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Quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of allylphenols with peripheral analgesic effect  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ammonium salt derivatives of natural allylphenols were synthesized with the purpose of obtaining potential peripheral analgesics. These drugs, by virtue of their physicochemical properties, would not be able to cross the blood brain barrier. Their inability to enter into the central nervous system ( [...] CNS) should prevent several adverse effects observed with classical opiate analgesics (Ferreira et al., 1984). Eugenol (1) O-methyleugenol (5) and safrole (9) were submitted to nitration, reduction and permethylation, leading to the ammonium salts 4, 8 and 12. Another strategy applied to eugenol (1), consisting in its conversion to a glycidic ether (13), opening the epoxide ring with secondary amines and methylation, led to the ammonium salts 16 and 17. All these ammonium salts showed significant peripheral analgesic action, in modified version of the Randall-Sellito test (Ferreira et al. 1978), at non-lethal doses. The ammonium salt 8 showed an activity comparable to that of methylnalorphinium, the prototype of an ideal peripheral analgesic (Ferreira et al., 1984).

A. B de, Oliveira; T. H. A., Silva; S. H., Ferreira; B. B., Lorenzetti.

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Quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of allylphenols with peripheral analgesic effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ammonium salt derivatives of natural allylphenols were synthesized with the purpose of obtaining potential peripheral analgesics. These drugs, by virtue of their physicochemical properties, would not be able to cross the blood brain barrier. Their inability to enter into the central nervous system (CNS should prevent several adverse effects observed with classical opiate analgesics (Ferreira et al., 1984. Eugenol (1 O-methyleugenol (5 and safrole (9 were submitted to nitration, reduction and permethylation, leading to the ammonium salts 4, 8 and 12. Another strategy applied to eugenol (1, consisting in its conversion to a glycidic ether (13, opening the epoxide ring with secondary amines and methylation, led to the ammonium salts 16 and 17. All these ammonium salts showed significant peripheral analgesic action, in modified version of the Randall-Sellito test (Ferreira et al. 1978, at non-lethal doses. The ammonium salt 8 showed an activity comparable to that of methylnalorphinium, the prototype of an ideal peripheral analgesic (Ferreira et al., 1984.

A. B de Oliveira

1991-01-01

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Effectiveness of the association between carbamazepine and peripheral analgesic block with ropivacaine for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia  

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Full Text Available Laurinda Lemos1,2, Ramalho Fontes3, Sara Flores2, Pedro Oliveira4, Armando Almeida11Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS, School of Health Sciences, Campus de Gualtar, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Hospital Center of Alto Ave, Unit of Fafe, Fafe, Portugal; 3Department of Neurology, Hospital São Marcos, Braga, Portugal; 4Products and Systems Engineering, Campus de Azurém, University of Minho, Guimarães, PortugalAbstract: Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN is achieved by using adjuvant analgesics like antiepileptics, with carbamazepine (CBZ being the first-line approach for TN patients, although side effects may be present. Other approaches using gabapentin, namely when associated with peripheral analgesic block of TN trigger points with the local anesthetic ropivacaine (ROP, resulted in decreased pain and daily drug intake (reduced side effects. This study evaluates if the association between CBZ and the peripheral block with ROP reinforces the clinical value of CBZ. In this parallel, double-blinded study, idiopathic TN patients were randomized to receive during 4 weeks either CBZ (CBZ; n = 21 or CBZ associated with the peripheral analgesic block using ROP (CBZ + ROP; n = 24. The primary outcome measures were the following: i pain intensity, evaluated by the numerical rating scale; ii number of pain crises; and iii number needed to treat. Evaluation points were at the beginning (day 1 and end (day 29 of treatment and after a follow-up of 5 months (month 6. Both protocols resulted in a decrease of pain intensity and number of pain crises, but only the association CBZ + ROP showed i a significant stronger reduction in pain intensity at month 6 and ii a significant decrease in the daily dose of CBZ given to patients (both at day 29 and month 6. In contrast, the daily dose in CBZ-only patients remained constant or even increased. The number needed to treat for the association CBZ + ROP over the CBZ protocol reduced from 5 at the end of the 4-week treatment to 3 after the 5-month follow-up. Data reinforce the use of CBZ as a primary tool to control pain in TN patients, as the association CBZ + ROP i improves the clinical qualities of CBZ, ii strongly reduces the daily dose of CBZ, and iii reduces the potential side effects attributed to high doses of CBZ.Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, carbamazepine, ropivacaine, therapeutical association, pain intensity, daily dose

Laurinda Lemos

2010-10-01

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[Peripheral acting mediators pain and analgesia potentiate the central analgesic action of fentanyl and dipyrone].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intramuscular (i.m.) administration of the central analgesics fentanyl and dipyrone, and also mediators of pain such as L-glutamate, CCK, ATP, phenylephine and analgesic mediator adenosine, slightly penetrating in CNS, in the minimum effective dose (MED) cause the maximal analgesic effect in the tail flick test in rats. MED of dipyrone and fentanyl are decreased 50-220-fold after combined i.m. administration of each analgesic with L-glutamate, CCK, adenosine, ATP and phenylephrine in threshold, independently noneffective doses. The intragastric administration of lidocaine and also subdiaphragmatic vagotomy completely eliminate analgesic effects of the above mentioned combinations. Conclusion: the peripherically acting mediators of pain and analgesia after systemic administration potentiate central analgesic action of fentanyl and dipyrone as a result of the stimulation of vagal afferents of gastric mucosa. PMID:22645941

Serdiuk, S E; Gmiro, V E

2012-03-01

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Cardiovascular effects of common analgesics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clycoxygenase (COX) enzyme forms locally active prostaglandins responsible for producing inflammation and pain. Classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) inhibit the COX-2 enzyme that produces inflammatory prostaglandins as well as the COX-1 enzyme that produces gastric mucosa protecting prostaglandins. By specifically inhibiting only the COX-2 enzyme, coxibs thus reduce pain but do not damage the gastric mucosa. However, COX-2 at the vascular endothelium produces antithrombotic prostaglandins, and so by inhibiting COX-2 enzyme, the coxibs promote thrombosis. Rofecoxib and valdecoxib have been withdrawn because of the adverse cardiovascular events they induce. Amongst presently available coxibs cardiovascular risk is highest with enterocoxib and lowest with celecoxib. NSAIDS also increase cardiovascular events, the risk is highest with diclofenac and lowest with naproxen. Paracetamol and corticosteroids induce hypertension, while steroids also adversely affect the heart from metabolic change as well as fluid retention. Aspirin is an anti-thrombotic agent because of its ability to inhibit the COX-1 enzyme that produces the pro-aggregatory thromboxane. However, it increases gastrointestinal bleeding, can promote fluid retention and is nephrotoxic, all of which may lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Patients at especially high risk of cardiovascular events from analgesic use include the elderly, and those with heart failure, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal disease, chronic obstructive airway disease and previous myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease. Adverse cardiovascular events can occur within a week of initiation of analgesic treatment. PMID:23629578

Ong, H T; Ong, L M; Tan, T E; Chean, K Y

2013-04-01

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Analgesic effects of crude extracts of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study describes the analgesic effects of the crude extracts (hexane, methylene chloride and ethanol) obtained from the aerial parts of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae) using the writhing test and the hot plate models for pain in mice. The extracts in hexane and methylene chloride, given orally, produced significant antinociception in the writhing test. On the other hand, none of the extracts had a significant effect on the hot plate test, a fact suggesting that the substances present in the extracts may rather have peripheral analgesic activity. PMID:15040462

Vasconcelos, M A Lemos; Ferreira, D da Silva; Andrade e Silva, M L; Veneziani, R Cassio Sola; Cunha, W R

2003-10-01

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[Analgesic effect of Pilostigma reticulatum (nguiguis)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mankind has always given himself means to fight pain by using at first, means offered to him by his environment particularly the plants. African pharmacopoeia is rich of thousand of plants. It changes in term of its ecosystem and its vegetation. Decocted leaves of pilostigma reticulatum (nguiguis in ouolof) are used in western Africa, because of its analgesic properties in case of "borom bop" literally meaning headache associated to odontalgias and mumps. In our study we used lyophilisate obtained from dry leaves of the plant which has been used for experimentation while the decocted dry leaves have been used for clinical application. So, it appeared that leaves of pilostigma reticulatum are almost atoxic when administrated by oral tract (DL50 = 17 g/kg) according to GLEASON classification which recognizes as atoxic every substance having a DL50 higher to 15 g of lyophilisate by kilogram of corporal weight. Elsewhere the study of the peripheric analgesic activity (according to the acetic acid test) has shown a very significant peripheric analgesia since the dose of 750 mg/kg which climbs with it. The clinical survey carried out at the dental community center of Pikine Icotaf based on the usual method of the utilization of the decocted (as mouth rinse) has shown that, this plant procures pain sedation in 97% of the patients having undergone dental avulsion and in 78% of the cases of desmondontal syndromes. This inaugural report must be continued in order to certify the pharmacologic or toxic effects of that plant and define clinical doses from experimental doses we have cleared. PMID:11372139

Diallo, B; Diouf, A

2000-12-01

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The analgesic action of topical diclofenac may be mediated through peripheral NMDA receptor antagonism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The analgesic mechanism underlying the efficacy of topical diclofenac in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain is incompletely understood. The present study investigated whether intramuscular injection of diclofenac (0.1mg/ml, approximately 340microM) could attenuate jaw-closer muscle nociceptor discharge and mechanical sensitization induced by activation of peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) or excitatory amino acid receptors in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Diclofenac inhibited nociceptor discharge evoked by NMDA, but had no effect on nociceptor discharge evoked by 5-hydroxytryptamine or AMPA. Subsequent experiments revealed that diclofenac-mediated inhibition of NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge was competitive. Intramuscular injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine, NMDA and AMPA also decreased nociceptor mechanical threshold, however, only the mechanical sensitization produced by NMDA was reversed by diclofenac. Co-administration of the proinflammatory prostaglandin PGE(2) did not alter the ability ofdiclofenac to significantly attenuate NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge or NMDA-induced mechanical sensitization. Intramuscular injection of either diclofenac or the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (50mM) alone could elevate nociceptor mechanical threshold for a 30min period post-injection. The present study indicates that in vivo, diclofenac can exert a selective, competitive inhibition of peripheral NMDA receptors at muscle concentrations achievable after topical administration of diclofenac containing preparations. This property may contribute to the analgesic effect of topical diclofenac when used for muscle pain.

Dong, Xu-Dong; Svensson, Peter

2009-01-01

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The analgesic action of topical diclofenac may be mediated through peripheral NMDA receptor antagonism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analgesic mechanism underlying the efficacy of topical diclofenac in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain is incompletely understood. The present study investigated whether intramuscular injection of diclofenac (0.1mg/ml, approximately 340microM) could attenuate jaw-closer muscle nociceptor discharge and mechanical sensitization induced by activation of peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) or excitatory amino acid receptors in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Diclofenac inhibited nociceptor discharge evoked by NMDA, but had no effect on nociceptor discharge evoked by 5-hydroxytryptamine or AMPA. Subsequent experiments revealed that diclofenac-mediated inhibition of NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge was competitive. Intramuscular injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine, NMDA and AMPA also decreased nociceptor mechanical threshold, however, only the mechanical sensitization produced by NMDA was reversed by diclofenac. Co-administration of the proinflammatory prostaglandin PGE(2) did not alter the ability of diclofenac to significantly attenuate NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge or NMDA-induced mechanical sensitization. Intramuscular injection of either diclofenac or the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (50mM) alone could elevate nociceptor mechanical threshold for a 30min period post-injection. The present study indicates that in vivo, diclofenac can exert a selective, competitive inhibition of peripheral NMDA receptors at muscle concentrations achievable after topical administration of diclofenac containing preparations. This property may contribute to the analgesic effect of topical diclofenac when used for muscle pain. PMID:19766393

Dong, Xu-Dong; Svensson, Peter; Cairns, Brian E

2009-12-15

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Botulinum toxin type A induces direct analgesic effects in chronic neuropathic pain.  

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OBJECTIVE: Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been reported to have analgesic effects independent of its action on muscle tone, possibly by acting on neurogenic inflammation. Such a mechanism may be involved in peripheral neuropathic pain. METHODS: A possible direct analgesic effect of BTX-A pain processing was investigated in 29 patients with focal painful neuropathies and mechanical allodynia using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Patients received a one-time intraderm...

Ranoux, Danie?le; Attal, Nadine; Morain, Franc?oise; Bouhassira, Didier

2008-01-01

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Analgesic treatment with pregabalin does not prevent persistent pain after peripheral nerve injury in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing the risk of chronic postoperative pain through preventive analgesia is an attractive therapeutic concept. Because peripheral nerve lesions are a major cause of chronic pain after surgery, we tested in rats whether analgesic treatment with pregabalin (PGB) has the capacity to mitigate the development of persistent neuropathic pain-like behavior. Starting on the day of spared nerve injury or 1week later, we treated rats with a continuous intrathecal infusion of PGB (300 or 900?g/24hours) or vehicle for up to 28days. Rats receiving early PGB treatment had almost normal withdrawal thresholds for punctate mechanical stimuli and were clearly less sensitive to pinprick or cold stimulation. The responses to punctate mechanical and cold stimulation were still reduced for a brief period after the infusion was terminated, but the difference from vehicle-treated rats was minor. Essentially, the analgesic effect of PGB was limited to the duration of the infusion, whether analgesia started at the time of surgery or with a delay of 1week, independently of the length of the treatment. PGB did not suppress the activation of spinal microglia, indicating that analgesia alone does not eliminate certain pain mechanisms even if they depend, at least partially, on nociceptive input. Unexpectedly, intrathecal infusion of PGB did not inhibit the nerve injury-induced accumulation of its binding target, the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit ?2?1, at primary afferent terminals in the spinal cord. Interference with the synaptic trafficking of ?2?1 is not required to achieve analgesia with PGB. PMID:24176928

Yang, Fang; Whang, John; Derry, William T; Vardeh, Daniel; Scholz, Joachim

2014-02-01

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Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction  

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Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and...

2010-01-01

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Side effects of commonly prescribed analgesic medications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analgesics, including opioids, steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, acetaminophen, antiepileptics, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, are medications commonly used to treat many forms of pain. However, all of these agents may have significant adverse side effects. Adverse effects may occasionally be inseparable from desired effects. Side effects are often dose dependent and time dependent. It is critical that the prescribing practitioner and the dispensing pharmacist provide a thorough, understandable review of the potential side effects to all patients before these drugs are administered. Proper monitoring and follow-up during therapy are crucial. PMID:24787343

Carter, Gregory T; Duong, Vicky; Ho, Stanley; Ngo, Kathryn C; Greer, Christopher L; Weeks, Douglas L

2014-05-01

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Analgesic effect of extracts of Alpinia galanga rhizome in mice  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the analgesic effect of extracts of Alpinia galanga (AG rhizome in mice and elucidate the possible mechanism for its analgesic action. Methods: Analgesic action of extracts of AG rhizome was studied in three experimental models of nociception. Albino mice of both sexes weighing 25 to 30 g were used in this study. For the hot-plate test, mice in the five groups with six in each received three different doses of ethanolic extracts of dried rhizome of AG suspended in 2% gum acacia orally, morphine subcutaneously and 2% gum acacia orally, respectively. Reaction time was observed after administration of vehicle or drugs. For the hot-plate test after naloxone pretreatment, mice in the five groups received naloxone subcutaneously 30 min prior to the administration of vehicle or drugs and reaction time was observed as explained above. In the writhing test, writhes were induced by injecting acetic acid intraperitoneally in another 30 mice which were randomly allocated to five groups of six in each and received three different doses of ethanolic extracts of dried rhizome of AG suspended in 2% gum acacia, aspirin suspended in 2% gum acacia and 2% gum acacia orally, respectively. The mice were observed individually for a period of 15 min and the number of writhes was recorded for each animal.Results: AG treatment significantly increased the latency period in the hot-plate test at all three doses at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min time intervals compared with control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Naloxone pretreatment significantly reduced the latency period in hot-plate test for both AG and morphine groups as compared with corresponding groups that did not receive naloxone pretreatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01. AG at all doses significantly reduced the number of writhes compared with control group (P<0.01. Conclusion: The study confirmed the analgesic effect of AG rhizome and hence justified its use in ethnomedicine for the treatment of pain due to various causes. The probable mechanism of its analgesic action may be central as well as peripheral.

Sahana Devadasa Acharya

2011-01-01

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[The effect of cholinergic agents on the analgesic effect of nonnarcotic analgesics].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of cholinergic agents on the analgetic effect of analgin (pyrazoline derivative) and chemical compounds (quinazoline and triazole derivatives) has been studied in experiments on white mice using a "hot plate" technique. It has been found that an M-cholinomimetic pilocarpine decreases pain sensitivity and enhances considerably the analgetic effect of non-narcotic analgesics, especially that of quinazoline and triazole derivatives. At high doses (10 mg/kg) pilocarpine increases drastically the toxicity of analgin. Contrastingly, an M-cholinoblocker atropine does not affect considerably the pain sensitivity, however blocks completely the analgetic effect of all the drugs studied. The role of cholinergic mechanisms in the maintenance of pain sensitivity level and the onset of the analgetic effect of non-narcotic analgesics as well as the clinical value of the data obtained are discussed. PMID:2629534

Stets, V R; Slivko, S F

1989-01-01

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Study of Analgesic Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cinammom  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: The side effects due to application of synthetic analgesic drugs in the clinical practice have turned on researchers to focus on development of herbal medicine as more appropriate analgesic agents. The aim of this study was evaluation the analgesic effects of hydroalcholic extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum in comparison with morphine and aspirin.Materiales and Methods: For preparing the hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum the maceration method was used. Wistar male rats were divided into eight groups of 6 rats, randomly and treated groups have received 200, 400, 600, 800 mg/kg extract and the two positive control groups received 2.5 mg/kg morphine or 300mg/kg aspirin. Negative control group received normal saline (5ml/kg and an additional group also received 600 mg/kg extract+1mg/kg naloxan intraperitonealy respectively. 50 µl formalin 2.5% was injected in right hindpaw subcutaneously and analgesic behaviors were scored.Results: The results revealed that the Cinnamomum Zeylanicum extract had analgesic effect as dose-dependent and its analgesic effective dose was 600 mg/kg. Our results showed that the analgesic effect of its best effective dose (600mg/kg on acute pain was more than aspirin while it was less than morphine. Also the effect of extract on chronic pain was less than morphine and aspirin. There were no significant differences between analgesic effects of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum extract with naloxone or alone.Conclusion: We concluded that the analgesic effect of Cinnamo- mum Zeylanicum extract is dose-dependent and is driven negatively through opioid receptors.Sci Med J 2011; 10(3:271-279

Arzi Ardeshir

2011-07-01

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Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain+Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the "Pain Alone" session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time. PMID:20188470

Campbell, Claudia M; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L; Campbell, James N; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R

2010-05-01

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Analgesic effect of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irvingia gabonensis is used medicinally in most parts of tropical Africa for the treatment of a number of ailments. In West Africa the Mende tribe of Sierra Leone uses the stem bark to relieve pain. In order to establish a pharmacological rationale for the traditional use of this plant as a remedy for pain, the water and ethanol extracts of the powdered stem bark were screened for analgesic activity and compared with standard analgesic drugs. The water extract and morphine protected the mice from heat-induced pain. In contrast, the ethanol extract and metamizole sodium showed very low level of analgesic activity in this test. However, using tail pressure as a source of pain, the water and ethanol extracts, metamizole sodium and morphine offered protection to the mice against pain stimuli. Morphine and the water extract were more potent as analgesic agents in heat than non-heat pain test. The analgesic effects of the water extract and morphine were blocked by a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone in both tests, whereas the analgesic effects of the ethanol extract and metamizole sodium were not antagonized by the same dose of the opioid antagonist. The data presented in this study suggest that the active principle(s) in the water extract has analgesic profile similar to that of the narcotic analgesic and the ethanol extract might contain compound(s) that behave like non-narcotic analgesic agent. These findings provide for the first time the pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of Irvingia gabonensis in the relief of pain. PMID:7776661

Okolo, C O; Johnson, P B; Abdurahman, E M; Abdu-Aguye, I; Hussaini, I M

1995-02-01

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Intrathecal administration of epinephrine inhibits and reverses analgesic tolerance to analgesic effect of morphine in rats  

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Introduction: Several researches have reported that stress is able to inhibit the development of morphine tolerance via activating of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. In the present study we tried to examine the effect of epinephrine, the product of adrenal medulla, on the development of morphine tolerance. Methods: Analgesic tolerance was induced by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of morphine 15 ?g/kg, twice a day for 5 days. To study the effect of epinephrine on morphine tolerance, ...

Leila Satarian; Mohammad Javan; Yagoob Fathollahi

2006-01-01

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Intrathecal administration of epinephrine inhibits and reverses analgesic tolerance to analgesic effect of morphine in rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Several researches have reported that stress is able to inhibit the development of morphine tolerance via activating of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA axis. In the present study we tried to examine the effect of epinephrine, the product of adrenal medulla, on the development of morphine tolerance. Methods: Analgesic tolerance was induced by intrathecal (i.t. injection of morphine 15 ?g/kg, twice a day for 5 days. To study the effect of epinephrine on morphine tolerance, epinephrine (2, 5, 10 or 20 ?g/kg, i.t. was administrated 20 minutes before morphine injection. Analgesia was assessed using tail flick test. Results: In animals that received combined treatments of morphine and epinephrine in doses 2, 5, 10 or 20 ?g/ kg for 5 days, at 6th day, morphine produced a more potent analgesia comparing with animals that received saline and morphine during days 1-5. Following tolerance induction during first 5 days, co-administration of epinephrine and morphine during days 6 – 10 reduced the initial tolerance as it induced potent analgesia on day 11th. Conclusion: Our results showed that i.t. administration of epinephrine is able to inhibit and reverse the analgesic tolerance to morphine. It also suggests the possible role of adrenal medulla and epinephrine in mediating the inhibitory effect of stress and HPA activation of the development of analgesic tolerance to morphine.

Leila Satarian

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

Bates, John J

2012-02-03

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The analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piperine, is the major active principal of black pepper. In traditional medicine, black pepper has been used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent and in the treatment of epilepsy. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine in mice. The analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine were studied in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick assay, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and picrotoxin (PIC)-induced seizures models. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of piperine (30, 50 and 70 mg/kg) significantly inhibited (Ppiperine (30 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant increase (Ppiperine and morphine in the tail flick assay. Piperine (30, 50 and 70 mg/kg, i.p.) and standard drugs, valproic acid (200 mg/kg, i.p.), carbamazepine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (Ppiperine exhibits analgesic and anticonvulsant effects possibly mediated via opioid and GABA-ergic pathways respectively. Moreover, piperine being the main constituent of black pepper, may be contributing factor in the medicinal uses of black pepper in pain and epilepsy. PMID:24388894

Bukhari, I A; Pivac, N; Alhumayyd, M S; Mahesar, A L; Gilani, A H

2013-12-01

23

[Analgesic effect and no physical dependence of amygdalin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Analgesic effect of amygdalin (AM) in mice was observed in hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests. AM did not induce tolerance as morphine did, and did not cause morphine-characteristic tail-erecting response in mice. Mice given AM and then challenged with nalorphine showed no jumping response. AM could not substitute for morphine in morphine-addicted rats in relieving withdrawal syndrome. No antiinflammatory activity was found with AM. PMID:8011131

Zhu, Y P; Su, Z W; Li, C H

1994-02-01

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Effects of preemptive Ketamine on post-cesarean analgesic requirement  

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Full Text Available In a randomized, double blind study , we compared post operative pain and analgesic requirement in patients undergoing cesarean section with two types of general anesthesia: standardized general anesthesia (control group=26 cases and preemptive low-dose ketamine (0.2 mg/kg administered prior to anesthesia induction (keratmine group=27 cases. Postoperative analgesia was provided for both groups using morphine intravenously based on visual analogue scale (VAS. After the operation we found that the time from the end of surgery to the first request for analgesic was longer in ketamine group (10.22±8 hrs than in the control group (1.65±1.01 hrs0 (P<0.001 Mean dose of morphine consumption over 24 hrs was less in the ketamine group (625±3.45 mg than in the control group (17.73±4.08 mg (P<0.001 VAS of pain scores were lower in ketamine group during 24 hr (P<0.001. APGAR Scores were similar between the groups. No patient in either group had postoperative hallucination. In conclusion, ketamine in low dose has a preemptive analgesia effect that reduces central sensitization in cesarean section and reduces postoperative analgesic requirement.

"Ghazi Saidi K

2002-06-01

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Analgesic effects of gabapentine in tonsillectomy  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the preemptive effects of gabapentin on postoperative pain relief and its effect on meperidine consumption in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Methods: This study took place in King Abdulaziz Naval Base Hospital in the year 2009. Sixty patients ASA I and II were randomly assigned in a prospective randomized double- blind placebo-control clinical trial. Gabapentine 1200 mg or placebo was given orally two hours before induction of anesthesia to patients undergoing tonsillectomy under general anesthesia. Postoperative pain score was recorded on a visual analogue scale at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 postoperative hours. Patients received meperidine 1 mg/ kg i.m once every 4 h if pain score 3 or if requested by the patient. Total dose of meperidine consumption was recorded. Results: Thirty patients in the gabapentine group and 30 patients in the placebo group completed the study. Patients in gabapentine group had significantly lower pain score in comparison to placebo group. Total postoperative meperidine consumption in the gabapentin group was (48.8±33.9 VS 93.8 ± 54.6 in the placebo group (P< 0.001. There was higher incidence of nausea, vomiting, and use of antiemetic drugs in the placebo group. Conclusion: Preemptive use of gabapentine decreased pain score and post operative meperidine consumption and reduced meperidine ­related adverse effects in patients undergoing tonsillectomy under general anesthesia.

Waleed Abdelmageed*, Salah Abdelrazik**, Ahmad Nassar

2010-06-01

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Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Enhanced Analgesic Effect of Oxycodone Compared to Morphine in Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain  

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Oxycodone is a ?-opioid receptor agonist, used for the treatment of a large variety of painful disorders. Several studies have reported that oxycodone is a more potent pain reliever than morphine, and that it improves the quality of life of patients. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of these two opioids are only partially understood. The aim of this study was to define the molecular changes underlying the long-lasting analgesic effects of oxycodone and morphine in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy induced by a chemotherapic agent, vincristine. Using a behavioural approach, we show that oxycodone maintains an optimal analgesic effect after chronic treatment, whereas the effect of morphine dies down. In addition, using DNA microarray technology on dorsal root ganglia, we provide evidence that the long-term analgesic effect of oxycodone is due to an up-regulation in GABAB receptor expression in sensory neurons. These receptors are transported to their central terminals within the dorsal horn, and subsequently reinforce a presynaptic inhibition, since only the long-lasting (and not acute) anti-hyperalgesic effect of oxycodone was abolished by intrathecal administration of a GABAB receptor antagonist; in contrast, the morphine effect was unaffected. Our study demonstrates that the GABAB receptor is functionally required for the alleviating effect of oxycodone in neuropathic pain condition, thus providing new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the sustained analgesic action of oxycodone.

Thibault, Karine; Calvino, Bernard; Rivals, Isabelle; Marchand, Fabien; Dubacq, Sophie; McMahon, Stephen B.; Pezet, Sophie

2014-01-01

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Postoperative analgesic effects of dexamethasone sodium phosphate in bunion surgery.  

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A double-blind study was performed to evaluate the postoperative analgesic effects of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. This steroid or normal saline was randomly injected immediately after surgery into both feet of 51 patients who had identical procedures performed on each foot for the correction of bunion deformities. Pain as assessed by the patients at 24 hr. and from 4 to 7 days postoperatively was significantly less in the feet treated with the steroid. No complications were attributed to the steroid treatment. This study supports the use of dexamethasone sodium phosphate for postoperative analgesia. PMID:6352788

Curda, G A

1983-01-01

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Dipyrone elicits substantial inhibition of peripheral cyclooxygenases in humans: new insights into the pharmacology of an old analgesic.  

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Dipyrone (INN, metamizol) is a common analgesic used worldwide. Its widespread prescription or over-the-counter use in many countries (e.g., Brazil, Israel, Mexico, Russia, Spain) requires insight into its mode of action. This study therefore addressed the impact of its metabolites 4-methyl-amino-antipyrine (MAA) and 4-amino-antipyrine (AA) on peripheral cyclooxygenases (COX). Pharmacokinetics of metabolites and ex vivo COX inhibition were assessed in five volunteers receiving dipyrone at single oral doses of 500 or 1000 mg. Coagulation-induced thromboxane B2 formation and lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis were measured in vitro and ex vivo in human whole blood as indices of COX-1 and COX-2 activity. In vitro, metabolites elicited no substantial COX-1/COX-2 selectivity with MAA (IC50=2.55 micromol/L for COX-1; IC50=4.65 micromol/L for COX-2), being approximately 8.2- or 9-fold more potent than AA. After administration of dipyrone, MAA plasma concentrations remained above the IC50 values for each isoform for at least 8 h (500 mg) and 12 h (1000 mg) postdose. COX inhibition correlated with MAA plasma levels (ex vivo IC50 values of 1.03 micromol/L [COX-1] and 0.87 micromol/L [COX-2]). By contrast, plasma peak concentrations of AA after the 1000 mg dose were 2.8- and 6.5-fold below its IC50 values for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. Maximal inhibitions of COX-1 and COX-2 were 94% and 87% (500 mg), 97% and 94% (1000 mg). Taken together, dipyrone elicits a substantial and virtually equipotent inhibition of COX isoforms via MAA. Given the profound COX-2 suppression by dipyrone, which was considerably above COX-2 inhibition by single analgesic doses of celecoxib and rofecoxib, a significant portion of its analgesic action may be ascribed to peripheral mechanisms. In view of the observed COX-1 suppression, physicochemical factors (lack of acidity) rather than differential COX-1 inhibition may be responsible for dipyrone's favorable gastrointestinal tolerability compared with acidic COX inhibitors. PMID:17435173

Hinz, Burkhard; Cheremina, Olga; Bachmakov, Jouri; Renner, Bertold; Zolk, Oliver; Fromm, Martin F; Brune, Kay

2007-08-01

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Effects of repeated oxycodone administration on its analgesic and subjective effects in normal, healthy volunteers  

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Tolerance to the analgesic effects of opioids has been demonstrated in laboratory animals after repeated drug administration, yet this effect has been studied less frequently under controlled laboratory conditions in humans. This within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine if tolerance developed to the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of the commonly prescribed opioid oxycodone when it was administered daily for 5 days. The effects of oxyco...

Cooper, Ziva D.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Manubay, Jeanne M.; Haney, Margaret; Foltin, Richard W.; Evans, Suzette M.; Kowalczyk, William J.; Saccone, Phillip A.; Comer, Sandra D.

2012-01-01

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Comparing Early Postoperative Period Analgesic Effect of Dexketoprofene Trometamol and Lornoxicam in Mediastinoscopy Cases  

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Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed comparing early postoperative period analgesic effectiveness and the effects on opioid consumption of intravenous dexketoprofen and lornoxicam that are given preemptively. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, planned elective mediastinoscopy, were included in this prospective randomized study. These patients were classified in two groups, group D for dexketoprofene trometamol and group L for lornoxicam, randomly. 20 minutes before the operation 50 mg dexketoprofene trometamol and 8 mg lornoxicam were injected intravenously for group D and group L respectively. In postoperative intensive care unit, pain scores, mean arterial pressures, heart rates and peripheric O2 saturations of patients were recorded at 0, 10, 20, 60, 90 and 120th minutes. Results: When we evaluate the VAS score of the groups, there was a significant decrease in group D in all measured timesstatistically compairing to group L (p0.05. Conclusion: Since intravenous dexketoprofen, applied preemptively, has more potent analgesic effect and causing less opioid consumption in early postoperative period, is better than intravenous lornoxicam.

Gonul Sagiroglu

2011-04-01

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Analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of chalcones isolated from Myracrodruon urundeuva allemão.  

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The present work showed analgesic and antiinflammatory activities from a fraction containing three dimeric chalcones (chalcone enriched fraction - CEF), isolated from the stem-bark ethyl acetate extract of Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemao (Anacardiaceae). M. urundeuva is a popular medicinal plant used widely in Northeast Brazil, mainly as a topical female genital tract antiinflammatory. We observed that the CEF (5 and 10 mg/kg body wt., i.p. or p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions in mice. In the formalin test, the CEF (5 and 10 mg/kg body wt.) was more effective intraperitoneally and inhibited predominantly the second phase of response. Naloxone reversed this effect, indicating an involvement of the opioid system. The CEF (10 and 20 mg/kg body wt.) also increased the reaction time to thermal stimuli in the hot-plate test in mice, after i.p. but not after p.o. administration. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema test in mice, the CEF (20 and 40 mg/kg body wt.) decreased paw volume significantly, after i.p. administration 2-4 hours after carrageenan injection. The CEF (40 mg/kg body wt.) was also active orally during the same period of time. The present work is the first report on peripheral and central analgesic effects and antiinflammatory activity of natural dimeric chalcones. PMID:12725575

Viana, G S B; Bandeira, M A M; Matos, F J A

2003-03-01

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Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn  

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Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ?Country Mallow? is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80?C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals? models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

Goyal Naveen

2009-01-01

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ANALGESIC AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF TOTAL EXTRACT, FLAVONOID FRACTION AND VOLATILE OIL OF SALVIA HYDRANGEA  

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Background. Gol-e-arvaneh with the scientific name of salvia hydrangea (Labiatea) belongs to Salvia genus. In traditional medicine it has been used as analgesic, relieving headache, cold remedy, antipyretic and diuretic. Since until now this plant has not been investigated pharacologically. This study was aimed to find any anti-inflammatory or analgesic activity of the plant. Methods. At first, total extract, flavonoid fraction and volatile oil was prepared. Analgesic effect was assessed...

