health burden. An allergic reaction is characterized by a disrupted T- helper 1?T-helper 2 balance toward a preferential allergen specifically induced TH2 cytokine profile, causing allergic inflammation Probiotic bacteria have various benificial effects in many pathologic situation. Studies have shown that the bacteria present in the intestinal micro flora play a role in the TH1/TH2 balance and its modulation can promote the control of infectious and immune processes. Testing the effects of probiotic bacteria on TH1/TH2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic patients and control subjects. This study included 24 patients allergic to date pollen and 16 healthy control subjects. PBMC of both groups were separated and cultured for 72 h with date pollen allergen (home-made in the presence or absence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 (Living and dead and C- phycocyanin (extracted from Spirulina platensis. The cell culture supernatants were collected to measure Interlukin 4 and Interferon gamma by quantitative ELISA. Incubation of PBMCs of allergic patients with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 showed marked reduction in IL4 production (median IL4 concentarion = 3.9 pg. compared to PBMCs callenged with pollen alone (mediam IL4 conentration = 52.6 pg. When PBMC were incubated with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus in absence of allergen significant increase in and IFN? (median concentration = 42.75 pg. was obtained, compared to PBMC challenged with allergen alone (median = 22.8 pg. When PBMCs incubated with heat killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus either in presence or absence of the offending allergen, marked reduction in IL4 production was obtained (median = 10.6, 3.6 pg respectively compared to PBMC incubated with allergen alone (median = 52.6 pg. When PBMCs incubated with dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus, marked increase in IFN? production was obtained (median = 49 pg when compared to IFN? production by PBMC challenged with allergen (median 22.8 pg. PBMCs challenged with PC in the presence or absence of allergen showed marked decrease of IL4 production (median = 19.8, 17 pg respectively when compared to PBMC incubated with the offending allergen alone (median = 52.6 pg. PBMCs incubated with PC showed significant increase of and IFN? production (median= 319.6 pg when compared to PBMC incubated with the offending allergen alone (median = 22.8 pg. Conclusion: Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and C-phycocyanin (extracted from Spirulina platensis inversed the TH1: TH2 polarization in allergic patients and could be a promissing line of treatment.

  8. The in vitro effect of a calf thymus extract on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with warts.

    OpenAIRE

    MEREGALLI, Massimo; BERNENGO, Maria Grazia

    1980-01-01

    T and B lymphocyte populations were evaluated in forty-one patients with multiple recurring warts. Active rosettes (T-Ea) and total T lymphocytes (T-Et) were significantly decreased. The in vitro effect of a calf thymus extract (TP-I) on peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated in thirty-three patients. A statistically significant increase in E-rosette forming cells was observed in twenty-three patients (69%). Serum blocking factors were not found in the patients with a positive response to...

  9. Effects of a Traditional Japanese Medicine Goshajinkigan, Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto on the Warm and Cold Sense Threshold and Peripheral Blood Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Tsukada; Takuji Yamaguchi; Liu Hang; Masako Iseki; Hiroyuki Kobayashi; Eiichi Inada

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a traditional Japanese medicine Goshajinkigan (TJ-107) and Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TJ-38) on warm sense threshold, cold sense threshold and the peripheral blood flow. 31 healthy volunteers (control group: 9people, TJ-107 group: 12 people, TJ-38group:10 people) were examined. Drugs administered 2.5 g a dose. Analysis was before and after 1 hour dosage. The warm and cold sense threshold in the thenar of the non-handedness site o...

  10. Analgesic properties of Epilobium angustifolium, evaluated by the hot plate test and the writhing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tita, B; Abdel-Haq, H; Vitalone, A; Mazzanti, G; Saso, L

    2001-01-01

    The analgesic properties of Epilobium angustifolium (Ea), a plant containing flavonoids with anti-inflammatory activity, have not been sufficiently studied so far. Thus, we decided to evaluate, by the classical hot plate test and the writhing test, the analgesic effect of a dry extract of Ea obtained by evaporating a commercially available mother tincture. In the former assay, the effect of Ea (380 mg/kg) was slightly lower than that of morphine (10 mg/kg s.c.). In the writhing test, which is more sensitive for non-steroidal analgesics, the effect of Ea was already significant (P or = 190 mg/kg, its activity was similar to that of lysine acetylsalicylate (300 mg/kg). The LD50 of this dry extract of Ea was 1.4+/-0.1 g/kg. Further studies are necessary for the identification of the active principles and the elucidation of their mechanism of action. PMID:11482754

  11. Effects of a transmitted light device for pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Shinya Yamazaki1, Shu Tomita1, Masahiro Watanabe1, Hiroyoshi Kawaai1, Kazuhiro Shimamura2 1Department of Dental Anesthesiology; 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Ohu University Dental Hospital, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Abstract: Pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are difficult. However, successful venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are absolutely required for pediatric clinical risk management. This study assessed the success rate of venipuncture and intravenous cannulation when transmitted light was applied to the pediatric dorsum manus. The subjects included 100 young children who were scheduled for dental treatment or oral surgery under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced, and insertion of an intravenous catheter into the dorsum manus was attempted with or without using transmitted light. The patients were evaluated to determine whether the venipuncture was successful, and whether the intravenous cannulation of the external catheter was successful. The success rate of venipuncture was 100% when transmitted light was used, and 83% when the transmitted light was not used (P = 0.000016. In addition, the success rate of intravenous cannulation was 88% when transmitted light was used, and 55% when the transmitted light was not used (P = 0.0000002. The shape of the vein in the dorsum manus can be clearly recognized when transmitted light is used. The use of light significantly increased the success rate of intravenous cannulation, because it allowed direct confirmation of the direction to push the intravenous catheter forward. The use of transmitted light allows for more successful venipuncture and intravenous cannulation in young children. Keywords: transmitted light, pediatric peripheral venipuncture, pediatric peripheral intravenous cannulation

  12. Graft-versus-lymphoma effect after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, G; Or, R; Kapelushnik, J; Naparstek, E; Nagler, A; Brautbar, C; Amar, A; Kirschbaum, M; Samuel, S; Slavin, S; Siegal, T

    1999-06-01

    Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo PBSCT) is a recognized treatment modality for hematological malignancies resistant to conventional chemoradiotherapy. The post-transplant immune-mediated graft-versus-leukemia effect has major curative potential. In this case presentation, the allogeneic approach to resistant recurrent primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma using peripheral blood stem cells from an HLA identical sibling after immuno-suppressive non-myeloablative conditioning, was examined clinically. The patient in question had relapsing refractory primary CNS lymphoma and is the first to be treated with this modality. She developed early skin and liver-localized grade II graft-versus-host disease after allo PBSCT, which then responded to short-term treatment. Chimeric studies at the time showed 100% donor cells and repeated magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed gradual shrinkage of the tumor. Three months after transplant the cerebral mass was no longer evident and currently, 30 months after transplantation, the patient continues to be disease free. The absence of any signs of malignancy suggests the development of a durable graft-versus-lymphoma effect in this brain tumor and indicates that this effect may be achieved even after non-myeloablative conditioning. PMID:10350348

  13. In vitro effects of 1,8 MeV neutrons on human peripheral lymphocyte chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human peripheral lymphocyte cultures were exposed in vitro to 1,8 MeV neutrons. Dose-response curves are presented for various types structural chromosome anomalies and compared to relevant X-ray data. For one-break aberrations, a linear dose relationship and an RBE value of 5 were observed, while two-break aberrations (dicentrics and rings) showed a non-linear relationship and an RBE of 2,5 - 3. With neutron doses of intermediate level (50-100 rad), chromosome aberrations revealed no Poisson distribution pattern between cells. (author)

  14. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreedhara C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy?s hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP at the dose level of 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg. Results: The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P < 0.001. The maximum analgesic effect was observed at 120 min at the dose of 100mg/kg (i.p. and was comparable to that of standard analgin (150mg/kg and the percentage of edema inhibition effect was 46.4% and 77% for 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg (i.p respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (5mg/kg. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract.

