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Sample records for peripheral analgesic effect

  1. Quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of allylphenols with peripheral analgesic effect

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    A. B de Oliveira

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium salt derivatives of natural allylphenols were synthesized with the purpose of obtaining potential peripheral analgesics. These drugs, by virtue of their physicochemical properties, would not be able to cross the blood brain barrier. Their inability to enter into the central nervous system (CNS should prevent several adverse effects observed with classical opiate analgesics (Ferreira et al., 1984. Eugenol (1 O-methyleugenol (5 and safrole (9 were submitted to nitration, reduction and permethylation, leading to the ammonium salts 4, 8 and 12. Another strategy applied to eugenol (1, consisting in its conversion to a glycidic ether (13, opening the epoxide ring with secondary amines and methylation, led to the ammonium salts 16 and 17. All these ammonium salts showed significant peripheral analgesic action, in modified version of the Randall-Sellito test (Ferreira et al. 1978, at non-lethal doses. The ammonium salt 8 showed an activity comparable to that of methylnalorphinium, the prototype of an ideal peripheral analgesic (Ferreira et al., 1984.

  2. Quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of allylphenols with peripheral analgesic effect

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. B de, Oliveira; T. H. A., Silva; S. H., Ferreira; B. B., Lorenzetti.

    Full Text Available Ammonium salt derivatives of natural allylphenols were synthesized with the purpose of obtaining potential peripheral analgesics. These drugs, by virtue of their physicochemical properties, would not be able to cross the blood brain barrier. Their inability to enter into the central nervous system ( [...] CNS) should prevent several adverse effects observed with classical opiate analgesics (Ferreira et al., 1984). Eugenol (1) O-methyleugenol (5) and safrole (9) were submitted to nitration, reduction and permethylation, leading to the ammonium salts 4, 8 and 12. Another strategy applied to eugenol (1), consisting in its conversion to a glycidic ether (13), opening the epoxide ring with secondary amines and methylation, led to the ammonium salts 16 and 17. All these ammonium salts showed significant peripheral analgesic action, in modified version of the Randall-Sellito test (Ferreira et al. 1978), at non-lethal doses. The ammonium salt 8 showed an activity comparable to that of methylnalorphinium, the prototype of an ideal peripheral analgesic (Ferreira et al., 1984).

  3. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteers on 3 separate days with 7-day intervals. They received either (1) subcutaneous infiltration with ketamine in the burn area (local treatment) and contralateral placebo injections, or (2) subcutaneous ketamine contralateral to the burn (systemic treatment) and placebo in the burn area, or (3) placebo on both sides. The study was double-blinded and the order of the treatments was randomized. Hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli was examined by von Frey hairs and contact thermodes (3.75 and 12.5 cm2), and pain was rated using a visual analog scale (0-100). RESULTS: The burns produced significant hyperalgesia. Local ketamine infiltration reduced pain during the burn injury compared with systemic treatment and placebo (P < 0.01). Heat pain thresholds were increased by local ketamine treatment compared with placebo immediately after injection (P < 0.03), and so were the mechanical pain thresholds (P = 0.02). Secondary hyperalgesia and suprathreshold pain responses to heat and mechanical stimuli were not significantly affected by local ketamine. No difference between local ketamine and placebo could be detected 1 h and 2 h after the burn. CONCLUSIONS: Ketamine infiltration had brief local analgesic effects, but several measures of pain and hyperalgesia were unaffected. Therefore, a clinically relevant effect of peripheral ketamine in acute pain seems unlikely.

  4. Capsaicin 8 % as a cutaneous patch (Qutenza™): analgesic effect on patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Julia Marie; Reichelt, Doris; Grüneberg-Oelker, Ute; Philipp, Konstanze; Stubbe-Dräger, Bianca; Husstedt, Ingo-W

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of the analgesic effect after a single application of the capsaicin 8 % cutaneous patch (Qutenza™) in 37 patients suffering from painful, distal symmetric polyneuropathy (PNP) for an average of 5 years. Patients ranged from 40 to 78 years of age and 22 subjects were HIV-positive. Patients were observed 4 weeks prior to 12 weeks post administration. An evaluation of the therapeutic effect of capsaicin 8 % as a dermal patch in terms of pain reduction, change of sleeping behavior and social activities was performed and statistical analysis of data was conducted using non-parametric methods. Patients were selected according to clinical criteria. Numerical rating scale (NRS 0-10) was used to inquire pain intensity and a pain score was calculated using the painDETECT(©) questionnaire Freynhagen R (Curr Med Res Opin 22:1911-1920, [2006]). A significant reduction of pain was achieved for up to 12 weeks, with a maximum after 2-4 weeks post administration. After patient education and before application of capsaicin patch, a significant reduction of three levels on the NRS was observed. Symptoms of painful PNP decreased over the period of investigation and 8 patients reported a reduction of systemic pain medication. In patients with an HIV infection, a significant extension of sleep was achieved for 2, 4 and 8 weeks after application. Thus, the application of the capsaicin 8 % patch resulted in a significant relief of neuropathic pain, a prolongation of sleep, a reduction of oral pain medication and a resumption of social activities. PMID:25421590

  5. The analgesic effect of dipyrone in peripheral tissue involves two different mechanisms: neuronal K(ATP) channel opening and CB(1) receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gilson Gonçalves; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Athie, Maria Carolina Pedro; Bonet, Ivan José Magayewski; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera; Parada, Carlos Amilcar

    2014-10-15

    Dipyrone (metamizole) is an analgesic pro-drug used to control moderate pain. It is metabolized in two major bioactive metabolites: 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA) and 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of peripheral CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors activation in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of dipyrone, 4-MAA or 4-AA. PGE2 (100ng/50µL/paw) was locally administered in the hindpaw of male Wistar rats, and the mechanical nociceptive threshold was quantified by electronic von Frey test, before and 3h after its injection. Dipyrone, 4-MAA or 4-AA was administered 30min before the von Frey test. The selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, CB2 receptor antagonist AM630, cGMP inhibitor ODQ or KATP channel blocker glibenclamide were administered 30min before dipyrone, 4-MAA or 4-AA. The antisense-ODN against CB1 receptor expression was intrathecally administered once a day during four consecutive days. PGE2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was inhibited by dipyrone, 4-MAA, and 4-AA in a dose-response manner. AM251 or ODN anti-sense against neuronal CB1 receptor, but not AM630, reversed the anti-hyperalgesic effect mediated by 4-AA, but not by dipyrone or 4-MAA. On the other hand, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of dipyrone or 4-MAA was reversed by glibenclamide or ODQ. These results suggest that the activation of neuronal CB1, but not CB2 receptor, in peripheral tissue is involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of 4-aminoantipyrine. In addition, 4-methylaminoantipyrine mediates the anti-hyperalgesic effect by cGMP activation and KATP opening. PMID:25058903

  6. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo w...

  7. The analgesic action of topical diclofenac may be mediated through peripheral NMDA receptor antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Xu-Dong; Svensson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The analgesic mechanism underlying the efficacy of topical diclofenac in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain is incompletely understood. The present study investigated whether intramuscular injection of diclofenac (0.1mg/ml, approximately 340microM) could attenuate jaw-closer muscle nociceptor discharge and mechanical sensitization induced by activation of peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) or excitatory amino acid receptors in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Diclofenac inhibited nociceptor discharge evoked by NMDA, but had no effect on nociceptor discharge evoked by 5-hydroxytryptamine or AMPA. Subsequent experiments revealed that diclofenac-mediated inhibition of NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge was competitive. Intramuscular injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine, NMDA and AMPA also decreased nociceptor mechanical threshold, however, only the mechanical sensitization produced by NMDA was reversed by diclofenac. Co-administration of the proinflammatory prostaglandin PGE(2) did not alter the ability ofdiclofenac to significantly attenuate NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge or NMDA-induced mechanical sensitization. Intramuscular injection of either diclofenac or the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (50mM) alone could elevate nociceptor mechanical threshold for a 30min period post-injection. The present study indicates that in vivo, diclofenac can exert a selective, competitive inhibition of peripheral NMDA receptors at muscle concentrations achievable after topical administration of diclofenac containing preparations. This property may contribute to the analgesic effect of topical diclofenac when used for muscle pain.

  8. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm2, 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of allodynia and secondary hyperalgesia. RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant increases in erythema (P .6). There were no significant differences between treatments in regard to skin erythema (P >.8), thermal or mechanical thresholds (P >.2), thermal or mechanical pain response (P >.2), or mechanical secondary hyperalgesia (P >.2). Dexamethasone had no analgesic effects in normal skin. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that systemic administration of dexamethasone 2 hours before a burn injury does not reduce the inflammatory-mediated changes in quantitative sensory thresholds, pain perception, or skin erythema in humans.

  9. Evaluation of peripheral and central analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in experimental animals

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    Anand Kale

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The study showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activity of EECI which may be attributed to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. C. infortunatum Linn. as a commercial source of analgesic drug should be subjected to further research. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 912-918

  10. The analgesic action of topical diclofenac may be mediated through peripheral NMDA receptor antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Xu-Dong; Svensson, Peter; Cairns, Brian E

    2009-01-01

    The analgesic mechanism underlying the efficacy of topical diclofenac in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain is incompletely understood. The present study investigated whether intramuscular injection of diclofenac (0.1mg/ml, approximately 340microM) could attenuate jaw-closer muscle nociceptor discharge and mechanical sensitization induced by activation of peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) or excitatory amino acid receptors in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Diclofenac inhibited noc...

  11. Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Claudia M; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L; Campbell, James N.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and...

  12. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Kamkar Asl; Ashraf Nazariborun; Mahmoud Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone.Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1) Saline, (2-4) Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100...

  13. Analgesic Efficacy of Peripheral kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist CR665 Compared to Oxycodone in a Multi-modal, Multi-tissue Experimental Human Pain Model: Selective Effect on Visceral Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Olesen, Anne; Staahl, Camilla; Menzaghi, Frédérique; Kell, Sherron; Wong, Gilbert; Drewes, Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Peripherally selective opioids may be beneficial in visceral pain management due to absence of centrally mediated side effects. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the effects of a peripherally selective tetrapeptide kappa-opioid receptor agonist, CR665, on experimental pain from multi-modal stimulation of skin, muscle, and viscera, and (2) contrast these effects with those of oxycodone (centrally acting opioid). METHODS:: The study was designed as a single-center, sing...

  14. Local analgesic effect of tramadol is not mediated by opioid receptors in early postoperative pain in rats

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    Angela Maria Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tramadol is known as a central acting analgesic drug, used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Local analgesic effect has been demonstrated, in part due to local anesthetic-like effect, but other mechanisms remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect is not known. In this study, we examined role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect of tramadol in the plantar incision model. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, intraplantar tramadol, intravenous tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol, and intravenous naloxone. After receiving the assigned drugs (tramadol 5 mg, naloxone 200 µg or 0.9% NaCl, rats were submitted to plantar incision, and withdrawal thresholds after mechanical stimuli with von Frey filaments were assessed at baseline, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after incision. RESULTS: Plantar incision led to marked mechanical hyperalgesia during the whole period of observation in the control group, no mechanical hyperalgesia were observed in intraplantar tramadol group, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol group and intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol. In the intravenous tramadol group a late increase in withdrawal thresholds (after 45 min was observed, the intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol group and intravenous naloxone remained hyperalgesic during the whole period. CONCLUSIONS: Tramadol presented an early local analgesic effect decreasing mechanical hyperalgesia induced by plantar incision. This analgesic effect was not mediated by peripheral opioid receptors.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tacca integrifolia in rodents

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    Thatree Autsavakitipong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This is a preliminary investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia (TIE for the analgesic activity using writhing response in mice, tail flick test in rats and for anti-inflammatory activity using ethyl phenyl propiolate (EPP-induced ear edema, carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema, as well as cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The results showed that TIE (200 mg/kg, PO significantly inhibited pain caused by acetic acid injection (65.9% but did not exhibit effect in tail flick test in rats. These findings suggest that analgesic mechanism of TIE may act via peripherally pathway. The study of anti-inflammatory effect showed that TIE significantly inhibited ear edema induced by EPP. TIE (200 mg/kg, PO inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (55.5% and arachidonic acid (48.6% but had no effect on cotton-induced granuloma formation in rats. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of leaf of T. integrifolia possessed anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation and analgesic activity.Industrial relevant. Plants of the genus Tacca have been reported to possess many activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and, antipyretic activities. Many species have been used to treat high blood pressure, burn, gastric ulcer, and hepatitis. The scientific studies supporting the traditional uses of Tacca integrifolia for some of the alleged activities are still lacking. The screening test for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia provides scientific data to confirm the potentials of T. integrifolia as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. In addition, the outcomes may be useful to develop a new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the future. Key words. Tacca integrifolia; Taccaceae; ethyl acetate extract; analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity

  16. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  17. Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L; Campbell, James N; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R

    2010-05-01

    Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain+Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the "Pain Alone" session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time. PMID:20188470

  18. Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs: Analgesic effects of toad cake

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue Eiji; Shimizu Yasuharu; Masui Ryo; Usui Tomomi; Sudoh Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing h...

  19. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

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    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  20. Analgesic effect of clove essential oil in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Hosseini; Mina Kamkar Asl; Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Results obtained from literature reviews and human studies have shown the analgesic effects of clove plant in toothache. The present work was undertaken in order to investigate the possible analgesic effect of clove oil in mice.Materials and Methods: Fifty mice were divided into 5 groups: 1) Saline; 2) Essential oil (Ess) 2%, 3) Ess 5%, 4) Ess10% and 5) Ess 20%. The hot plate test (55±0.2 °C; Cut-off 60 sec) was performed as a base record 15 min before injection of drugs (Saline or...

  1. Central and peripheral analgesic agents: chemical strategies for limiting brain penetration in kappa-opioid agonists belonging to different chemical classes.

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    Giardina, G; Clarke, G D; Grugni, M; Sbacchi, M; Vecchietti, V

    1995-06-01

    Over the past decade there has been great interest by the pharmaceutical industry in the development of novel analgesics which act by activation of central kappa-opioid receptors. However, in view of the spectrum of unwanted CNS effects associated with such agents, recent efforts have been focused on peripherally-selective compounds with limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this review, the authors consider the chemical strategies and associated synthetic procedures employed by various research groups to produce hydrophilic compounds with retained kappa-opioid agonist activity. Physico-chemical (clogP, delta logP) and biological methods (antinociception following administration by peripheral and central routes; ex-vivo binding to detect plasma and brain levels of the drugs) utilized to assess brain penetration are described and compared. Overall, in-vivo ratios correlate better with delta logP values than with clogP. PMID:7669179

  2. Incorporation of monodisperse oligoethyleneglycol amino acids into anticonvulsant analogues of galanin and neuropeptide y provides peripherally acting analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyin; Klein, Brian D; Metcalf, Cameron S; Smith, Misty D; McDougle, Daniel R; Lee, Hee-Kyoung; White, H Steve; Bulaj, Grzegorz

    2013-02-01

    Delivery of neuropeptides into the central and/or peripheral nervous systems supports development of novel neurotherapeutics for the treatment of pain, epilepsy and other neurological diseases. Our previous work showed that the combination of lipidization and cationization applied to anticonvulsant neuropeptides galanin (GAL) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) improved their penetration across the blood-brain barrier yielding potent antiepileptic lead compounds, such as Gal-B2 (NAX 5055) or NPY-B2. To dissect peripheral and central actions of anticonvulsant neuropeptides, we rationally designed, synthesized and characterized GAL and NPY analogues containing monodisperse (discrete) oligoethyleneglycol-lysine (dPEG-Lys). The dPEGylated analogues Gal-B2-dPEG(24), Gal-R2-dPEG(24) and NPY-dPEG(24) displayed analgesic activities following systemic administration, while avoiding penetration into the brain. Gal-B2-dPEG(24) was synthesized by a stepwise deprotection of orthogonal 4-methoxytrityl and allyloxycarbonyl groups, and subsequent on-resin conjugations of dPEG(24) and palmitic acids, respectively. All the dPEGylated analogues exhibited substantially decreased hydrophobicity (expressed as logD values), increased in vitro serum stabilities and pronounced analgesia in the formalin and carrageenan inflammatory pain assays following systemic administration, while lacking apparent antiseizure activities. These results suggest that discrete PEGylation of neuropeptides offers an attractive strategy for developing neurotherapeutics with restricted penetration into the central nervous system. PMID:23259957

  3. Analgesic effects of melatonin on post-herpetic neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Yun-Kun; Ding, Ji-Fei; Liu, Jin; Yong-yao YANG

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the analgesic effects of melatonin on post-herpetic neuralgia and its possible mechanism. Methods: A total of 48 PHN Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups randomly: Normal, PHN, PHN+MT and naloxone, 4P-PDOT or L-arginine+120 mg/kg MT (C). Heat pain latency was determined after MT injection for 20 min, 40 min, 80 min and 120 min respectively. The expression levels of ? receptor and MT2 receptor in different tissues of rats were detected by RT-PCR method. ...

  4. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DENDROCNIDE SINUATA (BLUME CHEW

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    Binita Angom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous root extracts of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume Chew (AEDS in Swiss albino mice and wistar rats. The animals were orally administered AEDS at doses 30 and 100 mgkg-1 (p.o. For analgesic study, acetic acid-induced Writhing test, Eddy’s hot plate and Tail Flick model was performed in mice. For antiinflammatory study, carrageen-induced paw edema study was performed in rats. In acetic acid induced model, effect of AEDS was comparable with the standard meloxicam 10 mgkg-1 (i.p. In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 30 min at a dose of 100 mgkg-1 (p.o which was comparable with the standard Pentazocine 10 mgkg-1 (p.o, whereas in the tail flick model no significant changes were observed. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, administration of AEDS showed significant (P < 0.05 dose dependent inhibition of edema formation. AEDS was effective in both narcotic and non-narcotic models of analgesia. It also showed a significant dose-dependent increase in antiedematogenic activity which revealed good peripheral anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

  5. Comparing Early Postoperative Period Analgesic Effect of Dexketoprofene Trometamol and Lornoxicam in Mediastinoscopy Cases

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    Gonul Sagiroglu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed comparing early postoperative period analgesic effectiveness and the effects on opioid consumption of intravenous dexketoprofen and lornoxicam that are given preemptively. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, planned elective mediastinoscopy, were included in this prospective randomized study. These patients were classified in two groups, group D for dexketoprofene trometamol and group L for lornoxicam, randomly. 20 minutes before the operation 50 mg dexketoprofene trometamol and 8 mg lornoxicam were injected intravenously for group D and group L respectively. In postoperative intensive care unit, pain scores, mean arterial pressures, heart rates and peripheric O2 saturations of patients were recorded at 0, 10, 20, 60, 90 and 120th minutes. Results: When we evaluate the VAS score of the groups, there was a significant decrease in group D in all measured timesstatistically compairing to group L (p0.05. Conclusion: Since intravenous dexketoprofen, applied preemptively, has more potent analgesic effect and causing less opioid consumption in early postoperative period, is better than intravenous lornoxicam.

  6. Effects of metabolites of the analgesic agent dipyrone (metamizol) on rostral ventromedial medulla cell activity in mice.

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    Maione, Sabatino; Radanova, Lilyana; De Gregorio, Danilo; Luongo, Livio; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Imming, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The molecular mechanism of action of dipyrone, a widely used antipyretic and non-opioid analgesic drug, is still not fully understood. Actions upon peripheral inflamed tissues as well as the central nervous system, especially upon the PAG-RVM axis, have been suggested. Dipyrone is a prodrug and its activity is due to its immediate conversion to its active metabolites. We tested the effect of two recently discovered metabolites of dipyrone, the arachidonoyl amides of 4-methylaminoantipyrine and 4-aminoantipyrine, on the neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), which are part of the descending pathway of antinociception. These compounds reduced the activity of ON-cells and increased the activity of OFF-cells. Both CB1 and TRPV1 blockade reversed these effects, suggesting that the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system takes part in the analgesic effects of dipyrone. PMID:25557763

  7. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Naveen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ?Country Mallow? is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80?C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals? models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  8. The Effect of Saliva Officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Analgesic Effect of Morphine in Rat

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    A Arzi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There are some reports in Iranian traditional medicine concerning the anti-inflammatory effect of Saliva Officinalis (SO. In the present study with the aim of decreasing analgesic dose of morphine, analgesic effect of different doses of SO hydroalcoholic extract alone and associated with morphine were evaluated by tail flick in rats. Subjects and Methods: Analgesic effects of SO hydroalcholic extract at doses of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/kg, i.p. were investigated. Then the influence of these doses associated with analgesic dose of morphine (2.5 mg/kg was evaluated. Rats were placed into restrainer and then transferred into the tail flick apparatus with the intensity 55 Cº and cut off time= 10 sec. In order to verify the role of opioid receptors on analgesic effect of SO extract, naloxone (1mg/kg, i.p. was administered to one group of rats 15 min before receiving 800 mg/kg extract. Then, the data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by LSD post hoc test and significant difference between groups was accepted with P<0.05. Results: The Data have shown that, the SO extract relieved pain in tail-flick test dose dependently and the most effective dose was 800 mg/kg. The maximum analgesic effect of the extract combined with morphine was observed at time point 45 min. Naloxane, opioid receptor antagonist could reduce analgesic effect of the extract. Conclusion: On the basis the results obtained in this study, it could be suggested that the SO extract potentiates morphine anti-nociceptive effect and this means that the opioid system may be involved in the analgesic effect of this plant extract. Sci Med J 2011;10(5:505-13

  9. Analgesic effect of Persian Gulf Conus textile venom

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    Nasim Tabaraki

    2014-10-01

    Results: SDS-PAGE indicated 12 bands ranged between 6 and 180 KDa. Finally, ten ng of Conus crude venom showed the best analgesic activity in formalin test. No death observed up to 100 mg/kg. Analgesic activity of crude venom was more significant (P

  10. [ANALGESIC EFFECT OF TROPALGIN ON THERMAL PAIN IN RATS WITH DIFFERENT PAIN THRESHOLDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, I V; Fedorova, O V; Shabano, P D

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on rats divided into two groups (with high and low pain sensitivity) were used to assess the effect of tropalgin, a new derivative of tropine, in thermal pain tests (tail-flick and hot plate). Tropalgin was found to possess an analgesic effect comparable to that of reference sodium metamizole. ED50 of tropalgin was 2 mg/kg for intraperitoneal administration. The duration of the analgesic effect of tropalgin in rats low pain sensitivity was longer than in animals highly sensitive to pain. It is suggested that the analgesic effect of tropalgin can be related to the adenosine liberating action of this drug. PMID:26591574

  11. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Dexamethasone and Fentanyl Added to Lidocaine through Axillary Block in Forearm Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Siamak Yaghoobi; Mahyar Seddighi; Zohreh Yazdi; Razieh Ghafouri; Marzieh Beigom Khezri

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Regional analgesia has been introduced as better analgesic technique compared to using systemic analgesic agents, and it may decrease the adverse effects of them and increase the degree of satisfaction. Several additives have been suggested to enhance analgesic effect of local anesthetic agents such as opioids and steroids. We designed this randomized double-blind controlled study to compare the analgesic efficacy of the dexamethasone and fentanyl added to lidocaine using axillary block ...

  12. Influence of serotonin on the analgesic effect of granisetron on temporomandibular joint arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sigvard Kopp; Riina Kallikorm; Edvitar Leibur; Per Alstergren; Ülle Voog

    2004-01-01

    THE influence of circulating serotonin (5-HT) on the effects of intra-articular administration of granisetron on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain was investigated in 11 patients with chronic polyarthritides. An analgesic effect superior to placebo has been shown previously.

  13. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  14. Analgesic effect of TAK-242 on neuropathic pain in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xin, Yan; Gao, Jie; Teng, Ru-Yang; Chu, Hai-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study investigated the analgesic effect of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) specific antagonist TAK-242 on neuropathic pain in rats and its underlying mechanism. Methods: A total of 132 adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: the sham operation group, the neuropathic pain model group, the TAK-242 low-dose treatment group, and the TAK-242 high-dose treatment group. The heat pain and mechanic pain thresholds of rats were detected on preoperative day 1 and postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 10. The expression levels of I?B?, p65, IL-1?, and TNF-? in the spinal cord dorsal horn were detected on postoperative day 7 in one group of rats. Results: Compared with rats in the sham operation group, the heat pain and mechanic pain thresholds of the rats in the neuropathic pain model group significantly decreased; their expression levels of p65, IL-1?, and TNF-? significantly increased; and their expression level of IkB? significantly decreased. Compared with the neuropathic pain group, high doses of TAK-242 significantly inhibited the expression of p65, IL-1?, and TNF-?; significantly increased the expression level of IkB?; and upregulated the heat pain and mechanic pain thresholds. Conclusion: TAK-242 might improve neuropathic pain through downregulation of the NF-?B pathway. PMID:26379924

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AND ANALGESIC EFFECT OF ALOE VERA LEAF EXTRACT IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Devaraj; Thirunethiran Karpagam

    2011-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs envisages the development of side effects that makes efficacy of a drug arguable. Alternatively, indigenous drug with fewer side effects is the major thrust area of research in the management of pain and inflammation. In the present study aqueous extract of whole leaf of Aloe vera at various concentrations was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in albino wistar rats. Carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced ...

  16. The Study of Analgesic Effect of Hydroalcoholilc Extract of vitis vinifsraseedon Rat by Formalin TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Arzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Due to the increased role of medicinal plants in therapy, the aim of this research was to study and compare the analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of the seeds of Vitis vinifera with morphine and aspirin as a common analgesic.Subjects and Methods: In this study, the hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera seed was prepared by maceration method. This study was done on male Wistar rat species. The animals were divided into 7 groups (n= 9: Negative control group received a single dose of (5mg/kg of serum physiology, two positive control groups (one group 2.5mg/kg of morphine and another 300mg/kg of aspirin, 4 treatment groups (100,200,400and 800 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of the seeds of Vitis vinifera via intraperitoneally. In this study the analgesic effect was investigated by using formalin test.Results: The results indicated that the analgesic effect of 400mg/kg of extract on the phase 1 of pain was more than the aspirin and less than the morphine. Its chronic analgesic effect on phase 2 of pain was less than morphine but there weren't any significant differences with those of the aspirin.Conclusion: The results indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinefera seed contains analgesic effect in both acute and chronic phases of pain. This can probably be due to the influence of the antioxidants of this extract.

  17. Effect of intravenous esmolol on analgesic requirements in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Ritima; Singh, Mirley Rupinder; Kaul, Tej Kishan; Tewari, Anurag; Oberoi, Ripul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Perioperative beta blockers are also being advocated for modulation of acute pain and reduction of intraoperative anesthetic requirements. This study evaluated the effect of perioperative use of esmolol, an ultra short acting beta blocker, on anesthesia and modulation of post operative pain in patients of laproscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adult ASA I & II grade patients of either sex, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups E or C according to computer generated numbers. Group E- Patients who received loading dose of injection esmolol 0.5 mg/kg in 30 ml isotonic saline, before induction of anesthesia, followed by an IV infusion of esmolol 0.05 ?g/kg/min till the completion of surgery and Group C- Patients who received 30 ml of isotonic saline as loading dose and continuous infusion of isotonic saline at the same rate as the esmolol group till the completion of surgery. Results: The baseline MAP at 0 minute was almost similar in both the groups. At 8th minute (time of intubation), MAP increased significantly in group C as compared to group E and remained higher than group E till the end of procedure. Intraoperatively, 16.67% of patients in group C showed somatic signs as compared to none in group E. The difference was statistically significant. 73.33% of patients in group C required additional doses of Inj. Fentanyl as compared to 6.67% in group E. Conclusions: We conclude that intravenous esmolol influences the analgesic requirements both intraoperatively as well as postoperatively by modulation of the sympathetic component of the pain i.e. heart rate and blood pressure. PMID:26330719

  18. Heel lance in newborn during breastfeeding: an evaluation of analgesic effect of this procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Tozzini Danila; Rossi Maura; Ziliotto Anna; Trada Michela; Angilella Giuseppina; Alloni Viviana; Perino Antonella; Candriella Manuela; Uga Elena; Tripaldi Clelia; Vaglio Michela; Grossi Luigina; Allen Michaela; Provera Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The reduction of pain due to routine invasive procedures (capillary heel stick blood sampling for neonatal metabolic screening) in the newborn is an important objective for the so-called "Hospital with no pain". Practices such as skin to skin contact, or breastfeeding, in healthy newborn, may represent an alternative to the use of analgesic drugs. The aim of our work is to evaluate the analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture in full term healthy newborn. Met...

  19. Analgesic Effect of Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Three Congolese Medicinal Plants: Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Okiemy-Andissa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analgesic effect of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of aeral parts of Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum, three plants used in congolese folk medicine in pain, were tested on acetic acid and hot plate tests. All extracts manifest analgesic effect on the two models used. The more active was the hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum gratissimum which is not antagonized by naloxone and could potentiate analgesic effect of paracetamol.

  20. Inhibition of antiplatelet effects of aspirin by nonopioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, T; Schrör, K

    2015-02-01

    In patients undergoing coronary bypass grafting, we noticed that low-dose aspirin failed to inhibit platelet aggregation, potentially elevating the risk of thrombotic bypass occlusion. This "high on-treatment platelet reactivity" was reproducible in vitro and could be transferred with patient plasma or urine to aspirin-sensitive donor platelets, suggesting a drug/drug interaction. Loss of aspirin efficacy was associated with analgesia by dipyrone (metamizol) and initiated further study of the interaction between aspirin and other nonopioid analgesics. PMID:25670517

  1. A comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy. Forty patients, aged between 20-60 years and undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were enrolled into the study protocol that was carried out in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January and June 2007. General anesthesia protocol was the same in all patients. At the end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). Group L received 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and Group B received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine intra-articularly. We evaluated the level of postoperative pain (by visual analoque scale at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery), first analgesic requirement time (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), and total analgesic consumption during 24 hours. There were no significant difference in the postoperative pain scores of the patients between groups. The first analgesic requirement times were not statistically different. Twelve patients in Group L (60%) and 9 patients in Group B (45%) needed no additional analgesic during the 24 hours (p>0.05). No complications and side effects were found related to the intra-articular treatment. The results of the study show that intra-articular 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine provides effective analgesia comparable to that provided by 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. (author)

  2. Seasonal Effects on HPLC-DAD-UV and UPLC-ESI-MS Fingerprints and Analgesic Activities of Vernonia Condensata Baker Extracts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sabrina, Afonso; Aldair C. de, Matos; Vitor A., Marengo; Estefânia G., Moreira; Daniely X., Soares; Héctor Henrique F., Koolen; Ieda S., Scarminio.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vernonia condensata Baker leaves have different uses in Brazilian folk medicine, including as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effects on their high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD-UV) and ultra-per [...] formance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer with an electrospray interface (UPLC-ESI-MS) fingerprints, as well as their analgesic activities in mice. There were significant seasonal effects on the relative abundances of the metabolites of the V. condensate leaves as well as on their activities. Analgesic activities in the writhing test were observed with the polar fraction of the leaf extracts collected in autumn, winter and summer (400 mg kg-1); and with the intermediate fraction of leaves collected in autumn (25 and 400 mg kg-1) and in the summer (100 mg kg-1). In conclusion, the results confirm peripherally-mediated anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities for V. condensata leaves and suggest that these are influenced by the harvesting season. N-oxides alkaloids as well as vernonioside play important roles in determining this activity.

  3. Analgesic effects of lappaconitine in leukemia bone pain in a mouse model

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    Xiao-Cui Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone pain is a common and severe symptom in cancer patients. The present study employed a mouse model of leukemia bone pain by injection K562 cells into tibia of mouse to evaluate the analgesic effects of lappacontine. Our results showed that the lappaconitine treatment at day 15, 17 and 19 could effectively reduce the spontaneous pain scoring values, restore reduced degree in the inclined-plate test induced by injection of K562 cells, as well as restore paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency induced by injection of K562 cells to the normal levels. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of lappaconitine’s analgesic effects may be related to affect the expression levels of endogenous opioid system genes (POMC, PENK and MOR, as well as apoptosis-related genes (Xiap, Smac, Bim, NF-?B and p53. Our present results indicated that lappaconitine may become a new analgesic agent for leukemia bone pain management.

  4. Analgesic effects of lappaconitine in leukemia bone pain in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Cui; Ge, Chen-Tao; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Jia-Li; Yu, Yuan-Yang; Fu, Cai-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Bone pain is a common and severe symptom in cancer patients. The present study employed a mouse model of leukemia bone pain by injection K562 cells into tibia of mouse to evaluate the analgesic effects of lappacontine. Our results showed that the lappaconitine treatment at day 15, 17 and 19 could effectively reduce the spontaneous pain scoring values, restore reduced degree in the inclined-plate test induced by injection of K562 cells, as well as restore paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency induced by injection of K562 cells to the normal levels. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of lappaconitine's analgesic effects may be related to affect the expression levels of endogenous opioid system genes (POMC, PENK and MOR), as well as apoptosis-related genes (Xiap, Smac, Bim, NF-?B and p53). Our present results indicated that lappaconitine may become a new analgesic agent for leukemia bone pain management. PMID:26019998

  5. Analgesic effects of melatonin : a review of current evidence from experimental and clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine, produced mainly by the pineal gland. Melatonin has been proven to have chronobiotic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anxiolytic and sedative properties. There are also experimental and clinical data supporting an analgesic role of melatonin. In experimental studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby may reduce anxiety, which leads to lower levels of pain. In this paper, we review the current evidence regarding the analgesic properties of melatonin in animals and humans with chronic pain.

  6. Perspective of nurses on effective factors on their decisions to administer PRN analgesics to children after surgery

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    Karimi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-surgery pain is usually controlled by PRN drugs administered by nurses. According to the decision-making theories, this clinical decision-making depends on three factors: nurse-related factors; child-related factors; and hospital-related factors. This study deals with the first and second factors mentioned. This descriptive-analytic study aims at determining the perspective of nurses on factors which affect their decisions to administer the analgesic PRN to children after surgery in several chosen hospitals of Tehran. The study used a standardized questionnaire to collect data from 57 nurses in pediatric surgery wards. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: 1 nurses demographic data 2 20 clinical scenario for nurses to make a decision for prescribing either analgesic medication, non-analgesic medication or no medication where necessary and 3 12 factors which affect clinical decision-making in using analgesics.(in prioritizing among the above mentioned. The results show that factors such as age, nursing experience, pediatric nursing experience and motherhood were significantly related to choosing to use analgesics. Education and personal experience of extreme pain was also related to the type of analgesic chosen. Concerning the specifics of the children there was a significant difference between the choice to use analgesics and the type of analgesic used according to the various ages of the children. There was also a significant relationship between the type of surgery and the time of surgery and with the choice to use analgesics and the type of analgesics used, such that medication and analgesics were administered more frequently for complicated surgeries and in first 24 hours after surgery. Type of surgery, severity of pain, time of surgery and uneasy behaviors were selected respectively as the most effective in the administration of PRN analgesic drugs. Nurse and child related factors strongly influence nurses in making decisions to administer PRN analgesics postoperatively.

  7. Effect of Celecoxib on the Peripheral NO Production

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    Parichehr Hassanzadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sCelecoxib acts through both COX-2-dependent and -independent pathways. According to the paradoxical effect of NO on the inflammatory and nociceptive signal processing, the present study designed to evaluate the probable contribution of NO in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of celecoxib. Materials and MethodsDifferent intensities of inflammatory pain were induced by acute and chronic sc administration of 1%, 2.5%, or 5% formalin and spectrophotometrical analysis of the serum nitrite was performed. Then, in the pretreatment process, the effect of celecoxib (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg/ip was evaluated on the inflammatory pain induced-nitrite. Also, the effect of celecoxib alone (under non-inflammatory condition was evaluated on the peripheral NO production and the results compared with that of the vehicle. ResultsFormalin-induced inflammatory pain led to an enhancement of the serum nitrite in intensity- and time-dependent manners. Celecoxib (40 mg/kg/ip, except its ineffectiveness on the nitrite level, induced 1.5 hr after 5% formalin, reduced production of formalin-induced nitrite in other cases. Meanwhile, under non-inflammatory condition, 1.5 hr after the administration of celecoxib (40 mg/kg/ip, a considerable elevation of nitrite was observed. Celecoxib 10 or 20 mg/kg/ip did not show a significant effect on either inhibition or stimulation of the peripheral NO.ConclusionNO is involved both in the inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions. It seems that celecoxib exerts a dual effect on the peripheral NO production; it prevents overproduction of NO due to the induction of inflammatory pain, while, it stimulates NO synthesis at the early stage of its action.

  8. Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs

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    Inoue Eiji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA, the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug ?-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Results: Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Conclusion: Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system.

  9. Post-operative analgesic effects of paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations : a topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, JØrgen Berg; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary post-operative pain management, patients are most often treated with combinations of non-opioid analgesics, to enhance pain relief and to reduce opioid requirements and opioid-related adverse effects. A diversity of combinations is currently employed in clinical practice, and no well-documented 'gold standards' exist. The aim of the present topical, narrative review is to provide an update of the evidence for post-operative analgesic efficacy with the most commonly used, systemic non-opioid drugs, paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/COX-2 antagonists, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids, and combinations of these. The review is based on data from previous systematic reviews with meta-analyses, investigating effects of non-opioid analgesics on pain, opioid-requirements, and opioid-related adverse effects. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin reduced 24?h post-operative morphine requirements with 6.3 (95% confidence interval: 3.7 to 9.0)?mg, 10.2 (8.7, 11.7)?mg, 10.9 (9.1, 12.8)?mg, and???13?mg, respectively, when administered as monotherapy. The opioid-sparing effect of glucocorticoids was less convincing, 2.33 (0.26, 4.39)?mg morphine/24?h. Trials of pregabalin?>?300?mg/day indicated a morphine-sparing effect of 13.4 (4, 22.8)?mg morphine/24?h. Notably, though, the available evidence for additive or synergistic effects of most combination regimens was sparse or lacking. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, selective COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin all seem to have well-documented, clinically relevant analgesic properties. The analgesic effects of glucocorticoids and pregabalin await further clarification. Combination regimens are sparsely documented and should be further investigated in future studies.

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AND ANALGESIC EFFECT OF ALOE VERA LEAF EXTRACT IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Devaraj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs envisages the development of side effects that makes efficacy of a drug arguable. Alternatively, indigenous drug with fewer side effects is the major thrust area of research in the management of pain and inflammation. In the present study aqueous extract of whole leaf of Aloe vera at various concentrations was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in albino wistar rats. Carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced rat paw oedema was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and tail flick, hot plate and acetic acid tests were used to assess the analgesic activity of A. vera leaf aqueous extracts. Whole leaf aqueous extracts at various concentrations (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg of bw significantly reduced formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and formaldehyde and granuloma formation in a dose dependent manner. Further, acetic acid-induced writhing model exhibited significant analgesic effect characterized by reduction in writhes. Whole leaf aqueous extract showed dose-dependent increase in tolerance to thermal stimulus comparable to indomethacin. No mortality was observed during the acute toxicity test at a dosage of 600mg/kg. Thus whole leaf aqueous extract of Aloe vera can be exploited as non toxic drug for the treatment and clinical management of inflammation and pain.

  11. The analgesic effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics after breast surgery : a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byager, N; hansen, morten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics is commonly used during breast surgery in an attempt to reduce post-operative pain and opioid consumption. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics compared with a control group on post-operative pain after breast surgery. METHODS: A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, the Cochrane database and Embase for randomised, blinded, controlled trials of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics for post-operative pain relief in female adults undergoing breast surgery. The analgesic effect was evaluated in a qualitative analysis by assessment of significant difference between groups (P?analgesic consumption. RESULTS: Ten trials including 699 patients were included in the final analysis. Three trials investigated mastectomy, four trials partial or segmental mastectomy, and three trials breast reduction, excision of benign lump and unspecified breast surgery, respectively. Six trials demonstrated a small and short-lasting, but statistically significant reduction of post-operative pain scores, and four trials observed a statistically significant reduction in post-operative, supplemental opioid consumption that was, however, of limited clinical relevance. CONCLUSION: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics may have a modest analgesic effect in the first few hours after surgery. Pain after breast surgery is, however, generally mild to moderate, and other non-invasive analgesic methods may be preferable in this surgical population.

  12. Review on analgesic effect of co-administrated ibuprofen and caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polski Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a symptom of many diseases and significantly affects the quality of life, so researchers are constantly seeking new substances to be used as analgesics. Other, easier way is to combine already known drugs which cause synergistic effects greater than additive, so that probability of drug-specific side effects can be reduced. Researchers showed that caffeine can be an effective analgesic adjuvant enhancing antinociceptive effect of ibuprofen in animals and humans. By using modern drug technology methods tablets containing well-soluble ibuprofen salt and caffeine can be easily prepared. Thanks to that combination, the therapeutic dose of ibuprofen can be lowered and the side effects may be reduced.

  13. Endomorphin-1 analogues (MELs) penetrate the blood-brain barrier and exhibit good analgesic effects with minimal side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Dan; Yang, Junxian; Zhao, Long; Yu, Jing; Wang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Endomorphins are endogenous opioid peptides in mammals and display a strong antinociceptive effect after central administration. However, the clinical usage of these peptides is limited because of their diminished analgesic effect following systemic injection and their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we characterized the in vivo effects of four novel endomorphin-1 analogues (termed MELs), which previously showed potential as highly potent analgesics with a good pharmacological profile in vitro. The analogues were administered intravenously to several rodent pain models to examine their antinociception and blood-brain barrier permeability. The tested peptides, especially MEL1214, showed good analgesic activity and blood-brain barrier permeability. Behavioral studies showed dose-dependent analgesic effect after systematic administration of MEL1214 in the tested pain models. Pre-treatment of subcutaneous administration of naloxone methiodide did not affect the antinociception of these peptides. As compared to morphine, MEL1214 was less prone to induce tolerance after consecutive intravenous administration for 5 days. Gastrointestinal transit was evaluated by the isolated colon response and bead expulsion to determine the potential constipation effect. In contrast to morphine, MEL1214 produced no significant constipation effect at an equivalent dose. MEL1214 shows promise as a suitable compound to treat pain with reduced side effects, and exhibits good potential to be further developed as a novel opioid analgesic in pain treatment. PMID:26116761

  14. Analgesic effect of highly reversible ?-conotoxin FVIA on N type Ca2+ channels

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    Kim Hyun Jeong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-type Ca2+ channels (Cav2.2 play an important role in the transmission of pain signals to the central nervous system. ?-Conotoxin (CTx-MVIIA, also called ziconotide (Prialt®, effectively alleviates pain, without causing addiction, by blocking the pores of these channels. Unfortunately, CTx-MVIIA has a narrow therapeutic window and produces serious side effects due to the poor reversibility of its binding to the channel. It would thus be desirable to identify new analgesic blockers with binding characteristics that lead to fewer adverse side effects. Results Here we identify a new CTx, FVIA, from the Korean Conus Fulmen and describe its effects on pain responses and blood pressure. The inhibitory effect of CTx-FVIA on N-type Ca2+ channel currents was dose-dependent and similar to that of CTx-MVIIA. However, the two conopeptides exhibited markedly different degrees of reversibility after block. CTx-FVIA effectively and dose-dependently reduced nociceptive behavior in the formalin test and in neuropathic pain models, and reduced mechanical and thermal allodynia in the tail nerve injury rat model. CTx-FVIA (10 ng also showed significant analgesic effects on writhing in mouse neurotransmitter- and cytokine-induced pain models, though it had no effect on acute thermal pain and interferon-? induced pain. Interestingly, although both CTx-FVIA and CTx-MVIIA depressed arterial blood pressure immediately after administration, pressure recovered faster and to a greater degree after CTx-FVIA administration. Conclusions The analgesic potency of CTx-FVIA and its greater reversibility could represent advantages over CTx-MVIIA for the treatment of refractory pain and contribute to the design of an analgesic with high potency and low side effects.

  15. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can increase analgesic effect in refractory cancer pain

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Jiqing; Pan Yueyin; Gu Kangsheng; Sun Guoping; Chen Zhendong; Wu Hongyang; Du Yingying; Ning Jie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effects of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil for the refractory pain in cancer patients. Methods 2109 patients were screened from the department of medical oncology, the first affiliated hospital of Anhui medical university in China between October of 2007 and October of 2008. Thirty-seven cases of cancer patients who had bad effect from anaesthetic drugs were received administration of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil wi...

  16. Comparing Early Postoperative Period Analgesic Effect of Dexketoprofene Trometamol and Lornoxicam in Mediastinoscopy Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gonul Sagiroglu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed comparing early postoperative period analgesic effectiveness and the effects on opioid consumption of intravenous dexketoprofen and lornoxicam that are given preemptively. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, planned elective mediastinoscopy, were included in this prospective randomized study. These patients were classified in two groups, group D for dexketoprofene trometamol and group L for lornoxicam, randomly. 20 minutes before the operation 50 mg dexke...

  17. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus Alves de Lima, Mota; José Saul Peixoto, Landim; Thiago Sousa Silva, Targino; Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro da, Silva; Sônia Leite da, Silva; Márcio Roberto Pinho, Pereira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in mice. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effect of alcoholic extracts of green tea (AE) was evaluated in a cell migration assay with four groups of six Swiss mice receiving 0.07g/Kg or 0.14g/Kg EA (trea [...] tment groups), saline (negative control) or 10mg/Kg indomethacin (positive control) by gavage. One hour later 300 µg carrageen an was administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. The analgesic effect was evaluated using four groups of six animals receiving 0.07g/Kg or 0.14g/Kg EA, saline or 10mg/Kg indomethacin subcutaneously, followed 30 minutes later by 1% acetic acid. RESULTS: When administered subcutaneously at either dose (0.07g/Kg and 0.14g/Kg), AE inhibited carrageenan-induced cell migration (p

  18. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100??g BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-? in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100??g BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  19. Analgesic Effect of the Methanol Extract of Erica Arborea (L. in Mice Using Formalin Test

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    S Çobanoglu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Erica arborea L. (Ericaceae has been used in Turkey folk medicine as a diuretic, urinary antiseptic and laxative. However, its other pharmacological effects have not been yet elucidated clearly. The aim of this study was to investigate analgesic effects of its methanolic (MeOH extract in mice using formalin test, as a model of tonic inflammatory pain. Methods: The MeOH extract of aerial parts and its fractions (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% MeOH in water were prepared by maceration and solid phase extraction method respectively. Effects of the MeOH extract (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. and different fractions (5 mg/kg, i.p. were compared with analgesic effects of the morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p. and indomethacine (5 mg/kg, i.p. as standard analgesic drugs. Results and major conclusion: Results showed that the MeOH extract of E. arborea (10 mg/kg, i.p. similar to the morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p. and indomethacen (5 mg/kg, i.p. decreased formalin-induced paw licking time,. Among the prepared-fractions of the MeOH extract, only fraction of 20% (5 mg/kg, i.p. caused significant decrease in paw licking behavior. Moreover, the MeOH extract (10 mg/kg, i.p. did not produce any motor deficit effects in rotarod test. From the results it may be concluded that the MeOH extract and faction of 20% of E. arborea have a good analgesic effects in formalin test.

  20. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

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    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  1. Analgesic effect of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Velalopoulou, Anastasia P; Vadalouca, Athina N; Kalfakakou, Vicky P; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to various types of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) affects pain specificity (nociception) and pain inhibition (analgesia). Previous study of ours has shown that exposure to the resonant spectra derived from biologically active substances' NMR may induce to live targets the same effects as the substances themselves. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential analgesic effect of the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine. Twenty five Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group; intraperitoneal administration of morphine 10 mg/kg body wt; exposure of rats to resonant EMFs of morphine; exposure of rats to randomly selected non resonant EMFs; and intraperitoneal administration of naloxone and simultaneous exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs of morphine. Tail Flick and Hot Plate tests were performed for estimation of the latency time. Results showed that rats exposed to NMR spectrum of morphine induced a significant increase in latency time at time points (p effects. Additionally, naloxone administration inhibited the analgesic effects of the NMR spectrum of morphine. Our results indicate that exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine may exert on animals similar analgesic effects to morphine itself. PMID:22690703

  2. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic modeling of the analgesic effect of bupredermTM, in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Ok Kim; Seung-Wei Jeong; Min-Hyuk Yun; Chaul-Min Pai

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: BupredermTM?Buprenorphine transdermal delivery system (BTDS) was developed for the treatment of post-operative and chronic pains. This study examined the relationship between the plasma concentration of buprenorphine and its analgesic effect (tail flick test) in order to assess the usefulness of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling in describing this relationship. Methods: After patch application, plasma concentrations of bu- prenorphine in mice were measured for 72 hours...

  3. Analgesic effect of topical sodium diclofenac 0.1% drops during retinal laser photocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberger, D; Ron, Y.; LICHTER, H.; Rosenblat, I.; Axer-Siegel, R.; Yassur, Y

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the analgesic effect of topical sodium diclofenac 0.1% during retinal laser photocoagulation.?METHODS—87 patients, 45 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy treated with two sessions of panretinal photocoagulation (group A), and 42 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy who underwent grid treatment of the posterior pole (19 bilaterally) (group B). Sodium diclofenac 0.1% or sodium chloride 0.9% drops were topically applied 30-135 minutes before laser treatment i...

  4. Correlation of ADRB1 rs1801253 Polymorphism with Analgesic Effect of Fentanyl After Cancer Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Chunlei; Sui, Zhifu; Liu, Chang; Wang, Congmin; Yang, Rongya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Our study aimed to explore the association between ?1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1) rs1801253 polymorphism and analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgeries in Chinese Han populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS Postoperative fentanyl consumption of 120 patients for analgesia was recorded. Genotype distributions were detected by allele specific amplification-polymerase chain reaction (ASA-PCR) method. Postoperative pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) method. Differences in postoperative VAS score and postoperative fentanyl consumption for analgesia in different genotype groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test was also performed to test the analgesic effect of fentanyl. RESULTS Frequencies of Gly/Gly, Gly/Arg, Arg/Arg genotypes were 45.0%, 38.3%, and 16.7%, respectively, and passed the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) test. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the heart rate (HR) had no significant differences at different times. After surgery, the VAS score and fentanyl consumption in Arg/Arg group were significantly higher than in other groups at the postoperative 2nd hour, but the differences were not obvious at the 4th hour, 24th hour, and the 48th hour. The results suggest that the Arg/Arg homozygote increased susceptibility to postoperative pain. The preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test suggested that individuals with Arg/Arg genotype showed worse analgesic effect of fentanyl compared to other genotypes. CONCLUSIONS In Chinese Han populations, ADRB1 rs1801253 polymorphism might be associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgery. PMID:26694722

  5. The effect of acupressure at SP6 point on analgesic taking in women during labor

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    Parisa Samad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the potential side effects of analgesics and anaesthetic drugs to control the labour pains, it is possible to replace non-medical method for palliative treatment. The purpose of this research is to assess the effect of acupressure in spleen point 6 (SP6 on the amount of analgesic drug taking during labour. Materials and Method: We conducted one sided blind randomized clinical trial in 2008. 131 term pregnant women randomly selected and divided into three groups; including one experimental group (pressure on SP6:41 persons and two control groups (SP6 touch: 41 cases and common care: 49 persons. The data has been analyzed by using the descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS-16 software.Results: Comparing the average amounts of the consumed drug between three groups showed a significant decrease in the experimental group more than the other two control groups (p=0.006. The average amount of consumed pethidine in the experimental group showed a significant decrease (p=0.02.Conclusion: The findings of our study showed that the pressure on SP6 is an effective method to decrease the amount of analgesic consumption in labor specially pethidine

  6. Analgesic Effect of Ilex paraguariensis Extract on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Han, Taewon; Jung, Sung Keun; Lim, Eun Yeong; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Yun Tai

    2015-10-01

    Ilex paraguariensis, known as "Yerba Mate," is an herb used in a beverage that is widely consumed in southern Latin American countries. Furthermore, it has been traditionally used to treat depression, and as an analgesic to manage both nerve pain and headache. The pain-related experimental evidence regarding the analgesic effects of Mate is unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether Mate extract exhibits analgesic effects in both the plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI) models in rats. We tested the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments. We also tested pain-related behavior using ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pain-related cytokines were also determined in the dorsal root ganglia in a rat model of SNI. Our results showed that oral administration of Mate extract significantly increased MWT values, and reduced the number of 22-27?kHz USVs 24?h after the plantar incision operation. Moreover, after 15?d of continuous treatment with Mate extract, the SNI-induced hypersensitivity, cytokine levels, and NPY expression were significantly reduced compared to the corresponding findings in the control group. These results suggest that the intake of Mate extract has potential as a treatment for both postoperative pain and neuropathic pain. PMID:26228736

  7. Heel lance in newborn during breastfeeding: an evaluation of analgesic effect of this procedure

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    Tozzini Danila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The reduction of pain due to routine invasive procedures (capillary heel stick blood sampling for neonatal metabolic screening in the newborn is an important objective for the so-called "Hospital with no pain". Practices such as skin to skin contact, or breastfeeding, in healthy newborn, may represent an alternative to the use of analgesic drugs. The aim of our work is to evaluate the analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture in full term healthy newborn. Methods We studied 200 healthy full term newborns (100 cases and 100 controls, proposing the puncture to mothers during breastfeeding, and explaining to them all the advantages of this practice. Pain assessment was evaluated by DAN scale (Douleur Aigue Nouveau ne scale. Results The difference in score of pain according to the DAN scale was significant in the two groups of patients (p = 0.000; the medium score was 5.15 for controls and 2.65 for cases (newborns sampled during breastfeeding. Conclusion Our results confirmed the evidence of analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture. This procedure could easily be adopted routinely in maternity wards.

  8. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

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    Guadalupe García P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  9. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guadalupe, García P; Edgar, García S; Isabel, Martínez G; Thomas R. F., Scior; José L, Salvador; Mauro M, Martínez P; Rosa E. del, Río.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth) is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studie [...] d, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1), which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  10. Effect of some analgesics on paraoxonase-1 purified from human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Deniz; Beydemir, Sükrü

    2009-08-01

    The in vitro effects of the analgesic drugs, lornoxicam, indomethacin, tenoxicam, diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen and lincomycine, on the activity of purified human serum paraoxonase (hPON1) (EC 3.1.8.1.) were evaluated. hPON1 was purified from human serum with a final specific activity of 3840 U mg(-1) and a purity of 25.3 % using simple chromatographic methods, including DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange and Sepharose 4B-L-tyrozine-1-napthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated a single protein band corresponding to hPON1. The six analgesics dose-dependently decreased in vitro hPON1 activity, with IC(50) values for lornoxicam, indomethacin, tenoxicam, diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen and lincomycine of 0.136, 0.195, 0.340, 1.639, 6.23 and 9.638 mM, respectively. K(i) constants were 0.009, 0.097, 0.306, 0.805, 13.010 and 11.116 mM, respectively. Analgesics showed different inhibition mechanisms: lornoxicam, diclofenac sodium and lincomycine were uncompetitive, indomethacin and tenoxicam were competitive, ketoprofen was noncompetitive. According to the results, inhibition potency was lornoxicam>indomethacin>tenoxicam> diclofenac sodium>ketoprofen> lincomycine. PMID:19548782

  11. [Physical therapy with analgesic effects in inflammatory rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, E

    1999-07-01

    In praxis, one is not only concerned about the linear connection between rheumatic inflammation and pain therapy--pharmacological or physical treatment--but about an optimal connection of the whole spectrum of symptoms regarding the joint status with different options of actions on one hand, and the treatment procedure of choice beside pain therapy on the other hand. The understanding of the mode of action regarding physiotherapeutic methods with analgetic effects is due to the knowledge about the pathophysiologic relationship between inflammation and pain. On one hand, the information of pain from the periphery causes a sensibilisation of central nervous areas and therefore allodynia as well as irradiation of the painful area. On the other hand, biochemical processes lead to a neurogenic and alogenic inflammation due to the impact on the pain nerves. Beside the arthritis itself, the physiotherapy of a rheumatic-inflamed painful joint has to take into account the components arthralgia, irritation of the capsula, periarthropathia, and allogenic inflammation. Physiotherapeutic pain treatment has three modes of action: a causal effect on the structural level, suppression of over-excitation of the tissue as well as the central nervous transmission areas, and activation of the decelerating pain modulating systems. Each treatment procedure with analgetic effects like cooling, heating, localized mechanical methods, the activation techniques with proprio- and exteroceptive effects (TENS, Maitland-mobilisation), the electrotherapeutic option, and physical training therapy is characterized with its specific mode of action. The dosage of physiotherapeutic techniques has to be taken into account since it has to remain within physiologic limits and the tissue's irritability must not be reached. PMID:10478427

  12. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can increase analgesic effect in refractory cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiqing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effects of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil for the refractory pain in cancer patients. Methods 2109 patients were screened from the department of medical oncology, the first affiliated hospital of Anhui medical university in China between October of 2007 and October of 2008. Thirty-seven cases of cancer patients who had bad effect from anaesthetic drugs were received administration of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil with dose of 50 mg/5 ml/day. The pain score was evaluated for pre- and post- treatment by Pain Faces Scale criteria, and the side effects were also observed. Results Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil increased the analgesic effects. The total effective rate was 92%. The side effects, such as abdominal pain, alimentary tract bleeding which were found in using NSAIDs or constipation, nausea, vomit, sleepiness which were found in using opioid drugs did not be found. Conclusion Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil could provide better analgesia effects and few side effects to patients with refractory cancer pain. It could also increase analgesia effects when combining with anesthetic drugs in treatment of moderate or severe pain, especially breakthrough pain, and suit to patients who can not take oral drugs for the reason of constipation and psychosomatic symptoms.

  13. Gabapentin Increases Analgesic Effect of Chronic Use of Morphine while Decreases Withdrawal Signs

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    Manzumeh-Shamsi Meimandi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the role of gabapentin co-administration in morphine antinociception and withdrawal effect. Four groups of male rats were examined for latency time using tail flick test; control, morphine (M, gabapentin (GB and gabapentin-morphine (GB-M treated groups. Rats received morphine (10 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, s.c. or gabapentin (75 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, i.p. or both of them twice a day for 9 days. Control rats received normal saline as schedule time. Latency time was recorded 3 times (5 min of interval before drug injection and in 60, 65 and 70 min after drug injection in days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 by tail flick test. Percentage of Maximal Possible Effect (%MPE as antinociceptive effect was calculated for all groups. On 9th day, rats were challenged for withdrawal signs by administration of naloxone (2 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, i.p.. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference of %MPE in control and GB groups while in M and GB-M groups the %MPE was changed significantly during the days of study. Gabapentin had no analgesic effect while morphine and gabapentin-morphine had significant analgesic effect compared to control. %MPE of GB-M treated rats was significantly higher than M in days 5, 7 and 9. Also this study showed that pre-treatment with gabapentin reduced most of the opioid withdrawal signs including jumping, weight loss and fore paw tremor. The mechanism(s by which gabapentin enhances the analgesic effect of chronic use of morphine and attenuate opioid withdrawal signs remain to be establish.

  14. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds

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    Schulteis Gery

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture provides a means of peripheral stimulation for pain relief. However, the detailed neuronal mechanisms by which acupuncture relieves pain are still poorly understood and information regarding optimal treatment settings is still inadequate. Previous studies with a short burst of unilateral electroacupuncture (EA in the Tendinomuscular Meridians (TMM treatment model for pain demonstrated a transient dermatomally correlated bilateral analgesic effect with corresponding peripheral modality-specific sensory threshold alterations. However, the impact of EA duration on the analgesic effect in this particular treatment model is unknown. To obtain mechanistically and clinically important information regarding EA analgesia, this current prospective cross-over study assesses the effects of EA duration on analgesia and thermal sensory thresholds in the TMM treatment model. Methods Baseline peripheral sensory thresholds were measured at pre-marked testing sites along the medial aspects (liver and spleen meridians of bilateral lower extremities. A 5-second hot pain stimulation was delivered to the testing sites and the corresponding pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were recorded. Three different EA (5Hz stimulation durations (5, 15 and 30 minutes were randomly tested at least one week apart. At the last 10 seconds of each EA session, 5 seconds of subject specific HP stimulation was delivered to the testing sites. The corresponding pain and EA VAS scores of de qi sensation (tingling during and after the EA were recorded. The measurements were repeated immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the EA stimulation. A four-factor repeat measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of stimulation duration, time, location (thigh vs. calf and side (ipsilateral vs. contralateral of EA on sensory thresholds and HP VAS scores. Results A significant (P Conclusion Longer durations of EA stimulation provide a more sustainable analgesic benefit to hot noxious stimulation than a shorter duration of stimulation. The increase of cold threshold with sustained warm threshold temperature elevation as observed in the longer durations of EA suggests that as the duration of EA lengthened, there is a gradual shifting from an initial predominantly spinally mediated analgesic effect to a supraspinally mediated modulatory mechanism of thermal pain. The 15-minute stimulation appeared to be the optimal setting for treating acute pain in the lower extremities.

  15. Analgesic effects of lappaconitine in leukemia bone pain in a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiao-Cui; Ge, Chen-Tao; Pan WANG; Zhang, Jia-Li; Yu, Yuan-Yang; FU, CAI-YUN

    2015-01-01

    Bone pain is a common and severe symptom in cancer patients. The present study employed a mouse model of leukemia bone pain by injection K562 cells into tibia of mouse to evaluate the analgesic effects of lappacontine. Our results showed that the lappaconitine treatment at day 15, 17 and 19 could effectively reduce the spontaneous pain scoring values, restore reduced degree in the inclined-plate test induced by injection of K562 cells, as well as restore paw mechanical withdrawal threshold an...

  16. Analgesic and physiological effects in conscious sedation with different nitrous oxide concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bonafé-Monzó, Neus; Rojo-Moreno, Juan; Catalá-Pizarro, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to study the physiological changes, as well as the psychosedative and analgesic effects of nitrous oxide, in experimental conditions. Study Design: 101 dental students volunteers participated in a single nitrous oxide sedation session without dental treatment. Signs and symptoms were registered during and after the procedure. Pulse rate and hemoglobin oxygen saturation were monitored at: 100 per cent O2, 30 per cent N2O, 50 per cent N2O and 5 minutes after 100 per cent O2. A L...

  17. The Analgesic Effects of Different Extracts of Aerial Parts of Coriandrum Sativum in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Kazempor, Seyedeh; Vafadar langehbiz, Shabnam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Naser Shafei, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Pourganji, Masoomeh

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the effects of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) on central nervous system, in the present study analgesic properties of different extracts of C. sativum aerial partswere investigated. The mice were treated by saline, morphine, three doses (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) of aqueous, ethanolic, choloroformic extracts of C. sativum and one dose (100 mg/kg) of aqueous, two doses of ethanolic (100 and 500 mg/kg) and one dose of choloroformic (20 mg/kg) extracts of C. sativum pretreated by naloxon...

  18. Analgesic and systemic effects of xylazine, lidocaine and their combination after subarachnoid administration in goats

    OpenAIRE

    R DeRossi; M.P. Beretta; A.L. Junqueira

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the analgesic and systemic effects of subarachnoid administration of xylazine hydrochloride (XY), lidocaine hydrochloride (LI) and their combination (XYLI) in goats. Six healthy goats were used in a prospective randomised study. Three treatments were administered to each goat, with 1-week intervals between each treatment. Treatments consisted of 0.1 mg/kg xylazine, 2.5 mg/kg lidocaine and a combination of xylazine 0.05 (mg/kg) and lidocaine (1.25 mg...