Haj Hashemi, V. A.; Ghanadi, A.; Mosavi, D.

2000-01-01

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Analgesic Effects and Side Effects of Combinations of Morphine and Dextroamphetamine.  

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To evaluate the feasibility of combination drug therapy for postoperative pain, analgesic and other effects of morphine and dextroamphetamine administered together were measured in 450 surgical patients in five Veterans Administration Hospitals using a ra...

D. L. Mahler G. Teutsch R. Defalque P. Shroff H. E. Gordon

1976-01-01

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CB1 receptors mediate the analgesic effects of cannabinoids on colorectal distension-induced visceral pain in rodents.  

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Activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB(1), CB(2) and GPR(55)) produces analgesic effects in several experimental pain models, including visceral pain arising from the gastrointestinal tract. We assessed the role of CB(1), CB(2), and GPR(55) receptors and the endogenous cannabinoid system on basal pain responses and acute mechanical hyperalgesia during colorectal distension (CRD) in rodents. The effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists on pain-related responses to CRD were assessed in rats and in wild-type and CB(1) receptor knock-out mice. The dual CB(1/2) agonist, WIN55,212-2, and the peripherally acting CB(1)-selective agonist, SAB-378, inhibited pain-related responses to repetitive noxious CRD (80 mmHg) in a dose-related manner in rats. The analgesic effects of WIN55,212-2 and SAB-378 were blocked by the selective CB(1) antagonist SR141716, but were not affected by the selective CB(2) antagonist SR144528. SR141716, per se, increased the responses to repetitive noxious CRD, indicative of hyperalgesia, and induced pain-related responses during non-noxious CRD (20 mmHg), indicative of allodynia. The cannabinoid receptor agonists anandamide, virodhamine and O-1602 had no effect. At analgesic doses, WIN55,212-2 did not affect colonic compliance. In accordance to the rat data, WIN55,212-2 produced analgesia, whereas SR141716 induced hyperalgesia, during noxious CRD (55 mmHg) in wild-type but not in CB(1)-knock-out mice. These data indicate that peripheral CB(1) receptors mediate the analgesic effects of cannabinoids on visceral pain from the gastrointestinal tract. The allodynic and hyperalgesic responses induced by SR141716 suggest the existence of an endogenous cannabinoid tone and the activation of CB(1) receptors during noxious CRD. PMID:19193902

Brusberg, Mikael; Arvidsson, Susanne; Kang, Daiwu; Larsson, Håkan; Lindström, Erik; Martinez, Vicente

2009-02-01

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Spinal and supraspinal analgesic effects of Nimodipine : The role of Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal(HPA) axis .  

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Nimodipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, can induce analgesia. However, it is not clear that this analgesic effect is at the level of spinal or supraspinal pain pathway. In addition, it has been reported that the analgesic effect of nifedipine, another L-type calcium channel blocker is related to the HPA axis, but there is no report indicating the role of this axis in the analgesic effect of nimodipine. Methods: Analgesia was measured by tail-flick (TF) test involving spinal reflexes an...

2007-01-01

37

Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.  

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Full Text Available

Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
(60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
the traditional use.

Sumitra Singh

2009-12-01

38

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of human placenta extract.  

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In this study, we investigated the effects of human placenta extract (HPE, Laennec inj.) on pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators secreted from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that HPE significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-? and cyclooxygenase-2. We studied the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of HPE in murine models of inflammation/inflammatory pain. Rats were assigned to six groups and were administered either saline or HPE (0.33, 1, 3 and 6 mL kg?¹) intraperitoneally. Diclofenac was used as a positive control. HPE attenuated the swelling of the rat's hind paw. The vascular permeability induced by acetic acid was significantly reduced by HPE. HPE reduced the formation of granuloma in carrageenan air pouch and hind paw oedema in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis in rats. HPE attenuated writhing episodes. An increase in hot-plate latency was observed in mice receiving HPE. HPE also increased the pain threshold in the Randall-Selitto test. In the tail-flick assay, HPE prolonged the reaction time of rats to radiant heat stimulation. These results suggest that HPE has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. PMID:21726131

Lee, Kwan-Hoo; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sung Youl; Lee, Sun-Mee

2011-07-01

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Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Lepidagathis Anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae)  

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This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 ...

Richard, Sawadogo Wamtinga; Marius, Lompo; Noya, Some?; Innocent Pierre, Guissou; Germaine, Nacoulma-ouedraogo Odile

2011-01-01

40

Dimerization of resveratrol induced by red light and its synergistic analgesic effects with cobra neurotoxin.  

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Resveratrol polymer has better effects than monomer in some aspects as reported, but most of synthetic methods acquire severe conditions and no analgesic effects are investigated. A novel method is found to synthesize resveratrol polymer by excitation of photosensitizer pheophorbide at red light of 630 nm. The polymer was analyzed by fluorescence spectra and HPLC, further isolated by preparative liquid chromatography and identified as a resveratrol dimer by MS and NMR. Analgesic effects were measured by acetic acid writhing and hot-plate test in mice. The resveratrol dimer has the stronger analgesic effects than monomer, and drug combination of the dimer and cobra neurotoxin enhances and prolongs analgesic effects, suggesting the synergistic action. Simulation of molecular interaction reveals that the dimer spontaneously binds to cobra neurotoxin and makes a complex substance. The dimer can interact with cyclooxygenase-2, ? receptor and nicotine receptor, the synergistic analgesic effects of the complex are attributed to its multiple targets role. The combination of resveratrol dimer and cobra neurotoxin may make up for their deficiencies in analgesic effects, and has prospects in clinical use. PMID:24571437

Ye, Yong; Fang, Fei; Li, Yue

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
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ANALGESIC AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF TOTAL EXTRACT, FLAVONOID FRACTION AND VOLATILE OIL OF SALVIA HYDRANGEA  

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Full Text Available Background. Gol-e-arvaneh with the scientific name of salvia hydrangea (Labiatea belongs to Salvia genus. In traditional medicine it has been used as analgesic, relieving headache, cold remedy, antipyretic and diuretic. Since until now this plant has not been investigated pharacologically. This study was aimed to find any anti-inflammatory or analgesic activity of the plant. Methods. At first, total extract, flavonoid fraction and volatile oil was prepared. Analgesic effect was assessed using light tail flick and acetic acid writhing test. Male wistar rats (180-220g and mice (25±2g were used in these tests. Carrageen in test was used for assessing anti-inflammatory activity. Results. Total extract and flavonoid fraction could not produce analgesic effect in light tail flick test, while morphine as a standard drug 15 and 30 min. after administration produced 35% and 90% of MPE respectively. In writhing test, total extract and flavonoid fraction had considerable analgesic effect which was comparable to that of indomethacin. Results of Carageenin test showed that both total extract and flavonoid fraction had marked anti-inflammatory activity and volatile oil had only a slight effect. Discussion. Since potent drugs (such as opioids show positive response to light tail flick test, it seems that the plant lacks such compounds. Considerable analgesic activity of total extract and flavonoid fraction in writhing test and also their anti-inflammatory activity indicate that this plant is probably useful for relieving pains, particularly with inflammatory origin.

V.A HAJ HASHEMI

2000-12-01

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Analgesic Effects of a Standardized Biofavonoid Composition from Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu  

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Anti-infammatory properties of both baicalin and catechins have been widely reported. However, the reports of analgesic effects of baicalin and catechins are limited. Three commonly used pain-related animal models were employed to evaluate the analgesic activity of UP446, a standardized biofavonoid composition of baicalin and catechins. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, formalin test, and abdominal constriction assays were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity of 150 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg oral ...

Yimam, Mesfin; Brownell, Lidia; Hodges, Mandee; Jia, Qi

2012-01-01

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Effect of modern analgesic drugs (tramadol, pentazocine, and buprenorphine) on the bile duct sphincter in man.  

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Modern narcotic analgesic drugs, such as tramadol, pentazocine, and buprenorphine share similarities of molecular structure with morphine which is widely believed to cause spasm of the bile duct sphincter and so impede bile flow. This study assessed the effects of intravenously administered analgesics on bile duct sphincter motor activity measured by ERCP manometry. Ten minutes after pentazocine injection the duration of contractions and baseline pressure of the bile duct sphincter rose from ...

Staritz, M.; Poralla, T.; Manns, M.; Meyer Zum Bu?schenfelde, K. H.

1986-01-01

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Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test  

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Ageratina glabrata (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth) is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts i...

2011-01-01

45

[Analgesic effect of morphine and its metabolites administered by an intracerebroventricular route].  

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Intraventricular morphine administration is indicated, in some selected cases, to alleviate intractable cancer pain. Our pharmacokinetics data in cerebro-spinal fluid allowed us to formulate the theory of "Front de Recrutement". Then we were able to determine in cisternal and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid the morphine 6-glucuronide concentrations. Morphine 6-glucuronide is the main analgesic metabolite of morphine and its presence in cerebro-spinal fluid could be due to a metabolism of morphine in the central nervous system. Our animal studies showed that the analgesic activity of morphine 6-glucuronide was 27 to 67 times higher than that of morphine. By demonstrating the 6-monoacetyl morphine potency (analgesic metabolite of heroin that is 20 times more potent than morphine), we showed the involvement of the 6 position in the analgesic effect of these opioids. When we compared the morphine-6 concentrations in human cerebro-spinal fluid with the analgesic potency of this metabolite, the morphine-6 glucuronide was responsible of 33% to 67% of the supra-spinal analgesic effect. As heroin, morphine must be considered as a precursor whose metabolites have pharmacologic effects. PMID:8542351

Serrié, A

1995-06-01

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The Study of Analgesic Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ficuscarica Leaf in Rat by Formalin Test  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Whereas the available synthetic analgesic drugs have side effects, it seems tobe logical to using herbal medicines with few side effects. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ficuscarica leaf and comparing it with morphine and aspirin.Materials and Methods: This study was done on male rats of Wistar species. The animals were divided into nine groups (n= 6 rats. A negative control group received a single intraperitoneal dose of normal saline (5ml/kg. Two positive control groups received morphine (2.5 mg/kg and aspirin (300 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively. Five treatment groups received a single intraperitoneal dose of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of Ficuscarica leaves, and a group received hydroalcoholic extract (800mg/kg with naloxon (1mg/kg. In this study, the analgesic effects were investigated via formalin test.Results: The results showed that the 600, 800, 1000 mg/kg of extract had analgesic effects significantly different in comparison with negative control group. Our results showed that the analgesic effect (800 mg/kg was less than aspirin on the second phase of pain and morphine on both pain phases. Naloxone could reduce the analgesic effect of extract on the second phase of pain. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of Ficuscarica leaf contains analgesic effects in both pain phases. It can be concluded that Ficuscarica leaf extract may induce its effect through opioid receptors activation.

Ardeshir Arzi

2012-09-01

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Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic effect of Withaferin A  

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Withania somnifera, popularly known as Ashwagandha is widely considered to be an integral part of Ayurvedic and Indigenous medical systems for over centuries for the treatment of various ailments. Withanolides (steroid lactone), are the major active constituents present in the roots and leaves of Withania somnifera. In the present study, withaferin A (active component of Withania somnifera), a steroid lactone was examined for its analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic properties employing dif...

EvanPrince Sabina; Sonal Chandel; Mahaboob Khan Rasool

2009-01-01

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The evaluation of analgesic effects of milnacipran and sertraline in tail-flick test.  

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Introduction: Antidepressant drugs are used in the treatment of pain as an adjuvant or alone. It has been shown that antidepressant drugs have analgesic effects in various diseases (diabetic neuropathy, low back pain, cancer pain etc.) Sertraline is a potent serotonin re-uptake inhibitor. Some antidepressant drugs inhibited both of the reuptake of serotonin and of noradrenaline. These drugs are called serotonin-noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Milnacipran is a serotonin-noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor. We have studied the analgesic effects of sertraline and milnacipran after acute and chronic application in tail-flick test in mice.Methods: The analgesic effects of milnacipran (10, 30, 50 mg/kg) and sertraline (10, 20, 50 mg/kg) were measured after acute and chronic application in tail flick test. The analgesic effects of milnacipran (30 mg/kg) or sertraline (50 mg/kg) were evaluated after the application of L-NAME (10 mg/kg), naloxone (5 mg/kg), prazosin (1 mg/kg), ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg) in tail flick test.Results: Milnacipran (30 mg/kg) and sertraline (50 mg/kg) produced statistically significant analgesic effect compared to their control values after acute and chronic application in tail-flick test. The analgesic effects of both milnacipran (30 mg/kg) and sertraline (50 mg/kg) in the presence of L-NAME (10 mg/kg), naloxone (5 mg/kg), ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg) and prazosin (1 mg/kg) were inhibited in tail-flick test.Conclusion: These results indicate that the analgesic effects of milnacipran and sertraline are related to nitrergic, opioidergic, serotonergic and adrenergic system (Fig. 8, Ref. 23). PMID:24471894

Kesim, M; Yanik, M N; Kadioglu, M; Pepeoglu, D; Erkoseoglu, I; Kalyoncu, N I; Yaris, E

2014-01-01

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Spinal and supraspinal analgesic effects of Nimodipine : The role of Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal(HPA axis .  

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Full Text Available Nimodipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, can induce analgesia. However, it is not clear that this analgesic effect is at the level of spinal or supraspinal pain pathway. In addition, it has been reported that the analgesic effect of nifedipine, another L-type calcium channel blocker is related to the HPA axis, but there is no report indicating the role of this axis in the analgesic effect of nimodipine. Methods: Analgesia was measured by tail-flick (TF test involving spinal reflexes and by hot-plate (HP requiring an intact central nervous system. Assays were done before and 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration in the intact, sham operated and adrenalectomized rats. To identify the interaction between nimodipine and HPA axis, plasma corticosterone level was measured using the radioimmunoassay. Results: Nimodipine significantly decreased the plasma corticosterone level, and showed significant antinociception in both tests. Adrenalectomy potentiated the analgesic effect of nimodipine which was reversed by corticosterone replacement. Furthermore, nimodipine analgesic effect in ADX rats was more potent in HP test (compared to TF test. Nimodipine, at mentioned doses, did not alter animal’s movement indices in activity monitoring test. Conclusion: Nimodipine involves both spinal and supraspinal sites to control thermal pain transmission in presence of adrenal gland. It seems that there is a mutual interaction between nimodipine and HPA axis, especially at supraspinal levels.

mojtaba dolatshahi-somesofla

2007-12-01

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Analgesic effect of intra-articular ketorolac in knee arthroscopy: comparison of morphine and bupivacaine.  

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This prospective study assessed the postoperative analgesic effect of intra-articular ketorolac, morphine, and bupivacaine during arthroscopic outpatient partial meniscectomy. Group 1 patients (n=20) received postoperative injection of 60 mg intra-articular ketorolac, group 2 patients (n=20) 10 cc intra-articular bupivacaine 0.25%, group 3 patients (n=20) 1 mg intra-articular morphine diluted in 10 cc saline, and group 4 patients (n=20, controls) only 10 cc saline. We evaluated the postoperative analgesic effect (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), the level of postoperative pain (by visual analog scale 1, 2, 3, 12, and 24 h after surgery), and the need for additional pain medication (during the first 24 h after surgery). The best analgesic effect was in patients treated with intra-articular ketorolac, and this was statistically significant in: postoperative analgesic effect and the need for additional pain medication immediately after surgery, and after 24 h. No complications were found related to the intra-articular treatment. We conclude that 60 mg intra-articular ketorolac provides better analgesic effect than 10 cc intra-articular bupivacaine 0.25% or 1 mg intra-articular morphine. PMID:15197428

Calmet, J; Esteve, C; Boada, S; Giné, J

2004-11-01

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Assessment of ropivacaine postoperative analgesic effect after periapical maxillary incisors surgery  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ropivacaine is a relatively new longacting local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effect of topical anesthetics ropivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% with adrenaline in the postoperative treatment of periapical lesions in the maxilla. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects, divided into two groups. The study-group received 0.75% ropivacaine without a vasoconstrictor, while the control group was treated with 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (1 : 80.000. Block anesthesia for n. infraorbitalis was used and local anesthetics were applied also on the palatine side for the end branches of n. nasopalatinus. The following parameters were observed: time elapsed from the application of an anesthetic until the first occurrence of pain after the surgery and first intake of an analgesic, the intensity of initial pain, pain intensity 6 h after the application of anesthetics and the total number of analgesics taken within 24 h after the completion of surgery. Results. The pain appeared statistically significantly earlier in the patients who had been given lidocaine with adrenaline (p < 0.001, while statistically significantly higher mean values of initial postoperative pain (p < 0.05 and pain intensity 6 h after the intervention (p < 0.01 were also registered in the same group of patients. In the period of 24 h upon the intervention, the study-group patients were taking less analgesics as compared to the control-group subjects (46.6% vs 73.3%, who were given analgesics earlier, although no statistically significant differences were observed related to the number of analgesic doses taken. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate a better postoperative analgesic effect of ropivacaine as compared to lidocaine with adrenaline.

Tijani? Miloš

2012-01-01

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Synthesis with improved yield and study on the analgesic effect of 2-methoxyphencyclidine.  

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Phencyclidine (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine, CAS 956-90-1, PCP) has shown analgesic effects. Some of its derivatives have been synthesized and their biological properties were studied. Since a methoxy group has been added to the position 2 of the cyclohexane ring of PCP, the resulting compound is more polar than PCP. This compound was synthesized using an improved method with a higher yield. Its analgesic effect was studied using the tail-flick test on rats and was compared with that of ketamine (CAS 1867-66-9). The results showed that 2-methoxyphencyclidine increased tall-flick latencies as compared to the control group. The maximum analgesic effect of the compound occurred 5-10 min after its injection, while the effect of ketamine was observed 10-25 min after injection. PMID:16821645

Ahmadi, Abbas; Mahmoudi, Ali

2006-01-01

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Synthesis with improved yield and study on the analgesic effect of 2-hydroxyphencyclidine.  

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Phencyclidine (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine, CAS 956-90-1, PCP) has shown analgesic effects. Some of its derivatives have been synthesized and their biological properties were studied. Since a hydroxyl group has been added to the position 2 of the cyclohexane ring of PCP, this compound would be more hydrophilic than PCP. This compound was synthesized using a different and improved method with a higher yield. Its analgesic effect was studied using the tail-flick test on rats and was compared with that of ketamine (CAS 1867-66-9). The results showed that 2-hydroxyphencyclidine can increase tail-flick latencies as compared to the control group and indicate that the maximum analgesic effect of this compound occurs 2-5 min after its injection while the effect of ketamine is observed 10-25 min after injection. PMID:15819390

Ahmadi, Abbas; Shafiezadeh, Mahshid; Fathollahi, Yaghoob; Darvich, Mohammad Raouf; Mahmoudi, Ali; Bahmani, Manouchehr; Rahmati, Batol

2005-01-01

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Effects of Papaver rhoeas Extract on the Tolerance Development to Analgesic Effects of Morphine in Mice  

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Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the extract of Papaver rhoeas reduces morphine dependence, locomotor activity and reward. In present study, the effects of hydro-alcohol extract of Papaver Rhoeas on the tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine in mice have been investigated using tail flick method. Subcutaneous (s.c. administration of morphine (1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/kg induced analgesia. However, intrapretoneal administration of the hydro-alcohol extract of Papaver rhoeas (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg had not an effects on analgesia. Reduction of analgesic in mice pretreated with morphine (50 mg/kg, twice daily; for 3 days, alone, indicated that tolerance has been developed. Hydro-alcohol extract of Papaver rhoeas (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. administration, 30 min before each of three daily doses of morphine, attenuated the morphine tolerance dose-independently,indicating that administration of the extract reduces morphine tolerance in mice.

Jamal Shams

2008-01-01

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A comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy  

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To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy. Forty patients, aged between 20-60 years and undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were enrolled into the study protocol that was carried out in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January and June 2007. General anesthesia protocol was the same in all patients. At the end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). Group L received 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and Group B received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine intra-articularly. We evaluated the level of postoperative pain (by visual analoque scale at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery), first analgesic requirement time (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), and total analgesic consumption during 24 hours. There were no significant difference in the postoperative pain scores of the patients between groups. The first analgesic requirement times were not statistically different. Twelve patients in Group L (60%) and 9 patients in Group B (45%) needed no additional analgesic during the 24 hours (p>0.05). No complications and side effects were found related to the intra-articular treatment. The results of the study show that intra-articular 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine provides effective analgesia comparable to that provided by 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. (author)

2009-01-01

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Perspective of nurses on effective factors on their decisions to administer PRN analgesics to children after surgery  

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Full Text Available Post-surgery pain is usually controlled by PRN drugs administered by nurses. According to the decision-making theories, this clinical decision-making depends on three factors: nurse-related factors; child-related factors; and hospital-related factors. This study deals with the first and second factors mentioned. This descriptive-analytic study aims at determining the perspective of nurses on factors which affect their decisions to administer the analgesic PRN to children after surgery in several chosen hospitals of Tehran. The study used a standardized questionnaire to collect data from 57 nurses in pediatric surgery wards. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: 1 nurses demographic data 2 20 clinical scenario for nurses to make a decision for prescribing either analgesic medication, non-analgesic medication or no medication where necessary and 3 12 factors which affect clinical decision-making in using analgesics.(in prioritizing among the above mentioned. The results show that factors such as age, nursing experience, pediatric nursing experience and motherhood were significantly related to choosing to use analgesics. Education and personal experience of extreme pain was also related to the type of analgesic chosen. Concerning the specifics of the children there was a significant difference between the choice to use analgesics and the type of analgesic used according to the various ages of the children. There was also a significant relationship between the type of surgery and the time of surgery and with the choice to use analgesics and the type of analgesics used, such that medication and analgesics were administered more frequently for complicated surgeries and in first 24 hours after surgery. Type of surgery, severity of pain, time of surgery and uneasy behaviors were selected respectively as the most effective in the administration of PRN analgesic drugs. Nurse and child related factors strongly influence nurses in making decisions to administer PRN analgesics postoperatively.

Karimi

2002-09-01

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Antiulcerogenic and analgesic effects of Maytenus aquifolium, Sorocea bomplandii and Zolernia ilicifolia.  

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Maytenus aquifolium (Celastraceae), Sorocea bomplandii (Moraceae) and Zolernia ilicifolia (Fabaceae) are native plants from the Tropical Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica, Brazil) known as "espinheira-santa". These plants are traditionally used as analgesic and antiulcerogenic medicine, with the same traditional uses of the true "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia, Celastraceae), an efficient antiulcerogenic agent. Pharmacological and toxicological studies with these plants have not been carried out. The purpose in this study was to evaluate the efficacy (analgesic and antiulcerogenic activities), safety (acute toxicity) and quality (phytochemical profile) of these three plants. The analgesic effect was analyzed by writhing and tail flick tests, while antiulcerogenic effect was performed through ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin/bethanecol assays. LD(50) and acute toxic effects, as well as phytochemical profiles of all plants also were carried. Surprisingly, the three plants showed analgesic and antiulcerogenic effects at dose of 1000 mg/kg, v.o. Maytenus aquifolium lowering all ulcerogenic parameters (ethanol test), but increased the ulcerogenic effects in the indomethacin/bethanecol test. Sorocea bomplandii produced antiulcerogenic effects in both experimental models used, while Zolernia ilicifolia showed significant effects only in indomethacin/bethanecol-induced gastric lesions. Pre-treatment with Zolernia ilicifolia induced someone toxic effects. A phytochemical profile for each plant species was determined and its main chemical classes of compounds were described. PMID:11483377

Gonzalez, F G; Portela, T Y; Stipp, E J; Di Stasi, L C

2001-09-01

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Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Polygonum cuspidatum in experimental animals.  

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Polygonum cuspidatum (PC) has been used for the treatment of arthritis and urinary diseases in traditional medicine. Despite recent evidence that PC has anti-oxidant, anti-tumoral, and anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of PC have not been elucidated yet in vivo. Thus, in the present study, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl acetate extract of PC (EAPC) were investigated in vivo for the first time. Hot plate test and tail-flick test revealed that EAPC at 200?mg/kg exerts analgesic effect (p?analgesic effect in acetic acid-induced writhing test. Serotonin-induced paw edema model and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced adjuvant arthritis model were used to examine anti-inflammatory effect of EAPC in vivo. In serotonin-induced paw edema model, EAPC suppressed swelling inflammatory response within 12?min after serotonin injection, at both 100- and 200-mg/kg dose (p?effectively inhibited positive responses of c-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor compared to untreated control. Taken together, our findings suggest that EAPC can be a potent candidate for rheumatoid arthritis treatment. PMID:21711083

Han, Jong-Hyun; Koh, Wonil; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Eun-Ok; Lee, Soo Jin; Khil, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jung Tae; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hoon

2012-04-01

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Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA, the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug ?-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Results: Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Conclusion: Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system.

Inoue Eiji

2014-03-01

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Adjuvant analgesics.  

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Chronic pain, whether arising from viscera, bone, or any other tissue or structure, is, more often than commonly thought, the result of a mixture of pain mechanisms, and therefore there is no simple formula available to manage chronic complex pain states. Box 1 summarizes a pharmacological algorithm for difficult-to-treat chronic pain, which merely introduces the medication aspect of the treatment. In effect, any comprehensive algorithm should call for an interdisciplinary approach that would include rehabilitation, as well as psychosocial, and when indicated, interventional techniques. Box 1 Analgesic algorithm for difficult-to-treat pain syndromes. Pharmacological Interventions. Moderate to severe pain/functional impairment; pain with a score of >4 on the brief pain inventory. 1. Gabapentinoid (gabapentin, pregabalin)+/-Opioid/opioid rotation or 2. Antidepressant (TCA, duloxetine, venlafaxine)+/-Opioid/opioid rotation or 3. Gabapentinoid+antidepressant+Opioid/opioid rotation; in addition, may consider trials of one or more of the following adjuvants when clinically appropriate: Topical therapies for cutaneous allodynia/hyperalgesia. Anti-inflammatory drugs (corticosteroids for acute inflammatory neuropathic pain)IV bisphosphonates for cancer bone pain or CRPS/RSDNon-gabapentinoid AEDs such as carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine or lamotrigine+/-baclofen for intermittent lancinating pain due to cranial neuralgiasNMDA antagonists Mexiletine On a compassionate basis, according to the patient's clinical condition and pain mechanism, the physician may want to consider an empirical trial of one or more of the emergent topical, oral or parenteral/intrathecal therapies as discussed in the text. If SMP, consider topical clonidine and sympatholytic interventions; if clinically feasible, trials of topical therapies, eg, lidocaine 5% patch, may be considered for a variety of pain states and features.The major rationale for introducing adjuvants is to better balance efficacy and adverse effects. The following scenarios should prompt the use of adjuvants in clinical practice: The toxic limit of a primary analgesic has been reached. The therapeutic benefit of a primary analgesic has plateaued, eg, treatment has reached its true efficacy limit or pharmachodynamic tolerance has developed. The primary analgesic is contraindicated, eg, substance abuse, aberrant behavior, organ failure, allergy, and so forth. Subjective and qualitative symptoms demand broader coverage. Patients often convey that different medications will impart distinct analgesic benefits. Presence of disabling nonpainful complaints and need to manage symptoms such as insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue that all cause worsening of the patient's quality of life and function. Physicians have also been drawn to the adjuvants secondary to new realities of clinical practice. Moreover, aversion to addiction and diversion remains a potent force that shapes prescribing profiles. PMID:17164107

Knotkova, Helena; Pappagallo, Marco

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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[The effectiveness of the Comptenz electronic analgesic device in dentistry--a pilot study].  

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This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the Comptenz electronic analgesic device. Fifty (50) patients were used in the study, of which 48 per cent eventually could be totally successfully anaesthetized by using the device. For 36 per cent, however, the device was found to be ineffective. For the rest (16 per cent) the device was only partially successful. PMID:9461857

van der Vyver, P J; de Wet, F A; Swanepoel, T A

1995-03-01

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EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AND ANALGESIC EFFECT OF ALOE VERA LEAF EXTRACT IN RATS  

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Full Text Available Clinical evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs envisages the development of side effects that makes efficacy of a drug arguable. Alternatively, indigenous drug with fewer side effects is the major thrust area of research in the management of pain and inflammation. In the present study aqueous extract of whole leaf of Aloe vera at various concentrations was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in albino wistar rats. Carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced rat paw oedema was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and tail flick, hot plate and acetic acid tests were used to assess the analgesic activity of A. vera leaf aqueous extracts. Whole leaf aqueous extracts at various concentrations (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg of bw significantly reduced formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and formaldehyde and granuloma formation in a dose dependent manner. Further, acetic acid-induced writhing model exhibited significant analgesic effect characterized by reduction in writhes. Whole leaf aqueous extract showed dose-dependent increase in tolerance to thermal stimulus comparable to indomethacin. No mortality was observed during the acute toxicity test at a dosage of 600mg/kg. Thus whole leaf aqueous extract of Aloe vera can be exploited as non toxic drug for the treatment and clinical management of inflammation and pain.

Aruna Devaraj

2011-03-01

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Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of the stem bark of Allanblackia gabonensis (Guttiferae).  

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Allanblackia gabonensis (Guttiferae) is a plant used in the African traditional medicine as remedies against pain, rheumatism, inflammations. In the present work, the analgesic effect of aqueous extract has been evaluated using acetic acid, formalin, hot-plate test, tail immersion and paw-pressure test. The anti-inflammatory effect of this extract was also investigated on carrageenan, histamine or serotonin induced by paw oedema. Aqueous extract of stem bark of A. gabonensis administrated p.o. showed significant activity against paw oedema induced by carrageenan, with a maximum percentage of inhibition reaching the 74.01% at the preventive test at a dose of 200 mg/kg. A. gabonensis exhibited a significant reduction of paw oedema induced by both histamine and serotonin with a maximal inhibition of 56.94% (200 mg/kg) and 40.83% (100 mg/kg), respectively. It showed significant protective effects against chemical stimuli (acetic acid and formalin) in the mouse. Administered orally at the doses of 100-400 mg/kg, exhibited protective effect of at least 69.78% on the pain induced by acetic acid and also reduced first (67.18% at 200 mg/kg) and second (83.87% at 400 mg/kg) phase of pain-induced par formalin. It also produced a significant increase of the threshold of sensitivity to pressure and hot plate-induced pain in the rats. These results suggest a peripheral and central analgesic activities as well as an anti-inflammatory effect of the stem bark of A. gabonensis. PMID:22071660

Ymele, Edwige V; Dongmo, A Bertrand; Dimo, Théophile

2013-02-01

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Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic modeling of the analgesic effect of bupredermTM, in mice  

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Full Text Available Purpose: BupredermTM?Buprenorphine transdermal delivery system (BTDS was developed for the treatment of post-operative and chronic pains. This study examined the relationship between the plasma concentration of buprenorphine and its analgesic effect (tail flick test in order to assess the usefulness of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD modeling in describing this relationship. Methods: After patch application, plasma concentrations of bu- prenorphine in mice were measured for 72 hours with a validated LC/MS/MS system, and the analgesic effects were assessed by tail flick test for the period of 24 hours. A modified two- compartment open model was used to explain the PK properties of BTDS, and the PD model was characterized by slow receptor binding. Results: The peak buprenorphine level in plasma was achieved at 1-24 h and the effective therapeutic drug concentration was maintained for 72 hours. BupredermTM induced prolongation of tail-flick latency in a dose and time dependent manner. Maximum analgesic effect was attained at 3-6 h and was maintained for 24 h after patch application. Counter-clockwise hysteresis between the plasma concentration and the analgesic efficacy of BTDS was observed after BupredermTM application, indicating there was a delay between plasma concentrations and the effect observed. From the developed PK-PD model, Kd values (0.69-0.82 nM that were derived from the pharmacodynamic parameters (Kon and Koff are similar to the reported values (Kd = 0.76 ± 0.14 nM. Good agreement between the predicted and observed values was noted for the rate of change in analgesic effect data (R2 = 0.822, 0.852 and 0.774 for 0.24, 0.8 and 2.4 mg/patch, respectively. Conclusions: The established PK- PD model successfully described the relationship between plasma concentration of buprenorphine and its analgesic efficacy measured by the tail flick test. Our model might be useful in estimation and prediction of onset, magnitude and time course of concentration and pharmacological effects of BTDS and will be useful to simulate PK-PD profiles with clinical regimens.