  15. Antigen-specific demyelination and significance of the bystander effect in peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, H. C.; Braheny, S. L.; Hughes, R. A.; Lampert, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    In an experiment designed to evaluate bystander demyelination in peripheral nerve, immune reactions to tuberculin and albumin failed to induce demyelination, except in animals previously sensitized to a myelin component. The peripheral nerves of tuberculin-sensitized rats and guinea pigs and rabbits were examined at intervals from 8 to 144 hours after intraneural challenge with purified protein derivative (PPD). The results were compared with the immune reaction produced by endoneurial injection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in rats sensitized to BSA in Freund's complete antigen (FCA). Tuberculin-sensitized rats responded to endoneurial PPD injection by developing perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates which were most severe 5 days after injection. Albumin-sensitized rats responded within hours of BSA injection, showing severe endoneurial edema due to vasculitis with extravasation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, red cells, and fibrin. The reaction tapered off within 2 days. No significant demyelination occurred in either group. However, demyelination was elicited when the hapten galactocerebroside (GC) was included in the sensitizing inoculum. Schwann-cell necrosis was visible 2 days after endoneurial challenge injection, and demyelination became extensive 5 days after injection. The findings were compared with those after direct injection of anti-GC-antibody, which produced demyelination by lysis of Schwann cells. In rabbits the occurrence of demyelination correlated with the presence of circulating antibodies to GC. Images Figure 1-4 Figure 5-7 Figure 8-11 Figure 12 Figure 13-16 PMID:6198922

  16. Antigen-specific demyelination and significance of the bystander effect in peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, H C; Braheny, S L; Hughes, R A; Lampert, P W

    1984-03-01

    In an experiment designed to evaluate bystander demyelination in peripheral nerve, immune reactions to tuberculin and albumin failed to induce demyelination, except in animals previously sensitized to a myelin component. The peripheral nerves of tuberculin-sensitized rats and guinea pigs and rabbits were examined at intervals from 8 to 144 hours after intraneural challenge with purified protein derivative (PPD). The results were compared with the immune reaction produced by endoneurial injection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in rats sensitized to BSA in Freund's complete antigen (FCA). Tuberculin-sensitized rats responded to endoneurial PPD injection by developing perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates which were most severe 5 days after injection. Albumin-sensitized rats responded within hours of BSA injection, showing severe endoneurial edema due to vasculitis with extravasation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, red cells, and fibrin. The reaction tapered off within 2 days. No significant demyelination occurred in either group. However, demyelination was elicited when the hapten galactocerebroside (GC) was included in the sensitizing inoculum. Schwann-cell necrosis was visible 2 days after endoneurial challenge injection, and demyelination became extensive 5 days after injection. The findings were compared with those after direct injection of anti-GC-antibody, which produced demyelination by lysis of Schwann cells. In rabbits the occurrence of demyelination correlated with the presence of circulating antibodies to GC. PMID:6198922

  17. Acute effects of exercise on muscle MRI in peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, H; Anno, I; Kuramoto, K; Matsumoto, K; Jikuya, T; Itai, Y

    1995-01-01

    The midcalf muscles of eight patients who had peripheral arterial occlusive disease were evaluated by exercise MRI before and after bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. MRI showed a high intensity of these muscles, especially the posterior muscles, after exercise in all patients before intervention. The mean T2 relaxation time was maximal immediately after exercise (tibialis anterior, T2 = 30.8 ms; soleus, T2 = 36.2 ms; gastrocnemius, T2 = 32.8 ms) and then gradually decreased to the preexercise level. The difference in the T2 relaxation time of the soleus between immediately after exercise and at rest was smaller along with improvement of ankle pressure indices (API) after successful intervention (mean T2 difference: 4.91 and 0.72 ms (p API: 0.54 and 0.86 (p resting midcalf T2 relaxation time was significantly higher after intervention (tibialis anterior, T2 = 28.4 and 29.5 ms (p < .05); soleus, T2 = 31.4 and 32.9 ms (p < .05); gastrocnemius, T2 = 29.5 and 31.1 ms (p < .01) before and after intervention, respectively). T2 relaxation time may be a useful quantitative parameter in peripheral arterial occlusive disease as well as in other muscle studies. PMID:8569440

  18. Effects of peripheral and nonperipheral substitution to the spectroscopic, electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of metallophthalocyanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The syntheses, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of metallo-phthalocyanine complexes, tetra- and octa-substituted with 3,4-(dimethoxyphenylthio) moieties at non-peripheral and peripheral positions were studied. These complexes were characterized by FT-IR, mass spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. 3,4-(Dimethoxyphenylthio) moieties increase the solubility of the complexes in various polar and nonpolar organic solvents and prevent the aggregation (in the same solvents) within a wide concentration range. Electronic absorption spectroscopy revealed that the presence of electron donating sulphur on synthesized complexes shift the Q-band of the complexes to the higher wavelengths. Redox active metal centers, CoII, FeII and MnIIIOAc into the phthalocyanine core extend the redox worthy of the complexes due to the reversible metal-based reduction and oxidation couples of the metal centers. In situ electrocolorimetric measurements of the complexes allow quantification of color coordinates of each electrogenerated anionic and cationic redox species. Electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical analysis indicate that cobalt and manganese phthalocyanines catalyze the molecular oxygen in aprotic media

  19. Full Inhibition of Spinal FAAH Leads to TRPV1-Mediated Analgesic Effects in Neuropathic Rats and Possible Lipoxygenase-Mediated Remodeling of Anandamide Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodyni...

  20. The Inhibition of Spinal Astrocytic JAK2-STAT3 Pathway Activation Correlates with the Analgesic Effects of Triptolide in the Rat Neuropathic Pain Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Tang; Zhi-Hong Li; Shun-Nan Ge; Wei Wang,; Xiao-Peng Mei; Wen Wang,; Ting Zhang; Li-Xian Xu; Jin-Lian Li

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is an intractable clinical problem without satisfactory treatments. However, certain natural products have been revealed as effective therapeutic agents for the management of pain states. In this study, we used the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) pain model to investigate the antinociceptive effect of triptolide (T10), a major active component of the traditional Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. Intrathecal T10 inhibited the mechanical nociceptive response induced ...