  19. [The effect of extradurally administered analgesics on somatosensory evoked eyelid microvibration in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, T; Komatsu, T; Yasuhara, M; Uchida, M

    1991-07-01

    We examined the effect of various analgesics administered lumboextradurally or intravenously on acceleration of the eyelid microvibration (EMV) due to reflex contraction which was evoked by electrical stimulation of the sciatic and ulnar nerve in rabbits. No significant difference in the inhibition of EMV was observed initially between the sciatic nerve and the ulnar nerve stimulated group after 2 mg of morphine, administered either extradurally or intravenously. However, greater inhibition of EMV by the extradural morphine than by intravenous administration of this drug was observed after 10 min in sciatic nerve stimulated and after 20 min in the ulnar nerve stimulated group. With the extradural administration of 0.05 mg fentanyl, EMV was inhibited more significantly in the sciatic stimulated group than in the ulnar nerve stimulated group. Intravenous administration of this drug failed to reveal any change in either sciatic nerve stimulated or ulnar nerve stimulated group. When butorphanol 0.5 mg or buprenorphine 0.05 mg was administered, no significant difference in the inhibition of EMV was observed between the drugs, regardless of the routes of administration or sites of stimulation. Extradural administration of ketamine 0.5 mg showed none of the inhibition of EMV in both the sciatic nerve stimulated, and the ulnar nerve stimulated groups. These results indicate that various analgesics administered into the extradural space produced characteristic actions depending on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug, locally and/or generally. In conclusion, monitoring of EMV can be a useful procedure for evaluation of the effect of analgesics. PMID:1920786

  20. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.

    1999-12-16

    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  2. Enhanced analgesic effect of morphine-nimodipine combination after intraspinal administration as compared to systemic administration in mice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilip Verma; Subrata Basu Ray; Ishan Patro; Shashi Wadhwa

    2005-09-01

    Calcium plays an important role in the pathophysiology of pain. A number of studies have investigated the effect of L-type calcium channel blockers on the analgesic response of morphine. However, the results are conflicting. In the present study, the antinociceptive effect of morphine (2.5 g) and nimodipine (1 g) co-administered intraspinally in mice was observed using the tail flick test. It was compared to the analgesic effect of these drugs (morphine – 250 g subcutaneously; nimodipine – 100 g intraperitoneally) after systemic administration. Nimodipine is highly lipophilic and readily crosses the blood brain barrier. Addition of nimodipine to morphine potentiated the analgesic response of the latter when administered through the intraspinal route but not when administered through systemic route. It may be due to direct inhibitory effect of morphine and nimodipine on neurons of superficial laminae of the spinal cord after binding to -opioid receptors and L-type calcium channels respectively.

  3. Analgesic Effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil’s Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI rats. The whole procedure was performed on male SD rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT test measured by von Frey filaments. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USVs. The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with 300 mg/kg H. procumbens extract increased significantly; on the contrary, the number of 22–27 kHz USVs of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation. After 21 days of continuous treatment with H. procumbens extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity responses by MWT, compared with the control group. These results suggest that H. procumbens extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of acute postoperative pain and chronic neuropathic pain in rats.

  4. Peripheral muscarinic receptors mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of auricular acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Wai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cholinergic and opioid systems play important roles in modulating inflammation. This study tests whether auricular acupuncture (AA produces anti-inflammatory effects via opioid and peripheral cholinergic receptors in a rat model. Methods Rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and inflammation was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan. Electroacupuncture was performed at auricular points bilaterally. The severity of inflammation was assessed using changes in paw volume and thermal and mechanical pain thresholds of the rats during recovery from anesthesia. Results Electroacupuncture at selected auricular acupoints significantly reduced paw edema and mechanical hyperalgesia, with no significant effect on thermal hyperalgesia. The anti-edematous and analgesic effects of AA were abolished by blockade of peripheral cholinergic muscarinic receptors with methyl atropine. Blockade of local muscarinic receptors at the inflamed site with a small dose of atropine also antagonized the anti-edematous effect of AA. By contrast, systemic opioid receptor blockade with naloxone did not antagonize the anti-inflammatory effects of AA. Conclusion This study discovers a role of peripheral muscarinic receptors in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of AA. The cholinergic muscarinic mechanism appears to be more important than the opioid mechanism in the anti-inflammatory action of AA.

  5. PK20, a new opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide that exhibits central and peripheral antinociceptive effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda Yuko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical treatment of various types of pain relies upon the use of opioid analgesics. However most of them produce, in addition to the analgesic effect, several side effects such as the development of dependence and addiction as well as sedation, dysphoria, and constipation. One solution to these problems are chimeric compounds in which the opioid pharmacophore is hybridized with another type of compound to incease antinociceptive effects. Neurotensin-induced antinociception is not mediated through the opioid system. Therefore, hybridizing neurotensin with opioid elements may result in a potent synergistic antinociceptor. Results Using the known structure-activity relationships of neurotensin we have synthesized a new chimeric opioid-neurotensin compound PK20 which is characterized by a very strong antinociceptive potency. The observation that the opioid antagonist naltrexone did not completely reverse the antinociceptive effect, indicates the partial involvement of the nonopioid component in PK20 in the produced analgesia. Conclusions The opioid-neurotensin hybrid analogue PK20, in which opioid and neurotensin pharmacophores overlap partially, expresses high antinociceptive tail-flick effects after central as well as peripheral applications.

  6. Noninterventional study of transdermal fentanyl (fentavera) matrix patches in chronic pain patients: analgesic and quality of life effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl is considered to be an effective, transdermal treatment of chronic, cancer, and noncancer pain. This noninterventional, clinical practice-based study, on 426 patients attending 42 practices, assessed a proprietary, Aloe vera-containing, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch (Fentavera), for its analgesic effects, patients' quality of life (QoL) effects, tolerability, and adhesiveness. Study outcomes were mean changes from baseline of patient (11-point scales) and physician (5-point scales) ratings. After 1 and 2 months treatment, there were significant (P 30% at 2 months (response = 2-point decrease on 11-point rating scale). In a large majority of patients, the physicians rated the matrix patch as good or very good for analgesic effect, systemic and local tolerance, and adhesiveness. There were 30 adverse events in 4.2% of patients and analgesic comedications were reduced during treatment compared to before treatment. It is concluded, from this population-based data, that the proprietary, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch is effective and safe for chronic pain management in clinical practice, with significant positive analgesic and QoL effects, while being well tolerated and exhibiting good or very good adhesiveness. PMID:25861472

  7. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Dexamethasone and Fentanyl Added to Lidocaine through Axillary Block in Forearm Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Siamak; Seddighi, Mahyar; Yazdi, Zohreh; Ghafouri, Razieh; Khezri, Marzieh Beigom

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Regional analgesia has been introduced as better analgesic technique compared to using systemic analgesic agents, and it may decrease the adverse effects of them and increase the degree of satisfaction. Several additives have been suggested to enhance analgesic effect of local anesthetic agents such as opioids and steroids. We designed this randomized double-blind controlled study to compare the analgesic efficacy of the dexamethasone and fentanyl added to lidocaine using axillary block in patients undergoing operation of forearm fracture. Materials and Methods. Seventy-eight patients 20-60 years old were recruited in a prospective, double-blinded, randomized way. Axillary block was performed in the three groups by using 40?mL lidocaine and 2?mL distilled water (L group), 40?mL lidocaine and 2?mL dexamethasone (LD group), and 40?mL lidocaine and 2?mL fentanyl (LF group). The onset time of sensory and motor block, duration of sensory and motor block, the total analgesic dose administered during 6 hours after the surgery, and hemodynamic variables were recorded. Results. The duration of sensory and motor block was significantly longer in LD group compared to other groups (P < 0.001). Similarly, the total analgesic consumption in LD group was smaller compared to other groups (P < 0.001). Comparison of hemodynamic consequences of axillary block and surgery failed to reveal any statistically significant differences between all groups. Conclusion. Addition of dexamethasone to lidocaine significantly prolonged the duration of analgesia compared with fentanyl/lidocaine mixture or lidocaine alone using axillary block in patients undergoing forearm fracture surgery. This trial is registered with IRCT2012120711687N1. PMID:24490067

  8. Analgesic Effect of Meloxicam in Canine Acute Dermatitis – a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frendin J

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A double-blind trial was performed on 12 client-owned dogs suffering from acute and painful dermatitis. Clinically these cases represented pyotraumatic dermatitis and pyotraumatic folliculitis. Six dogs were injected with meloxicam and 6 were given placebo. Signs of pain were recorded on a visual analogue scale before administering the drug. This was repeated over the following 2–3 days. All dogs were treated with cephalexin orally. Six dogs given meloxicam and cephalexin showed an average decrease of pain on day 2 of 28.3%, whereas the 6 dogs given placebo and cephalexin showed an average decrease of pain on day 2 of 8.3%. When compared in the Wilcoxon two-sample test, using change in percent and absolute change, the 2 groups yielded p = 0.026 and p = 0.064 respectively. These findings indicate that meloxicam has an analgesic effect on acute dermatitis in dogs.

  9. Comparative analysis of preemptive analgesic effect of dexamethasone and diclofenac following third molar surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Leonardo, Simone; Waldyr Antonio, Jorge; Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini, Horliana; Talita Girio, Canaval; Isabel Peixoto, Tortamano.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the analgesic effectiveness of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium administered preemptively after surgical removal of third molars. Forty-four ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I patients (19 men, 35 women; 16–28 years old) randomly and double-bli [...] ndly received diclofenac sodium (50?mg) or dexamethasone (8?mg) or placebo 1?h before surgery. Intensity of pain, measured with a visual analog scale (VAS), was the variable studied at different postoperative times (1?h, 2?h, 3?h, 6?h, 8?h, 12?h, 48?h, 4?d and 7?d). The total amount of rescue medication (TARM) ingested (paracetamol) was another variable of the study. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test was used. A p value of

  10. Synthesis and biological screening of 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl) piperidine derivatives as effective analgesics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of 4(1-pyrrolidinyl) piperidine analogs 2-6 with variable substituents on phenyl ring of phenacyl moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their analgesic inhibitory potential by tail flick method revealed significant analgesic activity. The synthetic compounds exhibit analgesic inhibitory potential was ranging from significant to highly significant activity. Compounds were evaluated by thermal stimuli (tail immersion method) at the dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight. The compounds 2-5 showed significant and highly significant analgesic activity. Pethidine was used as reference drug. Same compounds tested at the dose of 75mg/kg of body weight showed toxicity. The size of the substituent, electron donating or withdrawing affect of substituents as well as the position of substituent on phenyl ring affected the activity. These compounds could be considered to develop a new class of analgesics. (author)

  11. Bystander effect in ?-irradiated peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Radiation-induced bystander effects (ByEff) are still being actively researched since there are more questions than answers related to this phenomenon. There are two main approaches in studying bystander effects: transferring medium from irradiated cells to unirradiated cells and the second is by irradiation of a single cell by a microbeam. The aim of the present study is to investigate and characterize the 'bystander' effect after ?-irradiation of peripheral blood from healthy donors at molecular level. Methods: Three groups of samples: 1) ?-irradiated peripheral blood, 2) non-irradiated blood incubated with plasma from irradiated blood, and 3) additionally irradiated aliquots of the second group, were studied. The Comet Assay and UDS were performed for DNA-damage and repair analysis and lipid peroxidation assay for ROS production. Alamar Blue Microplate assay for cell viability evaluation in the presence of signal transduction pathways inhibitors, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) after rhodamine 123 accumulation, and Ca-flux measurements with Fluo 3/Fura Red were performed additionally. In these experiments immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used as a reporter cell line. Results: It was established that ByEffs contribute to radiation injury in the case of ?-irradiated whole blood. Significantly higher levels of DNA damage corresponding to decreases in DNA repair capacity were recorded. At a certain radiation dose DSB levels were higher than SSB levels in the second and third sample groups. Involvement of ByEffs was detected only for the JNK signal transduction pathway. In all cases there was a decrease in MMP and a slight but not significant increase in Fluo3/FuraRed ratio in individual cells treated with irradiated plasma. Conclusion: Incubation with plasma from irradiated blood transforms sub-lethal damage in unirradiated cells into lethal damage and exerts a suppressive effect on DNA repair capacity to additional irradiation. Bystander signals produced by irradiated cells can induce an adaptive response in irradiated cells to a subsequent exposure to bystander signals. Probably, there is involvement of the MAPK signal transduction pathway in the radio-adaptive effects. ROS did not appear to be involved in bystander effects in low dose pre-treated reporter cells but rather take part in sensitizing the bystander cells to additional irradiation. The large individual differences and heterogeneity of bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses at present.

  12. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunostimulatory effects of Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) bark

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roseane Leandra da, Rosa; Geisson Marcos, Nardi; Adriana Graziele de Farias, Januário; Renata, Boçois; Katiane Paula, Bagatini; Sandro José Ribeiro, Bonatto; Andrea de Oliveira, Pinto; João Ronaldo Notargiacomo, Ferreira; Luisa Nathália Bolda, Mariano; Rivaldo, Niero; Fabíola, Iagher.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae) é utilizada para o tratamento de várias condições patológicas, entretanto, há poucos relatos sobre sua bioatividade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito anti-inflamatório e analgésico, bem como a atividade de macrófagos em camundongos tratados com extrato brut [...] o hidroalcoólico (CLD) da planta. Cromatografia em camada delgada revelou a presença de epicatequina, estigmasterol, lupeol e ?,?-amirina no material. Para avaliar a atividade anti-inflamatória e analgésica, animais foram submetidos a teste de edema de pata induzido por carragenana, teste de contorções, da formalina e da capsaicina. A atividade imunomodulatória foi avaliada pela capacidade de adesão e de fagocitose dos macrófagos, volume lisossômico e produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS), após tratamento diário com CLD por 15 dias. CLD promoveu redução do edema de pata (36,8% e 50,2%; 100 e 300 mg/kg, respectivamente; p Abstract in english Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae) is a plant widely used for treatment of various inflammatory and infectious conditions; however few reports discuss its biological properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects as well as the macrophage activity in mice t [...] reated with the hydroalcoholic crude extract of L. divaricata (CLD). Thin layer chromatography revealed presence of epicathequin, stigmasterol, lupeol and ?,?-amyrin in the extract. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, animals were subjected to paw edema induced by carrageenan test, writhing, formalin and capsaicin tests. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by adhesion and phagocytic capacity, lysosomal volume, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by peritoneal macrophages, after daily treatment with CLD for 15 days. CLD promoted reduction in paw edema (36.8% and 50.2%; p

  13. The analgesic effect of pregabalin in chronic pain patients is reflected by changes in pharmaco-EEG spectral indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Carina; Olesen, SØren S

    2012-01-01

    What this paper adds What is already known about this subject • Pregabalin is an anticonvulsive agent prescribed as a secondary analgesic for patients when standard pain treatment is insufficient. • The analgesic effect resides to the central nervous system. • The central analgesic effect can be evaluated by electroencephalographic. What this study adds • The analgesic effect of pregabalin is reflected as a slowing of brain oscillations. • The slowing of brain oscillations for each individual patient is correlated to subjective pain scores. • The developed methodology may be used as a mechanistic approach to monitor the analgesic effect of pregabalin in pharmacological studies. SUMMARY: Aim: To identify electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarkers for the analgesic effect of pregabalin in patients with chronic visceral pain. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in thirty-one patients suffering from visceral pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Patients received increasing doses of pregabalin (75mg-300mg twice a day) or matching placebo during 3 weeks of treatment. Pain scores were documented in a diary based on the visual analogue scale. In addition, brief pain inventory-short form (BPI) and quality of life questionnaires were collected prior to and after the study period. Multi-channel resting EEG was recorded before treatment onset and at the end of the study. Changes in EEG spectral indices were extracted, and individual changes were classified by a support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate the pregabalin and placebo responses. Changes in individual spectral indices and pain scores were correlated. Results: Pregabalin increased normalized intensity in low spectral indices, most prominent in the theta band (3.5-7.5Hz), difference of -3.18, 95%CI -3.57, -2.80; P = 0.03. No changes in spectral indices were seen for placebo. The maximum difference between pregabalin and placebo treated patients were seen in the parietal region, with a classification accuracy of 85.7% (P = 0.009). Individual changes in EEG indices were correlated to changes in pain diary (P = 0.04) and BPI pain composite scores (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Changes in spectral indices caused by slowing of brain oscillations were identified as a biomarker for the central analgesic effect of pregabalin. The developed methodology may provide perspectives to assess individual responses to treatment in personalized medicine.

  14. Fingolimod-Associated Peripheral Vascular Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Margherita; Guarneri, Claudio; Mazzon, Emanuela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    Fingolimod is the first oral disease-modifying drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The drug is usually well tolerated, and common adverse effects include bradycardia, headache, influenza, diarrhea, back pain, increased liver enzyme levels, and cough. Fingolimod is thought to provide therapeutic benefit by preventing normal lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thus reducing the infiltration of autoaggressive lymphocytes into the central nervous system. However, because the drug acts on different sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, it may induce several biological effects by influencing endothelial cell-cell adhesion, angiogenesis, vascular development, and cardiovascular function. We describe a patient with multiple sclerosis who, after 3 weeks of fingolimod administration, developed purplish blotches over the dorsal surface of the distal phalanges of the second and fifth digits and the middle phalanx of the fourth ray, itching, and edema on his left hand, without other evident clinical manifestations. When fingolimod therapy was discontinued, the clinical picture regressed within a few days but reappeared after a rechallenge test. Physicians should be aware of unexpected peripheral vascular adverse effects due to fingolimod use, and patients with vascular-based acropathies should be carefully screened and monitored when taking this drug. PMID:26349949

  15. Participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of fentanyl in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues A.R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of several K+ channel blockers such as glibenclamide, tolbutamide, charybdotoxin (ChTX, apamin, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, and cesium on the ability of fentanyl, a clinically used selective µ-opioid receptor agonist, to promote peripheral antinociception. Antinociception was measured by the paw pressure test in male Wistar rats weighing 180-250 g (N = 5 animals per group. Carrageenan (250 µg/paw decreased the threshold of responsiveness to noxious pressure (delta = 188.1 ± 5.3 g. This mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced by fentanyl (0.5, 1.5 and 3 µg/paw in a peripherally mediated and dose-dependent fashion (17.3, 45.3 and 62.6%, respectively. The selective blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels glibenclamide (40, 80 and 160 µg/paw and tolbutamide (80, 160 and 240 µg/paw dose dependently antagonized the antinociception induced by fentanyl (1.5 µg/paw. In contrast, the effect of fentanyl was unaffected by the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker ChTX (2 µg/paw, the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker apamin (10 µg/paw, or the non-specific K+ channel blocker TEA (150 µg/paw, 4-AP (50 µg/paw, and cesium (250 µg/paw. These results extend previously reported data on the peripheral analgesic effect of morphine and fentanyl, suggesting for the first time that the peripheral µ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive effect of fentanyl depends on activation of ATP-sensitive, but not other, K+ channels.

  16. Participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of fentanyl in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.R.A., Rodrigues; M.S.A., Castro; J.N., Francischi; A.C., Perez; I.D.G., Duarte.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of several K+ channel blockers such as glibenclamide, tolbutamide, charybdotoxin (ChTX), apamin, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and cesium on the ability of fentanyl, a clinically used selective µ-opioid receptor agonist, to promote peripheral antin [...] ociception. Antinociception was measured by the paw pressure test in male Wistar rats weighing 180-250 g (N = 5 animals per group). Carrageenan (250 µg/paw) decreased the threshold of responsiveness to noxious pressure (delta = 188.1 ± 5.3 g). This mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced by fentanyl (0.5, 1.5 and 3 µg/paw) in a peripherally mediated and dose-dependent fashion (17.3, 45.3 and 62.6%, respectively). The selective blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels glibenclamide (40, 80 and 160 µg/paw) and tolbutamide (80, 160 and 240 µg/paw) dose dependently antagonized the antinociception induced by fentanyl (1.5 µg/paw). In contrast, the effect of fentanyl was unaffected by the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker ChTX (2 µg/paw), the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker apamin (10 µg/paw), or the non-specific K+ channel blocker TEA (150 µg/paw), 4-AP (50 µg/paw), and cesium (250 µg/paw). These results extend previously reported data on the peripheral analgesic effect of morphine and fentanyl, suggesting for the first time that the peripheral µ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive effect of fentanyl depends on activation of ATP-sensitive, but not other, K+ channels.

  17. Noninterventional Study of Transdermal Fentanyl (Fentavera) Matrix Patches in Chronic Pain Patients: Analgesic and Quality of Life Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Heim, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl is considered to be an effective, transdermal treatment of chronic, cancer, and noncancer pain. This noninterventional, clinical practice-based study, on 426 patients attending 42 practices, assessed a proprietary, Aloe vera-containing, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch (Fentavera), for its analgesic effects, patients' quality of life (QoL) effects, tolerability, and adhesiveness. Study outcomes were mean changes from baseline of patient (11-point scales) and physician (5-point scale...

  18. Effect of Celecoxib on the Peripheral NO Production

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Hassanzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Objective(s)Celecoxib acts through both COX-2-dependent and -independent pathways. According to the paradoxical effect of NO on the inflammatory and nociceptive signal processing, the present study designed to evaluate the probable contribution of NO in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of celecoxib. Materials and MethodsDifferent intensities of inflammatory pain were induced by acute and chronic sc administration of 1%, 2.5%, or 5% formalin and spectrophotometrical analysis of t...

  19. Analgesic effect of a broad-spectrum dihydropyridine inhibitor of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Vinicius M; Bladen, Chris; Zhang, Fang Xiong; Chen, Lina; Gündüz, Miyase Gözde; ?im?ek, Rahime; ?afak, Cihat; Zamponi, Gerald W

    2015-12-01

    Voltage-activated calcium channels are important facilitators of nociceptive transmission in the primary afferent pathway. Consequently, molecules that block these channels are of potential use as pain therapeutics. Our group has recently reported on the identification of a novel class of dihydropyridines (DHPs) that included compounds with preferential selectivity for T-type over L-type channels. Among those compounds, M4 was found to be an equipotent inhibitor of both Cav1.2 L- and Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels. Here, we have further characterized the effects of this compound on other types of calcium channels and examined its analgesic effect when delivered either spinally (i.t.) or systemically (i.p.) to mice. Both delivery routes resulted in antinociception in a model of acute pain. Furthermore, M4 was able to reverse mechanical hyperalgesia produced by nerve injury when delivered intrathecally. M4 retained partial activity when delivered to Cav3.2 null mice, indicating that this compound acts on multiple targets. Additional whole-cell patch clamp experiments in transfected tsA-201 cells revealed that M4 also effectively blocks Cav3.3 (T-type) and Cav2.2 (N-type) currents. Altogether, our data indicate that broad-spectrum inhibition of multiple calcium channel subtypes can lead to potent analgesia in rodents. PMID:26286466

  20. Health-related quality of life and its predictive role for analgesic effect in patients with painful polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Marit; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S; Sindrup, Søren H

    2007-01-01

    Painful polyneuropathy is a common neuropathic pain condition. The present study describes health-related quality of life (HRQL) in a sample of patients with painful polyneuropathy of different origin and the possible predictive role of HRQL for analgesic effect. Ninety-three patients with a diagnosis of painful polyneuropathy were included in the analysis. Data were obtained from three randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over studies testing the effect of different drugs on polyneuropathic pai...

  1. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: The influence of emotion and cognitive style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a superior analgesic effect of favorite music over other passive or active distractive tasks. However, it is unclear what mediates this effect. In this study we investigated to which extent distraction, emotional valence and cognitive styles may explain part of the relationship. Forty-eight healthy volunteers received heat stimuli during an active mental arithmetic task (PASAT), and passive listening to music (Mozart), environmental sounds (rain and water), and contro...

  2. Synthesis and analgesic effects of new pyrrole derivatives of phencyclidine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Solati, Jalal; Hajikhani, Ramin; Pakzad, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Phencyclidine (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine, CAS 956-90-1, PCP, I) and many of its analogues have shown some pharmacological effects. In this study, new pyrrole derivatives of I (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrole, II and 1-[1-(4-methylphenyl)(cyclohexyl)]pyrrole, III) and their intermediates were synthesized and the acute and chronic pains were examined on mice using tail immersion (as a model of acute thermal pain) and formalin (as a model of acute and chronic chemical pain) tests and the results were compared with the PCP and control groups. The results indicated that III generated higher analgesic effects in the tail immersion test compared to the PCP and control (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) groups, demonstrating a marked and significant increase in tail immersion latency, but this effect was not observed for II in the dose of 1 mg/kg. The formalin test showed that III was effective in acute chemical pain (phase I, 0-5 min after injection), but was not effective for II at the same dosage compared to the PCP and control groups. Also chronic pain will be significantly attenuated by III but II was not effective as compared to the other groups. It is concluded that substitution of the aromatic pyrrole ring instead of piperidine in the PCP molecule will not be effective alone in tail immersion and formalin tests but the addition of a methyl group (with high electron donating and dipole moments) on the phenyl group plus substitution of the aromatic pyrrole ring can be effective in acute and chronic pain compared to the PCP and control groups. PMID:21755813

  3. Efecto del zumo de Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) en modelos de analgesia / Effect of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) in analgesic models

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nora, Sánchez Rodríguez; Margarita, Bu Wong; Héctor, Pérez-Saad; Gloria, Lara Fernández; Isidoro, Scull.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) ha despertado gran interés y expectativa dentro de la población cubana debido a las propiedades medicinales que se le atribuyen. Investigaciones realizadas evidencian las propiedades analgésicas de algunas de sus partes. Objetivos: evaluar el efecto del zum [...] o de noni en diferentes modelos de analgesia. Métodos: se utilizaron dosis (450, 900 y 1 800 mg/kg) del zumo de noni, a partir de contenido en peso seco; se administró por vía intraperitoneal a ratones OF1 en el modelo de irritación peritoneal por ácido acético 0,6 % y se cuantificó el número de contorsiones o estiramientos. Además, se utilizó el modelo del plato caliente y el de la retirada de la cola. Resultados: el zumo de noni fue efectivo de manera dependiente de la dosis en reducir el número de contorsiones inducidas por el ácido acético. En los modelos del plato caliente y de retirada de la cola, solo la dosis más alta prolongó de manera estadísticamente significativa el tiempo de reacción. Conclusiones: los resultados sugieren que el efecto analgésico de noni es fundamentalmente de mecanismo periférico. Abstract in english Introduction: Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) has aroused great interest and expectations in the Cuban population due to attributed medicinal properties. Several research works have suggested the analgesic effect of several parts of the plant. Objectives: to evaluate the effect of Noni juice in differe [...] nt analgesic models. Methods: there were used 450, 900, and 1 800 mg/kg doses of the juice, based on the dry content weight. They were administered intraperitonealy to adult male mice OF1 in the peritoneal irritation model induced by acetic acid at 0.6 % concentration, and the number of contorsions or stretchings was quantified. Additionally, the hot plate and the tail immersed in hot water models were applied. Results: the noni juice was effective in reducing the number of contortions induced by the acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. Just the highest dose of the juice increased significantly the time of reaction in the hot plate and in the tail immersion test. Conclusions: these results suggest that the analgesic effect of Noni juice is basically peripheral.

  4. Effects of some analgesic anaesthetic drugs on human erythrocyte glutathione reductase: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Murat; Irfan Kufrevioglu, O; Ciftci, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    Inhibitory effects of some analgesic and anaesthetic drugs on human erythrocyte glutathione reductase were investigated. For this purpose, human erythrocyte glutathione reductase was initially purified 2139-fold in a yield of 29% by using 2', 5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity gel and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis confirmed the purity of the enzyme by sharing a single band. A constant temperature (+4 degrees C) was maintained during the purification process. Diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, tenoxicam, etomidate, morphine and propofol exhibited inhibitory effects on the enzyme in vitro using the Beutler assay method. K(i) constants and IC(50) values for drugs were determined from Lineweaver-Burk graphs and plotting activity % versus [I] graphs, respectively. The IC(50) values of diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, propofol, tenoxicam, etomidate and morphine were 7.265, 6.278, 0.3, 0.242, 0.082, 0.0523 and 0.0128 mM and the K(i) constants were 23.97 +/- 2.1, 22.14 +/- 7.6, 0.42 +/- 0.18, 0.418 +/- 0.056, 0.13 +/- 0.025, 0.0725 +/- 0.0029 and 0.0165 +/- 0.0013 mM, respectively. While diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, tenoxicam etomidate and morphine showed competitive inhibition, propofol displayed noncompetitive inhibition. PMID:18608753

  5. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial on analgesic effect of nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GrØnbæk, Anni Birgitte; Svensson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sedative effect of nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2 O/O2 ) inhalation is relatively well established. Less in known about its analgesic effect. AIM: To determine the analgesic effect of N2 O/O2 inhalation on pulp sensitivity and jaw muscle pressure pain threshold in children. DESIGN: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial with random allocation to two sequences: atmospheric air at the first session and N2 O/O2 at the second; or N2 O/O2 at the first session and atmospheric air at the second. Measurements included reaction time, pulp pain sensitivity, jaw muscle pressure pain thresholds and a VAS score of overall discomfort from the pain tests. RESULTS: Fifty-six children (12-15 years) completed the study. N2 O/O2 inhalation increased reaction time (P 

  6. Different antinociceptive effects of botulinum toxin type A in inflammatory and peripheral polyneuropathic rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Guilmard, Christine; Auguet, Michel; Chabrier, Pierre-Etienne

    2009-09-01

    In addition to inhibition of acetylcholine release in the neuromuscular junction botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) also inhibits the release of mediators involved in pain perception. We have investigated the effect of two types of BoNT-A on mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat models of carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. A subplantar (s.p.) injection of BoNT-A in the ipsilateral hindpaw 3 days before carrageenan administration reduced hypersensitivity. Dysport and Botox elicited comparable antihyperalgesic effects. Dysport up to 30 U/kg and Botox up to 20 U/kg did not impair the rat withdrawal nociceptive reflex or the locomotor performance as assessed by the rotarod test. Intraperitoneal administration of the skeletal muscle relaxant dantrolene produced, in contrast to BoNT-A, more motor impairment than analgesia. Paclitaxel treatment resulted in a peripheral neuropathy that affected the two hindpaws. Injection of 20 U/kg (s.p.) Dysport produced a significant antihyperalgesic effect in the injected paw of neuropathic animals 3 days after administration. Unexpectedly, a similar analgesic effect was observed in the contralateral paw. The same results were also observed when Botox was used instead of Dysport. In contrast, a contralateral administration of Dysport in the carrageenan test was ineffective. We conclude that BoNT-A elicits antinociceptive effects independent of the effects on muscular relaxation. Our results suggest that different mechanisms of action are responsible for the effect of BoNT-A in inflammatory and peripheral polyneuropathic rat models. PMID:19576881

  7. Validación preclínica de actividad analgésica periférica y central de la decocción de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) y Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) / Preclinical validation of the peripheral and central analgesic activity of decoction of fresh leaves of Persea americana Mill. (avocado) and Musa x paradisiaca L. (banana)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Ibis, García Hernández; Marisol, López Barreiro; Zulema, Morejón Rodríguez; Elisa, Boucourt Rodríguez; María del Carmen, Victoria Amador; Ioanna, Martínez Hormaza; Lérida Lázara, Acosta de la Luz; Abel, Doménigo González; Gisselle, Brito Alvarez; Francisco J, Morón Rodríguez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) y Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano), son dos plantas medicinales que entre sus usos tradicionales reportados, se cita, el efecto beneficioso de la decocción de las hojas frescas de aguacate para la infección urinaria, tos, bronquitis y las de plátano par [...] a la gripe, tos e inflamación. Documentado por las encuestas TRAMIL. No se encontró información preclínica suficiente en las bases de datos: SciELO, CUMED, LIS CUBA y MEDLINE para validar sus usos. Objetivos: evaluar la actividad analgésica periférica y central preclínicas de la decocción al 30 % de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) y Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano). Métodos: se colectaron las hojas frescas de P. americana y M. paradisiaca y se realizaron las decocciones al 30 %. Se evaluó la actividad analgésica periférica mediante el modelo de contorsiones inducidas por ácido acético(writhing test), y la actividad analgésica central fue evaluada aplicando el modelo de retirada de la cola por inmersión en agua 55 ºC (tail flick) en ratones, con dosis de 1, 5, y 10 gramos de material vegetal/kg de peso corporal. Resultados: las decocciones de hojas frescas de P. americana y M. paradisiaca a las dosis estudiadas, inhibieron de forma significativa la respuesta dolorosa inducida por ácido acético con p=6,909e-08 y p=2,842e-03respectivamente. En la evaluación del tail flick, la decocción de hojas frescas de P. americana, tuvo una respuesta significativa no dosis dependiente a (5g/kg), con una p=7,018e-03; las otras dosis estudiadas y la decocción de M. paradisiaca no tuvieron respuesta significativa. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos permiten realizar la validación preclínica de la actividad analgésica periférica de la decocción de hojas frescas P. americana (aguacate) y M. paradisiaca (plátano), así como de la actividad analgésica central de P. americana, lo que avala su uso tradicional. Abstract in english Introduction: Persea americana Mill. (avocado) and Musa x paradisiaca L. (banana) are medicinal plants with traditional uses in folk medicine. Reports refer to the beneficial effects of a decoction of fresh leaves of avocado in the treatment of urinary infection, coughing and bronchitis. Decoction o [...] f banana fresh leaves is used to treat the flu, coughing and inflammation. This has been documented by TRAMIL surveys. The preclinical information found in the databases SciELO, CUMED, LIS CUBA and MEDLINE was not sufficient to validate the uses listed above. Objectives: evaluate the preclinical peripheral and central analgesic activity of a 30 % decoction of fresh leaves of Persea americana Mill. (avocado) and Musa x paradisiaca L. (banana). Methods: fresh leaves of P. americana and M. paradisiaca were collected and 30 % decoctions were prepared. Peripheral analgesic activity was evaluated with the acetic acid induced writhing model (writhing test), whereas central analgesic activity was assessed with the tail flick model in mice by immersion in 55 ºC water. The doses used were 1, 5 and 10 grams of plant material / kg of body weight. Results: decoctions of fresh leaves of P. americana and M. paradisiaca at the study doses significantly inhibited the painful response induced by acetic acid with p=6.909e-08 and p=2.842e-03, respectively. In the tail flick evaluation the decoction of fresh leaves of P. americana had a significant non-dose dependent response at 5g/kg with p=7.018e-03. A significant response was not obtained from the other doses studied or from the M. paradisiaca decoction. Conclusions: results permit the preclinical validation of the peripheral analgesic activity of the decoction of fresh leaves of P. americana (avocado) and M. paradisiaca (banana), as well as the central analgesic activity of P. americana, validating the traditional use of both plants.

  8. Superior Analgesic Effect of an Active Distraction versus Pleasant Unfamiliar Sounds and Music: The Influence of Emotion and Cognitive Style

    OpenAIRE

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain indu...

  9. Synthesis and Analgesic Effects of ?-TRTX-Hhn1b on Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ?-TRTX-Hhn1b (HNTX-IV is a 35-amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of the spider, Ornithoctonus hainana. It inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, which has been considered as a therapeutic target for pain. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the analgesic effects of synthetic ?-TRTX-Hhn1b on animal models of pain. The peptide was first synthesized and then successfully refolded/oxidized. The synthetic peptide had the same inhibitory effect on human Nav1.7 current transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells as the native toxin. Furthermore, the analgesic potentials of the synthetic peptide were examined on models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. ?-TRTX-Hhn1b produced an efficient reversal of acute nociceptive pain in the abdominal constriction model, and significantly reduced the pain scores over the 40-min period in the formalin model. The efficiency of ?-TRTX-Hhn1b on both models was equivalent to that of morphine. In the spinal nerve model, the reversal effect of ?-TRTX-Hhn1b on allodynia was longer and higher than mexiletine. These results demonstrated that ?-TRTX-Hhn1b efficiently alleviated acute inflammatory pain and chronic neuropathic pain in animals and provided an attractive template for further clinical analgesic drug design.

  10. [Postoperative non-opioid analgesics management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloeil, Hélène

    2015-06-01

    Morphine, which is known as the reference analgesic, has shown its limits. Reducing morphine consumption and multimodal analgesia are integral parts of a modern management of postoperative pain. Combination of several analgesics aims for improving pain control and the ratio between the analgesic effect and the side effects. Nefopam, paracetamol, non-steroids anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids are the most frequently prescribed non-opioid analgesics in France. They can be administered alone or in combination with or without morphine in the postoperative setting. The analgesic benefit of each of these agents and their associations is variable and described in details in this manuscript. PMID:25744948

  11. Effect of induced transverse chromatic aberration on peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Simon; Fathi, Mohammad Taghi; Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya; Rosén, Robert; Seidemann, Anne; Esser, Gregor; Lundström, Linda; Unsbo, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is one of the largest optical errors affecting the peripheral image quality in the human eye. However, the effect of chromatic aberrations on our peripheral vision is largely unknown. This study investigates the effect of prism-induced horizontal TCA on vision, in the central as well as in the 20° nasal visual field, for four subjects. Additionally, the magnitude of induced TCA (in minutes of arc) was measured subjectively in the fovea with a Vernier alignment method. During all measurements, the monochromatic optical errors of the eye were compensated for by adaptive optics. The average reduction in foveal grating resolution was about 0.032±0.005??logMAR/arcmin of TCA (mean±std). For peripheral grating detection, the reduction was 0.057±0.012??logMAR/arcmin. This means that the prismatic effect of highly dispersive spectacles may reduce the ability to detect objects in the peripheral visual field. PMID:26479929

  12. Analgesic effect of Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis and Piper methysticum for orofacial pain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Cristina, Nowacki; Paulo Roberto, Worfel; Paulo Francisco Arant, Martins; Rosane Sampaio dos, Santos; José, Stechman-Neto; Wesley Mauricio de, Souza.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate in vivo the association of hypericum Hypericum perforatum, valerian Valeriana officinalis and kava Piper methysticum with analgesia by assessing their effects in reducing orofacial pain as well as the possible hepatic, hematologic and biochemical alterations induced by regular admi [...] nistration of these extracts. METHODS: Orofacial pain was induced in mice with the administration of 2.5% formalin in the upper lip. After 60 min, the animals were treated with saline, carbamazepine and hydroalcoholic plant extracts. The nociceptive intensity was determined by the timing at which the animal remained rubbing the injected area. To assess the hepatotoxic effect, mice were chronically treated for 25 days with saline, carbamazepine and hydroalcoholic extract. The animals were euthanized and the liver weighed, followed by a differential count of leukocytes and measurement of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. RESULTS: The evaluation of analgesic activity in phase 1 reduced the time of rubbing compared to the control by 86% 0.05 mL/10 g and 76% 0.10 mL/10 g. In phase 2, the extracts reduced rubbing time by 94% and 85%, respectively. In the evaluation of alkaline phosphatase, the groups treated with extracts at doses of 0.05 mL/10 g and 0.1 mL/10 g increased by 16.1% and 9.5% compared to the control group and a reduction of 8.5% and 9.1% in the evaluation of alanine transaminase respectively. It was demonstrated that in the differential counts showed an increase in eosinophils in the treated group with 0.05 mL/10 g. CONCLUSIONS: The use of hydroalcoholic extract of the associated plants reduced the orofacial formalin-induced pain with better results than carbamazepine, at both the neural conductor level of pain phase 1 and in inflammatory or later pain phase 2 without presenting hepatotoxicity. The observed eosinophilia is suggestive of a phenomenon called hormesis.

  13. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Aithal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II. The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min. Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II, and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

  14. Absence of analgesic effect of intravenous melatonin administration during daytime after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Kücükakin, Bülent; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether melatonin administered intraoperatively reduced pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. SETTING: Two surgical departments in Copenhagen. PATIENTS: 44 women between 18 and 70 years of age, who were surgical candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were anesthetized by a standard protocol and received a standard multimodal postoperative analgesic regimen. Patients ...

  15. Induction of anesthesia in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elif, Basagan-Mogo; Suna, Goren; Gulsen, Korfali; Gurkan, Turker; Fatma Nur, Kaya.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine by comparing it with propofol starting at the induction of anesthesia until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. INTRODUCTION: A [...] nesthetic induction and maintenance may induce myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. A primary goal in the anesthesia of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is both the attenuation of sympathetic responses to noxious stimuli and the prevention of hypotension. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were randomized to receive either ketamine 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K) or propofol 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group P) during induction of anesthesia. Patients also received standardized doses of midazolam, fentanyl, and rocuronium in the induction sequence. The duration of anesthesia from induction to skin incision and sternotomy, as well as the supplemental doses of fentanyl and sevoflurane, were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, stroke work index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indices were obtained before induction of anesthesia; one minute after induction; one, three, five, and ten minutes after intubation; one minute after skin incision; and at one minute after sternotomy. RESULTS: There were significant changes in the measured and calculated hemodynamic variables when compared to their values before induction. One minute after induction, mean arterial pressure and the systemic vascular resistance index decreased significantly in group P (p

  16. Altered Frequency Distribution in the Electroencephalogram is Correlated to the Analgesic Effect of Remifentanil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Carina; Malver, Lasse P

    2015-01-01

    Opioids alter resting state brain oscillations by multiple and complex factors, which are still to be elucidated. To increase our knowledge, multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was subjected to multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to identify the most descriptive frequency bands and scalp locations altered by remifentanil in healthy volunteers. Sixty-two channels of resting EEG followed by independent measures of pain scores to heat and bone pain were recorded in 21 healthy males before and during remifentanil infusion in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. EEG frequency distributions were extracted by a continuous wavelet transform and normalized into delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Alterations relative to pre-treatment responses were calculated for all channels and used as input to the MVPA. Compared to placebo, remifentanil increased the delta band and decreased the theta and alpha band oscillations as a mean over all channels (all p ? 0.007). The most discriminative channels in these frequency bands were F1 in delta (83.33%, p = 0.0023) and theta bands (95.24%, p < 0.0001), and C6 in the alpha band (80.95%, p = 0.0054). These alterations were correlated to individual changes in heat pain in the delta (p = 0.045), theta (p = 0.038) and alpha (p = 0.039) bands and to bone pain in the alpha band (p = 0.0092). Hence, MVPA of multi-channel EEG was able to identify frequency bands and corresponding channels most sensitive to altered brain activity during remifentanil treatment. As the EEG alterations were correlated to the analgesic effect, the approach may prove to be a novel methodology for monitoring individual efficacy to opioids.

  17. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of calcitonin on neuropathic pain interacting with its peripheral receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Akitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is clinically well known for its ability to relieve neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome. Mechanisms for its analgesic effect, however, remain unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism of anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Results Subcutaneous injection of elcatonin, a synthetic derivative of eel calcitonin, relieved hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the CCI provoked the upregulation of tetrodotoxin (TTX-sensitive Nav.1.3 mRNA and downregulation of TTX-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA on the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion (DRG, which would consequently increase the excitability of peripheral nerves. These changes were reversed by elcatonin. In addition, the gene expression of the calcitonin receptor and binding site of 125I-calcitonin was increased at the constricted peripheral nerve tissue but not at the DRG. The anti-hyperalgesic effect and normalization of sodium channel mRNA by elcatonin was parallel to the change of the calcitonin receptor expression. Elcatonin, however, did not affect the sensitivity of nociception or gene expression of sodium channel, while it suppressed calcitonin receptor mRNA under normal conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that the anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin on CCI rats could be attributable to the normalization of the sodium channel expression, which might be exerted by an unknown signal produced at the peripheral nerve tissue but not by DRG neurons through the activation of the calcitonin receptor. Calcitonin signals were silent in the normal condition and nerve injury may be one of triggers for conversion of a silent to an active signal.

  18. The analgesic effect of Magnesium Sulfate in postoperative pain of inguinal hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehraein A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4 has been used as a pharmacologic agent in different situations for many years in the treatment of tachyarrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, preeclampsia, and tocolysis among others. The analgesic effect of MgSO4 for postoperative pain has been used since the 1990s. Postoperative pain is one of the most common complications in the perioperative period and can result in serious consequences in different organs if left untreated. Inguinal herniorrhaphy is among the most common surgeries and is almost always accompanied by severe pain. The object of this study is to determine the effect of a pre-induction infusion of MgSO4 on the reduction of postsurgical pain after herniorrhaphy. Methods: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial included 105 ASA class I and class II herniorrhaphy patients at Shariati Hospital in years 2004 and 2005. For statistical analysis, the ?2 and T tests were used. The patients were divided into three groups based on block randomization. Patients in the following groups received: Group A, 200 ml of normal saline infusion (placebo; Group B, 25 mg/kg MgSO4 in 200 ml of normal saline; Group C, 50 mg/kg MgSO4 in 200 ml of normal saline. All groups were infused twenty minutes before induction of anesthesia using identical methods and dosage in all three groups. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP at pre- and postintubation and so at skin incision time were charted. Visual analog scale (VAS pain score, nausea, vomiting and the amount of morphine used before recovery room discharge and in six, twelve and twenty-four hours after recovery discharge was recorded. Results: The average age for the different groups was as follows: Group A: 33.6, Group B: 37.37, Group C: 32.74. Nausea and vomiting between the case and control groups were not statistically different (60% vs. 71.4%, p=0.0499, nor was the amount of Morphine used. On recovery room discharge, the VAS scores were 8.1, 7.2, and 5.5 for the first, second and third groups, respectively (P<0.001. However, no statistical significance was found for the VAS scores six hours after recovery room discharge. Conclusion: The results in this study show that pre-induction with MgSO4 has no remarkable effect on decreasing postoperative pain or morphine use for inguinal herniorrhaphy.

  19. Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, and Anti-pyretic Effects of Origanum majorana Ethanolic Extract in Experimental Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, various biological studies (toxicological, pharmacological, biochemical and histopathological) were carried out on Origanum majorana ethanolic extract. The acute toxicity study revealed that 0. majorana ethanolic extract is quietly safe. Both doses (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt.) of 0. majorana ethanolic extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory (acute and systemic), analgesic, and anti-pyretic effect. Moreover, histopathological findings of stomach and intestine of irradiated rats revealed that both doses of tested extract possess a gastrointestinal protective effect against radiation induced gastritis and enteritis

  20. Discovery of new orally effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory hybrid furoxanyl N-acylhydrazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Paola; Cabrera, Mauricio; Lavaggi, María Laura; Celano, Laura; Tiscornia, Inés; Rodrigues da Costa, Thiago; Thomson, Leonor; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Lima, Lidia M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2012-03-15

    We report the design, the synthesis and the biological evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of furoxanyl N-acylhydrazones (furoxanyl-NAH) by applying molecular hybridization approach. Hybrid compounds with IL-8-release inhibition capabilities were identified. Among them, furoxanyl-NAH, 17, and benzofuroxanyl-derivative, 24, together with furoxanyl-NAH derivative, 31, without IL-8 inhibition displayed both orally analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These hybrid derivatives do not have additional LOX- or COX-inhibition activities. For instance, LOX-inhibition by furoxanyl-NAH derivative, 42, emerged as a structural lead to develop new inhibitors. The lack of mutagenicity of the active derivatives 17, 31, and 42, allow us to propose them as candidates for further clinical studies. These results confirmed the success in the exploitation of hybridization strategy for identification of novel N-acylhydrazones (NAH) with optimized activities. PMID:22356737

  1. Antiinflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss. and Hohen. Extracts and Examination of their Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohajer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of total extract and four fractions (ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water from Phlomis lanceolata (Lamiaceae in mice. The plant material was extracted with methanol. In order to estimate the polarity of the active compounds, the total extract was dissolved in water and the water soluble portion was successively partitioned between ether, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol. The total extract and four fractions were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC by use of specific reagents. Dose of 100 mg kg 1 of each extracts were used in carrageenan-induced paw edema, formalin and writhing nociception tests in mice. All compounds reduced paw edema in comparison to the control group at 1, 3, 5 and 7 h post carrageenan injection. The total, ether and aqueous extracts were similar to indomethacin while the ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in reduction of paw edema. All extracts induced antinociception in both phases of formalin test. The total and ether extracts were as potent as indomethacin in both phases of formalin test. The ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin-test while the n-butanol and aqueous extracts showed more antinociception than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin test. All extracts as well as indomethacin induced antinociception in writhing test in comparison to control. The total and aqueous extracts induced the same antinociception as indomethacin while ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol showed weaker antinociception than indomethacin. Positive results for iridoids and phenolic compounds were indicated by phytochemical analysis of total extract. Phenolic compounds were found in four fractions whereas only n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed positive results for iridoid glycosides. The higher antinociceptive effects of n-butanol and aqueous extracts in the inflammatory phase of formalin test among different extracts tested, might back to the presence of iridoid glycosides, phenolic glycosides or other glycosides. These data suggest that different extracts of P. lanceolata produce different antinociceptive activities that could be due to the effect of one or a combination of the bioactive components in each extract.

  2. Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of carprofen in medetomidine premedicated dogs undergoing ovariectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seliškar Alenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of pre-operative administration of carprofen were investigated in 16 medetomidine-premedicated dogs undergoing elective ovariectomy. Dogs were randomly allocated into carprofen (n=8; 4 mg/kg, intramuscularly or placebo group (n = 8. After medetomidine (1000 [xg/m2, intramuscularly premedication, they were induced with propofol (1 mg/kg, intravenously and maintained with isoflurane (FE'ISO 1.0 % in 100% oxygen. During anaesthesia, the analgesia was assessed in terms of changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure as a response to the surgery. Assessments of post-operative sedation (simple numerical rating scale and pain (multifactorial pain scale were made at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1,2,3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after the surgery. In addition, pulse rate, respiratory rate and body temperature were measured at the same time. During anaesthesia, lower heart rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial blood pressure and higher tidal volume of respiration were observed in the carprofen group. Post-operative pain score was relatively low in both groups of dogs, however it was higher, but not significantly, in the placebo group. There was no difference between the groups in terms of respiratory and pulse rate after surgery. The post-operative sedation score was higher in the placebo group only in the early post-operative period most probably due to misinterpretation of pain behaviour. Carprofen together with other anaesthetic drugs provided sufficient intra-operative analgesia only until major painful surgical stimulus occurred, after which analgesia had to be supplemented with a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine. Comparing to that analgesia was insufficient in the placebo group throughout the procedure. The post-operative pain scoring system was probably not sensitive enough to detect the differences between the groups; however, the effects of other drugs that extended in the post-operative period may be responsible for a low post­operative pain score in both groups of dogs.

  3. Relevancia clínica de las acciones tópicas de los opioides / Clinical relevance of peripheral opioid effects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Carvajal Valdy.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de una práctica frecuente en algunos centros, es aún poca la evidencia que justifica el uso de formulaciones tópicas a base de un enfoque local en el tratamiento analgésico de condiciones dolorosas consiste en aplicar medicamentos localmente en el sitio de origen del dolor. Esto puede alcan [...] zarse mediante la aplicación tópica de una crema, loción, gel, aerosol o parche para sitios somáticos o mediante la utilización de enjuagues en el caso de lesiones de la mucosa oral. Estos métodos de aplicación permiten una mayor concentración local del fármaco en el sitio de iniciación del dolor y disminuye los niveles sistémicos del fármaco a niveles mínimos o insignificantes, teóricamente disminuyendo el riesgo de efectos adversos sistémicos. El presente artículo pretende revisar información clínica y preclínica relevante para la prescripción de opioides tópicos. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27:(2)59-65) Abstract in english Although it is a common practice in some centers, there is still little evidence that validates the use of topical analgesic formulations based on opioids for treatment painful skin and mucous conditions. A local focus on the analgesic treatment of painful conditions consists of applying drugs direc [...] tly in the peripheral site of pain origin. This can be achieved through the topical application of a cream, lotion, gel, spray or patch for somatic sites or through the use of mouthwash in the case of lesions of the oral mucosa. These methods allow a greater local concentration of the drug at the painful site and decrease the systemic levels of the medication to minimum or negligible levels, theoretically reducing the risk of systemic adverse effects. This article aims to review relevant clinical and preclinical information on topical opioid prescribing. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27:(2)59-65)

  4. Orexin type 1 receptor antagonism in rat locus coeruleus prevents the analgesic effect of intra-LC met-enkephalin microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, S; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2015-09-01

    Long-term administration of opiates leads to development of tolerance to analgesic effects. This in turn compromise clinical use of these drugs for pain management. Although extensive studies have been conducted, the involved cellular mechanisms are still poorly understood. The nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), which is a dense homogenous cluster of noradrenergic neurons in brainstem, has been reported to be involved in mediating opiate effects including analgesia and tolerance. LC neurons express a high density of opioid receptors. On the other hand, orexinergic neurons send widespread projections to the LC region. Among the two types of orexin receptors (OX1R and OX2R), OX1R is highly expressed in LC neurons. It has been shown that orexin-A is involved in modulation of nociceptive behavior. Also, previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of OX1R in the development of morphine induced analgesia and tolerance. In the present study, the involvement of OX1R in development of met-enkephalin (ME) analgesic tolerance was investigated in LC nucleus. The tail flick test was used to evaluate the analgesic effect of intra-LC microinjection of ME in male Wistar rats (250-300g). Analgesic responses were reported as the percentage of maximum possible effect (% of MPE). Also, SB-334867 was used as a selective OX1R antagonist. Results indicate that intra-LC microinjection of ME (5?g/100nL) results in development of analgesic tolerance in 3days. Also, OX1R antagonism in LC nucleus significantly prevents the analgesic effect of intra-LC met-enkephalin microinjection. It appears that the analgesic effect of ME in LC neurons is mediated by orexinergic system. PMID:26210888

  5. Analgesic Effect of Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Three Congolese Medicinal Plants: Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum

    OpenAIRE

    N. Okiemy-Andissa; M.L. Miguel; A.W. Etou; Ouamba, J M; M. Gbeassor; A.A. Abena

    2004-01-01

    Analgesic effect of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of aeral parts of Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum, three plants used in congolese folk medicine in pain, were tested on acetic acid and hot plate tests. All extracts manifest analgesic effect on the two models used. The more active was the hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum gratissimum which is not antagonized by naloxone and could potentiate analgesic effect of paracetamol.

  6. [Analgesic effect and toxicity of 3,15-diacetylbenzoylaconine and comparison with its analogues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P; Yang, Y R; Zhang, W P; Wang, H C; Lao, A N

    1994-05-01

    3, 15-Diacetylbenzoylaconine (Dia) is a new aconite alkaloid derivative. The analgesic ED50 (95% confidence limit) of sc Dia measured with the HAc-induced writhing method, hot-plate method and electric stimulation method in mice were 2.76 (2.34-3.26), 3.50 (2.69-4.54), and 4.20 (3.72-4.73) mg.kg-1, respectively. With the hot-plate method and tail flick method in rats, the analgesic ED50 of ip Dia were 2.75 (2.28-3.31) and 5.24 (4.35-6.31) mg.kg-1, respectively. The LD50 of sc Dia in mice and ip Dia in rats were 21.68 (17.25-27.25) and 10.96 (8.24-14.56) mg.kg-1, respectively. The magnitude of the analgesic therapeutic indices of Dia, 3-acetylaconitine (Ace) and aconitine (Aco) in all the above-mentioned algo-model were in the order of Dia > Ace > Aco. When they were injected iv at 0.1 ml.min-1 in rats, the doses of Dia, Ace, and Aco producing arrythmia were 3.3, 0.8, and 0.5 times as large as those producing analgesia while those of Dia, Ace, and Aco inducing respiratory inhibition were 3.9, 0.5 and 0.3 times, respectively. The magnitudes of the oil/water distribution coefficients with two method and the quotient ED50 icv/ED50 sc of Dia and Ace were > Aco. PMID:7976379

  7. Analgesic Treatment in Patients With Acute Extremity Trauma and Effect of Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda KARBEK AKARCA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies indicate that emergency physicians (EP under-evaluate and undertreat the pain experienced by their patients. The objective of this study was to investigate how EPs treat pain in adult patients with limb trauma and to determine if their behavior could be affected by training in the short-term. Methods: All consecutive adult patients admitted to the university-based emergency department (ED within two months were enrolled in the study. The patients were asked to rate their level of pain on the NRS in triage. NRS scores were noted again after 30 minutes and 60 minutes, and on discharge. Patient prescriptions were also tracked to identify any analgesics. After completion of the pre-education phase, four hours of training on pain evaluation and treatment were undertaken under the leadership of experienced staff faculty. The aforementioned outcomes were gathered again in a 30-day period after training and we compared the pre and post training periods. Results: A hundred and forty-three patients (81 female were enrolled in the pre-education phase, and 130 patients (58 female were eligible for the post-education phase. The mean NRS scores of the females noted on admission were significantly higher than those of the males (7.4±2.3 vs. 6.7±2.5, respectively; p=0.020. Patients included in the first phase received analgesia less frequently (42.7% vs. 70.0%, respectively; p<0.001. The mean period of time between admission and initial analgesic administration was shorter in the second phase (41.3 vs. 19.3 minutes, respectively; p<0.001. The ratio of patients receiving analgesia within thirty minutes was greater after training. All patients in the second phase received analgesia within 60 minutes. The residents prescribed analgesics more frequently after training. Conclusions: A four-hour training program resulted in apparent changes in the residents’ management of pain in patients with extremity trauma. In addition to a more timely administration, the rates of analgesic treatment increased.

  8. Efecto analgésico del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Analgesic effect of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Barzaga Fernández

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Drogas con capacidad de inhibir la síntesis o acción de mediadores como los eicosanoides, histamina, bradicinina, entre otras, impiden la acción sensibilizadora de éstos sobre las terminaciones nerviosas nociceptivas. Teniendo en cuenta la actividad antiinflamatoria demostrada del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L., fue objetivo de este trabajo evaluar sus propiedades analgésicas en modelos animales. Dosis de O. tenuiflorum de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg fueron evaluadas en modelos de inducción del dolor por vías química y térmica. Como resultado de este estudio se obtuvo que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O tenuiflorum mostró efecto analgésico en los modelos del plato caliente a la dosis de 1 000 mg/kg; en el de contorsiones por ácido acético en ratones y foco calorífico en ratas a las dosis de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg. Estos resultados indicaron que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O. tenuiflorum ejerce un efecto antinociceptivo, preferentemente sobre la vía periférica.Drugs with the capacity of inhibiting the synthesis or action of mediators such as eikosanoids, histamine, bradycine, and others, hinder the sensitizing action of them on the nociceptive nervous terminationes. Taking into account the shown antiinflammatory activity of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., it was the objective of this paper to evaluate the analgesic properties of it in animal models. Doses of O. tenuiflorum of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were evaluated in pain-induction models by chemical and thermic ways. As a result of this study it was observed that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum. had an analgesic effect in the hot dish model at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg, and in that of contortions by acetic acid in mice and calorific focus in rats at doses of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg. These results indicated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum has an antinociceptive effect, mainly on the peripheral pathway.

  9. Efecto analgésico del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L. / Analgesic effect of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Barzaga Fernández; Yanier, Núñez Figueredo; Sarah, Agüero Fernández; Ismael, Chávez Hernández; María Lidia, González Sanabria; Yadira, Iser Valdés; Maylin, Olivera Carpio.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Drogas con capacidad de inhibir la síntesis o acción de mediadores como los eicosanoides, histamina, bradicinina, entre otras, impiden la acción sensibilizadora de éstos sobre las terminaciones nerviosas nociceptivas. Teniendo en cuenta la actividad antiinflamatoria demostrada del extracto acuoso li [...] ofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L., fue objetivo de este trabajo evaluar sus propiedades analgésicas en modelos animales. Dosis de O. tenuiflorum de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg fueron evaluadas en modelos de inducción del dolor por vías química y térmica. Como resultado de este estudio se obtuvo que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O tenuiflorum mostró efecto analgésico en los modelos del plato caliente a la dosis de 1 000 mg/kg; en el de contorsiones por ácido acético en ratones y foco calorífico en ratas a las dosis de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg. Estos resultados indicaron que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O. tenuiflorum ejerce un efecto antinociceptivo, preferentemente sobre la vía periférica. Abstract in english Drugs with the capacity of inhibiting the synthesis or action of mediators such as eikosanoids, histamine, bradycine, and others, hinder the sensitizing action of them on the nociceptive nervous terminationes. Taking into account the shown antiinflammatory activity of the freeze-dried aqueous extrac [...] t of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., it was the objective of this paper to evaluate the analgesic properties of it in animal models. Doses of O. tenuiflorum of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were evaluated in pain-induction models by chemical and thermic ways. As a result of this study it was observed that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum. had an analgesic effect in the hot dish model at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg, and in that of contortions by acetic acid in mice and calorific focus in rats at doses of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg. These results indicated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum has an antinociceptive effect, mainly on the peripheral pathway.

  10. Effects of Alprazolam, Zolpidem and Zopiclone, and of chronic inflammation on peripheral experimental algesia in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrînc?, Mihaela; Mu?iu, Gabriela; Bogdan, Maria; Dobjanschi, Luciana; Antonescu, Angela; Mo?, Ioana; Mure?an, Mariana; Zdrînc?, M; Antonescu, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    In the literature, there are some data which indicate that benzodiazepines and other chemical compounds with the same mechanism of action (Diazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Lorazepam, Zopiclone, etc.) also have other effects. We investigated the effects of experimental chronic inflammation under the administration of some tranquilizers and hypnotics on peripheral algesia induced in rats by "writhing test". Chronic inflammation was induced by "cotton wool granuloma" technique. The "writhing test" consisted in intraperitoneal injection of an irritant agent (acetic acid 0.0025%, 0.4 mL). The animal reacts with a characteristic stretching behavior called writhing. A writhe is indicated by stretching of the abdomen with simultaneous stretching of at least one hind limb. Then, the animals were placed individually into glass beakers and 5 minutes were allowed to elapse. The rats were then observed for a period of 10 minutes and the number of writhes is recorded for each animal. Three drugs were administered by gastric probe: Alprazolam 1 mg/kg, Zolpidem 10 mg/kg and Zopiclone 10 mg/kg. Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine derivative used as a tranquilizer. Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine with marked sedative-hypnotic effect and it has the same mechanism of action like benzodiazepines. Zopiclone is a cyclopyrrolone with sedative-hypnotic effect used as hypnotic and acts like benzodiazepines. After that, the animals were sacrificed and the weight of cotton wool granuloma was determined. In the same time, the histopatological aspect of granulomatous inflammation was studied. It was found that experimental proliferative inflammation under the action of these drugs was accompanied by a peripheral analgesic activity in "writhing test". The mechanisms of these effects are not fully elucidated. Some explanations are: they act as agonists or antagonists on algesia and inflammation mediators and they have a stimulating effect on peripheral ?3-benzodiazepine receptors ("peripheral-type" receptors). PMID:21424095

  11. Effect of analgesic nerve block electrical stimulation in a patient with adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Dawn T; Borger, Amy; McNamee, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Although the pathophysiology of adhesive capsulitis is poorly understood, the primary goal of therapeutic intervention is to restore pain-free, functional range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder. Pain and muscle guarding, particularly of the subscapularis muscle, are common impairments that occur with adhesive capsulitis. The purpose of this case report is to describe a novel approach to help the pain-muscle guarding-pain cycle associated with pain and limited shoulder motion in a patient with a medical diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. The patient was a 64-year-old female with adhesive capsulitis. Outcome variables were the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) ROM, and rotational lack. Twelve treatments of moist heat, analgesic nerve block electrical stimulation, contract/relax exercises for shoulder IR/ER, and Pendulum/Codman exercises were administered. After both 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, the patient demonstrated marked improvements in all areas. Overall, there was a 78-106% increase in ROM (IR and ER) and a 50-83% improvement in functional mobility (rotational lack & SPADI). It appears that analgesic electrical stimulation may have helped decrease the pain-muscle guarding cycle associated with adhesive capsulitis to enhance functional outcomes in a timely manner. PMID:17454799

  12. Absence of analgesic effect of intravenous melatonin administration during daytime after laparoscopic cholecystectomy : a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Kücükakin, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether melatonin administered intraoperatively reduced pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. SETTING: Two surgical departments in Copenhagen. PATIENTS: 44 women between 18 and 70years of age, who were surgical candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were anesthetized by a standard protocol and received a standard multimodal postoperative analgesic regimen. Patients undergoing surgery were admitted on the day of surgery and were discharged the day after surgery. Ten mg of intravenous (IV) melatonin or placebo were administered at the time of surgical incision. MEASUREMENTS: Pain was assessed by a set of questionnaires documenting "pain at rest" using a visual analog scale (VAS). The use of rescue medication was recorded. Sleep quality and general well-being were measured on separate VAS scales. Sleepiness was assessed by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-four patients were included and randomized to the study. Three patients did not complete the study. No differences in VAS pain scores, sleep quality, general well-being, or sleepiness were found between the two groups in the postoperative period. The use of postoperative rescue medication did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of 10mg of IV melatonin administered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy did not affect postoperative pain or use of analgesic medication.