Sun-Ok Kim

2010-08-01

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Analgesic effect of highly reversible ?-conotoxin FVIA on N type Ca2+ channels  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background N-type Ca2+ channels (Cav2.2 play an important role in the transmission of pain signals to the central nervous system. ?-Conotoxin (CTx-MVIIA, also called ziconotide (Prialt®, effectively alleviates pain, without causing addiction, by blocking the pores of these channels. Unfortunately, CTx-MVIIA has a narrow therapeutic window and produces serious side effects due to the poor reversibility of its binding to the channel. It would thus be desirable to identify new analgesic blockers with binding characteristics that lead to fewer adverse side effects. Results Here we identify a new CTx, FVIA, from the Korean Conus Fulmen and describe its effects on pain responses and blood pressure. The inhibitory effect of CTx-FVIA on N-type Ca2+ channel currents was dose-dependent and similar to that of CTx-MVIIA. However, the two conopeptides exhibited markedly different degrees of reversibility after block. CTx-FVIA effectively and dose-dependently reduced nociceptive behavior in the formalin test and in neuropathic pain models, and reduced mechanical and thermal allodynia in the tail nerve injury rat model. CTx-FVIA (10 ng also showed significant analgesic effects on writhing in mouse neurotransmitter- and cytokine-induced pain models, though it had no effect on acute thermal pain and interferon-? induced pain. Interestingly, although both CTx-FVIA and CTx-MVIIA depressed arterial blood pressure immediately after administration, pressure recovered faster and to a greater degree after CTx-FVIA administration. Conclusions The analgesic potency of CTx-FVIA and its greater reversibility could represent advantages over CTx-MVIIA for the treatment of refractory pain and contribute to the design of an analgesic with high potency and low side effects.

Kim Hyun Jeong

2010-12-01

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Flexibilide Obtained from Cultured Soft Coral Has Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Analgesic Effects through the Upregulation of Spinal Transforming Growth Factor-?1 in Neuropathic Rats  

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Full Text Available Chronic neuroinflammation plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. The compound flexibilide, which can be obtained from cultured soft coral, possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in the rat carrageenan peripheral inflammation model. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive properties of flexibilide in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI model of neuropathic pain. First, we found that a single intrathecal (i.t. administration of flexibilide significantly attenuated CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia at 14 days after surgery. Second, i.t. administration of 10-?g flexibilide twice daily was able to prevent the development of thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing deficits in CCI rats. Third, i.t. flexibilide significantly inhibited CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes, as well as the upregulated proinflammatory enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Furthermore, flexibilide attenuated the CCI-induced downregulation of spinal transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1 at 14 days after surgery. Finally, i.t. SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-? type I receptor, blocked the analgesic effects of flexibilide in CCI rats. Our results suggest that flexibilide may serve as a therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain. In addition, spinal TGF-?1 may be involved in the anti-neuroinflammatory and analgesic effects of flexibilide.

Nan-Fu Chen

2014-06-01

67

Can repeated exposure to morphine change the spinal analgesic effects of lidocaine in rats?*  

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BACKGROUND: Chronic opium exposure leads to altered response to opioid compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral effects of opium tolerance on the analgesic effects of intrathecal lidocaine in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four adult male Sprague Dawley rats with intrathecal (IT) catheters were divided into 3 groups of 8. The first group was morphine tolerant and received IT lidocaine (ML). Rats in the second group were not morphine tolerant and received IT lidocaine (L), while the third group consisted of not morphine tolerant rats that received IT placebo. Tail flick test was done and maximal possible antinociceptive effects (MPAE) were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: While percent of MPAE significantly increased in the L group, it had a significant reduction in the ML group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: After intrathecal lidocaine administration, a hyperalgesic response was seen in morphine tolerant rats and an analgesic response was seen in the lidocaine group.

Dabbagh, Ali; Moghadam, Shervin Farkhondehkish; Rajaei, Samira; Mansouri, Zahra; Manaheji, Homa Shardi

2011-01-01

68

Analgesic Effect of the Methanol Extract of Erica Arborea (L. in Mice Using Formalin Test  

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Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Erica arborea L. (Ericaceae has been used in Turkey folk medicine as a diuretic, urinary antiseptic and laxative. However, its other pharmacological effects have not been yet elucidated clearly. The aim of this study was to investigate analgesic effects of its methanolic (MeOH extract in mice using formalin test, as a model of tonic inflammatory pain. Methods: The MeOH extract of aerial parts and its fractions (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% MeOH in water were prepared by maceration and solid phase extraction method respectively. Effects of the MeOH extract (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. and different fractions (5 mg/kg, i.p. were compared with analgesic effects of the morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p. and indomethacine (5 mg/kg, i.p. as standard analgesic drugs. Results and major conclusion: Results showed that the MeOH extract of E. arborea (10 mg/kg, i.p. similar to the morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p. and indomethacen (5 mg/kg, i.p. decreased formalin-induced paw licking time,. Among the prepared-fractions of the MeOH extract, only fraction of 20% (5 mg/kg, i.p. caused significant decrease in paw licking behavior. Moreover, the MeOH extract (10 mg/kg, i.p. did not produce any motor deficit effects in rotarod test. From the results it may be concluded that the MeOH extract and faction of 20% of E. arborea have a good analgesic effects in formalin test.

S Çobanoglu

2008-09-01

69

Analgesic effect of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine.  

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Exposure to various types of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) affects pain specificity (nociception) and pain inhibition (analgesia). Previous study of ours has shown that exposure to the resonant spectra derived from biologically active substances' NMR may induce to live targets the same effects as the substances themselves. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential analgesic effect of the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine. Twenty five Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group; intraperitoneal administration of morphine 10 mg/kg body wt; exposure of rats to resonant EMFs of morphine; exposure of rats to randomly selected non resonant EMFs; and intraperitoneal administration of naloxone and simultaneous exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs of morphine. Tail Flick and Hot Plate tests were performed for estimation of the latency time. Results showed that rats exposed to NMR spectrum of morphine induced a significant increase in latency time at time points (p < 0.05), while exposure to the non resonant random EMFs exerted no effects. Additionally, naloxone administration inhibited the analgesic effects of the NMR spectrum of morphine. Our results indicate that exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine may exert on animals similar analgesic effects to morphine itself. PMID:22690703

Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Velalopoulou, Anastasia P; Vadalouca, Athina N; Kalfakakou, Vicky P; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Evangelou, Angelos M

2012-12-01

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Side-effects of analgesic kyotorphin derivatives: advantages over clinical opioid drugs.  

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The adverse side-effects associated with opioid administration restrain their use as analgesic drugs and call for new solutions to treat pain. Two kyotorphin derivatives, kyotorphin-amide (KTP-NH?) and ibuprofen-KTP-NH? (IbKTP-NH?) are promising alternatives to opioids: they trigger analgesia via an indirect opioid mechanism and are highly effective in several pain models following systemic delivery. In vivo side-effects of KTP-NH? and IbKTP-NH? are, however, unknown and were evaluated in the present study using male adult Wistar rats. For comparison purposes, morphine and tramadol, two clinically relevant opioids, were also studied. Results showed that KTP-derivatives do not cause constipation after systemic administration, in contrast to morphine. Also, no alterations were observed in blood pressure or in food and water intake, which were only affected by tramadol. A reduction in micturition was detected after KTP-NH? or tramadol administrations. A moderate locomotion decline was detected after IbKTP-NH?-treatment. The side-effect profile of KTP-NH? and IbKTP-NH? support the existence of opioid-based mechanisms in their analgesic actions. The conjugation of a strong analgesic activity with the absence of the major side-effects associated to opioids highlights the potential of both KTP-NH? and IbKTP-NH? as advantageous alternatives over current opioids. PMID:23471674

Ribeiro, Marta M B; Santos, Sónia Sá; Sousa, David S C; Oliveira, Margarida; Santos, Sara M; Heras, Montserrat; Bardaji, Eduard; Tavares, Isaura; Castanho, Miguel A R B

2013-07-01

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Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ficus Iteophylla Leaves in Rodents  

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This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg?1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100mgkg?1, 200mgk...

2011-01-01

72

Functional characterization and analgesic effects of mixed cannabinoid receptor/T-type channel ligands  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Both T-type calcium channels and cannabinoid receptors modulate signalling in the primary afferent pain pathway. Here, we investigate the analgesics activities of a series of novel cannabinoid receptor ligands with T-type calcium channel blocking activity. Results Novel compounds were characterized in radioligand binding assays and in vitro functional assays at human and rat CB1 and CB2 receptors. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on transient expressed human T-type calcium channels were examined in tsA-201 cells using standard whole-cell voltage clamp techniques, and their analgesic effects in response to various administration routes (intrathecally, intraplantarly, intraperitoneally assessed in the formalin model. A series of compounds were synthesized and evaluated for channel and receptor activity. Compound NMP-7 acted as non-selective CB1/CB2 agonist while NMP4 was found to be a CB1 partial agonist and CB2 inverse agonist. Furthermore, NMP-144 behaved as a selective CB2 inverse agonist. All of these three compounds completely inhibited peak Cav3.2 currents with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. All compounds mediated analgesic effects in the formalin model, but depending on the route of administration, could differentially affect phase 1 and phase 2 of the formalin response. Conclusions Our results reveal that a set of novel cannabinioid receptor ligands potently inhibit T-type calcium channels and show analgesic effects in vivo. Our findings suggest possible novel means of mediating pain relief through mixed T-type/cannabinoid receptor ligands.

You Haitao

2011-11-01

73

Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Tramadol With Lidocaine When Used as Subcutaneous Local Anesthetic  

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We conducted a double blind, controlled trial comparing postoperative analgesic effect of tramadol with lidocaine when used as subcutaneous local anesthetic. Seventy ASA physical status 1 or 2 patients aged 20-50 years, who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia with flank incision, were randomly assigned to receive either 2 mg kg-1 tramadol or 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine at the end of operation. Postoperative pain was evaluated with a Verbal Analogue Scale...

Sussan Soltanimohammadi; Mirsadegh Seyedi

2007-01-01

74

Functional characterization and analgesic effects of mixed cannabinoid receptor/T-type channel ligands  

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Abstract Background Both T-type calcium channels and cannabinoid receptors modulate signalling in the primary afferent pain pathway. Here, we investigate the analgesics activities of a series of novel cannabinoid receptor ligands with T-type calcium channel blocking activity. Results Novel compounds were characterized in radioligand binding assays and in vitro functional assays at human and rat CB1 and CB2 receptors. The inhibitory effects of these comp...

You Haitao; Gadotti Vinicius M; Petrov Ravil R; Zamponi Gerald W; Diaz Philippe

2011-01-01

75

Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited a...

2013-01-01

76

Compare the Analgesic Effectiveness of Diclofenac and Paracetamol in Patients with Renal Colic  

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   Aim: This retrospective study was aimed to compare the analgesic effectiveness of paracetamol and diclofenac sodium by using visual analog acale (VAS) in patients applying to emergency room with renal colic. Material and Method: Group I (n=40) patients diagnosed with renal colic and treated with diclofenac sodium (75 mg intramuscular) and Group II (n=40) patients diagnosed with renal colic and treated with paracetamol (1 g intravenous) were included in this study. In both groups,...

Murat Ayan

2013-01-01

77

Anterolateral Prefrontal Cortex Mediates the Analgesic Effect of Expected and Perceived Control over Pain  

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Perceived control attenuates pain and pain-directed anxiety, possibly because it changes the emotional appraisal of pain. We examined whether brain areas associated with voluntary reappraisal of emotional experiences also mediate the analgesic effect of perceived control over pain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared self-controlled noxious stimuli with physically identical stimuli that were externally controlled. Self-controlled stimulation was accompanied by less pain a...

Wiech, Katja; Kalisch, Raffael; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Pleger, Burkhard; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Dolan, Raymond J.

2006-01-01

78

Experimental study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Yitieling Paste  

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Full Text Available Objective: To observe the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Yitieling Paste (YTLP. Methods: YTLP and aspirin (as a control drug were introduced to treat the edematous ears of mice induced by xylene and swollen toes of mice induced by carrageenin, and to relieve the pain in mice induced by heat and acetic acid. The swelling degree, pain threshold and body distortions were measured. Results: The repression rates of the ear edema in groups of YTLP of high and low dosages and the aspirin group were 67.92%, 52.52% and 58.28%, respectively. The repression rate of the toe swelling in YTLP high dosage group was higher than that of the aspirin group, which was higher than that of the YTLP low dosage group. The results of analgesic effect of the three YTLP-treated groups showed that with the increase of dosage, the pain thresholds were higher and higher, and the body distortions were lower and lower. The pain thresholds of high and medium dosage YTLP groups were near to the aspirin group. Conclusion: YTLP possesses a strong anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.

XU Li-Jun

2005-07-01

79

Evaluation of Analgesic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Marrubium parviflorum by Formalin Test in Mice  

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Full Text Available In this research, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Marrubium parviflorum (Lamiaceae was subjected to evaluation of analgesic effects using formalin test at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 in mice. Duration of licking and biting time (min of the injected paw was recorded at 5 min intervals for 40 min after formalin injection as a pain index. Results of study showed that the dose of 100 mg kg-1 of the extract decreased duration of licking and biting time between 15 and 40 min, but this effect was not statistically significant (p>0.05, while the dose of 200 mg kg-1 of extract showed significant analgesic effects (pM. parviflorum as a valuable analgesic herbal medicine that can be used in treatment of inflammatory painful disease. It is possible to assume that phytochemical contents of M. parviflorum reduce inflammatory pain by inhibiting the formation of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins followed by inhibiting COX-II enzyme.

Sattar Ostadhadi

2012-01-01

80

Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ageratina glabrata (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth) is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studie [...] d, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1), which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

Guadalupe, García P; Edgar, García S; Isabel, Martínez G; Thomas R. F., Scior; José L, Salvador; Mauro M, Martínez P; Rosa E. del, Río.

 
 
 
 
81

Heel lance in newborn during breastfeeding: an evaluation of analgesic effect of this procedure  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The reduction of pain due to routine invasive procedures (capillary heel stick blood sampling for neonatal metabolic screening in the newborn is an important objective for the so-called "Hospital with no pain". Practices such as skin to skin contact, or breastfeeding, in healthy newborn, may represent an alternative to the use of analgesic drugs. The aim of our work is to evaluate the analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture in full term healthy newborn. Methods We studied 200 healthy full term newborns (100 cases and 100 controls, proposing the puncture to mothers during breastfeeding, and explaining to them all the advantages of this practice. Pain assessment was evaluated by DAN scale (Douleur Aigue Nouveau ne scale. Results The difference in score of pain according to the DAN scale was significant in the two groups of patients (p = 0.000; the medium score was 5.15 for controls and 2.65 for cases (newborns sampled during breastfeeding. Conclusion Our results confirmed the evidence of analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture. This procedure could easily be adopted routinely in maternity wards.

Tozzini Danila

2008-11-01

82

[Analgesic activity of pymadine].  

Science.gov (United States)

The analgesic effect of 4-aminopyridine (pymadine) was studied in experiments on rats and mice at thermal and chemical pain stimulation. Pymadine (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) exerted the analgesic effect when administered alone and concomitantly with analgin and morphine at chemical pain stimulation. During thermal pain stimulation pymadine had the analgesic effect only at dosage of 5 mg/kg and potentiated the action of morphine given in doses of 3 and 5 mg/kg. The same doses of pymadine failed to influence changes in pain reaction induced by analgin at thermic pain stimulation. PMID:2847937

Mitsov, V; Bantutova, I

1988-01-01

83

Dual action mechanisms of KK-3, a newly synthesized leu-enkephalin derivative, in the production of spinal analgesic effects.  

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The action mechanism for the production of spinal analgesia of KK-3, tyrosyl-N-methyl-gamma-aminobutylyl-phenylalaninol, was examined by the tail pinch and tail flick methods. Intrathecal KK-3, 2.5, 5 and 10 nmol/mouse, dose-dependently produced an analgesic effect in both methods. In the tail pinch method, the analgesia was suppressed by 2 mg/kg but not by 1 mg/kg of naloxone; however, the analgesic effect was significantly antagonized by 1 and 2 mg/kg Mr2266, a kappa-antagonist. Meanwhile, both naloxone and Mr2266 failed to block the analgesic effect of KK-3 in the tail flick test. Intrathecal capsaicin, 0.3, 3 and 15 nmol/mouse, also produced a dose-dependent analgesic effect in the tail flick test, whereas no appreciable analgesia could be found in the tail pinch test. Neither naloxone nor Mr2266 blocked the analgesic effect of capsaicin. The results indicate that KK-3 may possess two separate pharmacological mechanisms for the production of analgesic effects on the spinal level: one is the depletion of substance P following its release from the spinal cord, and the other is the mediation through kappa-opioid receptors. PMID:2342228

Takahashi, M; Senda, T; Kaneto, H

1990-04-01

84

Analgesic effects of intra-articular fentanyl, pethidine and dexamethasone after knee arthroscopic surgery  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many different methods have been used in an effort to provide adequate analgesia after knee arthroscopic surgery. In this study analgesic effect of intra-articular fentanyl, pethidine and dexamethasone was compared. METHODS: In a double blind randomized study 48 male patients undergoing knee arthroscopic meniscectomy were allocated to groups receiving intra-articular fentanyl 50 µg or pethidine 20 mg or dexamethasone 8 mg at the end of arthroscopy during general aesthesia. Postoperative pain scores using visual analogue scale were measured and also analgesic requirements and the time of ability to walk were recorded. RESULTS: Pain scores at one, two, six and 24 h after intra-articular injection were not significantly different for fentanyl and pethidine but were higher significantly for dexamethasone at all four mentioned times. The mean average time of ability to walk was significantly longer for dexamethasone. The analgesic requirements during the first 24 h after intraarticular injection were significantly greater only for dexamethasone too. CONCLUSION: Better postoperative analgesia, less pain score and shorter time to walk were achieved by fentanyl and pethidine in comparison to dexamethasone but the results were not significantly different between fentanyl group and pethidine. KEYWORDS: Arthroscopy, opioid, pain.

H Saryazd

2006-07-01

85

Effects of using the analgesic tramadol in mice undergoing embryo transfer surgery.  

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Embryo transfer is a surgical technique that is widely used in reproductive biotechnology. Despite the ethical obligation to relieve animals' post-operative pain, analgesia is not routinely provided after embryo transfer surgery because it has been suggested that analgesics may be detrimental to embryo survival. Studies suggest, however, that the potential for adverse effects varies depending on the type of analgesic used and the timing of its administration. The authors carried out a study to determine whether pre-operatively administered tramadol, a synthetic analogue of codeine, influenced birth rate, litter survival or the post-operative body weights of surrogate dams. Compared with controls that were not given any analgesic, surrogate dams given tramadol had similar birth rates and similar body weights at all time points. The tramadol-treated surrogate dams showed a statistically significant increase in the number of offspring that survived to weaning. The authors conclude that pre-operatively administered tramadol does not harm the success rate of embryo transfer surgery and even may improve litter survival. PMID:24751851

Koutroli, Elda; Alexakos, Paul; Kakazanis, Zacharias; Symeon, Irene; Balafas, Evangelos; Voyiatzaki, Chrysa; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos

2014-04-21

86

Effects of the central analgesic tramadol on the uptake and release of noradrenaline and dopamine in vitro.  

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1. The centrally acting analgesic, tramadol, has low affinity for opioid receptors and therefore presumably other mechanisms of analgesic action. Neurotransmitter release and uptake experiments were used to characterize the effects of tramadol on the central noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. 2. Tramadol inhibited the uptake of [3H]-noradrenaline into purified rat hypothalamic synaptosomes with an IC50 of 2.8 microM; the (-)-enantiomer was about ten times more potent than the (+)-enantio...

Driessen, B.; Reimann, W.; Giertz, H.

1993-01-01

87

"Comparison of the analgesic profile and side effects of tramadol vs pethidine, following urologoical surgery "  

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Full Text Available The optimization of pain management following surgery with minimal side effects, is one the major goals of surgical and medical teams. In this randomized double blind study, sixty ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologist class I or II patients, undergoing urological surgery, were assessed to receive either pethidine or tramadol using a standard method for general anesthesia. Pain intensity was assessed by verbal rating, through a 4-step scaling system. Results of this investigation have revealed that the mean total drug administered in tramadol group were 244.53 + 56.95 mg and in pethidine group 176.78+42.99 mg respectively. There were no significant differences in analgesic effect, observed in either group during early hours following surgery, but after 8,12 and 16 hours significant differences were observed. Analgesic properties of tramadol were almost comparable with pethidine nevertheless; pethidine was superior in some extent. No significant differences in patient’s PaO2 were found, but PaCO2 at 1 and 4 hours after surgery had a greater retention in pethidine group. (P<0.001. There was a significant reduction in respiratory rate in pethidine group at 4,8,12 and 16 hours following surgery, compared with tramadol group (P<0.001. Incidence of dizziness was greater in patients who received pethidine (P<0.001, and sweating was higher in tramadol group (P<0.01. Also there was a greater need for metoclopramide to overcome nausea in tramadol group (P<0.05. Results of this study may suggest that tramadol could be considered as a safe and effective analgesic, following urological surgery as compared with pethidine

Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

2004-08-01

88

Comparing the Duration of the Analgesic Effects of Intravenous and Rectal Acetaminophen Following Tonsillectomy in Children  

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Background: Postoperative pain control (especially, after adenotonsillectomy) has a very important effect on recovery time, hospitalization duration, hemodynamic disorders, bleeding, nausea, vomiting and medical costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of intravenous and rectal acetaminophen on controlling post-adenotonsillectomy pain in children, and duration of their analgesic effects. Patients and Methods: In this randomized double-blinded clinical trial, 96 children aged 4 - 10 years old with ASA physical status I or II who were candidates for adenotonsillectomy surgery in Amir-al-Momenin Hospital, Rasht, Iran were entered into the study and randomly divided into two equal groups. Anesthesia in both groups was induced injecting fentanyl-thiopental and at racurium; afterwards is of lurane was used to maintain anesthesia. After anesthesia induction, one group received intravenous and the other one, rectal acetaminophen, and were later compared based on CHIPPS criteria. Results: Data analysis indicated a significant relationship between reduction of postoperative pain and the use of intravenous or rectal acetaminophen (P = 0.0001); in group receiving IV acetaminophen, only 10.4% of patients had no pain whereas in group receiving rectal acetaminophen, this number reached 43.8%. Also, on 4 and 6 hour time intervals, pain in rectal acetaminophen receiving group was less than that in IV acetaminophen receiving group (P < 0.05). Demand for additional analgesic medication in rectal acetaminophen receiving group was less than that in IV group (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Post-operative pain in rectal acetaminophen group was less than that in intravenous acetaminophen group, and rectal acetaminophen group demanded their first additional analgesic medication later.

Haddadi, Soudabeh; Marzban, Shideh; Karami, Mohammad Seddigh; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Parvizi, Arman; Naderi Nabi, Bahram

2014-01-01

89

Analgesic and systemic effects of xylazine, lidocaine and their combination after subarachnoid administration in goats  

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The objective of the study was to determine the analgesic and systemic effects of subarachnoid administration of xylazine hydrochloride (XY), lidocaine hydrochloride (LI) and their combination (XYLI) in goats. Six healthy goats were used in a prospective randomised study. Three treatments were administered to each goat, with 1-week intervals between each treatment. Treatments consisted of 0.1 mg/kg xylazine, 2.5 mg/kg lidocaine and a combination of xylazine 0.05 (mg/kg) and lidocaine (1.25 mg...

Derossi, R.; Junqueira, A. L.; Beretta, M. P.

2012-01-01

90

A study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica  

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Full Text Available Objective: To study the pharmacological activities and toxicity of the crude alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica and to provide pharmacological data for the further development of this herbal medicine. Methods: We observed the anti-inflammatory effects of the crude alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica, using xylol and agra to induce the turgidness and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na to induce leucocyte strolling in the rats. The analgesic effects were observed by body-distortion methods. The effects of alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica on hepatic function were observed by testing the contents of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in serum and calculating the liver index. The LD50 and 95% creditability were calculated with developed Karber Method. Results: The administration of alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica had the function of inhibiting the auricle swelling caused by xylol and joint swelling caused by agar and leucocyte migration caused by CMC-Na, decreasing the body-distortion of the rats. After two-week administration, the contents of ALT and AST showed that there was no obvious difference between administered group and control group. The LD50 of the crude alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica was 1.622 g/kg and the 95% creditability was 1.29-2.03 g/kg. Conclusion: Toddalia asiatica has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, and there is no injury to the liver after long-term administration in rats

HAO Xiao-Yan

2004-11-01

91

Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH. The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited antioxidative activity using the DPPH assay (IC50, 0.743 mg/mL. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of MOSEtOH was five times higher that that of vitamin C. MOSEtOH was also found to inhibit pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, and carrageenan inflammation. Treatment with MOSEtOH (100 and 500 mg/kg or silymarin (200 mg/kg decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels compared with the CCl4-treated group. Histological evaluation showed that MOSEtOH reduced the degree of liver injury, including vacuolization, inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of MOSEtOH were found to be related to the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver and decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA level and nitric oxide (NO contents. Our findings suggest that MOSEtOH has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. These effects support the use of MOSEtOH for relieving pain and inflammation in folk medicine.

Hao-Yuan Cheng

2013-01-01

92

Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem.  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOS(EtOH)). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOS(EtOH) was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOS(EtOH) exhibited antioxidative activity using the DPPH assay (IC(50), 0.743 mg/mL). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of MOS(EtOH) was five times higher that that of vitamin C. MOS(EtOH) was also found to inhibit pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, and carrageenan inflammation. Treatment with MOS(EtOH) (100 and 500 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels compared with the CCl(4)-treated group. Histological evaluation showed that MOS(EtOH) reduced the degree of liver injury, including vacuolization, inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of MOS(EtOH) were found to be related to the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver and decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide (NO) contents. Our findings suggest that MOS(EtOH) has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. These effects support the use of MOS(EtOH) for relieving pain and inflammation in folk medicine. PMID:23364614

Chao, Jung; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Pao, Li-Heng; Cheng, Hao-Yuan

2013-01-01

93

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model  

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Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

Mohammad M. Hassan

2013-04-01

94

Evaluation of Skin Permeation and Analgesic Activity Effects of Carbopol Lornoxicam Topical Gels Containing Penetration Enhancer  

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The current study was designed to develop a topical gel formulation for improved skin penetration of lornoxicam (LOR) for enhancement of its analgesic activity. Moreover, the effect of different penetration enhancers on LOR was studied. The LOR gel formulations were prepared by using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and carbopol. The carbopol gels in presence of propylene glycol (PG) and ethanol were developed. The formulated gels were characterized for pH, viscosity, and LOR release using Franz diffusion cells. Also, in vitro skin permeation of LOR was conducted. The effect of hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (HP ?-CD), beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD), Tween 80, and oleic acid on LOR permeation was evaluated. The optimized LOR gel formulation (LORF8) showed the highest flux (14.31??g/cm2/h) with ER of 18.34 when compared to LORF3. Incorporation of PG and HP ?-CD in gel formulation (LORF8) enhanced the permeation of LOR significantly. It was observed that LORF3 and LORF8 show similar analgesic activity compared to marketed LOR injection (Xefo). This work shows that LOR can be formulated into carbopol gel in presence of PG and HP ?-CD and may be promising in enhancing permeation.

Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.; Taha, Ehab I.; Al-Qahtani, Fahad M.; Ahmed, Mahrous O.; Badran, Mohamed M.

2014-01-01

95

Anti-dermatitis, anxiolytic and analgesic effects of Rhazya stricta from Balochistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current study was carried out on Rhazya stricta. Plant material was collected from Jhalmagsi Dist. Balochistan, Pakistan. Methanolic extract of Rhazya stricta was tested for anti-dermatitis, analgesic, anxiolytic effects, insecticidal activity and Brine shrimp Bioassay. Crude extract showed significant anti-dermatitis activity, as the results of intensity score showed mild Excoriation or erosion, moderate Edema or populations and absence of Erythema or hemorrhage, Scratching time was decreased to 1.45 and histological observations of mice treated with crude extract showed mild changes and few inflammatory cells in several microscopic fields. The results of analgesic activity were significant and the percentage inhibition of writhes were 73.54% and 69.38% at 300mg/kg and 500mg/kg respectively. The overall response of crude extract in anxiolytic activities were depressive and crude extract showed sedative effects. In Brine shrimp (Artemsia salina) lethality bioassay crude extract showed dose depended significant activity, and showed positive lethality with LD(50) 3.3004?g/ml. Insecticidal activity was positive against Callosbruchus analis, the percent mortality was 40%. PMID:24811805

Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammed, Shafi; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Jan, Syed Umer; Qureshi, Zia-Ul-Rehaman

2014-05-01

96

Analgesic Effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats  

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Full Text Available Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil’s Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI rats. The whole procedure was performed on male SD rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT test measured by von Frey filaments. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USVs. The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with 300 mg/kg H. procumbens extract increased significantly; on the contrary, the number of 22–27 kHz USVs of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation. After 21 days of continuous treatment with H. procumbens extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity responses by MWT, compared with the control group. These results suggest that H. procumbens extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of acute postoperative pain and chronic neuropathic pain in rats.

Dong Wook Lim

2014-01-01

97

Analgesic effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on postoperative and neuropathic pain in rats.  

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Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil's Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. The whole procedure was performed on male SD rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) test measured by von Frey filaments. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USVs). The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with 300 mg/kg H. procumbens extract increased significantly; on the contrary, the number of 22-27 kHz USVs of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation. After 21 days of continuous treatment with H. procumbens extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity responses by MWT, compared with the control group. These results suggest that H. procumbens extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of acute postoperative pain and chronic neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:24441655

Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Yun Tai

2014-01-01

98

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Elephantopus tomentosus ethanolic extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elephantopus tomentosus is widely used in Asia, especially in Malaysia, for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a 95% ethanol extract of E. tomentosus were investigated in different experimental models. In the anti-inflammation study, 1000 mg/kg of extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (p < 0.05) and inhibited abdominal permeability compared with control (p < 0.01). The analgesic activity was assayed in several experimental models in mice: (1) hot plate, (2) tail flick, (3) writhing test; and rats: carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test. However, at the doses tested, no significant activity was found in the hot plate test and the tail flick test. E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) increased hyperalgesia pain threshold and inhibited writhing activity. The results suggest that E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg dose is effective in anti-inflammatory and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug type anti-nociception activities. PMID:20633503

Yam, Mun Fei; Ang, Lee Fung; Ameer, Omar Ziad; Salman, Ibrahim Muhammad; Aziz, Hesham Abdul; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

2009-12-01

99

Analgesic effect of minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain.  

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The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N

2014-03-15

100

Effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on nociception and edema induced by peripheral serotonin.  

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Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is defined as the application of an electrical current to the skin through surface electrodes for pain relief. Various theories have been proposed in order to explain the analgesic mechanism of TENS. Recent studies have demonstrated that part of this analgesia is mediated through neurotransmitters acting at peripheral sites. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low frequency (LF: 10 HZ) TENS and high frequency (HF: 130 HZ) TENS on hyperalgesia and edema when applied before the serotonin (5-HT) administered into the rat paw. LF and HF TENS were applied to the right paw for 20 min, and 5-HT was administered immediately after TENS. The Hargreaves method was used to measure nociception, while the hydroplethysmometer (Ugo Basile®) was used to measure edema. Neither HF nor LF TENS inhibited 5-HT-induced edema. However, LF TENS, but not HF TENS, completely reduced 5-HT-induced hyperalgesia. Pre-treatment of the paw with naltrexone, prior to application of TENS, (Nx: 50 ?g; I.pl.) showed a complete blockade of the analgesic effect induced by low frequency TENS. Thus, our results confirmed the lack of an anti-inflammatory effect through the use of TENS as well as the participation of peripheral endogenous opioid receptors in LF TENS analgesia in addition to its central action. PMID:23336713

Santos, Cristiane M F; Francischi, Janetti N; Lima-Paiva, Patrícia; Sluka, Kathleen A; Resende, Marcos A

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
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The analgesic effect of dexketoprofen when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.  

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This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of dexketoprofen as an adjunct to lidocaine in intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) or as a supplemental intravenous (i.v.) analgesic. Patients scheduled for elective hand or forearm soft-tissue surgery were randomly divided into three groups. All 45 patients received 0.5% lidocaine as IVRA. Dexketoprofen was given either i.v. or added into the IVRA solution and the control group received an equal volume of saline both i.v. and as part of the IVRA. The times of sensory and motor block onset, recovery time and postoperative analgesic consumption were recorded. Compared with controls, the addition of dexketoprofen to the IVRA solution resulted in more rapid onset of sensory and motor block, longer recovery time, decreased intra- and postoperative pain scores and decreased paracetamol use. It is concluded that coadministration of dexketoprofen with lidocaine in IVRA improves anaesthetic block and decreases postoperative analgesic requirements. PMID:22117995

Yurtlu, S; Hanci, V; Kargi, E; Erdo?an, G; Köksal, B G; Gül, ?; Okyay, R D; Ayo?lu, H; Turan, I Ö

2011-01-01

102

Analgesic Effect of Meloxicam in Canine Acute Dermatitis – a Pilot Study  

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Full Text Available A double-blind trial was performed on 12 client-owned dogs suffering from acute and painful dermatitis. Clinically these cases represented pyotraumatic dermatitis and pyotraumatic folliculitis. Six dogs were injected with meloxicam and 6 were given placebo. Signs of pain were recorded on a visual analogue scale before administering the drug. This was repeated over the following 2–3 days. All dogs were treated with cephalexin orally. Six dogs given meloxicam and cephalexin showed an average decrease of pain on day 2 of 28.3%, whereas the 6 dogs given placebo and cephalexin showed an average decrease of pain on day 2 of 8.3%. When compared in the Wilcoxon two-sample test, using change in percent and absolute change, the 2 groups yielded p = 0.026 and p = 0.064 respectively. These findings indicate that meloxicam has an analgesic effect on acute dermatitis in dogs.