  1. Spinal central effects of peripherally applied botulinum neurotoxin A in comparison between its subtypes A1 and A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SatoshiGoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique ability to exert long-lasting synaptic transmission blockade, botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A is used to treat a wide variety of disorders involving peripheral nerve terminal hyperexcitability. However, it has been a matter of debate whether this toxin has central or peripheral sites of action. We employed a rat model in which BoNT/A1 or BoNT/A2 was unilaterally injected into the gastrocnemius muscle. On time-course measurements of compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitudes after injection of BoNT/A1 or BoNT/A2 at doses ranging from 1.7 U to 13.6 U, CMAP amplitude for the ipsilateral hind leg was markedly decreased on the 1st day, and this muscle flaccidity persisted up to the 14th day. Of note, both BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2 administrations also resulted in decreased CMAP amplitudes for the contralateral leg in a dose-dependent manner ranging from 1.7 to 13.6 U, and this muscle flaccidity increased until the 4th day and then slowly recovered. Immunohistochemical results revealed that BoNT/A-cleaved SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa appeared in the bilateral ventral and dorsal horns 4 days after injection of BoNT/A1 (10 U or BoNT/A2 (10 U, although there seemed to be a wider spread of BoNT/A-cleaved SNAP-25 associated with BoNT/A1 than BoNT/A2 in the contralateral spinal cord. This suggests that the catalytically active BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2 were axonally transported via peripheral motor and sensory nerves to the spinal cord, where they spread through a transcytosis (cell-to-cell trafficking mechanism. Our results provide evidence for the central effects of intramuscularly administered BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2 in the spinal cord, and a new insight into the clinical effects of peripheral BoNT/A applications.

  2. Tratamiento epidural del dolor en la isquemia vascular periférica (I Treatment of epidural pain in peripheral vascular ischemia (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Orduña González

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La isquemia arterial periférica puede ser el resultado de diversas enfermedades que afectan la vascularización de los miembros, generando dolor, discapacidad y deterioro de la calidad de vida del paciente, y en los casos de isquemia crítica produciendo una considerable morbimortalidad y dolor crónico. El objetivo ha sido realizar una revisión histórica de publicaciones científicas acerca de los distintos tipos de isquemia periférica, del dolor derivado, de su tratamiento analgésico por vía epidural y de las peculiaridades que hay que tener en cuenta en dicha patología. Se ha realizado una búsqueda en MEDLINE y se han recopilado los principales datos respecto a la evolución y las principales líneas de investigación científicas publicadas en las áreas de la analgesia epidural y el dolor en el contexto de la isquemia arterial periférica. Desde su introducción terapéutica en la isquemia periférica, la analgesia con perfusión de fármacos epidurales ha constituido un método eficaz analgésico, que en el caso de los anestésicos locales, además, aporta efectos hemorreológicos positivos a través de un bloqueo simpático. La neuroestimulación eléctrica epidural (NEE medular es una modalidad analgésica crónica con indicaciones específicas dentro de la isquemia periférica, con potencial efecto trófico y capacidad de preservación de miembros, incluso en isquemia crítica aterooclusiva. El efecto, tanto analgésico como trófico de las distintas modalidades analgésicas epidurales, varía según sus características técnicas y según los distintos tipos de isquemia periférica. Se deben tener en cuenta las limitaciones y riesgos del tratamiento analgésico epidural en la isquemia de miembros. Se necesitan estudios científicos que evalúen la eficiencia y la efectividad de la NEE en la isquemia periférica de naturaleza no aterooclusiva, así como la investigación de parámetros clínicos vasculares que puedan actuar como predictores de preservación de miembros con isquemia crítica en el período de prueba de la NEE.Peripheral arterial ischemia can result from various diseases that compromise limb vascularization, leading to pain, disability, and reduced quality of life; critical limb ischemia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality and chronic pain. The present article aims to provide a historical review of the scientific literature on the distinct types of peripheral ischemia, pain due to this disease, epidural analgesic treatment, and the particular features that should be taken into account in this disease. A MEDLINE search was performed and the main data on the evolution and main lines of research in epidural analgesia and pain in peripheral arterial ischemia were gathered. Since its introduction in peripheral ischemia, epidural infusion has been an effective analgesic method, which in the case of local anesthetics also provides positive hemorheological effects through sympathetic block. Epidural spinal cord stimulation is used to treat chronic pain and has specific indications in peripheral ischemia, with a potential trophic effect and limb salvage capacity even in critical limb ischemia due to atherosclerotic occlusive disease. Indeed, both the analgesic and trophic effects of the various epidural analgesic modalities vary according to their technical characteristics and the distinct types of peripheral ischemia. The limitations and risks of epidural analgesia in limb ischemia should be taken into account. Scientific studies evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of epidural spinal cord stimulation in non-atherosclerotic occlusive peripheral ischemia, as well as research into the clinical vascular parameters that can act as predictors of limb preservation in critical limb ischemia during the test phase of spinal cord stimulation are required.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Cam-Etoz; N., Isbil-Buyukcoskun; K., Ozluk.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) [...] receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ?HR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V1 receptor antagonist [?-mercapto-?-?-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ?HR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [?-mercapto-?-?-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  5. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L. STEM BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashraf Ali et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p. and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o. were used as reference drugs for comparison. The extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic (hyperglycaemic and glucose induced hyperglycemic (normo-hyperglycaemic rats orally at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The glucose tolerance results showed significant (p<0.05 improved at the dose 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (b. wt. of ethanolic extract respectively. On the Other hand, the analgesic activity of extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg dose level were produced 45% and 62% writhing inhibitory response but diclofenac was observed 82% of that when compared to control group. The plant's extract produced dose-dependent, significant (P<0.05 analgesic effects against chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins etc. were present in the plant which has antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties. However a glucose tolerance hypoglycemic test is comparable to diabetic control group and effect is a dose dependent. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Cassia fistula stem-bark ethanolic extract possesses analgesic and antihyperglycemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment and/or management of painful, inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF SAMANEA SAMAN MERR., AND PROSOPIS CINERARIA DRUCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed Muzammil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study was designed to explore the analgesic effects of methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., using tail immersion test. The painful reactions in mice were produced by thermal stimuli through dipping the tail tips of mice into hot water. Methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., were administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 100mg /kg body weight. Pethidine 50mg/Kg intraperitoneally was used as standard analgesic drug. The tail flick latency delay was measured at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 hour after the intraperitoneal administration. Both extracts produce analgesic effects when compare with pethidine.