  13. Phytochemical profile and analgesic evaluation of Vitex cymosa leaf extracts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzana Guimarães, Leitão; Tereza Cristina dos, Santos; Franco, Delle Monache; Maria Eline, Matheus; Patrícia Dias, Fernandes; Bruno Guimarães, Marinho.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitex cymosa Bertero ex Spreng., Lamiaceae, is found in Central and Amazon regions of Brazil, where it is popularly used as antirheumatic. Extracts from the leaves of V. cymosa were tested in analgesia models such as abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid and formalin to test peripheral analge [...] sia; as well as the tail flick and hot plate models, to test spinal and supraspinal analgesia. A significant reduction was observed in the number of contortions with all extracts and in all doses. In the formalin model, a reduction in the second phase (inflammatory) was observed with all extracts, whereas only the n-butanol extract was able to act in the first, neurogenic, phase. In the tail flick model, all extracts increased latency time. Naloxone treatment reverted analgesic effect of all extracts with the exception of the dichloromethane one. All extracts developed peripheral and central analgesic activity. In the hot plate model no antinociceptive effect was observed for all tested extracts. All these results taken together suggest that V. cymosa leaf extracts were able to promote peripheral and central antinociceptive activity mediated by the opioid system.Twenty three substances were isolated and identified in the extracts and include flavonoids (C-glucosyl flavones, flavones and flavonols), triterpene acids from ursane and oleanane types, iridoids (free and glucosides), as well as simple phenols.

  14. Effect of Erythropoietin on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, Mustafa; Gokmen, Necati; Yilmaz, Osman; Erbayraktar, Serhat; Alper BAGRIYANIK

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on a sciatic nerve injury model. The effect of single or repeated doses was also determined. Twenty-one Wistar rats were anesthetised and the sciatic nerve was transected 1 cm above the trifurcation and the nerve was repaired with four epineural 10/0 nylon sutures placed at 90 degrees intervals under microscope magnification.The rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the sham,the saline, the single dose EPO and the ...

  15. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of morphine after intravenous infusion in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Foster, David J R

    2014-01-01

    Using a modelling approach, this study aimed to (i) examine whether the pharmacodynamics of the analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of morphine differ; (ii) investigate the influence of demographic, pain sensitivity and genetic (OPRM1) variables on between-subject variability of morphine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in human experimental pain models. The study was a randomized, double-blind, 5-arm, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. The psychophysical cutaneous pain tests, electrical pain tolerance (EPTo) and secondary hyperalgesia areas (2HA) were studied in 28 healthy individuals (15 males). The subjects were chosen based on a previous trial where 100 subjects rated (VAS) their pain during a heat injury (47°C, 7 min., 12.5 cm(2) ). The 33% lowest- and highest pain-sensitive subjects were offered participation in the present study. A two-compartment linear model with allometric scaling for weight provided the best description of the plasma concentration-time profile of morphine. Changes in theEPTo and 2HA responses with time during the placebo treatment were best described by a linear model and a quadratic model, respectively. The model discrimination process showed clear evidence for adding between-occasion variability (BOV) on baseline and the placebo slope for EPTo and 2HA, respectively. The sensitivity covariate was significant on baseline EPTo values and genetics as a covariate on the placebo slope for 2HA. The analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of morphine were pharmacologically distinct as the models had different effect site equilibration half-lives and different covariate effects. Morphine had negligible effect on 2HA, but significant effect on EPTo.

  16. Effect of Erythropoietin on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa OZKAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of erythropoietin (EPO on a sciatic nerve injury model. The effect of single or repeated doses was also determined. Twenty-one Wistar rats were anesthetised and the sciatic nerve was transected 1 cm above the trifurcation and the nerve was repaired with four epineural 10/0 nylon sutures placed at 90 degrees intervals under microscope magnification.The rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the sham,the saline, the single dose EPO and the multiple dose EPO. The skin was incised and closed and no treatment was given in sham group. In the saline group, 1 mL saline was given intraperitoneally; in the single EPO group, 5000 U/kg EPO was given intraperitoneally immediately after the procedure. In the multiple EPO group, 5000 U/kg EPO was given after the procedure and the same dose was repeated after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks. Functional recovery was evaluated by static sciatic functional index(SSI.Single EPO group had greater myofibril size, axon number, diameter, and ratio M than the saline group. The multiple EPO treatment was not found to be more effective than single EPO treatment. However, no significant difference was found between the single EPO, multiple EPO, and saline groups based on the 3rd and 4th postoperative month SSI scores. Thus, EPO treatment increased axonal regeneration in our study. However, repeated dose therapy was not found to be more effective than single dose therapy. The optimum dose and duration should be researched in further studies.

  17. Analgesic effect of 30% glucose, milk and non-nutritive sucking in neonates

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    Kabiri M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nour Mekkaoui,1 Imane Issef,1 Meryem Kabiri,1,2 Amina Barkat1,31Neonatology and Intensive Care Unit, National Reference Center in Neonatology and Nutrition, Children’s Hospital of Rabat, Rabat; 2CRECET, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rabat; 3Research Team of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University, Souissi, Rabat, MoroccoBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate nondrug management practices concerning pain induced by blood sampling in newborns in a Moroccan neonatal unit and to determine whether the results reported from a randomized clinical study of nondrug analgesia could be reproduced in a routine care setting.Methods: Standardized prospective observation of analgesic practices used during blood sampling was performed. Pain was assessed using the Douleur Aiguë Nouveau-né (DAN, [Newborn Acute Pain] scale that incorporates facial expression, vocal expression, and limb movements of the newborn during realization of a painful procedure. Five different nondrug analgesic practices were investigated in 125 infants.Results: Median DAN scores for the five methods were 6 (1–10 for venous sampling with oral administration of 30% glucose, 5 (1–10 for venous sampling with sucking, 3 (0–6 for venous sampling with oral administration of 30% glucose combined with sucking, 4 (0–10 for venous sampling with oral administration of 30% glucose combined with sucking and administration of 2 mL of adapted infant formula, and 6 (3–8 for venous sampling with administration of 2 mL of adapted infant formula.Conclusion: Oral administration of 30% glucose combined with sucking provided better control of pain induced by blood sampling in newborns at our neonatal unit.Keywords: pain, neonate, assessment, 30% glucose, sucking

  18. Cerebral analgesic response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen.

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    Hodkinson, Duncan J; Khawaja, Nadine; O?Daly, Owen; Thacker, Michael A; Zelaya, Fernando O; Wooldridge, Caroline L; Renton, Tara F; Williams, Steven C R; Howard, Matthew A

    2015-07-01

    Nonopioid agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are the most commonly used class of analgesics. Increasing evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition at both peripheral and central sites can contribute to the antihyperalgesic effects of NSAIDs, with the predominant clinical effect being mediated centrally. In this study, we examined the cerebral response to ibuprofen in presurgical and postsurgical states and looked at the analgesic interaction between surgical state and treatment. We used an established clinical pain model involving third molar extraction, and quantitative arterial spin labelling (ASL) imaging to measure changes in tonic/ongoing neural activity. Concurrent to the ASL scans, we presented visual analogue scales inside the scanner to evaluate the subjective experience of pain. This novel methodology was incorporated into a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, with an open method of drug administration. We found that independent of its antinociceptive action, ibuprofen has no effect on regional cerebral blood flow under pain-free conditions (presurgery). However, in the postsurgical state, we observed increased activation of top-down modulatory circuits, which was accompanied by decreases in the areas engaged because of ongoing pain. Our findings demonstrate that ibuprofen has a measurable analgesic response in the human brain, with the subjective effects of pain relief reflected in two distinct brain networks. The observed activation of descending modulatory circuits warrants further investigation, as this may provide new insights into the inhibitory mechanisms of analgesia that might be exploited to improve safety and efficacy in pain management. PMID:25851460

  19. Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats

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    Zhao-Xiang Bian, Man Zhang, Quan-Bin Han, Hong-Xi Xu, Joseph JY Sung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021, a Chinese herbal formula, and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS: JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials. All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005. In a neonatal maternal separation (NMS model, male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14, or no specific handling (NH. Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered JCM-16021 (2, 4, 8 g/kg per day orally twice a day for 28 d. Pain threshold pressure and electromyographic activities of external oblique muscles in response to colorectal distention recorded with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International, were tested as pain indices. Changes in serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA concentrations in the colon of rats were analyzed; the enterochromaffin cell numbers and serotonin transporter in the colon of rats were also evaluated with an immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: NMS treatment significantly reduced pain threshold pressure (37.4 ± 1.4 mmHg, as compared to that of NH rats (57.7 ± 1.9 mmHg, P < 0.05. After JCM-16021 treatment, the pain threshold pressure significantly increased when compared to that before treatment (34.2 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 52.8 ± 2.3 mmHg in the high dose group, 40.2 ± 1.6 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.3 mmHg in the middle dose group, and 39.3 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.6 mmHg in the low dose group, P < 0.05. Also JCM-16021 significantly and dose-dependently decreased electromyographic activity to the graded colorectal distension (CRD, (the mean ?AUC values were: 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.06 ± 0.18, 1.22 ± 0.24 in the high dose group; 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.17, 1.27 ± 0.26, 1.8 ± 0.3 in the middle dose group; and 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.8 ± 0.16, 1.53 ± 0.24, 2.1 ± 0.21 in the low dose group for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg, as compared to the NMS vehicle group. The mean ?AUC values were: 0.57 ± 0.12, 1.33 ± 0.18, 2.57 ± 0.37, 3.08 ± 0.37 for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg (P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly reduced the 5-HT concentrations (from high, middle and low dosage groups: 60.25 ± 5.98 ng/100 mg, 60.32 ± 4.22 ng/100 mg, 73.31 ± 7.65 ng/100 mg, as compared to the NMS vehicle groups (93.11 ± 9.85 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; and increased the 5-HIAA concentrations (after treatment, from high, middle and low dosage groups: 54.24 ± 3.27 ng/100 mg, 50.34 ± 1.26 ng/100 mg, 51.37 ± 2.13 ng/100 mg when compared to that in the NMS vehicle group (51.75 ± 1.98 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; but did not change the enterochromaffin cell numbers in the colon of rats. In addition, NMS rats had higher SERT expression (n = 10 than NH rats (n = 8, P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly decreased SERT expression when compared to the NMS group (P < 0.01-0.001.CONCLUSION: JCM-16021 can attenuate visceral hypersensitivity, and this analgesic effect may be mediated through the serotonin signaling pathway in the colon of rats.

  20. Evaluation of efficacy of sedative and analgesic effects of single IV dose of dexmedetomidine in post-operative patients

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    Manasa CR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the post-operative period, it has always been an important consideration for clinicians, to keep the patient comfortable, calm and pain free. So there is a constant need for an ideal sedative for postoperative patients. Alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonists such as dexmedetomidine could provide an answer to this problem because they have several relevant physiological properties like sedation, anxiolysis, analgesia and arousability. Hence, the current study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in post-operative patients in order to avoid polypharmacy.Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who were operated under general anesthesia electively were randomly selected . All patients received 1 ?g/kg bodyweight of dexmedetomidine intravenously with normal saline making up to 10 ml over 20 minutes. If the verbal numerical scale (VNS of pain was mild (i.e. 1 to 3 one hour after extubation. The patients were assessed for degree and duration of sedation, hemodynamic changes, episodes of side effects, requirement of analgesics at every 5 min for first 30 min, every 10 min for next 1hr, every 15 min for next 1 h, and eve-ry 30 min for next 1h, every 1 h for 3h and 6th hourly till 24h. The need for rescue analgesic was noted.Results: The mean duration of sedation was 129.6 ± 41.02 min, degree of sedation was -1 at 30 min, duration of analgesia 241.5 min, and mean degree of analgesia was 0 at 30 min, mean degree of sedation was -1. Mean time of administration of rescue analgesia was 170 min. Mean heart rate was 67.8 ± 5.24/min and mean arterial pressure was 78.0 ± 8.97mm of Hg, mean respiratory rate was 15.8 ± 2.33 breaths/min, mean partial pressure of oxygen SpO2 was 99.5 ± 0.56%. No patient had any episode of shivering, vomiting, hypotension and respiratory depression.Conclusion: Single IV dose of dexmedetomidine could provide adequate sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects with no accompanying respiratory depression, thereby minimizing polypharmacy.

  1. Differential proteomics analysis of the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture intervention in the hippocampus following neuropathic pain in rats

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    Gao Yong-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is building steadily on the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy in pain relief and repeated acupuncture-induced pain relief is accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neural synaptic plasticity. To further test the cellular and molecular changes underlying analgesic effect of acupuncture, the global change of acupuncture associated protein profiles in the hippocampus under neuropathic pain condition was profiled. Methods The chronic constrictive injury (CCI model was established by ligature of the unilateral sciatic nerve in adult Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into normal control (NC group, CCI group, and CCI with electroacupuncture (EA stimulation group. EA was applied to bilateral Zusanli (ST36 and Yanglingquan (GB34 in the EA group. Differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus in the three groups were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The functional clustering of the identified proteins was analyzed by Mascot software. Results After CCI, the thermal pain threshold of the affected hind footpad was decreased and was reversed gradually by 12 sessions of acupuncture treatment. Following EA, there were 19 hippocampal proteins identified with significant changes in expression (>2-fold, which are involved in metabolic, physiological, and cellular processes. The top three canonical pathways identified were “cysteine metabolism”, “valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation” and “mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling”. Conclusions These data suggest that the analgesic effect of EA is mediated by regulation of hippocampal proteins related to amino acid metabolism and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  2. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, S F; Dirksen, Asger; Jensenius, J; Jønsson, V; Platz, P; Hansen, G S; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    1979-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo effects of therapeutical doses of acetylsalicylic acid on lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood were investigated with the following results: Acetylsalicylic acid caused both in vitro and in vivo a reduction of complement receptor bearing lymphocytes and of lymphocytes identified with fluorescent rabbit antibody to human Ig (polyvalent) and to human IgG. Sheep red blood cell receptor bearing lymphocytes, and lymphocytes identified with antibody to human IgM and I...

  3. Analgesic Effects of Bee Venom Derived Phospholipase A(2) in a Mouse Model of Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxing; Lee, Younju; Kim, Woojin; Lee, Kyungjin; Bae, Hyunsu; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2015-07-01

    A single infusion of oxaliplatin, which is widely used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer, induces specific sensory neurotoxicity signs that are triggered or aggravated when exposed to cold or mechanical stimuli. Bee Venom (BV) has been traditionally used in Korea to treat various pain symptoms. Our recent study demonstrated that BV alleviates oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats, via noradrenergic and serotonergic analgesic pathways. In this study, we have further investigated whether BV derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) attenuates oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia in mice and its mechanism. The behavioral signs of cold and mechanical allodynia were evaluated by acetone and a von Frey hair test on the hind paw, respectively. The significant allodynia signs were observed from one day after an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.). Daily administration of bvPLA2 (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) for five consecutive days markedly attenuated cold and mechanical allodynia, which was more potent than the effect of BV (1 mg/kg, i.p.). The depletion of noradrenaline by an injection of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP4, 50 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the analgesic effect of bvPLA2, whereas the depletion of serotonin by injecting DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for three successive days did not. Furthermore, idazoxan (?2-adrenegic receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) completely blocked bvPLA2-induced anti-allodynic action, whereas prazosin (?1-adrenegic antagonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not. These results suggest that bvPLA2 treatment strongly alleviates oxaliplatin-induced acute cold and mechanical allodynia in mice through the activation of the noradrenergic system, via ?2-adrenegic receptors, but not via the serotonergic system. PMID:26131771

  4. Analgesic Effects of Bee Venom Derived Phospholipase A2 in a Mouse Model of Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxing; Lee, Younju; Kim, Woojin; Lee, Kyungjin; Bae, Hyunsu; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2015-01-01

    A single infusion of oxaliplatin, which is widely used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer, induces specific sensory neurotoxicity signs that are triggered or aggravated when exposed to cold or mechanical stimuli. Bee Venom (BV) has been traditionally used in Korea to treat various pain symptoms. Our recent study demonstrated that BV alleviates oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats, via noradrenergic and serotonergic analgesic pathways. In this study, we have further investigated whether BV derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) attenuates oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia in mice and its mechanism. The behavioral signs of cold and mechanical allodynia were evaluated by acetone and a von Frey hair test on the hind paw, respectively. The significant allodynia signs were observed from one day after an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.). Daily administration of bvPLA2 (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) for five consecutive days markedly attenuated cold and mechanical allodynia, which was more potent than the effect of BV (1 mg/kg, i.p.). The depletion of noradrenaline by an injection of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP4, 50 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the analgesic effect of bvPLA2, whereas the depletion of serotonin by injecting DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for three successive days did not. Furthermore, idazoxan (?2-adrenegic receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) completely blocked bvPLA2-induced anti-allodynic action, whereas prazosin (?1-adrenegic antagonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not. These results suggest that bvPLA2 treatment strongly alleviates oxaliplatin-induced acute cold and mechanical allodynia in mice through the activation of the noradrenergic system, via ?2-adrenegic receptors, but not via the serotonergic system. PMID:26131771

  5. Comparing analgesic and hemodynamic effects of unilateral spinal levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine-fentanyl and levobupivacaine-morphine combinations for arthroscopic procedures

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    Özlem Özorak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of the study was to compare the analgesic and hemodynamic effects of levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine-fentanyl, levobupivacaine-morphine for arthroscopic knee surgery under unilateral spinal anesthesia.Methods: A total of 44 ASA I/II patients scheduled for arthroscopy were included in the study. After prehydration patients kept in a lateral position on the nondependent side. Spinal puncture was performed at L3–4/L4–5 intervertebral space. Patients divided into three subgroups: Group L (n=14 received 0.5% levobupivacaine 1 ml+1 ml distilled water; Group LF (n=15, 25 mcg fentanyl (0.5 ml+0.5 ml distilled water; and Group LM (n=15, 0.01 mg morphine (0.5 ml+0.5 ml distilled water. Patients remained in that position for 15 minutes. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before and 1st, 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and 30th minutes after the block and every 15 minutes during the operation. Motor blockade and sensorial level, side effects, motor block regression time (MBRT, first urination time and first analgesic need (FAN were recorded.Results: Group LM had the longest MBRT, but difference with other groups did not reach to a significant level (p>0.05. Group LM had significantly longer FAN time compare with other groups (p<0.05. The first urination time was latest in Group LM (p<0.05. Motor blockade was least in Group L (p<0.05 and almost 50% patients had not motor block.Conclusion: All three groups had successful anesthesia. Morphine group added group had significantly longer analgesia without significant urinary retention and motor blockade regression time. We concluded that additional low doses of morphine will be a better choice.

  6. EVALUATION OF CNS DEPRESSANT AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF PIPER LONGUM LINN. LEAVES

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    Md. Rafikul Islam et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study reports CNS depressant and analgesic activities of methanol extract obtained from the leaves of Piper longum L (MEPL. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by using open field and hole cross tests at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight while peripheral analgesic activity was evaluated by using acetic acid induced writhing method and formalin test respectively in rat model at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the plant extract had significant (p<0.01 dose dependent CNS depressant and analgesic activities. Locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of rats in hole cross and open field test were decreased in the test group comparing the control group indicating CNS depressant effect of the extract which was comparable with the standard drug diazepam. The extract also showed better analgesic effects at both doses characterized by reduction in the number of writhes in the acetic acid-induced writhing model and reduction of licking time in the formalin test when compared to the control group. The extract, at the dose of 200 mg/kg, exerted a maximum of 57.58% inhibition of writhing response and 58.8% inhibition was observed for reference drug Indomethacin. So, the present results suggest that the methanol extract of P. longum leaves possesses remarkable CNS depressant and analgesic activities.

  7. Analgesic effect and side effects of celecoxib and meloxicam in canine hip osteoarthritis

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    Víctor Molina D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the pharmacological, clinical and toxicological effects of celecoxib and meloxicam for analgesia for 30 days in dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients were evaluated, 75% were females with an average age of 7.16 ± 2.06 years and twenty five percent were males with an average age of 7.83 ± 2.22 years. All patients had hip osteoarthritis and they were randomized into two groups; one group received oral celecoxib 5 mg/kg every 12 hours during one month and the second group received oral meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg every 24 hours during 1 month. The patients were evaluated for analgesia, and hematological, renal, liver, and coagulation tests on days 0, 10th and 30th after treatment initiation, and a gastric endoscopy on day 30. Statistical analysis was performed using a HSD Tukey test and c2 with a 5% level of statistical significance. Results. Both drugs reduced articular pain according to the Melbourne scale during the 30 days of treatment (p?0.05. Hematological, renal, hepatic and coagulation tests were normal in both treatment groups. All patients presented chronic gastritis on endoscopy on day 30th. Conclusions. Both drugs decreased pain at day 30th without causing alterations in hematological, renal, hepatic or coagulation tests after 30 days of treatment. However, both drugs induced chronic gastritis.

  8. Effects of chronic peripheral olfactory loss on functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, K; Jakab, A; Mueller, C A; Trattnig, S; Schöpf, V

    2015-12-01

    The effects of sensory loss on central processing in various sensory systems have already been described. The olfactory system holds the special ability to be activated by a sensorimotor act, without the presentation of an odor. In this study, we investigated brain changes related to chronic peripheral smell loss. We included 11 anosmic patients (eight female, three male; mean age, 43.5years) with smell loss after an infection of the upper respiratory tract (mean disease duration, 4.64years) and 14 healthy controls (seven female, seven male; mean age, 30.1years) in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with a sniffing paradigm. Data were analyzed using group-independent component analysis and functional connectivity analysis. Our results revealed a spatially intact olfactory network in patients, whereas major aberrations due to peripheral loss were observed in functional connectivity through a variety of distributed brain areas. This is the first study to show the re-organization caused by the lack of peripheral input. The results of this study indicate that anosmic patients hold the ability to activate an olfaction-related functional network through the sensorimotor component of odor-perception (sniffing). The areas involved were not different from those that emerged in healthy controls. However, functional connectivity appears to be different between the two groups, with a decrease in functional connectivity in the brain in patients with chronic peripheral sensory loss. We can further conclude that the loss of the sense of smell may induce far-reaching effects in the whole brain, which lead to compensatory mechanisms from other sensory systems due to the close interconnectivity of the olfactory system with other functional networks. PMID:26415766

  9. Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Robert N; Mao, Jianren

    2015-07-01

    Chronic pain is an international health issue of immense importance that is influenced by both physical and psychological factors. Opioids are useful in treating chronic pain but have accompanying complications. It is important for clinicians to understand the basics of opioid pharmacology, the benefits and adverse effects of opioids, and related problematic issues of tolerance, dependence, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. In this article, the role of psychiatric comorbidity and the use of validated assessment tools to identify individuals who are at the greatest risk for opioid misuse are discussed. Additionally, interventional treatment strategies for patients with chronic pain who are at risk for opioid misuse are presented. Specific behavioral interventions designed to improve adherence with prescription opioids among persons treated for chronic pain, such as frequent monitoring, periodic urine screens, opioid therapy agreements, opioid checklists, and motivational counseling, are also reviewed. Use of state-sponsored prescription drug monitoring programs is also encouraged. Areas requiring additional investigation are identified, and the future role of abuse-deterrent opioids and innovative technology in addressing issues of opioid therapy and pain are presented. PMID:26141334

  10. Opiate, Opioid analgesics and antagonists

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    Milton Faccione

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Opiate and opioid analgesics are important drugs in the treatment of pain. They are associated with addiction and respiratory depression, side effects which limit their clinical usefulness. This paper describes the main classes of agonists and antagonists to opioid receptors (D, G, N. The main drugs will be shown emphasizing the structure-activity relationship, as well as biotransformation reactions.

  11. Analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of mollic acid glucoside, a 1 alpha-hydroxycycloartenoid saponin extractive from Combretum molle R. Br. ex G. Don (Combretaceae) leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, John A O

    2008-01-01

    The analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of mollic acid glucoside (MAG), a 1 alpha-hydroxycycloartenoid extract from Combretum molle leaf, have been investigated in mice and rats. The effects of graded doses of mollic acid glucoside (MAG, 5-80 mg/kg i.p.) were examined against thermally- and chemically-induced nociceptive pain in mice. Furthermore, the effects of graded doses of the plant extract (MAG, 5-80 mg/kg p.o.) were also investigated on rat paw oedema induced by subplantar injections of fresh egg albumin (0.5 mg/kg). Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.) and diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.) were used as reference analgesic and antiinflammatory agents for comparison, respectively. Like DIC (100 mg/kg i.p.) and MPN (10 mg/kg i.p.), MAG (5-80 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. The extractive (MAG, 5-80 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly reduced (p < 0.05-0.001) rat paw oedema induced by subplantar injections of fresh egg albumin in a dose-related fashion. However, the extract (MAG, 5-80 mg/kg i.p.) was found to be less potent than diclofenac (DIC) as an analgesic or antiinflammatory agent. Experimental evidence obtained from this laboratory animal study indicates that the Combretum molle leaf extractive (MAG) possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant's leaf in the management, control and/or treatment of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions in some rural communities of southern Africa. PMID:17685389

  12. Safety issues of current analgesics: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazacu, Irina; Mogosan, Cristina; Loghin, Felicia

    2015-01-01

    Pain represents a complex experience which can be approached by various medicines. Non-opioid and opioid analgesics are the most common drugs used to manage different types of pain. The increased attention nowadays to pain management entailed concomitantly more frequent adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to analgesic use. Drug-drug interactions can be sometimes responsible for the adverse effects. However, a significant proportion of analgesic ADRs are preventable, which would avoid patient suffering. In order to draw the attention to analgesics risks and to minimize the negative consequences related to their use, the present review comprises a synthesis of the most important safety issues described in the scientific literature. It highlights the potential risks of the most frequently used analgesic medicines: non-opioid (paracetamol, metamizole, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and opioid analgesics. Even if there is a wide experience in their use, they continue to capture attention with safety concerns and with potential risks recently revealed. Acknowledging potential safety problems represents the first step for health professionals in assuring a safe and efficient analgesic treatment with minimum risks to patients. Taking into consideration all medical and environmental factors and carefully monitoring the patients are also essential in preventing and early detecting analgesic ADRs. PMID:26528060

  13. Safety issues of current analgesics: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Cazacu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain represents a complex experience which can be approached by various medicines. Non-opioid and opioid analgesics are the most common drugs used to manage different types of pain. The increased attention nowadays to pain management entailed concomitantly more frequent adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to analgesic use. Drug-drug interactions can be sometimes responsible for the adverse effects. However, a significant proportion of analgesic ADRs are preventable, which would avoid patient suffering. In order to draw the attention to analgesics risks and to minimize the negative consequences related to their use, the present review comprises a synthesis of the most important safety issues described in the scientific literature. It highlights the potential risks of the most frequently used analgesic medicines: non-opioid (paracetamol, metamizole, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid analgesics. Even if there is a wide experience in their use, they continue to capture attention with safety concerns and with potential risks recently revealed. Acknowledging potential safety problems represents the first step for health professionals in assuring a safe and efficient analgesic treatment with minimum risks to patients. Taking into consideration all medical and environmental factors and carefully monitoring the patients are also essential in preventing and early detecting analgesic ADRs. 

  14. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: The influence of emotion and cognitive style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a superior analgesic effect of favorite music over other passive or active distractive tasks. However, it is unclear what mediates this effect. In this study we investigated to which extent distraction, emotional valence and cognitive styles may explain part of the relationship. Forty-eight healthy volunteers received heat stimuli during an active mental arithmetic task (PASAT), and passive listening to music (Mozart), environmental sounds (rain and water), and control (noise). The participants scored the conditions according to affective scales and filled out questionnaires concerning cognitive styles (Baron – Cohen and self-report). Active distraction with PASAT led to significantly less pain intensity and unpleasantness as compared to music and sound. In turn, both music and sound relieved pain significantly more than noise. When music and sound had the same level of valence they relieved pain to a similar degree. The emotional ratings of the conditions were correlated with the amount of pain relief and cognitive styles seemed to influence the analgesia effect. These findings suggest that the pain relieving effect previously seen in relation to music may be at least partly mediated by distraction, emotional factors and cognitive styles rather than by the music itself.

  15. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, S F; Dirksen, Asger

    1979-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo effects of therapeutical doses of acetylsalicylic acid on lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood were investigated with the following results: Acetylsalicylic acid caused both in vitro and in vivo a reduction of complement receptor bearing lymphocytes and of lymphocytes identified with fluorescent rabbit antibody to human Ig (polyvalent) and to human IgG. Sheep red blood cell receptor bearing lymphocytes, and lymphocytes identified with antibody to human IgM and IgD were unaffected by acetylsalicylic acid.

  16. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Reza Heidari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was performed on 32 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic, melatonin-treated diabetic and vitamin E-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (50 mg/kg injection. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p. and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 2 weeks after 21st day of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, pain-related behavior was assessed using 0.5% formalin test according to two spontaneous flinching and licking responses. The levels of lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were evaluated in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.ResultsFormalin-evoked flinching and total time of licking were increased in both acute and chronic phases of pain in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, whereas treatment with melatonin or vitamin E significantly reduced the pain indices. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in diabetic rats. Both antioxidants reversed the biochemical parameters toward their control values.ConclusionThese results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to induction of pain in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidants, melatonin and vitamin E, can reduce peripheral neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  17. Analgesic effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B in a murine model of chronic degenerative knee arthritis pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anderson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Anderson1,2, Hollis Krug1,2, Christopher Dorman1, Pari McGarraugh1, Sandra Frizelle1, Maren Mahowald1,21Rheumatology Section, Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2Division of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAObjective: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B (BoNT/B in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain.Methods and materials: Chronic arthritis was produced in adult C57Bl6 mice by intra-articular injection of Type IV collagenase into the left knee. Following induction of arthritis, the treatment group received intra-articular BoNT/B. Arthritic control groups were treated with intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Pain behavior testing was performed prior to arthritis, after induction of arthritis, and following treatments. Pain behavior measures included analysis of gait impairment (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness evaluation (evoked pain response. Strength was measured as ability to grasp and cling.Results: Visual gait analysis showed significant impairment of gait in arthritic mice that improved 43% after intra-articular BoNT/B, demonstrating a substantial articular analgesic effect. Joint tenderness, measured with evoked pain response scores, increased with arthritis induction and decreased 49.5% after intra-articular BoNT/B treatment. No improvement in visual gait scores or decrease in evoked pain response scores were found in the control groups receiving intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Intra-articular BoNT/B was safe, and no systemic effects or limb weakness was noted.Conclusions: This study is the first report of intra-articular BoNT/B for analgesia in a murine model of arthritis pain. The results of this study validate prior work using intra-articular neurotoxins in murine models. Our findings show chronic degenerative arthritis pain can be quantitated in a murine model by measuring gait impairment using visual gait analysis scores (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness scores (evoked pain responses. Reduction of joint pain seen in this study is consistent with our hypothesis of inhibition of release of pain mediators by intra-articular BoNT/B, supporting further investigation of this novel approach to treatment of arthritis pain with intra-articular neurotoxins.Keywords: intra-articular BoNT/B, osteoarthritis

  18. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Eduardo A Garza; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception. PMID:22242169

  19. The Evaluation of the Analgesic Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Solanum Melongena in Syrian Mice Using Tail Flick Test

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    H Falah-Tafti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, many researches are being conducted in order to evaluate the analgesic effects of different plants which have been used as sedative in traditional medicine. Solanum Melongena is a plant with different theories about its analgesic effects. In this experimental trial research, the effects of intraperitoneal(IP injection of hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena were assessed and compared with different doses of morphine and distilled water in Syrian mice. Methods: The effects of different doses of Solanum Melongena (1, 10, 100, and 1000µg/Kg, different doses of morphine sulfate (1, 2, and 4 µg/Kg and distilled water on acute pain was assessed in Syrian mice. Tail flick latency after IP injection was measured for 75 minutes as the index of pain tolerance, using a tail flick apparatus which projects a condensed light stimulus on the animal's tail. Results: Our findings showed that different doses of Solanum increased analgesia index. This effect was more prominent in 45-60 minutes after IP injections which was significantly greater than the control group (p<0.05(. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena produces analgesic effect in a dose- related manner.

  20. The effect of protective sports eyewear on peripheral visual field and a peripheral visual performance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, M; Aimino, J; Scheiman, M

    1986-04-01

    Seven different types of protective sports eyewear were tested to determine whether peripheral awareness as measured with a visual performance task were affected. Goldmann perimetry and the Wayne Saccadic Fixator with Stik-Up attachments were utilized in a repeated measures research design. The sports glasses did restrict visual field, but no one pair of glasses were least restrictive. The restrictions did not translate into significant differences on the performance task. Peripheral visual factors should be taken into account when prescribing protective sports eyewear. The importance of proper eye protection in sports is also discussed. PMID:3700954

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of a Novel Biflavonoid from Shells of Camellia oleifera

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    Yong Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum (p < 0.01, revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  2. Interactions of propranolol with some analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safta, L; Kory, M; Cuparencu, B; Ilea, F

    1980-01-01

    The duration of the analgesic effect of levomepromazine was prolonged in mice when associated with propranolol. The administration of morphine to animals treated with propranolol resulted in an increase of morphine toxicity with death of some animals. PMID:6779298

  3. Combined effects of ?-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of ?-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberration, micronucleus and transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied. The results indicated that there were no significant influence for effects of high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberrations, transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced ?-ray radiation, and that high atmospheric pressure increased effect of micronucleus in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro induced ?-ray radiation

  4. Comparison of the Analgesic Effect of Diclofenac Sodium-Eudragit® RS100 Solid Dispersion and Nanoparticles Using Formalin Test in the Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibkia, Khosro; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Siavash; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Shiva, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the intensity and duration of analgesic effect of diclofenac Na - Eudragit® RS100 solid dispersion and nanoparticles were evaluated by using formalin test in the rats. Methods: The animals received different formulations of diclofenac Na and subsequently 50 ?l of formalin solution (2.5%) was injected subcutaneously in the right paws after 1 h, 2 h and 3 h. The paw licking behavior was then evaluated in two phases. A dose of 20 mg/kg of pure diclofenac Na powder was determined as effective dose. Results: In the first phase, in term of reduced paw licking time, no significant differences were found in any of the groups compared to the control group. However, in the second phase, the animals which received pure drug powder and the physical mixture of diclofenac Na with Eudragit® RS100 showed significant differences at the first and second hours. In the animals received the nanoparticles and solid dispersion, significant differences were observed in the third hour compared to the control group. Conclusion: The analgesic effect of diclofenac Na could be improved by formulating its nanoparticles and solid dispersion with Eudragit® RS100. However, the nanoparticles revealed significantly higher analgesic effect than solid dispersion. PMID:25789222

  5. Effects of estrogen peripheral metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis

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    M. Cutolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the immune reactivity is modulated by gender. In fact, women show a more effective immune response as well as a more frequent development of autoimmune diseases. In particular, 17b-estradiol (E2 in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases leads to an higher production of IgG and IgM in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC and the secretion of metalloproteinases and IL-6 by synovial fibroblasts. The effect of E2 seems to be partially related to its concentration. In fact, at the physiological concentration, E2 seems to exert a pro-inflammatory effect, while at pharmacological concentrations shows anti-inflammatory effects. Steroid hormones can be converted in downstream hormones along defined pathways. The conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA in peripheral macrophages leads to the androgen production. Subsequently the enzyme aromatase converts androgens in estrogens, and its activity is increased by some inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-a. In the synovial fluids of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients the levels of estrogens result significantly increased compared with controls, showing the consequence of this unbalanced steroid metabolism. Furthermore, the metabolism of estrogens leads to some downstream hydroxylated metabolites, that are not waste products, but still active molecules in the inflammatory response. In fact, it has been found that synovial fluids of RA patients present a different ratio of 16-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites/ 2-hydroxylated metabolites, confirming that also the unbalanced metabolism of estrogens and not only the estrogen concentration seems to be related to the development and worsening of rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Analgesic effects of methanolic extracts of the leaf or root of Moringa oleifera on complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Manaheji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Moringa oleifera (family Moringaceae) has been widely used in African folk medicine, and researchers have recently revealed its anti-inflammatory effects in human. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of methanolic extracts of M. oleifera in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 220 g, were used in this study. Adjuvant arthritis was induced on day 0 by a single subcutaneous injection of CFA. The...

  7. Gabapentina en dolor raquídeo crónico: Valoración de su eficacia analgésica Gabapentin in chronic rachidian pain: Assessment of its analgesic effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cartagena

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Valorar la eficacia analgésica de la gabapentina (GBP en pacientes con dolor raquídeo crónico (DRC, que no han respondido adecuadamente a los tratamientos farmacológicos habitualmente empleados (antiinflamatorios no esteroideos -AINE-, opioides menores o mayores, relajantes musculares, antidepresivos, etc.. Material y métodos: Se han estudiado de modo prospectivo y aleatorio 41 pacientes afectos de DRC (cervical, dorsal y/o lumbar, independientemente de su etiología, con o sin radiculopatía asociada, que no hubieran respondido previamente a los tratamientos farmacológicos habituales. No obstante, durante el estudio, por razones éticas y, en un intento de obtener la mayor eficacia analgésica posible con tales fármacos, se permitió el empleo de los mismos, aunque realizando, previamente, un reajuste de las dosis por parte de un especialista de la Unidad de Dolor. Si tras este ajuste no se obtenía una respuesta adecuada, se iniciaba el tratamiento con gabapentina de manera gradual hasta alcanzar una dosis de 300 mg cada 8 h; dicha dosis se fue incrementando hasta obtener una respuesta terapéutica (con un máximo de 2400 mg.día-1 o la aparición de efectos secundarios intolerables. A partir del inicio del tratamiento con gabapentina se realizó un seguimiento durante tres meses en el que se valoraban características del dolor, localización, irradiación, y se cuantificaba mediante una escala analógica visual -EVA- (100 mm y test de Lattinen. Asimismo, se evaluó la calidad del sueño mediante una EVA modificada. Se recogieron también la dosis utilizadas para el control del dolor así como los efectos secundarios aparecidos y las causas de abandono. Resultados: Desde el primer mes de tratamiento y ya con dosis bajas de gabapentina se observó una mejoría significativa en los valores de la EVA del dolor, test Lattinen y calidad de sueño, incluso en aquellos pacientes en los que no existía radiculopatía asociada o dolor de características neuropáticas claras. Dicha mejora en los parámetros mencionados fue progresiva incluso sin necesidad de seguir aumentando la dosis de gabapentina. La tolerancia fue muy buena no siendo preciso interrumpir en ningún caso el tratamiento por los efectos secundarios, los cuales han sido en general leves y autolimitados. Conclusión: La gabapentina, como coadyuvante de la terapia habitual, es un fármaco eficaz en pacientes con dolor crónico raquídeo, no precisando dosis elevadas y presentando buena tolerancia con una baja incidencia de efectos secundarios.Objectives: To assess the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin (GBP in patients with chronic rachidian pain (CRP refractory to standard pharmacological therapies (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs, minor and major opiates, muscular relaxants, antidepressants, etc.. Material and methods: Forty one patients with CRP (cervical, dorsal and lumbar pain refractory to prior standard drug therapies were prospectively and randomly studied, regardless their etiology, with or without associated radiculopathy. However, during the study, due to ethical reasons and in order to obtain the greatest analgesic effectiveness as possible with such drugs, their use was allowed, although with a prior dose titration performed by the Pain Unit specialist. If the response was inadequate even after dose titration, treatment with gabapentin was gradually introduced up to a dose of 300 mg each 8 hours; such dose was increased until obtaining a therapeutic response (up to a maximum of 2400 mg.day-1 or causing intolerable side effects. From the beginning of the treatment with gabapentin, a three-month follow-up was conducted in which pain features, location and irradiation were assessed and quantified using a visual analogical scale (VAS (100 mm and the Lattinen's test. Quality of sleep was also determined using a modified VAS. Doses required to relief pain, as well as side effects reported and dropout causes were also recorded. Results: Since the first month of therapy and with low doses of gabapentin, a

  8. Gabapentina en dolor raquídeo crónico: Valoración de su eficacia analgésica / Gabapentin in chronic rachidian pain: Assessment of its analgesic effectiveness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Cartagena; J. P., Vicente; E., Borrás; J. A., Castillo; G., Motos.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Valorar la eficacia analgésica de la gabapentina (GBP) en pacientes con dolor raquídeo crónico (DRC), que no han respondido adecuadamente a los tratamientos farmacológicos habitualmente empleados (antiinflamatorios no esteroideos -AINE-, opioides menores o mayores, relajantes musculares, [...] antidepresivos, etc.). Material y métodos: Se han estudiado de modo prospectivo y aleatorio 41 pacientes afectos de DRC (cervical, dorsal y/o lumbar), independientemente de su etiología, con o sin radiculopatía asociada, que no hubieran respondido previamente a los tratamientos farmacológicos habituales. No obstante, durante el estudio, por razones éticas y, en un intento de obtener la mayor eficacia analgésica posible con tales fármacos, se permitió el empleo de los mismos, aunque realizando, previamente, un reajuste de las dosis por parte de un especialista de la Unidad de Dolor. Si tras este ajuste no se obtenía una respuesta adecuada, se iniciaba el tratamiento con gabapentina de manera gradual hasta alcanzar una dosis de 300 mg cada 8 h; dicha dosis se fue incrementando hasta obtener una respuesta terapéutica (con un máximo de 2400 mg.día-1) o la aparición de efectos secundarios intolerables. A partir del inicio del tratamiento con gabapentina se realizó un seguimiento durante tres meses en el que se valoraban características del dolor, localización, irradiación, y se cuantificaba mediante una escala analógica visual -EVA- (100 mm) y test de Lattinen. Asimismo, se evaluó la calidad del sueño mediante una EVA modificada. Se recogieron también la dosis utilizadas para el control del dolor así como los efectos secundarios aparecidos y las causas de abandono. Resultados: Desde el primer mes de tratamiento y ya con dosis bajas de gabapentina se observó una mejoría significativa en los valores de la EVA del dolor, test Lattinen y calidad de sueño, incluso en aquellos pacientes en los que no existía radiculopatía asociada o dolor de características neuropáticas claras. Dicha mejora en los parámetros mencionados fue progresiva incluso sin necesidad de seguir aumentando la dosis de gabapentina. La tolerancia fue muy buena no siendo preciso interrumpir en ningún caso el tratamiento por los efectos secundarios, los cuales han sido en general leves y autolimitados. Conclusión: La gabapentina, como coadyuvante de la terapia habitual, es un fármaco eficaz en pacientes con dolor crónico raquídeo, no precisando dosis elevadas y presentando buena tolerancia con una baja incidencia de efectos secundarios. Abstract in english Objectives: To assess the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin (GBP) in patients with chronic rachidian pain (CRP) refractory to standard pharmacological therapies (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs, minor and major opiates, muscular relaxants, antidepressants, etc.). Material and methods [...] : Forty one patients with CRP (cervical, dorsal and lumbar pain) refractory to prior standard drug therapies were prospectively and randomly studied, regardless their etiology, with or without associated radiculopathy. However, during the study, due to ethical reasons and in order to obtain the greatest analgesic effectiveness as possible with such drugs, their use was allowed, although with a prior dose titration performed by the Pain Unit specialist. If the response was inadequate even after dose titration, treatment with gabapentin was gradually introduced up to a dose of 300 mg each 8 hours; such dose was increased until obtaining a therapeutic response (up to a maximum of 2400 mg.day-1) or causing intolerable side effects. From the beginning of the treatment with gabapentin, a three-month follow-up was conducted in which pain features, location and irradiation were assessed and quantified using a visual analogical scale (VAS) (100 mm) and the Lattinen's test. Quality of sleep was also determined using a modified VAS. Doses required to relief pain, as well as side effects reported and dropout causes were also recorded. Results: Since the first month

  9. Effects of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-ling YIN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in Wistar rats.Methods A total of 100 Wistar rats(180-220g were exposed to microwave with different average power densities of 5,10,30 and 60 mW/cm2,and sham exposure of 0mW/cm2 was performed in a control group at the same time.At day 1,7,14 and 28 after microwave irradiation,the changes in peripheral CD3+,CD4+,CD8+ T cells,ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and CD45RA+ B lymphocyte in rats were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM.Results The CD3+ T cells decreased significantly in 10-30mW/cm2 groups at day 7 and in 5-30 mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05,and CD4+ T cells decreased significantly in 10mW/cm2 group at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.01.From day 1 to day 14 after radiation,CD8+ T cells showed a reduction in number in all irradiated groups when compared with the control,but statistical significance was only found in the 30mW/cm2 group(P < 0.05.The CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased in 5mW/cm2 group on day 1,while decreased significantly in 5-30mW/cm2 groups on day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05.After microwave exposure,however,CD45RA+ B cells in 30mW/cm2 group at day 1 and in 30-60mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion A definite dosage of microwave radiation,ranging from 5-60mW/cm2,may induce changes in subpopulations of peripheral lymphocytes and cause acute immune function impairment in rats.

  10. Efecto analgésico del Lupinus Mutabilis S (Chocho comparado con morfina (Analgesic Effect of Lupinus Mutabilis S (Chocho Compared to Morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Castañeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Lupinus mutabilis Sweet es una planta con alto contenido calórico y marcados efectos farmacológicos, por lo que pertenece al grupo de plantas nutracéuticas. Objetivo: Comparar la acción analgésica del Lupinus mutabilis S, con el de la Morfina, utilizando la técnica estandarizada de CYTED, del Plantartest. Materiales y método: Utilizamos 50 ratones albinos, machos, de la cepa Holtzman, de aproximadamente 25 gramos de peso, obtenidos del bioterio del MINSA - Chorrillos, a los que previamente se les acondicionó en el bioterio de la Facultad de Medicina Humana de la Universidad San Martín de Porres y suministró alimento y agua. Se les distribuyó en cinco grupos, G1: Control negativo; G2: Lupinus mutabilis, 300 mg/kg; G3: Lupinus mutabilis, 300 mg/kg + Naloxona, 5 mg/kg; G4: Morfina, 10 mg/kg; y, G5: Morfina, 10 mg/kg + Naloxona, 5 mg/kg. Se determinó el umbral doloroso basal de cada uno de los animales en los diferentes grupos utilizando el test del Hot Plate, el mismo que se repitió a los 30, 60 y 90 minutos posteriores a la administración, vía intraperitoneal, de las sustancias correspondientes a cada grupo. Los resultados obtenidos fueron analizados estadísticamente con el programa Graph Pad Prism y Excel XP. Resultados: Apreciamos un efecto analgésico del Lupinus similar al de la Morfina, el mismo que fue bloqueado por Naloxona tanto en el grupo tratado con Morfina como en el tratado con Lupinus mutabilis, a la ½ hora. Conclusiones: El Lupinus mutabilis S, mostró un buen efecto analgésico, que al igual que la Morfina fue bloqueado por Naloxona. Lupinus mutabilis Sweet is a plant with high calorie content and many pharmacological effects; therefore, we consider it as a nutraceutic plant. Objective: The present investigation was made with the purpose of comparing the analgesic properties of Lupinus mutabilis S with Morphine, using the standardized technique of CYTED from Plantar Test. Materials and Method: We used fifty albino mice; male of Holtzman bred weighing 25 grams approximately and got from biotherius at MINSA, Chorrillos, to whom previous conditioning in the biotherius from Facultad de Medicina Humana at Universidad de San Martin de Porres and supply of food and water, distributed in the following five groups, G1: Negative control group, G2: Lupinus mutabilis 300 mg/kg; G3: Lupinus mutabilis, 300 mg/kg + Naloxona, 5 mg/kg; G4: Morphine, 10 mg/kg and G5: Morphine.10 mg/kg + Naloxona, 5 mg/kg. It was determined the basal painful threshold to each one of the animals in different groups, using the test of the Hot Plate, the same thing was repeated at 30, 60 and 90 minutes after administration by intraperitoneal via of substances according to each group. The results were analyzed statistically with the program GraphPad Prism and Excel XP Results: We appreciate an analgesic effect of Lupinus mutabilis Sweet similar to morphine, the same that was blocked by Naloxone in both group treated with Morphine and Lupinus mutabilis at the first 30 minutes. Conclusions: Lupinus mutabilis Sweet showed a good pharmacological action, which like to Morphine that was blockaded by Naloxone.

  11. Effect of intraoperative esmolol infusion on anesthetic, analgesic requirements and postoperative nausea-vomitting in a group of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients

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    Necla Dereli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Postoperative pain and nausea/vomitting (PNV are common in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Sympatholytic agents might decrease requirements for intravenous or inhalation anesthetics and opioids. In this study we aimed to analyze effects of esmolol on intraoperative anesthetic-postoperative analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV. METHODS: Sixty patients have been included. Propofol, remifentanil and vecuronium were used for induction. Study groups were as follows; I - Esmolol infusion was added to maintenance anesthetics (propofol and remifentanil, II - Only propofol and remifentanil was used during maintenance, III - Esmolol infusion was added to maintenance anesthetics (desflurane and remifentanil, IV - Only desflurane and remifentanil was used during maintenance. They have been followed up for 24 h for PNV and analgesic requirements. Visual analog scale (VAS scores for pain was also been evaluated. RESULTS: VAS scores were significantly lowest in group I (p = 0.001-0.028. PNV incidence was significantly lowest in group I (p = 0.026. PNV incidence was also lower in group III compared to group IV (p = 0.032. Analgesic requirements were significantly lower in group I and was lower in group III compared to group IV (p = 0.005. Heart rates were significantly lower in esmolol groups (group I and III compared to their controls (p = 0.001 however blood pressures were similar in all groups (p = 0.594. Comparison of esmolol groups with controls revealed that there is a significant decrease in anesthetic and opioid requirements (p = 0.024-0.03. CONCLUSION: Using esmolol during anesthetic maintenance significantly decreases anesthetic-analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV.

  12. Tianeptine prevents respiratory depression without affecting analgesic effect of opiates in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalla, David; Chianelli, Fabio; Korsak, Alla; Hosford, Patrick S; Gourine, Alexander V; Marina, Nephtali

    2015-08-15

    Respiratory depression remains an important clinical problem that limits the use of opiate analgesia. Activation of AMPA glutamate receptors has been shown to reverse fentanyl-induced respiratory changes. Here, we explored whether tianeptine, a drug known for its ability to phosphorylate AMPA receptors, can be used to prevent opiate-induced respiratory depression. A model of respiratory depression in conscious rats was produced by administration of morphine (10mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were pre-treated with test compounds or control solutions 5min prior to administration of morphine. Respiratory activity was measured using whole-body plethysmography. In conscious animals, tianeptine (2 and 10mg/kg, ip) and DP-201 (2-(4-((3-chloro-6-methyl-5,5-dioxido-6,11-dihydrodibenzo[c,f][1,2] thiazepin-11-yl)amino)butoxy)acetic acid; tianeptine analogue; 2mg/kg, ip) triggered significant (~30%) increases in baseline respiratory activity and prevented morphine-induced respiratory depression. These effects were similar to those produced by an ampakine CX-546 (15mg/kg, ip). The antinociceptive effect of morphine (hot plate test) was unaffected by tianeptine pre-treatment. In conclusion, the results of the experiments conducted in conscious rats demonstrate that systemic administration of tianeptine increases respiratory output and prevents morphine-induced respiratory depression without interfering with the antinociceptive effect of opiates. PMID:26068549

  13. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Mukherjee, Meghali Chaliha and Swarnamoni Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  14. Morphine-6-glucuronide: analgesic effects and receptor binding profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, F.V.; Palmour, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were examined in two animal models of pain, the tail immersion test (reflex withdrawal to noxious heat) and the formalin test (behavioral response to minor tissue injury). In the tail immersion test, M6G produced and increase in withdrawal latency that rose rapidly between 0.01 and 0.025 ug ICV or 1 and 2 mg/kg SC. A further increase occurred at doses greater than 0.2 ug ICV or 4 mg/kg SC and was associated with marked catelepsy and cyanosis. Naloxone, 0.1 mg/kg SC, shifted the lower component of the dose-effect relation by a factor of 24. In the formalin test, 0.01 ug M6G ICV produced hyperalgesia, while between 0.05 and 0.2 ug ICV, antinociception increased rapidly without toxicity. The dose effect relations for hyperalgesia and antinociception were shifted to the right by factors of 20- and 3-fold, respectively. By comparison, ICV morphine was 60 (formalin test) to 145-200 (tail immersion test) times less potent than M6G. At sub-nanomolar concentrations, M6G enhanced the binding of (/sup 3/H)-etorphine, (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine and (/sup 3/H)-naloxone to rat brain membrane receptors by 20-40%. At higher concentrations, M6G displaced each ligand from binding sites, with K/sub i/ values of about 30 nM, as compared to morphine K/sub i/ values of about 3 nM.

  15. Gabapentin Increases Analgesic Effect of Chronic Use of Morphine while Decreases Withdrawal Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Manzumeh-Shamsi Meimandi; Mina-Mobasher; GholamReza-Sepehri; Ashrafganjooei Narges

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the role of gabapentin co-administration in morphine antinociception and withdrawal effect. Four groups of male rats were examined for latency time using tail flick test; control, morphine (M), gabapentin (GB) and gabapentin-morphine (GB-M) treated groups. Rats received morphine (10 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, s.c.) or gabapentin (75 mg kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP>, i.p.) or both of them twice a day for 9 days. Control rats received normal ...

  16. Potential avoidance of adverse analgesic effects using a biologically "smart" hydrogel capable of controlled bupivacaine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraballi, Francesca; Minardi, Silvia; Corradetti, Bruna; Yazdi, Iman K; Balliano, Marta A; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Allegri, Massimo; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2014-11-01

    Acute pain remains a tremendous clinical and economic burden, as its prevalence and common narcotic-based treatments are associated with poorer outcomes and higher costs. Multimodal analgesia portends great therapeutic promise, but rarely allows opioid sparing, and new alternatives are necessary. Microparticles (MPs) composed of biodegradable polymers [e.g., poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA] have been applied for controlled drug release and acute pain treatment research. However, foreign particles' presence within inflamed tissue may affect the drug release or targeting, and/or cause a secondary inflammatory reaction. We examined how small alterations in the particulate nature of MPs affect both their uptake into and subsequent activation of macrophages. MPs composed of PLGA and chitosan (PLGA-Chi) loaded with bupivacaine (BP) were engineered at different sizes and their opsonization by J774 macrophages was assessed. Uptake of PLGA-Chi by macrophages was found to be size dependent, but they were not cytotoxic or proinflammatory in effect. Moreover, encapsulation of MPs in a thermoresponsive loading gel (pluronic F-127) effectively prevented opsonization. Finally, MPs displayed sustained, tunable release of BP up to 7 days. These results demonstrate our ability to develop a drug delivery system capable of controlled release of local anesthetics to treat acute/subacute pain while concurrently avoiding enhanced inflammation. PMID:25266282

  17. Clinical effects of preemptive analgesia using three different analgesics in strabismus surgery

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    Chun - Jian Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the effects of preemptive analgesia of parecoxib, butorphanol, and pethidine used in and after strabismus surgery, and explore an effective and safe method of analgesia for strabismus surgery. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.After the ethic committee approval and written conformed consent were obtained, 80 ASA ? patients aged 18-50 years undergoing strabismus surgery under local anesthesia were randomly allocated to 4 groups(n=20 each: group P received intramuscular parecoxib(40mg, group B received intramuscular butorphanol(1mg, group D received intramuscular pethidine(50mg, and group N received intramuscular normal saline(2mL. All patients received the drug at 30 minutes before surgery. Basal heart rate(HRand meananerial pressure(HAPwere recorded on the day before surgery. The intensity of pain was measured using(numeric rating scalesNRS(0-10, 0=no pain, 10=worst painand recorded during operation time(T1. Meanwhile, culocardiacreflex(OCR, nausea and vomiting, and sweating were also recorded. NRS, nausea and vomiting were recorded at 2 hours(T2, 4 hours(T3, 8 hours(T4after operation. RESULTS: The NRS scores at T1 were significantly lower in groups P, B, and D than in group N. OCR, nausea and vomiting, and sweating at T1 were not significantly different among the 4 groups. The nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in group D than in groups P, B, and N. The NRS scores at T2 were not significantly different among the 4 groups. The NRS scores in groups D and N at T3 were significantly higher than those at T2. And the NRS scores at T3 were significantly higher in group D and N than groups P and B. The nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in group D than in groups P, B, and N. The NRS, nausea and vomiting were not significantly different among the 4 groups. The NRS scores in groups P and B were not significantly different at T2, T3, and T4. CONCLUSION:Preemptive analgesia with 40mg of parecoxib for strabismus surgery under local anesthesia is effective intraoperatively and postoperatively, and can reduce the postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  18. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Thoracic Epidural Morphine and Fentanyl

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    Gönül Sa??ro?lu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to compare epidural morphine and fentanyl analgesia and the side effects in post-thoracotomy pain management. Material and Methods: Forty patients, planned for elective thoracotomy were included. Bupivacain- morphine was administered through an epidural catheter to the patients in Group-M while bupivacain-fentanyl was given in Group-F. Pain assessment was carried out with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and VAS-I and VAS-II were assessed in 0, 4, 16 and 24th hour in the postoperative unit. Adverse effects were recorded after the 24th hour. Statistical analyses were performed by using Two-sample independent-t test, Mann Whitney-U test, Wilcoxon-signed ranks test and Pearson chi-squared tests. Results: Although, the VAS-I and VAS-II scores were lower in Group-M than Group-F, the difference was not significant statistically (p>0.05. When other hours were compared with initial states, beginning from the 4th hour, in both groups there was a statistically significant drop in VAS-I and VAS-II scores at all times (p<0.001. Comparing the complications between the groups, in Group-M nausea-vomiting (p<0.015 and bradycardia (p<0.012 were found significantly more frequently than in Group-F. Conclusion: We concluded that, in pain management after thoracic surgery, either morphine or fentanyl may be chosen in thoracal epidural analgesia but, especially in the early postoperative hours, close follow-up is necessary due to the risk of bradycardia development.

  19. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: factors relevant to opioid abuse and abuse- deterrent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Jason S; Taylor, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abuse-deterrent opioid formulations are receiving renewed interest in light of the increasing legitimate medical use of prescription opioids for the adequate treatment of pain. Unfortunately, there is an inevitable associated potential for misuse, diversion, and abuse. The challenges of deterrence are significant: opioid abusers are a heterogeneous population; studies on drug "liking" and opioid "attractiveness" are informative, but mainly rely on reports from users who are not reliable respondents; drug "liking" scores are useful, but it is unclear how much drug "liking" must be reduced in order to achieve an actual reduction in abuse levels; and the most popular drugs among opioid abusers appear to be those that meet a complex combination of both positive and negative criteria including things like availability, pricing, and how easily the drug's illicit use can be concealed. Several abuse-deterrent formulations have been introduced or are in development. Epidemiological studies will have to be conducted to evaluate their effectiveness. Although there are currently more questions than answers, such products are clearly of medical and societal importance. PMID:22747546

  20. EFFECT OF PREOPERATIVE PREGABALIN ON POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIC REQUIREMENT AFTER SKIN GRAFTING

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    Mamta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain relief after surgical procedures continues to be a major medical challenge. The alleviation of pain is given a high priority by the medical profession and health authorities. Preemptive analgesia is an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered processing of afferent input which amplifies postoperative pain. The present study evaluated the efficacy of two different doses (75mg & 150mg of pregabalin on post-operative analgesia. METHOD: This randomized, double blind study was conducted in 90 patients of ASA grade I & II, aged (20-60 yrs. undergoing lower limb plastic surgery (SSG under spinal anesthesia. All patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups of 30 each. Group I received oral pregabalin 150mg, group II oral pregabalin 75mg and group III oral diazepam 5mg. All groups in addition received 1gm paracetamol orally. All drugs were given with a sip of water one hour before spinal anesthesia. After 4 hours of surgery, 1gm paracetamol was given and then repeated every 8 hrs. Rescue analgesia was provided with tramadol 100mg I/V when VAS>3. Patients VAS score was recorded at rest and during motion at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours after operation. Request for additional analgesia, nausea, number of vomits, sedation and dizziness were noted. RESULT: After observation in all 3 groups it was found that VAS score was significantly lower in group I than group II and III. Level of Sedation at 2 & 4 hrs. was significantly higher in group I as compared to II and III but at 6 and 24 hrs. difference was not significant. Total amount of rescue analgesia required was significantly less in group I as compared to group II and III. It was less in group II as compared to group III. CONCLUSION: Preemptive use of pregabalin 150mg in patients undergoing SSG under spinal anesthesia resulted in significant analgesia, decreased need for rescue analgesia, favorable sedation and anxiolysis without cardiovascular, respiratory adverse effects.

  1. NATURAL AND PARTIALLY SYNTETIC ANALGESICS

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    Stevan Glogovac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a long hystory of stimulating and mind-altering substances use. Depressive drugs, including morphine and other narcotics, barbiturates and ethanol, are strongly addictive for susceptible individuals. The phenomenon is most striking in the case of opiates. Morphine is an alkaloid of opium. Named after the Roman god of dreams, Morpheus, the compound has potent analgesic properties toward all types of pain. By supstitution of two hydroxylic groups of morphine many natural and semysyntetic derivatives with different pharmacological activity and analgesic action are obtained. Determinations and quantifications of narcotic analgesics in drug addicts are important in forensic medicine and clinical toxicology. With development of highly sensitive chromatography technique (HPLC-GC, GH-MS, more and more substances are determined, including opioid drugs: morphine, codeine, dyhydrocodeine, and heroin and 6-monoacetyl morphine. Hair analysys by HPLC/MS spectroscopy is an effective forensic tool for determining the use of abused drugs. The “fingerprint” for heroin in the mixture with the other substances(1-10 components is determined by 1D-TOCSY NMR.

  2. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

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    Y.J. Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50 of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m., respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

  3. Testing and Comparison of Non-Opioid Analgesics in Amphibians

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Craig W.; MACIVER, DONALD N.; Newman, Leslie C

    2001-01-01

    Because of the lack of information about effective analgesics in non-mammalian vertebrates, the potency of various non-opioid agents were tested in a model of analgesia by using Northern grass frogs (Rana pipiens). This alternative model has been used widely for investigating opioid analgesic action. Potential non-opioid analgesics tested included antipsychotic, benzodiazepine, barbiturate, antihistamine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID), and partial opioid agents. Northern grass frogs...