Frendin J

2002-12-01

103

Comparative analysis of preemptive analgesic effect of dexamethasone and diclofenac following third molar surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the study was to compare the analgesic effectiveness of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium administered preemptively after surgical removal of third molars. Forty-four ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I patients (19 men, 35 women; 16–28 years old) randomly and double-bli [...] ndly received diclofenac sodium (50?mg) or dexamethasone (8?mg) or placebo 1?h before surgery. Intensity of pain, measured with a visual analog scale (VAS), was the variable studied at different postoperative times (1?h, 2?h, 3?h, 6?h, 8?h, 12?h, 48?h, 4?d and 7?d). The total amount of rescue medication (TARM) ingested (paracetamol) was another variable of the study. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test was used. A p value of

José Leonardo, Simone; Waldyr Antonio, Jorge; Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini, Horliana; Talita Girio, Canaval; Isabel Peixoto, Tortamano.

104

Analgesic Effect of Chronic Oral Administration of Nigella Sativa Seeds in Diabetic Rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperalgesia is considered as one the marked signs of subchronic diabetes mellitus that could affect the life style of patients. Considering the evidence on the antidiabetic and analgesic effects of Nigella sativa (NS, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic effects of NS on formalin-induced nociceptive responses (standard formalin test in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, male rats (n = 60 were randomly divided into control, NS-treated control, diabetic, sodium salicylate (SS-treated diabetic, and NS-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was used at a single dose. The treatment groups received oral administration of NS seed-mixed pelleted food (6.25% for two months. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited a higher score of pain at both phases of the formalin test (p = 0.031 and p = 0.034 respectively and NS-treated diabetic rats exhibited a lower nociceptive score as compared to untreated-diabetic ones at both acute and chronic phases (p = 0.008 and p = 0.009 respectively. Meanwhile, SS administration significantly reduced pain score only during the chronic phase of the test (p = 0.009. On the other hand, NS administration in control rats caused a lower nociceptive score as compared to untreated controls (p= 0.046 and p = 0.039. Conclusion: Two-month oral administration of NS seeds can attenuate nociceptive scores in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus and therefore could be considered as a potential treatment for painful diabetic neuropathy

F Kargar-sharif

2006-07-01

105

Non-analgesic effects of opioids: opioid-induced respiratory depression.  

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Opioids induce respiratory depression via activation of ?-opioid receptors at specific sites in the central nervous system including the pre-Bötzinger complex, a respiratory rhythm generating area in the pons. Full opioid agonists like morphine and fentanyl affect breathing with onset and offset profiles that are primarily determined by opioid transfer to the receptor site, while the effects of partial opioid agonists such as buprenorphine are governed by transfer to the receptor site together with receptor kinetics, in particular dissociation kinetics. Opioid-induced respiratory depression is potentially fatal but may be reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, an agent with a short elimination half-life (30 min). The rate-limiting factor in naloxone-reversal of opioid effect is the receptor kinetics of the opioid agonists that requires reversal. Agents with slow dissociation kinetics (buprenorphine) require a continuous naloxone infusion while agents with rapid kinetics (fentanyl) will show complete reversal upon a single naloxone dose. Since naloxone is non-selective and will reverse analgesia as well, efforts are focused on the development of compounds that reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression without affecting analgesic efficacy. Such agents include ampakines and serotonin agonists which are aimed at selectively enhancing central respiratory drive. A novel approach is aimed at the reduction of respiratory depression from opioid-activation of (micro-)glia cells in the pons and brainstem using micro-glia cell stabilizers. Since this approach simultaneously enhances opioid analgesic efficacy it seems an attractive alternative to the classical reversal strategies with naloxone. PMID:22747535

Boom, Merel; Niesters, Marieke; Sarton, Elise; Aarts, Leon; Smith, Terry W; Dahan, Albert

2012-01-01

106

The analgesic effect of pregabalin in chronic pain patients is reflected by changes in pharmaco-EEG spectral indices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What this paper adds What is already known about this subject â?¢ Pregabalin is an anticonvulsive agent prescribed as a secondary analgesic for patients when standard pain treatment is insufficient. â?¢ The analgesic effect resides to the central nervous system. â?¢ The central analgesic effect can be evaluated by electroencephalographic. What this study adds â?¢ The analgesic effect of pregabalin is reflected as a slowing of brain oscillations. â?¢ The slowing of brain oscillations for each individual patient is correlated to subjective pain scores. â?¢ The developed methodology may be used as a mechanistic approach to monitor the analgesic effect of pregabalin in pharmacological studies. SUMMARY: Aim: To identify electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarkers for the analgesic effect of pregabalin in patients with chronic visceral pain. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in thirty-one patients suffering from visceral pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Patients received increasing doses of pregabalin (75mg-300mg twice a day) or matching placebo during 3 weeks of treatment. Pain scores were documented in a diary based on the visual analogue scale. In addition, brief pain inventory-short form (BPI) and quality of life questionnaires were collected prior to and after the study period. Multi-channel resting EEG was recorded before treatment onset and at the end of the study. Changes in EEG spectral indices were extracted, and individual changes were classified by a support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate the pregabalin and placebo responses. Changes in individual spectral indices and pain scores were correlated. Results: Pregabalin increased normalized intensity in low spectral indices, most prominent in the theta band (3.5-7.5Hz), difference of -3.18, 95%CI -3.57, -2.80; P = 0.03. No changes in spectral indices were seen for placebo. The maximum difference between pregabalin and placebo treated patients were seen in the parietal region, with a classification accuracy of 85.7% (P = 0.009). Individual changes in EEG indices were correlated to changes in pain diary (P = 0.04) and BPI pain composite scores (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Changes in spectral indices caused by slowing of brain oscillations were identified as a biomarker for the central analgesic effect of pregabalin. The developed methodology may provide perspectives to assess individual responses to treatment in personalized medicine.

Gravesen, Carina; Olesen, Søren S

2012-01-01

107

Tapentadol hydrochloride: A novel analgesic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with dual mechanism of action, combining mu-opioid receptor agonism with noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the same molecule. It has an improved side effect profile when compared to opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual mechanism of action makes Tapentadol a useful analgesic to treat acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain. PMID:24015138

Singh, Dewan Roshan; Nag, Kusha; Shetti, Akshaya N; Krishnaveni, N

2013-07-01

108

Tapentadol hydrochloride: A novel analgesic  

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Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with dual mechanism of action, combining mu-opioid receptor agonism with noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the same molecule. It has an improved side effect profile when compared to opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual mechanism of action makes Tapentadol a useful analgesic to treat acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain.

Singh, Dewan Roshan; Nag, Kusha; Shetti, Akshaya N.; Krishnaveni, N.

2013-01-01

109

Probable role of spinal purinoceptors in the analgesic effect of Trigonella foenum (TFG) leaves extract.  

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In our previous work, we demonstrated that Trigonella foenum (TFG) leaves extract can exert analgesic effects in both formalin (F.T.) and tail flick (T.F.) tests. Spinal serotonergic system, but not endogenous opioid system, was involved in TFG induced analgesia (in the second phase of formalin test). Some reports concern the similarity between NSAIDs and TFG extract in many pharmacological effects or the interaction between NSAIDs and purinergic system; so the present study was designed to investigate the relationship between TFG extract and purinergic system or the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX). We examined the effect of TFG extract on: (1) the response of rabbit platelets to ADP induced aggregation, (2) the contraction of mouse vas deferens induced by alpha,beta-Me-ATP (a P(2) receptor agonist; this receptor mediates the rapid phase of ADP- and ATP-evoked influx of Ca(2+) through a non-specific cation channel in platelets), (3) alpha,beta-Me-ATP induced hyperalgesia in tail flick test in male rats and (4) the specific inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. Our results showed that TFG extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, 3 mg/ml) inhibited ADP (10(-5) mol) induced platelet aggregation (IC(50)=1.28 mg/ml). alpha,beta-Me-ATP (30 microM) induced isometric contraction in vas deferens while suramin (a P(2) receptor antagonist, 50, 150, 300 microM) or TFG extract (0.5, 1, 2, 3 mg/ml) inhibited this effect significantly (IC(50) were 91.07 microM and 1.57 mg/ml, respectively). Moreover, alpha,beta-Me-ATP (3 microg/rat, i.t.) induced hyperalgesia in tail flick test, but it was prevented by co-injection of alpha,beta-Me-ATP with suramin (120 microg/rat, i.t.) or TFG extract (1mg/rat, i.t.). Effective concentrations of TFG extract in the above mentioned experiments did not inhibit COX enzymes in EIA tests. In conclusion, these results indicate that the blocking of spinal purinoceptors may contribute in the analgesic effect of TFG leaves extract. PMID:16298092

Parvizpur, Aliresa; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

2006-03-01

110

Analgesic effects of noninvasive brain stimulation in rodent animal models: A systematic review of translational findings  

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Objectives Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) interventions have demonstrated promising results in the clinical treatment of pain, according to several preliminary trials, although the results have been mixed. The limitations of clinical research on NIBS are the insufficient understanding of its mechanisms of action, a lack of adequate safety data, and several disparities with regard to stimulation parameters, which have hindered the generalizability of such studies. Thus, experimental animal research that allows the use of more invasive interventions and creates additional control of independent variables and confounders is desirable. To this end, we systematically reviewed animal studies investigating the analgesic effects of NIBS. In addition we also explored the investigation of NIBS in animal models of stroke as to compare these findings with NIBS animal pain research. Methods Of 1916 articles that were found initially, we identified 15 studies (stroke and pain studies) per our eligibility criteria that used NIBS methods, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), paired associative stimulation (PAS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and transcranial electrostimulation (TES). We extracted the main outcomes on stroke and pain, as well as the methods and electrical parameters of each technique. Results NIBS techniques are effective in alleviating pain. Similar beneficial clinical effects are observed in stroke. The main insights from these animal studies are: (i) combination of NIBS with analgesic drugs has a synergistic effect; (ii) effects are dependent on the parameters of stimulation, and in fact, not necessarily the strongest stimulation parameter (i.e., the largest intensity of stimulation) is associated with the largest benefit; (iii) pain studies show an overall good quality as indexed by ARRIVE guidelines of the reporting of animal experiments, but insufficient with regard to the reporting of safety data for brain stimulation; (iv) these studies suggest that NIBS techniques have a primary effect on synaptic plasticity, but they also suggest other mechanisms of action such as via neurovascular modulation. Conclusions We found a limited number of animal studies for both pain and stroke NIBS experimental research. There is a lack of safety data in animal studies in these two topics and results from these studies have not been yet fully tested and translated to human research. We discuss the challenges and limitations of translating experimental animal research on NIBS into clinical studies.

Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Volz, Theresa Sophie; Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; de Oliveira, Joao Paulo Vaz Tostes Ribeiro; Fregni, Felipe

2014-01-01

111

The application of a penile block before circumcision: effects on the postoperative FLACC score and analgesic requirement  

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Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effect of the application of a penile block before circumcision on the postoperative Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC score and the analgesic requirement.Material and methods: In this study, 240 patients were included, age range 1 to 9 years, between April 2012 and August 2012. A penile block was performed in 125 of the 240 patients (Group 1 and was not performed in 115 of the 240 patients (Group 2. Both groups were compared in terms of age, operation times, FLACC score and analgesic requirement.Results: The mean age of the patients was 4.8±2.1 years in Group 1 and 5.3±3.1 years in group 2 (p=0.126. The mean operation time was 14.9±5.1 min in Group 1 and 15.2±6.2 min in Group 2 (p=0.242. The mean FLACC score of the patients was 3.1±1.9 (0-6 in group 1 and 6.4±3.3 (3-10 in group 2 (p<0.05. There was a postoperative analgesic requirement in 20 patients (16% of Group 1 and 75 patients (65% of Group 2. Early complications were not observed in any patients.Conclusion: We detected a significantly lower postoperative analgesic requirement and a mean FLACC score in patients with the application of a penile block before circumcision.

Sacit Nuri Görgel

2013-03-01

112

An update on analgesics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent introduction of new analgesics into the clinic is best described as a slow process with activity classified into two main areas: improving analgesic efficacy/potency and reducing side-effect profile. This review article describes some of the recent advances with an emphasis on use in the acute setting. In this respect, opioids continue to be the mainstay (but not the only) analgesic and there have been important improvements in their clinical effect profile. For example, tapentadol has been introduced as a mixed opioid and norepinephrine uptake inhibitor which, unlike tramadol, does not require metabolic activation and does not suffer from isomer-dependent pharmacodynamics. Opioid antagonists have received much attention recently either used alone, methylnaltrexone (s.c) or alvimopan (p.o), or in combination, Targinact (oxycodone/naloxone), and appear to be effective in reducing opioid side-effects such as those in the gastrointestinal tract. Other agents where there has been recent development include the use of gabapentin, methylxanthines, and local anaesthetics. An interesting area of translation of basic research is in the inhibition of breakdown of endogenous opioids with opiorphin, targeting of the endocannabinoid system, and the use of ampakines to obtund opioid-induced side-effects. It is clear that there is still much work to be done, but the need for highly efficacious analgesics with good side-effect profile remains. PMID:21624966

Power, I

2011-07-01

113

Peripheral muscarinic receptors mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of auricular acupuncture  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The cholinergic and opioid systems play important roles in modulating inflammation. This study tests whether auricular acupuncture (AA produces anti-inflammatory effects via opioid and peripheral cholinergic receptors in a rat model. Methods Rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and inflammation was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan. Electroacupuncture was performed at auricular points bilaterally. The severity of inflammation was assessed using changes in paw volume and thermal and mechanical pain thresholds of the rats during recovery from anesthesia. Results Electroacupuncture at selected auricular acupoints significantly reduced paw edema and mechanical hyperalgesia, with no significant effect on thermal hyperalgesia. The anti-edematous and analgesic effects of AA were abolished by blockade of peripheral cholinergic muscarinic receptors with methyl atropine. Blockade of local muscarinic receptors at the inflamed site with a small dose of atropine also antagonized the anti-edematous effect of AA. By contrast, systemic opioid receptor blockade with naloxone did not antagonize the anti-inflammatory effects of AA. Conclusion This study discovers a role of peripheral muscarinic receptors in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of AA. The cholinergic muscarinic mechanism appears to be more important than the opioid mechanism in the anti-inflammatory action of AA.

Chung Wai

2011-01-01

114

Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract  

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The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A. M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

2007-01-01

115

Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Carprofen Following Osteotomy and Laparotomy in Dogs  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of postoperative pain following soft and hard tissue operations in dogs on Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH levels, dopamine levels, haemocoel values and blood gases. It also evaluated the results of the applied treatments. The study was carried out in 4 groups each comprising 6 dogs. Dogs in the 1st and 3rd groups underwent laparotomy and those in the 2nd and 4th groups underwent osteotomy. Carprofen (4.4 mg kg-1 (Rimadyl, Pfizer was administered subcutaneously as an analgesic to the dogs in the 1st and 2nd groups following the operation. Venous blood samples were collected from the animals before the operation and in the subsequent hours to determine the ACTH and dopamine levels. In the postoperative period, ACTH and dopamine levels were significantly higher in the groups that underwent osteotomy than in the groups that underwent laparotomy (p<0.05. Statistically significant decreases were observed in the groups that received analgesia after the 2nd h (p<0.05. In this study, effective postoperative analgesia is required after both soft and hard tissue operations. Furthermore, effective and rapid implementation of the process is important for postoperative animal welfare and rapid return to normal physiological functions.

Muharrem Erol

2011-01-01

116

Analgesic effects of cranial laser treatment in two rat nociception models.  

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The present experiments sought to establish dose dependency and time course for effects of cranial laser irradiation in two rodent models of pain. These were the hot plate and tail flick tests, which are both widely used to quantify analgesic drug effects. The laser used was an Omega Biotherapy 3ML (wavelength 820 nM, average power output 100 mW, pulse frequency 5 kHz) and irradiation was applied to rats' shaved heads above the midbrain. In the first experiment, four groups of 10 rats received doses of 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 J/cm2 in random orders prior to hot plate testing either immediately, 30 min, 1 h or 24 h postlaser. The second study employed three groups of 10 rats receiving 0, 12, and 18 J/cm2 in random orders prior to tail flick testing at the three shorter times above. Latency to lick hind paws on the hot plate was highly significantly prolonged by laser treatment across all doses and time periods, F(4, 126) = 4.51, p < 0.01. There was good dose dependency for immediate observations, but at 24 h 18 J/cm2 was the most effective dose. Laser treatment also delayed tail flick responses at both doses and all time periods, F(2, 54) = 10.60, p < 0.001, but 12 and 18 J/cm2 doses were similar in efficacy. PMID:8700944

Wedlock, P; Shephard, R A; Little, C; McBurney, F

1996-03-01

117

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).  

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Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from elevated stress. To assess its possible analgesic and antiinflammatory effects, the results of a standard extract evaluation are presented. Analgesia was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced oedema. Vimang (50-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited a potent and dose-dependent antinociceptive effect against acetic acid test in mice. The mean potency (DE(50)) was 54.5 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition attained was 94.4%. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced pain but not the first phase. The DE(50) of the second phase was 8.4 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition was 99.5%, being more potent than indomethacin at doses of 20 mg/kg. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited oedema formation (p indica bark aqueous extract. PMID:11180516

Garrido, G; González, D; Delporte, C; Backhouse, N; Quintero, G; Núñez-Sellés, A J; Morales, M A

2001-02-01

118

Effects of histamine on spontaneous neuropathic pain induced by peripheral axotomy.  

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The present study was designed to investigate the effects of histamine on spontaneous neuropathic pain (NP) induced by peripheral axotomy. Rats and mice were subjected to complete transection of the left sciatic and saphenous nerves to induce spontaneous NP (the neuroma model). Rats were then treated with drugs once daily for 30 days (histidine and loratadine, i.p.) or 21 days (histamine, i.c.v.). Autotomy behavior was scored daily until day 50 post-operation (PO). On days 14 to 21 PO, some rats in the control group were subjected to single-fiber recording. Autotomy behavior was also monitored daily in histidine decarboxylase (the key enzyme for histamine synthesis) knockout (HDC(-/-)) and wild-type mice for 42 days. We found that both histidine (500 mg/kg) (a precursor of histamine that increases histamine levels in the tissues) and histamine (50 ?g/5 ?L) significantly suppressed autotomy behavior in rats. HDC(-/-) mice lacking endogenous histamine showed higher levels of autotomy than the wild-type. In addition, the analgesic effect of histidine was not antagonized by loratadine (a peripherally-acting H1 receptor antagonist), while loratadine alone significantly suppressed autotomy. Electrophysiological recording showed that ectopic spontaneous discharges from the neuroma were blocked by systemic diphenhydramine (an H1 receptor antagonist). Our results suggest that histamine plays an important role in spontaneous NP. It is likely that histamine in the central nervous system is analgesic, while in the periphery, via H1 receptors, it is algesic. This study justifies the avoidance of a histamine-rich diet and the use of peripherally-acting H1 receptor antagonists as well as agents that improve histamine action in the central nervous system in patients with spontaneous NP. PMID:23494529

Yu, Jie; Lou, Guo-Dong; Yue, Jia-Xing; Tang, Ying-Ying; Hou, Wei-Wei; Shou, Wen-Ting; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Chen, Zhong

2013-06-01

119

Study of interaction between opioid and ?-2 adrenergic systems in analgesic effect of oxytocin in locus coeruleus nucleus  

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Introduction: Oxytocin is a active neuropeptide of central nervous system. In this study the effects of naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) and yohimbine (?-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist) on analgesic effect of oxytocin applied into the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus were investigated. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were used. Animals divided into different groups receiving saline, oxytocin (3 nmol / 2?l), naloxone (3 nmol / 2?l) + oxytocin, yohimbine (3 nmol / 2?l) + oxytocin, and na...

Nasrin haghighi; Mahnaz Kessmati; Hadi fathi Moghadam2

2006-01-01

120

Postoperative analgesic effects of dexketoprofen, buprenorphine and tramadol in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.  

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The objective of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effects of dexketoprofen, tramadol, and buprenorphine in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Seventy-five adult female dogs were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous injection (IV) of 1mg/kg of dexketoprofen (D), 0.02 mg/kg of buprenorphine (B) or 2mg/kg of tramadol (T). Pain assessment was performed during 48 h after ovariohysterectomy using a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS) and Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF). Rescue analgesia was required in 43%, 21%, and 5% of dogs in the B, T, and D groups, respectively, with significant differences between B and D (p=0.010) groups. The DIVAS and CMPS-SF values of the B group were significantly higher than those of the T and D groups. The most common undesirable effect was dysphoria in dexketoprofen group. Tramadol and dexketoprofen provide superior postoperative analgesia compared with buprenorphine in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. PMID:23562407

Morgaz, J; Navarrete, R; Muñoz-Rascón, P; Domínguez, J M; Fernández-Sarmiento, J A; Gómez-Villamandos, R J; Granados, M M

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Comparative analysis of preemptive analgesic effect of dexamethasone and diclofenac following third molar surgery  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the analgesic effectiveness of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium administered preemptively after surgical removal of third molars. Forty-four ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists I patients (19 men, 35 women; 16–28 years old randomly and double-blindly received diclofenac sodium (50?mg or dexamethasone (8?mg or placebo 1?h before surgery. Intensity of pain, measured with a visual analog scale (VAS, was the variable studied at different postoperative times (1?h, 2?h, 3?h, 6?h, 8?h, 12?h, 48?h, 4?d and 7?d. The total amount of rescue medication (TARM ingested (paracetamol was another variable of the study. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test was used. A p value of < .05 was adopted to reject the null hypothesis. The dexamethasone group showed lower pain intensity (p < .05 than the diclofenac sodium and placebo groups (p < .05. No difference in TARM was observed among the groups (p < .05. Preemptively administered, dexamethasone was effective in controlling postoperative pain.

José Leonardo Simone

2013-06-01

122

Evaluation of skin permeation and anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of new naproxen microemulsion formulations.  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of microemulsions as a transdermal drug delivery for naproxen (Np). The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed for microemulsions composed of isopropyl myristate, Span 80, Labrafil M, Labrasol, and Cremophor EL, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol and 0.5N sodium hydroxide. The final concentration of Np in microemulsion systems was 10% (w/w). The microemulsions were characterised by conductivity, droplet size, viscosity and pH. Moreover, in vitro permeability studies were performed using diffusion cells from rat skin. The permeation rates of Np from microemulsions (M1(Np) and M2(Np)) were higher than the commercial (C) gel formulation. The paw oedema test was performed in rats to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Np. The volume increase in paw oedema after 6hr was 0.71±0.46% with M2(Np), whereas M1(Np) and C exhibited 6.48±2.71% and 14.97±3.15% increases in oedema, respectively. Additionally, a significant analgesic effect was detected in the hot plate and tail-flick tests for all test microemulsion and C formulations when compared with the control. Histopathological examination of the treated skin was performed to investigate changes in skin morphology. In conclusion, the microemulsion formulations, especially the M2(Np) formulation, may be used as an effective alternative for the transdermal delivery of Np. PMID:21723930

Ustünda? Okur, Neslihan; Apayd?n, Sebnem; Karabay Yava?o?lu, N Ülkü; Yava?o?lu, Altu?; Karasulu, H Ye?im

2011-09-15

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A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial on analgesic effect of nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation  

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BACKGROUND: The sedative effect of nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2 O/O2 ) inhalation is relatively well established. Less in known about its analgesic effect. AIM: To determine the analgesic effect of N2 O/O2 inhalation on pulp sensitivity and jaw muscle pressure pain threshold in children. DESIGN: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial with random allocation to two sequences: atmospheric air at the first session and N2 O/O2 at the second; or N2 O/O2 at the first session and atmospheric air at the second. Measurements included reaction time, pulp pain sensitivity, jaw muscle pressure pain thresholds and a VAS score of overall discomfort from the pain tests. RESULTS: Fifty-six children (12-15 years) completed the study. N2 O/O2 inhalation increased reaction time (P 

Grønbæk, Anni Birgitte; Svensson, Peter

2014-01-01

124

Visceral analgesic effect of 5-HT(4) receptor agonist in rats involves the rostroventral medulla (RVM).  

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The 5-HT(4) receptor agonist tegaserod (TEG) has been reported to modulate visceral pain. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to examine the analgesic mechanism and site of action of TEG. In male rats, visceral pain was assessed by measuring visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD). Inflammation was induced by intracolonic injection of tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The effect of TEG on the VMR was tested by injecting intraperitoneal (i.p.), intrathecal (i.t.), intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) or in the rostroventral medulla (RVM). The effect of the drug was also tested on responses of CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons. Systemic injection of TEG attenuated VMR in naive and TNBS-treated rats. Similarly, supraspinal, but not spinal, injection of TEG attenuated the VMR. While GR113808, (selective 5-HT(4) antagonist) blocked the effect, naloxone (NLX) an opioid receptor antagonist reversed the effect of TEG. Although i.t. NLX did not block the inhibitory effect of TEG in VMR study, i.t. injection of ?2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine blocked the effect of TEG when given systemically. While TEG had no effect on the responses of CRD-sensitive PNA, it inhibited the responses of CRD-sensitive LS neurons in spinal intact condition. This inhibition was blocked by GR113808, NLX and ?-funaltrexamine (?-FNA) when injected into the RVM. Results indicate that TEG produces analgesia via activation of supraspinal 5-HT(4) receptors which triggers the release of opioids at supraspinal site, which activates descending noradrenergic pathways to the spinal cord to produce analgesia. PMID:24334068

Sengupta, Jyoti N; Mickle, Aaron; Kannampalli, Pradeep; Spruell, Russell; McRorie, John; Shaker, Reza; Miranda, Adrian

2014-04-01

125

Antiallodynic and analgesic effects of maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Olea europaea.  

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The effects of maslinic acid (1), a pentacyclic triterpenoid obtained from Olea europaea, were studied in several tests for nociception in mice. Systemic administration of 1 reduced acetic acid-induced writhing, the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced pain, and capsaicin-induced mechanical allodynia. However, it did not induce motor incoordination in the rotarod test. The topical administration of 1 also reduced the inflammatory phase of the formalin test, indicating that at least some of its effects are mediated peripherally. The present results demonstrate for the first time that maslinic acid induces antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects. PMID:23540838

Nieto, Francisco R; Cobos, Enrique J; Entrena, José M; Parra, Andrés; García-Granados, Andrés; Baeyens, José M

2013-04-26

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ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF LEECH THERAPY (JALAUKAVCHARAN IN THE PATIENTS OF OSTEOARTHRITIS (SANDHIGATA VATA  

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Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease is the most common joint disorder. It mostly affects cartilage. The top layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away. Osteoarthritis is of two types, primary (idiopathic and secondary. In idiopathic osteoarthritis, the most common form of the disease, no predisposing factor is apparent. Secondary OA is pathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic OA but is attributable to an underlying cause. The NSAID’S are main drug of choice in modern medicine which have lots of side effect therefore are not safe for long term therapy. Raktamokshan viz bloodletting is one of the ancient and important parasurgical procedure described in Ayurveda for treatment of various diseases. Of them, Jalaukavacharana or Leech Therapy has gained greater attention globally, because of its medicinal values. The saliva of leech contains numerous biologically active substances, which has anti-inflammatory, analgesic as well as anesthetic property. Keeping this view in mind we have started leech therapy in the patients of osteoarthritis and found encouraging results.

Singh Akhilesh Kumar

2012-02-01

127

Analgesic effects of dyspnoea: "Air hunger" does not inhibit the spinal nociception reflex in humans.  

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Dyspnoea has distinct sensory modalities, including air hunger and the sensation of excessive breathing "work/effort". Both have analgesic properties. In the case of work/effort, spinal mechanisms have been documented (inhibitory effect on the spinal nociceptive flexor reflex, RIII). This mechanism involves C-fibres. As C-fibres are unlikely to play a major role in air hunger, we hypothesised that inducing this type of dyspnoea would not result in RIII inhibition. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to a hypercapnic hyperoxic gas mixture (5% CO2 and 95% O2) and asked to voluntarily fight the corresponding ventilatory reflex response by reducing tidal volume below its spontaneous level. Ventilatory variables and dyspnoea intensity (ordinal scale) were measured. Electromyography of the biceps femoris was used to record the amplitude of RIII in response to painful electrical sural nerve stimulation. Air hunger failed to inhibit the RIII reflex. We conclude that the mechanisms of air hunger induced analgesia do not include a spinal contribution and are therefore mostly central. PMID:24140942

Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Mayaux, Julien; Hug, François; Willer, Jean-Claude; Similowski, Thomas

2014-01-01

128

Evaluation of Analgesic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Marrubium parviflorum by Formalin Test in Mice  

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In this research, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Marrubium parviflorum (Lamiaceae) was subjected to evaluation of analgesic effects using formalin test at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 in mice. Duration of licking and biting time (min) of the injected paw was recorded at 5 min intervals for 40 min after formalin injection as a pain index. Results of study showed that the dose of 100 mg kg-1 of the extract decreased duration of lick...

Mahnaz Khanavi; Mohammad-reza Delnavazi; Vahid Nikoui; Sattar Ostadhadi; Azam Bakhtiarian

2012-01-01

129

Comparing the analgesic effect of heat patch containing iron chip and ibuprofen for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial  

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Abstract Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a common and sometimes disabling condition. In recent years, some studies aimed to improve the treatment of dysmenorrhea, and therefore, introduced several therapeutic measures. This study was designed to compare the analgesic effect of iron chip containing heat wrap with ibuprofen for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods In this randomized (IRCT201107187038N2) controlled trial, 147 students (18–30?years ...

Navvabi Rigi Shahindokht; kermansaravi Fatihe; Navidian Ali; Safabakhsh Leila; Safarzadeh Ameneh; Khazaian Somaye; Shafie Shahla; Salehian Tahmineh

2012-01-01

130

Superior Analgesic Effect of an Active Distraction versus Pleasant Unfamiliar Sounds and Music: The Influence of Emotion and Cognitive Style  

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Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain indu...

Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

2012-01-01

131

Individual Difference Variables and the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Analgesic Imagery Interventions on Cancer Pain  

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Clinicians in acute care settings are often called upon to manage cancer pain unrelieved by medications. Cognitive-behavioral strategies, such as relaxation and imagery, are recommended for cancer pain management; however, there appear to be individual differences in their effects. This pilot study examined variation in pain outcomes achieved with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and analgesic imagery interventions among hospitalized patients with cancer pain, and assessed the influence of...

Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Wanta, Britt; Bumpus, Molly

2008-01-01

132

Analgesic effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B in a murine model of chronic degenerative knee arthritis pain  

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Stephanie Anderson1,2, Hollis Krug1,2, Christopher Dorman1, Pari McGarraugh1, Sandra Frizelle1, Maren Mahowald1,21Rheumatology Section, Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2Division of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAObjective: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B (BoNT/B) in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain.Methods and material...

Stephanie Anderson; Hollis Krug; Christopher Dorman; et al

2010-01-01

133

Analgesic effects of electroacupuncture combined with Celebrex on rats with tibial cancer pain  

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Full Text Available Objective: To establish a proper experimental model of bone cancer pain in rat for acupuncture research, and observe the pain-relieving effect of electroacupuncture (EA and/or Celebrex on bone cancer pain in rats.Methods: The rat model of bone cancer pain was established by percutaneous direct puncture technique and inoculating the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells Walker 256 into tibial medullary cavity directly, and evaluated by detecting the bone tumor growth and mechanical allodynia. The effects of daily EA treatment and/or Celebrex treatment on the rat mechanical allodynia after intratibial Walker 256 inoculation was observed in this study.Results: Significant mechanical allodynia in ipsilateral hind paw and tumor growth in proximal end of tibial bone of rats in the untreated group were observed after intratibial Walker 256 inoculation. The mechanical allodynia thresholds in rats that received EA or 5 mg/(kg·d Celebrex treatment showed no significant difference as compared with that of rats in the untreated group. However, the mechanical allodynia thresholds of rats in 10 mg/(kg·d Celebrex group showed significant increase after 22- and 26-day treatment as compared with that in the methyl cellulose (MC group. There was significant difference between rats with EA combined with 5 mg/(kg·d Celebrex treatment and rats in the untreated group after 10-, 18- and 23-day treatment.Conclusion: EA and 5 mg/(kg·d Celebrex have synergistic effect on pain relieving and their combined use may enhance the analgesic effect on bone cancer pain.

Qi-liang MAO-YING

2008-08-01

134

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Zea mays husk in male Wistar rats.  