  7. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on peripheral nerve regeneration: experimental work on the ulnar nerve of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saceda, Javier; Isla, Alberto; Santiago, Susana; Morales, Carmen; Odene, Cristina; Hernández, Borja; Deniz, Kenan

    2011-10-24

    Neurotrophic factors may be used to improve the growth and repair of injured peripheral nerves. In this study we determined the effectiveness of recombinant human growth hormone on peripheral nerve injury in the Wistar rat. The ulnar nerve of the rat was sectioned and its proximal and distal ends were sutured to either end of a silastic tube, with the aim of encouraging regeneration through the tube. 32 ulnar nerve specimens were randomized into two groups: 18 nerves regenerating under the influence of recombinant growth hormone, and 14 nerves regenerating in its absence. The study was performed over a period of 8 weeks and progression of regeneration was assessed with regular surface electroneurography every 1-2 weeks after surgery. In the group receiving recombinant growth hormone, it comprised a significant improvement in the recovery of conduction velocity, and a more gradual increase in the amplitude of motor potential from the fifth week onwards was observed. Histological analysis of study specimens in the recombinant hormone group revealed an improved architecture of the regenerating nerve, a greater density of nerve fibers, and increased myelination with a lesser degree of endoneural fibrosis. Our work demonstrates the positive effect of the administration of recombinant human growth hormone in obtaining significantly improved conduction velocities, and a greater improvement in nerve regeneration from the fifth week of monitoring when compared to the control group. Histological analysis in the group receiving hormone showed acceptable degree of myelination with little granulation tissue and fibrosis. PMID:21945950

  8. Cytogenic effect in vitro of the combined treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with uropoline and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytogenetic effect of the contrast material uropoline plus X-rays is assayed by analysis of chromosome aberration in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. The blood undergoes treatment in one of the three ways: 1) uropoline alone at concentration 1.3 and 5%; 2) irradiation with X-rays at dose 0.2 or 2 Gy; 3) X-ray irradiation in the presence of uropoline. Given alone, uropoline does not give rise to chromosomal damage. Its presence during irradiation raises the level of cells with aberration as much as twice compared to the independent effect of irradiation. Uropoline provokes radiation-induced chromosomal damage, and its effect depends on the concentration used. 2 tabs., 2 figs., 8 refs. (orig.)

  9. Effects of intraneural and perineural injection and concentration of Ropivacaine on nerve injury during peripheral nerve block in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Hasanbegovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injury during peripheral nerve blocks is relatively uncommon, but potentially devastating complication. Recent studies emphasized that location of needle insertion in relationship to the fascicles may be the predominant factor that determines the risk for neurologic complications. However, it is wellestablished that concentration of local anesthetic is also associated with the risk for injury. In this study, we examined the effect of location of injection and concentration of Ropivacaine on risk for neurologic complications. Our hypothesis is that location of the injection is more prognostic for occurrence of nerve injury than the concentration of Ropivacaine.Methods: In experimental design of the study fi fty Wistar rats were used and sciatic nerves were randomized to receive: Ropivacaine or 0.9% NaCl, either intraneurally or perineurally. Pressure data during application was acquired by using a manometer and was analyzed using software package BioBench. Neurologic examination was performed thought the following seven days, there after the rats were sacrificed while sciatic nerves were extracted for histological examination.Results: Independently of tested solution intraneural injections in most of cases resulted with high injection pressure, followed by obvious neurologic defi cit and microscopic destruction of peripheral nerves. Also, low injection pressure, applied either in perineural or intraneural extrafascicular area, resulted with transitory neurologic defi cit and without destruction of the nerve normal histological structure.Conclusions: The main mechanism which leads to neurologic injury combined with peripheral nerve blockade is intrafascicular injection. Higher concentrations of Ropivacaine during intrafascicular applications magnify nerve injury.

  10. Analgesia e ação antiinflamatória da Arnica montana 12CH comparativamente ao cetoprofeno em cães / Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Arnica montana 12CH in comparison with ketoprofen in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Navarro, Cassu; Carlos Meirelles, Collares; Beatriz Porto, Alegre; Rosângela Cristóvão, Ferreira; Helaine, Stevanin; Camila Ângela, Bernardi.

    1784-17-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório da Arnica montana 12CH comparativamente ao cetoprofeno em cadelas submetidas à ovariossalpingohisterectomia (OSH). Foram avaliadas 16 cadelas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de oito animais cada, tratados por via oral com 1mg [...] kg-1 de cetoprofeno (TC) e com cinco glóbulos de Arnica montana 12CH (TA). Decorridos 60 minutos, os animais foram tranquilizados com acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1, IV), seguindo-se indução e manutenção anestésica com propofol (5mg kg-1, IV) e isofluorano, respectivamente. Foram mensurados: frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, pressão arterial sistólica, concentração final expirada de dióxido de carbono, concentração final expirada de isofluorano, variáveis hemogasométricas, concentração sérica de cortisol, grau de analgesia e de inflamação. Em casos de analgesia insuficiente, foi realizada suplementação com morfina (0,5mg kg-1, IM). A estatística foi realizada com ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Arnica montana 12CH comparatively to ketoprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Sixteen female dogs were randomly distributed in two groups of eight animals and received 1mg kg-1 of ketoprofen (TC) and 5 globules of A [...] rnica montana 12CH (TA) by oral route. After 60 minutes, the dogs were sedated with acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1, IV), followed by anesthetic induction with propofol (5mg kg-1 IV) and maintained with isoflurane. Heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, arterial blood gases, serum cortisol concentration and degree of analgesia and inflammation were measured. Additional morphine (0.5mg kg-1IM) was given when the analgesia was insufficient. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (P

  11. Modeling nociception in zebrafish: a way forward for unbiased analgesic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, Andrew; Rosser, Micaela; Goh, Shamii; Keown, Bailey; Wagner, Erinn; Sharifi, Jasmine; Raible, David W; Dhaka, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic pain conditions are often debilitating, inflicting severe physiological, emotional and economic costs and affect a large percentage of the global population. However, the development of therapeutic analgesic agents based primarily on targeted drug development has been largely ineffective. An alternative approach to analgesic development would be to develop low cost, high throughput, untargeted animal based behavioral screens that model complex nociceptive behaviors in which to screen for analgesic compounds. Here we describe the development of a behavioral based assay in zebrafish larvae that is effective in identifying small molecule compounds with analgesic properties. In a place aversion assay, which likely utilizes supraspinal neuronal circuitry, individually arrayed zebrafish larvae show temperature-dependent aversion to increasing and decreasing temperatures deviating from rearing temperature. Modeling thermal hyperalgesia, the addition of the noxious inflammatory compound and TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate sensitized heat aversion and reversed cool aversion leading larvae to avoid rearing temperature in favor of otherwise acutely aversive cooler temperatures. We show that small molecules with known analgesic properties are able to inhibit acute and/or sensitized temperature aversion. PMID:25587718

  12. Poisoning deaths involving opioid analgesics - new york state, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J; Melnik, Thomas A

    2015-04-17

    Deaths involving opioid analgesics have increased dramatically in the United States. Approximately 4,000 such deaths were documented in 1999, increasing to 16,235 in 2013, reflecting a nearly quadrupled death rate from 1.4 to 5.1 deaths per 100,000. To investigate this increase in New York state, trends in poisoning deaths involving opioid analgesics from 2003 to 2012 were examined. Data sources used were New York state vital statistics multiple-cause-of-death data, consisting of data from both the New York City (NYC)* and non-NYC reporting jurisdictions, as well as statewide Medicaid enrollment data. Deaths involving opioid analgesics increased both in number and as a percentage of all drug poisoning deaths, and rates were highest among men, whites, persons aged 45-64 years, persons residing outside of NYC, and Medicaid enrollees. The analysis found that, in 2012, 70.7% of deaths involving opioid analgesics also involved at least one other drug, most frequently a benzodiazepine. These results underscore the potential to mitigate the trend of increasing opioid analgesic-related mortality through initiatives such as New York state's Internet System for Tracking Over-Prescribing (I-STOP) law,† which took effect on August 27, 2013. Provisions under I-STOP include the requirements that providers consult the Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) Registry when writing prescriptions for controlled substances, and that they use electronic prescribing. PMID:25879895