  4. Effect of body mass index on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohab, Durre; Ayub, Ramsha; Alam, Muhammad Umar; Butt, Amna; Sheikh, Sanam; Assad, Salman; Akhter, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of body mass index (BMI) on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by comparing three BMI groups. Material and methods This is a retrospective analysis of 129 patients who underwent PCNL from January 2010 to August 2013. All the patients underwent PCNL by a standard technique. The patients were divided into three groups: patients having a BMI ?24 kg/m2 were included in the normal group, those having a BMI of 24.1–30.0 kg/m2 were included in the overweight group, and those having a BMI >30 kg/m2 were included in the obese group. Three groups were compared for operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement. Results A total of 129 patients including 44 females and 85 males were included with a mean age of 45.00±1.44 years. The mean age in the normal group was 43.29±1.69 years, 47.08±1.29 years in the overweight group, and 43.61±1.25 years in the obese group. The mean stone size in the normal group was 25.46±8.92 mm, 28.01±8.40 mm in the overweight group, and 26.84±7.41 mm in the obese group. Our results showed no statistically significant difference with respect to mean operative time, mean hospital stay, and stone clearance in the normal, obese, and overweight patients undergoing PCNL. Postoperative complications and analgesia requirement were also similar in all the three groups. Conclusion There was no effect of BMI on operative time, hospital stay, stone clearance, postoperative complications, and postoperative analgesic requirement in patients undergoing PCNL. PCNL is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of renal stones in obese patients. PMID:26623145

  5. CR4056, a new analgesic I2 ligand, is highly effective against bortezomib-induced painful neuropathy in rats

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    Meregalli C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Meregalli,1 Cecilia Ceresa,1 Annalisa Canta,1 Valentina Alda Carozzi,1 Alessia Chiorazzi,1 Barbara Sala,1 Norberto Oggioni,1 Marco Lanza,2 Ornella Letar,i2 Flora Ferrari,2 Federica Avezza,1 Paola Marmiroli,1 GianFranco Caselli,2 Guido Cavaletti11Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Technologies, University of Milan-Bicocca, 2Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Rottapharm | Madaus Research Center, Monza, ItalyAbstract: Although bortezomib (BTZ is the frontline treatment for multiple myeloma, its clinical use is limited by the occurrence of painful peripheral neuropathy, whose treatment is still an unmet clinical need. Previous studies have shown chronic BTZ administration (0.20 mg/kg intravenously three times a week for 8 weeks to female Wistar rats induced a peripheral neuropathy similar to that observed in humans. In this animal model of BTZ-induced neurotoxicity, the present authors evaluated the efficacy of CR4056, a novel I2 ligand endowed with a remarkable efficacy in several animal pain models. CR4056 was administered in a wide range of doses (0.6–60 mg/kg by gavage every day for 2–3 weeks in comparison with buprenorphine (Bupre (28.8 µg/kg subcutaneously every day for 2 weeks and gabapentin (Gaba (100 mg/kg by gavage every day for 3 weeks. Chronic administration of BTZ reduced nerve conduction velocity and induced allodynia. CR4056, Bupre, or Gaba did not affect the impaired nerve conduction velocity. Conversely, CR4056 dose-dependently reversed BTZ-induced allodynia (minimum effective dose 0.6 mg/kg. The optimal dose found, 6 mg/kg, provided a constant pain relief throughout the treatment period and without rebound after suspension, being effective when coadministered with BTZ, starting before or after allodynia was established, or when administered alone after BTZ cessation. A certain degree of tolerance was seen after 7 days of administration, but only at the highest doses (20 and 60 mg/kg. Bupre was effective only acutely, since tolerance was evident from the fourth day onwards. Gaba showed a significant activity only at the fourth day of treatment. CR4056, over the range of concentrations of 3–30 µM, was unable to hinder BTZ cytotoxicity on several tumor cell lines, which could indicate that this substance does not directly interfere with BTZ antitumor activity. Therefore, CR4056 could represent a new treatment option for BTZ-induced neuropathic pain.Keywords: imidazoline I2 receptor ligand, antinociception, allodynia, neuropathic pain, bortezomib

  6. Evaluation of analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis in albino rats

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    Bhomik Goel

    2014-04-01

    Results: Emblica officinalis extract did not produced statistically significant (p>0.05 analgesia when compared with the control group in hot plate latency, but produced a statistically significant reduction in 6% NaCl induced abdominal writhing (pEmblica officinalis exhibit analgesic activity involving peripheral mechanisms. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 365-368

  7. Efeito analgésico de antagonistas do receptor da histamina H2 em modelo de dor provocada por formalina em ratos / Analgesic effect of hystamine H2 receptor antagonists in formalin-induced pain model in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deutsch, Fernanda; Hazem Adel, Ashmawi; Cláudia Carneiro de Araújo, Palmeira; Irimar de Paula, Posso.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Antagonistas de receptor de histamina apresentam efeitos sobre a dor. Antagonistas de receptor H1 apresentam efeito analgésico local, o papel de antagonistas de receptor H2 sobre a dor no sistema nervoso periférico ainda não está claro. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avali [...] ar os efeitos de diferentes antagonistas H2 sobre a dor induzida pela administração de formalina na pata de ratos. MÉTODO: Foram estudados ratos machos divididos em grupos que receberam formalina na pata e diferentes antagonistas de receptor H2 - ranitidina, cimetidina e loxtidina, injetados na pata em diferentes concentrações (0,05 ?mol, 0,25 ?mol ou 1 ?mol). Foi avaliado o número de elevações da pata pelo período de 45 minutos. RESULTADOS: A loxtidina inibiu o número de elevações da pata nas duas fases do teste a partir das três concentrações utilizadas, a ranitidina diminuiu o número de elevações da pata a partir da concentração de 0,25 ?mol na fase II, a cimetidina não inibiu esse comportamento doloroso. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com os resultados deste estudo, alguns antagonistas do receptor H2 apresentaram efeito analgésico local fármaco específico e não classe farmacológica específica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Histamine receptor antagonists affect pain perception. H1 receptor antagonists present local analgesic effect, but the role of H2 receptor antagonists on pain in the peripheral nervous system is not clear yet. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different H2 rece [...] ptor antagonists on pain induced by formalin paw injection in rats. METHOD: Male rats were studied and divided into groups that received formalin and different H2 receptor antagonists - ranitidine, cimetidine and loxtidine, injected in the paw at different concentrations (0.05 mol, 0.25 mol or 1 mol). The number of flinches was evaluated during 45 minutes. RESULTS: Loxtidine inhibited the number of flinches in both phases of the test with the three different concentrations. Ranitidine decreased the number of flinches in phase II as from 0.25 mol. Cimetidine did not affect pain behavior. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, some H2 receptor antagonists presented local analgesic effects, which seem to be drug-related and not pharmacological class-specific.

  8. Regulation of Neurotrophin-3 and Interleukin-1? and Inhibition of Spinal Glial Activation Contribute to the Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in Chronic Neuropathic Pain States of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenzhan; Wang, Wansheng; Xi, Haiyan; He, Rong; Gao, Liping; Jiang, Songhe

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that neurotrophin-3, interleukin-1?, and spinal glia are involved in neuropathic pain derived from dorsal root ganglia to spinal cord. Electroacupuncture is widely accepted to treat chronic pain, but the precise mechanism underlying the analgesic effect of EA has not been fully demonstrated. In this study, the mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were recorded. We used immunofluorescence and western blots methods to investigate the effect of EA on the expression of NT-3 and IL-1? in DRG and spinal cord of CCI rats; we also examined the expression of spinal GFAP and OX-42 in spinal cord. In present study, the MWT and TWL of CCI group rats were lower than those in the Sham CCI group rats, but EA treatment increased the pain thresholds. Furtherly, we found that EA upregulates the expression of NT-3 in DRG and spinal cord of CCI rats, while EA downregulates the expression of IL-1?. Additionally, immunofluorescence exhibited that CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes was inhibited significantly by EA treatment. These results demonstrated that the analgesic effect of EA may be achieved through promoting the neural protection of NT-3 as well as the inhibition of IL-1? production and spinal glial activity. PMID:26161124

  9. Evolution in pharmacologic thinking around the natural analgesic palmitoylethanolamide: from nonspecific resistance to PPAR-? agonist and effective nutraceutical

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    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink Department of Pharmacology, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany Abstract: The history of development of new concepts in pharmacology is a highly interesting topic. This review discusses scientific insights related to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and its progression over a period of six decades, especially in light of the work of the science sociologists, Ludwig Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. The discovery of the cannabis receptors and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was the beginning of a completely new understanding of many important homeostatic physiologic mechanisms in the human body. These discoveries were necessary for us to understand the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of PEA, a body-own fatty amide. PEA is a nutrient known already for more than 50 years. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and has a multitude of physiologic functions related to metabolic homeostasis. PEA was identified in the 1950s as a therapeutic principle with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Since 1975, its analgesic properties have been noted and explored in a variety of chronic pain states. Since 2008, PEA has been available as a nutraceutical under the brand names Normast® and PeaPure®. A literature search on PEA meanwhile has yielded over 350 papers, all referenced in PubMed, describing the physiologic properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacologic and therapeutic profile. This review describes the emergence of concepts related to the pharmacologic profile of PEA, with an emphasis on the search into its mechanism of action and the impact of failing to identify such mechanism in the period 1957–1993, on the acceptance of PEA as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound. Keywords: palmitoylethanolamide, sociology, science, paradigm, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, nutraceutical

  10. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento-Neto, José Ferreira; do Nascimento, Lázaro Gomes; Felipe, Cícero Francisco Bezerra; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2015-01-01

    Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26703556

  11. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

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    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

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    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  13. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding systemic circulation, topically applied analgesics are associated with application-site reactions in patients, such as dryness, erythema, burning, and discoloration. Furthermore, some adverse events that have been observed in patients may be suggestive of some degree of systemic exposure. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and tolerability of topical treatments for the management of patient pain. PMID:24547599

  14. Paracetamol and analgesic nephropathy: Are you kidneying me?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waddington F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Freya Waddington, Mark Naunton, Jackson Thomas Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia Introduction: Analgesic nephropathy is a disease resulting from the frequent use of combinations of analgesic medications over many years, leading to significant impairment of renal function. The observation of a large number of cases of renal failure in patients abusing analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin led to the initial recognition of the nephrotoxicity from the use of analgesics. Phenacetin was subsequently exclusively blamed for this disease. However, the role of a single analgesic as a sole cause of analgesic nephropathy was challenged, and a number of researchers have since attempted to determine the extent of involvement of other analgesics including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, aspirin, and paracetamol. Case presentation: We present the case of an 83-year-old woman with a history of NSAID-induced nephropathy with poor pain control and reluctance to use paracetamol. We attempt to briefly review the evidence of paracetamol being implicated in the development of analgesic-induced nephropathy. Conclusion: There is a lack of concrete data regarding causative analgesics, including paracetamol. Patients should therefore not be withheld paracetamol, an effective and commonly recommended agent, for fear of worsening renal function. Keywords: kidney, paracetamol, nephropathy, phenacetin

  15. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the essential oil of the unique plant Zhumeria majdae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghazadeh, Seyyedeh Ghazal; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Asgarpanah, Jinous

    2015-04-01

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Zhumeria majdae essential oil were investigated in mice and rats. The analgesic activity of the oil was assessed by acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot plate methods while the acute anti-inflammatory effect was investigated by inflammatory paw edema in rat. Z majdae oil significantly decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhes in mice compared with animals that received vehicle only. Also it exhibited a central analgesic effect as evidenced by a significant increase in reaction time in the hot plate method. The oil also significantly reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The inhibitory activity of Z. majdae essential oil was found to be very close to that of the standard drug, diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg). The studied oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and seventeen constituents were identified, representing 99.2% of the oil. The major components of the oil were characterized as linalool (63.4%) and camphor (27.5%), which might be responsible for these observed activities. The results suggest that Z. majdae essential oil possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have significant activity against acute inflammation and have central and peripheral antinociceptive effects which support the ethnomedicinal claims of the plant application in the management of pain and inflammation. PMID:25973506

  16. Effect of indomethacin on peripheral blood count of gamma-irradiated laboratory rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was studied of single or repeat injection administration of indomethacin on the peripheral blood count of gamma-irradiated rats with single whole-body doses (5.5 and 6.0 Gy). It was found that the post-irradiation administration of indomethacin stimulated the recovery of the peripheral granulocyte count. The stimulating effects of indomethacin on the granulocyte level in peripheral blood were also apparent in non-irradiated rats. The unfavourable effect of higher doses of indomethacin became apparent in a decreased red blood cell count in peripheral blood, possibly caused by the ulcerogenic influence of this non-steroid antiinflammatory drug on mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract with subsequent bleeding. (author). 2 figs., 15 refs

  17. Possible analgesic effect of vigabatrin in animal experimental chronic neuropathic pain / Possível efeito analgésico da vigabatrina na dor neuropática crônica experimental animal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NILZA D., ALVES; CARLOS M. DE, CASTRO-COSTA; ALBA M. DE, CARVALHO; FRANKLIN J. C., SANTOS; DELANO G., SILVEIRA.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de anticonvulsivantes no tratamento de neuralgias despertou um interesse em testar novas drogas anticonvulsivantes, e dentre essas a vigabatrina por possuir mecanismo de ação gabaérgico. Para isso, foram usados 41 ratos Wistar e em 25 deles induziu-se neuropatia ciática constritiva (modelo de [...] Bennett & Xie). Para testar sintomas de dor, foram quantificados comportamentos espontâneos (coçar-se) e evocados, por meio de estímulos térmicos nocivos (46oC) e não-nocivos (40oC). Além disso, realizou-se estudo comparativo da vigabatrina com outros anticonvulsivantes analgésicos. Os resultados mostraram um possível efeito analgésico, dose-dependente, de vigabatrina (gama-vinil-GABA) em dor neuropática experimental. Isso foi evidenciado pela diminuição significativa (p Abstract in english Since anticonvulsants have been used for treating neuralgias, an interest has arisen to experimentally test vigabatrin for its gabaergic mechanism of action. For this, 41 Wistar rats were used, and in 25 of them a constrictive sciatic neuropathy was induced (Bennet & Xie model). For testing pain sym [...] ptoms, spontaneous (scratching) and evoked behaviors to noxious (46o C) and non-noxious (40o C) thermal stimuli were quantified. Moreover, a comparative pharmacological study of vigabatrin with other analgesic anticonvulsant drugs was also performed. The results showed a possible dose-dependent analgesic effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl-GABA) on experimental neuropathic pain, as shown by the significant (p

  18. Analgesic effect of switching from oral opioids to a once-a-day fentanyl citrate transdermal patch in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Osamu; Oguri, Tetsuya; Maeno, Ken; Yokoyama, Midori; Hijikata, Hisatoshi; Uemura, Takehiro; Ozasa, Hiroaki; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Miyazaki, Mikinori; Niimi, Akio

    2013-11-01

    A new once-a-day fentanyl citrate transdermal patch was developed in Japan. We retrospectively investigated analgesic and adverse effects of this drug in 24 patients with lung cancer. All patients were started on this patch by switching from an oral opioid. The mean pain score before switching was 2.45 (0-5); 48 hours after switching, 15 of the 24 patients showed a decreased pain score and the mean score (2.00) was significantly lower than that before switching. Of the 16 patients who had adverse effects of oral opioids, 7 patients showed improvement in their symptoms after switching. Two patients showed adverse effects of the drug but their symptoms were mild, and no patient required dose decrease. This new transdermal patch could be a useful treatment option for cancer pain. PMID:23264661

  19. Analgesic effects of methanolic extracts of the leaf or root of Moringa oleifera on complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Manaheji

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Moringa oleifera (family Moringaceae has been widely used in African folk medicine, and researchers have recently revealed its anti-inflammatory effects in human. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of methanolic extracts of M. oleifera in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 220 g, were used in this study. Adjuvant arthritis was induced on day 0 by a single subcutaneous injection of CFA. The prepared extracts from both the root and leaf (200, 300 and 400 mg/kg of M. oleifera were administered intraperitonealy to rats in the treatment groups 0, 3 and 6 d after CFA injection and indomethacin (5 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were evaluated for the analgesic effect 0, 3 and 6 d after CFA injection. Combined methanolic root and leaf extracts of M. oleifera (200 mg/kg were also tested for the analgesic effect.Results: The potency of the root or leaf extracts of M. oleifera (300 and 400 mg/kg was similar to that of indomethacin, resulted in significant reductions in both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in rats with CFA-induced arthritis compared with the control group after 3 and 6 d, respectively (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Combined root and leaf extracts (200 mg/kg of M. oleifera resulted in a significant reduction in thermal hyperalgesia compared with the control group after 3 and 6 d, respectively (P<0.01. Prophylactic injections of combined root and leaf extracts of M. oleifera (200 mg/kg resulted in a significant reduction in thermal hyperalgesia compared with the control group, the root extracts group, and the leaf extracts group after 3 and 6 d, respectively (P<0.01. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of the root or leaf of M. oleifera are effective in the reduction of pain induced by CFA in rats. A comparison of single and combination therapies of root and leaf extracts also showed a synergistic effect on pain reduction.

  20. Inhibition of spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation correlates with the analgesic effects of ketamine in neuropathic pain

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    Wang Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that inhibition of astrocytic activation contributes to the analgesic effects of intrathecal ketamine on spinal nerve ligation (SNL-induced neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family, has been reported to be critical for spinal astrocytic activation and neuropathic pain development after SNL. Ketamine can decrease lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced phosphorylated JNK (pJNK expression and could thus exert its anti-inflammatory effect. We hypothesized that inhibition of astrocytic JNK activation might be involved in the suppressive effect of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocytic activation. Methods Immunofluorescence histochemical staining was used to detect SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression and localization. The effects of ketamine on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia were confirmed by behavioral testing. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot were used to quantify the SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression after ketamine administration. Results The present study showed that SNL induced ipsilateral pJNK up-regulation in astrocytes but not microglia or neurons within the spinal dorsal horn. Intrathecal ketamine relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia without interfering with motor performance. Additionally, intrathecal administration of ketamine attenuated SNL-induced spinal astrocytic JNK activation in a dose-dependent manner, but not JNK protein expression. Conclusions The present results suggest that inhibition of JNK activation may be involved in the suppressive effects of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocyte activation. Therefore, inhibition of spinal JNK activation may be involved in the analgesic effects of ketamine on SNL-induced neuropathic pain.

  1. Effects of lectins on peripheral infections by herpes simplex virus of rat sensory neurons in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, R J; Pozos, R S

    1981-01-01

    Concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin are capable of preventing a productive peripheral infection of dissociated rat sensory neurons in culture by herpes simplex virus type 1. Concanavalin A binds to the herpes simplex virion, rendering it inactive, whereas wheat germ agglutinin binds to the peripheral neuritic extensions of the sensory neurons, rendering them incapable of initiating a productive viral infection. This latter effect (i) seems to be specific for wheat germ agglutinin since o...

  2. Efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona sobre a hiperalgesia persistente induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático em ratos: participação do óxido nítrico / Long term analgesic effect of dipyrone on the persistent hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats: involviment of nitric oxide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio José, Reis; Noeli Pereira, Rocha.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona foi avaliado em um modelo de dor neuropática assim como a participação da via óxido nítrico-GMPc neste mecanismo analgésico. Uma única administração intraplantar de dipirona (80 µg), no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática induzida pe [...] la constrição do nervo ciático exerceu um efeito analgésico, significativo e de longa duração. A inibição da óxido nítrico sintetase com L-NAME (50 ou 100 µg/pata), ou do óxido nítrico (NO) endógeno com hemoglobina (10 ou 30 µg/pata), bloquearam o desenvolvimento do efeito analgésico da dipirona. A L-arginina (500 µg/pata) reverteu o efeito do L-NAME. Cloreto de metiltionínio (azul de metileno) (500 µg/pata), ODQ (50 µg/pata) (bloqueadores da guanilil ciclase) ou glibenclamida (100, 200 ou 300 µg/pata) (bloqueador de canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP) inibiram o efeito analgésico da dipirona. O nitroprussiato de sódio administrado no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática também exerceu efeito analgésico de longa duração, semelhante ao observado com a dipirona. Sugerimos que a ação analgésica periférica e de longa duração da dipirona, neste modelo experimental, ocorra devido a provável dessensibilização dos nociceptores, envolvendo a via óxido nítrico - GMPc e canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP. Abstract in english The long term analgesic effect of dipyrone was evaluated on a model of neuropathic pain and the role of nitric oxide/GMPc pathway in this antinociceptive mechanism. One intraplantar dipyrone administration (80 mg), at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, induced a sig [...] nificant and long term analgesic effect. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with L-NAME (50 or 100 mg/paw) or scavenging of the endogenous NO with hemoglobin (10 or 30 mg/paw) inhibited the development of the dipyrone analgesia. L-arginine (500 mg/paw) could reverted the effect of L-NAME. Metylene blue (500 mg/paw) or ODQ (50 mg/paw) (blockers of guanyl cyclase), or glybenclamide (100, 200 or 300 mg/paw) (blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels) inhibited the development of dipyrone analgesia. The sodium nitroprussiate administered at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve also induced a long term analgesic effect similar to that of dipyrone. Our data may support the suggestion that the peripheral and the long term analgesic action of dipyrone on this model experimental occurs due to a probable nociceptor desensitisation with involviment of activation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, followed by an opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

  3. Efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona sobre a hiperalgesia persistente induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático em ratos: participação do óxido nítrico Long term analgesic effect of dipyrone on the persistent hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats: involviment of nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio José Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona foi avaliado em um modelo de dor neuropática assim como a participação da via óxido nítrico-GMPc neste mecanismo analgésico. Uma única administração intraplantar de dipirona (80 µg, no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático exerceu um efeito analgésico, significativo e de longa duração. A inibição da óxido nítrico sintetase com L-NAME (50 ou 100 µg/pata, ou do óxido nítrico (NO endógeno com hemoglobina (10 ou 30 µg/pata, bloquearam o desenvolvimento do efeito analgésico da dipirona. A L-arginina (500 µg/pata reverteu o efeito do L-NAME. Cloreto de metiltionínio (azul de metileno (500 µg/pata, ODQ (50 µg/pata (bloqueadores da guanilil ciclase ou glibenclamida (100, 200 ou 300 µg/pata (bloqueador de canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP inibiram o efeito analgésico da dipirona. O nitroprussiato de sódio administrado no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática também exerceu efeito analgésico de longa duração, semelhante ao observado com a dipirona. Sugerimos que a ação analgésica periférica e de longa duração da dipirona, neste modelo experimental, ocorra devido a provável dessensibilização dos nociceptores, envolvendo a via óxido nítrico - GMPc e canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP.The long term analgesic effect of dipyrone was evaluated on a model of neuropathic pain and the role of nitric oxide/GMPc pathway in this antinociceptive mechanism. One intraplantar dipyrone administration (80 mg, at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, induced a significant and long term analgesic effect. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS with L-NAME (50 or 100 mg/paw or scavenging of the endogenous NO with hemoglobin (10 or 30 mg/paw inhibited the development of the dipyrone analgesia. L-arginine (500 mg/paw could reverted the effect of L-NAME. Metylene blue (500 mg/paw or ODQ (50 mg/paw (blockers of guanyl cyclase, or glybenclamide (100, 200 or 300 mg/paw (blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels inhibited the development of dipyrone analgesia. The sodium nitroprussiate administered at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve also induced a long term analgesic effect similar to that of dipyrone. Our data may support the suggestion that the peripheral and the long term analgesic action of dipyrone on this model experimental occurs due to a probable nociceptor desensitisation with involviment of activation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, followed by an opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

  4. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourmotabbed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sCurrent study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant (P< 0.01 inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model, while only the high dose (200 mg/kg of the extract showed an analgesic effect in the first phase. The extract also inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes in a dose-dependent manner. The tail flick latency was dose dependently enhanced by the extract but this was significantly (P< 0.05 lower than that produced by morphine (10 mg/kg. The extract (25–250 mg/kg administered 1 hr before carrageenan-induced paw swelling produced a dose dependent inhibition of the oedema. No effect was observed with the dextran-induced oedema model. Results of the phytochemical screening show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids in the extract.ConclusionThe data obtained also suggest that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The role of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids will evaluate in future studies.

  5. Effect of Peripheral Communication Pace on Attention Allocation in a Dual-Task Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueddana, Sofiane; Roussel, Nicolas

    Peripheral displays allow continuous awareness of information while performing other activities. Monitoring such a display while performing a central task has a cognitive cost that depends on its perceptual salience and the distraction it causes, i.e. the amount of attention it attracts away from the user’s primary action. This paper considers the particular case of peripheral displays for interpersonal communication. It reports on an experiment that studied the effect of peripheral communication pace on subjects’ allocation of attention in a dual-task situation: a snapshot-based peripheral monitoring task where participants need to assess the presence of a remote person, and a central text-correcting task against the clock. Our results show that the addition of the peripheral task caused a drop in the success rate of the central task. As the pace of snapshots increased, success rate decreased on the peripheral task while on the central one, success rate remained the same but failures to reply in time occurred more frequently. These results suggest that the increase in pace of snapshots caused participants to change their strategy for the central task and allocate more attention to the peripheral one, not enough to maintain peripheral performance but also not to the point where it would affect central performance. Overall, our work suggests that peripheral communication pace subtly influences attention allocation in dual-task situations. We conclude by discussing how control over information pace could help users of communication systems to adjust their local distraction as well as the attention they draw from remote users.

  6. Steroid metabolism and effects in central and peripheral glial cells

    OpenAIRE

    MELCANGI, COSIMO; Magnaghi, Valerio; Martini, Luciano

    1999-01-01

    Hormonal steroids participate in the control of a large number of functions of the central nervous system (CNS); recent data show that they may also intervene at the level of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Both the CNS and the PNS metabolize endogenous as well as exogenous steroids; one of the major enzymatic system is represented by the 5alpha-reductase-3alpha-hydroxysteroid complex. This is a versatile system, since every steroid possessing the delta 4-3keto configuration (e.g., testo...

  7. Analgesic effect of morphine microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus after electrolytic lesion of nucleus cuneiformis in tail-flick and formalin tests in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ahmad-Molaei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The antinociceptive effect of morphine is, in part, mediated through the activation of a descending pathway. One of the major components of this pathway is the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM. Our previous study demonstrated the involvement of NRM in the analgesic effect of morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis (NCF in a descending manner. The aim of the current study was to investigate another aspect of the interaction between these two nuclei in both acute and chronic inflammatory pain models. Methods: In order to calculate 50% effective dose (ED50 of morphine, animals received bilateral morphine injections (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 ?g/0.5 ?l saline into the NRM. The obtained ED50 of morphine was applied into the NRM with/without bilateral electrolytic lesion (500 ?A, 30 sec of the NCF. Tail-flick and formalin tests were applied as behavioral analgesic tests in this study. Results: Results interestingly showed that the intra-NRM morphine injection (ED50; 1 ?g/0.5 ?l saline resulted in an increase in tail flick latencies (morphine-induced antinociception at 30-min intervals, while bilateral electrolytic lesions in the NCF could notably decreased the morphine-induced antinociception during 30-90 min after the injection of morphine. Data also showed that bilateral morphine microinjected into the NRM, dose-dependently increases the antinociceptive responses during both early and late phases of formalin test. The antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjected into the NRM was significantly attenuated at the late phase but not early phase following the bilateral destruction of NCF in formalin test. Conclusion: It could be concluded that there is a reciprocal interaction between NRM and NCF during morphine - induced antinociception in both acute and chronic inflammatory pain models in rat.

  8. Twelve cases of analgesic headache

    OpenAIRE

    Symon, D

    1998-01-01

    Analgesic headache occurs when drugs given for the treatment of headache aggravate symptoms. The condition is well recognised in adults but has not been described before in children in whom it may be induced by mild analgesics such as paracetamol used alone. Twelve children (nine girls and three boys, aged 6 to 16.5years) with analgesic headache (from three months to 10 years) are reported. Five children were taking paracetamol alone, six were taking paracetamol with code...

  9. A Cost-Consequences analysis of the effect of Pregabalin in the treatment of peripheral Neuropathic Pain in routine medical practice in Primary Care settings

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    Torrades Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain (NeP is a common symptom of a group of a variety of conditions, including diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, or postherpetic neuralgia. Prevalence of NeP has been estimated to range between 5-7.5%, and produces up to 25% of pain clinics consultations. Due to its severity, chronic evolution, and associated co-morbidities, NeP has an important individual and social impact. The objective was to analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB on pain alleviation and longitudinal health and non-health resources utilization and derived costs in peripheral refractory NeP in routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS in Spain. Methods Subjects from PCS were older than 18 years, with peripheral NeP (diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia or trigeminal neuralgia, refractory to at least one previous analgesic, and included in a prospective, real world, and 12-week two-visit cost-of-illness study. Measurement of resources utilization included both direct healthcare and indirect expenditures. Pain severity was measured by the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ. Results One-thousand-three-hundred-fifty-four PGB-naive patients [58.8% women, 59.5 (12.7 years old] were found eligible for this secondary analysis: 598 (44% switched from previous therapy to PGB given in monotherapy (PGBm, 589 (44% received PGB as add-on therapy (PGB add-on, and 167 (12% patients changed previous treatments to others different than PGB (non-PGB. Reductions of pain severity were higher in both PGBm and PGB add-on groups (54% and 51%, respectively than in non-PGB group (34%, p Conclusion In Spanish primary care settings, PGB given either add-on or in monotherapy in routine medical practice was associated with pain alleviation leading to significant longitudinal reductions in resource use and total costs during the 12-week period of the study compared with non-PGB-therapy of patients with chronic NeP of peripheral origin. The use of non-appropriate analgesic therapies for neuropathic pain in a portion of subjects in non-PGB group could explain partially such findings.

  10. Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of melatonin in a human inflammatory pain model: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Gögenur, Ismail; Fenger, Andreas Q; Petersen, Marian C; Rosenberg, Jacob; Werner, Mads U

    2015-11-01

    Antinociceptive effects of melatonin have been documented in a wide range of experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic, antihyperalgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin using a validated burn injury (BI) model in healthy male volunteers. The design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm crossover study. Each volunteer participated in 3 identical study sessions with intravenous administration of placebo, melatonin 10 mg, or melatonin 100 mg. Sixty minutes after bolus injection of study medication, a BI was induced by a computerized contact thermode (47.0°C, 420 seconds, 5.0 × 2.5 cm). Pain ratings during the BI and quantitative sensory testing at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the BI were performed. Quantitative sensory testing included assessments of secondary hyperalgesia areas, mechanical and thermal thresholds in the BI area, and pressure algometry. Furthermore, markers of inflammation, skin-reflectance spectrophotometry, and high-resolution ultrasonography were applied to measure skin erythema and dermal thickness in the BI area. Pain during the BI and secondary hyperalgesia areas were defined as primary outcomes. Twenty-nine volunteers were randomized and completed the study. While the BI induced large secondary hyperalgesia areas and significantly increased the markers of inflammation, no significant effects of melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared with placebo. The administration of melatonin was not associated with any adverse effects. Melatonin did not demonstrate any analgesic, antihyperalgesic, or anti-inflammatory properties in the BI model. PMID:26164585

  11. AS1069562, the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, exerts analgesic effects in a rat model of neuropathic pain with unique characteristics in spinal monoamine turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Nobuhito; Aoki, Toshiaki; Tamura, Seiji; Sekizawa, Toshihiro; Kakimoto, Shuichiro; Tsukamoto, Mina; Oe, Tomoya; Enomoto, Ryugo; Hamakawa, Nozomu; Matsuoka, Nobuya

    2014-03-01

    AS1069562 [(R)-2-[(1H-inden-7-yloxy)methyl]morpholine monobenzenesulfonate] is the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, which had been used clinically for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases with multiple pharmacological actions, including serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibition. Here we investigated the analgesic effects of AS1069562 in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the spinal monoamine turnover. These effects were compared with those of the antidepressants duloxetine and amitriptyline. AS1069562 significantly elevated extracellular 5-HT and NE levels in the rat spinal dorsal horn, although its 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibition was much weaker than that of duloxetine in vitro. In addition, AS1069562 increased the ratio of the contents of both 5-HT and NE to their metabolites in rat spinal cord, whereas duloxetine slightly increased only the ratio of the content of 5-HT to its metabolite. In CCI rats, AS1069562 and duloxetine significantly ameliorated mechanical allodynia, whereas amitriptyline did not. AS1069562 and amitriptyline significantly ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia, and duloxetine tended to ameliorate it. Furthermore, AS1069562, duloxetine, and amitriptyline significantly improved spontaneous pain-associated behavior. In a gastric emptying study, AS1069562 affected gastric emptying at the same dose that exerted analgesia in CCI rats. On the other hand, duloxetine and amitriptyline significantly reduced gastric emptying at lower doses than those that exerted analgesic effects. These results indicate that AS1069562 broadly improved various types of neuropathic pain-related behavior in CCI rats with unique characteristics in spinal monoamine turnover, suggesting that AS1069562 may have potential as a treatment option for patients with neuropathic pain, with a different profile from currently available antidepressants. PMID:24338505

  12. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION FOR ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF MAMSYADI KWATHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreevathsa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Siddha Yoga Sangraha of Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, states about Mamsyadi kwatha, an Ayurvedic formulation which is said to be effective in minor mental disorders. The ingredients of Mamsyadi kwatha are Jatamamsi (Nardistachys jatamansi DC, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn and Parasika yavani (Hyoscymus niger Linn, in 8:4:1 ratio respectively. The test formulation was subjected to assess its analgesic effect. The model selected for the assessment of analgesic effect was tail flick test, in albino mice. The test formulation possesses analgesic effect, which is mainly due to its component Parasika yavani.

  13. The paradoxical effects of analgesics and the development of chronic migraine / Migrânea crônica e os efeitos paradoxais dos analgésicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo E., Bigal.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fração não desprezível de pacientes com migrânea episodica evolve para um estágio em que cefaléias acontecem na maior parte dos dias. Dentre os fatores de risco para esse processo de cronificação, o uso excessivo de analgésicos tem importância particular e é o tema desse artigo. A causalidade da ass [...] ociação é discutida, assim como a especificidade da associação. Evidência sugerindo que doses críticas de exposição podem ser inferidas também é revisada, assim como a plausibilidade da associação e mecanismos da mesma. Abstract in english In a subgroup of individuals episodic migraine evolves into a stage where individuals have headaches on more days than not. Among the risk factors for chronification, excessive use of analgesic medications figure prominently and reviewing this topic is the scope of this article. The issue of causali [...] ty is discussed and evidence suggesting that specific medications, at critical doses, are risk factors for chronic migraine (CM) is reviewed. The concept of critical dose of exposure for different classes is presented and biological plausibility and putative mechanisms are reviewed.

  14. Analgesic and sedative effects of perioperative gabapentin in total knee arthroplasty A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs. harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized (1:1:1) to either gabapentin 1300 mg/day (group A), gabapentin 900mg/day (group B) or placebo (group C) daily from 2 hours preoperatively to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 hours after surgery, the secondary outcome sedation6 hours after surgery. Other outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest, and sedation during the first 48hours and from day2-6, morphine use, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and nausea, vomiting, dizziness, concentration difficulty, head-ache, visual disturbances, and adverse reactions. Pain upon ambulation [VAS, mean (95% CI)] 24hours after surgery in group A vs. B vs. C was: 41(37-46) vs.41(36-45) vs.42(37-47), p=0.93. Sedation [NRS, median (range)] 6hours after surgery was: 3.2(0-10) vs.2.6 (0-9) vs.2.3 (0-9), the mean difference Avs.C being 0.9(0.2-1.7),p=0.046. No between-group differences were observed in overall pain or morphine use the first 48hours and from day2-6. Sleep quality was better during the first 2 nights in group A and Bvs.C. Dizziness was more pronounced from day2-6 in Avs. C. More severe adverse reactions were observed in group Avs.B and C. In conclusion, gabapentin may have limited if any role in acute postoperative pain management of opioid-naive patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and should not be recommended as standard of care.

  15. Effect of successful 131I treatment on the peripheral blood picture in hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of successful 131I therapy on the levels peripheral blood picture in hyperthyroid patients. Methods: Serum T3, T4, TSH (with ACCESS microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay) and blood Hb, RBC, WBC and DC, Plt (with COULTER three assortments) counts were determined in 110 controls and 210 hyperthyroid patients both before and after 131I therapy. Results: 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism in this group of patients was very successful (P131I therapy. Conclusion: The application of 131I to treat hyperthyroidism was very successful with no remarkable effect on peripheral blood picture. (authors)

  16. Can quantitative sensory testing predict responses to analgesic treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, K; Fischer, Iben W. Deleuran

    2013-01-01

    The role of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in prediction of analgesic effect in humans is scarcely investigated. This updated review assesses the effectiveness in predicting analgesic effects in healthy volunteers, surgical patients and patients with chronic pain. A systematic review of English written, peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and Embase (1980-2013). Additional studies were identified by chain searching. Search terms included 'quantitative sensory testing', 'sensory testing' and 'analgesics'. Studies on the relationship between QST and response to analgesic treatment in human adults were included. Appraisal of the methodological quality of the included studies was based on evaluative criteria for prognostic studies. Fourteen studies (including 720 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were observed between responses to analgesics and several QST parameters including (1) heat pain threshold in experimental human pain, (2) electrical and heat pain thresholds, pressure pain tolerance and suprathreshold heat pain in surgical patients, and (3) electrical and heat pain threshold and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic pain. Heterogeneity among studies was observed especially with regard to application of QST and type and use of analgesics. Although promising, the current evidence is not sufficiently robust to recommend the use of any specific QST parameter in predicting analgesic response. Future studies should focus on a range of different experimental pain modalities rather than a single static pain stimulation paradigm.

  17. Analgesic, Sedative and Hemodynamic Effects of Dexmedetomidine Following Major Abdominal Surgeries: A Randomized, Double Blinded Comparative Study with Morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Taha

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This was a randomized double-blinded study; in which 60 ASAI-II adult patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries (colostomy, radical cystectomy, major gynecological surgery, and abdominal vascular surgery were received standard general anesthesia. Twenty minutes before the anticipated end of surgery, patients were randomized into two equal groups: dexmedetomidine group (group D and morphine group (group M. Group D received dexmedetomidine IV infusion 4µg/kg/h for 15 minutes (1µg/Kg followed by 0.4µg/kg/h for 3h. Group M received morphine sulfate IV (0.07mg/kg. All patients were given a morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA pump in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU, delivering IV morphine 2mg with a lockout time of 5 minutes if pain score assessed through visual analog scale (VAS was more than 5 at any given 5-min assessment. During the PACU recovery period, morphine consumption; pain and sedation scores; hemodynamic variables (heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate; and postoperative nausea, retching and vomiting (PONV were recorded every 30 min for 3h (study period by a member of staff blinded to the treatment. The study demonstrated that the use of dexmedetomidine led to significant decrease in the total amount of morphine consumed throughout the entire PACU recovery period (P0.05; significant decrease in mean arterial pressure (P0.05; without any significant changes in oxygen saturation (P<0.05 or respiratory rate (P<0.05. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine exhibited both analgesic and sedative properties. The associated cardiovascular protective pharmacological profile and the lack of respiratory depression made it potentially extremely interesting for postoperative analgesia after major abdominal surgeries.

  18. Can quantitative sensory testing predict responses to analgesic treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, K; Fischer, Iben W. Deleuran; Olesen, A E; Drewes, A M

    2013-01-01

    The role of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in prediction of analgesic effect in humans is scarcely investigated. This updated review assesses the effectiveness in predicting analgesic effects in healthy volunteers, surgical patients and patients with chronic pain. A systematic review of English written, peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and Embase (1980-2013). Additional studies were identified by chain searching. Search terms included 'quantitative sensory testing', 'sensory...

  19. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment on chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits induced by ?-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment on chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits induced by 60Co ?-rays irradiation were studied. It was found that there is no effect of HBO itself on chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes, and definite promotion effect of HBO treatment on recovery of chromosome damage in preipheral lymphocytes in rabbits induced by irradiation

  20. Chronic morphine use does not induce peripheral tolerance in a rat model of inflammatory pain

    OpenAIRE

    Zöllner, Christian; Mousa, Shaaban A.; Fischer, Oliver; Rittner, Heike L.; Shaqura, Mohammed; Brack, Alexander; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Binder, Waltraud; Urban, Florian; Stein, Christoph; Schäfer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although opioids are highly effective analgesics, they are also known to induce cellular adaptations resulting in tolerance. Experimental studies are often performed in the absence of painful tissue injury, which precludes extrapolation to the clinical situation. Here we show that rats with chronic morphine treatment do not develop signs of tolerance at peripheral ?-opioid receptors (?-receptors) in the presence of painful CFA-induced paw inflammation. In sensory neurons of these animals, int...

  1. Opposing effects of summary statistics on peripheral discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Corey; Simoncelli, Eero

    2015-09-01

    Many have proposed that peripheral vision operates by computing statistical summaries over local portions of the visual field, and that the loss of information associated with this process underlies the phenomenon of "crowding" (Parkes et. al. 2001; Pelli et. al. 2004; Greenwood et. al. 2009; Balas et. al. 2009; Freeman and Simoncelli, 2011). Here, we demonstrate another consequence of this hypothesis: that such statistical representation can either help or hinder visual discrimination performance depending on the observer's task. We created synthetic texture stimuli by matching a set of higher-order statistics measured from digitized photographs (Portilla and Simoncelli, 2001). The parameters include both the marginal statistics and pairwise correlations of the responses of V1-like filters selective for different spatial frequencies, orientations, and spatial positions. Observers were asked to discriminate stimuli presented simultaneously at three degrees eccentricity windowed within circular apertures. When stimuli differed in their statistics, performance increased with increasing patch diameter. This is expected since the parameters of the model converge to different values as the patch size increases. Interestingly, when observers discriminated between different samples matched for the same parameter settings, performance decreased with patch diameter. As the statistics converge to their matching values with increasing patch diameter, subjects were no longer able to utilize the local cues that enable high performance at small patch sizes. These opposing behaviors are analogous to those found for discrimination of auditory textures as a function of temporal window duration (McDermott et al., 2013), and suggest a general processing strategy for sensory systems. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326458

  2. Diferentes doses de tramadol em cães: ações analgésicas, sedativas e sobre o sistema cardiorrespiratório / Different doses of tramadol in dogs: analgesic, sedative and cardiopulmonary effects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Jesus, Paolozzi; Renata Navarro, Cassu; Fernando Silvério Ferreira da, Cruz; Letícia Rodrigues, Parrilha.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos cardiorrespiratório, analgésico e sedativo de diferentes doses de tramadol em cadelas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia (OSH). Foram avaliadas 24 cadelas SRD, adultas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos de oito animais, tratados com tramadol pela via i [...] ntravenosa (IV) nas doses de 1, 2 e 4mg kg-1 (T1, T2 e T4, respectivamente). Na medicação pré-anestésica, foi administrada acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1 IV). Vinte minutos após, a anestesia foi induzida com propofol (4mg kg-1 IV), com posterior manutenção anestésica com isofluorano. O tramadol foi administrado 5 minutos antes da incisão cirúrgica em todos os tratamentos. Foram mensurados: frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, temperatura retal, pressão arterial sistólica, grau de analgesia, grau de sedação, concentração sérica de cortisol e efeitos adversos. Mínimas alterações cardiorrespiratórias foram observadas, sem diferença entre os tratamentos. O cortisol, o grau de sedação e o grau de analgesia não variaram entre os tratamentos, com exceção da terceira hora pós-cirúrgica, em que menores escores de dor foram observados no T4. Vômito foi observado em 50% dos animais do T4. Conclui-se que as diferentes doses de tramadol induziram efeitos analgésicos semelhantes, com discreto efeito sedativo e mínimas alterações cardiorrespiratórias. Paralelamente, a dose de 4mg kg-1 de tramadol induziu alta incidência de vômito em cadelas submetidas à OSH. Abstract in english The aim of this study was compare the cardiopulmonary, analgesic and sedative effects of different doses of tramadol in bitches undergoing to ovariohysterectomy. Twenty four adult crossbreed bitches were randomly assigned to three treatments of 8 animals and received intravenously (IV) tramadol 1, 2 [...] or 4mg kg-1 (T1, T2 and T4, respectively). Pre-anesthetic medication was acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1 IV). Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4mg kg-1 IV) and maintained with isoflurane delivered in oxygen. Tramadol was administered 5 minutes before surgical incision in all groups. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, systolic blood pressure, degree of analgesia and sedation, serum cortisol concentration and adverse effects were measured. Mild changes were observed in cardiopulmonary variables in all treatments. The pain score was lower in T4 in the 3rd hour after surgery in relation to other treatments. Sedation degree was not different among the treatments. The serum cortisol did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, different doses of tramadol promoted similar analgesic effects, with mild sedative and cardiopulmonary effects. However, high incidence of vomiting was observed with tramadol at 4mg kg-1 in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  3. A Study of Scientific Reasoning in a Peripheral Context: The Discovery of the Raman Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Deepanwita

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reconstruct how C.V. Raman, a peripheral scientist in the early 20th century colonial India, managed to develop a research programme in physical optics from his remote colonial location. His attempts at self-training and self-education eventually led him to the discovery of the Raman Effect and to the Nobel Prize in…

  4. Analgesic Effects of Inhalation of Nitric Oxide (Entonox and Parenteral Morphine Sulfate in Patients with Renal Colic; A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kariman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the analgesiceffects of Nitrous oxide and morphine sulfate in patients with acute renal colic due to urolithiasis. Methods: This was randomized clinical trial being performed in Imam Hossein hospital affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from May2013 to May2014. A total of number of 100 patients, with an age range of 20-50 years, who presented with renal colic secondary to urolithiasis confirmed by ultrasonography were randomly assigned to receive morphine sulfate injection (0.1 mg/kg with 100 mg diclofenac suppository (n=50 or Entonox exhalation (50% nitric oxide and 50% oxygenfor 30-minutes with 100 mg diclofenac suppository (n=50. Quantitative measurement was of pain was performed according to a visual analogue scale (VAS, before, 3, 5, 10 and 30-minute after the intervention. The pain severity and side effects were measured between two study groups. Results: The baseline characteristics of the patients in two study groups were comparable. The frequencies of pain persistence (at least 50% at 3-, 5-, 10- and 30-minute intervals in morphine sulfategroup were 96%, 80%, 50% and 8%, respectively; these frequencies in Entonex were 82%, 42%, 12% and 2%, respectively (p<0.001. Cox regression modeling showed that use of Entonox was the only effective agent in the success of treatment, compared to the use of morphine, i.e. use of Entonox increased the success of treatment up to 2.1 folds compared to the use of morphine (HR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.2-3.6; p=0.006. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that inhalation of Entonox is an effective and safe analgesic regimen for acute renal colic. It acts more rapidly and is more potent in relieving renal colic when compared to morphine sulfate.Entonox can be regarded as an appropriate alternative to analgesics like opioids in this ground. Clinical Trial Registry: The current study is registered with Iranian Registry for Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir; IRCT2014120215620N4

  5. Effects of food on the central and peripheral haemodynamic response to upright exercise in normal volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, J.J.; Fullwood, L.; Stainer, K; Cowley, A J; Hampton, J R

    1990-01-01

    The central and peripheral haemodynamic effects of a modest meal were investigated in healthy volunteers at rest and in response to submaximal exercise. The meal increased heart rate, cardiac output, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation at rest and during exercise. The effects of food were additive to those induced by the exercise. Food had no effect on limb blood flow and lowered total systemic vascular resistance suggesting that there were no compensatory ch...

  6. Effects of antibacterial drugs on European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) peripheral leucocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, J H; Heijden, M.H.T., van der; Tanck, M.W.T.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L., van; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    1995-01-01

    In two experiments with European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) the effects of flumequine (FQ), oxytetracycline (OTC) and furazolidone (FZ) on peripheral blood leucocytes were tested using measurements of differential white blood cell counts in blood smears, flow cytometry and respiratory burst activity of adherent cells. Results revealed that FQ and OTC affected (different) leucocyte populations, whereas no effect of FZ was detected in these experiments. These effects should be taken into ...

  7. Effect of peripheral morphine in a human model of acute inflammatory pain.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LillesØ, J; Hammer, N A

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the presence of opioid inducible receptors on peripheral nerves and peripheral antinociceptive effects of opioids. However, the effects of peripheral opioid administration in man are controversial. Our study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover design in a human model of acute inflammatory pain (heat injury). We studied 18 healthy volunteers who each received morphine locally (2 mg), morphine systemically (2 mg), or placebo on three separate study days. The subjects received morphine infiltration subcutaneously (s.c.). 1 h before heat injury (47 degrees C, 7 min) and naloxone infiltration s.c. (0.2 mg) 2.5 h after the heat injury. Hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli were examined using von Frey hairs and thermodes, and pain was rated using a visual analogue scale. The burns produced significant hyperalgesia, but local morphine infiltration neither reduced pain during the burn, nor primary or secondary hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli after the burn. In conclusion, peripherally applied morphine had no acute antinociceptive effects in this human model of acute inflammatory pain.

  8. Testing and comparison of non-opioid analgesics in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C W; MacIver, D N; Newman, L C

    2001-07-01

    Because of the lack of information about effective analgesics in non-mammalian vertebrates, the potency of various non-opioid agents were tested in a model of analgesia by using Northern grass frogs (Rana pipiens). This alternative model has been used widely for investigating opioid analgesic action. Potential non-opioid analgesics tested included antipsychotic, benzodiazepine, barbiturate, antihistamine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID), and partial opioid agents. Northern grass frogs were acclimated to lab conditions in individual cages. Drugs were administered systemically through the dorsal lymph sac, and analgesic effects were estimated by using the acetic acid test (AAT). The AAT is done by placing logarithmic dilutions of acid dropwise on the dorsum of the animal's thigh until a wiping response is obtained. At various doses, chlorpromazine and haloperidol (antipsychotics), chlordiazepoxide (a benzodiazepine), buprenorphine (a partial opioid agonist), and diphenhydramine (a histamine antagonist) produced moderate to strong analgesic effects. Indomethacin and ketorolac (NSAIDs), butorphanol (a partial opioid agonist), and pentobarbital (a barbiturate) produced weaker but noticeable analgesic effects. Our results are the first to document the effectiveness of a wide array of pharmacologically active agents in a novel amphibian model for analgesia. These findings provide needed data regarding the use of alternative, non-opioid agents for the treatment of pain in amphibians and other poikilothermic species. PMID:11451391

  9. Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (?= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

  10. Analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after total abdominal hysterectomy : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RØjskjaer, Jesper O; Gade, Erik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ropivacaine compared with placebo as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial following the CONSORT criteria. SETTING: Hvidovre University Hospital. PATIENTS: Forty-six women scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy. INTERVENTION: Women received either ropivacaine 0.75%, 20 mL (n = 24) or 0.9% saline, 20 mL (n = 24) in the transversus abdominis plane on each side. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the 24-h postoperative morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were pain scores at rest and during coughing, postoperative nausea and vomiting at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h, and time to first mobilization. RESULTS: There was no difference in the mean 24-h postoperative morphine consumption between the two groups (p = 0.733). The ropivacaine group had significantly lower median pain scores at 1 h (p = 0.008) and 2 h (p = 0.027) postoperativelyat rest and at 8 h (p = 0.028) during coughing. There was no significant difference in other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: There was no reduction in 24-h morphine consumption when using an ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. As part of a multimodal regimen the transversus abdominis plane block showed some effect on pain scores at rest only in the early postoperative period.

  11. The subjective, reinforcing, and analgesic effects of oxycodone in patients with chronic, non-malignant pain who are maintained on sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jermaine D; Sullivan, Maria A; Manubay, Jeanne; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D

    2011-01-01

    Some sources suggest that significant misuse of opioid drugs exists among patients with chronic pain. However, the risk factors and motivation behind their abuse may differ from those of other opioid abusers. This study sought to examine the abuse liability of oxycodone among patients with chronic, non-malignant pain who met the DSM-IV criteria for opioid abuse. Eighteen opioid-dependent patients with chronic pain lived on an in-patient unit of the New York State Psychiatric Institute during the 7-week study. Participants were given oral oxycodone (0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/70 kg) while maintained on various doses of sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx; 2/0.5, 8/2, and 16/4 mg/day). Doses of both medications were administered under double-blind conditions. Oxycodone produced an overall positive, but less robust, subjective profile than previously reported in recreational opioid users without pain. Furthermore, unlike our findings in recreational opioid users and more similar to effects in non-drug-abusing individuals, oxycodone failed to serve as a reinforcer. As for the maintenance drug, Bup/Nx produced a dose-related reduction in some of the effects of acutely administered oxycodone. These data suggest that sublingual Bup/Nx has the potential as an analgesic medication and further research should investigate its use in treating patients with chronic pain who abuse opioids. PMID:20980992

  12. The Analgesic Potential of Cannabinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Elikottil, Jaseena; GUPTA, PANKAJ; Gupta, Kalpna

    2009-01-01

    Historically and anecdotally cannabinoids have been used as analgesic agents. In recent years, there has been an escalating interest in developing cannabis-derived medications to treat severe pain. This review provides an overview of the history of cannabis use in medicine, cannabinoid signaling pathways, and current data from preclinical as well as clinical studies on using cannabinoids as potential analgesic agents. Clinical and experimental studies show that cannabis-derived compounds act ...

  13. Effect of peripheral vision control technology in the development of juvenile myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ou Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of peripheral vision control technology for delaying the development of juvenile myopia.METHODS: A total of ninty-nine cases of 12?18 year-old myopic patients were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was peripheral vision control technology group whose members wore the special lenses which can help correct the hypermetropic defocus of peripheral retina. The other was control group whose members wore ordinary monofocal lenses. All the subjects needed to accept re-examination every 3mo and be recorded the data of dioptre, corneal curvature and axial length.RESULTS: After 18mo, the dioptre and axial length of two groups had increased in varying degree. But the data's different quantity of the corneal curvature in each group had no statistical significance(P>0.05. Themyopia deepen quantity in experimental group was -0.65±0.65D and its axial growth was 0.23±0.22mm, and the myopia deepen quantity in control group was -1.17±0.50D and its axial growth was 0.41±0.17mm. Under the circumstance of valid data, the increment of myopia and axial length in experimental group was lower than that in control group(PCONCLUSION: Peripheral vision control technology can delay the development of juvenile myopia effectively.

  14. Metabonomic Study of the Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on Peripheral System of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai-nan; Li, Xu-zhao; Liu, Shu-min; Lu, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus is extensively used to treat various nervous and cerebrovascular diseases in traditional medicinal systems in China and Russia. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry coupled with pattern recognition methods was used to investigate the effects of A. senticosus on the peripheral system in rats. The analysis of possible pathways influenced by A. senticosus was performed with MetaboAnalyst and Cytoscape software. After treatment with A. senticosus, 21 modulated metabolites in heart tissue, 20 in liver tissue, 14 in spleen tissue, 17 in lung tissue, 16 in kidney tissue, and 12 in a serum sample were identified and considered potential biomarkers of A. senticosus treatments. The regulation of some endogenous metabolites by A. senticosus could be beneficial for the treatment of several peripheral system diseases, such as hypertension, cancer, and oxidative stress, etc. However, there were also some upregulated endogenous metabolites producing potential toxicity to the peripheral system. A metabonomic analysis revealed that protection and toxicity coexisted in the effects of A. senticosus on the peripheral system, which may be a practical guide for its safe use and beneficial to the expansion of its application. PMID:25922912

  15. Analgesic and sedative effects of perioperative gabapentin in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Hansen, Lars Tambour; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized (1:1:1) to either gabapentin 1300 mg/d (group A), gabapentin 900 mg/d (group B), or placebo (group C) daily from 2 hours preoperatively to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 hours after surgery, and the secondary outcome was sedation 6 hours after surgery. Other outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest and sedation during the first 48 hours and from days 2-6, morphine use, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and nausea, vomiting, dizziness, concentration difficulty, headache, visual disturbances, and adverse reactions. Pain upon ambulation (visual analog scale, mean [95% confidence interval]) 24 hours after surgery in group A vs B vs C was as follows: 41 [37-46] vs 41 [36-45] vs 42 [37-47], P = 0.93. Sedation (numeric rating scale, median [range]) 6 hours after surgery was as follows: 3.2 [0-10] vs 2.6 [0-9] vs 2.3 [0-9], the mean difference A vs C being 0.9 [0.2-1.7], P = 0.046. No between-group differences were observed in overall pain or morphine use the first 48 hours and from days 2-6. Sleep quality was better during the first 2 nights in group A and B vs C. Dizziness was more pronounced from days 2-6 in A vs C. More severe adverse reactions were observed in group A vs B and C. In conclusion, gabapentin may have a limited if any role in acute postoperative pain management of opioid-naive patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and should not be recommended as a standard of care. PMID:26230741

  16. Analgesic activity of diterpene alkaloids from Aconitum baikalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Yu V; Povet'yeva, T N; Suslov, N I; Zyuz'kov, G N; Pushkarskii, S V; Aksinenko, S G; Schultz, E E; Kravtsova, S S; Krapivin, A V

    2014-08-01

    We compared analgesic activities of individual alkaloids extracted from Baikal aconite (Aconitum baikalensis): napelline, hypaconitine, songorine, mesaconitine, 12-epinapelline N-oxide. The detected analgesic activity was comparable to that of sodium metamizole. The mechanisms of analgesia were different in diterpene alkaloids of different structure. The antinociceptive effect of atisine alkaloids (12-epinapelline N-oxide, songorine) was naloxonedependent and realized via opioid receptor modulation. PMID:25110090

  17. A low intensive ionized radiation effect on the ATP content in lymphocytes of peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of the ATP content in lymphocytes of rat peripheral blood under the effect of low-dose ionized radiation are studied. It is shown that the doses of 0.05-5 Gy lead to a considerable decreasing of the ATP concentration in cells. This effect is observed to be long-term. Possibly, it is concerned with the absence of any adaptive reaction of cells on the prolonged radiation as a result of radiation stress

  18. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar Jafari; Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour faizi; Fariba Askarian; Hassan Pourrazi

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-u...

    • The analgesic activity of imidazopyridine derivatives.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maruyama, Y; Anami, K; Katoh, Y

      1978-01-01

      Analgesic and antipyretic activities of 2-(4-(2-imidazo-[1,2-a]pyridylphenyl)propionic acid (Y-9213) were studied with various experimental models. The analgesic activity of Y-9213 was found to be more potent than that of indometacin and morphine in the silver nitrate, Randall-Selitto, and phenylquinone writhing tests. Y-9213 also showed an analgesia in the tail pinch and electric stimulation test. On the warm water induced foot withdrawal reflex, Y-9213 was more effective in spinal-sectioned mice than in intact mice similarly to mephenesin and diazepam. Y-9213 was also proved to possess antipyretic activity as potent as indometacin and to be devoid of morphine-like property. Y-9213 exhibited little effect on the respiration and cardiovascular system in dogs. Y-9213 was found to be rapidly absorbed and eliminated from the blood with a half-life of about 2.5 h in rats. These findings indicate that Y-9213 may be an effective and well tolerated antipyretic and analgesic agent. PMID:315230

    • Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Olga Pechanova

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS. The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology.

  1. Transdermal therapeutic system of narcotic analgesics using nonporous membrane (I) : Effect of the ethanol permeability on vinylacetate content of EVA membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H.; Song, H.Y. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Khang, G.S. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea); Lee, H.B. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    The fundamental properties of transdermal therapeutic patch as narcotic analgesics agent has been investigated. From the study of drug and ethanol release patterns from the fentanyl base (FB) patches through diffusion cell and hairless mouse skin, it was observed that the FB release patterns were largely affected by the content of vinyl acetate (VA) of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) membrane, and volume fraction of ethanolic solution. Additionally, a variety of control membrane as a function of VA content were examined for swelling following equilibration with ethanolic solutions. Generally, ethanol was incorporated into a transdermal therapeutic device to enable the controlled delivery of enhancer and drug to the skin surface. In vitro skin permeation analysis of the control membrane showed that ethanol flux was linearly related to the ethanol volume fraction. This result was shown that drug permeability increased with increasing as the content of VA. But, the FB flux from saturated aqueous ethanol solutions increases until 80% ethanol volume fraction. Over 80% ethanol volume fraction, the FB flux through skin samples is independent of ethanol volume. These results showed that the decrease in skin permeation due to dehydration nis the dominant effect. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Comparison of the effects of peripherally administered kisspeptins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Kisspeptins are structurally closely related peptides derived from the Kiss1 gene that have been demonstrated to stimulate the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis. The natural peptide products derived from post-translational processing of the kisspeptin precursor have not been elucidated. We examined the acute effect on serum levels of free testosterone in the adult male mouse after systemic administration of kisspeptins with different lengths of both human and mouse origin. Mouse kisspeptin-10 a...

  3. A novel and cost-effective way to follow-up adequacy of pain relief, adverse effects, and compliance with analgesics in a palliative care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A way to assess compliance with analgesics in an outpatient palliative care clinic is essential since often the patient is too ill or weak to come to hospital for weekly follow-ups. A pilot study was conducted using Short Messaging Service via mobile phone as a follow-up tool. Context: A predominantly outpatient palliative care clinic of a 300 bedded multidisciplinary hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients attending the palliative care clinic were enrolled in the study. Analgesic drugs, co-analgesics, and adjuvants were prescribed on an outpatient basis. If possible, patients were admitted for 1 or 2 days. A simple scoring system was devised and taught to the patients and their attenders. A short message service had to be sent to the author?s mobile number. The period was fixed at 2 weeks by which the patients and attenders were familiar with the drugs and pain relief as well. Drowsiness was a worrisome complaint. The mobile number of the patient was called and attender instructed to skip one or two doses of morphine and reassurance given. If required, attender was asked to bring patient to the hospital or come to the hospital for a different prescription as the situation warranted. Results: Out of 60 patients, 22 were admitted initially for dose titration and all others were outpatients. Three patients were lost to follow-up and one patient died after 7 days. 93% of patients responded promptly. Random survey was done in 10 patients to confirm their SMS response and the results were analyzed. Conclusion: Mobile phones are available with all strata of people. It is easy to train patients to send an SMS.This technology can be used to follow- up palliative care patients and help them comply with their treatment regimen.