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The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Zea mays husk extract (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of body weight) were investigated in rats. The hot plate and formalin-induced paw licking models were used to assess analgesic effects of the extract, whereas the carrageenan and cotton pellet models were used for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. The extract at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < .05) reduced pain stimuli and inflammatory activity when compared with the control group. The reductions in paw licking time and granuloma weight in the formalin and cotton pellet models were both dose dependent. Also, the 200 mg/kg doses of the extract produced higher effects compared with indomethacin (5 mg/kg body of weight) in all the tests. These observations suggest that Z. mays husk extract may have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that may be due to its tannins and polyphenolic constituents. These results provide scientific validation for the use of Z. mays husk decoction for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions in Nigerian folk medicine. PMID:20170365

Owoyele, Bamidele V; Negedu, Muhammed N; Olaniran, Samuel O; Onasanwo, Samuel A; Oguntoye, Stephen O; Sanya, Joseph O; Oyeleke, Sabitiu A; Ibidapo, Adekemi J; Soladoye, Ayodele O

2010-04-01

135

STUDIES OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY, ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TRADITIONAL HERBAL DRUG ON RODENTS  

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Full Text Available Aqueous extract of combination of stems of Tinospora cordifolia, fruits of Emblica officinalis and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus has been used as traditional herbal drug in Indian medicine system for treatment of fever, body ache, joint pain and inflammation. The collected botanicals were subject to physiochemical, pharmacognostical & phytochemical screening before animal experiments. After acute toxicity studies, anti-inflammatory effect was assessed using carrageen induced paw oedema test and antipyretic effect using yeast induced pyrexia method. Tail immersion, hot plate and writhings test were used for determining the analgesic properties. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenolic flavonoids, tannin and saponins. Significant anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties were noticed in dose dependant manner after aqueous extract administration especially at 600 mg/kg dose. These test drug activities were sustained and comparable to the standard drugs while exhibiting no acute toxicity. Aqueous extract of test drug possesses significantly high anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties without any acute toxicity possibly due to presence of flavonoids.

Gupta Mradu

2013-03-01

136

Effect of oral clonidine premedication on perioperative haemodynamic response and post-operative analgesic requirement for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

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Full Text Available Clonidine has anti-hypertensive properties and augments the effects of anaesthesia, hence we considered it to be an ideal agent to contain the stress response to pneumoperitoneum. We studied the clinical efficacy of oral clonidine premedication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Fifty patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive premedication with either oral clonidine 150 ?g (Group I, n = 25 or placebo (Group II, n = 25 90 minutes prior to induction. The patients were managed with a standard general anaesthetic. The two groups were compared with respect to haemodynamic parameters, isoflurane concentration, pain and sedation scores, time to request of analgesic and cumulative analgesic requirements. Oral clonidine was found to be significantly better in terms of maintaining stable haemodynamics, having an isoflurane sparing effect and having a prolonged time interval to the first request of analgesia postoperatively compared to the control group. Administration of oral clonidine 150 ?g as a pre-medicant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy results in improved perioperative haemodynamic stability and a reduction in the intra-operative anaesthetic and post-operative analgesic requirements.

Singh Shivinder

2011-01-01

137

Analgesic and systemic effects of xylazine, lidocaine and their combination after subarachnoid administration in goats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the analgesic and systemic effects of subarachnoid administration of xylazine hydrochloride (XY, lidocaine hydrochloride (LI and their combination (XYLI in goats. Six healthy goats were used in a prospective randomised study. Three treatments were administered to each goat, with 1-week intervals between each treatment. Treatments consisted of 0.1 mg/kg xylazine, 2.5 mg/kg lidocaine and a combination of xylazine 0.05 (mg/kg and lidocaine (1.25 mg/kg. Analgesia, ataxic, sedative, cardiovascular and respiratory effects, and rectal temperature were evaluated before (baseline and at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min after subarachnoid injection, and then at 30-min intervals until loss of analgesia occurred. Lidocaine induced analgesia in 3.1 + 1min (mean + SD, which lasted for 66 + 31 min. Heart and respiratory rates and blood pressure remained unchanged after lidocaine-induced analgesia. Xylazine induced analgesia in 9.5 + 2.6 min and xylazine-lidocaine in 3.2 + 1.2 min. Xylazine-lidocaine-induced analgesia lasted longer (178.3 + 37 min than that induced by xylazine (88.3 + 15 min. The XYLI treatment induced prolonged motor blocking (115 min, more than the XY (80 min and LI (90 min treatments. Both xylazine and xylazine-lidocaine caused significant decreases in the heart and respiratory rates, but not in blood pressure. The combination of xylazine (0.05 mg/kg and lidocaine (1.25 mg/kg can be administered subarachnoidally (between last lumbar vertebra and 1st sacral vertebra to produce prolonged (>2.5 h analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flanks and caudodorsal rib areas in goats. Despite the prolonged analgesia, using this combination is desirable for relieving postoperative pain, but it may be a disadvantage due to a motor block when dealing with goats.

R. DeRossi

2012-06-01

138

The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.  

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The widespread plant volatile beta-caryophyllene (BCP) was recently identified as a natural selective agonist of the peripherally expressed cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). It is found in relatively high concentrations in many spices and food plants. A number of studies have shown that CB2 is critically involved in the modulation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain responses. In this study, we have investigated the analgesic effects of BCP in animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We demonstrate that orally administered BCP reduced inflammatory (late phase) pain responses in the formalin test in a CB2 receptor-dependent manner, while it had no effect on acute (early phase) responses. In a neuropathic pain model the chronic oral administration of BCP attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, and reduced spinal neuroinflammation. Importantly, we found no signs of tolerance to the anti-hyperalgesic effects of BCP after prolonged treatment. Oral BCP was more effective than the subcutaneously injected synthetic CB2 agonist JWH-133. Thus, the natural plant product BCP may be highly effective in the treatment of long lasting, debilitating pain states. Our results have important implications for the role of dietary factors in the development and modulation of chronic pain conditions. PMID:24210682

Klauke, A-L; Racz, I; Pradier, B; Markert, A; Zimmer, A M; Gertsch, J; Zimmer, A

2014-04-01

139

Peripheral analgesic blockade of hypernociception: Activation of arginine/NO/cGMP/protein kinase G/ATP-sensitive K+ channel pathway  

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The final step in the direct restoration of the nociceptor threshold by peripheral administration of morphine and dipyrone was recently suggested to result from the opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal}

Sachs, Daniela; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Ferreira, Se?rgio H.

2004-01-01

140

Evaluation of analgesic effects of intrathecal clonidine along with bupivacaine in cesarean section  

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Full Text Available Aims and Context: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of intrathecal clonidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia. Settings and Design : Randomized single blind trial. Methods: 210 ASA I-II pregnant females undergoing emergency cesarean section were randomized in a single-blind fashion to one of the three groups. In group I (n=70 patients received 12.5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally. In group II (n=70 patients received intrathecal mixture of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (8 mg and clonidine 50 ?g. In group III (n=70 , patients received 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (10 mg intrathecally along with 50 ?g of clonidine. Statistical Analysis Used: Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test. The proportion of adverse events was compared using the chi-square test (?2 =57.2410. Results: On adding 50 ?g clonidine, we were able to reduce intrathecal dose of bupivacaine for cesarean section to 8 mg. Patients receiving intrathecal clonidine along with bupivacaine had significantly long lasting analgesia with lower bupivacaine dose [246.21±5.15 min. (group II vs 146.0±4.55 min (group I, P=0.021; 95% confidence interval: 238.01-257.40, group II and 134.99-157.0 group I]. Conclusions: Addition of intrathecal clonidine causes some sedation in the postoperative period, but it provides adequate analgesia and motor paralysis at lower dose of bupivacaine. It also significantly prolongs postoperative pain relief.

Kothari Nikhil

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Induction of anesthesia in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine by comparing it with propofol starting at the induction of anesthesia until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. INTRODUCTION: Anesthetic induction and maintenance may induce myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. A primary goal in the anesthesia of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is both the attenuation of sympathetic responses to noxious stimuli and the prevention of hypotension. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were randomized to receive either ketamine 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K or propofol 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group P during induction of anesthesia. Patients also received standardized doses of midazolam, fentanyl, and rocuronium in the induction sequence. The duration of anesthesia from induction to skin incision and sternotomy, as well as the supplemental doses of fentanyl and sevoflurane, were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, stroke work index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indices were obtained before induction of anesthesia; one minute after induction; one, three, five, and ten minutes after intubation; one minute after skin incision; and at one minute after sternotomy. RESULTS: There were significant changes in the measured and calculated hemodynamic variables when compared to their values before induction. One minute after induction, mean arterial pressure and the systemic vascular resistance index decreased significantly in group P (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between groups in the consumption of sevoflurane or in the use of additional fentanyl. The combination of ketamine, midazolam, and fentanyl for the induction of anesthesia provided better hemodynamic stability during induction and until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

Elif Basagan-Mogo

2010-01-01

142

Induction of anesthesia in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine by comparing it with propofol starting at the induction of anesthesia until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. INTRODUCTION: A [...] nesthetic induction and maintenance may induce myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. A primary goal in the anesthesia of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is both the attenuation of sympathetic responses to noxious stimuli and the prevention of hypotension. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were randomized to receive either ketamine 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K) or propofol 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group P) during induction of anesthesia. Patients also received standardized doses of midazolam, fentanyl, and rocuronium in the induction sequence. The duration of anesthesia from induction to skin incision and sternotomy, as well as the supplemental doses of fentanyl and sevoflurane, were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, stroke work index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indices were obtained before induction of anesthesia; one minute after induction; one, three, five, and ten minutes after intubation; one minute after skin incision; and at one minute after sternotomy. RESULTS: There were significant changes in the measured and calculated hemodynamic variables when compared to their values before induction. One minute after induction, mean arterial pressure and the systemic vascular resistance index decreased significantly in group P (p

Elif, Basagan-Mogo; Suna, Goren; Gulsen, Korfali; Gurkan, Turker; Fatma Nur, Kaya.

143

Participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of fentanyl in rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We examined the effect of several K+ channel blockers such as glibenclamide, tolbutamide, charybdotoxin (ChTX), apamin, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and cesium on the ability of fentanyl, a clinically used selective µ-opioid receptor agonist, to promote peripheral antin [...] ociception. Antinociception was measured by the paw pressure test in male Wistar rats weighing 180-250 g (N = 5 animals per group). Carrageenan (250 µg/paw) decreased the threshold of responsiveness to noxious pressure (delta = 188.1 ± 5.3 g). This mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced by fentanyl (0.5, 1.5 and 3 µg/paw) in a peripherally mediated and dose-dependent fashion (17.3, 45.3 and 62.6%, respectively). The selective blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels glibenclamide (40, 80 and 160 µg/paw) and tolbutamide (80, 160 and 240 µg/paw) dose dependently antagonized the antinociception induced by fentanyl (1.5 µg/paw). In contrast, the effect of fentanyl was unaffected by the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker ChTX (2 µg/paw), the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker apamin (10 µg/paw), or the non-specific K+ channel blocker TEA (150 µg/paw), 4-AP (50 µg/paw), and cesium (250 µg/paw). These results extend previously reported data on the peripheral analgesic effect of morphine and fentanyl, suggesting for the first time that the peripheral µ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive effect of fentanyl depends on activation of ATP-sensitive, but not other, K+ channels.

A.R.A., Rodrigues; M.S.A., Castro; J.N., Francischi; A.C., Perez; I.D.G., Duarte.

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Participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of fentanyl in rats  

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Full Text Available We examined the effect of several K+ channel blockers such as glibenclamide, tolbutamide, charybdotoxin (ChTX, apamin, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, and cesium on the ability of fentanyl, a clinically used selective µ-opioid receptor agonist, to promote peripheral antinociception. Antinociception was measured by the paw pressure test in male Wistar rats weighing 180-250 g (N = 5 animals per group. Carrageenan (250 µg/paw decreased the threshold of responsiveness to noxious pressure (delta = 188.1 ± 5.3 g. This mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced by fentanyl (0.5, 1.5 and 3 µg/paw in a peripherally mediated and dose-dependent fashion (17.3, 45.3 and 62.6%, respectively. The selective blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels glibenclamide (40, 80 and 160 µg/paw and tolbutamide (80, 160 and 240 µg/paw dose dependently antagonized the antinociception induced by fentanyl (1.5 µg/paw. In contrast, the effect of fentanyl was unaffected by the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker ChTX (2 µg/paw, the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker apamin (10 µg/paw, or the non-specific K+ channel blocker TEA (150 µg/paw, 4-AP (50 µg/paw, and cesium (250 µg/paw. These results extend previously reported data on the peripheral analgesic effect of morphine and fentanyl, suggesting for the first time that the peripheral µ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive effect of fentanyl depends on activation of ATP-sensitive, but not other, K+ channels.

A.R.A. Rodrigues

2005-01-01

145

Possible role for integrins in the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine in male rats  

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Full Text Available There is some evidence supporting the reduced activity of integrins following chronic administration of morphine. This reduction might play a role in morphine tolerance development. Manganese binds to the extracellular domain of integrins and makes them to be activated. The effect of integrins activation using manganese on tolerance development to the analgesic effect of morphine was investigated in this study. Methods: To induce tolerance to analgesic effect of morphine, morphine (15 ?g/rat was injected intrathecally (i.t. to male adult Wistar rats twice a day for five days. To investigate the effect of manganese, it was injected (20 nmol/rat-i.t. 15 minutes prior to morphine injections during mentioned period. The analgesic effect of morphine (15 ?g/rat was measured using tail flick test on day 6. Results: The results indicated that in animals which received both manganese and morphine during first 5 days, morphine induced a significant analgesia on day 6. Chronic administration of manganese did not change the pain threshold and morphine induced analgesia. Comparison of morphine analgesia following a single dose of morphine (15 ?g/rat or chronic manganese+morphine, indicated that manganese did not have any effect on the morphine analgesia. Conclusion: Our results showed that, manganese administration prior to morphine is able to prevent morphine tolerance development. It seems that decreased activity of integrins following chronic administration of morphine plays a pivotal role in tolerance development to morphine analgesia. Further investigation needs to determine whether manganese effect is dependent on the integrins role in cell adhesions, or on their intracellular signaling pathways.

Jamal Ghorbi

2007-09-01

146

Tolerance develops to the antiallodynic effects of the peripherally acting opioid loperamide hydrochloride in nerve-injured rats.  

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Peripherally acting opioids are potentially attractive drugs for the clinical management of certain chronic pain states due to the lack of centrally mediated adverse effects. However, it remains unclear whether tolerance develops to peripheral opioid analgesic effects under neuropathic pain conditions. We subjected rats to L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and examined the analgesic effects of repetitive systemic and local administration of loperamide hydrochloride, a peripherally acting opioid agonist. We found that the inhibition of mechanical hypersensitivity, an important manifestation of neuropathic pain, by systemic loperamide (1.5mg/kg subcutaneously) decreased after repetitive drug treatment (tolerance-inducing dose: 0.75 to 6.0mg/kg subcutaneously). Similarly, repeated intraplantar injection of loperamide (150 ?g/50 ?L intraplantarly) and D-Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Glyol(5) enkephalin (300 ?g/50 ?L), a highly selective mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist, also resulted in decreased inhibition of mechanical hypersensitivity. Pretreatment with naltrexone hydrochloride (5mg/kg intraperitoneally) and MK-801 (0.2mg/kg intraperitoneally) attenuated systemic loperamide tolerance. Western blot analysis showed that repetitive systemic administration of morphine (3mg/kg subcutaneously), but not loperamide (3mg/kg subcutaneously) or saline, significantly increased MOR phosphorylation in the spinal cord of SNL rats. In cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, loperamide dose-dependently inhibited KCl-induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i. However, this drug effect significantly decreased in cells pretreated with loperamide (3 ?M, 72 hours). Intriguingly, in loperamide-tolerant cells, the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole restored loperamide's inhibition of KCl-elicited [Ca(2+)]i increase. Our findings indicate that animals with neuropathic pain may develop acute tolerance to the antiallodynic effects of peripherally acting opioids after repetitive systemic and local drug administration. PMID:23880055

He, Shao-Qiu; Yang, Fei; Perez, Federico M; Xu, Qian; Shechter, Ronen; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Carteret, Alene F; Dong, Xinzhong; Sweitzer, Sarah M; Raja, Srinivasa N; Guan, Yun

2013-11-01

147

Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of carprofen in medetomidine premedicated dogs undergoing ovariectomy  

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Full Text Available Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of pre-operative administration of carprofen were investigated in 16 medetomidine-premedicated dogs undergoing elective ovariectomy. Dogs were randomly allocated into carprofen (n=8; 4 mg/kg, intramuscularly or placebo group (n = 8. After medetomidine (1000 [xg/m2, intramuscularly premedication, they were induced with propofol (1 mg/kg, intravenously and maintained with isoflurane (FE'ISO 1.0 % in 100% oxygen. During anaesthesia, the analgesia was assessed in terms of changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure as a response to the surgery. Assessments of post-operative sedation (simple numerical rating scale and pain (multifactorial pain scale were made at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1,2,3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after the surgery. In addition, pulse rate, respiratory rate and body temperature were measured at the same time. During anaesthesia, lower heart rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial blood pressure and higher tidal volume of respiration were observed in the carprofen group. Post-operative pain score was relatively low in both groups of dogs, however it was higher, but not significantly, in the placebo group. There was no difference between the groups in terms of respiratory and pulse rate after surgery. The post-operative sedation score was higher in the placebo group only in the early post-operative period most probably due to misinterpretation of pain behaviour. Carprofen together with other anaesthetic drugs provided sufficient intra-operative analgesia only until major painful surgical stimulus occurred, after which analgesia had to be supplemented with a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine. Comparing to that analgesia was insufficient in the placebo group throughout the procedure. The post-operative pain scoring system was probably not sensitive enough to detect the differences between the groups; however, the effects of other drugs that extended in the post-operative period may be responsible for a low post­operative pain score in both groups of dogs.

Seliškar Alenka

2005-01-01

148

Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response.  

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Two intravenous doses of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.022 mg/kg and 0.044 mg/kg) were compared to intravenous diazepam (0.157 mg/kg) and to placebo (Ringer's lactate) as premedication for dental extraction in 10 healthy volunteers. Pain detection and tolerance thresholds were measured and psychiatric interviews were supplemented by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories (MMPI), the Zung Depression Scale (ZDS), Beck Depression Inventories (BDI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Pain detection thresholds were altered unpredictably with high THC doses, but analgesia as indicated by pain tolerance was less than that after diazepam and placebo. In three subjects low-dose THC (0.022 mg/kg) was a better analgesic than placebo but not diazepam. Six subjects preferred placebo to low-dose THC as an analgesic; this group experienced increases in subjective surgical pain and were submissive, rigid, and less introspective with high State Anxiety and MMPI profiles that differed from subjects whose pain was not increased. STAI following THC presaged a poor analgesic response in this group. PMID:832447

Raft, D; Gregg, J; Ghia, J; Harris, L

1977-01-01

149

The influence of women's attachment style on the chronobiology of labour pain, analgesic consumption and pharmacological effect.  

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Circadian variation in biological rhythms has been identified as affecting both labour pain and the pharmacological properties of analgesics. In the context of pain, there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting the importance of adult attachment. The purpose of this study was to examine whether labour pain, analgesic consumption and pharmacological effect are significantly affected by the time of day and to analyse whether this circadian variation is influenced by women's attachment style. This prospective observational study included a sample of 81 pregnant women receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Attachment was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale - Revised. The perceived intensity of labour pain in the early stage of labour (3?cm of cervical dilatation and before the administration of PCEA) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Pain was also indirectly assessed by measuring the consumption of anaesthetics. The latency period and the duration of effect were recorded for a chronopharmacology characterisation. Pain, as assessed with the VAS, was significantly higher in the night-time group than in the daytime group. An insecure attachment style was significantly associated with greater labour pain at 3?cm of cervical dilatation (p?attachment style was not significant for any of the study variables. Our results provide evidence of the importance of circadian variation in studying labour pain and the pharmacological effect of labour analgesia involving epidural blockage with a PCEA regimen. Moreover, although there was no evidence that attachment style influenced the circadian variation, these data emphasise that insecure attachment patterns are a risk factor for greater labour pain and analgesic consumption, which should be considered in pain management approaches. PMID:24673295

Costa-Martins, José Manuel; Pereira, Marco; Martins, Henriqueta; Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Coelho, Rui; Tavares, Jorge

2014-07-01

150

Analgesic, Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Effect of the Whole Plant Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae) in Albino Rats  

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Analgesic, Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect of petroleum ether, benzene chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extract of the whole parts of Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae) was investigated in albino rats. Animals were given a subcutaneous injection of 12% w/v suspension of yeast (1ml /100gm Body weight) suspended in 0.5% w/v methyl...

Somezeet Panda, N. S. K. Choudhury

2009-01-01

151

Analgesic Effect of Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Three Congolese Medicinal Plants: Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum  

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Analgesic effect of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of aeral parts of Hyptis suavolens, Nauclea latifolia and Ocimum gratissimum, three plants used in congolese folk medicine in pain, were tested on acetic acid and hot plate tests. All extracts manifest analgesic effect on the two models used. The more active was the hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum gratissimum which is not antagonized by naloxone and could potentiate analgesic effect of paracetamol.

Okiemy-andissa, N.; Miguel, M. L.; Etou, A. W.; Ouamba, J. M.; Gbeassor, M.; Abena, A. A.

2004-01-01

152

Analgesic effect of morphine, clonidine and serotonin microinjected into the PTN of rats.  

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The study was aimed to delineate the neurotransmitter receptors involved in pretectal analgesic mechanisms by direct microinjection of neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists through chronically implanted cannulae in the pretectal nucleus of rats. Morphine, clonidine and serotonin, at doses of 2.5 and 5.0 micrograms microinjected into the pretectal nucleus, produced a significant and prolonged analgesia as measured by the tail-flick test. The analgesia produced by morphine, clonidine and serotonin is significantly attenuated by pretreatment of the animals with naloxone (1 micrograms), yohimbine (5 micrograms) and methysergide (5-10 micrograms) respectively. The results indicate the possible involvement of opioid, adrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms in pretectal analgesia. PMID:8369486

Kumar, A; Raghubir, R; Dhawan, B N

1993-07-01

153

The Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Morphine and Paracetamol in the Patients Undergoing Laparotomy, Using PCA Method  

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Full Text Available Objective: postoperative pain increases the activity of the sympathetic system, causes hypermetabolic conditions, retains salt and water, increases glucose, fatty acid lactate and oxygen consumption, weakens the immunity system which delays wound healing. Our object was comparison of the analgesic effect of morphine and paracetamol in the patients undergoing laparotomy, using PCA method. Method: Seventy patients who had undergone laparotomy were studied using double blind randomized clinical trial (35 patients received morphine and 35 paracetamol in the Shahid Rajaee Center and Velayat Hospital (Qazvin, Iran. People using opioids, painkillers and sedatives regularly and in large doses and patients with a history of lung or liver problems did not participate in this project. The parameters of the severity of pain and nausea (VAS, hemodynamic changes (BP and HR, pruritus, arterial oxygen desaturation and patient satisfaction (VAS of both groups were measured by a third party (trained colleague. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16 statistical software then descriptive results were extracted and ultimately the groups were compared using the following statistical tests: student’s T-test, chi 2 and Fisher’s exact test (P<0.05. Findings: The mean age of the participants was 45±12.5 years. Women constituted 24.3% of the patients and men 75.7%. The average pain severity for morphine and paracetamol groups (VAS was 5.3±2.2and 6.37±1.7 after2 hours and reached 1.91±1.3 and 2.49±1.3 after 8 hours (after the operation respectively. There was a significant difference between the groups after 2 and 4 hours in terms of pain severity (after 2 hours P=0.007 and after 4 hours P=0.047. However there was no significant difference between the average pain severity of the studied groups (after 6 hours P=0.4 and 8 hours P=0.08. After 8 hours, the average nausea severity was the minimum in both groups being 1.71±1.6 and 1.43±1.1 in morphine and paracetamol groups respectively. Nausea severity was higher after 2 hours in paracetamol group. In morphine group, it was higher after 4, 6 and 8 hours. Difference between the groups was not significant. The average satisfaction level (VAS for morphine and paracetamol groups reached from 5.29±2.3 and 4.2±2.4 after 2 hours, to 7.94±1.8 and 7.69±2.1 after 8 hours (after the operation, respectively. The average satisfaction level of patients was higher in morphine group in 2,4,6 and 8 hours and except for, after 4 hours (P=0.01, the satisfaction difference between both groups was not significant in other hours (P=0.06 after 2 hours, P=0.6 after 6 hours and P=0.5 after 8 hours Conclusion: Morphine seems to be more effective at 2 and 4 hours, but after 4 hours they have similar effects, the satisfaction difference between both groups was not significant in the patients. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

Siamak Yaghoubi

2013-09-01

154

[Analgesic properties of morpholinoethylimidazobenzimidazole derivative RU-1205].  

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We have studied the analgesic activity of a morpholinoethylimidazobenzimidazole derivative (RU-1205) in comparison to butorphanol. It is established that the test compound exhibits a pronounced analgesic activity, which exceeded that ofbutorphanol six times in the hot-plate test and was comparable to the reference drug effect in the tail-flick and acetic acid-induced writhing tests. It is established that the analgesic action of RU-1205 is based on the kappa-opioidergic mechanism. PMID:24432563

Spasov, A A; Grechko, O Iu; Shtareva, D M; Anisimova, V A

2013-01-01

155

Efecto analgésico del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L. / Analgesic effect of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L.  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Drogas con capacidad de inhibir la síntesis o acción de mediadores como los eicosanoides, histamina, bradicinina, entre otras, impiden la acción sensibilizadora de éstos sobre las terminaciones nerviosas nociceptivas. Teniendo en cuenta la actividad antiinflamatoria demostrada del extracto acuoso li [...] ofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L., fue objetivo de este trabajo evaluar sus propiedades analgésicas en modelos animales. Dosis de O. tenuiflorum de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg fueron evaluadas en modelos de inducción del dolor por vías química y térmica. Como resultado de este estudio se obtuvo que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O tenuiflorum mostró efecto analgésico en los modelos del plato caliente a la dosis de 1 000 mg/kg; en el de contorsiones por ácido acético en ratones y foco calorífico en ratas a las dosis de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg. Estos resultados indicaron que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O. tenuiflorum ejerce un efecto antinociceptivo, preferentemente sobre la vía periférica. Abstract in english Drugs with the capacity of inhibiting the synthesis or action of mediators such as eikosanoids, histamine, bradycine, and others, hinder the sensitizing action of them on the nociceptive nervous terminationes. Taking into account the shown antiinflammatory activity of the freeze-dried aqueous extrac [...] t of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., it was the objective of this paper to evaluate the analgesic properties of it in animal models. Doses of O. tenuiflorum of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were evaluated in pain-induction models by chemical and thermic ways. As a result of this study it was observed that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum. had an analgesic effect in the hot dish model at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg, and in that of contortions by acetic acid in mice and calorific focus in rats at doses of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg. These results indicated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum has an antinociceptive effect, mainly on the peripheral pathway.

Barzaga Fernández, Pedro; Núñez Figueredo, Yanier; Agüero Fernández, Sarah; Chávez Hernández, Ismael; González Sanabria, María Lidia; Iser Valdés, Yadira; Olivera Carpio, Maylin.

156

Efecto analgésico del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Analgesic effect of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L.  

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Full Text Available Drogas con capacidad de inhibir la síntesis o acción de mediadores como los eicosanoides, histamina, bradicinina, entre otras, impiden la acción sensibilizadora de éstos sobre las terminaciones nerviosas nociceptivas. Teniendo en cuenta la actividad antiinflamatoria demostrada del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L., fue objetivo de este trabajo evaluar sus propiedades analgésicas en modelos animales. Dosis de O. tenuiflorum de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg fueron evaluadas en modelos de inducción del dolor por vías química y térmica. Como resultado de este estudio se obtuvo que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O tenuiflorum mostró efecto analgésico en los modelos del plato caliente a la dosis de 1 000 mg/kg; en el de contorsiones por ácido acético en ratones y foco calorífico en ratas a las dosis de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg. Estos resultados indicaron que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O. tenuiflorum ejerce un efecto antinociceptivo, preferentemente sobre la vía periférica.Drugs with the capacity of inhibiting the synthesis or action of mediators such as eikosanoids, histamine, bradycine, and others, hinder the sensitizing action of them on the nociceptive nervous terminationes. Taking into account the shown antiinflammatory activity of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., it was the objective of this paper to evaluate the analgesic properties of it in animal models. Doses of O. tenuiflorum of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were evaluated in pain-induction models by chemical and thermic ways. As a result of this study it was observed that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum. had an analgesic effect in the hot dish model at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg, and in that of contortions by acetic acid in mice and calorific focus in rats at doses of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg. These results indicated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum has an antinociceptive effect, mainly on the peripheral pathway.

Pedro Barzaga Fernández

2005-04-01

157

Analgesic effect of 30% glucose, milk and non-nutritive sucking in neonates  

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Full Text Available Nour Mekkaoui,1 Imane Issef,1 Meryem Kabiri,1,2 Amina Barkat1,31Neonatology and Intensive Care Unit, National Reference Center in Neonatology and Nutrition, Children’s Hospital of Rabat, Rabat; 2CRECET, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rabat; 3Research Team of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University, Souissi, Rabat, MoroccoBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate nondrug management practices concerning pain induced by blood sampling in newborns in a Moroccan neonatal unit and to determine whether the results reported from a randomized clinical study of nondrug analgesia could be reproduced in a routine care setting.Methods: Standardized prospective observation of analgesic practices used during blood sampling was performed. Pain was assessed using the Douleur Aiguë Nouveau-né (DAN, [Newborn Acute Pain] scale that incorporates facial expression, vocal expression, and limb movements of the newborn during realization of a painful procedure. Five different nondrug analgesic practices were investigated in 125 infants.Results: Median DAN scores for the five methods were 6 (1–10 for venous sampling with oral administration of 30% glucose, 5 (1–10 for venous sampling with sucking, 3 (0–6 for venous sampling with oral administration of 30% glucose combined with sucking, 4 (0–10 for venous sampling with oral administration of 30% glucose combined with sucking and administration of 2 mL of adapted infant formula, and 6 (3–8 for venous sampling with administration of 2 mL of adapted infant formula.Conclusion: Oral administration of 30% glucose combined with sucking provided better control of pain induced by blood sampling in newborns at our neonatal unit.Keywords: pain, neonate, assessment, 30% glucose, sucking

Kabiri M

2012-11-01

158

Phytochemical profile and analgesic evaluation of Vitex cymosa leaf extracts  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Vitex cymosa Bertero ex Spreng., Lamiaceae, is found in Central and Amazon regions of Brazil, where it is popularly used as antirheumatic. Extracts from the leaves of V. cymosa were tested in analgesia models such as abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid and formalin to test peripheral analge [...] sia; as well as the tail flick and hot plate models, to test spinal and supraspinal analgesia. A significant reduction was observed in the number of contortions with all extracts and in all doses. In the formalin model, a reduction in the second phase (inflammatory) was observed with all extracts, whereas only the n-butanol extract was able to act in the first, neurogenic, phase. In the tail flick model, all extracts increased latency time. Naloxone treatment reverted analgesic effect of all extracts with the exception of the dichloromethane one. All extracts developed peripheral and central analgesic activity. In the hot plate model no antinociceptive effect was observed for all tested extracts. All these results taken together suggest that V. cymosa leaf extracts were able to promote peripheral and central antinociceptive activity mediated by the opioid system.Twenty three substances were isolated and identified in the extracts and include flavonoids (C-glucosyl flavones, flavones and flavonols), triterpene acids from ursane and oleanane types, iridoids (free and glucosides), as well as simple phenols.

Suzana Guimarães, Leitão; Tereza Cristina dos, Santos; Franco, Delle Monache; Maria Eline, Matheus; Patrícia Dias, Fernandes; Bruno Guimarães, Marinho.

159

In adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, acupuncture analgesic effects are histamine dependent: potential reasons for acupoint preference in clinical practice.  