  13. [Screening of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in marines macroalgae from Mediterranean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatter Riahi, R; Tarhouni, S; Kharrat, R

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 13 seaweeds collected from the Mediterranean sea (Tunisian, Moroccan and Greek coasts) from different classes (Chlorophycae, Pheopbycae and Rhodophycae) are testedfor their analgesic and antiinflammatory effects. These activities were estimated in vivo, respectively by writhing test and carrageenan test. Nine species among 13 tested seaweeds showed an important analgesic activity. On the other hand only 5 seaweeds showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (< 0.001 compared to control group). The percentage of inhibition reached 80% for the red algae Laurencia glandulifera but was only 50% for aspirin. The screening showed different pharmacological profiles. The red algae (Laurencia glandulfera and Hypnea musciformis) and brown algae (Cystoseira barbata and Sargassum vulgare) had endowed with the double analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The red algae Geliduim sesquipedale have only anti-inflammatory activity and the other one endowed only with an analgesic activity (Enteromorpha compressa, Chaetomorpha linum, Cystoseira ericoidies, Sacchoriza bulbosa et Corralina officinalis). The simultaneous or individual presence of the analgesic and\\or anti-inflammatory activities of the various extracts can find its application in the therapeutic domain. PMID:23461139

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Hyperalgesic and Analgesic Effects of Two Benzodiazepines in Human Experimental Pain: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vuilleumier, Pascal; Besson, Marie; Desmeules, Jules Alexandre; Arendt-nielsen, Lars; Curatolo, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Compounds that act on GABA-receptors produce anti-hyperalgesia in animal models, but little is known on their effects in humans. The aim of this study was to explore the potential usefulness of GABA-agonism for the control of pain in humans. Two agonists at the benzodiazepine-binding site of GABAA-receptors (clobazam and clonazepam) were studied using multiple experimental pain tests. Positive results would support further investigation of GABA agonism for the control of clinical pain.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of oyaksungisan in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cerebral infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunha; So, Hong-Seob; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Channy; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Woo, Won-Hong; Cho, Kwang-Ho; Moon, Byung-Soon; Park, Raekil

    2007-06-01

    Oyaksungisan, the herbal prescription composed of eleven herbs, has been widely used in treatment of cerebral infarct in Oriental Medicine. However, the mechanisms by which the herbal formula affects on the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cerebral infarction patients remain unknown yet. The secretory levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly increased in both LPS and PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cerebral infarction patients. However, pretreatment with oyaksungisan significantly inhibited the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory in PBMCs. Also, oyaksungisan induced a significant increase of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in PBMCs. Thus, these data indicate that oyaksungisan may be beneficial in the cessation of inflammatory processes of cerebral infarct through suppression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10 and induction of TGF-beta1. PMID:17541150

  16. Analgesic effectiveness of the association of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and cryotherapy for chronic low back pain / Eficácia analgésica da associação da eletroestimulação nervosa transcutânea e crioterapia na lombalgia crônica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliziete Almeida de, Abreu; Jean Douglas Moura dos, Santos; Patrícia Lima, Ventura.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A eletroestimulação nervosa transcutânea (TENS) e a crioterapia são recursos fisioterapêuticos aplicados isoladamente, uma vez que existe a possibilidade de interação entre a TENS e a crioterapia caso sejam utilizadas associadas. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a efeti [...] vidade analgésica da associação TENS e crioterapia isoladas e associadas no alívio da lombalgia crônica. MÉTODO: Trata-se de ensaio clínico envolvendo 6 pacientes com dor lombar crônica, divididas em 3 grupos: crioterapia, TENS, e associação crioterapia e TENS. A técnica analgésica foi aplicada pelo tempo de 20 minutos, durante 5 dias, com 1 sessão por dia. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas à cinesioterapia convencional com alongamento de isquiostibiais, quadrado lombar e iliopsoas, com o objetivo de aumentar a aderência ao tratamento. A crioterapia foi feita com bolsa de gelo moído, e a modalidade de TENS foi a burst, com o aparelho Physiotonus TENS/FES 3050, da marca BIOSET, com trens de pulsos de 2 Hz, frequência individual de pulsos de 100 Hz e duração de pulso de 150 µs. A intensidade da dor foi avaliada pela escala analógica visual antes e após a realização de cada sessão. RESULTADOS: Quanto a intensidade da dor, no grupo crioterapia, as medianas dos escores iniciais e finais foram 5,5 e 4, respectivamente, e nos grupos TENS e TENS associado à crioterapia as medianas foram 5 e 3, respectivamente. Quanto ao grau de alívio, 100% referiram alívio bom no grupo TENS, e nos grupos crioterapia e TENS associado à crioterapia 50% referiram alívio bom e 50% alívio muito bom. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da terapia combinada não ter apresentado nenhuma melhora significativa em relação às modalidades de terapias isoladas, as três modalidades analgésicas utilizadas neste estudo foram eficazes em aliviar a dor lombar crônica das pacientes e nos grupos em que foi utilizado a crioterapia o grau de satisfação das pacientes foi maior do que as do grupo em que foi usada apenas a TENS. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are physical therapy resources individually used, since there is the possibility of interaction between TENS and cryotherapy if they are associated. This study aimed at evaluating the analgesic effectivenes [...] s of the association or not of TENS and cryotherapy to relieve chronic low back pain. METHOD: Clinical trial involving six chronic low back pain patients distributed in three groups: cryotherapy, TENS, and the association of both techniques. Analgesia was induced for 20 minutes during 5 days, with one session per day. All patients were submitted to conventional kinesiotherapy with ischiotibial, lumbar square and iliopsoas elongation, aiming at increasing adherence to treatment. Cryotherapy was applied with crushed ice bag and TENS was in burst with Physiotonus TENS/FES 3050 equipment of the BIOSET brand, with pulse trains of 2 Hz, individual pulse frequencies of 100 Hz and pulse duration of 150 µs. Pain intensity was evaluated by the visual analog scale before and after each session. RESULTS: With regard to pain intensity in the cryotherapy group, initial and final medians were 5.5 and 4, respectively. For the TENS and TENS associated to cryotherapy groups they were 5 and 3, respectively. With regard to pain relief, 100% have referred good relief in the TENS group; in cryotherapy and TENS associated to cryotherapy groups 50% have referred good relief and 50% very good relief. CONCLUSION: Although the combined therapy has caused no significant improvement as compared to isolated therapies the three analgesic modalities used in this study were effective to relieve chronic low back pain. Satisfaction was higher in the cryotherapy group as compared to the TENS group.