  4. Topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argoff, Charles E

    2013-02-01

    Oral analgesics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, but these agents often produce adverse systemic effects, which sometimes are severe. Topical analgesics offer the potential to provide the same analgesic relief provided by oral analgesics but with minimal adverse systemic effects. This article describes the results of a systematic review of the efficacy of topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain conditions. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed was conducted using the keywords topical analgesic AND chronic pain OR acute pain OR neuropathic pain and focused only on individual clinical trials published in English-language journals. The search identified 92 articles, of which 65 were eligible for inclusion in the review. The most commonly studied topical analgesics were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=27), followed by lidocaine (n=9), capsaicin (n=6), amitriptyline (n=5), glyceryl trinitrate (n=3), opioids (n=2), menthol (n=2), pimecrolimus (n=2), and phenytoin (n=2). The most common indications were acute soft tissue injuries (n=18), followed by neuropathic pain (n=17), experimental pain (n=6), osteoarthritis and other chronic joint-related conditions (n=5), skin or leg ulcers (n=5), and chronic knee pain (n=2). Strong evidence was identified for the use of topical diclofenac and topical ibuprofen in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries or chronic joint-related conditions, such as osteoarthritis. Evidence also supports the use of topical lidocaine in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. Currently, limited evidence is available to support the use of other topical analgesics in acute and chronic pain. PMID:23374622

  5. Influência da naloxona e metisergida sobre o efeito analgésico do laser em baixa intensidade em modelo experimental de dor / Influence of naloxone and methysergide on the analgesic effects of low-level laser in an experimental pain model / Influencia de la naloxona y la metisergida sobre el efecto analgésico del láser en baja intensidad en modelo experimental de dolor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Peres e, Serra; Hazem A, Ashmawi.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A fototerapia com laser (LPT) é um método analgésico promissor, embora seu mecanismo de ação não seja totalmente conhecido. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a ação da LPT é dependente da ativação de receptores opioides ou serotoninérgicos periféricos. MÉTODO: Foram u [...] tilizados ratos Wistar machos. A dor produzida foi de caráter inflamatório, através da injeção de carragenina na pata posterior esquerda dos ratos. O laser utilizado foi o Photon Lase III em meio ativo InGaAIP (660 nm), fluência de 2,5 J.cm-2. Analisou-se a hiperalgesia mecânica utilizando filamentos de von Frey. Os animais foram separados em cinco grupos: Carragenina; Laser (LPT); Luz não coerente; LPT + Naloxona e LPT + Metisergida. RESULTADOS: A fototerapia com laser em baixa intensidade mostrou-se um método analgésico eficaz, enquanto o emprego de fonte de luz não coerente não mostrou ter efeito analgésico. O uso de naloxona bloqueou o efeito analgésico do LPT; já o uso de metisergida não afetou a analgesia do LPT. CONCLUSÕES: A LPT nos parâmetros utilizados apresentou efeito analgésico. A analgesia da LPT é mediada por receptores opioides periféricos. A LPT parece não interagir com receptores serotoninérgicos periféricos. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La fototerapia con láser (LPT) es un método analgésico promisorio, aunque su mecanismo de acción no se conozca en su totalidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si la acción de la LPT es dependiente de la activación de receptores opioides o serotoninérgicos periféri [...] cos. MÉTODO: Se usaron ratones Wistar machos. El dolor generado fue de carácter inflamatorio, a través de la inyección de carragenina en la pata posterior izquierda de los ratones. El láser utilizado fue el GaIAsAl (660 nm), fluencia de 2,5 J.cm-2. Se analizó la hiperalgesia mecánica utilizando filamentos de von Frey. Los animales se dividieron en cinco grupos: Carragenina; Láser (LPT); Luz no coherente; LPT + Naloxona y LPT + Metisergida. RESULTADOS: La fototerapia con láser en baja intensidad demostró ser un método analgésico eficaz, mientras que el uso de la fuente de luz no coherente no demostró poseer ningún efecto analgésico. El uso de naloxona bloqueó el efecto analgésico del LPT, mientras que el uso de metisergida no afectó la analgesia del LPT. CONCLUSIONES: La LPT en los parámetros utilizados tuvo un efecto analgésico. La analgesia de la LPT es mediada por receptores opióides periféricos. La LPT parece que no interactúa con los receptores serotoninérgicos periféricos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the mechanism of action of laser phototherapy (LPT) is not known, it is a promising analgesic method. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the action of LPT depends on the activation of peripheral opioid or serotonergic receptors. METHOD: Inflammatory pai [...] n was induced through the injection of carrageenin in the left posterior paw of male Wistar rats. The InGaAIP visible laser diode (660 nm) with fluency of 2.5 J.cm-2 was used. Von Frey filaments were used to analyze mechanical hyperalgesia. Animals were separated into five groups: Carrageenin; Laser (LPT); Non-coherent light; LPT + Naloxone; and LPT + Methysergide. RESULTS: Low-Level Laser phototherapy proved to be an effective analgesic method, while non-coherent light did not show a similar effect. The use of naloxone blocked the analgesic effect of LPT, while methysergide did not affect LPT-induced analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: According to the parameter used in this study, LPT produced analgesia. Analgesia induced by laser phototherapy is mediated by peripheral opioid receptors. Laser phototherapy does not seem to interact with peripheral serotonergic receptors.

  6. Influência da naloxona e metisergida sobre o efeito analgésico do laser em baixa intensidade em modelo experimental de dor Influencia de la naloxona y la metisergida sobre el efecto analgésico del láser en baja intensidad en modelo experimental de dolor Influence of naloxone and methysergide on the analgesic effects of low-level laser in an experimental pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Peres e Serra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A fototerapia com laser (LPT é um método analgésico promissor, embora seu mecanismo de ação não seja totalmente conhecido. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a ação da LPT é dependente da ativação de receptores opioides ou serotoninérgicos periféricos. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar machos. A dor produzida foi de caráter inflamatório, através da injeção de carragenina na pata posterior esquerda dos ratos. O laser utilizado foi o Photon Lase III em meio ativo InGaAIP (660 nm, fluência de 2,5 J.cm-2. Analisou-se a hiperalgesia mecânica utilizando filamentos de von Frey. Os animais foram separados em cinco grupos: Carragenina; Laser (LPT; Luz não coerente; LPT + Naloxona e LPT + Metisergida. RESULTADOS: A fototerapia com laser em baixa intensidade mostrou-se um método analgésico eficaz, enquanto o emprego de fonte de luz não coerente não mostrou ter efeito analgésico. O uso de naloxona bloqueou o efeito analgésico do LPT; já o uso de metisergida não afetou a analgesia do LPT. CONCLUSÕES: A LPT nos parâmetros utilizados apresentou efeito analgésico. A analgesia da LPT é mediada por receptores opioides periféricos. A LPT parece não interagir com receptores serotoninérgicos periféricos.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La fototerapia con láser (LPT es un método analgésico promisorio, aunque su mecanismo de acción no se conozca en su totalidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si la acción de la LPT es dependiente de la activación de receptores opioides o serotoninérgicos periféricos. MÉTODO: Se usaron ratones Wistar machos. El dolor generado fue de carácter inflamatorio, a través de la inyección de carragenina en la pata posterior izquierda de los ratones. El láser utilizado fue el GaIAsAl (660 nm, fluencia de 2,5 J.cm-2. Se analizó la hiperalgesia mecánica utilizando filamentos de von Frey. Los animales se dividieron en cinco grupos: Carragenina; Láser (LPT; Luz no coherente; LPT + Naloxona y LPT + Metisergida. RESULTADOS: La fototerapia con láser en baja intensidad demostró ser un método analgésico eficaz, mientras que el uso de la fuente de luz no coherente no demostró poseer ningún efecto analgésico. El uso de naloxona bloqueó el efecto analgésico del LPT, mientras que el uso de metisergida no afectó la analgesia del LPT. CONCLUSIONES: La LPT en los parámetros utilizados tuvo un efecto analgésico. La analgesia de la LPT es mediada por receptores opióides periféricos. La LPT parece que no interactúa con los receptores serotoninérgicos periféricos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the mechanism of action of laser phototherapy (LPT is not known, it is a promising analgesic method. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the action of LPT depends on the activation of peripheral opioid or serotonergic receptors. METHOD: Inflammatory pain was induced through the injection of carrageenin in the left posterior paw of male Wistar rats. The InGaAIP visible laser diode (660 nm with fluency of 2.5 J.cm-2 was used. Von Frey filaments were used to analyze mechanical hyperalgesia. Animals were separated into five groups: Carrageenin; Laser (LPT; Non-coherent light; LPT + Naloxone; and LPT + Methysergide. RESULTS: Low-Level Laser phototherapy proved to be an effective analgesic method, while non-coherent light did not show a similar effect. The use of naloxone blocked the analgesic effect of LPT, while methysergide did not affect LPT-induced analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: According to the parameter used in this study, LPT produced analgesia. Analgesia induced by laser phototherapy is mediated by peripheral opioid receptors. Laser phototherapy does not seem to interact with peripheral serotonergic receptors.

  7. Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Kovacevic, S; Welsch, C; Hajdukovic, D; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Knudsen, H; Comor, J; Moller, S P; Beyer, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

  8. The in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of remeron on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizadeh Tazehkand, Mostafa; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2015-07-01

    Remeron (Mirtazapine) is an antidepressant drug which exerts its action by blocking presynaptic ?-2-adrenergic receptors and postsynaptic serotonin types 2 and 3 receptors. In this in vitro analysis, human peripheral blood lymphocytes was treated by remeron (10, 25, 40 and 55 ?g/mL) for 24 hours and 48 hours periods, then it was attempted to study of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the substance on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by some tests such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal abnormalities (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. Also proliferating effect of the substance was investigated. Remeron didn't significantly cause chromosomal abnormalities and sister chromatid exchange while caused micronucleus at 40 ?g/mL concentration and 24?h periodic time and increased proliferation index of the both 24 and 48 hours treated cells was decreased in a concentration manner. Also, exposing to the remeron for 24 and 48 hours leaded to a decrease in mitotic index and nucleus division index in the cells by concentration dependent manner. These findings showed that remeron did not have significantly genotoxic effects on human peripheral blood lymphocytes while it showed cytotoxic effects on the cells, which is the first report on genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of remeron. PMID:25156279

  9. Comparison of the analgesic effect of ibuprofen with mesalamine after discectomy surgery in patients with lumbar disc herniation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toroudi Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain management is an important component in the postoperative period following discectomy. Aims: We hypothesized that mesalamine considering its better safety profile, is likely to be a better choice, if it would be as effective as ibuprofen in controlling post-discectomy pain. Settings and Design: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed on patients who underwent lumbar discectomy surgery. Materials and Methods: Of the 58 patients who had lumbar discectomy, 27 patients were randomized to oral ibuprofen 500 mg and 31 patients to mesalamine 400 mg, three times a day for nine days following surgery. There was no placebo group. Severity of pain was assessed by using 10- cm visual analogue scale (VAS, once before operation and for nine days after. Statistical Analysis: Mean ± SD pain scores were compared between groups and the statistical difference was estimated by Student?s test using SPSS (Version 13. We also calculated the power of each t-test. Repeated measure ANOVA was performed for measuring the effect of time. Results: The age range of the patients was 35 to 60 years (mean: 42.2 years. Mean ± SD preoperative pain scores for ibuprofen or mesalamine-treated groups were 7.852 ± 2.441 and 7.806 ± 2.892, respectively. At the end of day 9, mean ± SD of pain score was 2.704 ± 2.284 and 2.717 ± 2.273 for ibuprofen and mesalamine-treated groups respectively. Both drugs significantly reduced postoperative pain and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.Conclusions: Since both drugs showed almost equal analgesic effect, considering its safety profile mesalamine, seems to be the preferred choice to alleviate post-discectomy surgery pain.

  10. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Centella asiatica extract in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Seema chaitanya Chippada; Meena Vangalapati

    2012-01-01

    Centella asiatica (CA) is a medicinal herb which has been valued in ayurvedicmedicine for its different activities. In the present studies, CA methanolic extract wasprepared by Soxhlet extraction and then evaluated for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity incultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mitotic Index (MI) Cell ProliferationKinetics (CPK) and Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) were scored to measure thecytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the CA extract in cultures set up from the thre...

  11. The effect of pharmacological treatment on gait biomechanics in peripheral arterial disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Johanning Jason M; Pipinos Iraklis I; Huisinga Jessie M; Stergiou Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pharmacological treatment has been advocated as a first line therapy for Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) patients suffering from intermittent claudication. Previous studies document the ability of pharmacological treatment to increase walking distances. However, the effect of pharmacological treatment on gait biomechanics in PAD patients has not been objectively evaluated as is common with other gait abnormalities. Methods Sixteen patients were prescribed an FDA approved...

  12. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the peripheral nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Mølck, A.-M.; Bøgh, I. B.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) is a common acute side effect in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, especially during intensive insulin therapy. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) depends on glucose as its primary energy source during normoglycaemia and, consequently, it may be particularly susceptible to IIH damage. Possible mechanisms for adaption of the PNS to IIH include increased glucose uptake, utilisation of alternative energy substrates and the use of Schwann cell glycogen as a lo...

  13. Effect of Surface Pore Structure of Nerve Guide Conduit on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Jin Rae; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Lee, Jin Ho

    2012-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with different surface pore structures (nano-porous inner surface vs. micro-porous inner surface) but similar physical and chemical properties were fabricated by rolling the opposite side of asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 membranes. The effect of the pore structure on peripheral nerve regeneration through the NGCs was investigated using a sciatic nerve defect model of rats. The nerve fibers and tissues were shown to have regener...

  14. Rapid Sensitization of Physiological, Neuronal, and Locomotor Effects of Nicotine: Critical Role of Peripheral Drug Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir, Magalie; Jeremy S. Tang; Woods, Amina S; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated exposure to nicotine and other psychostimulant drugs produces persistent increases in their psychomotor and physiological effects (sensitization), a phenomenon related to the drugs' reinforcing properties and abuse potential. Here we examined the role of peripheral actions of nicotine in nicotine-induced sensitization of centrally mediated physiological parameters (brain, muscle, and skin temperatures), cortical and VTA EEG, neck EMG activity, and locomotion in freely moving rats. Re...

  15. Determining the Effects of Central-Peripheral interactions on the Distribution of Human Activity in Space

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, António

    2011-01-01

    Natural advantages determine where agglomerations emerge. Also, efficiency and economies of scale determine how many agglomerations subsist and how they interact, forming complex urban hierarquies. Moreover, physical characteristics influence the way humans divide land into irregular parcels we call administrative regions. If, on one hand, initial location advantages are responsible for defining where the main urban nodes will grow and subsist because of lock-in effects, central-peripheral re...

  16. Engagement of the GABA to KCC2 Signaling Pathway Contributes to the Analgesic Effects of A3AR Agonists in Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Amanda; Castonguay, Annie; Cottet, Martin; Little, Joshua W.; Chen, Zhoumou; Symons-Liguori, Ashley M.; Doyle, Timothy; Egan, Terrance M.; Vanderah, Todd W.; De Konnick, Yves; Tosh, Dilip K.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    More than 1.5 billion people worldwide suffer from chronic pain, yet current treatment strategies often lack efficacy or have deleterious side effects in patients. Adenosine is an inhibitory neuromodulator that was previously thought to mediate antinociception through the A1 and A2A receptor subtypes. We have since demonstrated that A3AR agonists have potent analgesic actions in preclinical rodent models of neuropathic pain and that A3AR analgesia is independent of adenosine A1 or A2A unwanted effects. Herein, we explored the contribution of the GABA inhibitory system to A3AR-mediated analgesia using well-characterized mouse and rat models of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. The deregulation of GABA signaling in pathophysiological pain states is well established: GABA signaling can be hampered by a reduction in extracellular GABA synthesis by GAD65 and enhanced extracellular GABA reuptake via the GABA transporter, GAT-1. In neuropathic pain, GABAAR-mediated signaling can be further disrupted by the loss of the KCC2 chloride anion gradient. Here, we demonstrate that A3AR agonists (IB-MECA and MRS5698) reverse neuropathic pain via a spinal mechanism of action that modulates GABA activity. Spinal administration of the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline, disrupted A3AR-mediated analgesia. Furthermore, A3AR-mediated analgesia was associated with reductions in CCI-related GAD65 and GAT-1 serine dephosphorylation as well as an enhancement of KCC2 serine phosphorylation and activity. Our results suggest that A3AR-mediated reversal of neuropathic pain increases modulation of GABA inhibitory neurotransmission both directly and indirectly through protection of KCC2 function, underscoring the unique utility of A3AR agonists in chronic pain. PMID:25878279

  17. Interaction of U-69,593 with. mu. -, delta- and k-opioid binding sites and its analgesic and intestinal effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Regina, A.; Petrillo, P.; Sbacchi, M.; Tavani, A.

    1988-01-01

    The k-opioid compound U-69,593 was studied in rats in vitro in binding assays to assess its selectivity at the single types of opioid sites and in vivo to assess its analgesic activity and effect on intestinal propulsion. In vitro the U-69,593 inhibition curve of (/sup 3/H)-(-)-bremazocine binding suppressed at ..mu..- and delta-sites was biphasic and the inhibition constant (K/sub l/) at the high-affinity site (10-18nM) was two orders of magnitude smaller the K/sub l/ at the low-affinity site. The K/sub l/ at ..mu..- and delta-sites were respectively 3.3 and 8.5 ..mu..M. Thus (/sup 3/H)-(-)-bremazocine, suppressed at ..mu..- and delta-sites, may still bind more than one site, which U-69,593 might distinguish. In vivo U-69,593 i.p. prolonged the reaction time of rats on a 55/sup 0/C hot-plate and the dose of naloxone required to antagonize this effect was 40 times the dose that antagonized morphine-induced antinociception, suggesting the involvement of the k-receptor. In the intestinal transit test U-69,593 at doses between 0.5 and 15 mg/kg i.p. only slightly slowed intestinal transit of a charcoal meal in rats with no dose-relation; it partly but significantly antagonized morphine-induced constipation. These results suggest that the k-type of opioid receptor, with which U-69,593 interacts may induce analgesia, but has no appreciable role in the mechanisms of opioid-induced inhibition of intestinal transit in rats.

  18. Analgesic effect of perioperative escitalopram in high pain catastrophizing patients after total knee arthroplasty : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient pain treatment remains a challenge after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), especially in high pain catastrophizing patients. Serotonergic signaling may be involved in pain processing, but the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on well-defined postoperative pain has not previously been investigated. The authors hypothesized that perioperative escitalopram would reduce pain after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. METHODS: A total of 120 pain catastrophizing patients (selected using the pain catastrophizing scale as preoperative screening tool) scheduled for TKA were randomized in a double-blind manner to either 10 mg escitalopram or placebo daily from preanesthesia to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest from 2 to 48 h and from days 2 to 6, morphine equivalents, anxiety, depression, and sideeffects. RESULTS: Pain upon ambulation (mean [95% CI]) 24 h after surgery in the escitalopram versus placebo group was 58 (53 to 64) versus 64 (58 to 69), the mean difference being -5 (-13 to 3), P = 0.20. Overall pain upon ambulation and at rest from days 2 to 6 was lower in the escitalopram versus placebo group, as was depression score at day 6 (all P ? 0.01 in analyses uncorrected for multiple tests). Side effects were nonsignificant except for reduced tendency to sweat and prolonged sleep in the escitalopram group. No other between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Escitalopram did not reduce pain upon ambulation 24 h after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. Future studies on optimal timing, dose, and duration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment might be warranted.

  19. Analgesic Effect of Perioperative Escitalopram in High Pain Catastrophizing Patients after Total Knee Arthroplasty : A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient pain treatment remains a challenge after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), especially in high pain catastrophizing patients. Serotonergic signaling may be involved in pain processing, but the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on well-defined postoperative pain has not previously been investigated. The authors hypothesized that perioperative escitalopram would reduce pain after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. METHODS: A total of 120 pain catastrophizing patients (selected using the pain catastrophizing scale as preoperative screening tool) scheduled for TKA were randomized in a double-blind manner to either 10 mg escitalopram or placebo daily from preanesthesia to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest from 2 to 48 h and from days 2 to 6, morphine equivalents, anxiety, depression, and sideeffects. RESULTS: Pain upon ambulation (mean [95% CI]) 24 h after surgery in the escitalopram versus placebo group was 58 (53 to 64) versus 64 (58 to 69), the mean difference being -5 (-13 to 3), P = 0.20. Overall pain upon ambulation and at rest from days 2 to 6 was lower in the escitalopram versus placebo group, as was depression score at day 6 (all P ? 0.01 in analyses uncorrected for multiple tests). Side effects were nonsignificant except for reduced tendency to sweat and prolonged sleep in the escitalopram group. No other between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Escitalopram did not reduce pain upon ambulation 24 h after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. Future studies on optimal timing, dose, and duration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment might be warranted.

  20. Reduction of the Spatial Stroop Effect by Peripheral Cueing as a Function of the Presence/Absence of Placeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Chunming; Lupiáñez Castillo, Juan; Funes, María Jesús; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    In a paradigm combining spatial Stroop with spatial cueing, the current study investigated the role of the presence vs. absence of placeholders on the reduction of the spatial Stroop effect by peripheral cueing. At a short cue-target interval, the modulation of peripheral cueing over the spatial Stroop effect was observed independently of the presence/absence of placeholders. At the long cue-target interval, however, this modulation over the spatial Stroop effect only occurred in the placehol...

  1. Effect of analgesics, antidepressants and their combinations on changes of structures' of the central nervous system activity in animals with simulated depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomiak O.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out on outbred rabbits of both sexes using neurophysiological methods. We resurched the ability of analgesics, antidepressants and their combinations tochange parameters of electrophysiological brain activity under conditions of normal functioning of the central nervous system and on the background ofsimulated depression. Found that in brain pathology combination analgesics with amitriptyline caused activation of the reticular formation (RF and in-creased excitability of dorsomedial tonsils (DMT in comparison with its action in intact rabbits. Analysis of these data on reserpine showed the change of the sign of excitability in the frontal cortex (FC, RF (from inhibition to activation, and re-duction in the dorsal hippocampus (DH, or leveling DMT increased excitability of brain structures under the influence of this combination. Functional relationships between structures were characterized by increasing activating influence of RFon the FC and inhibiting influence of RFon DMT (increasing analgesic activity and reduce brake control DH on FC (increase antidepressant properties. Notably, the combination of celecoxib with the amitriptyline caused fewer changes in excitability of brain structures and intracentral relationships between them that assotiates with less manifested analgesic activity com-pared with the combination of" meloxicam +amitriptyline."

  2. Carbon Ion Irradiated Neural Injury Induced the Peripheral Immune Effects in Vitro or in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Runhong; Zhao, Tuo; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiao; Ma, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ion radiation is a promising treatment for brain cancer; however, the immune system involved long-term systemic effects evoke a concern of complementary and alternative therapies in clinical treatment. To clarify radiotherapy caused fundamental changes in peripheral immune system, examinations were performed based on established models in vitro and in vivo. We found that brain-localized carbon ion radiation of neural cells induced complex changes in the peripheral blood, thymus, and spleen at one, two, and three months after its application. Atrophy, apoptosis, and abnormal T-cell distributions were observed in rats receiving a single high dose of radiation. Radiation downregulated the expression of proteins involved in T-cell development at the transcriptional level and increased the proportion of CD3?CD4(-)CD8? T-cells in the thymus and the proportion of CD3?CD4?CD8(-) T-cells in the spleen. These data show that brain irradiation severely affects the peripheral immune system, even at relatively long times after irradiation. In addition, they provide valuable information that will implement the design of biological-based strategies that will aid brain cancer patients suffering from the long-term side effects of radiation. PMID:26633364

  3. Analgesic Effects of Tramadol, Tramadol–Gabapentin, and Buprenorphine in an Incisional Model of Pain in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Gabriel P; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Long, Charles T.; Howard, Antwain M; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Yeomans, David C.; Felt, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative pain management in laboratory animals relies heavily on a limited number of drug classes, such as opioids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Here we evaluated the effects of saline, tramadol, tramadol with gabapentin, and buprenorphine (n = 6 per group) in a rat model of incisional pain by examining thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing daily for 6 d after surgery. All drugs were administered preemptively and continued for 2 consecutive days after surgery. Rats treated w...

  4. Analgesic Effect of Regular Breathing Exercises with the Aim of Distraction during Venipuncture in School-aged Thalassemic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsenpour M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgroundPain is described as the fifth vital sign, and inadequate pain management is linked to numerous immediate and long-term negative outcomes. Venipuncture is one of the most painful medical procedures in children. Distraction is one of the main effective ways to relieve pain. Reducing patients’ pain sensation maybe feeling is important for all nurses for many reasons. Unnecessary pain can damage the nurse-patient relationship, whereas the knowledge of alternative techniques can improve patient care and satisfaction. Materials and MethodsForty patients (6–12 years suffering from thalassemia and requiring venipuncture were randomized into distraction group (n=20, regular breathing exercise and control group (n=20, without any intervention. The pediatric pain behavioral symptoms and Numeric Pain Rating Scale were used to assess pain caused by venipuncture.ResultsThe mean of pain score based on the numerical scale was 5.60 ± 3.13 in the control group and 1.85±1.42 in breathing exercises and the mean score of behavioral pain symptoms was 3.80±2.80 in the control group and 0.96±0.75 in breathing exercise group. Results showed a significant difference between the mean of pain scores (based on numeric scale and pain behavior scale. (p?0.001Conclusion Distraction demonstrated to be effective in reducing pain. This intervention requires minimum effort and time and may be a cost-effective and convenient nursing intervention that could be used easily in clinical settings.

  5. Analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of Corallocarpus epigaeus / Efeito analgésico e antiartrítico de Corallocarpus epigaeus / Efecto analgésico y antiartrítico de Corallocarpus epigaeus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Subashini, Uthrapathy; Mohamed M, Shabi; Gayathri, Krishnamoorthy; Dhevi, Ravindhran; Victor G, Rajamanickam; Govindha, Pillay Dubey.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A artrite eumatóide é uma doença inflamatória crônica das articulações que se encontra associada ao desenvolvimento de estresse oxidativo e inflamação. No presente estudo é avaliado o perfil de segurança e de eficácia de um extrato metanólico a 85% de Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE). No perfil de segura [...] nça foi determinado o valor de DL50 levando a cabo um estudo de toxicidade aguda. No perfil de eficácia, a atividade analgésica foi avaliada tanto pelo método de prato quente como por meio do teste de imersão da cauda. Foi avaliada a atividade antiinflamatória por edema de pata induzido por carragenina e o efeito antiartrítico mediante artrite induzida por adjuvante completo de Freund. Também se têm levado a cabo a análise fitoquímica das famílias de compostos presentes em diferentes extratos de CE e a análise quantitativa da erva crua e do extrato metanólico a 85%. O extrato metanólico apresentou atividade analgésica ao aumentar o tempo de resposta tanto no método do prato quente como no teste de imersão da cauda. O extrato exibiu 23,19% de atividade antiinflamatória e 33,59% de efeito antiartrítico em edema de pata induzido por adjuvante completo de Freund. O extrato de CE aumentou o nível antioxidante, ao mesmo tempo que diminuiu o estresse oxidativo desenvolvido pela artrite induzida pelo adjuvante completo de Freund. Em conclusão, CE é uma fonte rica de compostos fitoquímicos com atividades analgésicas, anti-inflamatórias e antioxidantes. Abstract in spanish La artritis reumatoidea es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de las articulaciones que se encuentra asociada con el desarrollo de estrés oxidativo e inflamación. En el presente estudio se evalúa el perfil de seguridad y de eficacia de un extracto metanólico al 85% de Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE). E [...] n el perfil de seguridad se determinó el valor de DL50 llevando a cabo un estudio de toxicidad aguda. En el perfil de eficacia, la actividad analgésica se evaluó tanto por el método de plato caliente como por medio de la prueba de inmersión de la cola. Se evaluó la actividad antiinflamatoria por edema de pata inducido por carragenina y el efecto antiartrítico mediante artritis inducida por adyuvante completo de Freund. También se han llevado a cabo el análisis fitoquímico de las familias de compuestos presentes en diferentes extractos de CE y el análisis cuantitativo de la hierba cruda y del extracto metanólico al 85%. El extracto metanólico presentó actividad analgésica al incrementar el tiempo de respuesta tanto en el método del plato caliente como en la prueba de inmersión de la cola. El extracto exhibió 23,19% de actividad antiinflamatoria y 33,59% de efecto antiartrítico en edema de pata inducido por adyuvante completo de Freund. El extracto de CE aumentó el nivel antioxidante al tiempo que disminuyó el estrés oxidativo desarrollado por la artritis inducida por el adyuvante completo de Freund. En conclusión, CE es una fuente rica de compuestos fitoquímicos con actividades analgésicas, antiinflamatorias y antioxidantes. Abstract in english Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. The safety and efficacy profile of 85% methanolic extract of Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE) was evaluated in the present study. In safety profile LD50 value was determined [...] by carrying out an acute toxicity study. In efficacy profile, the analgesic activity was evaluated by both hot plate and tail immersion tests. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan-induced paw edema and anti-arthritic effect by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. Phytochemical screening of different CE extracts and quantitative analysis of both raw herb and 85% methanolic extract have been also carried out. The methanolic extract displayed analgesic activity by increasing the response time in both hot plate and tail immersion method. Extract exhibited 23,19% of anti-inflammatory activity and 33,59% of a

  6. ANALGESIC AND ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITIES OF LAWSONIA INERMIS

    OpenAIRE

    Saki Sultana

    2011-01-01

    The leaf of the plant Lawsonia inermis was examined for analgesic and anti-diarrhoeal properties. From the study of analgesic activity it was found that ethanol extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited no significant (p

  7. EVALUATION OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF ABUTILON INDICUM FOR ITS ANALGESIC AND SEDATIVE PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepraj Paul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydro alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Abutilon Indicum was tried for its efficacy as analgesic and sedative property. Several pain models namely Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test, tail clip test and hot water immersion test were tried and for sedative property actophotometer test was performed. As the extract has shown very significant (P?0.01 result in Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test and hot water immersion test hence it is believed that the extract has certain central and peripheral analgesic property which may be mediated either by closing Na+ or/and Ca2+ channels or by facilitating chloride Cl- influx by acting on GABAA receptor. As the extract has significantly reduced loco motor activity hence the mechanism of action of the extract is believed to be mediated by opening of Cl- channel, indicating that the extract may have GABA mimetic or facilitating effect. As following the administration of the extract no straub reaction was observed hence may be in future it will gain more popularity to be used as a substitute for narcotics to treat pain and also as a good sedative.

  8. Protective effect of quercetin against oxidative stress caused by dimethoate in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lassoued Saloua; Elfekih Abdelfetteh; Abdallah Fatma; Mansour Riadh; Gargouri Bochra; Khaled Hamden

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of quercetin in alleviating the cytotoxic effects of Dimethoate in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods Lymphocytes were divided into too groups. The first group, lymphocytes were incubated for 4 h at 37°C with different concentrations (0, 40, 60 and 100 mM) of Dimethoate. The second group was preincubated with quercetin for 30 min and followed by Dim incubation for 4 h at 37°C. Results Following in vitro incubation...

  9. EFFECT OF MODERATE ALTITUDE ON PERIPHERAL MUSCLE OXYGENATION DURING LEG RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN YOUNG MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Training at moderate altitude (~1800m is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL. They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (% from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 % than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %. SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 % than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %. Differences (SL - 1800AL in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660. These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore , that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles.

  10. Comparison of the Analgesic Effect of Intravenous Acetaminophen and Morphine Sulfate in Rib Fracture; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Esmailian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rib fracture is one of the common causes of trauma disabilities in many events and the outcome of these patients are very extensive from temporary pain management to long-term significant disability. Control and management of the pain in such patients is one of the most important challenges in emergency departments. Thus, the aim of the present study was assessing the efficacy of IV acetaminophen in pain control of patients with rib fracture. Methods: In this double-blind study, 54 patients over 18 years of age, referred to two educational hospitals with rib fracture, were entered. Patients were randomly categorized in two groups of morphine sulfate (0.1 milligram per kilogram of body weight and IV acetaminophen (1gram, as single-dose infused in 100 cc normal saline. The pain severity was measured by Numeric Rating Scale on arrival and 30 minutes after drug administration. At least three scores reduction was reported as therapeutic success. Results: The mean and standard deviation of patients’ age was 41.2 ± 14.1 years. There is no difference in gender (p=0.24 and age frequency (p=0.77 between groups. 30 minutes after drug administration the mean of pain severity were 5.5 ± 2.3 and 4.9 ± 1.7 in morphine and acetaminophen groups, respectively (p=0.23. Success rate in morphine and acetaminophen groups were 58.6% (95% Cl: 39.6-77.7 and 80% (95% Cl: 63.2-96.7, respectively, (p=0.09. Only 3 (5.6% patients had dizziness (p=0.44 and other effects were not seen in any of patients. Conclusion: The findings of the present study shows that intravenous acetaminophen and morphine have the same therapeutic value in relieving the pain of rib fracture. The success rate after 30 minutes drug administration were 80% and 58.6% in acetaminophen and morphine groups, respectively. Presentation of side effects was similar in both groups.

  11. Screening of cetirizine for analgesic activity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is the most common symptom for which patients approach doctors. We have multitude of drugs for pain relief, but they have serious side effects ranging from peptic ulcer (e.g. NSAIDs to renal failure. The other group, opioids have well known side effects ranging from sedation to drug dependence. So a search for a drug for analgesia with high therapeutic effect and fewer side effects will be a boon for the patients. The objective of this study was to find whether cetirizine, a second generation antihistaminic drug, has got any analgesic activity in mice. Methods: Ten adult albino mice weighing 20-30 grams of either sex were randomized to two groups (n=5. Group I: control group (Treated with solvent 0.1 ml/kg, Group II: Test group (Cetirizine 1mg/kg. All drugs were given orally. The analgesic activity was evaluated by using tail flick, tail immersion and tail clip methods. Reaction time of animals to pain sensation before and after Cetirizine administration were noted at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes time intervals respectively on Day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10. Results: Mean reaction time was expressed as Mean±SEM, and one way ANOVA was used to assess statistical significance. Cetirizine was found to have statistically significant analgesic effect in mice and time dependent increase in analgesic effect were observed in all three pain models and maximum analgesic activity was observed at 60 minutes (p<0.001 after drug administration. Conclusions: Through this study, Cetirizine, a second generation antihistamine, is found to have significant analgesic activity in mice. This effect has to be studied further elaborately in animals as well as in humans. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 187-192

  12. Synergistic effect of DHT and IGF-1 hyperstimulation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperlini, Esther; Spaziani, Sara; Mancini, Annamaria; Caterino, Marianna; Buono, Pasqualina; Orrù, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    The abuse of mixed or combined performance-enhancing drugs is widespread among athletes and amateurs, adults and adolescents. Clinical studies demonstrated that misuse of these doping agents is associated with serious adverse effects to many organs in human. Previously, we demonstrated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes that high doses of anabolic androgenic steroids, such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have effects at gene and protein levels. Supraphysiological treatments of DHT and IGF-1 affected the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle disorders as well as in cell-mediated immunological response. At protein level, DHT hyperdosage affects cell motility and apoptosis; IGF-1 hyperstimulation triggers an active cytoskeletal reorganization and an overproduction of immune response- and inflammation-related cytokines. In this study, we investigate the combined effects of DHT and IGF-1 hyperdosage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a differential proteomic approach. DHT and IGF-1 combined treatment affects cell adhesion, migration, and survival through modulation of expression levels of cytokines and paxillin-signaling-related proteins, and activation of several pathways downstream focal adhesion kinase. Our results indicate a synergistic effect of DHT and IGF-1 which has potential implications for health risk factors. PMID:25669835

  13. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice

    OpenAIRE

    TERASHI, MUTSUMI; ASAKAWA, AKIHIRO; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Koyama, Ken-ichiro; CHAOLU, HUKE; USHIKAI, MIHARU; Inui, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administrati...

  14. Analgésicos tópicos / Topical analgesics / Analgésicos tópicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murilo Pereira, Flores; Anita Perpetua Carvalho Rocha de, Castro; Jedson dos Santos, Nascimento.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O tratamento da dor envolve a utilização de analgésicos opioides, analgésicos comuns, anti-inflamatórios não hormonais (AINH's) e analgésicos adjuvantes. Tradicionalmente, estes fármacos são administrados por via sistêmica ou no neuroeixo. Entretanto, quando aplicados por [...] estas vias, estão associados a efeitos colaterais importantes, os quais podem inviabilizar o seu uso. A administração tópica de analgésicos é uma alternativa. O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir os analgésicos tópicos, seus mecanismos de ação e eficácia clínica. CONTEÚDO: Trata-se de um trabalho de revisão que aborda a utilização tópica de anestésicos locais, capsaicina, clonidina, antidepressivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides e canabinoides, discutindo o seu mecanismo de ação e a sua eficácia. CONCLUSÕES: Os analgésicos tópicos são promissores como estratégia para o tratamento da dor, já que estão associados à menor incidência de efeitos colaterais. O benefício dos anestésicos locais, dos AINH's e da capsaicina está bem estabelecido, entretanto, a eficácia de clonidina, antidepressivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides e canabinoides ainda é questionável. Trabalhos demonstram que a abordagem multimodal é uma alternativa, porém estudos são necessários para confirmar esta hipótese. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El tratamiento del dolor involucra la utilización de analgésicos opioides, analgésicos comunes, antiinflamatorios no hormonales (AINH's) y analgésicos adyuvantes. Tradicionalmente, esos fármacos son administrados por vía sistémica o en el neuro eje. Sin embargo, cuando se [...] aplican por esas vías, están asociados a los efectos colaterales importantes, los cuales pueden impedir su uso. La administración tópica de analgésicos es una alternativa. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir los analgésicos tópicos, sus mecanismos de acción y la eficacia clínica. CONTENIDO: Se trata de un trabajo de revisión que aborda la utilización tópica de anestésicos locales, capsaicina, clonidina, antidepresivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides y canabinoides, discutiendo su mecanismo de acción y su eficacia. CONCLUSIONES: Los analgésicos tópicos son promisorios como una estrategia para el tratamiento del dolor, ya que están asociados con una menor incidencia de efectos colaterales. El beneficio de los anestésicos locales, de los AINH's y de la capsaicina está muy bien establecido, sin embargo, la eficacia de la clonidina, los antidepresivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides y canabinoides, todavía es cuestionable. Algunos trabajos demuestran que el abordaje multimodal es una alternativa, pero más estudios son necesarios para poder confirmar esa hipótesis. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain treatment involves the usage of common and opioid analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and adjuvant analgesics. Traditionally, these drugs are administered systemically or into the neuraxis. However, when analgesics are applied through these pathw [...] ays, they are associated with significant side effects, which can hinder its use. Topical administration of analgesics is an alternative. The objective of this paper is to discuss topical analgesics, the mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. CONTENT: This is a review paper addressing the usage of the topical local anesthetics: capsaicin, clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids, discussing mechanism of action and effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Topical analgesics are promising as a strategy for pain treatment, as they are associated with lower incidence of side effects. The benefit of local anesthetics, NSAID's and capsaicin is well established. However, the efficacy of clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids is still questionable. Studies have shown that the multimodal approach is an alternative, but studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Systematic review on analgesics given for pain following tonsillectomy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamunen, Katri; Kontinen, Vesa

    2005-09-01

    In this systematic review effectiveness of analgesics for pain after tonsillectomy in children was evaluated and trial methodology of the included studies explored. Databases were searched for randomised, controlled studies on systemic paracetamol, NSAIDs and opioids. Eighty-four studies were evaluated for inclusion. Thirty-six studies were included and 48 excluded. Only in two studies investigated analgesics were given postoperatively for pain. All other studies investigated prophylactic administration of analgesics. Only five studies were truly placebo controlled. Trial methodology of the included studies varied greatly in respect to analgesics and doses used, duration of follow-up periods, methods of pain measurement, rescue analgesics and criteria for administrating rescue analgesia used. Sensitivity of studies was often unclear. Only 16 out of 36 studies were considered to be sensitive. Because of highly variable methodology and lack of sensitivity only limited conclusions on clinical efficacy of analgesics investigated can be drawn. No analgesic in single prophylactic dose provided analgesia for day of operation. Further studies are needed to find the optimal analgesic(s) for pain after tonsillectomy in children. PMID:16109456

  16. Effects of tempol on baroreflex neural arc versus peripheral arc in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Toru; Sata, Yusuke; Shimizu, Shuji; Turner, Michael J; Fukumitsu, Masafumi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Although oxidative redox signaling affects arterial pressure (AP) regulation via modulation of vascular tone and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), it remains unknown which effect plays a dominant role in the determination of AP in vivo. Open-loop systems analysis of the carotid sinus baroreflex was conducted to separately quantify characteristics of the neural arc from baroreceptor pressure input to SNA and the peripheral arc from SNA to AP in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; n = 8) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 8). Responses in SNA and AP to a staircase-wise increase in carotid sinus pressure were examined before and during intravenous administration of the membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol (30 mg/kg bolus followed by 30 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)). Two-way ANOVA indicated that tempol significantly decreased the response range of SNA (from 89.1 ± 2.4% to 60.7 ± 2.5% in WKY and from 77.5 ± 3.2% to 56.9 ± 7.3% in SHR, P < 0.001) without affecting the lower plateau of SNA (from 12.5 ± 2.4% to 9.5 ± 2.5% in WKY, and from 28.8 ± 2.8% to 30.4 ± 5.7% in SHR, P = 0.800) in the neural arc. While tempol did not affect the peripheral arc characteristics in WKY, it yielded a downward change in the regression line of AP vs. SNA in SHR. In conclusion, oxidative redox signaling plays an important role, not only in the pathological AP elevation, but also in the baroreflex-mediated physiological AP regulation. The effect of modulating oxidative redox signaling on the peripheral arc contributed to the determination of AP in SHR but not in WKY. PMID:25810389

  17. Effective of famotidine on radiation induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotective effects of famotidine, an antagonist of H, receptor clinically used for peptic ulcer treatment, was previously shown on radiation induced micronuclei and chromosomal aberration in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mouse bone marrow cells. This study was conducted to investigate radioprotective property of famotidine against radiation induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood was obtained from 6 healthy volunteers including three males and three females. 12 p?L of blood sample diluted in 1 ml RPMI-1640 supplemented with antibiotics and foetal calf serum was irradiated with a dose of 8 Gy gamma rays generated from a Co-60 source at a dose rate of 1.27 Gy/min. After 48 h incubation in a 37digC incubator, cells embedded in low melting point agarose were transferred to a slide precoated with normal agarose. Cells were lysed and subjected to electrophoresis under neutral condition. Slides were then stained with ethidium bromide and analysed under a fluorescence microscope. 500 cells were analysed for each sample for the presence of apoptosis. The data were statistically evaluated using Man-Whitney non-parametric and ANOVA tests. Results: Results show a significant increase in apoptosis induction following 8 Gy y?-irradiation comparing with controls (p<0.001). The presence of famotidine at 50 and 100 pg?/ml did not show any protective effect against radiation induced apoptosis; however, the presence of famotidine at higher concentration (200 p?g/ml) significantly deceased radiation induced apoptosis (p<0.001). Conclusion: the obtained results suggest that famotidine suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis at 200 pg/ml, probably via OH radical scavenging and an intracellular anti oxidation mechanism. Famotidine appears to be a useful candidate for the future development of postirradiation radioprotectors

  18. Peripheral neurobiologic mechanisms of antiallodynic effect of warm water immersion therapy on persistent inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Daniel F; Brito, Rômulo N; Stramosk, Juliana; Batisti, Ana P; Madeira, Fernanda; Turnes, Bruna L; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S; Piovezan, Anna P

    2015-01-01

    Water immersion is widely used in physiotherapy and might relieve pain, probably by activating several distinct somatosensory modalities, including tactile, pressure, and thermal sensations. However, the endogenous mechanisms behind this effect remain poorly understood. This study examined whether warm water immersion therapy (WWIT) produces an antiallodynic effect in a model of localized inflammation and whether peripheral opioid, cannabinoid, and adenosine receptors are involved in this effect. Mice were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; intraplantar; i.pl.). The withdrawal frequency to mechanical stimuli (von Frey test) was used to determine 1) the effect of WWIT against CFA-induced allodynia and 2) the effect of i.pl. preadministration of naloxone (a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist; 5 µg/paw), caffeine (a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist; 150 nmol/paw), 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX; a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist; 10 nmol/paw), and AM630 (a selective cannabinoid receptor type 2 antagonist; 4 µg/paw) on the antiallodynic effect of WWIT against CFA-induced allodynia. Moreover, the influence of WWIT on paw inflammatory edema was measured with a digital micrometer. WWIT produced a significant time-dependent reduction of paw inflammatory allodynia but did not influence paw edema induced by CFA. Naloxone, caffeine, DPCPX, and AM630 injected in the right, but not in the left, hind paw significantly reversed the antiallodynic effect of WWIT. This is the first study to demonstrate the involvement of peripheral receptors in the antiallodynic effect of WWIT in a murine model of persistent inflammatory pain. PMID:25079058

  19. Effect of Diet and Exercise on the Peripheral Immune System in Young Balb/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carrillo, B. E.; Jarillo-Luna, R. A.; Campos-Rodríguez, R.; Valdés-Ramos, R.; Rivera-Aguilar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Although diet and exercise clearly have an influence on immune function, studies are scarce on the effect caused by exercise and the consumption of a carbohydrate-rich or fat-rich diet on the peripheral immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise and the two aforementioned unbalanced diets on young Balb/c mice, especially in relation to BMI, the level of glucose, and the percentage of lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood. The changes found were then related to the synthesis of leptin and adiponectin as well as the production of oxidative stress. The increase in BMI found with the carbohydrate-rich and fat-rich diets showed correlation with the levels of leptin and adiponectin. An increase in leptin and a decrease in adiponectin directly correlated with an increase in total lymphocytes and CD4+ cells and with a decrease in B cells. The increase in leptin also correlated with an increase in CD8+ cells. Glycemia and oxidative stress increased with the two unbalanced diets, negatively affecting the proliferation of total lymphocytes and the percentage of B cells, apparently by causing alterations in proteins through carbonylation. These alterations caused by an unbalanced diet were not modified by moderate exercise. PMID:26634209

  20. Neuroprotective effect of a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl in diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju B Koneri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the neuroprotective potential of a saponin isolated from the roots of Momordica cymbalaria against peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: A steroidal saponin (SMC was isolated from M. cymbalaria Fenzl and purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Diabetes was induced in male Wister rats by injecting streptozotocin 45 mg/kg. Diabetic rats were divided into six groups for neuroprotective effect-three each for preventive and curative groups. Neuropathic analgesia was assessed by tail-flick and hot-plate methods. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and sciatic nerves were isolated, and histopathological analysis was performed. Antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of the saponin was also carried out on the isolated DRG neurons and sciatic nerves to assess total oxidative stress. Results: In both preventive and curative protocols, rats administered with SMC showed significant decrease in tail immersion latency time and increase in pain sensitivity when compared to diabetic control group. There was improvement in the myelination and degenerative changes of the nerve fiber in both the groups, and an obvious delay in the progression of neuropathy was evident. SMC treatment showed significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation in the nerves. Conclusions: The steroidal saponin of M. cymbalaria (SMC possesses potential neuroprotective effect in diabetic peripheral neuropathy with respect to neuropathic analgesia, improvement in neuronal degenerative changes, and significant antioxidant activity.

  1. Analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block commenced prior to operative fixation of fractured neck of femur

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szucs, Szilard

    2012-06-27

    AbstractBackgroundPeripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF) is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) in patients with FNF.MethodsFollowing institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1) or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2). Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score) at 30?min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10). The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later.ResultsOf 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7) vs 27.5(14.2) h, P?=?0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4) vs 31(28), P?=?0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30?min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6?h 30.7(23.4) vs 67.0(32.0), P?=?0.004]. Cumulative morphine consumption over 72?h was less in Group 2. Patient satisfaction scores were greater in Group 2 [9.4(1.1) vs 7.6(1.8), P?=?0.014].ConclusionsCFNB provides more effective perioperative analgesia than a standard opiate-based regimen for patients undergoing fixation of FNF. It is associated with lesser opiate use and greater patient satisfaction.

  2. Cytogenetic investigation of contrast media effects in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present investigation is to detect the cytogenetic effect in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients subjected to radiodiagnostic examination with contrast media. Material and method: The investigation was performed on 17 patients subjected to radio diagnostic examinations with different kinds of contrast media.The skin dose obtained by diagnostic x-ray exposure is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Cytogenetic analyses are performed before, as well as immediately after the examination. Chromosomal aberrations are used as a bio marker for cytogenetic effects analysis. Results show an increase of mean level of chromosomal damage after the radio diagnostic examination in comparison to the mean level before exposure. This increase is statistically significant. Further work on the investigation of cytogenetic effects of diagnostic dose x-rays and contrast media used in invasive radiological examinations is in progress. (authors)

  3. Tramadol as an Analgesic to Treat Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain has now been equated to a fifth vital sign highlighting the significance of pain management in patient care. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic which is structurally related to codeine and morphine. It is effectively used to treat moderate to severe acute and chronic pain in diverse conditions. Tramadol is placed on the second step of WHO analgesic ladder and in contrast to traditional opioids, exerts its analgesic activity, a dual mechanism of action inhibiting transmission as well as perception of pain. Tramadol is more suitable than NSAID’s and coxib’s for patient with GI, renal and cardiovascular problems. Combined with low dependence/abuse potential, it has proven to be of significant advantage over other agents especially in the elderly.

  4. Eficacia y efectos secundarios de 3 técnicas analgesicas en el control del dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia de rodilla Efficacy and side effects of three analgesic techniques for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Illescas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia total de rodilla, aún considerándose uno de los más severos, es un reto por resolver. Con nuestro estudio pretendemos analizar y comparar la eficacia analgésica, incidencia y severidad de efectos secundarios de una pauta epidural, otra consistente en bloqueo femoral y una pauta intravenosa con morfina. Material y métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se revisan 359 hojas de seguimiento de pacientes sometidos a artroplastia total de rodilla. Según la pauta analgésica que recibieron en el postoperatorio fueron asignados a tres grupos diferentes: a Grupo Femoral (n=56 a los que se realizó bloqueo femoral continuo con ropivacaina al 0,2 %. En todos los casos se asoció un bloqueo del nervio ciático mediante punción única medio-femoral con ropivacaina al 0,2%. b Grupo epidural (n=135 a los que se coloca catéter epidural lumbar mediante el cuál se administra bupivacaina al 0,07%+ fentanilo 2 µg/ml. c Grupo intravenoso (n=168 a los que se administra morfina intravenosa. En todas las pautas el modo de administración es mediante perfusión continua con PCA. Todos los pacientes recibieron como analgesia complementaria Paracetamol IV 1g/6h. Valoramos el grado de analgesia en reposo, náuseas y vómitos, bloqueo motor, sedación, prurito y necesidad de analgesia de rescate en las primeras 24 horas del postoperatorio. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a eficacia analgésica entre las 3 pautas analizadas. Igualmente, no encontramos diferencias significativas respecto a sedación ni naúseas y vómitos, siendo el bloqueo motor y el prurito superiores en los casos de bloqueo femoral y epidural respectivamente. Conclusiones: Aunque el perfil de efectos secundarios sea discretamente mayor en cuanto a prurito en el grupo epidural y bloqueo motor en el grupo femoral, no podemos afirmar la superioridad en cuanto a eficacia analgésica de ninguna estrategia con respecto a otra.Purpose: Despite the fact that it is expected and intense, postoperative pain after knee arthroplasty is still an unresolved challenge. In our study we intend to analyse and compare analgesic efficacy, incidence and severity of adverse effects resulting from three different techniques: a Epidural analgesia , bFemoral block, and c intravenous analgesia with mor-phine. Patients and Methods: An observational and retrospective study is presented, re-viewing data obtained from 359 patients who had a total knee arthroplasty: Patients were assigned to three different groups, according to the method of pain relief that was prescribed for each of them: a Femoral group (n=56.A continuous femoral block was performed using ropivacaine 0.2%. Sciatic block was associated on each patient (single injection at middle femoral point with ropivacaine 0.2%. b Epidural group (n=135.This figure includes patients in whom an epidural catheter was inserted and bupivacaine 0.07% plus fentanyl 2 mc./mi was administered through the catheter. c Intravenous group (n=168. Intravenous morphine was administered to this group of patients. Each analgesic plan included continuous perfusión of drugs via PCA devices, and paracetamol (lg iv every 6 hourly was prescribed as complementary analgesia in all the cases. Parameters to evalúate: analgesia obtained at rest, nausea and vomiting, motor blockade, sedation, pruritus and complementary analgesia given in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Results: Significative differences were not appreciated at the moment of evaluation of the analgesic efficieney of the three analgesic plans. Equally, sedation, nausea and vomiting had the same incidence in all groups. Motor blockade and pruritus appeared more frequently in the cases treated with femoral block and epidural catheter respectively. Conclusión: We can not assert that any of the analgesic strategies was superior to the others as to its analgesic effectiveness, although pruritus appeared in the epidural group and motor blockade did in the femoral group, as adve

  5. Eficacia y efectos secundarios de 3 técnicas analgesicas en el control del dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia de rodilla / Efficacy and side effects of three analgesic techniques for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Illescas; J. R., Ríos; R., Rodríguez de la Torre; I., Mojarroa; J. I., Gallego; M., Gil-Fernández.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia total de rodilla, aún considerándose uno de los más severos, es un reto por resolver. Con nuestro estudio pretendemos analizar y comparar la eficacia analgésica, incidencia y severidad de efectos secundarios de una pauta epidural, otra consistente en [...] bloqueo femoral y una pauta intravenosa con morfina. Material y métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se revisan 359 hojas de seguimiento de pacientes sometidos a artroplastia total de rodilla. Según la pauta analgésica que recibieron en el postoperatorio fueron asignados a tres grupos diferentes: a) Grupo Femoral (n=56) a los que se realizó bloqueo femoral continuo con ropivacaina al 0,2 %. En todos los casos se asoció un bloqueo del nervio ciático mediante punción única medio-femoral con ropivacaina al 0,2%. b) Grupo epidural (n=135) a los que se coloca catéter epidural lumbar mediante el cuál se administra bupivacaina al 0,07%+ fentanilo 2 µg/ml. c) Grupo intravenoso (n=168) a los que se administra morfina intravenosa. En todas las pautas el modo de administración es mediante perfusión continua con PCA. Todos los pacientes recibieron como analgesia complementaria Paracetamol IV 1g/6h. Valoramos el grado de analgesia en reposo, náuseas y vómitos, bloqueo motor, sedación, prurito y necesidad de analgesia de rescate en las primeras 24 horas del postoperatorio. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a eficacia analgésica entre las 3 pautas analizadas. Igualmente, no encontramos diferencias significativas respecto a sedación ni naúseas y vómitos, siendo el bloqueo motor y el prurito superiores en los casos de bloqueo femoral y epidural respectivamente. Conclusiones: Aunque el perfil de efectos secundarios sea discretamente mayor en cuanto a prurito en el grupo epidural y bloqueo motor en el grupo femoral, no podemos afirmar la superioridad en cuanto a eficacia analgésica de ninguna estrategia con respecto a otra. Abstract in english Purpose: Despite the fact that it is expected and intense, postoperative pain after knee arthroplasty is still an unresolved challenge. In our study we intend to analyse and compare analgesic efficacy, incidence and severity of adverse effects resulting from three different techniques: a )Epidural a [...] nalgesia , b)Femoral block, and c) intravenous analgesia with mor-phine. Patients and Methods: An observational and retrospective study is presented, re-viewing data obtained from 359 patients who had a total knee arthroplasty: Patients were assigned to three different groups, according to the method of pain relief that was prescribed for each of them: a) Femoral group (n=56).A continuous femoral block was performed using ropivacaine 0.2%. Sciatic block was associated on each patient (single injection at middle femoral point with ropivacaine 0.2%). b) Epidural group (n=135).This figure includes patients in whom an epidural catheter was inserted and bupivacaine 0.07% plus fentanyl 2 mc./mi was administered through the catheter. c) Intravenous group (n=168). Intravenous morphine was administered to this group of patients. Each analgesic plan included continuous perfusión of drugs via PCA devices, and paracetamol (lg iv every 6 hourly) was prescribed as complementary analgesia in all the cases. Parameters to evalúate: analgesia obtained at rest, nausea and vomiting, motor blockade, sedation, pruritus and complementary analgesia given in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Results: Significative differences were not appreciated at the moment of evaluation of the analgesic efficieney of the three analgesic plans. Equally, sedation, nausea and vomiting had the same incidence in all groups. Motor blockade and pruritus appeared more frequently in the cases treated with femoral block and epidural catheter respectively. Conclusión: We can not assert that any of the analgesic strategies was superior to the others as to its analgesic effectiveness, although pruritus appeared in the epidural group a

  6. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cheiloclinium cognatum root barks Efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório das cascas das raízes de Cheiloclinium cognatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson A. Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheiloclinium cognatum (Hippocrateaceae has been used in folk medicine to treat fever and edema. In this paper, we report the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the crude dichloromethane extract (DECc from C. cognatum root barks collected in Auguste de Saint Hilaire wood at Universidade Federal de Goiás. Doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of croton oil-induced ear edema in mice equivalent to 21, 30 and 51%, respectively. There was a significant increase in analgesic-meter-induced tail flick test equivalent to 105, 189 and 200% of increase tail flick reaction time. These results allowed to suggest that C. cognatum could be a source of new compounds which anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.Cheiloclinium cognatum é uma planta da família das Hippocrateaceae, popularmente conhecida como bacupari, usada popularmente no tratamento de febre e edemas. Neste artigo, descrevemos as atividades antiinflamatória e analgésica do extrato bruto diclorometânico das cascas das raízes (DECc, coletadas no bosque Auguste de Saint Hilaire, localizado na Universidade Federal de Goiás. Doses de 0,1, 0,3 e 1,0 g/kg causaram uma redução de 21, 30 e 51%, respectivamente, no edema de orelha de camundongos, induzido pelo óleo de cróton. No método algesimétrico, flexão de cauda, observou-se um significativo aumento no tempo para reação ao estímulo térmico equivalente a 105, 189 e 200%. Estes resultados sugerem que C. cognatum pode ser uma fonte de novos compostos com atividades antiinflamatória e analgésica.

  7. Amelioration effect of Zhenqing Capsule on peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetic rats

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    Xiu-ying WEN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of Zhenqing Capsule (ZQC, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, in treating type 1 diabetic rats with peripheral neuropathy.Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced by caudal vein injection of high-dose streptozotocin in 30 male Wistar rats. The thirty diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups: ZQC-treated group, untreated group and aminoguanidine-treated group. Another group of 10 rats was taken as normal control. After 10-week treatment, the changes of body weight and fasting plasma glucose level were measured, and the serum MDA level and the changes of neurological electrophysiology were analyzed. The samples of sciatic nerve in diabetic rats were taken for morphological observation.Results: The MDA level in type 1 diabetic rats was notably reduced in ZQC-treated group as compared with the untreated group (P<0.01. Compared with the untreated group, ZQC could improve the electrophysiology of sciatic nerve including conduction velocity (P<0.05, latency (P<0.01 and wave amplitude (P<0.05. The nerve myelin staining results showed that segmental demyelination of the nerve fibers in ZQC-treated group was not as serious as that in the untreated group.Conclusion: ZQC can obviously ameliorate the neurological electrophysiological function and the pathological changes of peripheral nerve in type 1 diabetic rats through the removal of free radical and resistance of lipid peroxidation.

  8. Effects of 60Co ?-ray partial radiation on chromosome aberration in human peripheral blood in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of 60Co ?-ray partial radiation on chromosome aberration in human peripheral blood in vitro. Methods: The samples of heparinized peripheral whole blood from 3 healthy persons were exposed to 60Co ?-rays at the doses between 0 and 8 Gy with the dose rate of 0.35 Gy/min at the temperature of 37 ? ,and then mixed with the unirradiated blood samples of the Microscopy was used to observe the chromosome aberration double (centromere + centromere) and the biological dose was estimated thereby. Results: The amounts of double centromere + centromere were increased along with the dose of irradiation in all groups. The estimated biological dose was higher than the 1/3 of the irradiation dose when the dose was between 0.5 to 2 Gy, and was close to the 1/3 of the irradiation dose when the dose was between 4 to 8 Gy. Conclusion: Chromosome aberration can be used as a biomarker in estimation of uneven irradiation. (authors)

  9. Peripheral Signals Mediate the Beneficial Effects of Gastric Surgery in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja-Fernández, Silvia; Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Leis, Rosaura; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Seoane, Luisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is nowadays a public health problem both in the industrialized world and developing countries. The different treatments to fight against obesity are not very successful with the exception of gastric surgery. The mechanism behind the achievement of this procedure remains unclear although the modifications in the pattern of gastrointestinal hormones production appear to be responsible for the beneficial effect. The gastrointestinal tract has emerged in the last time as an endocrine organ in charge of response to the different stimulus related to nutritional status by the modulation of more than 30 signals acting at central level to modulate food intake and body weight. The production of some of these gastric derived signals has been proved to be altered in obesity (ghrelin, CCK, and GLP-1). In fact, bariatric surgery modifies the production of both gastrointestinal and adipose tissue peripheral signals beyond the gut microbiota composition. Through this paper the main peripheral signals altered in obesity will be reviewed together with their modifications after bariatric surgery. PMID:25960740

  10. Local effect of celecoxib on peripheral nerve repair combined with silicone tubulization in rat

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    Mohammadi Rahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?Objective: To assess local effect of celecoxib on nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Methods: Forty-five male healthy white Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15 for each: sham-oper ation (SHAM, control (SIL and celecoxib treated (SIL/CLX groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed and after homeostasis muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed in the same way and transected proximal to tibioperoneal bifurcation leaving a 10 mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 µl phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/CLX group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 µl celecoxib (0.1 g/L. Results: Functional study and gastrocnemius muscle mass confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/CLX than in SIL group(P<0.05. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed number and diameter of the my elinated fibers in SIL/CLX were significantly greater than those in control group. In immunohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/CLX was clearly more positive than that in SIL group. Conclusion: Response to local treatment of celecoxib demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. Key words: Peripheral nerve; Sciaticnerve; Celecoxib; Nerve regeneration

  11. Amiodarone: Effects on thyroid function and the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the effects of Amiodarone on the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones and on pituitary TSH secretion, a major complication of therapy is the relatively high frequency of iodide-induced thyroid dysfunction. The mean T4 and T3 concentration following Amiodarone application was measured in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients and in control patients with and without cardiac disorders. Furthermore, the serum TSH was determined in euthyroid Amiodarone-treated euthyroid patients. 131I uptake was studied in patients with Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. The difficulties of the therapy of Amiodarone-induced hyper-thyroidism are outlined. Preliminary studied of the effect of Amiodarone and its analogues on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in the rat indicate that Amiodarone may act as a thyroid hormone agonist in the pituitary. (MG)

  12. Amiodarone: Effects on thyroid function and the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braverman, L.E.; Safran, M.; Bambini, G.; Pinchera, A.; Martino, E.

    1985-11-01

    In addition to the effects of Amiodarone on the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones and on pituitary TSH secretion, a major complication of therapy is the relatively high frequency of iodide-induced thyroid dysfunction. The mean T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ concentration following Amiodarone application was measured in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients and in control patients with and without cardiac disorders. Furthermore, the serum TSH was determined in euthyroid Amiodarone-treated euthyroid patients. /sup 131/I uptake was studied in patients with Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. The difficulties of the therapy of Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism are outlined. Preliminary studied of the effect of Amiodarone and its analogues on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in the rat indicate that Amiodarone may act as a thyroid hormone agonist in the pituitary. (MG).