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This study investigated whether immediate acupuncture effects in the acupoint are histamine dependent. Both histamine injection and manual acupuncture stimulation increased the pain threshold (PT) after treatment compared with the model group (P clemastine, an H1 receptor antagonist and an antipruritic, the increase in the animals' pain threshold after acupuncture was suppressed compared with the Acu group (P < 0.01); however, there was no interference with the acupuncture-induced degranulation of mast cells. Pretreatment with disodium cromolyn did not suppress the increase in PT induced by the histamine injection at Zusanli (ST-36). We conclude that in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, acupuncture analgesic effects are histamine dependent, and this histamine dependence determines the acupoint preference of acupoints away from the target site in acupuncture practice. PMID:23990844

Huang, Meng; Zhang, Di; Sa, Zhe-Yan; Xie, Ying-Yuan; Gu, Chen-Li; Ding, Guang-Hong

2012-01-01

160

Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021, a Chinese herbal formula, and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS: JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials. All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005. In a neonatal maternal separation (NMS model, male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14, or no specific handling (NH. Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered JCM-16021 (2, 4, 8 g/kg per day orally twice a day for 28 d. Pain threshold pressure and electromyographic activities of external oblique muscles in response to colorectal distention recorded with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International, were tested as pain indices. Changes in serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA concentrations in the colon of rats were analyzed; the enterochromaffin cell numbers and serotonin transporter in the colon of rats were also evaluated with an immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: NMS treatment significantly reduced pain threshold pressure (37.4 ± 1.4 mmHg, as compared to that of NH rats (57.7 ± 1.9 mmHg, P < 0.05. After JCM-16021 treatment, the pain threshold pressure significantly increased when compared to that before treatment (34.2 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 52.8 ± 2.3 mmHg in the high dose group, 40.2 ± 1.6 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.3 mmHg in the middle dose group, and 39.3 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.6 mmHg in the low dose group, P < 0.05. Also JCM-16021 significantly and dose-dependently decreased electromyographic activity to the graded colorectal distension (CRD, (the mean ?AUC values were: 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.06 ± 0.18, 1.22 ± 0.24 in the high dose group; 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.17, 1.27 ± 0.26, 1.8 ± 0.3 in the middle dose group; and 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.8 ± 0.16, 1.53 ± 0.24, 2.1 ± 0.21 in the low dose group for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg, as compared to the NMS vehicle group. The mean ?AUC values were: 0.57 ± 0.12, 1.33 ± 0.18, 2.57 ± 0.37, 3.08 ± 0.37 for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg (P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly reduced the 5-HT concentrations (from high, middle and low dosage groups: 60.25 ± 5.98 ng/100 mg, 60.32 ± 4.22 ng/100 mg, 73.31 ± 7.65 ng/100 mg, as compared to the NMS vehicle groups (93.11 ± 9.85 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; and increased the 5-HIAA concentrations (after treatment, from high, middle and low dosage groups: 54.24 ± 3.27 ng/100 mg, 50.34 ± 1.26 ng/100 mg, 51.37 ± 2.13 ng/100 mg when compared to that in the NMS vehicle group (51.75 ± 1.98 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; but did not change the enterochromaffin cell numbers in the colon of rats. In addition, NMS rats had higher SERT expression (n = 10 than NH rats (n = 8, P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly decreased SERT expression when compared to the NMS group (P < 0.01-0.001.CONCLUSION: JCM-16021 can attenuate visceral hypersensitivity, and this analgesic effect may be mediated through the serotonin signaling pathway in the colon of rats.

Zhao-Xiang Bian, Man Zhang, Quan-Bin Han, Hong-Xi Xu, Joseph JY Sung

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

A double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over comparison of the analgesic effect of ibuprofen 400 mg and 800 mg on laser-induced pain.  

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1. The analgesic efficacy of single oral doses (400 mg, 800 mg) of ibuprofen on argon laser-induced pain was studied in a double-blind, placebo controlled, three way cross-over comparison. Ten healthy volunteers participated. 2. Pain thresholds and plasma concentrations of the S- and R-enantiomers of ibuprofen were measured every hour up to 8 h after medication. 3. Ibuprofen (400 mg) produced an analgesic effect significantly superior (P less than 0.05) to placebo 1-4 h after medication. Ibup...

Nielsen, J. C.; Bjerring, P.; Arendt-nielsen, L.; Petterson, K. J.

1990-01-01

162

A Study on Pre-Emptive Analgesic Effect of Intravenous Paracetamol in Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgeries (FESSs): A Randomized, Double-Blinded Clinical Study.  

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Background: Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) is associated with significant post-operative pain. Intravenous (iv) paracetamol provides pain relief in most patients who have undergone FESS. In some studies, it was found to be inadequate. It has been observed from previous studies conducted on patients undergoing other surgeries like abdominal surgeries that the analgesic efficacy of iv paracetamol improves when used Pre-emptively. There are no studies done previously on use of iv paracetamol Pre-emptively in FESS. Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the post-operative analgesic effects of Pre-emptive intravenous (iv) paracetamol in FESS. Materials and Methods: Following institutional ethics committee approval, thirty nine American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status I-II patients were assigned in a randomized manner into two groups: Group I received iv paracetamol 1g, in 100mL, 15 minutes before induction and Group II received iv paracetamol 1g, in 100 mL, at the end of the surgery. The time to first analgesic use and the total analgesic consumed in 24 hours was recorded. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were obtained from all patients at 0, 30 minutes, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the end of the Surgery. Results: Time to first analgesic requirement was significantly longer in Group I compared to Group II (p = 0.0329). Rescue analgesic consumption and post-operative VAS pain scores recorded were significantly lower in Group I compared to Group II (p < 0.05) until 24 after surgery. Conclusion: Pre-emptive iv paracetamol in comparison to intra-operative paracetamol, provided effective and reliable post-operative analgesia after FESS. PMID:24596738

Koteswara, Chethan M; D, Sheetal

2014-01-01

163

Differential proteomics analysis of the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture intervention in the hippocampus following neuropathic pain in rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is building steadily on the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy in pain relief and repeated acupuncture-induced pain relief is accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neural synaptic plasticity. To further test the cellular and molecular changes underlying analgesic effect of acupuncture, the global change of acupuncture associated protein profiles in the hippocampus under neuropathic pain condition was profiled. Methods The chronic constrictive injury (CCI model was established by ligature of the unilateral sciatic nerve in adult Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into normal control (NC group, CCI group, and CCI with electroacupuncture (EA stimulation group. EA was applied to bilateral Zusanli (ST36 and Yanglingquan (GB34 in the EA group. Differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus in the three groups were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The functional clustering of the identified proteins was analyzed by Mascot software. Results After CCI, the thermal pain threshold of the affected hind footpad was decreased and was reversed gradually by 12 sessions of acupuncture treatment. Following EA, there were 19 hippocampal proteins identified with significant changes in expression (>2-fold, which are involved in metabolic, physiological, and cellular processes. The top three canonical pathways identified were “cysteine metabolism”, “valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation” and “mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling”. Conclusions These data suggest that the analgesic effect of EA is mediated by regulation of hippocampal proteins related to amino acid metabolism and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway.

Gao Yong-Hui

2012-12-01

164

Comparing analgesic and hemodynamic effects of unilateral spinal levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine-fentanyl and levobupivacaine-morphine combinations for arthroscopic procedures  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of the study was to compare the analgesic and hemodynamic effects of levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine-fentanyl, levobupivacaine-morphine for arthroscopic knee surgery under unilateral spinal anesthesia.Methods: A total of 44 ASA I/II patients scheduled for arthroscopy were included in the study. After prehydration patients kept in a lateral position on the nondependent side. Spinal puncture was performed at L3–4/L4–5 intervertebral space. Patients divided into three subgroups: Group L (n=14 received 0.5% levobupivacaine 1 ml+1 ml distilled water; Group LF (n=15, 25 mcg fentanyl (0.5 ml+0.5 ml distilled water; and Group LM (n=15, 0.01 mg morphine (0.5 ml+0.5 ml distilled water. Patients remained in that position for 15 minutes. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before and 1st, 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and 30th minutes after the block and every 15 minutes during the operation. Motor blockade and sensorial level, side effects, motor block regression time (MBRT, first urination time and first analgesic need (FAN were recorded.Results: Group LM had the longest MBRT, but difference with other groups did not reach to a significant level (p>0.05. Group LM had significantly longer FAN time compare with other groups (p<0.05. The first urination time was latest in Group LM (p<0.05. Motor blockade was least in Group L (p<0.05 and almost 50% patients had not motor block.Conclusion: All three groups had successful anesthesia. Morphine group added group had significantly longer analgesia without significant urinary retention and motor blockade regression time. We concluded that additional low doses of morphine will be a better choice.

Özlem Özorak

2010-09-01

165

EVALUATION OF CNS DEPRESSANT AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF PIPER LONGUM LINN. LEAVES  

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Full Text Available Present study reports CNS depressant and analgesic activities of methanol extract obtained from the leaves of Piper longum L (MEPL. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by using open field and hole cross tests at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight while peripheral analgesic activity was evaluated by using acetic acid induced writhing method and formalin test respectively in rat model at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the plant extract had significant (p<0.01 dose dependent CNS depressant and analgesic activities. Locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of rats in hole cross and open field test were decreased in the test group comparing the control group indicating CNS depressant effect of the extract which was comparable with the standard drug diazepam. The extract also showed better analgesic effects at both doses characterized by reduction in the number of writhes in the acetic acid-induced writhing model and reduction of licking time in the formalin test when compared to the control group. The extract, at the dose of 200 mg/kg, exerted a maximum of 57.58% inhibition of writhing response and 58.8% inhibition was observed for reference drug Indomethacin. So, the present results suggest that the methanol extract of P. longum leaves possesses remarkable CNS depressant and analgesic activities.

Md. Rafikul Islam et al.

2011-11-01

166

Comparative Free Radical Scavenging and Analgesic Activity of Ethanolic Leaves and Stem Extracts of Solanum nigrum  

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Full Text Available In the present investigation a comparative analysis of the Free radical scavenging potential and analgesic activity of the Ethanolic Leaf (ELS and stem extracts (ESS of Solanum nigrum was performed. The extracts were evaluated for its DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals scavenging effect and inhibitory potential on protein carbonyl formation. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts were also determined by a colorimetric method. The ethanolic extracts of Solanum nigrum were evaluated for its peripheral analgesic activity by Acetic-acid induced writhing response and central analgesic activity by Tail flicking method and Hot plate method in mice. Both the plant extracts scavenged the free radicals in a dose dependent manner. However the scavenging effect was more pronounced in ELS extract when comparable to ESS extract. Both the extract possessed considerable quantity of phenols and flavonoids. In Tail flicking and Hot plate methods the ELS extract of Solanum nigrum showed higher mean basal latency time when comparable to ESS extract suggesting its central analgesic activity. Similarly in Acetic acid induced writhing response the ELS extract exhibited a significant inhibition of writhing 53.28% when comparable to ESS which exhibited an inhibition of 46.53%. The positive control Diclofenac sodium showed 70.66% of writhing inhibition. The analgesic activity of the plants extracts is probably due to its free radical scavenging activity.

B. Muralikrishna

2013-01-01

167

Effects of the extracts from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves on analgesic and behavioral activities in experimental animals  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (M. speciosa were extracted with methanol to give methanol extract. The methanol extract was made in acid and then in alkaline and extracted with chloroform to give alkaloid extract. The effects of the methanol and alkaloid extracts on analgesic activities in hot plate test in mice and tail flick test in rats and behavioral activities in locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, were examined. In acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of oral administration of the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves in mice were 4.90 g/kg and 173.20 mg/kg, respectively. Oral administration (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract of M. speciosa leaves significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response on hot plate test in mice. The alkaloid extract of M. speciosa also increased the pain response latency at the dose of 20 mg/kg but less potent than those of the methanol extract (100 mg/kg in mice (comparing 5-10 mg/kg alkaloid extract with corresponding to approximately 200 mg/kg of methanol extract. The antinociceptive action of either methanol extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. or alkaloid extract (20 mg/kg, p.o. of M. speciosa leaves was blocked by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. Neither the methanol extract nor the alkaloid extract significantly prolonged latency of nociceptive response on tail flick test in rats. Both of the extracts had no significant change on spontaneous motor activity or pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, respectively. These results suggest that the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves possess the analgesic activity which partly acted at opioid receptors in the supraspinal opioid system.

Kitja Sawangjaroen

2007-03-01

168

Specific down-regulation of spinal mu-opioid receptor and reduced analgesic effects of morphine in mice with postherpetic pain.  

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The analgesic effects of opioid agonists and the expression of mu- and kappa-opioid receptors were compared between mice with herpetic pain and those with postherpetic pain induced by herpetic virus inoculation. Morphine inhibited herpetic pain more effectively than postherpetic pain. Intrathecal injection reduced the analgesic effects of morphine on postherpetic pain, but intracerebroventricular injection did not. The kappa-opioid receptor agonist nalfurafine suppressed herpetic and postherpetic pain to similar degrees. mu-Opioid receptor-like immunoreactivities in the lumbar dorsal horn were markedly decreased at the postherpetic, but not herpetic, stage of pain. In the dorsal root ganglia, the expression of mu-opioid receptor mRNA was significantly decreased in mice with postherpetic pain, whereas the kappa-opioid receptor mRNA level was not altered. These results suggest that specific down-regulation of the mu-opioid receptor in the primary sensory neurons is responsible for the reduced analgesic action of morphine on postherpetic pain. The kappa-opioid receptor may be a useful target for the analgesic treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. PMID:17026987

Takasaki, Ichiro; Nojima, Hiroshi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Kuraishi, Yasushi

2006-11-21

169

Opiate, Opioid analgesics and antagonists  

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Full Text Available Opiate and opioid analgesics are important drugs in the treatment of pain. They are associated with addiction and respiratory depression, side effects which limit their clinical usefulness. This paper describes the main classes of agonists and antagonists to opioid receptors (D, G, N. The main drugs will be shown emphasizing the structure-activity relationship, as well as biotransformation reactions.

Milton Faccione

2005-02-01

170

Pharmacological characterization of standard analgesics on oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity in mice.  

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Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an acute peripheral neuropathy triggered by cold in almost all patients during or within hours after its infusion. We recently reported that a single administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hypersensitivity 2 h after the administration in mice. In this study, we examined whether standard analgesics relieve the oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity. Gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate significantly inhibited and morphine and milnacipran decreased the acute cold hypersensitivity, while diclofenac and amitriptyline had no effects. These results suggest that gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate are effective against oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24671055

Zhao, Meng; Nakamura, Saki; Miyake, Takahito; So, Kanako; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Tokuyama, Shogo; Narita, Minoru; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

2014-04-17

171

Effect of glial inhibition in attenuation of neuropathic pain and improvement of morphine analgesic effect in a rat model of neuropathy  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Pharmacological blockage of glial activity has been proved useful for treatment of neuropathic pain by lowering proinflammatory cytokines. The present study is to confirm the effect of post-injury administration of pentoxifylline on chronic constriction injury (CCI-induced neuropathic pain symptoms_ and improved the efficacy of morphine anti-nociception. Methods: Male Wistar rats (230-270 g underwent surgery for induction of CCI model of neuropathy. In the sham group the nerve was exposed but not ligated. In 5 groups (n=8 morphine (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mg/kg s.c. was administered in post-operative days (POD 0, 6 and 14. To evaluate the analgesic effect of different doses of morphine, Von Frey and Hargreaves tests were performed before and 30 minutes after morphine administration. In different groups, pentoxifylline (8, 15, 30 mg/kg i.p. or normal saline (vehicle were administered from POD6 to POD13. Behavioral tests were utilized after last dose of pentoxifylline and also on POD14 again after injection of a single dose of morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.. Results: The analgesic effect of morphine (5 mg/kg on POD6 and morphine (5, 7.5, 10, 15 mg/kg on POD14 was significantly decreased in comparison to POD0. Pentoxifylline effectively attenuated thermal hyperalgesia (at 15 and 30 mg/kg and mechanical allodynia (at 30 mg/kg on POD13. However, pentoxifylline (15, 30 mg/kg improved the antihyperalgesic effect of morphine (5 mg/kg s.c. on POD14. Conclusion: Analgesic effect of morphine was reduced after nerve injury and it may be due to the activation of glia. Inhibition of glial activity is an effective way to attenuate CCI-induced neuropathic pain and also to improve the antihyperalgesic effect of morphine, without significant effect on its anti-allodynic effect.

samad nazemi

2012-01-01

172

Analgesics for Osteoarthritis. Clinician Research Summary.  

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As an update to a 2006 report, a systematic review of 273 clinical studies published between January 2005 and January 2011 examined the comparative effectiveness, benefits, and adverse effects of analgesics and the supplements glucosamine and chondroitin ...

2012-01-01

173

Evaluation of the effects of the addition of morphine sulfate to a standard Bier block solution in peripheral arm surgery.  

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The purpose of this study was to analyze postoperative pain differences in patients undergoing peripheral arm surgery. Differences between patients' perceived pain who received 2 mg of morphine sulfate added to the standard Bier block solution and the standard Bier block solution without morphine were studied. A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design was utilized. Thirty adult subjects (22 men and 8 women) ages 21 to 76 years constituted the convenience sample. Pain scores were measured by a verbal descriptor scale at the following times: upon admission to the postanesthesia care unit, at 30 minutes and 60 minutes after surgery, and at 24 hours postoperatively. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze pain scores for the two groups (P < .05). No statistically significant differences were found in postoperative pain between the group receiving a Bier block solution with 2 mg of morphine sulfate and the group with a standard Bier block solution without morphine sulfate. The mean scores for the morphine sulfate group were lower in each time period measured. This study suggests a questionable benefit for adding 2 mg of morphine sulfate to a Bier block solution. A larger sample may have yielded different results. Many issues remain undecided regarding the potential role of opioids in various regional anesthetic techniques. Further studies are warranted to investigate the peripheral effects of opioids and to understand the mechanisms of action of opioid analgesics at peripheral sites. PMID:10488254

Ceremuga, T E; Gelinas, E A; Gonzales, J L; Ramos-Alarilla, J M

1998-10-01

174

Analgesic Effects of Meloxicam, Morphine Sulfate, Flunixin Meglumine, and Xylazine Hydrochloride in African-Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis)  

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We evaluated analgesic use and analgesiometry in aquatic African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). We used the acetic acid test (AAT) to assess the analgesic potential of systemic xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, flunixin meglumine, and morphine sulfate after injection into the dorsal lymph sac. Flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia than did the other drugs, most evident at 5 and 9 h after administration. Because the AAT was associated with the development of dermal lesions, we disconti...

Coble, Dondrae J.; Taylor, Douglas K.; Mook, Deborah M.

2011-01-01

175

Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: The influence of emotion and cognitive style  

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Previous studies have shown a superior analgesic effect of favorite music over other passive or active distractive tasks. However, it is unclear what mediates this effect. In this study we investigated to which extent distraction, emotional valence and cognitive styles may explain part of the relationship. Forty-eight healthy volunteers received heat stimuli during an active mental arithmetic task (PASAT), and passive listening to music (Mozart), environmental sounds (rain and water), and control (noise). The participants scored the conditions according to affective scales and filled out questionnaires concerning cognitive styles (Baron â?? Cohen and self-report). Active distraction with PASAT led to significantly less pain intensity and unpleasantness as compared to music and sound. In turn, both music and sound relieved pain significantly more than noise. When music and sound had the same level of valence they relieved pain to a similar degree. The emotional ratings of the conditions were correlated with the amount of pain relief and cognitive styles seemed to influence the analgesia effect. These findings suggest that the pain relieving effect previously seen in relation to music may be at least partly mediated by distraction, emotional factors and cognitive styles rather than by the music itself.

Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira

2012-01-01

176

Analgesic effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B in a murine model of chronic degenerative knee arthritis pain  

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Full Text Available Stephanie Anderson1,2, Hollis Krug1,2, Christopher Dorman1, Pari McGarraugh1, Sandra Frizelle1, Maren Mahowald1,21Rheumatology Section, Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2Division of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAObjective: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B (BoNT/B in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain.Methods and materials: Chronic arthritis was produced in adult C57Bl6 mice by intra-articular injection of Type IV collagenase into the left knee. Following induction of arthritis, the treatment group received intra-articular BoNT/B. Arthritic control groups were treated with intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Pain behavior testing was performed prior to arthritis, after induction of arthritis, and following treatments. Pain behavior measures included analysis of gait impairment (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness evaluation (evoked pain response. Strength was measured as ability to grasp and cling.Results: Visual gait analysis showed significant impairment of gait in arthritic mice that improved 43% after intra-articular BoNT/B, demonstrating a substantial articular analgesic effect. Joint tenderness, measured with evoked pain response scores, increased with arthritis induction and decreased 49.5% after intra-articular BoNT/B treatment. No improvement in visual gait scores or decrease in evoked pain response scores were found in the control groups receiving intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Intra-articular BoNT/B was safe, and no systemic effects or limb weakness was noted.Conclusions: This study is the first report of intra-articular BoNT/B for analgesia in a murine model of arthritis pain. The results of this study validate prior work using intra-articular neurotoxins in murine models. Our findings show chronic degenerative arthritis pain can be quantitated in a murine model by measuring gait impairment using visual gait analysis scores (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness scores (evoked pain responses. Reduction of joint pain seen in this study is consistent with our hypothesis of inhibition of release of pain mediators by intra-articular BoNT/B, supporting further investigation of this novel approach to treatment of arthritis pain with intra-articular neurotoxins.Keywords: intra-articular BoNT/B, osteoarthritis

Stephanie Anderson

2010-09-01

177

Analgesic effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B in a murine model of chronic degenerative knee arthritis pain  

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Objective: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B (BoNT/B) in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain. Methods and materials: Chronic arthritis was produced in adult C57Bl6 mice by intra-articular injection of Type IV collagenase into the left knee. Following induction of arthritis, the treatment group received intra-articular BoNT/B. Arthritic control groups were treated with intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Pain behavior testing was performed prior to arthritis, after induction of arthritis, and following treatments. Pain behavior measures included analysis of gait impairment (spontaneous pain behavior) and joint tenderness evaluation (evoked pain response). Strength was measured as ability to grasp and cling. Results: Visual gait analysis showed significant impairment of gait in arthritic mice that improved 43% after intra-articular BoNT/B, demonstrating a substantial articular analgesic effect. Joint tenderness, measured with evoked pain response scores, increased with arthritis induction and decreased 49.5% after intra-articular BoNT/B treatment. No improvement in visual gait scores or decrease in evoked pain response scores were found in the control groups receiving intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Intra-articular BoNT/B was safe, and no systemic effects or limb weakness was noted. Conclusions: This study is the first report of intra-articular BoNT/B for analgesia in a murine model of arthritis pain. The results of this study validate prior work using intra-articular neurotoxins in murine models. Our findings show chronic degenerative arthritis pain can be quantitated in a murine model by measuring gait impairment using visual gait analysis scores (spontaneous pain behavior) and joint tenderness scores (evoked pain responses). Reduction of joint pain seen in this study is consistent with our hypothesis of inhibition of release of pain mediators by intra-articular BoNT/B, supporting further investigation of this novel approach to treatment of arthritis pain with intra-articular neurotoxins.

Anderson, Stephanie; Krug, Hollis; Dorman, Christopher; McGarraugh, Pari; Frizelle, Sandra; Mahowald, Maren

2010-01-01

178

Ketorolac tromethamine improves the analgesic effect of hyoscine butylbromide in patients with intense cramping pain from gastrointestinal or genitourinary origin.  

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The symptomatic treatment of pain associated with spasm of gastrointestinal or genitourinary origin can include the use of spasmolytic agents and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, the evidence of a superior effectiveness of combination in comparison with individual drugs is scarce and controversial. A double-blind, randomised, clinical trial study was designed to characterize the analgesic effect and safety of ketorolac and hyoscine butylbromide against hyoscine butylbromide alone in patients with ambulatory acute cramping pain of gastrointestinal and genitourinary origin. 160 patients with a pain level ?4 in a 1-10?cm visual analogue scale were allocated to receive a fixed dose of ketorolac/hyoscine butylbromide (10?mg/20?mg) or hyoscine butylbromide (20?mg) alone at 6?h intervals, during a 48?h period. Both treatments were similarly effective when compared as a whole or when groups were classified by pain origin. Conversely, when treatments were grouped by pain intensity, ketorolac/hyoscine butylbromide combination showed a significant better pain relief profile than hyoscine butylbromide alone in pain intensity ?7, but not hyoscine butylbromide mixture could be a better option than hyoscine butylbromide alone in the treatment of some acute intense cramping painful conditions. PMID:23093479

del Valle-Laisequilla, C F; Flores-Murrieta, F J; Granados-Soto, V; Rocha-González, H I; Reyes-García, G

2012-12-01

179

The study of Analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and Anti-oxidant Effect of Ethanolic Extracts of Ecbolium linnaenum in Albino Mice  

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Full Text Available The Ecbolium linnaenum(leaves is used as a folk medicine in Bangladesh for pain, diarrhea and infectious diseases. Phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of Ecboliumlinnaenumleaves demonstratesthese pharmacologic effect for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, gums,flavonoids and absence of carbohydrates, steroids, saponins. In this present study an attempt was made to determine the analgesic, antidiarrhoel, antioxidantand antimicrobial effectin Swiss Albino mice. Ethanolic extracts of250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant inhibition of writhing reflex 36.20% (P< 0.01 and 54.48% (P< 0.001, respectively while the standard drug diclofenac-Na was 75.52% (P< 0.001 at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight.In the castor oil-induced diarrhoealmice, the ethanolic extracts of 250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg, raised the latent period and reduced the number of stools comparing with standard drug Loperamide. 0.02% DPPH solution of ethanol on TLC plate showed the presence of anti-oxidant components in the Ecboliumlinnaenum.From the % inhibition of ascorbic acid and Ecboliumlinnaenum we observe that it has anti-oxidation effect. The IC50 (inhibitory conc. 50% for ascorbic acid is approximately 1 µg/ml and for the sample it is more than 500 µg/ml. The ethanolic extract of Ecboliumlinnaenum was tested for antimicrobial activity against a number of both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria but it does not show any anti-microbial effect.

Md Kamrul Hasan Chowdhury

2013-03-01

180

Analgesic properties of dexketoprofen trometamol.  

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SUMMARY Dexketoprofen trometamol is the dextrorotary enantiomer of the NSAID ketoprofen formulated as a tromethamine salt. The purpose of administering 50% of the racemic mixture is to keep the same analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect while reducing the adverse events due to both enantiomers. This article describes the pharmacological properties and evaluates the analgesic effects of dexketoprofen trometamol reported in acute and chronic pain conditions. The main conclusions are that dexketoprofen trometamol appears as effective as the double dose of the racemic drug. However, the reduction of adverse effects still has to be demonstrated. In addition, the formulation as tromethamine salt appears beneficial regarding fast onset of analgesia in acute pain conditions. PMID:24645708

Walczak, Jean-Sébastien

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Activation of peripheral galanin receptors: differential effects on nociception.  

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Numerous reports suggest a significant role of peripheral galanin (GAL) in pain transmission; however, due to the lack of selective galanin receptor agonists and antagonists, the role of GAL receptors (GalR1-3) in pain transmission remains unclear. In this study, a new agonist, M617, that preferentially binds to GalR1, a GalR2 agonist (AR-M1896), and a GalR2 antagonist (M871) were tested in the periphery to elucidate the role of peripheral GalR1 and GalR2 in nociception. Ipsilateral, but not contralateral, hindpaw injection of M617 reduced capsaicin (CAP)-induced flinching by approximately 50%, suggesting that GalR1 activation produces anti-nociception. This anti-nociceptive effect was blocked by intraplantar injection of the non-selective GalR antagonist M35. In contrast ipsilateral, but not contralateral, intraplantar injection of GalR2 agonist AR-M1896 enhanced the CAP-induced nociception (1.7-fold). The GalR2 antagonist M871 blocked the pro-nociceptive effect of AR-M1896 in a dose-dependent manner. This antagonist had no effect on nociceptive behaviors induced by CAP alone. The data demonstrate that activation of peripheral GalR1 results in anti-nociception but activation of peripheral GalR2 produces pro-nociception. Thus, the use of these pharmacological tools may help to elucidate the contribution of GalR subtypes in nociceptive processing, identifying potential drug targets for the treatment of peripheral pain. PMID:16996122

Jimenez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Lundström, Linda; Sollenberg, Ulla E; Langel, Ulo; Castañeda-Hernandez, Gilberto; Carlton, Susan M

2006-09-01

182

Synthesis and analgesic effects of 1-[1-(2-methylphenyl)(cyclohexyl)]-3-piperidinol as a new derivative of phencyclidine in mice.  

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Phencyclidine (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) piperidine, CAS 956-90-1, PCP, I) and its derivatives have shown many analgesic effects. In this research, a new derivative of PCP (1-[1-(2-methylphenyl) (cyclohexyl)l3-piperidinol, PD, II) was synthesized and its analgesic (acute and chronic pains) effects were examined on rats using tail immersion (as a model of acute thermal pain) and formalin (as a model of acute and chronic chemical pain) tests and the results are compared to PCP and control groups. The results indicated that II produces higher analgesic effects in the tail immersion test compared to the PCP and control groups, with a marked and significant increase in tail immersion latency for the doses 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg. The formalin test showed that PD (II) is not effective in acute chemical pain (phase I, 0-5 min after injection) in all doses but chronic pain (initial-phase II, 15-40 min after injection) is significantly attenuated by this compound compared to PCP and saline (control) in dosesof 5 and 10 mg/kg. It is concluded that II is effective in acute thermal (in all doses) and chronic (doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg) pains; however, it is not effective in acute chemical pain compared to PCP and control. PMID:20863005

Ahmadi, Abbas; Solati, Jalal; Hajikhani, Ramin; Onagh, Masoud; Javadi, Mojdeh

2010-01-01

183

Effects of SOD on the peripheral blood in irradiated dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dogs were exposed to 0.6 Gy of 60Co-gamma-rays daily and 10 min after exposure, SOD was injected intramuscular to them. Such treatment continued for 5 days and the effect of SOD on the hemogram of peripheral blood was observed in exposed dogs. The results show that there was a certain protective effect for those exposed dogs to which a double equivalent dose of SOD was injected

1997-11-01

184

The Radiation Effect on Peripheral Blood Cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate radiation effect on the hematopoietic system, we analyzed 44 patients who were treated with conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) at Chonbuk National University Hospital. According to the treatment sites, we classified them into three groups: group I as head and neck, group II as thorax, and group III as pelvis. White blood cell, lymphocyte, platelet and hemoglobin were checked before and during RT The results were as follow; 1. White blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte count were declined from the first week of RT to the third week, and then slightly recovered after the third or fourth week. There was prominent decrease in lymphocyte counts than WBC. 2. Platelet counts were declined until the second week of the RT, showed slight recovery at fourth week in all groups. Hemoglobin values were slightly decreased in the first week and then recovered the level of pretreatment value, gradually. 3. Lymphocyte count were declined significantly on group III(p<0.01), WBC and platelet counts were decreased on group II but statistically not significant

1988-12-01

185

Analgesics and ENT surgery. A clinical comparison of the intraoperative, recovery and postoperative effects of buprenorphine, diclofenac, fentanyl, morphine, nalbuphine, pethidine and placebo given intravenously with induction of anaesthesia.  

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1. Vomiting and restlessness following ENT and eye surgery are undesirable, and may be related to the emetic and analgesic effects of any analgesic given to augment anaesthesia during surgery. 2. To rationalise the choice of analgesic for routine ENT surgery we examined the intraoperative, recovery and postoperative effects following the administration of either buprenorphine (3.0 to 4.5 micrograms kg-1), diclofenac (1 mg kg-1), fentanyl (1.5 to 2.0 micrograms kg-1), morphine (0.1 to 0.15 mg ...

Den Berg, A. A.; Honjol, N. M.; Prabhu, N. V.; Datta, S.; Rozario, C. J.; Muraleedaran, R.; Savva, D.

1994-01-01

186

Opioid and adjuvant analgesics: compared and contrasted.  

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An adjuvant (or co-analgesic) is a drug that in its pharmacological characteristic is not necessarily primarily identified as an analgesic in nature but that has been found in clinical practice to have either an independent analgesic effect or additive analgesic properties when used with opioids. The therapeutic role of adjuvant analgesics (AAs) is to increase the therapeutic index of opioids by a dose-sparing effect, add a unique analgesic action in opioid-resistant pain, or reduce opioid side effects. A notable difference between opioids and AAs is that unlike opioids some AAs are associated with permanent organ toxicity, for example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and renal failure. It is impossible to predict in advance in a given individual what opioid dose they may require to control cancer pain. Most AAs have a ceiling effect for their analgesic actions, but often with continued dose-related toxicities and side effects (with the exception of glucocorticoids). The blood levels of opioids (and their metabolites) can be measured with great precision and accuracy. There is sometimes a role for drug blood levels of certain AAs, like tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants when used for neuropathic pain. Age affects metabolism of most opioids. The therapeutic window of opioids is wide, with no ceiling effect. Most AAs (except corticosteroids) have a narrow therapeutic window. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist that competes and displaces opioids from their receptor sites. All clinically useful opioids are mu opioid receptor agonists. Not all routes of administration are available to all opioids. Adjuvant analgesics lack the versatility in routes of administration that opioids possess. Dosing flexibility is a major advantage when treating cancer-related pain with opioids. Dose flexibility is much less with AAs than opioids. Unlike opioids, the analgesic response is usually observed within hours to days of attaining an adequate dose with most AAs (1-2 days). Rotation among opioids is a useful therapeutic strategy to improve analgesic response or minimize toxicity. Most AAs are unsuitable for rescue dosing because of their pharmacological characteristics. The mu agonist side effect profile is similar among the different opioid agents, regardless of the route of administration. The appropriate use of AAs will reduce opioid-related side effects. No apparent tolerance to analgesia develops with AAs. Abrupt discontinuation of an opioid after chronic repeated use for more than a few days will cause a withdrawal syndrome of variable severity. Adjuvant analgesics are an essential tool in cancer pain. PMID:21622486

Khan, Mohammed Ilyas Ahmed; Walsh, Declan; Brito-Dellan, Norman

2011-08-01

187

Synthesis and study on analgesic effects of 1-[1-(4-methylphenyl) (cyclohexyl)] 4-piperidinol and 1-[1-(4-methoxyphenyl) (cyclohexyl)] 4-piperidinol as two new phencyclidine derivatives.  