  17. Effect of cerium ions in an arc peripheral plasma on the growth of radial single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial single-walled carbon nanotubes (radial SWCNTs) are formed by using a direct current (dc) arc discharge when carbon and metal atoms are mixed in a gas phase after the vaporization and cooled together in a liquid droplet. Since SWCNTs sprout through the precipitation of saturated carbon atoms from liquid droplets during cooling, a mass synthesis of radial SWCNTs can be achieved when a large number of liquid droplets are generated. In order to understand the effects of arc peripheral plasma parameters (electrons, ions, radical atoms, and molecules) on the growth of radial SWCNTs, the optimum production efficiency of radial SWCNTs is investigated by superimposing a radio-frequency (rf) plasma on the thermal arc plasma and controlling the arc peripheral plasma density. Two parameters--the rf power and the dc potential--of the rf electrode, which is equipped above 20 mm from the center of an arc-discharge point, are changed with the constant He pressure (200 Torr), dc arc current (75 A), and power (2000 W). The production yield of radial SWCNTs is found to be enhanced under the condition of the rf power of 100 W and the dc component of the rf electrode voltage of -22 V, revealing that the optimum ion flux and ion bombardment energy are important key parameters for the formation of radial SWCNTs

  18. Valuation of the effectiveness of the nitrous oxide administration to the paediatric patient during channelling a peripheral venous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Margenta Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To valuate if the administration of nitrous oxide (Kalinox® during the technique of channelling a peripheral venous level decreases pain, improves the child´s behavior and facilitates the realization of the technique for the nurse. Experimental, randomized clinical trial. Population: children between 6-12 years old with an indication of peripheral venous channeling and medical approbation for administration of Kalinox to the Pediatric ICU unit of the Hospital in Toledo. Sample: 54 subjects in each group (alpha error of 0.05, with a study power of 90% and expecting a mean effect d/s = 0.5 for reducing pain in the experimental group. Main variables: the administration of nitrous oxide (independent variable and level of pain, motor behavior, degree of difficulty in performing the technique, and complications (dependent variables, besides, sociodemographic and clinical variables will be measured. It was used differents validated scales (Oucher, VAS y Frankl and one performed by us. Data will be analyze by SPSS software programme.

  19. Assessment of 3-nitropropionic acid-evoked peripheral neuropathy in rats: neuroprotective effects of acetyl-l-carnitine and resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binienda, Zbigniew K; Beaudoin, Micheal A; Gough, Bobby; Ali, Syed F; Virmani, Ashraf

    2010-08-16

    Oxidative stress and secondary excitotoxicity, due to cellular energy deficit, are major factors playing roles in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Acute or chronic exposure to 3-NPA also leads to neuronal degeneration in different brain regions. The present study quantitatively assessed peripheral neuropathy induced by chronic exposure to 3-NPA in rats. The neuroprotective abilities of two antioxidants, acetyl-l-carnitine and resveratrol, were investigated as well. Rats were exposed for up to four weeks to 3-NPA alone or 3-NPA combined with acetyl-l-carnitine or resveratrol, administered peripherally. The experimental outcome was evaluated by neurophysiological, histological, and morphometric analyses. Rats exposed to 3-NPA developed hind limb paresis. Furthermore, a significant decrease in motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) was detected in tail nerves and axonal degeneration in sciatic nerves (peffects of 3-NPA exposure, whereas treatment with acetyl-l-carnitine, preventing paresis, was not effective to MCV and morphological changes. These data suggest that resveratrol is a good candidate for treatment of metabolic neuropathy. The experimental outcome of this study shows that chronic treatment with 3-NPA in rats is relevant in development of an experimental model of toxic neuropathy. PMID:20542088

  20. Three Newly Approved Analgesics: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Saraghi, Mana; Hersh, Elliot V.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, three new analgesic entities, tapentadol immediate release (Nucynta) diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules (Zipsor), and bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (EXPAREL) were granted US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to treat acute pain. Tapentadol immediate-release is a both a mu-opioid agonist and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules are a novel formula...

  1. Investigating the Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Leaves of Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. In Standard Experimental Animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmugam Sureshkumar; Thangavel Sivakumar; Molla Joghee Nanjan Chandrasekar; Bhojraj Suresh

    2006-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Wedelia chinensis (EEWC) belonging to the family of Asteraceae was evaluated by hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing methods to assess its analgesic activity. The extract was also evaluated for its by using on carrageenan, mediators such as histamine and serotonin induced paw oedema, and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests for its effect on acute and chronic phase inflammation models in rats, as well as analgesic activity in mice. It was found that the extract...

  2. The analgesic effect of nitroglycerin added to lidocaine on quality of intravenous regional anesthesia in patients undergoing elective forearm and hand surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hosein Kimiaei, Asadi; Dariush, Mehri.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of nitroglycerine (NTG) on sensory and motor block onset and recovery time as well as the quality of tourniquet pain relief, when added to lidocaine (LID) for intravenous regional anesthesia in elective forearm and hand surgery. METHODS: A randomized double-blinded cl [...] inical trial was performed on 40 patients that were randomly allocated into two groups received lidocaine 3 mg/kg with NTG 200 µg or received only lidocaine 3 mg/kg as the control. RESULTS: There was no difference between the two study groups in hemodynamic parameters before tourniquet inflation, at any time after inflation and after its deflation. There was no difference in the mean of pain score over time between the two groups. The onset time of sensory and motor blockades was shorter in the group received both LID and NTG. The mean recovery time of sensory blockade was longer in the former group. The frequency of opioid injections was significantly lower in those who administered LID and NTG. CONCLUSION: The adjuvant drug of NTG when added to LID is effective in improving the overall quality of anesthesia, shortening onset time of both sensory and motor blockades, and stabling homodynamic parameters in hand and forearm surgery.

  3. The analgesic effect of nitroglycerin added to lidocaine on quality of intravenous regional anesthesia in patients undergoing elective forearm and hand surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Kimiaei Asadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of nitroglycerine (NTG on sensory and motor block onset and recovery time as well as the quality of tourniquet pain relief, when added to lidocaine (LID for intravenous regional anesthesia in elective forearm and hand surgery. METHODS: A randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed on 40 patients that were randomly allocated into two groups received lidocaine 3 mg/kg with NTG 200 µg or received only lidocaine 3 mg/kg as the control. RESULTS: There was no difference between the two study groups in hemodynamic parameters before tourniquet inflation, at any time after inflation and after its deflation. There was no difference in the mean of pain score over time between the two groups. The onset time of sensory and motor blockades was shorter in the group received both LID and NTG. The mean recovery time of sensory blockade was longer in the former group. The frequency of opioid injections was significantly lower in those who administered LID and NTG. CONCLUSION: The adjuvant drug of NTG when added to LID is effective in improving the overall quality of anesthesia, shortening onset time of both sensory and motor blockades, and stabling homodynamic parameters in hand and forearm surgery.