  13. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

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    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  14. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P < .0003). Comparison of CB T cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies. PMID:26450984

  15. Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidd, David A.; Wuollet, Adam; Bowden, Kirk; Price, Theodore; Patwardhan, Amol; Barker, Steve; Weinand, Martin E.; Annabi, Jeffrey; Annabi, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Facial pain is a complex disease with a number of possible etiologies. Trigeminal neuropathic pain (TNP) is defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the trigeminal branch of the peripheral nervous system resulting in chronic facial pain over the distribution of the injured nerve. First line treatment of TNP includes management with anticonvulsant medication (carbamazepine, phenytoin, gabapentin, etc.), baclofen, and analgesics. TNP, however, can be a condition difficult to adequately treat with medical management alone. Patients with TNP can suffer from significant morbidity as a result of inadequate treatment or the side effects of pharmacologic therapy. TNP refractory to medical management can be considered for treatment with a growing number of invasive procedures. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is a minimally invasive option that has been shown to effectively treat medically intractable TNP. We present a case series of common causes of TNP successfully treated with PNS with up to a 2 year follow-up. Only one patient required implantation of new electrode leads secondary to electrode migration. The patients in this case series continue to have significant symptomatic relief, demonstrating PNS as an effective treatment option for intractable TNP. Though there are no randomized trials, peripheral neuromodulation has been shown to be an effective means of treating TNP refractory to medical management in a growing number of case series. PNS is a safe procedure that can be performed even on patients that are not optimal surgical candidates and should be considered for patients suffering from TNP that have failed medical management. PMID:22270735

  16. Enhanced analgesic properties and reduced ulcerogenic effect of a mononuclear copper(II) complex with fenoprofen in comparison to the parent drug: promising insights in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agotegaray, Mariela; Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28 mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21 mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79 mm(2) while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22 mm(2). The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

  17. Efecto Analgésico Postexodoncia Simple del Extracto de Morinda citrifolia (Noni): Ensayo Clínico Aleatorizado de Grupos en Paralelo / Post Exodontia Analgesic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A Randomized Clinical Trial in Parallel Groups

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milagros del Pilar, Cornejo Ferradas; Angel Steven, Asmat Abanto; Segundo Guillermo, Ruíz Reyes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el efecto analgésico post exodoncia simple del extracto de Morinda citrifolia (Noni) de 30 g vs. 15 g. Este ensayo clínico paralelo aleatorizado, se desarrolló en la Clínica Estomatológica de la Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego (Trujillo, Perú). Los pacient [...] es, quienes requerían exodoncia simple, fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos de 17 sujetos cada uno: Noni a dosis de 30 g, de 15 g y grupo testigo (ibuprofeno). El procedimiento fue estandarizado, evaluándose el efecto analgésico mediante la Escala Visual Analógica, a las 2, 8, 24 y 48 horas posteriores a la primera toma del fármaco. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba T de Student para comparación de medias para una p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to compare the post exodontia analgesic effect of the Morinda citrifolia (Noni) extract of 30 g vs. 15 g. This randomized parallel clinical trial, was developed in the Dental Clinic of Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego (Trujillo, Peru). Patients who required simple d [...] ental extraction, were randomized into three groups of 17 subjects each one: Noni at doses of 30 g, 15 g and control group (ibuprofen). The procedure was standardized and the analgesic effect was evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale at 2, 8, 24 and 48 hours after the first dose of the drug. Statistical analysis was performed using Student 's t test for comparison of means with p

  18. Peripheral degenerative joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilzio Antonio da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is the most commonrheumatic disorder mainly in a geriatric population. Manifestationsare pain, stiffness and functional loss in the affected joint.According to etiology it is classifi ed as primary (or idiopathicand secondary. Some risk factors for disease development aregenetics, race, age, sex, obesity, occupational activities andarticular biomechanics. Pathogenesis is the same for any cause orlocalization, being catabolic alterations, with synthesis, inhibitionand reparing intent of the cartilage matrix. Metalloproteinases andcytokines (IL-1,IL-6,TNF-? actions promote infl ammatory reactionand cartilage degradation. Pain, the most important symptom,does not correlate with radiologic fi ndings. Peripheral osteoarthritisoccurs predominantly in the knee, hip and hand. Diagnosis is basedon clinical features, laboratorial tests and radiological changes.Rheumatological associations’ guidelines for treatment includenon-pharmacologic (education, physiotherapy, assistive devices,and pharmacologic (analgesics, anti-infl ammatory drugs therapyand surgery. Arthroplasty seems to work better than medicines, butshould be used if other treatments have failed.

  19. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF GABAPENTIN A CONVENTIONAL ANTICONVULSANT WITH CONVENTIONAL ANALGESIC TREMADOL IN VISCERAL PAIN MODEL OF RODENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Kansal; Priti Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Carabmazepine is an established drug for trigeminal neuralgia while gabapentin has been tried in postoperative pain but its effectiveness in visceral pain and when compared to conventional analgesics needs to be evaluated.The present study was planned to study the analgesic effects of gabapentin in animal pain model of visceral nociception like writhing test and to compare it with conventional analgesic tremadol. This study has been carried out for evaluation of role of gabapentin in visceral...

  20. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

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    P. Malairajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI (Compositae was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percentage protection found was 66.6 and 67.4 respectively. The result suggested that ALSI possess significant and dose dependent analgesic activity.

  1. Effect of green tea extracts on oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

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    Lee Jung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common side effect of oxaliplatin is peripheral neurotoxicity. Oxidative stress to dorsal root ganglion (DRG may be one of important pathogenic mechanisms. Green tea contains four polyphenol catechins, which are known to be potent antioxidants. The present work is aimed to determine whether green tea extracts have neuroproective or palliative effects on neurotoxicity symptoms induced by oxaliplatin. Methods We conducted behavioral tests including sensory and thermal thresholds, an electrophysiological study, and TUNEL staining to assess neurotoxicity during the experimental period using animal models. Results A total of 14 adult rats were randomly allocated into two groups. Oxaliplatin (4?mg/kg with or without green tea (300?mg/kg orally once daily was administered intraperitoneally twice per week for 6?weeks. At 4 and 6?weeks after oxaliplatin administration, sensory threshold values were significantly decreased and at 6?weeks after oxaliplatin administration, thermal threshold values were significantly increased in oxaliplatin-treated rats compared with those in rat treated with oxaliplatin and green tea extracts. The electrophysiological assessment, including sensory nerve conduction and H-reflex-related sensory nerve conduction velocity, revealed no significant changes in the two groups. TUNEL staining showed no significant difference in the number of apoptotic-featured cells between the two experimental groups in the DRG or peripheral nerves, but the number of apoptotic-featured cells in DRG was higher than that in sciatic nerves within each group. Conclusions Green tea extracts may be a useful adjuvant to alleviate sensory symptoms after oxaliplatin administration, such as allodynia, but did not prevent morphometric or electrophysiological alterations induced by oxaliplatin.

  2. Pathobiology of cancer chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN

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    MareeThereseSmith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a type of neuropathic pain that is a major dose-limiting side-effect of potentially curative cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens that develops in a ‘stocking and glove’ distribution. When pain is severe, a change to less effective chemotherapy agents may be required, or patients may choose to discontinue treatment. Medications used to alleviate CIPN often lack efficacy and/or have unacceptable side-effects. Hence the unmet medical need for novel analgesics for relief of this painful condition has driven establishment of rodent models of CIPN. New insights on the pathobiology of CIPN gained using these models are discussed in this review. These include mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress that are implicated as key mechanisms in the development of CIPN. Associated structural changes in peripheral nerves include neuronopathy, axonopathy and/or myelinopathy, especially intra-epidermal nerve fiber (IENF degeneration. In patients with CIPN, loss of heat sensitivity is a hallmark symptom due to preferential damage to myelinated primary afferent sensory nerve fibers in the presence or absence of demyelination. The pathobiology of CIPN is complex as cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens frequently involve drug combinations. Adding to this complexity, there are also subtle differences in the pathobiological consequences of commonly used cancer chemotherapy drugs, viz platinum compounds, taxanes, vincristine, bortezomib, thalidomide and ixabepilone, on peripheral nerves.

  3. Acute Peripheral Metabolic Effects of Intraarterial Leg Infusion of Somatostatin in Healthy Young Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusenstjerna-HafstrØm, Thomas; Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen

    2011-01-01

    Context: Evidence suggests that somatostatin not only inhibits the secretion of GH but also suppresses GH action in peripheral tissues. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that somatostatin suppresses GH activity in human skeletal muscle in vivo. Design and Participants: Eight healthy young men (25.3 ± 2.8 yr) were studied on a single occasion after an overnight fast for 4 h [including a basal period (0-2 h) and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (2-4 h)] during an iv GH infusion (50 ng/kg(-1)·min(-1)). Each subject received an intraarterial somatostatin infusion (150 ?g/h(-1)) into one femoral artery and an intraarterial saline infusion into the contra lateral artery. The simultaneous blood samples were drawn from both femoral veins. Muscle biopsies were obtained from one leg at t = 0 and from both legs during the basal period and during the clamp. Main Outcome Measures: Muscle glucose uptake, signaling proteins for GH (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-5) and insulin (phosphorylation of AS160), and expression of GH-regulated genes (IGF-I and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1-3) were measured. Results: Somatostatin significantly increased glucose uptake measured by arteriovenous glucose difference during the basal period (P = 0.03) but not during the clamp. There was a tendency for the phosphorylation of AS160 to be higher in the somatostatin-infused leg compared with the saline leg (P = 0.055). The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in the clamp-biopsy from the saline-infused leg (P = 0.024). Conclusions: We concluded the following: 1) in the presence of systemic GH exposure, somatostatin increases basal glucose uptake and reduces the expression of GH-regulated genes directly in skeletal muscle; 2) this supports the concept that somatostatin suppresses GH activity in peripheral tissues, and 3) this may add to the therapeutic effects of somataostatin analogs.

  4. The effects of paroxetine and tianeptine on peripheral biochemical markers in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mück-Seler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela; Sagud, Marina; Jakovljevi?, Miro; Mihaljevi?-Peles, Alma

    2002-12-01

    Depression is related to the alterations of the central serotonergic system and some antidepressants achieve their therapeutic effects through alteration of serotonin (5-HT) (re)uptake. Peripheral biochemical markers, platelet and serum 5-HT concentrations, platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin (PRL), were investigated in patients with major depression before and after 4 weeks of treatment with paroxetine (an inhibitor of 5-HT uptake) or tianeptine (a stimulator of 5-HT uptake). Study was open, single center and included female depressed patients, 21 treated with tianeptine (37.5 mg/day) and 15 treated with paroxetine (20 mg/day), and 11 drug-free healthy women (controls). Before treatment, depressed patients as a group had significantly higher serum 5-HT and cortisol concentrations than healthy controls. There were no differences in the other biochemical markers. Response to antidepressant treatment was estimated according to the 50% fall in the initial scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) after 4 weeks of treatment. Good therapeutic response was observed in 47% and 45% patients treated with paroxetine and tianeptine, respectively. Paroxetine treatment induced significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentrations in both responders and nonresponders, while no alterations in platelet 5-HT values were found in tianeptine-treated patients. There was a subgroup of depressed patients in paroxetine-treated group with high pretreatment platelet 5-HT concentration and later poor therapeutic response to paroxetine treatment. Serum 5-HT values, platelet MAO activity or plasma cortisol or PRL levels were unchanged after both treatments. The results suggest that pretreatment platelet 5-HT levels, but not other peripheral biochemical markers, might predict therapeutic outcome at least in paroxetine-treated patients. PMID:12502009

  5. Combined parecoxib and I.V. paracetamol provides additional analgesic effect with better postoperative satisfaction in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

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    Elseify Zeinab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adequacy of postoperative analgesia is one of the most important factors that determine early hospital discharge and patients? ability to resume their normal activities postoperatively. The optimal non-opioid analgesic technique for postoperative pain management would reduce pain and enhance patient satisfaction, and it also facilitates earlier mobilization and rehabilitation by reducing pain-related complications after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib when used alone, or in combination. Methods : Sixty American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA physical status I and II adult patients who were scheduled for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included in this study. Patients were allocated into three groups: group I patients received 1g intravenous paracetamol after induction and another 1 g 4 h later, group II received 40 mg parecoxib after induction, while group III received combination of both drugs (paracetamol 1 g and parecoxib 40 mg. Pain during rest and mobility was assessed in the immediate postoperative period, 2 h and 8 h successively using visual analog scale (VAS. Patient satisfaction was rated according to satisfaction score. Results : Total morphine requirements were lower in group III patients (6.9±2.7 mg in comparison to group I patients (12.6±3.6 mg or group II patients (9.8±2.8 mg. The least VAS scores were recorded during knee movement (3.8±1.1 in group III patients compared to group I (6.0±1.8 and group II patients (4.8±1.9. Eight hours postoperatively, group III patients were more satisfied regarding the postoperative pain management. Conclusion : Combination of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib provided better analgesia and higher patient satisfaction than each drug when used separately.

  6. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance the Anabolic Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Ryu; Martha M. Murray

    2012-01-01

    Use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has shown promise in various orthopaedic applications, including treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. However, various components of blood, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), are removed in the process of making PRP. It is yet unknown whether these PBMCs have a positive or negative effect on fibroblast behavior.

  7. Novel 6?-acylaminomorphinans with analgesic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, András; Hosztafi, Sándor; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Tóth, Gerg?; Urai, Ákos; Noszál, Béla; Pasternak, Gavril W; Grinnell, Steven G; Majumdar, Susruta

    2013-11-01

    Aminomorphinans are a relatively young class of opioid drugs among which substances of high in vitro efficacy and favorable in vivo action are found. We report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel 6?-acylaminomorphinans. 6?-Morphinamine and 6?-codeinamine were stereoselectively synthesized by Mitsunobu reaction. The aminomorphinans were subsequently acylated with diversely substituted cinnamic acids. In vitro binding studies on cinnamoyl morphinamines showed moderate affinity for all opiate receptors with some selectivity for mu opioid receptors, while cinnamoyl codeinamines only showed affinity for mu opioid receptors. In vivo analgesia studies showed significant analgesic activity of 6?-cinnamoylmorphinamine mediated by mu and delta receptors. The lead compound was found to be roughly equipotent to morphine (ED?? 3.13 ± 1.09 mg/kg) but devoid of the dangerous side-effect respiratory depression, a major issue associated with traditional opioid therapy. PMID:24103580

  8. Effect of Trichostatin A on CD4 surface density in peripheral blood T cells.

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    Anna Koz?owska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation level of chromatin histones is maintained by histone acetylases (HATs and deacetylases (HDACs and correlates with transcriptional activity of genes. Trichostatin A (TSA is HDAC inhibitor that causes various effects in cells, including immunomodulation. The CD4 antigen is a key coreceptor involved in activation of T helper cells. Using quantitative real-time PCR (RQ-PCR and flow cytometry techniques, we estimated CD4 transcript level and density of CD4 antigen on the surface of TSA-treated stimulated and unstimulated peripheral T cells. We observed a dose dependent decrease in CD4 mRNA level and antigen density on surface of TSA-treated stimulated T cells. However, we did not observe any significant TSA effect on CD4 mRNA and protein expression in unstimulated T cells. Our data suggest that TSA may induce biosynthesis of factors responsible for negative regulation of CD4 antigen expression in stimulated T cells. Our investigation may support previous observation that this drug has immunosuppresive effect on primary T cells and may be useful in treatment of certain autoimmune disorders.

  9. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Argyreia speciosa root

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    Bachhav R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a methanolic extract (ME of Argyreia speciosa (AS root powder. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using male albino mice (20-25 gm and male wistar rats (100-150gm. The ME was prepared using soxhlet extraction process. The effect of ME of A. speciosa was investigated for analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, tail immersion method and hot plate method. The anti-inflammatory activity of ME of AS roots was studied using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Result: The ME of A. speciosa root was used in pain and inflammation models. The analgesic activity of AS at the dose of (30,100, and 300 mg/kg p.o showed significant (P< 0.01 decrease in acetic acid-induced writhing, whereas ME of A. speciosa at the dose of (100, 300 mg/kg p.o showed significant (P< 0.01 increase in latency to tail flick in tail immersion method and elevated mean basal reaction time in hot plate method. The ME of the A. speciosa at doses (30, 100, and 300mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.01 inhibition of carrageenan induced hind paw edema in rats. Conclusion: The ME of A. speciosa showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in mice and rat.

  10. Modulatory effects of neurotoxic insecticides on the peripheral and central GABA-ergic actions

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    Stankovi? Jasmina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On the terminal part of the guinea-pig ileum GABA produces contraction whereas on the preterminal it produces an initial short-lasting contraction followed by a prolonged relaxation. The increasing range of concentrations of GABA produces a concentration-dependent decrease in contractions and an increase in contractions of the preterminal ileum. Both contractions and relaxations can be blocked by atropine, indicating the cholinergic nature of the responses. These effects are due to the action on GABAA receptors. Depending on the duration of the incubation period (3 and 60 sec GABA produced either potentiation or depression of the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the ileum. All the three neurotoxic insecticides (lindan malathion, permethrine affect the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the ileum. Lindan and permetrine antagonized the contractile effects of acetylcholine, whereas malathion produced a potentiation. Malathion significantly depressed the contractile effects of the electrical field stimulation of the ileum. This effect is probably realized through the local release of GABA. Both lindan and permethrine were found to decrease the duration of the barbiturate sleeping time, whereas malathion significantly prolonged its duration. The action of lindan and permethrine is presumably realized by blocking or interfering with the function of GABAA receptors. Malathion is an anticholinesterase, thus producing an accumulation of acetylcholine at the critical sites, consequently producing a prolongation of the barbiturate sleeping time. In conclusion, neurotoxic insecticides (lindan, permethrine, malathion affect both central and peripheral GABA-ergic systems. They can produce either depression or stimulation of these systems. They also highly significantly modulate the activity of the cholinergic system in the isolated guinea-pig ileum.

  11. Pharmacodynamic analysis of the analgesic effect of capsaicin 8% patch (QutenzaTM in diabetic neuropathic pain patients: detection of distinct response groups

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    Martini C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian Martini1,*, Ashraf Yassen2,*, Erik Olofsen1, Paul Passier2, Malcom Stoker3, Albert Dahan1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 2Global Clinical Pharmacology and Exploratory Development, Astellas Pharma Global Development Europe, Leiderdorp, The Netherlands; 3Global Medical Sciences, Astellas Pharma Global Development Europe, Leiderdorp, The Netherlands*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Treatment of chronic pain is associated with high variability in the response to pharmacological interventions. A mathematical pharmacodynamic model was developed to quantify the magnitude and onset/offset times of effect of a single capsaicin 8% patch application in the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 91 patients. In addition, a mixture model was applied to objectively match patterns in pain-associated behavior. The model identified four distinct subgroups that responded differently to treatment: 3.3% of patients (subgroup 1 showed worsening of pain; 31% (subgroup 2 showed no change; 32% (subgroup 3 showed a quick reduction in pain that reached a nadir in week 3, followed by a slow return towards baseline (16% ± 6% pain reduction in week 12; 34% (subgroup 4 showed a quick reduction in pain that persisted (70% ± 5% reduction in week 12. The estimate of the response-onset rate constant, obtained for subgroups 1, 3, and 4, was 0.76 ± 0.12 week-1 (median ± SE, indicating that every 0.91 weeks the pain score reduces or increases by 50% relative to the score of the previous week (= t½. The response-offset rate constant could be determined for subgroup 3 only and was 0.09 ± 0.04 week-1 (t½ 7.8 weeks. The analysis allowed separation of a heterogeneous neuropathic pain population into four homogenous subgroups with distinct behaviors in response to treatment with capsaicin. It is argued that this model-based approach may have added value in analyzing longitudinal chronic pain data and allows optimization of treatment algorithms for patients suffering from chronic pain conditions.Keywords: diabetic neuropathic pain, capsaicin 8%, modeling, mixture model

  12. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Centella asiatica extract in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema chaitanya Chippada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (CA is a medicinal herb which has been valued in ayurvedicmedicine for its different activities. In the present studies, CA methanolic extract wasprepared by Soxhlet extraction and then evaluated for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity incultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mitotic Index (MI Cell ProliferationKinetics (CPK and Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE were scored to measure thecytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the CA extract in cultures set up from the three differenthealthy donors. The treatment of the cell culture was done employing two different CAmethanolic extract concentrations (500 & 1000 ?g/ml and the control (did not receive anyadditive. Our present studies revealed that the MI, CPK and SCES for control are 4.28,0.49 and 6.08 respectively where as the CA extracts has the MI, CPK and SCES for500?g/ml are 4.07, 0.47 and 5.84 respectively and for 1000 ?g/ml are 3.96, 0.46 and 5.52respectively. From the results, we can conclude that the MI and frequency of SCES of CAmethanolic extracts are almost similar to that of control which indicates that the CA plantextracts has no significant cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects in cultured humanperipheral blood lymphocytes.

  13. Age and gender effects on DNA strand break repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous and endogenous damage to DNA is constantly challenging the stability of our genome. This DNA damage increased the frequency of errors in DNA replication, thus causing point mutations or chromosomal rearrangements and has been implicated in aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, efficient DNA repair is vital for the maintenance of genome stability. The general notion has been that DNA repair capacity decreases with age although there are conflicting results. Here, we focused on potential age associated changes in DNA damage response and the capacities of repairing DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Of these lesions DSBs are the least frequent but the most dangerous for cells. We have measured the level of endogenous SSBs, SSB repair capacity, ?-H2AX response, and DSB repair capacity in a study population consisting of 216 individuals from a population-based sample of twins aged 40 to 77 years. Age in this range did not seem to have any effect on the SSB parameters. However, ?-H2AX response and DSB repair capacity decreased with increasing age, although the associations did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for batch effect across multiple experiments. No gender differences were observed for any of the parameters analyzed. Our findings suggest that in PBMCs the repair of SSBs is maintained until old age, whereas the response to and the repair of DSBs decrease. © 2012 The Authors Aging Cell © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Effects of chronic pulmonary irradiation on peripheral lymphocytes and their function in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles, a relatively insoluble, inert carrier material. The radioactive particles deposited in the deep lung resulted in chronic irradiation of the pulmonary and adjacent thoracic tissues. Dogs exposed to high levels of 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles received more than 25,000 rad to lung by 3 yr after exposure. They developed a severe and persistent lymphopenia, and their remaining peripheral lymphocytes showed a decreased ability to respond to plant mitogens in vitro. The lymphopenia and the functional defect in the remaining lymphocytes suggested that an immunologic suppression existed in these dogs. Many lymphocytes were being killed in vivo by the radiation but another population was present that was viable in vivo but died when placed in vitro, accounting for at least part of the reduction in response to plant mitogens. No plasma factor was found that could account for the reduced lymphocyte transformation. The 144Ce-exposed dogs developed a high incidence of primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas between 1 and 5 yr after exposure. This suggests that carcinogenesis after intrapulmonary deposition of radionuclides may result from a combination of the direct carcinogenic effect and the immunosuppressive effect of the irradiation

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the analgesic therapy of postoperative pain / Análise custo-efetividade da terapia analgésica utilizada na dor pós-operatória / Análisis de costo-efectividad en el tratamiento analgésico para dolor post-operatorio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Regina, Secoli; Kátia Grillo, Padilha; Júlio, Litvoc.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo realizou-se a analise custo-efetividade para comparar esquemas analgésicos administrados a 89 pacientes submetidos a hemorroidectomia, no 1º dia de pós-operatório. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo realizado em Hospital Geral de São Paulo. Para realização da análise [...] custo-efetividade identificou-se os 5 esquemas analgésicos mais utilizados na clinica. O principal desfecho foi ausência de escapes de dor. No cálculo dos custos foram considerados os analgésicos e dispositivos associados à administração. O esquema codeina 120mg + acetaminofeno 2000mg mostrou-se mais custo-efetivo, apresentando o menor custo por paciente sem escape de dor ($65,23). A análise incremental apontou que o padrão codeína 120 mg+acetamenofeno 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg apresentou um custo adicional de $238,31 para se obter um benefício extra de efetividade. A análise mostrou que a escolha do esquema analgésico deve contemplar, além dos aspectos econômicos e clínicos das opções terapêuticas, a disponibilidade de recursos da instituição. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio utilizó el análisis de costo-efectividad para comparar los esquemas analgésicos administrados en 89 pacientes sometidos a hemorroidectomía, durante el 1º día del post-operatorio. Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo realizado en el Hospital General de São Paulo. Para efectuar este [...] análisis se identificaron los 5 esquemas analgésicos más utilizados por el servicio. El efecto principal fue la ausencia de dolor. Para calcular los costos fueron incluidos los analgésicos y los materiales utilizados para la administración. El esquema codeína 120mg + acetaminofen 2000mg fue más efectivo, siendo de menor costo para el paciente sin dolor ($65,23). Este incremento mostró que la mezcla codeína 120 mg+acetamenofen 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg tuvo un costo adicional de $238,31 para poder obtener un beneficio extra de efectividad. A través del análisis, la selección del esquema analgésico requiere además de ser económico y clínico, la disponibilidad de recursos de la propia institución. Abstract in english The study aimed to compare cost-effectiveness of analgesic schemes administered to 89 patients submitted to hemorrhoidectomy, on the 1st postoperative day. The descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in a General Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In order to carry out the cost-effectiveness a [...] nalysis, the five most frequently used analgesic schemes were identified in practice. The main outcome was the absence of breakthrough pain episodes. While calculating the costs, analgesics and all devices related to the schemes were taken into consideration. Codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg was the most effective therapy with the lowest cost per patient with no breakthrough pain episodes ($65.23). Incremental analysis indicated that codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg+ketoprofen 200mg involved the additional cost of $238.31 in case an extra effectiveness benefit was needed. The analysis showed that the most suitable choice of analgesic therapy should consider the resources available at the institution along with economic and clinical aspects.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the analgesic therapy of postoperative pain Análisis de costo-efectividad en el tratamiento analgésico para dolor post-operatorio Análise custo-efetividade da terapia analgésica utilizada na dor pós-operatória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Secoli

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare cost-effectiveness of analgesic schemes administered to 89 patients submitted to hemorrhoidectomy, on the 1st postoperative day. The descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in a General Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In order to carry out the cost-effectiveness analysis, the five most frequently used analgesic schemes were identified in practice. The main outcome was the absence of breakthrough pain episodes. While calculating the costs, analgesics and all devices related to the schemes were taken into consideration. Codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg was the most effective therapy with the lowest cost per patient with no breakthrough pain episodes ($65.23. Incremental analysis indicated that codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg+ketoprofen 200mg involved the additional cost of $238.31 in case an extra effectiveness benefit was needed. The analysis showed that the most suitable choice of analgesic therapy should consider the resources available at the institution along with economic and clinical aspects.El presente estudio utilizó el análisis de costo-efectividad para comparar los esquemas analgésicos administrados en 89 pacientes sometidos a hemorroidectomía, durante el 1º día del post-operatorio. Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo realizado en el Hospital General de São Paulo. Para efectuar este análisis se identificaron los 5 esquemas analgésicos más utilizados por el servicio. El efecto principal fue la ausencia de dolor. Para calcular los costos fueron incluidos los analgésicos y los materiales utilizados para la administración. El esquema codeína 120mg + acetaminofen 2000mg fue más efectivo, siendo de menor costo para el paciente sin dolor ($65,23. Este incremento mostró que la mezcla codeína 120 mg+acetamenofen 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg tuvo un costo adicional de $238,31 para poder obtener un beneficio extra de efectividad. A través del análisis, la selección del esquema analgésico requiere además de ser económico y clínico, la disponibilidad de recursos de la propia institución.No presente estudo realizou-se a analise custo-efetividade para comparar esquemas analgésicos administrados a 89 pacientes submetidos a hemorroidectomia, no 1º dia de pós-operatório. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo realizado em Hospital Geral de São Paulo. Para realização da análise custo-efetividade identificou-se os 5 esquemas analgésicos mais utilizados na clinica. O principal desfecho foi ausência de escapes de dor. No cálculo dos custos foram considerados os analgésicos e dispositivos associados à administração. O esquema codeina 120mg + acetaminofeno 2000mg mostrou-se mais custo-efetivo, apresentando o menor custo por paciente sem escape de dor ($65,23. A análise incremental apontou que o padrão codeína 120 mg+acetamenofeno 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg apresentou um custo adicional de $238,31 para se obter um benefício extra de efetividade. A análise mostrou que a escolha do esquema analgésico deve contemplar, além dos aspectos econômicos e clínicos das opções terapêuticas, a disponibilidade de recursos da instituição.

  17. Comparative effects of inhaled relatively insoluble forms of 90Y, 144Ce, and 90Sr on canine peripheral lymphocyte function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogs that have inhaled relatively insoluble forms of either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides manifest a peripheral lymphopenia, the development and course of which is both total dose and dose-rate dependent. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes in dogs exposed to longer lived beta-emitting radionuclides show depressed response to plant mitogens in vitro. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of dose rate on peripheral lymphocyte function by exposing dogs to aerosols of radionuclides with varied effective half-lives in the lungs; 90Y (2.6 days), 144Ce (170 days), and 90Sr (650 days). Three groups of four adult Beagle dogs each were exposed by inhalation to 90Y, 144Ce, or 90Sr in fused clay particles. Two controls were matched with each group. Hematologic parameters and lymphocyte function as measured by the ability of lymphocytes to respond to plant mitogen stimulation were evaluated on a weekly or biweekly basis through 8 weeks post-exposure and monthly thereafter. The 90Y-exposed dogs showed a marked lymphopenia within one week with a return to control levels by 20 weeks post-exposure. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes, however, showed no functional changes in these dogs. Animals exposed to 144Ce or 90Sr in fused clay developed a progressive and persistent lymphopenia and showed functional depression of the remaining lymphocytes as well. The relationships between dose pattern, lymphopenia, and lymphocyte function depression are discussed. (U.S.)

  18. Analgesic activity of Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. used in Turkish Folk Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ustun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial part of Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae has been used for treatment of peptic ulcers and relieving pain in Turkish folk medicine. To evaluate the analgesic effect of S. wiedemannii, tail flick and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were used in mice. The chloroform extract (500 mg/kg, i.p. obtained from S. wiedemannii showed significant analgesic activity on tail flick assay, while water, ethanol and butanol extracts of the plant had no activity on the same test. Chloroform extract (500 mg/kg, i.p. also inhibited number of writhings induced by acetic acid. Chloroform extract provided analgesic effects similar to morphine. Its effect was quick and durable. This in vivo study demonstrates that S. wiedemannii has strong analgesic effect as the public believed.

  19. [Less pain during puncture by a peripheral venous catheter; a bibliographical review on adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat González, Irene; Fuentes i Pumarola, Concepció; Bertran Noguer, Carme; Ballester Ferrando, David; Juvinyà Canal, Dolors; Vila Vidal, Dalmau

    2010-06-01

    Canalizing veins is a habitual technique carried out by nurses. Inserting a catheter in a peripheral vein causes pain. The importance of fine quality in nursing treatment implicitly bears on a person's well-being. In daily practice, health professionals do not use any method to reduce pain when inserting a catheter. The authors observations led them to believe in the need to carry out a bibliographical review whose objective was to discover all the methods used to reduce pain caused by puncturing a peripheral vein. Six randomly assigned clinical tests and a meta-analysis evaluate the effectiveness of: The use of Valsalva, an analgesic cream which contains two local amino-amide anesthetics; lidocaine and prylocaine (EMLA) compared to another analgesic cream, Myolaxin; a meta-analysis of twenty studies evaluates the degree by which pain is diminished by one such method: an EMLA cream; an anti-inflammatory skin dressing (diclofenaco), a diclofenaco dressing versus an EMLA anesthetic dressing, 0.25 ml subcutaneous injection of 1% mepivaína, an amida type local anesthetic; and direct photography moments before puncture occurs to use the effects of a flash of light. All these methods studied proved effective in reducing pain. Creams and dressing prove to be unaggressive methods but require some time for application prior to puncture. Using a camera flash, subcutaneous injection of mepivacaine and the application of Valsalva can be effective alternatives to reduce pain when puncturing veins in patients who require emergency care. PMID:20672715

  20. Effect of High-Fat Diet on Peripheral Neuropathy in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Xu; Dou Tang; Meiping Guan; Cuihua Xie; Yaoming Xue

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Dyslipidemia may contribute to the development of peripheral neuropathy, even in prediabetics; however, few studies have evaluated vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods. Using high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced prediabetic C57BL/6 mice, we assessed motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV) using a BIOPAC System and thermal algesia with a Plantar Test (Hargreaves' method) Analgesia Meter. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density and m...

  1. Peripheral reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral collisions, that is, collisions involving a small amount of overlap of nuclear matter, are discussed including inclusive interactions, the magnitude of the peripheral cross section, fragmentation, a compilation of experiments and available data, limiting fragmentation, factorization, some models, fragment momentum distributions, and future research directions

  2. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; K. Ozluk

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections...

  3. Differentiating spatial and object-based effects on attention: an event-related brain potential study with peripheral cueing.

    OpenAIRE

    He, X.; Humphreys, G; Fan, S; Chen, L; Han, S.

    2008-01-01

    Do spatial attention and object attention modulate visual processing in similar ways? Previously we have found a dissociation between these two forms of attention on ERP measures of sensory processing under conditions of peripheral cueing, with spatial attention effects associated with changes over anterior scalp regions and object attention effects associated with changes over posterior regions (He, X., Fan, S., Zhou, K., Chen, L., 2004. Cue validity and object-based attention. J. Cogn. Neur...

  4. Adamantyl Analogues of Paracetamol as Potent Analgesic Drugs via Inhibition of TRPA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, Nieves; Pérez-Fernández, Ruth; Goicoechea, Carlos; Alkorta, Ibon; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; de la Torre-Martínez, Roberto; Quirce, Susana; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Martín, M. Isabel; Goya, Pilar; Elguero, José

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol also known as acetaminophen, is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of adamantyl analogues of paracetamol with important analgesic properties. The mechanism of nociception of compound 6a/b, an analog of paracetamol, is not exerted through direct interaction with cannabinoid receptors, nor by inhibiting COX. It behaves as an interesting selective TRPA1 channel antagonist, which may be responsible for its analgesic properties, whereas it has no effect on the TRPM8 nor TRPV1 channels. The possibility of replacing a phenyl ring by an adamantyl ring opens new avenues in other fields of medicinal chemistry. PMID:25438056

  5. The effect of pharmacological treatment on gait biomechanics in peripheral arterial disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanning Jason M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacological treatment has been advocated as a first line therapy for Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD patients suffering from intermittent claudication. Previous studies document the ability of pharmacological treatment to increase walking distances. However, the effect of pharmacological treatment on gait biomechanics in PAD patients has not been objectively evaluated as is common with other gait abnormalities. Methods Sixteen patients were prescribed an FDA approved drug (Pentoxifylline or Cilostazol for the treatment of symptomatic PAD. Patients underwent baseline gait testing prior to medication use which consisted of acquisition of ground reaction forces and kinematics while walking in a pain free state. After three months of treatment, patients underwent repeat gait testing. Results Patients with symptomatic PAD had significant gait abnormalities at baseline during pain free walking as compared to healthy controls. However, pharmacological treatment did not produce any identifiable alterations on the biomechanics of gait of the PAD patients as revealed by the statistical comparisons performed between pre and post-treatment and between post-treatment and the healthy controls. Conclusions Pharmacological treatment did not result in statistically significant improvements in the gait biomechanics of patients with symptomatic PAD. Future studies will need to further explore different cohorts of patients that have shown to improve significantly their claudication distances and/or their muscle fiber morphology with the use of pharmacological treatment and determine if this is associated with an improvement in gait biomechanics. Using these methods we may distinguish the patients who benefit from pharmacotherapy and those who do not.

  6. Biological radiation dose estimation by chromosomal aberrations analysis in human peripheral blood (dose-effect curve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to draw a dose-effect curve, experimentally gamma ray induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes from eight healthy people were studied. Samples from 4 males and 4 females were irradiated in tubes with 0.15, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 gray of gamma ray (Co60 at dose rate 0.3 Gy/min). Irradiated and control samples were incubated in 37 centigrade for 48 hours cell cultures. Cell cultures then were stopped and metaphases spread, Giemsa stained to score the induced chromosomal aberrations. Chromosomal aberrations from 67888 metaphases were scored. Curves from the total number of dicentrics, dicentrics + rings and total numbers of breaks in cell for each individual or for all people were drawn. An increase of all chromosomal aberrations types with the elevation of the doses was observed. The yield of chromosome aberrations is related to the dose used. These curves give a quick useful estimation of the accidentally radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of dioxacarb by human peripheral blood lymphocytes CAs and Allium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasin; Erdo?mu?, Sevim Feyza; Aky?l, Dilek; Özkara, Arzu; Konuk, Muhsin; Sa?lam, Esra

    2015-12-01

    Dioxacarb (Elecron, Famid) is a phenyl methylcarbamate insecticide and in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of this pesticide on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and Allium root meristematic cells were investigated by chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and Allium test. Human lymphocytes were treated with 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 ppm doses of dioxacarb for CAs. CA/cell, abnormal cell % and mitotic index % (MI %) data were obtained from these concentrations in 24 and 48 h treatment periods. Dioxacarb did not increase the CA/cell frequency significantly, so this insecticide was not identified as genotoxic. But it was found cytotoxic especially at 250 and 500 ppm concentrations because of the reduced the MI % and increased the abnormal cell %. In Allium test, 25 ppm (EC50/2), 50 ppm (EC50) and 100 ppm (EC50 × 2) concentrations were used for root growth inhibition (EC50 determination) and Allium mitotic index (MI) determination tests. The used concentrations of dioxacarb induced dose-dependent inhibition of MI and root growth on root meristems. Mitotic inhibition of dioxacarb was found significantly higher than for the positive control. These Allium results indicated the high cytotoxicity of dioxacarb. The present study is the first research on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of dioxacarb by human lymphocyte CAs and Allium test. PMID:24848210

  8. Varied effects of thoracic irradiation on peripheral lymphocyte subsets in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the influence of thoracic irradiation on immunological competence in patients with lung cancer, we examined the changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 15 patients before and after radiation therapy by two-color flow cytometry techniques. After radiation therapy, the percentage and the absolute number of CD4+CD45RA+ cells (naive T cells) and CD56+and/orCD16+ cells (NK cells) decreased. The percentage of CD4+ human leukocyte antigen-DR(HLA-DR)+ cells (activated CD4T cells) and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells (activated CD8T cells) increased, although the absolute number did not change significantly. Naive T cells may be more selectively damaged than memory T cells by thoracic irradiation, through their recirculation behavior. The reduction of natural killer (NK) cells is disadvantageous for anti-tumor immunity. The percentage of HLA-DR positive T lymphocytes was significantly increased, and thus the possibility of HLA-DR enhancement by irradiation cannot be excluded. Therefore, thoracic irradiation has numerous varied effects on the immunological system of lung cancer patients. (author)

  9. Tingenone, a pentacyclic triterpene, induces peripheral antinociception due to NO/cGMP and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels pathway activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Veloso, Clarice; Rodrigues, Vanessa Gregório; Ferreira, Renata Cristina Mendes; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Klein, Andre; Duarte, Igor Dimitri; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima; de Castro Perez, Andrea

    2015-05-15

    Substances derived from plants play an important role in the development of new analgesic drugs, among them, triterpenoids. The connection between the participation of L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway and the activation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP) has been established on the peripheral antinociception induced by various drugs. The study assessed the involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP pathway in the antinociceptive effect induced by tingenone, from Maytenus imbricata, against the hyperalgesia evoked by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in peripheral pathway. The paw pressure test was used, with hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar injection of PGE2 (2 ?g). Tingenone (200 µg/paw) administered into the right hind paw induced a local antinociceptive effect, that was antagonized by l-NOArg, nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor and by L-NPA, selective neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor. The L-NIO, selective inhibitor of endothelial (eNOS), and the L-NIL, selective inhibitor of inducible (iNOS), did not alter the peripheral antinociceptive effect of the tingenone. The ODQ, selective soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, prevented the antinociceptive effect of tingenone, and zaprinast, inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that is cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) specific, intensified the peripheral antinociceptive effect of the smaller dose of tingenone. Glibenclamide, ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP) blocker, but not tetraethylammonium chloride, voltage-dependent K(+) channel blocker; dequalinium dichloride, blocker of the small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, and paxilline, a potent blocker of high-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, respectively, prevented the peripheral antinociceptive effect of tingenone. The results demonstrate that tingenone induced a peripheral antinociceptive effect by L-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP pathway activation, with potential for a new analgesic drug. PMID:25748602

  10. Cytological and cytochemical effects of sodium benzoate and gamma irradiation on human peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies of human peripheral lymphocytes were conducted to elucidate and compare the effects of a suspected chemical clastogen, sodium benzoate, widely used in the food industry as an antimicrobial food additive, to that of a well-known physical mutagen, gamma rays. Blood from ten normal donors, five males and five females, was collected and treated with various doses of the two agents independently and in combination during G0 or G1 phase. Induction of structural chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and unscheduled DNA synthesis were used as parameters to monitor the effects of the two agents. Sodium benzoate at the same concentrations used in the food industry (0.05% and 0.10%) caused inhibition of mitosis and induced chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks). The frequency of aberrations increased as the concentration of sodium benzoate increased. No increase in SCEs over the control level was observed as either concentration tested. The relative amount of DNA damage inflicted in the treated lymphocytes estimated as 3H-tritiated thymidine incorporation (unscheduled DNA synthesis) was highly significant. In contrast, blood irradiated with 300, 600, or 900 rad 60Co gamma rays produced chromatid and chromosome aberrations in cultured lymphocytes, dicentrics being the most frequent exchange event. The aberration yield was found to be dose-dependent and to fit the quadratic model. Unscheduled DNA synthesis as measured by lymphocyte 3H-TdR incorporation following gamma irradiation was highly significantly increased with the largest uptake occurring during the first hour of incubation. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation plus 0.05% sodium benzoate did not increase the aberration frequencies over the independent irradiation treatments and had no effect on SCEs frequencies

  11. Ameliorative effect of certain antioxidants against mercury induced genotoxicity in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tapan A; Rao, Mandava V

    2015-10-01

    Various antioxidants play an important role in reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by scavenging them directly or indirectly. Mercury (Hg) is one of the known hazardous genotoxicant, induces the genotoxicity by enhancing the ROS. In the present study, three structurally different bioactive compounds such as melatonin (0.2?mM), curcumin (3.87?µM) and andrographolide (0.4?µM) were evaluated against the genotoxic effect of mercury. All the experiments were conducted using the peripheral blood lymphocytes In Vitro. The cultures were exposed to different doses (2.63?µM; 6.57?µM; 10.52?µM) of mercury salt (HgCl2) for studying various genotoxic indices. All three antioxidant compounds, alone and in combination with high dose of mercury, were added to the cultures with controls. For ascertaining genotoxicity, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), cell cycle proliferative index/replicative index (CCPI/RI), average generation time (AGT), population doubling time (PDT), %M1, %M2 and %M3 were assessed and analyzed using suitable statistical analysis. The results revealed a dose dependent increase in SCEs, AGT and PDT, with a concomitant reduction in CCPI values after treatment of mercury. Supplementation of these three antioxidant compounds effectively negated these genotoxic endpoints in treated cultures with improvement in the cell cycle kinetics i.e. CCPI. The antimutagenic activity of these compounds on mercury induced genotoxicity was in the following order: melatonin?>?curcumin?>?andrographolide. In conclusion, these compounds have ameliorated mercury induced increase in genotoxic indices due to their excellent antioxidant properties and the combination seems to be effective. PMID:25645230

  12. Antioxidant and Analgesic Activities of Lannea coromandelica Linn. Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of Lannea coromandelica Linn. bark (MLCB was subjected to evaluate its antioxidant and analgesic properties. The analgesic activity was determined for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions using hotplate as well as tail immersion method and acetic acid-induced writhing test with formalin induced pain in mice, respectively. To evaluate antioxidant potential of MLCB, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as total Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and assessment of reducing power were used. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1, produced a significant (p50 value of 12.32±0.16 and 34.72±0.48 ?g mL-1, respectively with a good reducing power. In conclusion this study demonstrated the strong antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of the bark of L. coromandelica. Altogether, these results suggest that the MLCB could be used as a potential antinociceptive agent along with its antioxidant potentiality.

  13. Peripheral nerve stimulation for treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: A Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Palmer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation techniques have been successfully used for a varietyof neuropathic pain conditions. Th e aim of this paper is to presenta case of the successful use of a subcutaneously placed peripheralnerve stimulator for treatment of intractable postherpetic neuralgia(PHN. A 57-year old man presented with a two-year history of leftthoracic pain that developed aft er a vesicular rash. Focal neuropathic pain had not responded to treatment with multiple analgesic medications and steroid injections. Th e patient had significant relief following implantation of a peripheral nerve stimulator. Th is case represents a contribution to the small but growing body of evidence indicating that peripheral nerve stimulation may be an effective option for treatment of PHN not responsive to less invasive modalities.

  14. Efeitos cardiovasculares e analgésicos da administração epidural de ropivacaína isolada ou associada à morfina, em felinos / Cardiovascular and analgesic effects of epidural administration of ropivacaine alone or in combination with morphine in cats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Doughlas, Regalin; Marina, Moresco; Vanessa Sasso, Padilha; Ronise, Tocheto; Nilson, Oleskovicz.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares e analgésicos de dois protocolos epidurais em felinos submetidos à OSH, 16 gatas mestiças, adultas, que, após indução à anestesia geral, receberam anestesia epidural (L7 - S1) com 0,26mL kg-1 de ropivacaína 0,75%, isolada (GR) ou associada a 0,1mg kg-1 mor [...] fina (GRM). A ETCO2, f, FC, PAS, T°R e relaxamento muscular foram avaliados no momento basal, 30 minutos após epidural, após incisão de pele, ligadura dos pedículos ovarianos e cérvix, final da celiorrafia e cirurgia, sendo administrado fentanil, caso ocorresse aumento de 20% na PAS, FC ou f em relação ao momento basal. Ao final do procedimento, foram avaliados, com auxílio de uma escala multidimensional de dor aguda em felinos, durante 12 horas, e, quando a pontuação fosse ?8, era realizado resgate analgésico com morfina 0,2mg kg-1. Não ocorreram diferenças entre ETCO2, f, T°C e relaxamento muscular. A PAS aumentou em ambos os grupos durante o pinçamento dos pedículos ovarianos e cérvix, quando 100% dos animais do GR e 87,5% do GRM necessitaram fentanil transoperatório. Em 100% dos animais do GR, houve necessidade de morfina pós-operatória às 2 e 4 horas de avaliação, comparados com 50% e 37,5% no GRM. Nos momentos seguintes aos resgates, o somatório de pontos foi semelhante entre grupos. Conclui-se que a administração epidural de ropivacaína associada à morfina em gatas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia reduz o requerimento analgésico pós-operatório em até 56,2%, durante as primeiras 4 horas, e promove analgesia adequada durante 12 horas, quando comparado à ropivacaína isolada Abstract in english Seeking to evaluate the cardiovascular and analgesic effects of two epidural protocols in cats undergoing OH, 16 female adult mixed-breed cats were induced to general anesthesia, and then epidural was achieved with 0,26mL kg-1 of isolated ropivacaine (GR) (0,75%) or associated with 0,1mg kg-1 morphi [...] ne (GRM). ETCO2, RR, HR, SAP, T° and muscular relaxation were evaluated in baseline, 30 minutes after epidural; after skin incision, ovarian pedicles and uterine cervix ligation; end of laparohraphy; and end of surgery. They received fentanyl if SAP, HR or f, rise in 20% of baseline. At the end of OH, a multidimensional pain scale for cats was used during 12 hours, and rescued with morphine 0,2mg kg-1, when the scale score was ?8 points. There were no differences in ETCO2, RR, T°C and muscular relaxation. SAP increased in both groups during the ovarian pedicle and cervix clamping. In 100% of the animals in GR and 87.5% of the GRM, it was necessary fentanyl during surgery. In 100% of GR animals was required analgesic rescue with morphine at 2 and 4 hours of postoperative evaluation, compared with 50% and 37,5% in GRM, where after the analgesic rescue, in the next hours, the sum of points was similar between groups. It was concluded that epidural administration of morphine and ropivacaine in cats submitted to OH, reduces post operatory analgesic requirements to 56,2% during the first four hours, and promote adequate analgesia for 12 hours in cats submitted to OH, when compared to ropivacaine alone

  15. Effect of Interleukin-29 on Interferon-? Secretion by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cellsammatory Root Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Hyun Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of interleukin (IL-29, a new therapeutic agent similar to type I interferons (IFNs, on IFN-? secretion of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify the effect of IL-29 on IFN-? secretion of pDCs using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in the presence of cytosine-phosphate-guanosinemotif-containing oligodeoxy nucleotides (CpG. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and prospective study, PBMCs were obtained from 11 healthy volunteers and divided into four culture conditions: I. control, II. CpG treatment, III. IL-29 treatment and IV. CpG plus IL-29 treatment. The amount of IFN-? secretion was measured from each culture supernatant by flow cytometry using the flowcytomix apparatus (eBioscience, Vienna, Austria. Fractional IFN-? production of the cultured PBMCs was measured by intracellular staining using the cytomics FC 500 system (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA, USA with CXP Software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD of supernatant IFN-? secretion per pDC/?L was 5.7 ± 9.3 pg/mL/count/?L for condition I, 1071.5 ± 1026.6 pg/mL/count/?L for condition II, 14.1 ± 21.1 pg/mL/count/?L for condition III, and 1913.9 ± 1525.9 pg/mL/count/?L for condition IV. There were statistically significant differences between conditions I and II as well as betweenconditions II and IV. Intracellular IFN-? production was only detectable in the pDC fraction from one culture; the production amount was similar between the cells treated with CpG and those treated with CpG plus IL-29. Natural killer (NK cell production of IFN-? was observed in two out of three cultures and one culture showed IFN- ? production in the monocyte fraction. Conclusion: IL-29 alone did not show any effect on IFN-? secretion of PBMCs. However, the addition of CpG along with IL-29 enhanced IFN-? secretion of PBMCs. Given that pDCs are the major secretors of IFN-? in peripheral blood, this result has suggested the possibility that IL-29 has an enhancing effect in human pDC IFN-? secretion. Although the supernatant IFN-? secretion was not directly correlated with pDCs’s intracellular IFN-? production in this study, prolonged incubation of pDC and other PB subsets with CpG or IL-29 for over 4 hours could be applied in future studies. These studies would help to elucidate the mechanism of action of IL-29 in human pDCs associated with viral infections.

  16. In vitro effects of the organochlorine pesticide ?-hexachlorocyclohexane on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH is a very stable and accumulable isomer of Lindane, a well known organochlorine pesticide. The HCHs were banned in all developed countries but to date high concern still exists for environment, animal and human health due to contaminated sites. In this study, several in vitro tests [cell viability (XTT, trypan blue exclusion (TBE, lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation assays] were performed to investigate the toxic effects of exposure to ?-HCH (from 0.1 to 1000 ?M on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. All the trials were performed incubating PBMCs for 2 and 7 days. At high concentrations (i.e. 1000 ?M, the ?-HCH approximately halved the number of living cells regardless the exposure time, significantly decreased the cell viability assessed by the XTT assay, and compromised the proliferation potential of PBMCs. At lower ?-HCH exposure levels (0.1 to 100 ?M, particularly after 7 days of exposure, a progressive decrease of cell viability has been observed. These adverse effects were significant at concentrations observed in the blood of cattle reared in polluted areas. The LDH results suggest that ?-HCH does not clearly affect the integrity of the cell membrane in the range of exposure levels tested. All in all, these findings warn about the risk posed by the long-term exposure to ?-HCH of farm animals reared in rural areas polluted by ?-HCH. Further research is needed to deepen our knowledge about the mechanisms through which ?-HCH affects the PBMCs functionality.

  17. Analgesic activity of gold preparations used in Ayurveda & Unani-Tibb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, S; Vohora, S B

    1998-09-01

    Calcined gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma (SB) and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) were investigated for analgesic effects in rats and mice using four types of noxious stimuli. Auranofin (AN) used in modern medicine was also studied for comparisons. The test drugs SB and KTK (25-50 mg/kg, p.o.) and AN (2.5-5.0 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited analgesic activity against chemical (acetic acid induced writhing), electrical (pododolorimeter), thermal (Eddy's hot plate and analgesiometer) and mechanical (tail clip) test. While the analgesic effects of SB and KTK could be partly blocked by pretreatment with naloxone (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.,--15 min), such antagonism was not discernible with AN at the doses used. Involvement of opioidergic mechanism is suggested for the observed analgesic activity. PMID:9798337

  18. The Positive Effects of One-Hour Intravenous Administration of Bortezomib on Peripheral Neuropathy in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Joo Young Jung; Ho Young Kim; Boram Han; Dae Ro Choi; Dae Young Zang; Hyo Jung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BiPN) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients is a common and serious side effect. Currently, it has been reported that subcutaneous (SC) administration of bortezomib decreases the incidence of BiPN as compared to standard intravenous (IV) bolus injection without any differences in efficacy. However, there are reports of severe injection site reaction following SC administration of bortezomib. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response rate and inci...

  19. Effects of xenogeneic, allogeneic and isogeneic thymus grafts on lymphocyte populations in peripheral lymphoid organs of the nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B; Stenvang, J P; Kraemmer, J; Rygaard, J

    1987-01-01

    In order to gain information about the effect of xenografted, allografted and isografted thymic tissue on peripheral lymphoid organs of immune-deficient rats, athymic nude LEW rats of ninth backcross-intercross were grafted with fetal calf and neonatal BDIX and LEW thymus. Adrenalectomy was also performed in some animals in order to obtain a possible enhancement of the immunological reconstitution. Both groups of isogeneic-thymus-grafted animals had more T helper cells than the nude controls. Fu...

  20. Preclinical Evaluation of the Abuse Potential of the Analgesic Bicifadine

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Katherine L; Balster, Robert L.; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P.; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S.

    2009-01-01

    The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, ...

  1. [Toxicity of analgesics in the family doctor practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku?niar-Placek, Justyna; Szponar, Jaros?aw; Panasiuk, Lech

    2012-01-01

    Analgesic usage without any consultation with a physician is very common in Poland. It increases the risk of occurrence of the harmful effect or harmful interaction with other medicaments taken by the patient. The abuse of painkillers applies not only to opioid but also to nonopioid analgesics. The largest group of commonly available medicaments are NSAIDs. The most frequent undesirable effect of NSAIDs' is dyspepsia. Among the most dangerous, and very often the ones without any symptoms, are gastric and duodenum ulceration for which the bleeding and perforation may be the first manifestation. Each non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug taken in large doses can be a cause of analgesic nephropathy. Its deceitful course can delay the diagnosis leading to chronic kidney failure. A complex supplements, that include central acting substances, increase the risk of kidney damage, as well as physical and psychological addiction. NSAIDs can cause: the heart failure to be more severe, treatment resistant arterial hypertension, increase an effectiveness of anticoagulants or antidiabetic drugs. The problem is also that some medicaments are available without a prescription (acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, acetaminophen), especially that they are ingredients of many complex supplements considered safe. Taking doses larger than therapeutic or simultaneously taking many supplements of the same active substance had many times led to poisoning and even death. Equally dangerous can be an abuse of tramadol, codeine and COX-2 inhibitors. Therefore, prudential prescription of NSAIDs, knowledge of risks related to therapy and informing the patients about their side effects, may decrease the number of patients abusing the analgesics which can lead to lowering the number of deaths caused by serious complications. PMID:23243929

  2. Single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, RA; Derry, S; McQuay, HJ; Wiffen, PJ

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thirty-five Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials testing the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain have been published. This overview brings together the results of all those reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. OBJECTIVES: To summarise data from all Cochrane Reviews that have assessed the effects of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery, who have been given ...

  3. Knowledge of Pharmacology of Analgesics Among Nurses in a Tertiary Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Sneha Albertina D’Silva; Nicole Rosita Pereira; Padmaja Udaykumar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge of nurses about the analgesics they administer in our hospital. Methodology: A total of 102 nurses completed the questionnaire which included 20 multiple choice questions based on the dosage forms, mechanism of action, route of administration, adverse effects of the commonly administered analgesics, the nurses’ educational qualifications and their working experience. Frequency, percentage, mean, Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitneys test were used to anal...

  4. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama A Suralkar; Kishor N Rodge; Rahul D Kamble; Kanchan S Maske

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI) seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p

  5. Comparative analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine or clonidine with bupivacaine in the caesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Kiran; Agarwal Navneet; Agrawal Vijender; Agarwal Ashok; Sharma Mahender; Agarwal Kanupriya

    2010-01-01

    The need for early ambulation for caring of the neonate by mothers makes postoperative pain management after cesarean delivery unique. Favorable results have been observed with buprenorphine, clonidine and bupivacaine as epidural analgesics. This prospective, randomised triple blind control study was carried out among 112 lower segment caesarean segment (LSCS) patients, divided into three groups, to assess the analgesic efficacy and side effects of epidural analgesia, with an intermittent top...

  6. The effects of electroacupuncture on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds in patients with burn scar pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuignet, Olivier; Pirlot, A; Ortiz, S; Rose, T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to observe if the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds are transposable from the model of heat pain in volunteers to the clinical setting of burn scar pain. After severe burns, pathological burn scars (PPBS) may occur with excruciating pain that respond poorly to treatment and prevent patients from wearing their pressure garments, thereby leading to unesthetic and function-limiting scars. EA might be of greater benefit in terms of analgesia and functional recovery, should it interrupt this vicious circle by counteracting the peripheral hyperalgesia characterizing PPBS. Therefore we enrolled 32 patients (22 males/10 females) aged of 46±11 years with clinical signs of PPBS and of neuropathic pain despite treatment. The study protocol consisted in 3 weekly 30-min sessions of standardized EA with extra individual needles in accordance to Traditional Chinese Medicine, in addition of previous treatments. We assessed VAS for pain and quantitative sensory testing (QST) twice: one week before and one after protocol. QST measured electrical thresholds for non-nociceptive A-beta fibers, nociceptive A-delta and C fibers in 2 dermatomes, respectively from the PPBS and from the contralateral pain-free areas. Based on heat pain studies, EA consisted in sessions at the extremity points of the main meridian flowing through PPBS (0.300s, 5Hz, sub noxious intensity, 15min) and at the bilateral paravertebral points corresponding to the same metameric level, 15min. VAS reduction of 3 points or below 3 on a 10 points scale was considered clinically relevant. Paired t-test compared thresholds (mean [SD]) and Wilcoxon test compared VAS (median [IQR]) pre and after treatment, significant paccount for a nociceptive hypersensitivity in the PPBS that corrected after treatment. On the contrary, in non-responders nociceptive thresholds were similar in both the PPBS and the pain-free areas before treatment and did not change after EA. However, absolute values for thresholds in the pain-free areas where significantly lower for non-responders than for responders. The fact that non-responders had significant pain scores while presenting with lowered nociceptive thresholds even in the pain-free areas might evoke the possibility of a generalized supra-spinal hyperalgesia. The fact that acupuncture did not correct the pain nor the nociceptive thresholds in this subgroup requires further investigation. We also observed a statistically and clinically relevant reduction in VAS for pruritus for all patients - even those from the subgroup of non-responders to pain - that is worth to be mentioned and requires further studies to be confirmed. This observational study is the first that confirms the effects of acupuncture on analgesia and nociceptive thresholds in the clinical setting of burn pain only for patients presenting with a burn-localized but not a generalized hyperalgesia. PMID:26188894

  7. Effects of Lithium on Peripheral Neuropathy Induced by Vincristine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sharifzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vincristine (VCR as a frequently used antimitotic agent which is commonly prescribed for wide spectrum of neoplasm, causes mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. Several evidences show lithium could be a neuroprotective agent, therefore to assess whether a pretreatment and at subtherapeutic dose it could prevent the peripheral neuropathy produced by VCR, rats were treated with VCR 0.1mg/kg i.p. for 3 alternative doses and / or lithium chloride (20mg/kg or 40 mg/kg i.p. daily from the first day to the day of sacrifice. Erythrocyte lithium concentration (ELC and plasma lithium concentration (PLC were measured at the seventh day of study and the day of scarification. After seventh day of lithium administration, PLC and ELC reached to a steady state at subtheraputic dose and they did not significantly change at normal housing situation. Hot plate, open field test and nerve conduction velocity were used to evaluate the sensory and motor neuropathy. Only VCR treated rats showed behavioral, electrophysiological and histological evidences of a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy by significant increase in hot plate latencies and a marked decrease in total distance moved and conduction velocities in both sensory and motor nerves. Lithium at the dose of 20mg/kg and specially 40mg/kg robustly reduced the rate of mortality, general toxicity and was able to ameliorate mixed sensorimotor neuropathy induced by VCR. These results suggest that lithium at dose of 20mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, potentially by its effects on cell survival pathways such as inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3?, can prevent both motor and sensory components of VCR neuropathy.

  8. Postoperative continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine has comparable analgesic effects and fewer complications as compared to traditional patient-controlled analgesia with sufentanil in patients undergoing non-cardiac thoracotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Tang, Jun; Jin, Li; Li, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine with traditional patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with sufentanil after non-cardiac thoracotomy. Methods: One hundred and twenty adult patients undergoing open thoracotomy were recruited into this assessor-blinded, randomized study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive analgesia through a wound catheter placed below the fascia and connected to a 2 ml/h ropivacaine 0.5% (RWI group) or sufentanil PCA (SPCA group). Analgesia continued for 48 h. Visual analogue scores (VAS) at rest and movement, Ramsay scores and adverse effects were recorded at 2, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after surgery. Three months after discharge, patient’s satisfaction, residual pain and surgical wound complications were assessed. Results: General characteristics of patients were comparable between two groups. There were no statistical differences in the VAS scores and postoperative pethidine consumption between two groups (P > 0.05). However, when compared with SPCA group, the incidences of drowsiness, dizziness and respiratory depression, ICU stay and hospital expenditure reduced significantly in RWI group (P < 0.05). Patients’ satisfaction with pain management was also improved markedly in RWI group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Continuous wound infusion with ropivacaine is effective for postoperative analgesia and has comparable effects to traditional PCA with sufentanil. Furthermore, this therapy may also reduce the incidences of drowsiness, dizziness, respiratory depression and decrease the ICU stay and hospital expenditure. PMID:26131121

  9. Synthesis and Analgesic Activity of Annelated Xanthine Derivatives in Experimental Models in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmunt, Ma?gorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Drabczy?ska, Anna; Karcz, Tadeusz; Müller, Christa; Köse, Meryem; Latacz, Gniewomir; Schabikowski, Jakub; Bednarski, Marek; Kie?-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-10-01

    A series of annelated derivatives of xanthine were synthesized and assayed as potential analgesic agents. All synthesized xanthine derivatives were tested in the writhing test and hot-plate test. The pharmacological assays demonstrated that all the compounds prepared, without exception, displayed a significant activity in the mouse writhing assay. The analgesic action of the most active compounds, expressed as ED50 was found to be 1.4-4.3 times more potent than that of acetylsalicylic acid used as the reference compound. However, only some of the compounds demonstrated analgesic activity in the hot-plate test. The analgesic effect of some compounds is probably related to their agonistic, antagonistic, or partial agonistic activity at the adenosine receptors. PMID:26248713

  10. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama A Suralkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p<0.01 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. In tail immersion method, methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica has shown significant (p<0.01 increase in reaction time of tail in water maintained at 55°C indicating analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seed exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. Analgesic effect and side effects of celecoxib and meloxicam in canine hip osteoarthritis / Efectos analgésicos y secundarios de celecoxib y meloxicam en osteoartritis de cadera canina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor, Molina D; David, Álzate V; Jhon, Ruíz B; Manuela, Urrea A; Juan, Tobón J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto farmacológico, clínico y toxicológico de celecoxib y meloxicam utilizados como analgésicos durante 30 días en caninos con osteoartritis de cadera. Materiales y métodos. Fueron evaluados 24 pacientes, 75% hembras, con edad de 7.16 ± 2.06 años, y el 25% machos; con edad de [...] 7.83 ± 2.22 años, todos tenían osteoartritis de cadera, se asignaron aleatoriamente a dos grupos; un grupo recibió celecoxib 5 mg/kg oral cada 12 horas durante 1 mes y el segundo grupo recibió 0.2 mg/kg de meloxicam, oral cada 24 horas durante 1 mes. Todos fueron evaluados por grado de analgesia y pruebas renales, hepáticas y de coagulación al día 0, 10 y 30. Se realizó una endoscopía gástrica al día 30. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el test HSD Tukey y c², con nivel significancia del 5%. Resultados. Ambos tratamientos redujeron el dolor articular durante los 30 días, según la escala Melbourne (p?0.05). Las variables hemáticas, renales, hepáticas y de coagulación estuvieron dentro de los valores normales sin diferencia. Todos presentaron gastritis crónica por endoscopia a los 30 días. Conclusiones. Ambos fármacos redujeron el dolor, ninguno tuvo efectos sobre la hematología, función renal, hepática y de coagulación a los 30 días; sin embargo, hubo gastritis crónica a los 30 días. Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate the pharmacological, clinical and toxicological effects of celecoxib and meloxicam for analgesia for 30 days in dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients were evaluated, 75% were females with an average age of 7.16 ± 2.06 years and twenty five p [...] ercent were males with an average age of 7.83 ± 2.22 years. All patients had hip osteoarthritis and they were randomized into two groups; one group received oral celecoxib 5 mg/kg every 12 hours during one month and the second group received oral meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg every 24 hours during 1 month. The patients were evaluated for analgesia, and hematological, renal, liver, and coagulation tests on days 0, 10th and 30th after treatment initiation, and a gastric endoscopy on day 30. Statistical analysis was performed using a HSD Tukey test and c² with a 5% level of statistical significance. Results. Both drugs reduced articular pain according to the Melbourne scale during the 30 days of treatment (p?0.05). Hematological, renal, hepatic and coagulation tests were normal in both treatment groups. All patients presented chronic gastritis on endoscopy on day 30th. Conclusions. Both drugs decreased pain at day 30th without causing alterations in hematological, renal, hepatic or coagulation tests after 30 days of treatment. However, both drugs induced chronic gastritis.