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Phencyclidine (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) piperidine; CAS 956-90-1; PCP, I) has shown analgesic effects. Some of its derivatives have been synthesized and their biological properties have been studied. In this work, new methyl and methoxy hydroxyl derivatives of phencyclidine were synthesized and the analgesic effects of this compounds [(1-[1-(4-methylphenyl) (cyclohexyl)] 4-piperidinol, II), (1-[1-(4-methoxyphenyl) (cyclohexyl)] 4-piperidinol, III)] were studied using tail immersion test on rats and compared to PCP. The results showed that, II can produce more analgesic effects in the tail immersion test (as a model of acute thermal pain) in comparison to the PCP with a marked significant increase in tail immersion latency (15, 40 and 45 min after injection) but for III, only slight analgesic effects (15, 35 and 40 min after injection) was seen (without significant differences between pain thresholds). PMID:19517897

Ahmadi, Abbas; Khalili, Mohsen; Abbassi, Sara; Javadi, Mozhdeh; Mahmoudi, Ali; Hajikhani, Ramin

2009-01-01

188

Analgesic Activity of Psidium guajava root extracts  

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Natural products constitute the major division of pharmacotherapy. Psidium guajava Linn. has received much attention due to a variety of potential beneficial effects. Numerous polyphenolic compounds, triterpenoids and other chemical compounds are present in this plant. So the present study was designed to investigate the analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract of Psidium guajava in rats. In the present study, analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract and chlor...

Girish Kumar Gupta, Manisha Bhatia

2013-01-01

189

Analgesics for postoperative pain after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children  

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This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of analgesics for management of post-operative pain in children who have undergone a tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, or both. The questions to be addressed are: 1. What analgesics (or combination of analgesics) are effective for the treatment of post-operative pain in children who have undergone a tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, or both? 2. What adverse effects, if a...

O Mathuna, Donal; Wiffen, Philip J.; Conlon, Joy

2007-01-01

190

Analgesic effect of iridoid glycosides from Paederia scandens (LOUR.) MERRILL (Rubiaceae) on spared nerve injury rat model of neuropathic pain.  

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Iridoid glycosides of Paederia scandens (IGPS) is a major active component isolated from traditional Chinese herb P. scandens (LOUR.) MERRILL (Rubiaceae). The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic effect of IGPS on spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain. The SNI model in rats was established by complete transection of the common peroneal and tibial distal branches of the sciatic nerve, leaving the sural branch intact. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) in response to mechanical stimulation was measured by electronic von Frey filaments on day 1 before operation and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 after operation, respectively. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production of spinal cord were measured by spectrophotometry and its cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) content by radioimmunoassay, mRNA expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and protein kinase G type I (PKG-I, including PKG ?? and PKG I?) of spinal cord were analyzed by RT-PCR. There was a marked mechanical hypersensitivity response observed on day 1 after operation in SNI model, which accompanied with decreased MWT. Treatment with IGPS (70, 140, 280 mg/kg) significantly alleviated SNI-induced mechanical hypersensitivity response evidenced by increased MWT; as well as markedly decreased NOS activity, NO and cGMP levels. At the same time, IGPS (70, 140, 280 mg/kg) could also inhibit mRNA expression of iNOS, PKG ?? and PKG I? in the spinal cord. The results suggested that IGPS possesses antinociceptive effect, which may be partly related to the inhibition of NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway in the rat SNI model of neuropathic pain. PMID:22698486

Liu, Mei; Zhou, Lanlan; Chen, Zhiwu; Hu, Caibiao

2012-09-01

191

Evaluation of the clinical and analgesic effects of subarachnoid ketamine-lidocaine administration in goats undergoing mastectomy  

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Full Text Available Mousa Daradka, Zuhair Bani IsmailDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, JordanAbstract: Twenty adult female goats affected with chronic mastitis were subjected to mastectomy or hemimastectomy under subarachnoid regional analgesia using a ketamine-lidocaine combination. Ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg and lidocaine hydrochloride at 1.25 mg/kg were administered intrathecally at the lumbosacral intervertebral space. Goats were then subjected to a 120-minute observation period for systemic or neurotoxic symptoms such as agitation, restlessness, hind limb paralysis, or seizures. In addition, analgesia of the caudal abdominal region and signs of systemic sedation were scored on a scale of 0–3. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were also recorded prior to (baseline values and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after administration. Mastectomy or hemimastectomy operation was carried out after full assurance of the analgesic effect on the udder and caudal abdominal region. Time of onset of surgical analgesia (score 3 was achieved at 15 minutes and lasted for 60 minutes. Maximal sedation score was recorded at 15 minutes and lasted for 60 minutes, then decreased thereafter, with the lowest sedation score recorded at 120 minutes. There was a significant (P<0.05 rise in heart rate at some point between 5–90 minutes, while the respiratory rate and rectal temperature did not change significantly from baseline values. Postoperatively, animals did not show any signs of pain or discomfort. Follow-up on the operated goats showed that all wounds were fully healed without any significant complications. In goats, intrathecal administration of ketamine-lidocaine combination resulted in a safe and effective analgesia of the caudal abdominal and udder region sufficient to perform mastectomy or hemimastectomy.Keywords: analgesia, sedation, ruminants, mastectomy

Daradka M

2014-05-01

192

The Analgesic Effects of Apitoxin and its Mechanism via JOR and Measuring Expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and TPH using RT-PCR  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to prove the analgesic effects of apitoxin and its mechanism via jaw-opening reflex(JOR and measuring expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and Tryptophan hydroxylase(TPH using RT-PCR. The experiments were carried out on Sprague-Dawley rats(300-400g and mastocytoma (P-185 HTR for JOR and RT-PCR, respectively. Rats anesthetized with thiopental sodium (80mg/kg were used in the Tooth Pulp stimulation induced JOR. The amplitude of a digastric electromyogram (dEMG was recorded during the stimulation at an intensity of 1.5 times the threshold for JOR. Apitoxin used in this experiment was diluted with normal saline by 1:1000. Apitoxin was injected intravenously into the test group while normal saline to the control group. However, it was injected directly into the cell of mastocytoma. We referred to base sequence registered in Genbank in designing primers for RT-PCR. The results were as follows; (1Compared with control group, analgesic effect started to show right after Sprague-Dawely rats were treated with apitoxin(71.50±8.08 and lasted for 50 minutes. (2As a result of the experiment of RT-PCR, we witnessed significant changes in the degree of expression of phospholipase or rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of prostaglandins with 10?g/? apitoxin.(31.74±18.98%, P<0.05 (3As a result of the experiment of RT-PCR, we witnessed significant changes in the degree of expression of TPH or rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of serotonin with 10?g/? apitoxin.(131.37±16.87%, P<0.05. These results suggest that 10?g/? apitoxin have the most analgesic effects. This study showed that apitoxin has analgesic effects and held good for 50 minutes. The injection of apitoxin has brought out changes in the degree of expression of phospholipase and TPH. These results strongly suggest that analgesic mechanism by apitoxin is closely related to prostaglandins and serotonin.

Cho Kwang Ho

2000-07-01

193

Effect of limb cooling on peripheral and global oxygen consumption in neonates  

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Aim: To evaluate peripheral oxygen consumption (VO2) measurements using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with arterial occlusion in healthy term neonates by studying the effect of limb cooling on peripheral and global VO2.

Hassan, I.; Wickramasinghe, Y.; Spencer, S.

2003-01-01

194

Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

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Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was performed on 32 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic, melatonin-treated diabetic and vitamin E-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (50 mg/kg injection. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p. and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 2 weeks after 21st day of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, pain-related behavior was assessed using 0.5% formalin test according to two spontaneous flinching and licking responses. The levels of lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were evaluated in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.ResultsFormalin-evoked flinching and total time of licking were increased in both acute and chronic phases of pain in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, whereas treatment with melatonin or vitamin E significantly reduced the pain indices. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in diabetic rats. Both antioxidants reversed the biochemical parameters toward their control values.ConclusionThese results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to induction of pain in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidants, melatonin and vitamin E, can reduce peripheral neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Reza Heidari

2010-04-01

195

"Comparison of the analgesic profile and side effects of tramadol vs pethidine, following urologoical surgery "  

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The optimization of pain management following surgery with minimal side effects, is one the major goals of surgical and medical teams. In this randomized double blind study, sixty ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologist) class I or II patients, undergoing urological surgery, were assessed to receive either pethidine or tramadol using a standard method for general anesthesia. Pain intensity was assessed by verbal rating, through a 4-step scaling system. Results of this investigation have rev...

"Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh; Farshad Hashemian; Atabak Najafi; Mohammad Reza Rouini; Aghamir, Mohammad K.; Hassan Tavakoli; Omid Soofinia; Khajavi, Mohammad R.

2004-01-01

196

The sedative and analgesic effects of detomidine-butorphanol and detomidine alone in donkeys  

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Full Text Available Butorphanol and detomidine constitute an effective combination for sedation and analgesia in horses. This trial was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of this combination in donkeys. The detomidine and butorphanol were given intravenously one after the other. A dose of 10 mg/kg of detomidine and 25 mg/kg of butorphanol was used. Sedation is easily extended by additional doses of butorphanol. The average dose of detomidine was 11.24 mg/kg and that of butorphanol was 28.0 mg/kg. Four donkeys in the detomidine group required additional sedation and analgesia. Detomidine alone did not totally eliminate coronary band pain. Heart rates dropped significantly in the first minute after the injection of the combination. One donkey developed an atrioventricular block, while another developed a sino-atrial block. Four donkeys developed a Cheyne-Stokes respiratory pattern. The combination of detomidine and butorphanol is an effective combination for sedation and analgesia of donkeys for standing procedures.

K.E. Joubert

2012-07-01

197

The analgesic effect of sucrose in full term infants: a randomised controlled trial.  

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OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the effects of different sucrose concentrations on measures of neonatal pain. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of sterile water (control) or one of three solutions of sucrose--namely, 12.5%, 25%, and 50% wt/vol. SETTING--Postnatal ward. PATIENTS--60 healthy infants of gestational age 37-42 weeks and postnatal age 1-6 days randomised to receive 2 ml of one of the four solutions on to the tongue two minutes before heel prick sampling for serum bi...

Haouari, N.; Wood, C.; Griffiths, G.; Levene, M.

1995-01-01

198

Skin vasodilation and analgesic effect of a topical nitric oxide-releasing hydrogel.  

Science.gov (United States)

New approaches based on topical treatments are needed for treating pain and impaired dermal blood flow. We used a topical Pluronic F127 hydrogel containing S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) as a prodrug to generate free NO, an effector molecule that exerts both dermal vasodilation and antinociceptive effects. GSNO-containing hydrogels underwent gelation above 12 °C and released free NO at rates that were directly dependent on the GSNO concentration in the range of 50-150 mM. The topical application of this material led to dose-response dermal vasodilation in healthy volunteers and to a reduction of up to 50 % of the hypernociception intensity in Wistar rats that were subjected to inflammatory pain. Mechanistic investigations indicated that the antinociceptive effect of the topical F127/GSNO hydrogels is produced by the local activation of the cGMP/PKG/KATP channel-signaling pathway, which was stimulated by the free NO that diffused through the skin. These results expand the scope of the biomedical applications of this material and may represent a new approach for the topical treatment of inflammatory pain. PMID:23756965

Vercelino, Rafael; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Ferreira, Elisa Silva; Cunha, Fernando Q; Ferreira, Sérgio H; de Oliveira, Marcelo G

2013-09-01

199

Clinical effects of preemptive analgesia using three different analgesics in strabismus surgery  

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Full Text Available AIM:To compare the effects of preemptive analgesia of parecoxib, butorphanol, and pethidine used in and after strabismus surgery, and explore an effective and safe method of analgesia for strabismus surgery. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.After the ethic committee approval and written conformed consent were obtained, 80 ASA ? patients aged 18-50 years undergoing strabismus surgery under local anesthesia were randomly allocated to 4 groups(n=20 each: group P received intramuscular parecoxib(40mg, group B received intramuscular butorphanol(1mg, group D received intramuscular pethidine(50mg, and group N received intramuscular normal saline(2mL. All patients received the drug at 30 minutes before surgery. Basal heart rate(HRand meananerial pressure(HAPwere recorded on the day before surgery. The intensity of pain was measured using(numeric rating scalesNRS(0-10, 0=no pain, 10=worst painand recorded during operation time(T1. Meanwhile, culocardiacreflex(OCR, nausea and vomiting, and sweating were also recorded. NRS, nausea and vomiting were recorded at 2 hours(T2, 4 hours(T3, 8 hours(T4after operation. RESULTS: The NRS scores at T1 were significantly lower in groups P, B, and D than in group N. OCR, nausea and vomiting, and sweating at T1 were not significantly different among the 4 groups. The nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in group D than in groups P, B, and N. The NRS scores at T2 were not significantly different among the 4 groups. The NRS scores in groups D and N at T3 were significantly higher than those at T2. And the NRS scores at T3 were significantly higher in group D and N than groups P and B. The nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in group D than in groups P, B, and N. The NRS, nausea and vomiting were not significantly different among the 4 groups. The NRS scores in groups P and B were not significantly different at T2, T3, and T4. CONCLUSION:Preemptive analgesia with 40mg of parecoxib for strabismus surgery under local anesthesia is effective intraoperatively and postoperatively, and can reduce the postoperative nausea and vomiting.

Chun - Jian Li

2013-05-01

200

Comparison of the effects of peripherally administered kisspeptins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kisspeptins are structurally closely related peptides derived from the Kiss1 gene that have been demonstrated to stimulate the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis. The natural peptide products derived from post-translational processing of the kisspeptin precursor have not been elucidated. We examined the acute effect on serum levels of free testosterone in the adult male mouse after systemic administration of kisspeptins with different lengths of both human and mouse origin. Mouse kisspeptin-10 and -52 dose-dependently increased serum testosterone, and both peptides showed similar potency and efficacy. Human kisspeptin-10 and kisspeptin-54 evoked robust increase in serum testosterone, with the same potency as for mouse kisspeptins. Other members of the RFRP family of peptides, i.e. RFRP-1 and -3 were inactive. Time-course experiments revealed that the longer forms had a slower onset of action, and the long human form also a more prolonged effect. The effect of the peripherally administered mouse kisspeptin-10 could be totally blocked by the GnRH antagonist acyline. Finally, peripherally administered mouse kisspeptin-10 had no effect on Fos induction in GnRH cells. These data show that all peptides tested are active and supports the concept that their effect is mediated by a target upstream of the pituitary, such as the median eminence.

Mikkelsen, Jens D; Bentsen, Agnete H

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries  

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Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. In addition to its more classic role as a neuromodulator, PACAP functions as a neurotrophic factor. Several neurotrophic factors have been shown to play an important role in the endogenous response following both cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury and to be effective when given exogenously. A number of studies have shown the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different models of ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases and retinal degeneration. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings on the neuroprotective potential of PACAP in models of different traumatic nerve injuries. Expression of endogenous PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor is elevated in different parts of the central and peripheral nervous system after traumatic injuries. Some experiments demonstrate the protective effect of exogenous PACAP treatment in different traumatic brain injury models, in facial nerve and optic nerve trauma. The upregulation of endogenous PACAP and its receptors and the protective effect of exogenous PACAP after different central and peripheral nerve injuries show the important function of PACAP in neuronal regeneration indicating that PACAP may also be a promising therapeutic agent in injuries of the nervous system.

Andras Buki

2012-07-01

202

Feed-forward inhibition: a novel cellular mechanism for the analgesic effect of substance P  

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Full Text Available Abstract Substance P (SP is a neuropeptide well known for its contribution to pain transmission in the spinal cord, however, less is known about the possible modulatory effects of SP. A new study by Gu and colleagues, published in Molecular Pain (2005, 1:20, describes its potential role in feed-forward inhibition in lamina V of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. This inhibition seems to function through a direct excitation of GABAergic interneurons by substance P released from primary afferent fibers and has a distinct temporal phase of action from the well-described glutamate-dependent feed-forward inhibition. It is believed that through this inhibition, substance P can balance nociceptive output from the spinal cord.

Yoshimura Megumu

2005-11-01

203

ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF THE PLANT ERVATAMIA CORONARIA (STAPF.  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of the flowers of Ervatamia coronaria. The analgesic activity of the extract was assessed by the acetic acid induced writhing test. Aspirin was used as a standard drug. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema method. The initial paw volume was measured plethysmographically immediately before subplanter injection. The relative increase in the paw volume was measured in control, standard and treated groups, 4h after carrageenan injection. The results of acetic acid writhing test in mice showed a significant decrease in number of wriths in ethanolic extracts of flowers of E. coronaria, suggesting peripheral analgesic effect. In carrageenan induced rat hind paw method; it was found that ethanolic extract of the flowers of E. coronaria, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the oedema volume, which was comparable to standard drug diclofenac sodium. The flowers of the plant exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, thereby justifying their use in traditional system of medicine.

Himanshu Joshi*, Arun B Joshi, D. Satyanarayana, M.P. Gururaja and C.S Shastry

2013-04-01

204

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF DETOMIDINE AND XYLAZINE AS SEDATIVE AND ANALGESIC AGENTS IN SMALL RUMINANTS  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out on 60 healthy rams and male goats presented for castration in the Surgery Clinics, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The weight of the animals ranged between 25 and 50 kg and ages between 3 and 6 months. The animals were divided into three groups A, B and C, with 20 animals in each group. In group A, castration was performed under detomidine sedation injected at a dose rate of 50 ?g/kg body weight intramuscularly. In group B, xylazine was administered at a dose rate of 200 ?g/kg body weight intramuscularly. In group C, castration was performed without the use of any sedative agent. However, animals of group C were given normal saline (placebo. Before surgical manipulation, physical examination of each animal was conducted to ascertain the normal health status. From the study it was concluded that detomidine and xylazine produced similar sedative effects but the analgesia was considerably better with the former.

M. A. Khan, M. Ashraf, K. Pervez, H. B. Rashid, A. K. Mahmood and M. Chaudhry1

2004-04-01

205

Meal pattern changes associated with temporomandibular joint inflammation/pain in rats; analgesic effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Establishing a valid animal model to study temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain has proven extremely difficult. Using complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce TMJ inflammation, we recently showed that meal pattern analysis could be used as a noninvasive biological marker to study TMJ pain in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to further validate our animal model by determining whether aspects of CFA-induced TMJ inflammation/pain are reversed with ibuprofen (IBU) treatment. In the first trial, 48 male rats were used and in the second trial, 32 female ovariectomized rats, given 17beta-estradiol replacement, were used. The rats were assigned to one of four groups: control (CON-CON); control+IBU (CON+IBU); CFA-CON; and CFA+IBU. In the male trial, CFA injection (Pchromodacryorrhea (CFA-CON); IBU eliminated these changes in the CFA+IBU group. Meal pattern analysis showed the pertinent CFA-induced change and the IBU effect was that meal duration was increased in the CFA-CON group (Pchromodacryorrhea (CFA-CON); IBU eliminated swelling in the CFA+IBU group. Meal duration was increased (P<.01) in the CFA-CON group, but was normal in the CFA+IBU-treated group on both the first and second days postinjection. In both trials, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) levels were increased similarly in CFA-CON and CFA+IBU groups (P<.01). This study shows that CFA-induced TMJ inflammation/pain can cause changes in meal patterns (i.e., meal duration), which may be used as a behavioral marker for TMJ inflammation/pain. PMID:12759126

Kerins, C A; Carlson, D S; McIntosh, J E; Bellinger, L L

2003-04-01

206

Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The in vitro and in vivo effects of therapeutical doses of acetylsalicylic acid on lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood were investigated with the following results: Acetylsalicylic acid caused both in vitro and in vivo a reduction of complement receptor bearing lymphocytes and of lymphocytes identified with fluorescent rabbit antibody to human Ig (polyvalent) and to human IgG. Sheep red blood cell receptor bearing lymphocytes, and lymphocytes identified with antibody to human IgM and IgD were unaffected by acetylsalicylic acid.

Sørensen, S F; Dirksen, Asger

1979-01-01

207

Indirect genotoxic effect of gamma rays in human peripheral lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the indirect genotoxic effect of various doses of gamma rays in human peripheral lymphocytes. For this aim, chromosome mediums were irradiated with various doses (2000, 4000, 8000, 16000 rad) of gamma rays. In this study, we were found that SCE (Sister Chromatid Exchange) was increased by gamma rays doses-dependently. In addition to these, percentages of abnormal cells with chromosomal abnormalities and CA (Chromosome Aberration)/Cell were increased by all doses of gamma rays compared to control. Besides, gamma rays decreased the MI dose-dependently. RI was not also reduced at all concentrations. (author)

2001-03-01

208

Analgesics and ENT surgery. A clinical comparison of the intraoperative, recovery and postoperative effects of buprenorphine, diclofenac, fentanyl, morphine, nalbuphine, pethidine and placebo given intravenously with induction of anaesthesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Vomiting and restlessness following ENT and eye surgery are undesirable, and may be related to the emetic and analgesic effects of any analgesic given to augment anaesthesia during surgery. 2. To rationalise the choice of analgesic for routine ENT surgery we examined the intraoperative, recovery and postoperative effects following the administration of either buprenorphine (3.0 to 4.5 micrograms kg-1), diclofenac (1 mg kg-1), fentanyl (1.5 to 2.0 micrograms kg-1), morphine (0.1 to 0.15 mg kg-1), nalbuphine (0.1 to 0.15 mg kg-1), pethidine (1.0 to 1.5 mg kg-1) or saline (as control) given with the induction of anaesthesia in 374 patients. A standardised anaesthetic technique with controlled ventilation using 0.6-0.8% isoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen was employed. The study population constituted 7 similar groups of patients. 3. Intraoperatively, their effects on heart rate and blood pressure, airway pressure and intraocular pressure, were similar. This implies, most surprisingly, that neither their analgesic nor their histamine releasing effects were clinically evident during surgery. By prolonging the time to extubation at the end of anaesthesia, only buprenorphine, fentanyl, morphine and pethidine provided evidence of intraoperative respiratory depression. 4. Postoperatively, buprenorphine was associated with severe respiratory depression, prolonged somnolence, profound analgesia and the highest emesis rate. Diclofenac exhibited no sedative, analgesic, analgesic sparing, emetic or antipyretic effects. Fentanyl provided no sedative or analgesic effects, but was mildly emetic. Morphine provided poor sedation and analgesia, delayed the requirement for re-medication and was highly emetic. Nalbuphine and pethidine produced sedation with analgesia during recovery, a prolonged time to re-medication and a mild emetic effect. None provided evidence, from analysis of postoperative re-medication times and analgesic consumption, of any pre-emptive analgesic effect. 5. We conclude that nalbuphine (mean dose 0.13 mg kg-1) and pethidine (mean dose 1.35 mg kg-1), given individually as a single i.v. bolus during induction of anaesthesia, are the most efficacious analgesics for routine in-patient ENT surgery.

van den Berg, A A; Honjol, N M; Prabhu, N V; Datta, S; Rozario, C J; Muraleedaran, R; Savva, D

1994-01-01

209

Anticonvulsant, Analgesic and Hypothermic Effects of Aridanin Isolated from Tetrapleura tetrapetra Fruit in Mice  

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Aridanin (an N-acetylglycoside of oleanolic acid) isolated from Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit was investigated for anticonvulsant, analgesic and hypothermic activities in mice. Aridanin at doses of 15 and 30 mg kg-1 by intraperitoneal administration was shown to protect animals in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure but not in strychnine and picrotoxin induced convulsions. The same dose of aridanin equally decreased rectal temperature and acetic acid-induced writhes in m...

2007-01-01

210

Perspective of nurses on effective factors on their decisions to administer PRN analgesics to children after surgery  

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Post-surgery pain is usually controlled by PRN drugs administered by nurses. According to the decision-making theories, this clinical decision-making depends on three factors: nurse-related factors; child-related factors; and hospital-related factors. This study deals with the first and second factors mentioned. This descriptive-analytic study aims at determining the perspective of nurses on factors which affect their decisions to administer the analgesic PRN to children after surgery in seve...

Karimi; Parsa-yekta, R.; Mehran, Z.; Nik-farid, A.; Van L

2002-01-01

211

Phytochemical, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethylacetate Extract of the Leaves of Pseudocedrella Kotschyii  

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Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, ca...

Musa, Y. M.; Haruna, A. K.; Ilyas, M.; Yaro, A. H.; Ahmadu, A. A.; Usman, H.

2007-01-01

212

Antidepressants as analgesics: a review of randomized controlled trials.  

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This review provides an overview of 59 randomized placebo-controlled trials that examined the analgesic effect of antidepressants. To summarize, there is significant evidence that the tricyclic group of antidepressants is analgesic and that trazodone is not; the data regarding selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are conflicting. To date, there are no randomized controlled trials examining the potential analgesic action of nefazodone or venlafaxine, but on the basis of initial clinical rep...

Lynch, M. E.

2001-01-01

213

Opioid Analgesics and P-glycoprotein Efflux Transporters: A Potential Systems-Level Contribution to Analgesic Tolerance  

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Chronic clinical pain remains poorly treated. Despite attempts to develop novel analgesic agents, opioids remain the standard analgesics of choice in the clinical management of chronic and severe pain. However, mu opioid analgesics have undesired side effects including, but not limited to, respiratory depression, physical dependence and tolerance. A growing body of evidence suggests that P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, may contribute a systems-level approach to the development o...

Mercer, Susan L.; Coop, Andrew

2011-01-01

214

Assessment of the Analgesic Effects of Extrapleural Infusion of Ropivacaine in Neonates with Esophageal Atresia (EA) Repair  

Science.gov (United States)

Insufficient control of post-thoracotomy pain can produce breathing dysfunction and long term staying in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). It can increase the incidence of pulmonary complications such as atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure. The aim of this study was to determine the analgesic effect of continuous extrapleural nerve block, using ropivacaine, in neonates younger than 7 days old with esophageal atersia (EA) and the incidence of atelectasis and duration of hospitalization in NICU. For this purpose, from February 2007 till January 2009 in Mofid children’s hospital, 68 neonates under 7 days old whom were candidate for thoracotomy due to esophageal atresia were, randomly divided into two groups in a controlled clinical trial. The cases received extrapleural infusion of ropivacaine 0.5% (0.1 mL/kg/h for 48 h) and controls received acetaminophen 20 mg/kg three times a day via the rectal route. Hemodynamically unstable patients and those who suffered from hospital infections were excluded from the study. After the surgery, all patients had spontaneous breathing without endotracheal tube and stable hemodynamic in NICU. Pain level was determined for each neonate, based on the neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS) grading. The incidence of atelectasis in the first 48 h after operation and throughout the NICU staying were also determined. Results showed that there were no significant difference in the mean age, sex proportions and mean weight between the two groups. The mean pain score in the group received ropivacaine (1.9 ± 0.7) was significantly less than the control group (5.2 ± 0.6) (p < 0.001). Five percent of cases (n = 1) and 100% of the control group (n=20) had pain scores equal or greater than 3 (p < 0.001). The incidence of atelectasis among cases was less than the control group (35% vs. 65% respectively; p = 0.58). Duration of hospitalization in the case group (12 ± 5.6 days) had no significant difference from the control group (13.6 ± 4.8 days) (p = 0.3) In conclusion, the results showed that continuous extrapleural infusion of ropivacaine reduces the pain noticeably and atelectasis relatively, after thoracotomy in neonates younger than 7 days suffering from EA, compared to the acetaminophen group.

Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mirkheshti, Alireza; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghi, Afsaneh; Tavassoli, Azita; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad

2010-01-01

215

Effects of estrogen peripheral metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis  

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Full Text Available It is well known that the immune reactivity is modulated by gender. In fact, women show a more effective immune response as well as a more frequent development of autoimmune diseases. In particular, 17b-estradiol (E2 in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases leads to an higher production of IgG and IgM in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC and the secretion of metalloproteinases and IL-6 by synovial fibroblasts. The effect of E2 seems to be partially related to its concentration. In fact, at the physiological concentration, E2 seems to exert a pro-inflammatory effect, while at pharmacological concentrations shows anti-inflammatory effects. Steroid hormones can be converted in downstream hormones along defined pathways. The conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA in peripheral macrophages leads to the androgen production. Subsequently the enzyme aromatase converts androgens in estrogens, and its activity is increased by some inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-a. In the synovial fluids of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients the levels of estrogens result significantly increased compared with controls, showing the consequence of this unbalanced steroid metabolism. Furthermore, the metabolism of estrogens leads to some downstream hydroxylated metabolites, that are not waste products, but still active molecules in the inflammatory response. In fact, it has been found that synovial fluids of RA patients present a different ratio of 16-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites/ 2-hydroxylated metabolites, confirming that also the unbalanced metabolism of estrogens and not only the estrogen concentration seems to be related to the development and worsening of rheumatoid arthritis.

M. Cutolo

2011-09-01

216

Analgesic Activity of Psidium guajava root extracts  

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Full Text Available Natural products constitute the major division of pharmacotherapy. Psidium guajava Linn. has received much attention due to a variety of potential beneficial effects. Numerous polyphenolic compounds, triterpenoids and other chemical compounds are present in this plant. So the present study was designed to investigate the analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract of Psidium guajava in rats. In the present study, analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract of roots of Psidiium guajava L. was evaluated for the first time. Extracts were prepared by cold maceration process. The analgesicactivity was evaluated by using the tail immersion test andEddy's hot plate method. Different doses (100, 150 and200 mg/kg of petroleum ether extract (PEE and chloroform extract (CE of root of Psidiium guajava L were used for the study. Different doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of PEE of Psidium guajava produced a significant increase in withdrawal time in mice in tail immersion test and effect was found to be dose dependent. Similar results were observed with different doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of CE of Psidium guajava. The Evaluation of analgesic activity in Eddy's hot plate method revealed that PEE and CE has significant analgesic activity. Theincrease in time was found be dose dependent. The resultsobtained from the study indicate that PEE and CE ofPsidium guajava have significant analgesic activity.

Girish Kumar Gupta1, Manisha Bhatia, Randhir Singh

2013-03-01

217

Evaluation of analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis in albino rats  

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Results: Emblica officinalis extract did not produced statistically significant (p>0.05 analgesia when compared with the control group in hot plate latency, but produced a statistically significant reduction in 6% NaCl induced abdominal writhing (pEmblica officinalis exhibit analgesic activity involving peripheral mechanisms. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 365-368

Bhomik Goel

2014-04-01

218

Evolution in pharmacologic thinking around the natural analgesic palmitoylethanolamide: from nonspecific resistance to PPAR-? agonist and effective nutraceutical  

Science.gov (United States)

The history of development of new concepts in pharmacology is a highly interesting topic. This review discusses scientific insights related to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and its progression over a period of six decades, especially in light of the work of the science sociologists, Ludwig Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. The discovery of the cannabis receptors and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was the beginning of a completely new understanding of many important homeostatic physiologic mechanisms in the human body. These discoveries were necessary for us to understand the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of PEA, a body-own fatty amide. PEA is a nutrient known already for more than 50 years. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and has a multitude of physiologic functions related to metabolic homeostasis. PEA was identified in the 1950s as a therapeutic principle with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Since 1975, its analgesic properties have been noted and explored in a variety of chronic pain states. Since 2008, PEA has been available as a nutraceutical under the brand names Normast® and PeaPure®. A literature search on PEA meanwhile has yielded over 350 papers, all referenced in PubMed, describing the physiologic properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacologic and therapeutic profile. This review describes the emergence of concepts related to the pharmacologic profile of PEA, with an emphasis on the search into its mechanism of action and the impact of failing to identify such mechanism in the period 1957–1993, on the acceptance of PEA as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound.

Hesselink, Jan M Keppel

2013-01-01

219

Evolution in pharmacologic thinking around the natural analgesic palmitoylethanolamide: from nonspecific resistance to PPAR-? agonist and effective nutraceutical.  