  4. Synthesis and in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of some bi heterocyclic coumarin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Manjunath; Kusanur, R A; Kulkarni, M V

    2005-09-01

    Sets of coumarinyl ethers having chromone, benzofuranyl and 4-hydroxy coumarins (4, 5, 6) were prepared and tested for analgesic and antiinflammatory activity. The 4-(4'-acetyl-3'-hydroxy-phenoxymethyl)-coumarin 3 were synthesised by the reaction of 4-bromo methyl coumarin with 2, 4-dihydroxy acetophenones, were found to less active. Further compound 3 having the ortho hydroxy moiety was cyclised to chromones 4 and benzofurans 5 were found to enhance the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclisation to 4-hydroxy coumarin 6 was found to be reducing the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in this series. These newly synthesized compounds were found to produce less toxicity and less ulcerogenic effects. PMID:16140424

  5. Peripheral effects of morphine and expression of ?-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia during neuropathic pain: nitric oxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Olga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local administration of ?-opioid receptor (MOR agonists attenuates neuropathic pain but the precise mechanism implicated in this effect is not completely elucidated. We investigated if nitric oxide synthesized by neuronal (NOS1 or inducible (NOS2 nitric oxide synthases could modulate the local antiallodynic effects of morphine through the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG-ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels signaling pathway activation and affect the dorsal root ganglia MOR expression during neuropathic pain. Results In wild type (WT mice, the subplantar administration of morphine dose-dependently decreased the mechanical and thermal allodynia induced by the chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve (CCI, which effects were significantly diminished after their co-administration with different subanalgesic doses of a selective NOS1 (N-[(4S-4-amino-5-[(2-aminoethylamino]pentyl]-N'-nitroguanidine tris(trifluoroacetate salt; NANT, NOS2 (L-N(6-(1-iminoethyl-lysine; L-NIL, L-guanylate cyclase (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one; ODQ, PKG ((Rp-8-(para-chlorophenylthioguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate; Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPs inhibitor or a KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide. The evaluation of the expression of MOR in the dorsal root ganglia from sham-operated and sciatic nerve-injured WT, NOS1 knockout (KO and NOS2-KO mice at 21 days after surgery demonstrated that, although the basal mRNA and protein levels of MOR were similar between WT and both NOS-KO animals, nerve injury only decreased their expression in WT mice. Conclusions These results suggest that the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-PKG-KATP signaling pathway activation participates in the local antiallodynic effects of morphine after sciatic nerve injury and that nitric oxide, synthesized by NOS1 and NOS2, is implicated in the dorsal root ganglia down-regulation of MOR during neuropathic pain.

  6. A Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of a Peripheral ?-Opioid Receptor Agonist CR665 and Oxycodone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne E; Kristensen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripherally acting opioids, particularly peripheral ?-opioid agonists, may be effective for treating visceral pain by activating receptors expressed on afferent nerves within the gut. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of a novel peripherally selective ?-opioid agonist, CR665 (JNJ-38488502), and compare it to that of oxycodone, a non-selective brain-penetrant opioid. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-way crossover study, healthy male volunteers were administered CR665 (0.36 mg/kg, intravenous), oxycodone (15 mg, oral) or placebo (intravenous and oral), followed by assessment of visceral pain tolerance thresholds (VPTT) measured as volume of water (mL) in the bag placed on an oesophageal probe. Plasma drug concentration data were used to generate pharmacokinetic models, which were then used to fit the VPTT data using NONMEM(®) VI to generate population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models. RESULTS:CR665 kinetics were optimally fitted with a two-compartment model, while oxycodone kinetics were best described by a one-compartment model with transit compartment absorption feeding directly into the central compartment. For both drugs, the plasma concentration effects on VPTT were best fit by a direct linear model, i.e. without the concentration-analgesia delay characteristic of brain-penetrant opioids. The slope of oxycodone (0.089 mL per ng/mL) was steeper than that of CR665 (0.0035 mL per ng/mL) for the plasma drug concentration acting on the VPTT. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with the peripheral selectivity of CR665, as well as the possibility that peripheral actions of oxycodone contribute to its visceral analgesic efficacy.

  7. The effect of chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure in normal and chronic restraint stressed rats: related with circulating level of blood pressure regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayada, Ceylan; Turgut, Günfer; Turgut, Sebahat; Güçlü, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin is a peptide secreted by peripheral tissues, central and peripheral nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis. Although the effects of nesfatin-1 on nutrition have been studied widely in the literature, the mechanisms of nesfatin-1 action and also relations with other physiological parameters are still not clarified well. We aimed to investigate the effect of peripheral chronic nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure regulation in normal and in rats exposed to restraint immobilization stress. In our study, three month-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups as Control, Stress, Control+Nesfatin-1, Nesfatin-1+Stress. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone, cortisol, nesfatin-1 levels were determined in plasma samples by ELISA. Our results have shown that chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration increases blood pressure in normal and in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Effect of nesfatin-1 on circulating level of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. We can conclude that elevated high blood pressure after chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress may be related to decreased plasma level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase concentration. PMID:25504061

  8. Effect of additional ultrasound therapy to analgesics in treatment of acute low back pain: A randomised control trial conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi (AKUH, N)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Mohammedali; SK, Mutiso; P, Oroko; B, Ombachi; H, Saidi.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute low back pain (LBP) is a common condition that is encountered by many physicians with varied treatments instituted in its management. Ultrasound physiotherapy is a common modality used in its management, although its effectiveness and its role in management of acute LBP is not well [...] known. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was conducted to compare the effect of the addition of ultrasound therapy to a defined analgesia protocol in patients presenting with acute LBP at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi. The main outcomes were reduction in disability and pain which were evaluated using the mean change in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain, respectively. Patients were followed up for a minimum of four weeks with assessment using the ODI and VAS at weekly clinic visits. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were included in the study. Thirty-six patients were allocated to the analgesia with additional ultrasound group and 38 to the analgesia alone group. The Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of 10% points at four weeks after initiation of treatment was achieved in the ultrasound group but not in the analgesia only group. This difference was not statistically significant though, 10.35% vs 8.44%; p=0.36. There was no difference in the mean change in the ODI score between the two groups at any of the four follow-up visits after initiation of treatment. Mean difference in change of ODI (95% confidence interval) was -3.2(-7.0 to 0.6) after the first week, 2.96(-1.3 to 7.2) after the second and 1.90(-2.3 to 6.1) after the third week, p=0.36, 0.17 and 0.096 respectively. There was also no difference detected in the mean change of VAS score between the two groups at the first and fourth visit. Mean difference in VAS between the first and fourth weeks was 0.2 with a 95% confidence of -0.85 to 1.2 (p=0.72). CONCLUSION: The addition of ultrasound therapy to the treatment of acute LBP improved patient outcomes as assessed by an MCID of a disability index, but which was not statistically significant. No outcome difference was noted in the two groups using the VAS pain score.

  9. IL-10 cytokine released from M2 macrophages is crucial for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture in a model of inflammatory muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Morgana D; Bobinski, Franciane; Sato, Karina L; Kolker, Sandra J; Sluka, Kathleen A; Santos, Adair R S

    2015-02-01

    Muscle pain is a common medical problem that is difficult to treat. One nonpharmacological treatment used is acupuncture, a procedure in which fine needles are inserted into body points with the intent of relieving pain and other symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of manual acupuncture (MA) on modulating macrophage phenotype and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations in animals with muscle inflammation. Carrageenan, injected in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice, induces an inflammatory response characterized by mechanical hyperalgesia and edema. The inflammation is initially a neutrophilic infiltration that converts to a macrophage-dominated inflammation by 48 h. MA of the Sanyinjiao or Spleen 6 (SP6) acupoint reduces nociceptive behaviors, heat, and mechanical hyperalgesia and enhanced escape/avoidance and the accompanying edema. SP6 MA increased muscle IL-10 levels and was ineffective in reducing pain behaviors and edema in IL-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice. Repeated daily treatments with SP6 MA induced a phenotypic switch of muscle macrophages with reduced M1 macrophages (pro-inflammatory cells) and an increase of M2 macrophages (anti-inflammatory cells and important IL-10 source). These findings provide new evidence that MA produces a phenotypic switch in macrophages and increases IL-10 concentrations in muscle to reduce pain and inflammation. PMID:24961568