  12. Study of the effect of 131I treatment of graves disease on the number of peripheral blood leucocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of 131I treatment of Graves disease on the number of peripheral blood leucocytes. Methods: The Graves disease patients were divided into groups according to the 131I dosage taken, peripheral blood leucocytes were measured before and after the taking of 131I. Results: On the 4th day after taking 131I, the absolute value of leucocyte, neutrophil, Lymphocyte were decreased, the number of neutrophil was significantly decreased (P 131I(P 131I. Conclusion: 131I treatment of Graves disease can reduce the number of leucocytes, especially neutrophil, in a short time (about one week), it is related with the dosage of 131I. After a week, they can nearly return to the primary level. Some medicine which can increase the number of leucocytes should be used when the patient taking 131I

  13. Effect of high-fat diet on peripheral neuropathy in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Tang, Dou; Guan, Meiping; Xie, Cuihua; Xue, Yaoming

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Dyslipidemia may contribute to the development of peripheral neuropathy, even in prediabetics; however, few studies have evaluated vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods. Using high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced prediabetic C57BL/6 mice, we assessed motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV) using a BIOPAC System and thermal algesia with a Plantar Test (Hargreaves' method) Analgesia Meter. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density and mean dendrite length were tested following standard protocols. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. Results. HFD-fed mice showed deficits in motor and sensory NCV, thermal hyperalgesia, reduced mean dendrite length, and VEGF-A expression in the plantar skin and increased 12/15-LOX in the sciatic nerve (P < 0.05 compared with controls). Conclusion. HFD may cause large myelinated nerve and small sensory nerve fiber damage, thus leading to neuropathy. The mean dendrite length may be a more sensitive marker for early detection of peripheral neuropathy. Reduced blood supply to the nerves and increased oxidative stress may contribute to the development and severity of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25404943

  14. Suprachiasmatic regulation of circadian rhythms of gene expression in hamster peripheral organs: effects of transplanting the pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongnian; Guo, Hongian; Brewer, Judy McKinley; Lehman, Michael N; Bittman, Eric L

    2006-06-14

    Neurotransplantation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was used to assess communication between the central circadian pacemaker and peripheral oscillators in Syrian hamsters. Free-running rhythms of haPer1, haPer2, and Bmal1 expression were documented in liver, kidney, spleen, heart, skeletal muscle, and adrenal medulla after 3 d or 11 weeks of exposure to constant darkness. Ablation of the SCN of heterozygote tau mutants eliminated not only rhythms of locomotor activity but also rhythmic expression of these genes in all peripheral organs studied. The Per:Bmal ratio suggests that this effect was attributable not to asynchronous rhythmicity between SCN-lesioned individuals but to arrhythmicity within individuals. Grafts of wild-type SCN to heterozygous, SCN-lesioned tau mutant hamsters not only restored locomotor rhythms with the period of the donor but also led to recovery of rhythmic expression of haPer1, haPer2, and haBmal1 in liver and kidney. The phase of these rhythms most closely resembled that of intact wild-type hamsters. Rhythmic gene expression was also restored in skeletal muscle, but the phase was altered. Behaviorally effective SCN transplants failed to reinstate rhythms of clock gene expression in heart, spleen, or adrenal medulla. These findings confirm that peripheral organs differ in their response to SCN-dependent cues. Furthermore, the results indicate that conventional models of internal entrainment may need to be revised to explain control of the periphery by the pacemaker. PMID:16775127

  15. Comparative effects of inhaled relatively insoluble forms of 90Y, 144Ce, and 90Sr on canine peripheral lymphocyte function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogs that have inhaled relatively insoluble forms of either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides manifest a peripheral lymphopenia, the development and course of which depends on both total dose and dose rate. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes in dogs exposed to longer lived beta-emitting radionuclides showed a depressed function as measured by the ability to respond to plant mitogens in vitro. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of dose rate on peripheral lymphocyte function by exposing dogs to aerosols of radionuclides with varied effective half-lives in the lung: 90Y (2.6 days), 144Ce (170 days), and 90Sr (650 days). Three groups of four adult beagle dogs each were exposed by inhalation to 90Y, 144Ce, or 90Sr in fused-clay particles. Two controls were matched with each group. Initial lung burdens and initial dose rates to the lung were 520 to 610 ?Ci/kg of body weight and 2200 to 2600 rads/day in the 90Y group, 33 to 60 ?Ci/kg and 200 to 350 rads/day in the 144Ce group, and 25 to 32 ?Ci/kg and 130 to 170 rads/day in the 90Sr group. Hematologic parameters and lymphocyte function as measured by the ability of lymphocytes to respond to plant mitogen stimulation were evaluated on a weekly or biweekly basis for 8 weeks after exposure and on a monthly basis thereafter. The 90Y-exposed dogs showed a marked lymphopenia within 1 week with a return to control levels by 20 weeks after exposure. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes, however, showed no functional changes in these dogs. Animals exposed to 144Ce or 90Sr developed a progressive and persisent lymphopenia and showed functional depression of the remaining lymphocytes as well. The relationships among dose pattern, lymphopenia, and lymphocyte-function depression are discussed

  16. Analgesia e ação antiinflamatória da Arnica montana 12CH comparativamente ao cetoprofeno em cães Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Arnica montana 12CH in comparison with ketoprofen in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Navarro Cassu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório da Arnica montana 12CH comparativamente ao cetoprofeno em cadelas submetidas à ovariossalpingohisterectomia (OSH. Foram avaliadas 16 cadelas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de oito animais cada, tratados por via oral com 1mg kg-1 de cetoprofeno (TC e com cinco glóbulos de Arnica montana 12CH (TA. Decorridos 60 minutos, os animais foram tranquilizados com acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1, IV, seguindo-se indução e manutenção anestésica com propofol (5mg kg-1, IV e isofluorano, respectivamente. Foram mensurados: frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, pressão arterial sistólica, concentração final expirada de dióxido de carbono, concentração final expirada de isofluorano, variáveis hemogasométricas, concentração sérica de cortisol, grau de analgesia e de inflamação. Em casos de analgesia insuficiente, foi realizada suplementação com morfina (0,5mg kg-1, IM. A estatística foi realizada com ANOVA e teste de Tukey (PThis study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Arnica montana 12CH comparatively to ketoprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Sixteen female dogs were randomly distributed in two groups of eight animals and received 1mg kg-1 of ketoprofen (TC and 5 globules of Arnica montana 12CH (TA by oral route. After 60 minutes, the dogs were sedated with acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1, IV, followed by anesthetic induction with propofol (5mg kg-1 IV and maintained with isoflurane. Heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, arterial blood gases, serum cortisol concentration and degree of analgesia and inflammation were measured. Additional morphine (0.5mg kg-1IM was given when the analgesia was insufficient. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (P<0.05. Cardiopulmonary stability was observed in both treatments during the surgery. The degree of analgesia and inflammation did not differ between groups. Rescue analgesia was administered to two dogs from each group. It was concluded that Arnica montana 12CH provides similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects when compared with ketoprofen, suggesting that this treatment is a safe and effective option to dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  17. The Effects of Peripheral and Central Administration of Hypericum perforatum L. on Chronic and Acute Pain in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaksarian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Hypericum perforatum L. (HP aqueous extract was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. for evaluation of its antinociceptive effect. For assessment of its site of action, HP was filtered and administered both intrathecally (i.t. and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.. Antinociceptive effects of HP extract were evaluated using formalin and tail-flick pain models. Peripheral effects of HP extract were assessed in three doses (200, 400 and 800 mg kg-1, i.p. and compared with the antinociceptive effect of Sodium Salicylate (SS as a positive control. Administration of 300 mg kg-1 of SS i.p. had no effect on tail-flick latency, while all doses of extract increased it. In both phases of formalin test, all doses of extract alleviated the animal’s nociception, but SS (300 mg kg-1 produced antinociception only in the second phase of formalin test. In central administration, the HP (1 and 2 mg/rat, i.t. induced analgesia in the tail-flick and both phases of formalin tests. The i.c.v. administration of HP (2 mg/rat produced analgesia in both phases of formalin test, but not on tail flick latency. The results showed that peripheral and central administration of HP has antinociceptive effect and its spinal effect seems to be more potent than its cerebral effect.

  18. Potential Analgesic & Anti-Pyretic Herbal drugs: A Comparative Review of Marketed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Analgesic from the family of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have probably been used for more than 2000 years. In the 1900 ASA become an established treatment for pain and migraine. The detection of the main mechanism of the clinical effect of ASAs in John R.Vane’s group in 1972(who received the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1982 for his discovery of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition gave a new and persistent drive to the development of other chemically different NSAID. The currently available analgesic and antipyretic drugs in allopathic system of medicine are not so effective in combating wide variety of complications. The remedial measure may lie in the ayurvedic system of medicine. The various herbal drugs such as Acacia nilotica, Bauhinia racemosa Linn. Cleome viscose, Hippobromus panciflorus etc known for their potential analgesic and antipyretic activity shall be discussed. The various branded herbal formulations like Rumalaya, Charak, Rumartho, Arthrella, and Reosto etc available in the market as analgesic and antipyretic remedies are also discussed along with their clinical merits. It may be concluded that since ayurvedic formulations contain number of ingredients in which one ingredient may act to enhance the action of other ingredient. Also as a result of so many ingredients present in the particular ayurvedic formulation it helps in combating other diseases in addition to analgesic and antipyretic activity.

    Keywords: Analgesic, Ayurvedic system, Herbal drugs, Antipyretic.

  19. Comparación de la Eficacia Analgésica de Codeína más paracetamol vs Tramadol en el Tratamiento del Dolor por Cáncer / Comparison of the analgesic effectiveness of codeine plus paracetamol vs Tramadol in the Treatment of Cáncer Pain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. F., Rodríguez; Luís E., Bravo; A. M., Ángel; M. F., Rodríguez; M. E., León.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El dolor es el síntoma más importante en 70% de pacientes que padecen cáncer avanzado. La terapia con analgésicos utilizada en forma adecuada, controla el dolor en 80-90% de los pacientes. Objetivos. Comparar la eficacia analgésica y seguridad de la codeína más acetaminofén (CA) y Clorhidrato de Tra [...] madol (T) en el alivio del dolor por cáncer. Método. Se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado doble ciego, en pacientes con dolor por cáncer de intensidad moderada o severa. En forma aleatoria se asignó un grupo de pacientes para ser tratados con la combinación de Codeína más paracetamol, mientras que el otro grupo recibió Clorhidrato de Tramadol por un periodo de tres semanas. La intensidad del dolor fue medida con una escala numérica de cero a diez, considerándose como dolor de intensidad moderada el marcado en la escala entre 5-7 y de intensidad severa de 8-10. El tratamiento analgésico se consideró eficaz cuando el dolor desapareció o disminuyó a una intensidad leve, comprendida entre 1-4. Resultados. Se incluyeron 115 pacientes: 59 recibieron CA y 56 recibieron T. En el grupo de pacientes que recibió CA 58% aliviaron con una dosis inicial de codeína de 150 mg/día y 8% con la dosis doblada; 34% no aliviaron. En el grupo de pacientes tratado con T el dolor alivió en 62% de los pacientes con la dosis inicial de 200mg/día y 11% con la dosis doblada, mientras que 27% no experimentó alivio. Las diferencias entre los dos grupos no fueron significativas en cuanto a su eficacia analgésica. El grupo que recibió Tramadol presentó en forma significativa, mayor incidencia de efectos colaterales de intensidad leve: náusea (p: 0.05, RR: 0.62; IC95%: 0.38-1.01), mareo (p: 0.04; RR: 0.58; IC95%: 0.33-1.01) y pérdida de apetito (p: 0.001; RR: 0.08; IC95%: 0.01-0.59). Conclusión. No existen diferencias en cuanto a la eficacia analgésica de CA y T en el tratamiento del dolor por cáncer. Con el uso de T se presentó una mayor incidencia de efectos colaterales de intensidad leve. Abstract in english Pain is the principal symptom in 70% of patients with severe cáncer. Analgesics therapy with a proper management controls pain in 80-90% of patients. Objective. Compare the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of codeine plus acetaminophen (CA) and tramadol clorhydrate (T) in the relief of cáncer pai [...] n. Method. A double blind, randomize controlled clinical trial was perform in patients with modérate to severe pain intensity. Randomly patients were assigned in a group for receiving codeine plus acetaminophen and in other group for receiving tramadol chlorhydrate for a three weeks period. Pain intensity was measure using a numeric scale from zero to ten in which modérate pain goes from 5-7, and severe pain goes from 8-10. Analgesic treatment was considered to be effective when pain disappear or become mild, 1-4 in the numeric scale. Results. One hundred fifteen patients participated, 59 receive CA and 56 T. In the group of patients that receive CA, 58% achieved pain relief with the initial dose of 150 mg/d and 8% responded to the double dose; 34% didn't experience pain relief. In the group patients treated with T pain relief occurred in 62% of patients with the initial dose of 200mg/d and 11% with the double dose; 27% didn't experienced pain relief. Differences between both groups were not significant in the analgesic efficacy. The tramadol group experienced in a significant way a higher incidence of adverse events of mild intensity: nausea (p: 0.05, RR: 0.62; IC95%: 0.38-1.01), dizziness (p: 0.04; RR: 0.58; IC95%: 0.33-1.01) and lost of appetite (p: 0.001; RR: 0.08; IC95%: 0.01-0.59). Conclusion. Efficacy of C and T during a treatment of 23 days was similar, no statistical differences were found. There were no differences in the analgesic effectiveness between CA and T in the management of cáncer pain. With the use of T a higher incidence of adverse events of mild intensity were reported.

  20. Comparación de la Eficacia Analgésica de Codeína más paracetamol vs Tramadol en el Tratamiento del Dolor por Cáncer Comparison of the analgesic effectiveness of codeine plus paracetamol vs Tramadol in the Treatment of Cáncer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Rodríguez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El dolor es el síntoma más importante en 70% de pacientes que padecen cáncer avanzado. La terapia con analgésicos utilizada en forma adecuada, controla el dolor en 80-90% de los pacientes. Objetivos. Comparar la eficacia analgésica y seguridad de la codeína más acetaminofén (CA y Clorhidrato de Tramadol (T en el alivio del dolor por cáncer. Método. Se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado doble ciego, en pacientes con dolor por cáncer de intensidad moderada o severa. En forma aleatoria se asignó un grupo de pacientes para ser tratados con la combinación de Codeína más paracetamol, mientras que el otro grupo recibió Clorhidrato de Tramadol por un periodo de tres semanas. La intensidad del dolor fue medida con una escala numérica de cero a diez, considerándose como dolor de intensidad moderada el marcado en la escala entre 5-7 y de intensidad severa de 8-10. El tratamiento analgésico se consideró eficaz cuando el dolor desapareció o disminuyó a una intensidad leve, comprendida entre 1-4. Resultados. Se incluyeron 115 pacientes: 59 recibieron CA y 56 recibieron T. En el grupo de pacientes que recibió CA 58% aliviaron con una dosis inicial de codeína de 150 mg/día y 8% con la dosis doblada; 34% no aliviaron. En el grupo de pacientes tratado con T el dolor alivió en 62% de los pacientes con la dosis inicial de 200mg/día y 11% con la dosis doblada, mientras que 27% no experimentó alivio. Las diferencias entre los dos grupos no fueron significativas en cuanto a su eficacia analgésica. El grupo que recibió Tramadol presentó en forma significativa, mayor incidencia de efectos colaterales de intensidad leve: náusea (p: 0.05, RR: 0.62; IC95%: 0.38-1.01, mareo (p: 0.04; RR: 0.58; IC95%: 0.33-1.01 y pérdida de apetito (p: 0.001; RR: 0.08; IC95%: 0.01-0.59. Conclusión. No existen diferencias en cuanto a la eficacia analgésica de CA y T en el tratamiento del dolor por cáncer. Con el uso de T se presentó una mayor incidencia de efectos colaterales de intensidad leve.Pain is the principal symptom in 70% of patients with severe cáncer. Analgesics therapy with a proper management controls pain in 80-90% of patients. Objective. Compare the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of codeine plus acetaminophen (CA and tramadol clorhydrate (T in the relief of cáncer pain. Method. A double blind, randomize controlled clinical trial was perform in patients with modérate to severe pain intensity. Randomly patients were assigned in a group for receiving codeine plus acetaminophen and in other group for receiving tramadol chlorhydrate for a three weeks period. Pain intensity was measure using a numeric scale from zero to ten in which modérate pain goes from 5-7, and severe pain goes from 8-10. Analgesic treatment was considered to be effective when pain disappear or become mild, 1-4 in the numeric scale. Results. One hundred fifteen patients participated, 59 receive CA and 56 T. In the group of patients that receive CA, 58% achieved pain relief with the initial dose of 150 mg/d and 8% responded to the double dose; 34% didn't experience pain relief. In the group patients treated with T pain relief occurred in 62% of patients with the initial dose of 200mg/d and 11% with the double dose; 27% didn't experienced pain relief. Differences between both groups were not significant in the analgesic efficacy. The tramadol group experienced in a significant way a higher incidence of adverse events of mild intensity: nausea (p: 0.05, RR: 0.62; IC95%: 0.38-1.01, dizziness (p: 0.04; RR: 0.58; IC95%: 0.33-1.01 and lost of appetite (p: 0.001; RR: 0.08; IC95%: 0.01-0.59. Conclusion. Efficacy of C and T during a treatment of 23 days was similar, no statistical differences were found. There were no differences in the analgesic effectiveness between CA and T in the management of cáncer pain. With the use of T a higher incidence of adverse events of mild intensity were reported.

  1. Effects of thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy: a randomized parallel-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Plandee, Piyawan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complications of diabetic patients and leads to loss of plantar cutaneous sensation, movement perception, and body balance. Thai foot massage is an alternative therapy to improve balance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned into either the Thai foot massage or control groups. The Thai foot massage group received a modified Thai traditional foot massage for 30 min, 3 days per week for 2 weeks. We measured timed up and go (TUG), one leg stance: OLS), the range of motion (ROM) of the foot, and foot sensation (SWMT) before treatment, after the first single session, and after the 2-week treatment. RESULTS After the single treatment session, only the Thai foot massage group showed a significant improvement in TUG. After the 2-week treatment, both Thai foot massage and control groups showed a significant improvement of TUG and OLS (Pbalance performance, ROM of the foot, and the foot sensation in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25892354

  2. Time-effect relationship of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cell after X ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the time-effect of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray, human peripheral whole blood samples were collected from two healthy individuals, and exposed to X rays with dose from 0 to 10 Gy. The genomic DNAs were isolated from the whole-blood samples, and the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and copy number of total mtDNA in the DNA samples were detected by Real-time PCR after irradiation at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that the copy number of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and total mtDNA, and the rates of mtDNA 4977bp deletion increase with incubation time with dose at 5 Gy after irradiation. Moreover, they increased with dose from 0 to 10 Gy after irradiation at 24 h and 72 h, respectively. The results suggested that the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and the copy number of total mtDNA in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray were accumulated with incubation time and dose increase, respectively. (authors)

  3. Effect of peripheral vision training on the attack of beginner indoor soccer players: a study during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted within the context of Human Motor Skill Science, in the area of Biophysical Dimension and following the research line of the Study of Learning Mechanisms and Processes and of Motor Conduct within the epistemological construct of phenomenological explanation. The objective of this study was to investigate peripheral vision training (PVT and its effect on attack runs during indoor soccer, taking into account dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function in both learning speed andoffensive skills. Ten beginner indoor soccer players aged 10.4 ± 2.31 years, from Lar da Criança Padre Franz Neumair, Ititioca, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participated in the study. The boys were divided into an experimental group (EG, n = 5 and a controlgroup (CG, n = 5 with similar dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function (H (EG: 80% left H and 20% right H, CG: 60% left H and 40% right H. The players underwent nine training sessions, followed by a championship, and then six additional sessions, followed by a second championship. Each championship was filmed for scoutvideo analysis. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in peripheral vision during offensive runs between CG and EG, with marked acquisition of peripheral vision in EG. The quality of the attack runs was significant (two-way ANOVA. EG was the better team at the beginning of the attack runs and during attack development, whereas CG was better at attack finalization during the first championship. EG showed more competence in attack run finalization during the second championship. No significant difference in the number of goals scored was observed between the two groups (two-wayANOVA, p>0.05. The frequency of participation in the training sessions was significant (t-test for independent samples, p?0.05, with EG attending more sessions. In conclusion, EG acquired peripheral vision, a finding suggesting that PVT improves the attack capacity of indoor soccer players.

  4. Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David MØbjerg; Hass, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than half of pregnant women in the Western world report intake of mild analgesics, and some of these drugs have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in animal experiments. Intrauterine exposure to anti-androgens is suspected to contribute to the recent increase in male reproductive problems, and many of the anti-androgenic compounds are like the mild analgesics potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, it appears imperative to further investigate the potential endocrine disrupting properties of mild analgesics. METHODS In a prospective birth cohort study, 2297 Danish and Finnish pregnant women completed a questionnaire and 491 of the Danish mothers participated in a telephone interview, reporting on their use of mild analgesics during pregnancy. The testicular position of newborns was assessed by trained paediatricians. In rats, the impact of mild analgesics on anogenital distance (AGD) after intrauterine exposure was examined together with the effect on ex vivo gestational day 14.5 testes. RESULTS In the Danish birth cohort, the use of mild analgesics was dose-dependently associated with congenital cryptorchidism. In particular, use during the second trimester increased the risk. This risk was further increased after the simultaneous use of different analgesics. The association was not found in the Finnish birth cohort. Intrauterine exposure of rats to paracetamol led to a reduction in the AGD and mild analgesics accordingly reduced testosterone production in ex vivo fetal rat testes. CONCLUSION There was an association between the timing and the duration of mild analgesic use during pregnancy and the risk of cryptorchidism. These findings were supported by anti-androgenic effects in rat models leading to impaired masculinization. Our results suggest that intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders.

  5. Effect of mixed ?-plus neutron-radiation on permeability to taurine of peripheral blood leukocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of permeability to taurine of cellular membranes of peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro under normal conditions and 24 k following mixed ?-plus neutron-irradiation in a dose of 3.5 Gy. It was established that radiation increases the taurine content of cells. The protein content of leukocytes also increases probably due to a better sorption of serum proteins of blood

  6. Effects of a transmitted light device for pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki S; Tomita S.; Watanabe M; Kawaai H; Shimamura K

    2011-01-01

    Shinya Yamazaki1, Shu Tomita1, Masahiro Watanabe1, Hiroyoshi Kawaai1, Kazuhiro Shimamura2 1Department of Dental Anesthesiology; 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Ohu University Dental Hospital, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Abstract: Pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are difficult. However, successful venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are absolutely required for pediatric clinical risk management. This study assessed the success rate of venipu...

  7. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using...

  8. The Effect of Letter-stroke Boldness on Reading Speed in Central and Peripheral Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Kumar, Girish; Junge, Jasmine; Chung, Susana T.L.

    2013-01-01

    People with central vision loss often prefer boldface print over normal print for reading. However, little is known about how reading speed is influenced by the letter-stroke boldness of font. In this study, we examined the reliance of reading speed on stroke boldness, and determined whether this reliance differs between the normal central and peripheral vision. Reading speed was measured using the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where observers with normal vision read aloud short ...

  9. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Bart

    2010-01-01

    Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB) has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC), and cord blood (CB) are compared as rega...

  10. Benzodiazepines: a major component in unintentional prescription drug overdoses with opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, Michael; Kennedy, William Klugh; Lopez, Gaylord

    2014-02-01

    The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in the United States continues to increase despite interventions by health care professionals, regulatory, and law enforcement agencies. Opioid analgesics are the leading class of prescription drugs that have caused unintentional overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines when taken alone are relatively safe agents in overdose. However, a 5-fold increase in deaths attributed to benzodiazepines occurred from 1999 to 2009. Emergency department visits related to opioid analgesics increased by 111% followed by benzodiazepines 89%. During 2003 to 2009, the 2 prescriptions drugs with the highest increase in death rates were oxycodone 264.6% and alprazolam 233.8%. Therefore, benzodiazepines have a significant impact on prescription drug unintentional overdoses second only to the opioid analgesics. The combination prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics commonly takes place. The pharmacokinetic drug interactions between benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics are complex. The pharmacodynamic actions of these agents differ as their combined effects produce significant respiratory depression. Physician and pharmacy shopping by patients occurs, and prescription drug-monitoring programs can provide important information on benzodiazepine and opioid analgesic prescribing patterns and patient usage. Health care professionals need to inform patients and work closely with regulatory agencies and legislatures to stem the increasing fatalities from prescription drug unintentional overdoses. PMID:24436437

  11. Avaliação do efeito analgésico preemptivo do lumiracoxibe comparado com placebo nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório / Evaluation of the analgesic effects of the lumiracoxib compared with placebo in the 24 first postoperative hours

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vilmar, Molon; Cleber Dario Pinto, Kruel; Desiré Tarso, Maioli; Juliana Zanrosso, Caran; Raquel Cristina, Lovison.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar o lumiracoxibe, utilizado preemptivamente contra um placebo, e analisar o consumo de analgésicos (dipirona e tramadol) nas primeiras 24h do pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Sessenta pacientes submetidas à mamoplastia de aumento, sob anestesia peridural, foram selecionadas e divididas de for [...] ma randomizada em dois grupos - GI e GII. Sessenta minutos antes da operação, por via oral, as 30 pacientes do GI receberam um comprimido de lumiracoxibe 400mg, e as 30 do GII um comprimido de placebo. A dor pós-operatória foi avaliada através da escala analógica visual, graduada de 0 (sem dor) a 10 (dor de maior intensidade), sendo aplicada sempre que houvesse referência de dor. Para escores obtidos iguais ou menores que 4, a paciente recebia 15mg/kg de dipirona, até máximo de um grama, via venosa. Para escores de 5, 6 ou 7, recebia 50mg de tramadol por via venosa. Escores de 8 ou mais eram tratados com 0,5mg/kg de meperidina endovenosa. RESULTADOS: Os escores obtidos no GI foram significativamente menores que os do GII dentro das primeiras 24 horas, resultando em consumo 20% menor de dipirona e 56% menor de tramadol. Da mesma forma, observou-se que o tempo para solicitação de analgésicos pela primeira vez no pós-operatório foi de 191 minutos maior no GI. CONCLUSÃO: O emprego do lumiracoxibe preemptivamente mostrou-se efetivo no combate à dor pós-operatória, reduzindo consideravelmente o consumo global de analgésicos nesse período e aumentando o tempo de solicitação de analgésico pela primeira vez. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To test lumiracoxib used preemptively against a placebo,and to analyse the analgesic administration (dipirona and tramadol) in the 24 first postoperative hours. METHODS: Sixty patients undergone to a breast aumentation, under epidural anesthesia, were selected and put randomly in two gro [...] ups - GI and GII. Sixty minutes before the surgery, it was administered orally, one pill of lumiracoxib 400mg to the 30 GI patients and one pill of placebo to the 30 GII patients. The postoperative pain was evaluated through the visual analogic scale, ranged from 0 (painless) to 10 (most intensive pain), being applied to the patient whenever having pain. For the same scores or under 4, it was administered intravenously 15mg/kg of dipirona up to a maximum of 1g. For scores of 5, 6 or 7, the patient had intravenously 50mg of tramadol.Scores 8 or more were treated intravenously with 0,5 mg/kg of meperidine. RESULTS: The scores in GI were significantly lower than the ones obtained in GII within the first 24 hours, with the need of 20% less dipirona and 56% of tramadol in this period of time. In the same way, it was observed that analgesic solicitation for the first time had a delay of 191 minutes in GI in comparison to GII. CONCLUSION: The use of lumiracoxib preemptively, was effective in the treatment of postoperative pain, reducing considerably the consume of analgesics, and enlarging the time for the first medication.

  12. Effect of Saline Injection Mixing on Accuracy of Conductance Lumen Sizing of Peripheral Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Won; Jansen, Benjamin; Birrer, David; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2013-01-01

    Transient displacement of blood in vessel lumen with saline injection is necessary in the conductance method for measurement of arterial cross-sectional area (CSA). The displacement of blood is dictated by the interactions between arterial flow hemodynamics and saline injection dynamics. The objective of the present study is to understand how the accuracy of conductance measurements is affected by the saline injection. Computational simulations were performed to assess the error in predictions of arterial CSA using conductance measurements over a range of peripheral artery diameters (i.e., 4, 7, and 10 mm) with an introducing catheter (6 Fr.) for various blood flow and saline injection rates. The simulation results were validated using the conductance measurements of the phantoms with known diameters (i.e., 7 and 10 mm). The results demonstrated that a minimum ratio of saline injection rate to blood flow rate of 3 is needed to fully displace the blood and result in accurate measurement of CSA for the peripheral artery sizes considered. Furthermore, the error was shown to be minimized as the detection electrodes are positioned between the distal to the mixing zone induced by saline injection and far downstream (4–8 cm from the injection catheter tip). The present study shows that even for the large peripheral arteries (7–10 mm) where mixing can occur, an appropriate injection rate and detection position can produce accurate measurement of lumen size. PMID:24058606

  13. EFECTIVIDAD DE ANESTESIA DE PLEXO CERVICAL SUPERFICIAL PREOPERATORIO PARA CONTROL DE DOLOR POSTOPERATORIO EN CIRUGÍA DE TIROIDES / Analgesic effects of bilateral superficial cervical plexus block with Bupivacaine after thyroidectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicolás, Ávalos J; Carolina, Cabrera Sch; Irini, Semertzakis P; Silvia, Schmied P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La cirugía de la glándula tiroides es reconocida como un procedimiento que produce un dolor leve a moderado. El bloqueo bilateral de plexo cervical superficial es una técnica simple, poco invasiva, que pudiera ser beneficioso en estos pacientes como modelo de analgesia preventiva. Obje [...] tivos: Evaluar la calidad de la analgesia del postoperatorio de la cirugía de tiroides, con el uso de bloqueo bilateral del plexo cervical superficial. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron pacientes ASA I y II propuestos para cirugía de tiroides bajo anestesia general. En todos los pacientes se hizo anestesia general balanceada con Fentanyl, Propofol, Vecuronio e Isoflurano. En forma aleatoria y ciega se asignaron los pacientes en 2 grupos: grupo A, Bupivacaína 0,25% 20 ml y grupo B placebo. Se evaluó características demográficas, dolor postoperatorio, necesidad de analgésicos de rescate, náuseas, vómitos y satisfacción del paciente. Resultados: 35 pacientes, 7 hombres y 28 mujeres. Con edad promedio de 55,3 ± 14,8 ASA I y 27 ASA II. Quince pacientes en grupo A y 20 pacientes grupo B. Comparables en variables demográficas. El uso promedio de morfina fue de 10,4 mg en grupo B y 5,8 mg en grupo A (p Abstract in english Background: Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block is a simple non-invasive technique that can be used as preventive analgesia in the perioperative period of thyroidectomy. Aim: to assess the analgesic effects of the technique during the postoperative period of thyroidectomy. Material and Metho [...] ds: Patients with indication of total thyroidectomy, with a low operative risk according to the American Society of Anesthesiology, were studied. All were operated with general anesthesia using Fentanyl, Propofol, Vecuronium and Isoflurane. Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to superficial cervical plexus block using Bupivacaine 0.25% or to a placebo injection. Postoperative pain, need for analgesics and patient satisfaction were assessed. Results: Thirty five patients aged 55 + 15 years (28 women) were studied. Mean use of morphine in the Bupivacaine and placebo groups was 5.8 and 10.4 mg, respectively (p

  14. The association between anticholinergic load and cognitive performance, elevated blood pressure and the presence of peripheral anticholinergic side effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Hughes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:To quantify the association between anticholinergic drug use (burden or load and cognitive function (MMSE, bloodpressure and the presence of anticholinergic side effects.METHODS:The medical records of 182 aged care home residents in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia werereviewed retrospectively to obtain demographic data, past and current medical problems, history of use of agentswith anticholinergic effects and the following medication-related problems: cognitive impairment (as determined byMini Mental State Examination {MMSE} score, blood pressure elevation and the presence of anticholinergic sideeffects. Anticholinergic load was calculated, and the relationship between the anticholinergic load and the presenceof anticholinergic side effects was assessed using stepwise multiple regression and multiple logistic regressionanalysis.RESULTS:Increasing anticholinergic load was associated with the presence of peripheral anticholinergic side effects includinghypertension (AOR=1.53, dry mouth (AOR=1.38, dry eyes (AOR=1.30, constipation (AOR=1.24 and urinaryhesitancy (AOR=1.21 (all p values ?0.05. The anticholinergic load was not associated with blurred vision (p=0.084and Mini Mental State Examination score decline (p=0.142.CONCLUSIONS:The anticholinergic load was associated with statistically significantly increased risk of peripheral anticholinergicadverse effects in older aged care residents, however not with cognitive decline.

  15. INTRARTICULAR ANALGESICS FOLLOWING SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY: COMPARISON OF ROPIVACAINE/DEXAMETHASONE WITH ROPIVACAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranajit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Shoulder arthroscopy is a common orthopedics procedure performed on day - case basis. Adequate pain relief reduces surgical stress response, patient’s morbidity and improves postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. Various drugs have been tried intra - articularly t o provide postoperative analgesia. PURPOSE: We studied analgesic effect of dexamethasone 16mg (4ml with ropivacaine and compared it with ropivacaine intra - articularly in shoulder arthroscopic procedures in search of the ideal analgesic combination. METHODS: A Prospective Multicenter Double Blind study on 60 patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery from July’13 - April’14. Patients were assigned into 3 groups randomly - Group I (20 ml normal saline,Group II (20 ml 0.2% ropivacaine and Group III (16 ml 0.2% of ropivacaine & dexamethasone - 4 ml containing 16 mg. VARIABLES ASSESSED: Analgesic effect (VAS Score, time to first postoperative analgesic request, Analgesic used during first 24 hours. RESULTS: Group III had significant low pain scores for 1 st 20 hours as compared to Group II and Group I. Time to first analgesic requirement was longest in Group III (1356.2±193.10mins (p<0.01. Intensity of pain &Total analgesic requirement was significantly less in Group III (38.2±27.83 mg(p<0.01 in comparison to Group II and I. No significant side - effects were noted. CONCLUSION: A16 mg (4ml dosage of Dexamethasone is safe, cost effective and free from relative side effects, has a better patient compliance in terms of post - operative pain, need for analgesia and should be used routinely in arthroscopic shoulder surgeries. Helps in the recovery of patients to the pre - operative level.

  16. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

    2006-07-19

    In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method. PMID:16647234

  17. THE IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS (PBMCS OF ALLERGIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaya M. El Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases represent major health burden. An allergic reaction is characterized by a disrupted T- helper 1?T-helper 2 balance toward a preferential allergen specifically induced TH2 cytokine profile, causing allergic inflammation Probiotic bacteria have various benificial effects in many pathologic situation. Studies have shown that the bacteria present in the intestinal micro flora play a role in the TH1/TH2 balance and its modulation can promote the control of infectious and immune processes. Testing the effects of probiotic bacteria on TH1/TH2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic patients and control subjects. This study included 24 patients allergic to date pollen and 16 healthy control subjects. PBMC of both groups were separated and cultured for 72 h with date pollen allergen (home-made in the presence or absence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 (Living and dead and C- phycocyanin (extracted from Spirulina platensis. The cell culture supernatants were collected to measure Interlukin 4 and Interferon gamma by quantitative ELISA. Incubation of PBMCs of allergic patients with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 showed marked reduction in IL4 production (median IL4 concentarion = 3.9 pg. compared to PBMCs callenged with pollen alone (mediam IL4 conentration = 52.6 pg. When PBMC were incubated with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus in absence of allergen significant increase in and IFN? (median concentration = 42.75 pg. was obtained, compared to PBMC challenged with allergen alone (median = 22.8 pg. When PBMCs incubated with heat killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus either in presence or absence of the offending allergen, marked reduction in IL4 production was obtained (median = 10.6, 3.6 pg respectively compared to PBMC incubated with allergen alone (median = 52.6 pg. When PBMCs incubated with dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus, marked increase in IFN? production was obtained (median = 49 pg when compared to IFN? production by PBMC challenged with allergen (median 22.8 pg. PBMCs challenged with PC in the presence or absence of allergen showed marked decrease of IL4 production (median = 19.8, 17 pg respectively when compared to PBMC incubated with the offending allergen alone (median = 52.6 pg. PBMCs incubated with PC showed significant increase of and IFN? production (median= 319.6 pg when compared to PBMC incubated with the offending allergen alone (median = 22.8 pg. Conclusion: Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and C-phycocyanin (extracted from Spirulina platensis inversed the TH1: TH2 polarization in allergic patients and could be a promissing line of treatment.

  18. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, E.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Ali-Ghanbari, A.; Sharifzadeh, S.; Ranjbaran, R.; Mostafavi-pour, Z.; Zal, F.; Haghani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old). Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results Our results showed significant increase in  ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated. PMID:26396966

  19. Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Cancer Patients: A Four-Arm Randomized Trial on the Effectiveness of Electroacupuncture

    OpenAIRE

    Rostock, M.; Jaroslawski, K; C. Guethlin; R. Ludtke; S. Schröder; Bartsch, H. H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and dose-limiting side effect of cytostatic drugs. Since there are no proven therapeutic procedures against CIPN, we were interested to define the role of electroacupuncture (EA) from which preliminary data showed promising results. Methods. In a randomized trial with a group sequential adaptive design in patients with CIPN, we compared EA (LV3, SP9, GB41, GB34, LI4, LI11, SI3, and HT3; n = 14) with hydroelectric baths (HB...

  20. Conditional gene deletion reveals functional redundancy of GABAB receptors in peripheral nociceptors in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettler Bernhard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter which mainly mediates its effects on neurons via ionotropic (GABAA and metabotropic (GABAB receptors. GABAB receptors are widely expressed in the central and the peripheral nervous system. Although there is evidence for a key function of GABAB receptors in the modulation of pain, the relative contribution of peripherally- versus centrally-expressed GABAB receptors is unclear. Results In order to elucidate the functional relevance of GABAB receptors expressed in peripheral nociceptive neurons in pain modulation we generated and analyzed conditional mouse mutants lacking functional GABAB(1 subunit specifically in nociceptors, preserving expression in the spinal cord and brain (SNS-GABAB(1-/- mice. Lack of the GABAB(1 subunit precludes the assembly of functional GABAB receptor. We analyzed SNS-GABAB(1-/- mice and their control littermates in several models of acute and neuropathic pain. Electrophysiological studies on peripheral afferents revealed higher firing frequencies in SNS-GABAB(1-/- mice compared to corresponding control littermates. However no differences were seen in basal nociceptive sensitivity between these groups. The development of neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain was similar across the two genotypes. The duration of nocifensive responses evoked by intraplantar formalin injection was prolonged in the SNS-GABAB(1-/- animals as compared to their control littermates. Pharmacological experiments revealed that systemic baclofen-induced inhibition of formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors was not dependent upon GABAB(1 expression in nociceptors. Conclusion This study addressed contribution of GABAB receptors expressed on primary afferent nociceptive fibers to the modulation of pain. We observed that neither the development of acute and chronic pain nor the analgesic effects of a systematically-delivered GABAB agonist was significantly changed upon a specific deletion of GABAB receptors from peripheral nociceptive neurons in vivo. This lets us conclude that GABAB receptors in the peripheral nervous system play a less important role than those in the central nervous system in the regulation of pain.

  1. Management of cancer pain: 1. Wider implications of orthodox analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Susannah K Lee,1 Jill Dawson,2 Jack A Lee,3 Gizem Osman,4 Maria O Levitin,5 Refika Mine Guzel,5 Mustafa BA Djamgoz5,61Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA; 2Healthcare Communications Consultancy, Danville, CA, USA; 3College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; 5Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Neuroscience Solutions to Cancer Research Group, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK; 6Cyprus International University, Biotechnology Research Centre, Haspolat, North Cyprus, Mersin, TurkeyAbstract: In this review, the first of two parts, we first provide an overview of the orthodox analgesics used commonly against cancer pain. Then, we examine in more detail the emerging evidence for the potential impact of analgesic use on cancer risk and disease progression. Increasing findings suggest that long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly aspirin, may reduce cancer occurrence. However, acetaminophen may raise the risk of some hematological malignancies. Drugs acting upon receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and GABA “mimetics” (eg, gabapentin appear generally safe for cancer patients, but there is some evidence of potential carcinogenicity. Some barbiturates appear to slightly raise cancer risks and can affect cancer cell behavior in vitro. For cannabis, studies suggest an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, larynx, and possibly lung. Morphine may stimulate human microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis; it is not clear whether this might cause harm or produce benefit. The opioid, fentanyl, may promote growth in some tumor cell lines. Opium itself is an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and possibly cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung. It is concluded that analgesics currently prescribed for cancer pain can significantly affect the cancer process itself. More futuristically, several ion channels are being targeted with novel analgesics, but many of these are also involved in primary and/or secondary tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to elucidate possible cellular and molecular effects of orthodox analgesics and their possible long-term impact, both positive and negative, and thus enable the best possible clinical gain for cancer patients.Keywords: NSAIDs, cannabinoids, opioids, GABA-ergic drugs, GABA mimetics, ion channels

  2. 76 FR 22404 - Analgesic Clinical Trials Innovation, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTION) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...FDA-2011-N-0012] Analgesic Clinical Trials Innovation, Opportunities...support of the Analgesic Clinical Trials Innovation, Opportunities...slow down analgesic clinical trials and analgesic drug...

  3. Effect of Peripheral Endothelin-1 Concentration on Carcinoma-Induced Pain in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Victoria; Gupta, R. Jay; Quang, Phuong; Jordan, Richard C.; Schmidt, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of the peripheral endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration in a cancer pain model. To test the hypothesis that the concentration of ET-1 in the tumor microenvironment is important in determining the level of cancer pain we used two cancer pain mouse models that differed significantly in production of ET-1. The two mouse cancer models were produced by injection of cells derived from a human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma into the hind paw of fem...

  4. Acute Peripheral Metabolic Effects of Intraarterial Leg Infusion of Somatostatin in Healthy Young Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusenstjerna-Hafstrøm, Thomas; Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Buhl, Mads; Nielsen, Roni; Clasen, Berthil F; Nielsen, Søren; Møller, Niels; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2011-01-01

    Context: Evidence suggests that somatostatin not only inhibits the secretion of GH but also suppresses GH action in peripheral tissues. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that somatostatin suppresses GH activity in human skeletal muscle in vivo. Design and Participants: Eight healthy young men (25.3 ± 2.8 yr) were studied on a single occasion after an overnight fast for 4 h [including a basal period (0-2 h) and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (2-4 h)] during an iv GH infusion (50 ng/kg(-1)·...

  5. Effects of Lithium on Peripheral Neuropathy Induced by Vincristine in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sharifzadeh; Mohammad Reza Hadian; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh; Shahram Ejtemaei Mehr; Nasir Pourmohammadi; Houman Alimoradi; Azam Bakhtiarian; Ahmad Reza Dehpour

    2012-01-01

    Vincristine (VCR) as a frequently used antimitotic agent which is commonly prescribed for wide spectrum of neoplasm, causes mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. Several evidences show lithium could be a neuroprotective agent, therefore to assess whether a pretreatment and at subtherapeutic dose it could prevent the peripheral neuropathy produced by VCR, rats were treated with VCR 0.1mg/kg i.p. for 3 alternative doses and / or lithium chloride (20mg/kg or 40 mg/kg i.p. daily from the first day to th...

  6. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF GABAPENTIN A CONVENTIONAL ANTICONVULSANT WITH CONVENTIONAL ANALGESIC TREMADOL IN VISCERAL PAIN MODEL OF RODENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kansal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabmazepine is an established drug for trigeminal neuralgia while gabapentin has been tried in postoperative pain but its effectiveness in visceral pain and when compared to conventional analgesics needs to be evaluated.The present study was planned to study the analgesic effects of gabapentin in animal pain model of visceral nociception like writhing test and to compare it with conventional analgesic tremadol. This study has been carried out for evaluation of role of gabapentin in visceral nociception in mice . In the writhing test, a significant reduction in number of writhes have been observed in pretreated groups of mice reflects antinociceptive efficacy of gabapentin in acetic acid induced visceral nociception

  7. The effects of acute joint exposure to radiation and certain pesticides on the peripheric blood in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of joint external ?-radiation and some pesticides on the peripheric blood is studied. Lindane, trichlorfon and tetramethylthiuram disulfide are used as toxic chemicals. It is shown that the combined effect has caused, like radiation, stable leukopenia, but less expressed than the effect of gamma radiation. It is especially obvious in the case of combining ionizing radiation and TMTD when the number of leukocytes averaged by 25% more than in the case of injury by radiation alone. Lymphocytes are most sensitive blood cell elements earily responsing to radiation and chemical organism injuries, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of analyzing the dynamics of the most qualitative and quantitative paramaters of leukocytes permit to state the summation of mutual effects of factors of radiation and chemical nature

  8. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD FLOWER EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Purma Aravinda Reddy; J. Venkateshwara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, flower extracts for analgesic activity. In the present study the analgesic activity of flower extracts was performed. The methanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and were used for analgesic activity in two dose level of 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in two screening methods, Hot Plate (n=5) and Tail Immersion method (n=5). The flower extracts showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not ex...

  9. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Derry, CJ; Derry, S; Moore, RA

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine has been added to common analgesics such as paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin, in the belief that it enhances analgesic efficacy. Evidence to support this belief is limited and often based on invalid comparisons. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative efficacy in acute pain of a single dose of any analgesic plus caffeine against the same dose of analgesic alone. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to January 2012, and al...

  10. Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis attenuates nociceptor sensitization in a murine model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhelski, Megan L; Khasabova, Iryna A; Simone, Donald A

    2015-03-01

    Painful neuropathy frequently develops as a consequence of commonly used chemotherapy agents for cancer treatment and is often a dose-limiting side effect. Currently available analgesic treatments are often ineffective on pain induced by neurotoxicity. Although peripheral administration of cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolysis has been effective in reducing hyperalgesia in models of peripheral neuropathy, including chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), few studies have examined cannabinoid effects on responses of nociceptors in vivo. In this study we determined whether inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which slows the breakdown of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), reduced sensitization of nociceptors produced by chemotherapy. Over the course of a week of daily treatments, mice treated with the platinum-based chemotherapy agent cisplatin developed robust mechanical allodynia that coincided with sensitization of cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors as indicated by the development of spontaneous activity and increased responses to mechanical stimulation. Administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 into the receptive field of sensitized C-fiber nociceptors decreased spontaneous activity, increased mechanical response thresholds, and decreased evoked responses to mechanical stimuli. Cotreatment with CB1 (AM281) or CB2 (AM630) receptor antagonists showed that the effect of URB597 was mediated primarily by CB1 receptors. These changes following URB597 were associated with an increase in the endocannabinoid anandamide in the skin. Our results suggest that enhanced signaling in the peripheral endocannabinoid system could be utilized to reduce nociceptor sensitization and pain associated with CIPN. PMID:25505113

  11. Antimicrobial and analgesic activities of Wendlandia thyrsoidea leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraja Basavanakote

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Wendlandia thyrsoidea were extracted with different solvents and screened for their antimicrobial and analgesic activities. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the minimum inhibitory concentration method and the analgesic activity was carried out by the acetic acid-induced writhing method. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited potent antimicrobial activity, whereas, the methanol extract showed a significant analgesic activity.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

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    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ?HR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [?-mercapto-?-?-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  13. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Cam-Etoz; N., Isbil-Buyukcoskun; K., Ozluk.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) [...] receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ?HR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V1 receptor antagonist [?-mercapto-?-?-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  14. Effects of intraneural and perineural injection and concentration of Ropivacaine on nerve injury during peripheral nerve block in Wistar rats

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    Ilvana Hasanbegovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injury during peripheral nerve blocks is relatively uncommon, but potentially devastating complication. Recent studies emphasized that location of needle insertion in relationship to the fascicles may be the predominant factor that determines the risk for neurologic complications. However, it is wellestablished that concentration of local anesthetic is also associated with the risk for injury. In this study, we examined the effect of location of injection and concentration of Ropivacaine on risk for neurologic complications. Our hypothesis is that location of the injection is more prognostic for occurrence of nerve injury than the concentration of Ropivacaine.Methods: In experimental design of the study fi fty Wistar rats were used and sciatic nerves were randomized to receive: Ropivacaine or 0.9% NaCl, either intraneurally or perineurally. Pressure data during application was acquired by using a manometer and was analyzed using software package BioBench. Neurologic examination was performed thought the following seven days, there after the rats were sacrificed while sciatic nerves were extracted for histological examination.Results: Independently of tested solution intraneural injections in most of cases resulted with high injection pressure, followed by obvious neurologic defi cit and microscopic destruction of peripheral nerves. Also, low injection pressure, applied either in perineural or intraneural extrafascicular area, resulted with transitory neurologic defi cit and without destruction of the nerve normal histological structure.Conclusions: The main mechanism which leads to neurologic injury combined with peripheral nerve blockade is intrafascicular injection. Higher concentrations of Ropivacaine during intrafascicular applications magnify nerve injury.

  15. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Y.J. Mousa; F K Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50) of xylazine and...

  16. Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on central and peripheral lymphocyte subset reconstitution after sublethal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on central and peripheral lymphocyte subset reconstitution after a sublethal dose of irradiation. Methods: Sixty female BALB/c mice were given a 6.0 Gy ?-ray total body irradiation (TBI) and randomly divided into 2 equal groups. The mice in G-CSF + TBI group were injected subcutaneously with recombinant human G-CSF 100 ?g·kg-1·d-1 for 14 d and the mice in TBI group were injected subcutaneously with the same volume of phosphate buffered solution (PBS) once daily for 14 d. 7, 14, 21, and 28 d later the mice were killed and their thymus were taken out to prepare of the mononuclear cell suspension to analysis the percentage of thymic CD4 + CD8 + double positive, CD4 +CD8 - single positive, CD4 - CD8 + single positive and CD4 - CD8 - double negative cells by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood samples were collected from the caudal vein twice a week, and the white blood cell (WBC) counts and absolute number of lymphocytes were assessed by automatic hemocyte analyzer. 14, 28, and 60 d later blood samples were collected from angular vein to examine the peripheral lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry. Cell counting kit-8 was used to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or concanavalin A (ConA) stimulated splenic lymphocyte proliferation. Results: The percentage of thymic CD4 + CD8 + double positive cells decreased 7 d after irradiation, rebounded at 14 d, decreased again at 21 d, and then got a permanent recovery. 28 d after irradiation the percentage of thymic CD4 + CD8 + double positive cells in the G-CSF + TBI group recovered to normal and was significantly higher than that of the TBI group (t=12.22, P<0.05). 21 d after irradiation the percentage of thymic CD4-CD8 + single positive cells of the G-CSF + TBI group was significantly higher than that of the TBI group (t=3.77, P<0.05). The peripheral WBCs and lymphocytes decreased to the lowest levels 7 d after irradiation and then gradually increased, however, WBCs and lymphocytes of the G-CSF + TBI group began to recover earlier and faster than the TBI group. The proportion of CD3 + CD8 + T cells of the G-CSF + TBI group was significantly higher than that of the TBI group 14 and 60 d after irradiation (t=4.31, 5.78, P<0.05). But there was no significant difference in the proportion of CD3 + CD4 + T cells between the two groups. The proportion of B lymphocytes of the G-CSF + TBI group was significantly lower than that of the TBI group 14 d after irradiation (t=7.30, P<0.05), but it recovered quickly, and there were no significant differences in the proportion of B lymphocytes between the two groups 28 and 60 d after irradiation. The proliferation indexes of splenic lymphocytes in response to LPS and ConA in the G-CSF + TBI group were 4. 37 and 2.98 times higher than those in the TBI group 14 d after irradiation. Conclusions: G-CSF could accelerate the recovery of central and peripheral lymphocyte subsets, raise the absolute number of lymphocytes, and enhance their proliferative function, which contributes to the central and peripheral immune reconstitution after acute irradiation. (authors)

  17. Effects of depressive symptoms and peripheral DAT methylation on neural reactivity to alcohol cues in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiers, C E; Shumay, E; Volkow, N D; Frieling, H; Kotsiari, A; Lindenmeyer, J; Walter, H; Bermpohl, F

    2015-01-01

    In alcohol-dependent (AD) patients, alcohol cues induce strong activations in brain areas associated with alcohol craving and relapse, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and amygdala. However, little is known about the influence of depressive symptoms, which are common in AD patients, on the brain's reactivity to alcohol cues. The methylation state of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT) has been associated with alcohol dependence, craving and depression, but its influence on neural alcohol cue reactivity has not been tested. Here, we compared brain reactivity to alcohol cues in 38 AD patients and 17 healthy controls (HCs) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and assessed the influence of depressive symptoms and peripheral DAT methylation in these responses. We show that alcoholics with low Beck's Depression Inventory scores (n=29) had higher cue-induced reactivity in NAc and amygdala than those with mild/moderate depression scores (n=9), though subjective perception of craving was higher in those with mild/moderate depression scores. We corroborated a higher DAT methylation in AD patients than HCs, and showed higher DAT methylation in AD patients with mild/moderate than low depression scores. Within the AD cohort, higher methylation predicted craving and, at trend level (P=0.095), relapse 1 year after abstinence. Finally, we show that amygdala cue reactivity correlated with craving and DAT methylation only in AD patients with low depression scores. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms and DAT methylation are associated with alcohol craving and associated brain processes in alcohol dependence, which may have important consequences for treatment. Moreover, peripheral DAT methylation may be a clinically relevant biomarker in AD patients. PMID:26418276

  18. Tratamiento epidural del dolor en la isquemia vascular periférica (I Treatment of epidural pain in peripheral vascular ischemia (I

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    M.J. Orduña González

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La isquemia arterial periférica puede ser el resultado de diversas enfermedades que afectan la vascularización de los miembros, generando dolor, discapacidad y deterioro de la calidad de vida del paciente, y en los casos de isquemia crítica produciendo una considerable morbimortalidad y dolor crónico. El objetivo ha sido realizar una revisión histórica de publicaciones científicas acerca de los distintos tipos de isquemia periférica, del dolor derivado, de su tratamiento analgésico por vía epidural y de las peculiaridades que hay que tener en cuenta en dicha patología. Se ha realizado una búsqueda en MEDLINE y se han recopilado los principales datos respecto a la evolución y las principales líneas de investigación científicas publicadas en las áreas de la analgesia epidural y el dolor en el contexto de la isquemia arterial periférica. Desde su introducción terapéutica en la isquemia periférica, la analgesia con perfusión de fármacos epidurales ha constituido un método eficaz analgésico, que en el caso de los anestésicos locales, además, aporta efectos hemorreológicos positivos a través de un bloqueo simpático. La neuroestimulación eléctrica epidural (NEE medular es una modalidad analgésica crónica con indicaciones específicas dentro de la isquemia periférica, con potencial efecto trófico y capacidad de preservación de miembros, incluso en isquemia crítica aterooclusiva. El efecto, tanto analgésico como trófico de las distintas modalidades analgésicas epidurales, varía según sus características técnicas y según los distintos tipos de isquemia periférica. Se deben tener en cuenta las limitaciones y riesgos del tratamiento analgésico epidural en la isquemia de miembros. Se necesitan estudios científicos que evalúen la eficiencia y la efectividad de la NEE en la isquemia periférica de naturaleza no aterooclusiva, así como la investigación de parámetros clínicos vasculares que puedan actuar como predictores de preservación de miembros con isquemia crítica en el período de prueba de la NEE.Peripheral arterial ischemia can result from various diseases that compromise limb vascularization, leading to pain, disability, and reduced quality of life; critical limb ischemia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality and chronic pain. The present article aims to provide a historical review of the scientific literature on the distinct types of peripheral ischemia, pain due to this disease, epidural analgesic treatment, and the particular features that should be taken into account in this disease. A MEDLINE search was performed and the main data on the evolution and main lines of research in epidural analgesia and pain in peripheral arterial ischemia were gathered. Since its introduction in peripheral ischemia, epidural infusion has been an effective analgesic method, which in the case of local anesthetics also provides positive hemorheological effects through sympathetic block. Epidural spinal cord stimulation is used to treat chronic pain and has specific indications in peripheral ischemia, with a potential trophic effect and limb salvage capacity even in critical limb ischemia due to atherosclerotic occlusive disease. Indeed, both the analgesic and trophic effects of the various epidural analgesic modalities vary according to their technical characteristics and the distinct types of peripheral ischemia. The limitations and risks of epidural analgesia in limb ischemia should be taken into account. Scientific studies evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of epidural spinal cord stimulation in non-atherosclerotic occlusive peripheral ischemia, as well as research into the clinical vascular parameters that can act as predictors of limb preservation in critical limb ischemia during the test phase of spinal cord stimulation are required.

  19. Tratamiento epidural del dolor en la isquemia vascular periférica (I) / Treatment of epidural pain in peripheral vascular ischemia (I)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.J., Orduña González; C., López Carballo; E., Camblor Suárez; M., López Rouco.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La isquemia arterial periférica puede ser el resultado de diversas enfermedades que afectan la vascularización de los miembros, generando dolor, discapacidad y deterioro de la calidad de vida del paciente, y en los casos de isquemia crítica produciendo una considerable morbimortalidad y dolor crónic [...] o. El objetivo ha sido realizar una revisión histórica de publicaciones científicas acerca de los distintos tipos de isquemia periférica, del dolor derivado, de su tratamiento analgésico por vía epidural y de las peculiaridades que hay que tener en cuenta en dicha patología. Se ha realizado una búsqueda en MEDLINE y se han recopilado los principales datos respecto a la evolución y las principales líneas de investigación científicas publicadas en las áreas de la analgesia epidural y el dolor en el contexto de la isquemia arterial periférica. Desde su introducción terapéutica en la isquemia periférica, la analgesia con perfusión de fármacos epidurales ha constituido un método eficaz analgésico, que en el caso de los anestésicos locales, además, aporta efectos hemorreológicos positivos a través de un bloqueo simpático. La neuroestimulación eléctrica epidural (NEE) medular es una modalidad analgésica crónica con indicaciones específicas dentro de la isquemia periférica, con potencial efecto trófico y capacidad de preservación de miembros, incluso en isquemia crítica aterooclusiva. El efecto, tanto analgésico como trófico de las distintas modalidades analgésicas epidurales, varía según sus características técnicas y según los distintos tipos de isquemia periférica. Se deben tener en cuenta las limitaciones y riesgos del tratamiento analgésico epidural en la isquemia de miembros. Se necesitan estudios científicos que evalúen la eficiencia y la efectividad de la NEE en la isquemia periférica de naturaleza no aterooclusiva, así como la investigación de parámetros clínicos vasculares que puedan actuar como predictores de preservación de miembros con isquemia crítica en el período de prueba de la NEE. Abstract in english Peripheral arterial ischemia can result from various diseases that compromise limb vascularization, leading to pain, disability, and reduced quality of life; critical limb ischemia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality and chronic pain. The present article aims to provide a historical review [...] of the scientific literature on the distinct types of peripheral ischemia, pain due to this disease, epidural analgesic treatment, and the particular features that should be taken into account in this disease. A MEDLINE search was performed and the main data on the evolution and main lines of research in epidural analgesia and pain in peripheral arterial ischemia were gathered. Since its introduction in peripheral ischemia, epidural infusion has been an effective analgesic method, which in the case of local anesthetics also provides positive hemorheological effects through sympathetic block. Epidural spinal cord stimulation is used to treat chronic pain and has specific indications in peripheral ischemia, with a potential trophic effect and limb salvage capacity even in critical limb ischemia due to atherosclerotic occlusive disease. Indeed, both the analgesic and trophic effects of the various epidural analgesic modalities vary according to their technical characteristics and the distinct types of peripheral ischemia. The limitations and risks of epidural analgesia in limb ischemia should be taken into account. Scientific studies evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of epidural spinal cord stimulation in non-atherosclerotic occlusive peripheral ischemia, as well as research into the clinical vascular parameters that can act as predictors of limb preservation in critical limb ischemia during the test phase of spinal cord stimulation are required.

  20. Analgesic activity of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Jamaluddin Abu Taiab Md

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Successive petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were investigated for the analgesic activity. Experiments were carried out with these extracts for their peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick models in mice, respectively. In both the models, methanolic extract showed significant writhing inhibition as well as the elongation of tail-flick time at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. A linear dose response relationship was also observed.

  1. Effect of cerium ions in an arc peripheral plasma on the growth of radial single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial single-walled carbon nanotubes (radial SWCNTs) are formed by using a direct current (dc) arc discharge when carbon and metal atoms are mixed in a gas phase after the vaporization and cooled together in a liquid droplet. Since SWCNTs sprout through the precipitation of saturated carbon atoms from liquid droplets during cooling, a mass synthesis of radial SWCNTs can be achieved when a large number of liquid droplets are generated. In order to understand the effects of arc peripheral plasma parameters (electrons, ions, radical atoms, and molecules) on the growth of radial SWCNTs, the optimum production efficiency of radial SWCNTs is investigated by superimposing a radio-frequency (rf) plasma on the thermal arc plasma and controlling the arc peripheral plasma density. Two parameters--the rf power and the dc potential--of the rf electrode, which is equipped above 20 mm from the center of an arc-discharge point, are changed with the constant He pressure (200 Torr), dc arc current (75 A), and power (2000 W). The production yield of radial SWCNTs is found to be enhanced under the condition of the rf power of 100 W and the dc component of the rf electrode voltage of -22 V, revealing that the optimum ion flux and ion bombardment energy are important key parameters for the formation of radial SWCNTs

  2. Valuation of the effectiveness of the nitrous oxide administration to the paediatric patient during channelling a peripheral venous

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    Beatriz Margenta Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To valuate if the administration of nitrous oxide (Kalinox® during the technique of channelling a peripheral venous level decreases pain, improves the child´s behavior and facilitates the realization of the technique for the nurse. Experimental, randomized clinical trial. Population: children between 6-12 years old with an indication of peripheral venous channeling and medical approbation for administration of Kalinox to the Pediatric ICU unit of the Hospital in Toledo. Sample: 54 subjects in each group (alpha error of 0.05, with a study power of 90% and expecting a mean effect d/s = 0.5 for reducing pain in the experimental group. Main variables: the administration of nitrous oxide (independent variable and level of pain, motor behavior, degree of difficulty in performing the technique, and complications (dependent variables, besides, sociodemographic and clinical variables will be measured. It was used differents validated scales (Oucher, VAS y Frankl and one performed by us. Data will be analyze by SPSS software programme.