  10. The Impact of Socioeconomic and Clinical Factors on Purchase of Prescribed Analgesics Before and After Hysterectomy on Benign Indication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Brandsborg, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects. METHODS:: Nearly all Danish women (n=13,420) with a hysterectomy on benign indication between 2004 and 2006 were included in a registry-based follow-up study. Information on prescription analgesic purchase was from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Factors associated with a purchase and associations between socioeconomic factors and changes in analgesic purchase were assessed. RESULTS:: Analgesic purchase after hysterectomy was independently predicted by age below 35 or above 65 years, body mass index >29.9, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, uterus weight

  11. Preemptive analgesic effect of lidocaine in a chronic neuropathic pain model Efeito analgésico preemptivo da lidocaína em modelo de dor crônica neuropática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Batista

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Preemptive analgesia inhibits the progression of pain caused by surgical lesions. To analyze the effect of lidocaine on postoperative pain relief, we performed compression of the right sciatic nerve in Wistar rats and observed the differences on behavior between the group that received lidocaine and the group that was not treated with the local anesthetics pre-operatively. Group 1 was not operated (control; group 2 underwent the sciatic nerve ligature without lidocaine; group 3, underwent surgery with previous local infiltration of lidocaine. Group 2 showed significantly longer scratching times with a peak on day 14 post-operative (p=0.0005 and reduction in the latency to both noxious (p=0.003 and non-noxious (p=0.004 thermal stimulus. Group 3 presented significantly shorter scratching times (p=0.004 and longer latency times when compared to Group 2. Preemptive use of lidocaine 2% can potentially reduce the postoperative neuropathic pain associated with sciatic nerve compression.A analgesia preemptiva inibe a progressão da dor causada por lesão cirúrgica. Para analisar o efeito da lidocaína na diminuição da dor pós-operatória, submetemos ratos Wistar a compressão cirúrgica do nervo ciático e observamos diferenças em alguns padrões de comportamento entre o grupo tratado com lidocaína pré-operatória e o grupo não-tratado com o anestésico local. O grupo 1 não foi operado (controle; o grupo 2, submetido a ligadura do nervo ciático sem lidocaína, apresentou significativo aumento do tempo de coçar-se com um pico no 14º pós-operatório (p=0.0005 e redução na latência para os estímulos térmicos nocivo (p=0.003 e não-nocivo (p=0.004; o grupo 3, operado com a droga preemptiva, demonstrou significativo decréscimo no tempo de coçar-se (p=0.004 e maiores tempos de latência quando comparados aos do grupo 2. O uso preemptivo da lidocaína 2% pode, potencialmente, reduzir a dor neuropática pós-operatória associada à compressão do nervo ciático.

  12. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, and cord blood (CB are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis of the named three hematopoietic blood stem cell (HSC sources, taking into account various factors, is undertaken. The health economical comparison shows significant differences between CB on the one side, and BM and PBSC on the other. The consequences for the public health side and propositions for a possible health care policy, especially regarding future resource allocation towards the different choices for HSCT products, are discussed. An outlook on the possible future usage of BM, PBSC, and CB and its implications on health systems, donor registries, and CB banks is given.Keywords: health economy, cord blood, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  13. Effect of transport stress on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and Th cytokines in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuren Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate transport stress on porcine peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and Th cytokines, blood samples were collected from pigs before and after transport. Creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glucose, and cortisol in the serum were measured. The number of leukocytes and lymphocytes, percentages of lymphocyte subsets, as well as Th cell cytokines level and their mRNA expression were detected, respectively. After transport, the level of CK, glucose and interleukin (IL-4 increased significantly (p<0.01, LDH, Th memory cells, natural killer and interferon (IFN-? increased significantly (p<0.05, cortisol, number of leukocytes and lymphocytes decreased (p<0.01, percentages of ? ? T cells, naïve Th cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes decreased significantly (p<0.05. The mRNA expressions IL-2 and IFN-? were down regulated, p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. While IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were up regulated, but only IL-10 displayed a highly significant difference (p<0.01. These data suggested that transport could cause immune suppression in pigs, which influences cellular immunity more than humoral immunity, and humoral immunity may play an important role in transport stress. Proper measures should be taken to reduce susceptibility of infection after transport.

  14. A nurse led peripherally inserted central catheter line insertion service is effective with radiological support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are increasingly used as a route of chemotherapy administration. Our aims were to assess a collaborative approach to PICC placement, with radiological support for a nurse led line insertion service in a minority of cases, and to determine whether PICC provided a safe and reliable method of chemotherapy administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data on 100 consecutive patients undergoing PICC placement for chemotherapy were collected. Lines were inserted by ward based nurses or under ultrasound guidance by radiologists. End points were successful completion of treatment or patient death. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four lines were placed for 118 courses of chemotherapy. 107 (74%) were placed by nurses and 37 (26%) by radiologists. Ninety-five percent of patients completed therapy with either one or two lines. Seventy percent of lines were removed on achieving the primary end points. In two additional patients PICC could not be placed radiologically. Twelve patients were unable to complete treatment with PICC alone, nine of these required an alternative administration route. The catheter related sepsis rate was 4.9%. CONCLUSION: The majority of PICC can be successfully placed by trained nurses, reserving image guidance only for more difficult cases. PICC have an acceptable complication profile, and decrease the need for tunnelled central lines. Barber, J.M. et al. (2002)2002)

  15. Effect of sulekang on peripheral blood pictures and immunological function in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 13 dogs divided into 3 groups were whole-body exposed to 6.5 Gy 60Co gamma-rays with lower half body shielded by 10 cm thick lead bricks. One group was administered with Sulekang (a compound of Chinese herb medicine, royal jelly and vitamine E), the other with agents that can increase white blood cells after irradiation and the third was untreated as control. The results indicate that the nadir values of peripheral leukocytes, lymphocytes, reticulocytes and blood platelets of dogs in Sulekang group were all higher than those in the other two groups during the experimental period, especially at the end of experiment (on the day 30 after irradiation). The blood platelet count was very significantly different (P < 0.001) between the Sulekang group and the control group. Pathological examination showed that Sulekang exerted protective action on hemopoiesis of bone marrow and promotive action on hematogenesis of irradiated dogs. The results of ANAE reaction showed that Sulekang could protect the gamma-irradiated dogs against the reduction of B-and Ts-cells, minimize immunologic injury and increase immunologic function

  16. The in vitro effect of a calf thymus extract on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernengo, M G; de Matteis, A; Meregalli, M; Capella, G; Zina, G

    1980-01-01

    T and B lymphocyte populations were evaluated in forty-one patients with multiple recurring warts. Active rosettes (T-Ea) and total T lymphocytes (T-Et) were significantly decreased. The in vitro effect of a calf thymus extract (TP-I) on peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated in thirty-three patients. A statistically significant increase in E-rosette forming cells was observed in twenty-three patients (69%). Serum blocking fac