  3. Effect of VATS Wedge Resection and Mediastinal Lymph Node Sampling ?in Eldly Patients with Early Peripheral Lung Cancer

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    Weihua LOU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer is primarily surgical. However, the optimal extent of mediastinal lymph node resection remains to be determined. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of a pulmonary wedge resection on aged patients with lung cancer. Methods A total of 15 lung cancer patients aged over 70 years were treated via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS wedge resection and mediastinal lymph node sampling from June 2004 to February 2008. Mediastinal lymph node sampling included stations 2R, 4R, 8 and 9 for the right-sided cancers and stations 5, 6, 8 and 9 for the left-sided cancers. Results VATS wedge resection and mediastinal lymph node sampling for aged patients with peripheral lung cancer are minimally invasive treatments with a short operative time and low postoperative morbidity. The 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 100% and 86.6%, respectively. Conclusion VATS wedge resection and mediastinal lymph node sampling can be an alternative treatment for aged patients with early peripheral lung cancer.

  4. Analgesia e ação antiinflamatória da Arnica montana 12CH comparativamente ao cetoprofeno em cães / Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Arnica montana 12CH in comparison with ketoprofen in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Navarro, Cassu; Carlos Meirelles, Collares; Beatriz Porto, Alegre; Rosângela Cristóvão, Ferreira; Helaine, Stevanin; Camila Ângela, Bernardi.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório da Arnica montana 12CH comparativamente ao cetoprofeno em cadelas submetidas à ovariossalpingohisterectomia (OSH). Foram avaliadas 16 cadelas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de oito animais cada, tratados por via oral com 1mg [...] kg-1 de cetoprofeno (TC) e com cinco glóbulos de Arnica montana 12CH (TA). Decorridos 60 minutos, os animais foram tranquilizados com acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1, IV), seguindo-se indução e manutenção anestésica com propofol (5mg kg-1, IV) e isofluorano, respectivamente. Foram mensurados: frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, pressão arterial sistólica, concentração final expirada de dióxido de carbono, concentração final expirada de isofluorano, variáveis hemogasométricas, concentração sérica de cortisol, grau de analgesia e de inflamação. Em casos de analgesia insuficiente, foi realizada suplementação com morfina (0,5mg kg-1, IM). A estatística foi realizada com ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Arnica montana 12CH comparatively to ketoprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Sixteen female dogs were randomly distributed in two groups of eight animals and received 1mg kg-1 of ketoprofen (TC) and 5 globules of A [...] rnica montana 12CH (TA) by oral route. After 60 minutes, the dogs were sedated with acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1, IV), followed by anesthetic induction with propofol (5mg kg-1 IV) and maintained with isoflurane. Heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, arterial blood gases, serum cortisol concentration and degree of analgesia and inflammation were measured. Additional morphine (0.5mg kg-1IM) was given when the analgesia was insufficient. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (P

  5. Peripheral effects of morphine and expression of ?-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia during neuropathic pain: nitric oxide signaling

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    Pol Olga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local administration of ?-opioid receptor (MOR agonists attenuates neuropathic pain but the precise mechanism implicated in this effect is not completely elucidated. We investigated if nitric oxide synthesized by neuronal (NOS1 or inducible (NOS2 nitric oxide synthases could modulate the local antiallodynic effects of morphine through the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG-ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels signaling pathway activation and affect the dorsal root ganglia MOR expression during neuropathic pain. Results In wild type (WT mice, the subplantar administration of morphine dose-dependently decreased the mechanical and thermal allodynia induced by the chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve (CCI, which effects were significantly diminished after their co-administration with different subanalgesic doses of a selective NOS1 (N-[(4S-4-amino-5-[(2-aminoethylamino]pentyl]-N'-nitroguanidine tris(trifluoroacetate salt; NANT, NOS2 (L-N(6-(1-iminoethyl-lysine; L-NIL, L-guanylate cyclase (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one; ODQ, PKG ((Rp-8-(para-chlorophenylthioguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate; Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPs inhibitor or a KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide. The evaluation of the expression of MOR in the dorsal root ganglia from sham-operated and sciatic nerve-injured WT, NOS1 knockout (KO and NOS2-KO mice at 21 days after surgery demonstrated that, although the basal mRNA and protein levels of MOR were similar between WT and both NOS-KO animals, nerve injury only decreased their expression in WT mice. Conclusions These results suggest that the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-PKG-KATP signaling pathway activation participates in the local antiallodynic effects of morphine after sciatic nerve injury and that nitric oxide, synthesized by NOS1 and NOS2, is implicated in the dorsal root ganglia down-regulation of MOR during neuropathic pain.

  6. Comparison of the analgesic effect of ultrasound and low-level laser therapy in patients suffering from plantar fasciitis (calcar calcanei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Leos; Skopek, Jiri; Hronkova, Hana; Kymplova, Jaroslava; Knizek, Jiri

    2001-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of the two therapeutic approaches, ultrasound and low level laser (LLLT) used in 181 patients suffering from calcar calcanei-plantar fasciitis. The effectiveness of the treatment was determined according to the evaluation of the patient using certain criteria described in the table. The complete disappearance of pain was seen in 50% of 60 patients treated with US and partial improvement in 16.6% and 69 patients were treated with LLLT from which 67% described complete pain relief, and 20% partial improvement. The results show that the LLLT is a good therapeutic approach in the treatment of pain in patients suffering from calcar calcanei-plantar fasciitis. The treatment with laser was significantly more successful then the ultrasound therapy, which is currently the most common therapy used for plantar fasciitis.

  7. Investigation of the potentiation of the analgesic effects of fentanyl by ketamine in humans: a double-blinded, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study of experimental pain[ISRCTN83088383

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    Nadeson Raymond

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite preclinical evidence suggesting a synergistic interaction between ketamine and opioids promoting analgesia, several clinical trials have not identified dosing regimens capable of eliciting a benefit in the co-administration of ketamine with opioids. Methods Ten healthy volunteers participated in a double blinded, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover laboratory study in order to determine whether a low dose of ketamine potentiated the antinociceptive effect of fentanyl without causing an increase in sedative effects. A battery of tests was used to assess both nociception and sedation including electrical current, pressure, thermal stimuli, psychometric tests, and both subjective and objective scores of sedation. Target controlled infusions of the study drugs were used. Ketamine and fentanyl were administered alone and in combination in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Saline was used as the control, and propofol was used to validate the tests of sedation. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were also assessed. Results The electrical current pain threshold dose response curve of fentanyl combined with ketamine was markedly steeper than the dose response curve of fentanyl alone. While a ketamine serum concentration of 30 ng/ml did not result in a change in electrical pain threshold when administered alone, when it was added to fentanyl, the combination resulted in greater increase in pain threshold than that of fentanyl administered alone. When nociception was assessed using heat and pressure stimuli, ketamine did not potentiate the anti-nociceptive effect of fentanyl. There was no difference between the sedative effect of fentanyl and fentanyl in combination with ketamine as assessed by both subjective and objective measures of sedation. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were unaffected by the study drugs at the doses given. Conclusion A serum concentration of ketamine that did not alter indices of sedation potentiated the antinociceptive effect of fentanyl. This potentiation of antinociception occurred without an increase in sedation suggesting that low steady doses of ketamine (30–120 ng/ml might be combined with ? opioid agonists to improve their analgesic effect in a clinical setting. (296 words

  8. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L. STEM BARK

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    M. Ashraf Ali et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p. and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o. were used as reference drugs for comparison. The extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic (hyperglycaemic and glucose induced hyperglycemic (normo-hyperglycaemic rats orally at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The glucose tolerance results showed significant (p<0.05 improved at the dose 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (b. wt. of ethanolic extract respectively. On the Other hand, the analgesic activity of extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg dose level were produced 45% and 62% writhing inhibitory response but diclofenac was observed 82% of that when compared to control group. The plant's extract produced dose-dependent, significant (P<0.05 analgesic effects against chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins etc. were present in the plant which has antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties. However a glucose tolerance hypoglycemic test is comparable to diabetic control group and effect is a dose dependent. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Cassia fistula stem-bark ethanolic extract possesses analgesic and antihyperglycemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment and/or management of painful, inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF SAMANEA SAMAN MERR., AND PROSOPIS CINERARIA DRUCE.

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    Ahmed Syed Muzammil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study was designed to explore the analgesic effects of methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., using tail immersion test. The painful reactions in mice were produced by thermal stimuli through dipping the tail tips of mice into hot water. Methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., were administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 100mg /kg body weight. Pethidine 50mg/Kg intraperitoneally was used as standard analgesic drug. The tail flick latency delay was measured at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 hour after the intraperitoneal administration. Both extracts produce analgesic effects when compare with pethidine.

  10. The effect of chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure in normal and chronic restraint stressed rats: related with circulating level of blood pressure regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayada, Ceylan; Turgut, Günfer; Turgut, Sebahat; Güçlü, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin is a peptide secreted by peripheral tissues, central and peripheral nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis. Although the effects of nesfatin-1 on nutrition have been studied widely in the literature, the mechanisms of nesfatin-1 action and also relations with other physiological parameters are still not clarified well. We aimed to investigate the effect of peripheral chronic nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure regulation in normal and in rats exposed to restraint immobilization stress. In our study, three month-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups as Control, Stress, Control+Nesfatin-1, Nesfatin-1+Stress. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone, cortisol, nesfatin-1 levels were determined in plasma samples by ELISA. Our results have shown that chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration increases blood pressure in normal and in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Effect of nesfatin-1 on circulating level of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. We can conclude that elevated high blood pressure after chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress may be related to decreased plasma level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase concentration. PMID:25504061

  11. Analgesic effectiveness of the association of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and cryotherapy for chronic low back pain / Eficácia analgésica da associação da eletroestimulação nervosa transcutânea e crioterapia na lombalgia crônica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliziete Almeida de, Abreu; Jean Douglas Moura dos, Santos; Patrícia Lima, Ventura.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A eletroestimulação nervosa transcutânea (TENS) e a crioterapia são recursos fisioterapêuticos aplicados isoladamente, uma vez que existe a possibilidade de interação entre a TENS e a crioterapia caso sejam utilizadas associadas. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a efeti [...] vidade analgésica da associação TENS e crioterapia isoladas e associadas no alívio da lombalgia crônica. MÉTODO: Trata-se de ensaio clínico envolvendo 6 pacientes com dor lombar crônica, divididas em 3 grupos: crioterapia, TENS, e associação crioterapia e TENS. A técnica analgésica foi aplicada pelo tempo de 20 minutos, durante 5 dias, com 1 sessão por dia. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas à cinesioterapia convencional com alongamento de isquiostibiais, quadrado lombar e iliopsoas, com o objetivo de aumentar a aderência ao tratamento. A crioterapia foi feita com bolsa de gelo moído, e a modalidade de TENS foi a burst, com o aparelho Physiotonus TENS/FES 3050, da marca BIOSET, com trens de pulsos de 2 Hz, frequência individual de pulsos de 100 Hz e duração de pulso de 150 µs. A intensidade da dor foi avaliada pela escala analógica visual antes e após a realização de cada sessão. RESULTADOS: Quanto a intensidade da dor, no grupo crioterapia, as medianas dos escores iniciais e finais foram 5,5 e 4, respectivamente, e nos grupos TENS e TENS associado à crioterapia as medianas foram 5 e 3, respectivamente. Quanto ao grau de alívio, 100% referiram alívio bom no grupo TENS, e nos grupos crioterapia e TENS associado à crioterapia 50% referiram alívio bom e 50% alívio muito bom. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da terapia combinada não ter apresentado nenhuma melhora significativa em relação às modalidades de terapias isoladas, as três modalidades analgésicas utilizadas neste estudo foram eficazes em aliviar a dor lombar crônica das pacientes e nos grupos em que foi utilizado a crioterapia o grau de satisfação das pacientes foi maior do que as do grupo em que foi usada apenas a TENS. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are physical therapy resources individually used, since there is the possibility of interaction between TENS and cryotherapy if they are associated. This study aimed at evaluating the analgesic effectivenes [...] s of the association or not of TENS and cryotherapy to relieve chronic low back pain. METHOD: Clinical trial involving six chronic low back pain patients distributed in three groups: cryotherapy, TENS, and the association of both techniques. Analgesia was induced for 20 minutes during 5 days, with one session per day. All patients were submitted to conventional kinesiotherapy with ischiotibial, lumbar square and iliopsoas elongation, aiming at increasing adherence to treatment. Cryotherapy was applied with crushed ice bag and TENS was in burst with Physiotonus TENS/FES 3050 equipment of the BIOSET brand, with pulse trains of 2 Hz, individual pulse frequencies of 100 Hz and pulse duration of 150 µs. Pain intensity was evaluated by the visual analog scale before and after each session. RESULTS: With regard to pain intensity in the cryotherapy group, initial and final medians were 5.5 and 4, respectively. For the TENS and TENS associated to cryotherapy groups they were 5 and 3, respectively. With regard to pain relief, 100% have referred good relief in the TENS group; in cryotherapy and TENS associated to cryotherapy groups 50% have referred good relief and 50% very good relief. CONCLUSION: Although the combined therapy has caused no significant improvement as compared to isolated therapies the three analgesic modalities used in this study were effective to relieve chronic low back pain. Satisfaction was higher in the cryotherapy group as compared to the TENS group.

  12. The analgesic effect of nitroglycerin added to lidocaine on quality of intravenous regional anesthesia in patients undergoing elective forearm and hand surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hosein Kimiaei, Asadi; Dariush, Mehri.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of nitroglycerine (NTG) on sensory and motor block onset and recovery time as well as the quality of tourniquet pain relief, when added to lidocaine (LID) for intravenous regional anesthesia in elective forearm and hand surgery. METHODS: A randomized double-blinded cl [...] inical trial was performed on 40 patients that were randomly allocated into two groups received lidocaine 3 mg/kg with NTG 200 µg or received only lidocaine 3 mg/kg as the control. RESULTS: There was no difference between the two study groups in hemodynamic parameters before tourniquet inflation, at any time after inflation and after its deflation. There was no difference in the mean of pain score over time between the two groups. The onset time of sensory and motor blockades was shorter in the group received both LID and NTG. The mean recovery time of sensory blockade was longer in the former group. The frequency of opioid injections was significantly lower in those who administered LID and NTG. CONCLUSION: The adjuvant drug of NTG when added to LID is effective in improving the overall quality of anesthesia, shortening onset time of both sensory and motor blockades, and stabling homodynamic parameters in hand and forearm surgery.

  13. ANALGESIC AND ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITIES OF LAWSONIA INERMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Sultana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf of the plant Lawsonia inermis was examined for analgesic and anti-diarrhoeal properties. From the study of analgesic activity it was found that ethanol extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited no significant (p<0.3 inhibition of writhing reflex (28.45 % inhibition while the inhibition of standard drug diclofenac sodium showed 82.7 % inhibition at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. The findings suggested that the leaf extract of Lawsonia inermis possessed anti-diarrhoeal activity at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight compared to the control group and offered about 1.398 of the mean latent period for diarrhoeal episode to ensue and the result was significant (P<0.002.

  14. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, and cord blood (CB are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis of the named three hematopoietic blood stem cell (HSC sources, taking into account various factors, is undertaken. The health economical comparison shows significant differences between CB on the one side, and BM and PBSC on the other. The consequences for the public health side and propositions for a possible health care policy, especially regarding future resource allocation towards the different choices for HSCT products, are discussed. An outlook on the possible future usage of BM, PBSC, and CB and its implications on health systems, donor registries, and CB banks is given.Keywords: health economy, cord blood, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  15. A nurse led peripherally inserted central catheter line insertion service is effective with radiological support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are increasingly used as a route of chemotherapy administration. Our aims were to assess a collaborative approach to PICC placement, with radiological support for a nurse led line insertion service in a minority of cases, and to determine whether PICC provided a safe and reliable method of chemotherapy administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data on 100 consecutive patients undergoing PICC placement for chemotherapy were collected. Lines were inserted by ward based nurses or under ultrasound guidance by radiologists. End points were successful completion of treatment or patient death. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four lines were placed for 118 courses of chemotherapy. 107 (74%) were placed by nurses and 37 (26%) by radiologists. Ninety-five percent of patients completed therapy with either one or two lines. Seventy percent of lines were removed on achieving the primary end points. In two additional patients PICC could not be placed radiologically. Twelve patients were unable to complete treatment with PICC alone, nine of these required an alternative administration route. The catheter related sepsis rate was 4.9%. CONCLUSION: The majority of PICC can be successfully placed by trained nurses, reserving image guidance only for more difficult cases. PICC have an acceptable complication profile, and decrease the need for tunnelled central lines. Barber, J.M. et al. (2002)

  16. Effect of photochemical smog on the peripheral lymphocytes of nonsmoking college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magie, A.R.; Abbey, D.E.; Centerwall, W.R.

    1982-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the incidence of chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of young adults emigrating from and immigrating to an area with perpetually high levels of photochemical air pollutants versus an area of low levels differed significantly from students indigenous to the respective areas. Three hundred and ninety-eight male and female first-year students at the La Sierra campus of Loma Linda University (high smog) and Pacific Union College (low smog) were preenrolled after completing a lifestyle questionnaire or responding to a similar telephone-administered questionnaire. They were assigned to groups according to their previous lifetime exposure to air pollution and the college in which they were matriculating. Blood samples and updated health histories were obtained from the students during September and November 1976. One hundred cells from each student were analyzed for chromosome and chromatid abberations. No statistically significant differences in the aberrates rates for the types of chromosome abnormalities studied were observed between the four exposure groups of students at each of the sampling periods or among the same students over the duration of the study. An exception of statistical significance was the elevated rate of stable changes in the initial blood sampling period for males in the low-to-high exposure group who had arrived on campus within 3 days of the blood sampling.

  17. Dose-effect relationship and time-effect relationship of T cell receptor gene mutation induced by ?-rays in human lymphocytes of peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the dose-effect relationship and time-effect relationship of T cell receptor (TCR) gene mutation induced by ?-rays in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood. Methods: Samples of peripheral blood were collected from 10 healthy adults and lymphocytes were separated. Four samples from males used to fit time-effect curve were exposed to ?-rays at the doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 5.0 Gy, respectively, and 6 samples from 3 males and 3 females used to fit dose-effect curves were exposed to ?-rays of the dose of 2 Gy. Flow cytometry was used to detect the mutation frequency of TCR gene (TCR MF). Radiation dose-effect curves and time-effect curves were fitted and optimal mathematical models were selected respectively. Results: The optimal mathematical model for radiation dose-effect was quadratic equation model: TCR MF = 92.14 + 22.61D2 (Radj2=0.65). The optimal mathematical model for radiation time-effect was quadratic polynomial equation model: TCR MF = 3.74 + 743.66T + 308.64T2 (Radj2=0.79). Conclusions: TCR MF is increased as the ?-ray irradiation dose increases within the range of 0-5 Gy, and TCR MF is increased with the lapse of time within the range of 4 days after ?-ray radiation. (authors)

  18. A Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of a Peripheral ?-Opioid Receptor Agonist CR665 and Oxycodone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne E; Kristensen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripherally acting opioids, particularly peripheral ?-opioid agonists, may be effective for treating visceral pain by activating receptors expressed on afferent nerves within the gut. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of a novel peripherally selective ?-opioid agonist, CR665 (JNJ-38488502), and compare it to that of oxycodone, a non-selective brain-penetrant opioid. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-way crossover study, healthy male volunteers were administered CR665 (0.36 mg/kg, intravenous), oxycodone (15 mg, oral) or placebo (intravenous and oral), followed by assessment of visceral pain tolerance thresholds (VPTT) measured as volume of water (mL) in the bag placed on an oesophageal probe. Plasma drug concentration data were used to generate pharmacokinetic models, which were then used to fit the VPTT data using NONMEM(®) VI to generate population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models. RESULTS:CR665 kinetics were optimally fitted with a two-compartment model, while oxycodone kinetics were best described by a one-compartment model with transit compartment absorption feeding directly into the central compartment. For both drugs, the plasma concentration effects on VPTT were best fit by a direct linear model, i.e. without the concentration-analgesia delay characteristic of brain-penetrant opioids. The slope of oxycodone (0.089 mL per ng/mL) was steeper than that of CR665 (0.0035 mL per ng/mL) for the plasma drug concentration acting on the VPTT. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with the peripheral selectivity of CR665, as well as the possibility that peripheral actions of oxycodone contribute to its visceral analgesic efficacy.

  19. Effect of additional ultrasound therapy to analgesics in treatment of acute low back pain: A randomised control trial conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi (AKUH, N)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Mohammedali; SK, Mutiso; P, Oroko; B, Ombachi; H, Saidi.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute low back pain (LBP) is a common condition that is encountered by many physicians with varied treatments instituted in its management. Ultrasound physiotherapy is a common modality used in its management, although its effectiveness and its role in management of acute LBP is not well [...] known. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was conducted to compare the effect of the addition of ultrasound therapy to a defined analgesia protocol in patients presenting with acute LBP at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi. The main outcomes were reduction in disability and pain which were evaluated using the mean change in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain, respectively. Patients were followed up for a minimum of four weeks with assessment using the ODI and VAS at weekly clinic visits. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were included in the study. Thirty-six patients were allocated to the analgesia with additional ultrasound group and 38 to the analgesia alone group. The Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of 10% points at four weeks after initiation of treatment was achieved in the ultrasound group but not in the analgesia only group. This difference was not statistically significant though, 10.35% vs 8.44%; p=0.36. There was no difference in the mean change in the ODI score between the two groups at any of the four follow-up visits after initiation of treatment. Mean difference in change of ODI (95% confidence interval) was -3.2(-7.0 to 0.6) after the first week, 2.96(-1.3 to 7.2) after the second and 1.90(-2.3 to 6.1) after the third week, p=0.36, 0.17 and 0.096 respectively. There was also no difference detected in the mean change of VAS score between the two groups at the first and fourth visit. Mean difference in VAS between the first and fourth weeks was 0.2 with a 95% confidence of -0.85 to 1.2 (p=0.72). CONCLUSION: The addition of ultrasound therapy to the treatment of acute LBP improved patient outcomes as assessed by an MCID of a disability index, but which was not statistically significant. No outcome difference was noted in the two groups using the VAS pain score.

  20. Necessity of analgesics prescription after tooth extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tozoglu Sinan; Gungormus Metin; Buyukkurt Cemil M.; Yavuz Selim M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. For patients and surgeons, pain and discomfort associated with dento-alveolar surgery can be a frightening prospect. This study was aimed to check whether prescription of analgesics is necessary or not after simple extraction of the mandibular third molars. Material and methods. Seventy-six dental outpatients undergoing uncomplicated extraction of both mandibular third molars teeth served as subjects. After extraction on the first side, patients received either naproxen sodium 5...

  1. Synthesis of antipyrine/pyridazinone hybrids and investigation of their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    BAYTA?, Sultan; ?NCELER, Nazan; MAVANEH, Khatereh Fattahpour

    2012-01-01

    Eleven antipyrine/pyridazinone hybrids were synthesized and evaluated for their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities by p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test and carrageenan-induced paw edema model, respectively. The test results indicated that compounds 6a, 6c, and 6d were equally or more potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents than aspirin and indomethacin, respectively. Side effects of the compounds were examined on gastric mucosa. Most of the compounds were fou...

  2. Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Hass, Ulla; Lesné, Laurianne; Lottrup, Grete; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Desdoits-Lethimonier, Christele; Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Toppari, Jorma; Jensen, Tina Kold; Brunak, Søren; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Main, Katharina M.; Jégou, Bernard; Leffers, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    ; BACKGROUND: More than half of pregnant women in the Western world report intake of mild analgesics, and some of these drugs have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in animal experiments. Intrauterine exposure to anti-androgens is suspected to contribute to the recent increase in male reproductive problems, and many of the anti-androgenic compounds are like the mild analgesics potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, it appears imperative to further investigate the pot...

  3. Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Hass, Ulla; Lesné, Laurianne; Lottrup, Grete; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Desdoits-Lethimonier, Christele; Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Toppari, Jorma; Jensen, Tina Kold; Brunak, Søren; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Nellemann, Christine; Main, Katharina M; Jégou, Bernard; Leffers, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than half of pregnant women in the Western world report intake of mild analgesics, and some of these drugs have been associated with anti-androgenic effects in animal experiments. Intrauterine exposure to anti-androgens is suspected to contribute to the recent increase in male reproductive problems, and many of the anti-androgenic compounds are like the mild analgesics potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, it appears imperative to further investigate the potent...

  4. Preemptive analgesic effect of lidocaine in a chronic neuropathic pain model Efeito analgésico preemptivo da lidocaína em modelo de dor crônica neuropática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Batista

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Preemptive analgesia inhibits the progression of pain caused by surgical lesions. To analyze the effect of lidocaine on postoperative pain relief, we performed compression of the right sciatic nerve in Wistar rats and observed the differences on behavior between the group that received lidocaine and the group that was not treated with the local anesthetics pre-operatively. Group 1 was not operated (control; group 2 underwent the sciatic nerve ligature without lidocaine; group 3, underwent surgery with previous local infiltration of lidocaine. Group 2 showed significantly longer scratching times with a peak on day 14 post-operative (p=0.0005 and reduction in the latency to both noxious (p=0.003 and non-noxious (p=0.004 thermal stimulus. Group 3 presented significantly shorter scratching times (p=0.004 and longer latency times when compared to Group 2. Preemptive use of lidocaine 2% can potentially reduce the postoperative neuropathic pain associated with sciatic nerve compression.A analgesia preemptiva inibe a progressão da dor causada por lesão cirúrgica. Para analisar o efeito da lidocaína na diminuição da dor pós-operatória, submetemos ratos Wistar a compressão cirúrgica do nervo ciático e observamos diferenças em alguns padrões de comportamento entre o grupo tratado com lidocaína pré-operatória e o grupo não-tratado com o anestésico local. O grupo 1 não foi operado (controle; o grupo 2, submetido a ligadura do nervo ciático sem lidocaína, apresentou significativo aumento do tempo de coçar-se com um pico no 14º pós-operatório (p=0.0005 e redução na latência para os estímulos térmicos nocivo (p=0.003 e não-nocivo (p=0.004; o grupo 3, operado com a droga preemptiva, demonstrou significativo decréscimo no tempo de coçar-se (p=0.004 e maiores tempos de latência quando comparados aos do grupo 2. O uso preemptivo da lidocaína 2% pode, potencialmente, reduzir a dor neuropática pós-operatória associada à compressão do nervo ciático.

  5. Preemptive analgesic effect of lidocaine in a chronic neuropathic pain model / Efeito analgésico preemptivo da lidocaína em modelo de dor crônica neuropática

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo M., Batista; Igor M., Batista; João P., Almeida; Carlos H., Carvalho; Samuel B. de, Castro-Costa; Carlos M. de, Castro-Costa.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A analgesia preemptiva inibe a progressão da dor causada por lesão cirúrgica. Para analisar o efeito da lidocaína na diminuição da dor pós-operatória, submetemos ratos Wistar a compressão cirúrgica do nervo ciático e observamos diferenças em alguns padrões de comportamento entre o grupo tratado com [...] lidocaína pré-operatória e o grupo não-tratado com o anestésico local. O grupo 1 não foi operado (controle); o grupo 2, submetido a ligadura do nervo ciático sem lidocaína, apresentou significativo aumento do tempo de coçar-se com um pico no 14º pós-operatório (p=0.0005) e redução na latência para os estímulos térmicos nocivo (p=0.003) e não-nocivo (p=0.004); o grupo 3, operado com a droga preemptiva, demonstrou significativo decréscimo no tempo de coçar-se (p=0.004) e maiores tempos de latência quando comparados aos do grupo 2. O uso preemptivo da lidocaína 2% pode, potencialmente, reduzir a dor neuropática pós-operatória associada à compressão do nervo ciático. Abstract in english Preemptive analgesia inhibits the progression of pain caused by surgical lesions. To analyze the effect of lidocaine on postoperative pain relief, we performed compression of the right sciatic nerve in Wistar rats and observed the differences on behavior between the group that received lidocaine and [...] the group that was not treated with the local anesthetics pre-operatively. Group 1 was not operated (control); group 2 underwent the sciatic nerve ligature without lidocaine; group 3, underwent surgery with previous local infiltration of lidocaine. Group 2 showed significantly longer scratching times with a peak on day 14 post-operative (p=0.0005) and reduction in the latency to both noxious (p=0.003) and non-noxious (p=0.004) thermal stimulus. Group 3 presented significantly shorter scratching times (p=0.004) and longer latency times when compared to Group 2. Preemptive use of lidocaine 2% can potentially reduce the postoperative neuropathic pain associated with sciatic nerve compression.

  6. The influence of the analgesic model on postoperative pain in major knee surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastase, D M; Florescu, S Cionac; Munteanu, A-M; Stoica, Ic; Antonescu, D

    2013-01-01

    Total primary knee arthroplasty represents a model of severe pain for major orthopedic surgery. A good management of postoperative pain is important both for the patient and for a good functional surgery outcome because early knee mobilisation is pain limited. This study is a review of the main analgesic methods used in total primary knee arthroplasty and their influence on pain and on the functional recovery of the knee.The comparative analysis of the analgesic models shows the advantages and the adverse effects of each one, the evolution in time of analgesia techniques and guides us in the use of evidence-based-medicine Which is the most appropriate analgesic model is a choice of the orthopedic surgeon anesthesiologist and kineto therapist team who are able to individualize for each patient good functional outcome parameters of the new knee joint. PMID:24331311

  7. Dor pós-operatória: combinações analgésicas e eventos adversos Dolor postoperatorio: combinaciones analgésicas y eventos adversos Post operative pain: analgesic combinations and adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Secoli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle da dor e seus eventos adversos são focos de profissionais e gestores das instituições de saúde para obtenção de desfechos assistenciais. O estudo teve como objetivos analisar a prevalência de combinações e interações medicamentosas da terapia analgésica e verificar a associação dessa com os eventos adversos conferidos. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, exploratório e retrospectivo. A amostra foi composta por 260 prontuários de pacientes submetidos a hemorroidectomia, com idade de até 60 anos hígidos. Os resultados mostraram que as associações medicamentosas mais utilizadas foram a dipirona+omeprazol (33,7%, dipirona+cetoprofeno (23,6% e cetoprofeno+lactulose (22,8%. Observou-se que cetoprofeno+ omeprazol (p=0,001 e cetoprofeno+ lactulose (p=0,03 estiveram significativamente relacionados com sangramento. Concluiu-se que, com exceção do cetoprofeno, as outras associações medicamentosas identificadas no estudo se mostraram seguras para serem utilizadas no período pós operatório.El control del dolor y sus eventos adversos se constituyen en el foco de los profesionales y gestores de las instituciones de salud para la obtención de resultados asistenciales. El estudio tuvo como objetivos analizar la prevalencia de combinaciones y interacciones medicamentosas de la terapia analgésica y verificar la asociación de esta con los eventos adversos conferidos. Estudio descriptivo, exploratorio y retrospectivo. La muestra fue compuesta por 260 historias clinicas de pacientes sometidos a hemorroidectomia hasta los 60 años de edad, sanos. Los resultados mostraron que las asociaciones medicamentosas más utilizadas fueron la dipirona y omeprazol (33,7%, dipirona y cetoprofeno (23,6% y cetoprofeno y lactulosa (22,8%. Se observó que el cetoprofeno+omeprazol (p=0,001, cetoprofeno+ lactulosa (p=0,03 estuvieron significativamente relacionados con el sangramiento. Se concluyó que, con excepción del cetoprofeno, las otras asociaciones medicamentosas identificadas en el estudio se mostraron seguras para ser utilizadas durante el período postoperatorio.The control f the pains and its adverse affects are in the focus of health professionals and institutional managers in order to optimize clinical outcomes. The objectives of this study were to analyze the prevalence of medicine combination and interaction and to verify the association of this with the observed adverse effects. It was a descriptive, exploratory and retrospective study. The sample was composed by 260 patient data submitted to hemorrhoidectomy, up to 60 years old, healthy. Results showed that the mostly used medicine associations were dipyrone sodium and omeprazole (33.7%, dypirone sodium and ketoprofen (23.6% and cetoprofen and lactulose (22.8%. It was observed that ketoprofen + omeprazole (p=0.001 and ketoprofen + lactulose (p=0.03 were significantly associated with bleeding. It was observed that, excepting ketoprofen, the other medicine association identified in the study showed to be safe to be used in the post surgical period.

  8. Dor pós-operatória: combinações analgésicas e eventos adversos / Post operative pain: analgesic combinations and adverse effects / Dolor postoperatorio: combinaciones analgésicas y eventos adversos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Regina, Secoli; Vanessa Cristina, Moraes; Aparecida de Cássia Giani, Peniche; Maria de Fátima Fernandes, Vattimo; Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira, Duarte; Isabel Yovana Quispe, Mendoza.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle da dor e seus eventos adversos são focos de profissionais e gestores das instituições de saúde para obtenção de desfechos assistenciais. O estudo teve como objetivos analisar a prevalência de combinações e interações medicamentosas da terapia analgésica e verificar a associação dessa com [...] os eventos adversos conferidos. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, exploratório e retrospectivo. A amostra foi composta por 260 prontuários de pacientes submetidos a hemorroidectomia, com idade de até 60 anos hígidos. Os resultados mostraram que as associações medicamentosas mais utilizadas foram a dipirona+omeprazol (33,7%), dipirona+cetoprofeno (23,6%) e cetoprofeno+lactulose (22,8%). Observou-se que cetoprofeno+ omeprazol (p=0,001) e cetoprofeno+ lactulose (p=0,03) estiveram significativamente relacionados com sangramento. Concluiu-se que, com exceção do cetoprofeno, as outras associações medicamentosas identificadas no estudo se mostraram seguras para serem utilizadas no período pós operatório. Abstract in spanish El control del dolor y sus eventos adversos se constituyen en el foco de los profesionales y gestores de las instituciones de salud para la obtención de resultados asistenciales. El estudio tuvo como objetivos analizar la prevalencia de combinaciones y interacciones medicamentosas de la terapia anal [...] gésica y verificar la asociación de esta con los eventos adversos conferidos. Estudio descriptivo, exploratorio y retrospectivo. La muestra fue compuesta por 260 historias clinicas de pacientes sometidos a hemorroidectomia hasta los 60 años de edad, sanos. Los resultados mostraron que las asociaciones medicamentosas más utilizadas fueron la dipirona y omeprazol (33,7%), dipirona y cetoprofeno (23,6%) y cetoprofeno y lactulosa (22,8%). Se observó que el cetoprofeno+omeprazol (p=0,001), cetoprofeno+ lactulosa (p=0,03) estuvieron significativamente relacionados con el sangramiento. Se concluyó que, con excepción del cetoprofeno, las otras asociaciones medicamentosas identificadas en el estudio se mostraron seguras para ser utilizadas durante el período postoperatorio. Abstract in english The control f the pains and its adverse affects are in the focus of health professionals and institutional managers in order to optimize clinical outcomes. The objectives of this study were to analyze the prevalence of medicine combination and interaction and to verify the association of this with t [...] he observed adverse effects. It was a descriptive, exploratory and retrospective study. The sample was composed by 260 patient data submitted to hemorrhoidectomy, up to 60 years old, healthy. Results showed that the mostly used medicine associations were dipyrone sodium and omeprazole (33.7%), dypirone sodium and ketoprofen (23.6%) and cetoprofen and lactulose (22.8%). It was observed that ketoprofen + omeprazole (p=0.001) and ketoprofen + lactulose (p=0.03) were significantly associated with bleeding. It was observed that, excepting ketoprofen, the other medicine association identified in the study showed to be safe to be used in the post surgical period.

  9. Studies on the Anti–Inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Chenopodium Ambrosioides Leaf Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Ibironke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A methanol extract of the dried leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The extract (300-700 mg kg-1, p.o. produced a dose related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. At the same doses, analgesic effect was also observed with the hotplate device maintained at 55°C as well as on the early and late phases of formalin-induced paw licking in rats. The results of the present study further confirm the use of Chenopodium ambrosioides traditionally for the treatment of painful inflammatory conditions.

  10. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Tithonia diversifolia leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Victor B; Wuraola, Caleb O; Soladoye, Ayodele O; Olaleye, Samuel B

    2004-02-01

    A methanol extract of the dried leaves of Tithonia diversifolia was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The extract (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. At the same doses, analgesic effect was also observed with hot plate latency assays maintained at (55 degrees C) as well as on the early and late phases of formalin-induced paw licking in rats. The results of the present study further confirm the use of Tithonia diversifolia traditionally for the treatment of painful inflammatory conditions. PMID:15013196

  11. Effects of Meditation on Pain and Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis and Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensel, Mary; Planchon, Sarah M.; Butler, Robert S.; Stone, Lael

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether meditation affects pain and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and peripheral neuropathy (PN). A total of 22 patients (10 with MS, 12 with PN) participated in a weekly meditation class over a 2-month period. A total of 18 controls (7 with MS, 11 with PN) received standard care. Primary outcome assessments were based on the 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey (SF-36) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain at baseline and at 2 months. Secondary outcome measures included the Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS) for PN patients and the Patient-Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) questionnaire and 5-item Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS-5) for MS patients. After 2 months, study participants who practiced meditation reported an improvement in pain on the VAS (P = .035 combined group), summed physical health scores on the SF-36 (P = .011 MS, P = .014 PN), summed mental health scores (P = .02 combined group), vitality (P = .005 combined group), and physical role (P = .003 combined group). A significant improvement was also observed for bodily pain (P = .031) in MS patients. In contrast, no significant differences before and after the intervention were observed for controls. Regarding the secondary measure of fatigue, improved scores for the cognitive and psychosocial components of the MFIS were noted in MS patients in the intervention group (P = .037, P = .032). No statistically significant changes were observed in the NIS for PN patients or in PDDS scores for MS patients. Meditation may be helpful in reducing pain and improving quality of life in patients with MS and PN. The lack of changes seen in mobility (MS) and sensorimotor deficits (PN) suggests that meditation may not affect the overall clinical course. PMID:24453721

  12. Masker phase effects in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners: evidence for peripheral compression at low signal frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    The presence of cochlear-based compression at low frequencies was investigated by measuring phase effects in harmonic maskers. In normal-hearing listeners, the amount of masking produced depends strongly on the phase relationships between the individual masker components. This effect is thought to be determined primarily by properties of the cochlea, including the phase dispersion and compressive input-output function of the basilar membrane. Thresholds for signals of 250 and 1000 Hz were measured in harmonic maskers with fundamental frequencies of 12.5 and 100 Hz as a function of the masker phase curvature. Results from 12 listeners with sensorineural hearing loss showed reduced masker phase effects, when compared with data from normal-hearing listeners, at both 250- and 1000-Hz signal frequencies. The effects of hearing impairment on phase-related masking differences were not well simulated in normal-hearing listeners by an additive white noise, suggesting that the effects of hearing impairment are not simply due to reduced sensation level. Maximum differences in masked threshold were correlated with auditory filter bandwidths at the respective frequencies, suggesting that both measures are affected by a common underlying mechanism, presumably related to cochlear outer hair cell function. The results also suggest that normal peripheral compression remains strong even at 250 Hz.

  13. Analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnatin Miladiyah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves have long been used as a vegetable in many countries and empirically as a febrifuge. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic activity of an ethanolic extract of cassava leaves in mice. Thirty Balb/c mice (20-30 g, 2-3 months old were randomly divided into 6 groups. Group I was given distilled water 1 mL as negative control, group II paracetamol 65 mg/kgBW as positive control, and group III-VI received an ethanolic extract of cassava leaves in 4 doses, i.e. 12.8 mg/kgBW, 25.6 mg/kgBW, 51.3 mg/kgBW, and 102.6 mg/kgBW, respectively. All interventions were administered as a single dose by oral route on a given day. Acetic acid 0.6% (w/v was used as a pain inductor. Analgesic activity was measured by counting the percentage of writhing movements as a measure of the analgesic effect produced by each intervention. Data were analyzed with one-way Anova to compare analgesic activity between treatment groups. The results showed that groups treated with ethanolic extract of cassava leaves at dosages of 12.8 mg/kgBW, 25.6 mg/kgBW, 51.3 mg/kgBW, and 102.6 mg/kgBW had an analgesic activity of 59.2%; 73.9%; 62.1%; and 55.9%, respectively. On statistical analysis there were significant differences (p=0.00 between these treatments compared to the negative control, but no significant differences (p>0.05 with the positive control (paracetamol. It may be concluded that the analgesic effect of an ethanolic extract of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in mice was of similar potency as paracetamol.

  14. Revisión sistemática sobre el efecto analgésico de la crioterapia en el manejo del dolor de origen músculo esquelético Systematic review of the analgesic effect of cryotherapy in the management of musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Gutiérrez Espinoza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Crioterapia es una modalidad de Termoterapia Superficial que se basa en la aplicación del frío como agente terapéutico, si bien es cierto, es ampliamente utilizada para el alivio del dolor, su indicación clinica tradicionalmente se ha sustentado en mecanismos de acción indirectos, sin una base científica o estudios clínicos que avalen su efectividad, se realizará una síntesis de la evidencia relativa a la efectividad de la crioterapia a través de una revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. Objetivo: Determinar si existe evidencia científica que avale el efecto analgésico de la crioterapia para el manejo del dolor de origen musculoesquelético. Estrategia de búsqueda: Se incluyeron en la búsqueda Ensayos Clínicos Aleatorizados (ECA, Revisiones Sistemáticas (RS y Metaanálisis (MT, las bases de datos usadas fueron: MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Biomed Central, Cochrane y DARE. Resultados: Se seleccionaron un total de ocho estudios, incluyendo ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y revisiones sistemáticas. Conclusiones: Existe moderada evidencia que el uso de la crioterapia disminuye el dolor y mejora los tiempos de recuperación en esguince de tobillo y en lesiones de tejidos blandos asociados al deporte, la evidencia es limitada para el uso en Osteoartritis de rodilla, Artritis Reumatoide y Síndrome de Dolor Lumbar.Introduction: Cryotherapy is an alternative to Superficial Thermotherapy based on the application of cold as a therapeutic agent, although it is quite clear it is widely used for pain relief. However, only relies on indirect mechanisms of action and without a scientific basis to support its clinical application. Based on this an analysis will be made of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of Cryotherapy by means of a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Objective: To determine if there is scientific evidence to endorse the analgesic effect of Cryotherapy for the management of Musculoskeletal Pain. Strategy of Search: The words/phrases included in the search were, Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs, Systematic Reviews (SR and Metaanalysis (MT, the databases used were: MEDLINE/PubMed, PubMed Central, ScienceDirect, Biomed Central, Cochrane Library Plus and DARE. Results: We selected a total of eight studies, including Randomized Controlled Trials and Systematic Reviews. Conclusions: There is moderate evidence supporting that the use of Cryotherapy reduces pain and improves recovery times in ankle sprain and soft tissue injuries associated with sport, but there is limited evidence for its use in Knee Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Low Back Pain Syndrome.

  15. Revisión sistemática sobre el efecto analgésico de la crioterapia en el manejo del dolor de origen músculo esquelético / Systematic review of the analgesic effect of cryotherapy in the management of musculoskeletal pain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.J., Gutiérrez Espinoza; I.P., Lavado Bustamante; S.J., Méndez Pérez.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Crioterapia es una modalidad de Termoterapia Superficial que se basa en la aplicación del frío como agente terapéutico, si bien es cierto, es ampliamente utilizada para el alivio del dolor, su indicación clinica tradicionalmente se ha sustentado en mecanismos de acción indirectos, s [...] in una base científica o estudios clínicos que avalen su efectividad, se realizará una síntesis de la evidencia relativa a la efectividad de la crioterapia a través de una revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. Objetivo: Determinar si existe evidencia científica que avale el efecto analgésico de la crioterapia para el manejo del dolor de origen musculoesquelético. Estrategia de búsqueda: Se incluyeron en la búsqueda Ensayos Clínicos Aleatorizados (ECA), Revisiones Sistemáticas (RS) y Metaanálisis (MT), las bases de datos usadas fueron: MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Biomed Central, Cochrane y DARE. Resultados: Se seleccionaron un total de ocho estudios, incluyendo ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y revisiones sistemáticas. Conclusiones: Existe moderada evidencia que el uso de la crioterapia disminuye el dolor y mejora los tiempos de recuperación en esguince de tobillo y en lesiones de tejidos blandos asociados al deporte, la evidencia es limitada para el uso en Osteoartritis de rodilla, Artritis Reumatoide y Síndrome de Dolor Lumbar. Abstract in english Introduction: Cryotherapy is an alternative to Superficial Thermotherapy based on the application of cold as a therapeutic agent, although it is quite clear it is widely used for pain relief. However, only relies on indirect mechanisms of action and without a scientific basis to support its clinical [...] application. Based on this an analysis will be made of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of Cryotherapy by means of a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Objective: To determine if there is scientific evidence to endorse the analgesic effect of Cryotherapy for the management of Musculoskeletal Pain. Strategy of Search: The words/phrases included in the search were, Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), Systematic Reviews (SR) and Metaanalysis (MT), the databases used were: MEDLINE/PubMed, PubMed Central, ScienceDirect, Biomed Central, Cochrane Library Plus and DARE. Results: We selected a total of eight studies, including Randomized Controlled Trials and Systematic Reviews. Conclusions: There is moderate evidence supporting that the use of Cryotherapy reduces pain and improves recovery times in ankle sprain and soft tissue injuries associated with sport, but there is limited evidence for its use in Knee Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Low Back Pain Syndrome.

  16. Redução do efeito analgésico da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea de baixa freqüência em ratos tolerantes à morfina Reduction in analgesic effect from low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in morphine-tolerant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Resende

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da TENS de baixa (10 Hz e alta freqüência(130 Hz aplicadas na pata inflamada do rato após tratamento crônico com morfina. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 140 ratos Holtzman fêmeas, nos quais a carragenina (Cg 250 µg/0,1ml foi administrada na pata posterior direita para a indução da inflamação. TENS de baixa e alta freqüência foi aplicada por 20 min, após 2 h e 30 min da Cg e seu efeito medido através do método de Randall-Selitto. O antagonista opióide Naltrexona (3mg/kg,sc, foi administrado 30 minutos antes da TENS para verificar a liberação de substâncias opióides endógenas. A tolerância foi obtida após administração da morfina (10 mg/kg,sc, duas vezes ao dia, durante sete dias. O tratamento com TENS de baixa e alta freqüência foi realizado no oitavo dia às 2 h e 30 min após Cg. A análise estatística foi feita pelo método da análise de variância ANOVA (One Way seguido de um teste "post hoc" (Teste de Bonferroni, com nível de significância quando p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of low (10 Hz and high-frequency (130 Hz transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied to inflamed paws of rats following chronic treatment with morphine. METHOD: 140 female Holtzman rats were utilized. Carrageenan (250 µg/0.1 ml was administered to the right hind paws to induce inflammation. Two and a half hours after carrageenan injection, low and high frequency TENS was applied to the inflamed paw for 20 min, and its effect was measured via the Randall-Selitto method. The opioid antagonist naltrexone (3.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously was administered 30 min before TENS, to verify the release of endogenous opioids. Morphine tolerance (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously was induced by twice-daily injection over seven days. Low and high frequency TENS treatment was carried out on the eighth day, 2.5 hours after carrageenan injection. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, followed by the post hoc Bonferroni test, with a significance level of p < 0.05. RESULTS: Both low and high frequency produced 100% inhibition of carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Naltrexone-treated animals showed complete reversion of analgesia induced by low but not high-frequency TENS. After attaining morphine tolerance, the low-frequency TENS values indicated complete absence of analgesia, whereas high-frequency TENS induced anti-hyperalgesia. CONCLUSION: The analgesic activity of low-frequency TENS is reduced following the development of morphine tolerance.

  17. Therapeutic effects of 15 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tao; Jing, Da; Xie, Kangning; Jiang, Maogang; Li, Feijiang; Cai, Jing; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Xu, Qiaoling; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Shen, Guanghao; Luo, Erping

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous clinical studies have reported that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have a neuroprotective role in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the application of PEMF for clinic is still controversial. The present study was designed to investigate whether PEMF has therapeutic potential in relieving peripheral neuropathic symptoms in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups (eight in each group): the non-diabetic control group (Control), diabetes mellitus with 15 Hz PEMF exposure group (DM+PEMF) which were subjected to daily 8-h PEMF exposure for 7 weeks and diabetes mellitus with sham PEMF exposure group (DM). Signs and symptoms of DPN in STZ-treated rats were investigated by using behavioral assays. Meanwhile, ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemical study for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of sciatic nerve were also performed. During a 7-week experimental observation, we found that PEMF stimulation did not alter hyperglycemia and weight loss in STZ-treated rats with DPN. However, PEMF stimulation attenuated the development of the abnormalities observed in STZ-treated rats with DPN, which were demonstrated by increased hind paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical and thermal stimuli, slighter demyelination and axon enlargement and less VEGF immunostaining of sciatic nerve compared to those of the DM group. The current study demonstrates that treatment with PEMF might prevent the development of abnormalities observed in animal models for DPN. It is suggested that PEMF might have direct corrective effects on injured nerves and would be a potentially promising non-invasive therapeutic tool for the treatment of DPN. PMID:23637830

  18. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Iris Frías, Vázquez; Carlos Manuel Dutok, Sánchez; Neivys García, Delgado; Ana María Suarez, Alfonso; Yúlica Santos, Ortega; Hiran Cabrera, Sánchez.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é centrado nos efeitos antiinflamatórios e analgésicos da alga vermelha Dichotomaria obtusata por meio de clássicos testes em camundongos (edema de orelha induzido por TPA e contorção induzida por ácido acético). Também foi determinada a composição química qualitativa [...] do extrato (lactonas, fenóis, triterpenos, esteróides e carboidratos reduzidos). Os resultados mostraram que de Dichotomaria obtusata (12,5, 25 e 50 mg/kg, ip) inibiu o edema de orelha do camundongo de forma dose-dependente. No teste de contorção, extrato aquoso (12,5, 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, ip e 100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg, po) reduziu o contorções abdominais de forma significativa. Em conclusão, o estudo demonstrou a atividades antiinflamatória e antinociceptiva do extrato aquoso em modelos experimentais. Estes resultados sugerem que o extrato aquoso D.obtusata possuem potencial terapêutico no tratamento de dor periférica e/ou de doenças inflamatórias. Abstract in english The aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata, using classic tests in mice (ear edema induced by TPA and writhing induced by acetic acid). The qualitative chemical composition of the aqueous extract (lactones, phenols, [...] triterpenes, steroids and reduced carbohydrates) obtained from this alga was also determined. The results showed that Dichotomaria obtusata (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, ip) inhibited mouse ear edema in a dose-dependent manner. In the writhing test, aqueous extract (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip and 100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg, po) significantly reduced abdominal writhes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of aqueous extract of D. Obtusata in experimental models. These results suggest that D. obtusata aqueous extract possesses therapeutic potential in the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory conditions.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Iris Frías Vázquez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata, using classic tests in mice (ear edema induced by TPA and writhing induced by acetic acid. The qualitative chemical composition of the aqueous extract (lactones, phenols, triterpenes, steroids and reduced carbohydrates obtained from this alga was also determined. The results showed that Dichotomaria obtusata (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, ip inhibited mouse ear edema in a dose-dependent manner. In the writhing test, aqueous extract (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip and 100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg, po significantly reduced abdominal writhes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of aqueous extract of D. Obtusata in experimental models. These results suggest that D. obtusata aqueous extract possesses therapeutic potential in the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory conditions.O objetivo do presente trabalho é centrado nos efeitos antiinflamatórios e analgésicos da alga vermelha Dichotomaria obtusata por meio de clássicos testes em camundongos (edema de orelha induzido por TPA e contorção induzida por ácido acético. Também foi determinada a composição química qualitativa do extrato (lactonas, fenóis, triterpenos, esteróides e carboidratos reduzidos. Os resultados mostraram que de Dichotomaria obtusata (12,5, 25 e 50 mg/kg, ip inibiu o edema de orelha do camundongo de forma dose-dependente. No teste de contorção, extrato aquoso (12,5, 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, ip e 100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg, po reduziu o contorções abdominais de forma significativa. Em conclusão, o estudo demonstrou a atividades antiinflamatória e antinociceptiva do extrato aquoso em modelos experimentais. Estes resultados sugerem que o extrato aquoso D.obtusata possuem potencial terapêutico no tratamento de dor periférica e/ou de doenças inflamatórias.

  20. Do Regional Analgesia and Peripheral Blocks Still Have a Place in Joint Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushner, Fred D

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of regional anesthesia and peripheral nerve blocks in the management of postoperative pain has resulted in widespread use of this approach in hip and knee arthroplasty. With extensive clinical use, however, the limitations of this approach have become apparent. These limitations include delays for the surgeon, inefficient use of the operating room, muscular weakness, and associated delays in physical therapy. Periarticular injection of anesthetic and analgesic medications appears to offer comparable benefits to nerve blocks in joint arthroplasty without these limitations. The long-acting anesthetic bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (EXPAREL®, Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc), in particular, has been shown to be highly effective in managing postoperative pain and reducing opioid consumption. Consequently, a growing body of data and extensive clinical experience now support replacing nerve blocks with periarticular injections. PMID:26447432

  1. Analgesic efficacy of local infiltration analgesia in hip and knee arthroplasty : a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Østergaard; Kehlet, H

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in local infiltration analgesia (LIA) as a technique to control postoperative pain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials investigating LIA for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of LIA for early postoperative pain treatment. In addition, the analgesic efficacy of wound catheters and implications for length of hospital stay (LOS) were evaluated. Twenty-seven randomized controlled trials in 756 patients operated on with THA and 888 patients operated on with TKA were selected for inclusion in the review. In THA, no additional analgesic effect of LIA compared with placebo was reported in trials with low risk of bias when a multimodal analgesic regimen was administered perioperatively. Compared with intrathecal morphine and epidural analgesia, LIA was reported to have similar or improved analgesic efficacy. In TKA, most trials reported reduced pain and reduced opioid requirements with LIA compared with a control group treated with placebo/no injection. Compared with femoral nerve block, epidural or intrathecal morphine LIA provided similar or improved analgesia in the early postoperative period but most trials had a high risk of bias due to different systemic analgesia between groups. Overall, the use of wound catheters for postoperative administration of local anaesthetic was not supported in the included trials, and LOS was not related to analgesic efficacy. Despite the many studies of LIA, final interpretation is hindered by methodological insufficiencies in most studies, especially because of differences in use of systemic analgesia between groups. However, LIA provides effective analgesia in the initial postoperative period after TKA in most randomized clinical trials even when combined with multimodal systemic analgesia. In contrast, LIA may have limited additional analgesic efficacy in THA when combined with a multimodal analgesic regimen. Postoperative administration of local anaesthetic in wound catheters did not provide additional analgesia when systemic analgesia was similar and LOS was not related to use of LIA with a fast-track set-up.

  2. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Pupils, Unequal (Video) Macular Degeneration Additional Content Medical News Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis (Marginal Keratolysis; Peripheral ...

  3. Comparação do efeito analgésico entre etoricoxib 90 mg e dipirona sódica na exérese de pterígio primário com transplante autólogo de conjuntiva / Comparison of the analgesic effect between 90 mg etoricoxib and dipyrone after exeresis of primary pterygium with conjunctival autograft

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kariza Aiko, Frantz; Edney de Rezende, Moura Filho; Murilo Batista, Abud; Marcos Pereira de, Ávila; Leopoldo, Magacho.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito analgésico entre dipirona sódica e etoricoxib 90 mg após exérese de pterígio primário com transplante autólogo de conjuntiva. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-mascarado. Três grupos de 26 pacientes (1 olho por paciente) foram operados [...] e receberam as medicações em estudo durante os cinco dias seguintes à cirurgia. Foi utilizada uma escala de dor, numerada de zero a dez, para avaliação pelo paciente no 1É, 3É e 5É dias pós-operatórios. A dor foi classificada em ausente (zero), leve (1 a 3), moderada (4 a 7) e intensa (8 a 10). A análise estatística foi realizada com o software SPSS, versão 11.5. RESULTADOS: Foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre etoricoxib e dipirona no 1É e 3É dia pós-operatório (PO) (p=0,001 e p=0,01; respectivamente). O etoricoxib foi superior ao placebo apenas no 1É PO (p=0,04). Não houve diferença de resultados entre dipirona e placebo. CONCLUSÕES: A analgesia do etoricoxib foi superior à do placebo no PO1 e à da dipirona no PO1 e PO3, na exérese de pterígio primário com transplante autólogo de conjuntiva. Não houve diferença significativa da analgesia pós-operatória entre dipirona e placebo no mesmo procedimento. Abstract in english Purpose: To compare the analgesic effect between dipyrone, 90 mg etoricoxib, and placebo after excision of primary pterygium with conjunctival autograft. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial. Three groups of 26 patients (one eye per patient) were submitted to surgery and re [...] ceived the study drugs for five days after surgery. A scale of pain was used, graduated from zero to ten, for patient evaluation in the first, third and fifth postoperative days. The pain was classified as absent (zero), mild (1 to 3), moderate (4 to 7) and severe (8 to 10). Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS, version 11.5. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found between etoricoxib and dipyrone in the first and third postoperative days (p=0.001 and p=0.01; respectively). Etoricoxib was superior to placebo only in the first postoperative day (p=0.04). There was no significance in the comparison between dipyrone and placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Analgesia of etoricoxib was superior to placebo in the first postoperative day and to dipyrone in the third and fifth days after excision of primary pterygium with conjunctival autograft. There was no significant difference between dipyrone and placebo in all time points.

  4. Comparação do efeito analgésico entre etoricoxib 90 mg e dipirona sódica na exérese de pterígio primário com transplante autólogo de conjuntiva Comparison of the analgesic effect between 90 mg etoricoxib and dipyrone after exeresis of primary pterygium with conjunctival autograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariza Aiko Frantz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito analgésico entre dipirona sódica e etoricoxib 90 mg após exérese de pterígio primário com transplante autólogo de conjuntiva. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-mascarado. Três grupos de 26 pacientes (1 olho por paciente foram operados e receberam as medicações em estudo durante os cinco dias seguintes à cirurgia. Foi utilizada uma escala de dor, numerada de zero a dez, para avaliação pelo paciente no 1É, 3É e 5É dias pós-operatórios. A dor foi classificada em ausente (zero, leve (1 a 3, moderada (4 a 7 e intensa (8 a 10. A análise estatística foi realizada com o software SPSS, versão 11.5. RESULTADOS: Foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre etoricoxib e dipirona no 1É e 3É dia pós-operatório (PO (p=0,001 e p=0,01; respectivamente. O etoricoxib foi superior ao placebo apenas no 1É PO (p=0,04. Não houve diferença de resultados entre dipirona e placebo. CONCLUSÕES: A analgesia do etoricoxib foi superior à do placebo no PO1 e à da dipirona no PO1 e PO3, na exérese de pterígio primário com transplante autólogo de conjuntiva. Não houve diferença significativa da analgesia pós-operatória entre dipirona e placebo no mesmo procedimento.Purpose: To compare the analgesic effect between dipyrone, 90 mg etoricoxib, and placebo after excision of primary pterygium with conjunctival autograft. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial. Three groups of 26 patients (one eye per patient were submitted to surgery and received the study drugs for five days after surgery. A scale of pain was used, graduated from zero to ten, for patient evaluation in the first, third and fifth postoperative days. The pain was classified as absent (zero, mild (1 to 3, moderate (4 to 7 and severe (8 to 10. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS, version 11.5. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found between etoricoxib and dipyrone in the first and third postoperative days (p=0.001 and p=0.01; respectively. Etoricoxib was superior to placebo only in the first postoperative day (p=0.04. There was no significance in the comparison between dipyrone and placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Analgesia of etoricoxib was superior to placebo in the first postoperative day and to dipyrone in the third and fifth days after excision of primary pterygium with conjunctival autograft. There was no significant difference between dipyrone and placebo in all time points.

  5. Analgesia preventiva en hembras Caninas sometidas a Ovariohisterectomía: comparación del efecto analgésico de Morfina y Tramadol asociados a Xilazina / Comparison of the Preventive Analgesic Effect Between Tramadol and Morphine Associated to Xylazine in Canine Ovaryhisterectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvaldo, Sandoval; Daniel, Herzberg; Sebastián, Galecio; Leonel, Cardona; Hedie, Bustamante.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar y evaluar el grado de analgesia postquirúrgica otorgado por Tramadol o morfina asociados a xilazina administrados por vía intramuscular (IM) en hembras caninas sometidas a ovariohisterectomía (OVH). Se utilizaron 24 animales adultos, sin distinción de ra [...] za y edad. Previo al procedimiento quirúrgico, los animales se dividieron en forma aleatoria conformado uno de los siguientes grupos: Grupo Control: 0,5 mg/kg de xilazina, Grupo Morfina: 0,5 mg/kg de xilazina + 0,4 mg/kg de morfina y Grupo Tramadol: 0,5 mg/kg de xilazina + 3 mg/kg de Tramadol. Las cirugías se desarrollaron de forma rutinaria sin presentarse anormalidades bajo anestesia general con isoflurano. La evaluación se inició 30 minutos postextubación durante 10 horas, a intervalos de 30 minutos, las primeras 6 horas y cada 1 hora por las siguientes 4 horas. El grado de algesia fue determinado mediante una escala de valoración numérica (EVN). Las diferencias entre tratamientos se evaluaron utilizando análisis de varianza de Kruskall Wallis y el método de comparación múltiple de Wilcoxon, considerando significativo un valor de P menor a 0,05. Los valores de algesia presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to compare and evaluate the postoperative analgesic effects after the preventive administration of Tramadol and Morphine combined with Xylazine in canine ovarihysterectomy. Twenty four adult bitches without distinction of race and age were used. Animals were ra [...] ndomly assigned to three different groups receiving respectively: Control Group: 0.5 mg/kg Xilazine, Tramadol Group 0.5 mg/kg xilazine + 3 mg/kg Tramadol and Morphine Group: 0.5 mg/kg Xilazine + 0.4 mg/kg Morphine. Surgeries were carried out without complications under general anaesthesia under Isoflurane. Pain evaluations started 30 minutes after removing the endotracheal tube and carried out for 10 hours every thirty minutes for the first six hours and then every hour. Pain scores were determined using a numerical rating scale. Pain scores between different treatments were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis non-parametric analysis of variance. A value of P

  6. Anestesia peridural com lidocaína isolada ou associada à clonidina: efeito cardiorrespiratório e analgésico em cães / Epidural anesthesia with lidocaine alone or combinated with clonidine: cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Navarro, Cassu; Alessandra, Melchert; Gláucia Moreno, Machado; Carlos Collares, Meirelles.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Analgesia satisfatória tem sido relatada com a administração peridural de agonistas adrenérgicos em associação aos anestésicos locais. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito analgésico e cardiorrespiratório da lidocaína isolada ou associada à clonidina via peridural lombossacra em cães. S [...] eis cães foram submetidos a dois tratamentos, com intervalo mínimo de 15 dias entre cada avaliação. No tratamento L, foi empregada lidocaína 2% com vasoconstrictor (5mg kg-1) e, no tratamento C, a clonidina (10µg kg-1) foi associada à lidocaína, de modo a perfazer um volume final de 0,25ml kg-1. Os animais foram tranquilizados com acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1 IV) e mantidos sob anestesia com isofluorano em máscara facial durante a punção do espaço peridural. Foram mensuradas: frequência cardíaca (FC), parâmetros eletrocardiográficos (ECG), frequência respiratória (f), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), gases sanguíneos, temperatura retal (T), duração e extensão do bloqueio anestésico. A estatística foi realizada com análise de variância, teste de Tukey e teste t pareado (P Abstract in english Satisfactory analgesia has been related with epidural 2 adrenoceptor agonists in combination with local anesthetics. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of lidocaine or lidocaine-clonidine epidural injections in healthy dogs. Dogs were