Science.gov (United States)

The history of development of new concepts in pharmacology is a highly interesting topic. This review discusses scientific insights related to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and its progression over a period of six decades, especially in light of the work of the science sociologists, Ludwig Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. The discovery of the cannabis receptors and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was the beginning of a completely new understanding of many important homeostatic physiologic mechanisms in the human body. These discoveries were necessary for us to understand the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of PEA, a body-own fatty amide. PEA is a nutrient known already for more than 50 years. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and has a multitude of physiologic functions related to metabolic homeostasis. PEA was identified in the 1950s as a therapeutic principle with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Since 1975, its analgesic properties have been noted and explored in a variety of chronic pain states. Since 2008, PEA has been available as a nutraceutical under the brand names Normast® and PeaPure®. A literature search on PEA meanwhile has yielded over 350 papers, all referenced in PubMed, describing the physiologic properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacologic and therapeutic profile. This review describes the emergence of concepts related to the pharmacologic profile of PEA, with an emphasis on the search into its mechanism of action and the impact of failing to identify such mechanism in the period 1957-1993, on the acceptance of PEA as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound. PMID:23964161

Hesselink, Jan M Keppel

2013-01-01

220

Evolution in pharmacologic thinking around the natural analgesic palmitoylethanolamide: from nonspecific resistance to PPAR-? agonist and effective nutraceutical  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink Department of Pharmacology, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany Abstract: The history of development of new concepts in pharmacology is a highly interesting topic. This review discusses scientific insights related to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and its progression over a period of six decades, especially in light of the work of the science sociologists, Ludwig Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. The discovery of the cannabis receptors and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was the beginning of a completely new understanding of many important homeostatic physiologic mechanisms in the human body. These discoveries were necessary for us to understand the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of PEA, a body-own fatty amide. PEA is a nutrient known already for more than 50 years. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and has a multitude of physiologic functions related to metabolic homeostasis. PEA was identified in the 1950s as a therapeutic principle with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Since 1975, its analgesic properties have been noted and explored in a variety of chronic pain states. Since 2008, PEA has been available as a nutraceutical under the brand names Normast® and PeaPure®. A literature search on PEA meanwhile has yielded over 350 papers, all referenced in PubMed, describing the physiologic properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacologic and therapeutic profile. This review describes the emergence of concepts related to the pharmacologic profile of PEA, with an emphasis on the search into its mechanism of action and the impact of failing to identify such mechanism in the period 1957–1993, on the acceptance of PEA as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound. Keywords: palmitoylethanolamide, sociology, science, paradigm, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, nutraceutical

Keppel Hesselink JM

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of therapeutic irradiation on peripheral blood lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of therapeutic irradiation on peripheral blood lymphocytes in 11 cases of breast cancer and 10 cases of uterine cancer were examined immediately after, 6 months after and 2 years after irradiation. The absolute granulocyte count immediately after irradiation increased in over a half of all cases though it decreased markedly in a few cases, and the mean values of absolute granulocyte count after irradiation were always above the mean value before irradiation (P > 0.05). In contrast to the changes of granulocyte count, the absolute lymphocyte count in all cases decreased extremely immediately after irradiation (P 0.05) but increased 2 years after irradiation to exceed the value before irradiation (P 0.05) and decreased 2 years after irradiation (P > 0.05). (author)

1980-01-01

222

Effects of Neutron Skin Thickness in Peripheral Nuclear Reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA) model. The reaction cross section, neutron (proton) removal cross section, one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied. It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness. Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei. (nuclear physics)

2011-10-01

223

Efeito analgésico de antagonistas do receptor da histamina H2 em modelo de dor provocada por formalina em ratos / Analgesic effect of hystamine H2 receptor antagonists in formalin-induced pain model in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Antagonistas de receptor de histamina apresentam efeitos sobre a dor. Antagonistas de receptor H1 apresentam efeito analgésico local, o papel de antagonistas de receptor H2 sobre a dor no sistema nervoso periférico ainda não está claro. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avali [...] ar os efeitos de diferentes antagonistas H2 sobre a dor induzida pela administração de formalina na pata de ratos. MÉTODO: Foram estudados ratos machos divididos em grupos que receberam formalina na pata e diferentes antagonistas de receptor H2 - ranitidina, cimetidina e loxtidina, injetados na pata em diferentes concentrações (0,05 ?mol, 0,25 ?mol ou 1 ?mol). Foi avaliado o número de elevações da pata pelo período de 45 minutos. RESULTADOS: A loxtidina inibiu o número de elevações da pata nas duas fases do teste a partir das três concentrações utilizadas, a ranitidina diminuiu o número de elevações da pata a partir da concentração de 0,25 ?mol na fase II, a cimetidina não inibiu esse comportamento doloroso. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com os resultados deste estudo, alguns antagonistas do receptor H2 apresentaram efeito analgésico local fármaco específico e não classe farmacológica específica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Histamine receptor antagonists affect pain perception. H1 receptor antagonists present local analgesic effect, but the role of H2 receptor antagonists on pain in the peripheral nervous system is not clear yet. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different H2 rece [...] ptor antagonists on pain induced by formalin paw injection in rats. METHOD: Male rats were studied and divided into groups that received formalin and different H2 receptor antagonists - ranitidine, cimetidine and loxtidine, injected in the paw at different concentrations (0.05 mol, 0.25 mol or 1 mol). The number of flinches was evaluated during 45 minutes. RESULTS: Loxtidine inhibited the number of flinches in both phases of the test with the three different concentrations. Ranitidine decreased the number of flinches in phase II as from 0.25 mol. Cimetidine did not affect pain behavior. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, some H2 receptor antagonists presented local analgesic effects, which seem to be drug-related and not pharmacological class-specific.

Deutsch, Fernanda; Hazem Adel, Ashmawi; Cláudia Carneiro de Araújo, Palmeira; Irimar de Paula, Posso.

224

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

O.J. Olorunfemi

2012-04-01

225

Effects of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in rats  

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Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in Wistar rats.Methods A total of 100 Wistar rats(180-220g were exposed to microwave with different average power densities of 5,10,30 and 60 mW/cm2,and sham exposure of 0mW/cm2 was performed in a control group at the same time.At day 1,7,14 and 28 after microwave irradiation,the changes in peripheral CD3+,CD4+,CD8+ T cells,ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and CD45RA+ B lymphocyte in rats were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM.Results The CD3+ T cells decreased significantly in 10-30mW/cm2 groups at day 7 and in 5-30 mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05,and CD4+ T cells decreased significantly in 10mW/cm2 group at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.01.From day 1 to day 14 after radiation,CD8+ T cells showed a reduction in number in all irradiated groups when compared with the control,but statistical significance was only found in the 30mW/cm2 group(P < 0.05.The CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased in 5mW/cm2 group on day 1,while decreased significantly in 5-30mW/cm2 groups on day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05.After microwave exposure,however,CD45RA+ B cells in 30mW/cm2 group at day 1 and in 30-60mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion A definite dosage of microwave radiation,ranging from 5-60mW/cm2,may induce changes in subpopulations of peripheral lymphocytes and cause acute immune function impairment in rats.

Jin-ling YIN

2011-10-01

226

Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass  

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The endogenous cannabinoids bind to and activate two G protein-coupled receptors, the predominantly central cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peripheral cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). Whereas CB1 mediates the cannabinoid psychotropic, analgesic, and orectic effects, CB2 has been implicated recently in the regulation of liver fibrosis and atherosclerosis. Here we show that CB2-deficient mice have a markedly accelerated age-related trabecular bone loss and cortical expansion, although c...

Ofek, Orr; Karsak, Meliha; Leclerc, Nathalie; Fogel, Meirav; Frenkel, Baruch; Wright, Karen; Tam, Joseph; Attar-namdar, Malka; Kram, Vardit; Shohami, Esther; Mechoulam, Raphael; Zimmer, Andreas; Bab, Itai

2006-01-01

227

Analgesic Activity of Abelmoschus manihot Extracts  

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Full Text Available The natural products served as important sources of medicines now a day increasing, as they possess the therapeutic activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extract of Abelmoschus manihot (Malvaceae leaves using hot plate and tail immersion model. The air-dried, powdered leaves (1000 g were extracted over Soxhlet with petroleum ether and methanol. The crude dried petroleum ether (10 g and methanol (25 g extracts was prepared at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 and evaluated for analgesic activity using the hot plate and tail immersion test. The results obtained indicate that the extracts possessed significant (p-1 dose as compared with the standard drug. This study showed that the petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Abelmoschus manihot leaves possess potential pharmacological active constituents responsible for inhibition of the analgesic effect.

J. Surana Sanjay

2011-01-01

228

Anti-hyperalgesic effects of calcitonin on neuropathic pain interacting with its peripheral receptors  

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Abstract Background The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is clinically well known for its ability to relieve neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome. Mechanisms for its analgesic effect, however, remain unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism of anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Results Subcutaneous injection of elcatonin, a synthetic derivative of eel calc...

Ito Akitoshi; Takeda Mineko; Yoshimura Takeshi; Komatsu Takayuki; Ohno Takeshi; Kuriyama Hiroshi; Matsuda Akio; Yoshimura Megumu

2012-01-01

229

Analgesic effects of methanolic extracts of the leaf or root of Moringa oleifera on complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: Moringa oleifera (family Moringaceae has been widely used in African folk medicine, and researchers have recently revealed its anti-inflammatory effects in human. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of methanolic extracts of M. oleifera in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 220 g, were used in this study. Adjuvant arthritis was induced on day 0 by a single subcutaneous injection of CFA. The prepared extracts from both the root and leaf (200, 300 and 400 mg/kg of M. oleifera were administered intraperitonealy to rats in the treatment groups 0, 3 and 6 d after CFA injection and indomethacin (5 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were evaluated for the analgesic effect 0, 3 and 6 d after CFA injection. Combined methanolic root and leaf extracts of M. oleifera (200 mg/kg were also tested for the analgesic effect.Results: The potency of the root or leaf extracts of M. oleifera (300 and 400 mg/kg was similar to that of indomethacin, resulted in significant reductions in both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in rats with CFA-induced arthritis compared with the control group after 3 and 6 d, respectively (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Combined root and leaf extracts (200 mg/kg of M. oleifera resulted in a significant reduction in thermal hyperalgesia compared with the control group after 3 and 6 d, respectively (P<0.01. Prophylactic injections of combined root and leaf extracts of M. oleifera (200 mg/kg resulted in a significant reduction in thermal hyperalgesia compared with the control group, the root extracts group, and the leaf extracts group after 3 and 6 d, respectively (P<0.01. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of the root or leaf of M. oleifera are effective in the reduction of pain induced by CFA in rats. A comparison of single and combination therapies of root and leaf extracts also showed a synergistic effect on pain reduction.

Homa Manaheji

2011-02-01

230

Metamizol, a non-opioid analgesic, acts via endocannabinoids in the PAG-RVM axis during inflammation in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most commonly used drugs against pain act by inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COXs). Metamizol (dipyrone) inhibits the COXs and is widely used in Europe and Latin America as a non-opioid analgesic. One target of metamizol and other non-opioid analgesics is the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), where they trigger descending inhibition of spinal nociceptive transmission. Also, cannabinoids exert an analgesic action at several structures in the peripheral and central nervous system, including the PAG. The present study investigates whether the antinociceptive action of metamizol in the lateral-ventrolateral (LVL) PAG during inflammation is related to endocannabinoids. In anaesthetized rats, unitary action potentials were recorded from spinal nociceptive neurons with receptive fields in the ipsilateral hind paw. Inflammation of the paw induced neuronal hyperexcitability, which was attenuated by intra-LVL-PAG microinjection of metamizol either at the beginning of inflammation or when hyperexcitability was fully established. In both cases, the antinociceptive effect of metamizol was reduced by a microinjection of AM251, an antagonist at the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, either into the LVL-PAG or into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). The RVM is a downstream structure that funnels PAG-derived descending inhibition into the spinal cord. These results show that endocannabinoids and their CB1 receptor (1) contribute at the LVL-PAG to the antinociceptive effects of metamizol, and possibly other non-opioid analgesics; and (2) participate in the PAG-derived activation of RVM descending antinociceptive influences. PMID:22337336

Escobar, W; Ramirez, K; Avila, C; Limongi, R; Vanegas, H; Vazquez, E

2012-05-01

231

The Analgesic Effect on Neuropathic Pain of Retrogradely Transported botulinum Neurotoxin A Involves Schwann Cells and Astrocytes  

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In recent years a growing debate is about whether botulinum neurotoxins are retrogradely transported from the site of injection. Immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 (cl-SNAP-25), the protein of the SNARE complex targeted by botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A), could represent an excellent approach to investigate the mechanism of action on the nociceptive pathways at peripheral and/or central level. After peripheral administration of BoNT/A, we analyzed the expression of cl-SNAP-25, from t...

Marinelli, Sara; Vacca, Valentina; Ricordy, Ruggero; Uggenti, Carolina; Tata, Ada Maria; Luvisetto, Siro; Pavone, Flaminia

2012-01-01

232

Transient receptor potential ion channels in primary sensory neurons as targets for novel analgesics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The last decade has witnessed an explosion in novel findings relating to the molecules involved in mediating the sensation of pain in humans. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels emerged as the greatest group of molecules involved in the transduction of various physical stimuli into neuronal signals in primary sensory neurons, as well as, in the development of pain. Here, we review the role of TRP ion channels in primary sensory neurons in the development of pain associated with peripheral pathologies and possible strategies to translate preclinical data into the development of effective new analgesics. Based on available evidence, we argue that nociception-related TRP channels on primary sensory neurons provide highly valuable targets for the development of novel analgesics and that, in order to reduce possible undesirable side effects, novel analgesics should prevent the translocation from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane and the sensitization of the channels rather than blocking the channel pore or binding sites for exogenous or endogenous activators. PMID:24283624

Sousa-Valente, J; Andreou, A P; Urban, L; Nagy, I

2014-05-01

233

Peripheral oedema as a side-effect of fluticasone  

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A 14-year-old girl had experienced gross peripheral oedema for nearly 2 years. She was under review by several paediatric specialists for a variety of problems. Her local paediatric team were unable to find the cause of her oedema, despite extensive investigations. Eventually, her mother discovered the cause was inhaled fluticasone, prescribed at normal dosage for asthma. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first reported case of peripheral oedema associated with the use of fluticaso...

Myers, Alice; Godden, Charles

2010-01-01

234

Efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona sobre a hiperalgesia persistente induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático em ratos: participação do óxido nítrico Long term analgesic effect of dipyrone on the persistent hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats: involviment of nitric oxide  

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Full Text Available O efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona foi avaliado em um modelo de dor neuropática assim como a participação da via óxido nítrico-GMPc neste mecanismo analgésico. Uma única administração intraplantar de dipirona (80 µg, no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático exerceu um efeito analgésico, significativo e de longa duração. A inibição da óxido nítrico sintetase com L-NAME (50 ou 100 µg/pata, ou do óxido nítrico (NO endógeno com hemoglobina (10 ou 30 µg/pata, bloquearam o desenvolvimento do efeito analgésico da dipirona. A L-arginina (500 µg/pata reverteu o efeito do L-NAME. Cloreto de metiltionínio (azul de metileno (500 µg/pata, ODQ (50 µg/pata (bloqueadores da guanilil ciclase ou glibenclamida (100, 200 ou 300 µg/pata (bloqueador de canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP inibiram o efeito analgésico da dipirona. O nitroprussiato de sódio administrado no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática também exerceu efeito analgésico de longa duração, semelhante ao observado com a dipirona. Sugerimos que a ação analgésica periférica e de longa duração da dipirona, neste modelo experimental, ocorra devido a provável dessensibilização dos nociceptores, envolvendo a via óxido nítrico - GMPc e canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP.The long term analgesic effect of dipyrone was evaluated on a model of neuropathic pain and the role of nitric oxide/GMPc pathway in this antinociceptive mechanism. One intraplantar dipyrone administration (80 mg, at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, induced a significant and long term analgesic effect. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS with L-NAME (50 or 100 mg/paw or scavenging of the endogenous NO with hemoglobin (10 or 30 mg/paw inhibited the development of the dipyrone analgesia. L-arginine (500 mg/paw could reverted the effect of L-NAME. Metylene blue (500 mg/paw or ODQ (50 mg/paw (blockers of guanyl cyclase, or glybenclamide (100, 200 or 300 mg/paw (blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels inhibited the development of dipyrone analgesia. The sodium nitroprussiate administered at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve also induced a long term analgesic effect similar to that of dipyrone. Our data may support the suggestion that the peripheral and the long term analgesic action of dipyrone on this model experimental occurs due to a probable nociceptor desensitisation with involviment of activation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, followed by an opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

Fábio José Reis

2006-12-01

235

Full Inhibition of Spinal FAAH Leads to TRPV1-Mediated Analgesic Effects in Neuropathic Rats and Possible Lipoxygenase-Mediated Remodeling of Anandamide Metabolism  

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Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Among those tested, the 200 µg/rat dose of URB597 was the only one that elevated the levels of the FAAH non-endocannabinoid and anti-inflammatory substrates, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and of the endocannabinoid FAAH substrate, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and fully inhibited thermal and tactile nociception, although in a manner blocked almost uniquely by TRPV1 antagonism. Surprisingly, this dose of URB597 decreased spinal AEA levels. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses demonstrated altered spinal expression of lipoxygenases (LOX), and baicalein, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX, significantly reduced URB597 analgesic effects, suggesting the occurrence of alternative pathways of AEA metabolism. Using immunofluorescence techniques, FAAH, 15-LOX and TRPV1 were found to co-localize in dorsal spinal horn neurons of CCI rats. Finally, 15-hydroxy-AEA, a 15-LOX derivative of AEA, potently and efficaciously activated the rat recombinant TRPV1 channel. We suggest that intrathecally injected URB597 at full analgesic efficacy unmasks a secondary route of AEA metabolism via 15-LOX with possible formation of 15-hydroxy-AEA, which, together with OEA and PEA, may contribute at producing TRPV1-mediated analgesia in CCI rats.

Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

236

AS1069562, the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, exerts analgesic effects in a rat model of neuropathic pain with unique characteristics in spinal monoamine turnover.  

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AS1069562 [(R)-2-[(1H-inden-7-yloxy)methyl]morpholine monobenzenesulfonate] is the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, which had been used clinically for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases with multiple pharmacological actions, including serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibition. Here we investigated the analgesic effects of AS1069562 in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the spinal monoamine turnover. These effects were compared with those of the antidepressants duloxetine and amitriptyline. AS1069562 significantly elevated extracellular 5-HT and NE levels in the rat spinal dorsal horn, although its 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibition was much weaker than that of duloxetine in vitro. In addition, AS1069562 increased the ratio of the contents of both 5-HT and NE to their metabolites in rat spinal cord, whereas duloxetine slightly increased only the ratio of the content of 5-HT to its metabolite. In CCI rats, AS1069562 and duloxetine significantly ameliorated mechanical allodynia, whereas amitriptyline did not. AS1069562 and amitriptyline significantly ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia, and duloxetine tended to ameliorate it. Furthermore, AS1069562, duloxetine, and amitriptyline significantly improved spontaneous pain-associated behavior. In a gastric emptying study, AS1069562 affected gastric emptying at the same dose that exerted analgesia in CCI rats. On the other hand, duloxetine and amitriptyline significantly reduced gastric emptying at lower doses than those that exerted analgesic effects. These results indicate that AS1069562 broadly improved various types of neuropathic pain-related behavior in CCI rats with unique characteristics in spinal monoamine turnover, suggesting that AS1069562 may have potential as a treatment option for patients with neuropathic pain, with a different profile from currently available antidepressants. PMID:24338505

Murai, Nobuhito; Aoki, Toshiaki; Tamura, Seiji; Sekizawa, Toshihiro; Kakimoto, Shuichiro; Tsukamoto, Mina; Oe, Tomoya; Enomoto, Ryugo; Hamakawa, Nozomu; Matsuoka, Nobuya

2014-03-01

237

Comparative study of analgesic efficacy and morphine-sparing effect of intramuscular dexketoprofen trometamol with ketoprofen or placebo after major orthopaedic surgery  

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Aims Multimodal analgesia is thought to produce balanced and effective postoperative pain control. A combined therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opiates could result in synergistic analgesia by acting through different mechanisms. Currently there are very few parenterally administered NSAIDs suitable for the immediate postoperative period. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the analgesic efficacy, relative potency, and safety of parenteral dexketoprofen trometamol following major orthopaedic surgery. Methods One hundred and seventy-two patients elected for prosthetic surgery, were randomized to receive two intramuscular injections (12 hourly) of either dexketoprofen 50 mg, ketoprofen 100 mg or placebo in a double-blind fashion. Postoperatively, the patient's pain was stabilized, then they were connected to a patient- controlled analgesia system (PCA) of morphine for 24 h (1 mg with 5 min lockout). Results The mean cumulative amount of morphine (CAM) used was of 39 mg in the dexketoprofen group and 45 mg in the ketoprofen group vs 64 mg in the placebo group. (Reduction in morphine use was approximately one-third between the active compounds compared with placebo (adjusted mean difference of ?25 mg between dexketoprofen and placebo and ?23 mg between ketoprofen and placebo. These differences were statistically significant: P ? 0.0003; 95% CI ?35, ?14. Pain-intensity scores were consistently lower with the active compounds, the lowest corresponded to the dexketoprofen-treated patients. Regarding sedation, there were statistically significant differences between the two active compounds and placebo only at the 2nd and 13th hours. Wound bleeding was specifically measured with no statistically significant differences found between all the groups. Conclusions Intramuscular administration of dexketoprofen trometamol 50 mg has good analgesic efficacy both in terms of opioid-sparing effect and control of pain after major orthopaedic surgery.

Hanna, M H; Elliott, K M; Stuart-Taylor, M E; Roberts, D R; Buggy, D; Arthurs, G J

2003-01-01

238

Box jellyfish (Carybdea alata) in Waikiki. The analgesic effect of sting-aid, Adolph's meat tenderizer and fresh water on their stings: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  

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The study measured the analgesic effects of three popular Hawaii remedies for stings from the box jellyfish, Carybdea alata. Analysis of data showed that aerosol sprays of Sting-Aid (an aluminum sulfate solution), Aldolph's meat tenderizer dissolved in water, and fresh water neither increased nor decreased the pain of box jellyfish stings more than the control (seawater). PMID:11573317

Thomas, C S; Scott, S A; Galanis, D J; Goto, R S

2001-08-01

239

Can quantitative sensory testing predict responses to analgesic treatment?  

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The role of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in prediction of analgesic effect in humans is scarcely investigated. This updated review assesses the effectiveness in predicting analgesic effects in healthy volunteers, surgical patients and patients with chronic pain. A systematic review of English written, peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and Embase (1980-2013). Additional studies were identified by chain searching. Search terms included 'quantitative sensory testing', 'sensory testing' and 'analgesics'. Studies on the relationship between QST and response to analgesic treatment in human adults were included. Appraisal of the methodological quality of the included studies was based on evaluative criteria for prognostic studies. Fourteen studies (including 720 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were observed between responses to analgesics and several QST parameters including (1) heat pain threshold in experimental human pain, (2) electrical and heat pain thresholds, pressure pain tolerance and suprathreshold heat pain in surgical patients, and (3) electrical and heat pain threshold and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic pain. Heterogeneity among studies was observed especially with regard to application of QST and type and use of analgesics. Although promising, the current evidence is not sufficiently robust to recommend the use of any specific QST parameter in predicting analgesic response. Future studies should focus on a range of different experimental pain modalities rather than a single static pain stimulation paradigm.

Grosen, K; Fischer, Iben W. Deleuran

2013-01-01

240

Effects of Dioscoreae Rhizoma (SanYak on Peripheral Neuropathy and its Safety  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature for the safety and efficacy of Dioscoreae Rhizoma (DR for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Literature searches were performed in MEDLINE and three Korean medical databases up to April 2013. All studies evaluating the effects on peripheral neuropathy or the safety of DR monopreparations were considered. Results: Three studies - DR extract per os (po on diabetic neuropathy in mice, DR extract injection on the peripheral sciatic nerve after crush injury in rats and DR extract injection to patients with peripheral facial paralysis proved that DR treatments were effective for the treatment of nerve injuries. Conclusions: In conclusion, we found the DR has a strong positive potential for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, but studies addressing direct factors related to the nerve still remain insufficient.

Kim Min-jung

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

A comparison of four analgesics in post-episiotomy pain.  

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This study was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy of four commonly used analgesics namely ibuprofen, analgin, paracetamol and aspirin in post-episiotomy pain. The subjects were healthy postpartum women on the obstetric service of Goa Medical College, each of whom received only one experimental medication. Subjective reports were used as indices of pain intensity or relief. Ibuprofen was found to be the most effective analgesic in post-episiotomy pain followed by analgin and paracetamol in that order. Surprisingly, aspirin was found to be no better than placebo. PMID:2361721

Bhounsule, S A; Nevreker, P R; Agshikar, N V; Pal, M N; Dhume, V G

1990-01-01

242

Effect of prostaglandin E1 analogue administration on peripheral skin temperature at high altitude.  

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The effect of prostaglandin E1 analogue on peripheral skin temperature was examined at high altitude, where local cold injuries are common owing to severe environmental conditions. The peripheral skin temperature at rest was significantly lower at higher altitudes. Oral administration of the prostaglandin E1 analogue limaprost reversed this temperature decrease, probably by enhancement of peripheral circulation. The temperature recovery rate after a cold water challenge was also improved after the administration of limaprost. This oral type of prostaglandin E1 analogue is strongly recommended as an effective prophylactic and therapeutic vasodilator for local cold injuries at high altitudes. PMID:8203772

Saito, S; Shimada, H

1994-06-01

243

Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) stem bark.  

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The analgesic activity of the aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark was studied using the acetic acid-induced writhing, the hot plate test, tail flick test, and formalin pain test in mice or rats. The aqueous extract (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (pkunthianum stem bark possesses analgesic activity which is mediated through both central and peripheral mechanisms. This is a possible rationale for its use in traditional human medicine for pain relief. PMID:19226974

Ching, Fidelis P; Omogbai, Eric K I; Ozolua, Raymond I; Okpo, Stephen O

2009-01-01

244

Antioxidant and Analgesic Activities of Lannea coromandelica Linn. Bark Extract  

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Methanolic extract of Lannea coromandelica Linn. bark (MLCB) was subjected to evaluate its antioxidant and analgesic properties. The analgesic activity was determined for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions using hotplate as well as tail immersion method and acetic acid-induced writhing test with formalin induced pain in mice, respectively. To evaluate antioxidant potential of MLCB, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical as...

Badrul Alam; Sarowar Hossain; Razibul Habib; Julia Rea; Anwarul Islam

2012-01-01

245

GABA(B) receptor-mediated selective peripheral analgesia by the non-proteinogenic amino acid, isovaline.  

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Peripherally restricted analgesics are desirable to avoid central nervous system (CNS) side effects of opioids. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs produce peripheral analgesia but have significant toxicity. GABA(B) receptors represent peripheral targets for analgesia but selective GABA(B) agonists like baclofen cross the blood-brain barrier. Recently, we found that the CNS-impermeant amino acid, isovaline, produces analgesia without apparent CNS effects. On observing that isovaline has GABA(B) activity in brain slices, we examined the hypothesis that isovaline produces peripheral analgesia mediated by GABA(B) receptors. We compared the peripheral analgesic and CNS effect profiles of isovaline, baclofen, and GABA (a CNS-impermeant, unselective GABA(B) agonist). All three amino acids attenuated allodynia induced by prostaglandin E2 injection into the mouse hindpaw and tested with von Frey filaments. The antiallodynic actions of isovaline, baclofen, and GABA were blocked by the GABA(B) antagonist, CGP52432, and potentiated by the GABA(B) modulator, CGP7930. We measured Behavioural Hyperactivity Scores and temperature change as indicators of GABAergic action in the CNS. ED(95) doses of isovaline and GABA produced no CNS effects while baclofen produced substantial sedation and hypothermia. In a mouse model of osteoarthritis, isovaline restored performance during forced exercise to baseline values. Immunohistochemical staining of cutaneous layers of the analgesic test site demonstrated co-localization of GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) receptor subunits on fine nerve endings and keratinocytes. Isovaline represents a new class of peripherally restricted analgesics without CNS effects, mediated by cutaneous GABA(B) receptors. PMID:22525135

Whitehead, R A; Puil, E; Ries, C R; Schwarz, S K W; Wall, R A; Cooke, J E; Putrenko, I; Sallam, N A; MacLeod, B A

2012-06-28

246

Invention of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Mimosa Pudica  

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Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Mimosa pudica at the doses of 200 and 400mg/kg was tested for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The extract produced dose dependent and significant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw oedema.The analgesic activity was found to be more significant on the acetic acid induced writhing model (p<0.001 than the tail flick model (p<0.001. So the extract inhibits predominantly the peripheral mechanism. The presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract may be contributory to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

Dr. Chandrashekar D. K.

2012-07-01

247

Opioid peptide-derived analgesics  

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Two recent developments of opioid peptide-based analgesics are reviewed. The first part of the review discusses the dermorphin-derived, cationic-aromatic tetrapeptide H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2 ([Dmt1]DALDA, where Dmt indicates 2?,6?-dimethyltyrosine), which showed subnanomolar ? receptor binding affinity, extraordinary ? receptor selectivity, and high ? agonist potency in vitro. In vivo, [Dmt1]DALDA looked promising as a spinal analgesic because of its extraordinary antinociceptive effec...

Schiller, Peter W.

2005-01-01

248

A Cost-Consequences analysis of the effect of Pregabalin in the treatment of peripheral Neuropathic Pain in routine medical practice in Primary Care settings  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain (NeP is a common symptom of a group of a variety of conditions, including diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, or postherpetic neuralgia. Prevalence of NeP has been estimated to range between 5-7.5%, and produces up to 25% of pain clinics consultations. Due to its severity, chronic evolution, and associated co-morbidities, NeP has an important individual and social impact. The objective was to analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB on pain alleviation and longitudinal health and non-health resources utilization and derived costs in peripheral refractory NeP in routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS in Spain. Methods Subjects from PCS were older than 18 years, with peripheral NeP (diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia or trigeminal neuralgia, refractory to at least one previous analgesic, and included in a prospective, real world, and 12-week two-visit cost-of-illness study. Measurement of resources utilization included both direct healthcare and indirect expenditures. Pain severity was measured by the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ. Results One-thousand-three-hundred-fifty-four PGB-naive patients [58.8% women, 59.5 (12.7 years old] were found eligible for this secondary analysis: 598 (44% switched from previous therapy to PGB given in monotherapy (PGBm, 589 (44% received PGB as add-on therapy (PGB add-on, and 167 (12% patients changed previous treatments to others different than PGB (non-PGB. Reductions of pain severity were higher in both PGBm and PGB add-on groups (54% and 51%, respectively than in non-PGB group (34%, p Conclusion In Spanish primary care settings, PGB given either add-on or in monotherapy in routine medical practice was associated with pain alleviation leading to significant longitudinal reductions in resource use and total costs during the 12-week period of the study compared with non-PGB-therapy of patients with chronic NeP of peripheral origin. The use of non-appropriate analgesic therapies for neuropathic pain in a portion of subjects in non-PGB group could explain partially such findings.

Torrades Sandra

2011-01-01

249

Analgesics and sedatives in vascular interventionist radiologic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interventionist radiology routinely requires the use of different drugs (analgesics and sedatives) in the course of a procedure. Aside from their therapeutic action, these drugs can produce secondary or undesirable effects, making necessary an in-depth knowledge of them to assure their safe and efficient management. The aim of this work is to provide the vascular interventionist radiologist with additional information on the management of those drugs that contribute to minimizing patient discomfort and pain in interventionist procedures. Author

1993-10-01

250

Pharmacodynamic analysis of the analgesic effect of capsaicin 8% patch (Qutenza™) in diabetic neuropathic pain patients: detection of distinct response groups  

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Treatment of chronic pain is associated with high variability in the response to pharmacological interventions. A mathematical pharmacodynamic model was developed to quantify the magnitude and onset/offset times of effect of a single capsaicin 8% patch application in the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 91 patients. In addition, a mixture model was applied to objectively match patterns in pain-associated behavior. The model identified four distinct subgroups that respond...

Martini, Christian; Yassen, Ashraf; Olofsen, Erik; Passier, Paul; Stoker, Malcom; Dahan, Albert

2012-01-01

251

Drug Therapy in Dental Practice: Nonopioid and Opioid Analgesics  

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To prevent patient pain, the clinician may chose from opioid and nonopioid analgesics. It is rational for the practitioner to combine drugs from these classes when managing moderate to severe pain. To select combination regimens wisely, it is necessary to understand the significant pharmacological features of each category alone. Careful selection of an effective analgesic regimen based on the type and amount of pain the patient is expected to have can prevent the stress and anxiety associate...

2005-01-01

252

[Analgesic activity of the aqueous extract from Ximenia Americana].  

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Pharmacological studies were conducted with the aqueous extract of the bark of the stem of Ximenia americana Linne (Olacaceae) on experimental animals, evaluating the analgesic activities. In the analgesic test, the aqueous extract elicited an inhibitory intensity on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and on the late phase of the formalin test, but possessed only a weak effect on the tail-flick response and on the early phase of the formalin test. PMID:19304267

Soro, Tianga Yaya; Traore, F; Sakande, J

2009-04-01

253

An effect of wrapping peripheral nerve anastomosis with pedicled muscle flap on nerve regeneration in experiment  

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Full Text Available Despite intrinsic capacity of peripheral nerves to regenerate, functional outcomes of peripheral nerves injury remain poor. Nerve ischemia, intra-/perineurial fibrosis and neuroma formation contribute a lot to that. Several authors demonstrated beneficial effects of increased vascularization at the site of injury on peripheral nerves regeneration. The use of highly vascularized autologous tissues (greater omentum as a source of peripheral nerves neovascularization shows promising re-sults. We proposed a surgical technique in which injured peripheral nerves anastomosis was wrapped in a pedicled muscular flap and performed morphological assessment of the efficacy of such technique with the aid of immunohistochemistry. 14 rats (which underwent sciatic nerve transection were operated according to proposed technique. Another 14 rats, in which only end-to-end nerve anastomosis (without muscular wrapping was performed served as controls. Morphological changes were evaluated at 3 weeks and 3 months periods. Higher blood vessel and axon counts were observed in experimental groups at both checkpoints. There was also an increase in Schwann cells and macrophages counts, and less collagen content in pe-ripheral nerves of experimental groups. Axons in neuromas of experimental groups showed a higher degree of arrangement. We conclude that proposed surgical technique provides better vascularisation of injured peripheral nerves, which is beneficial for nerve regeneration.

Naumenko L.Yu.

2010-01-01

254

Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (?= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

2003-01-01

255

Tapentadol-ER for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.  

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With the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increasing, pathologic complications such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are also becoming more common. Of those diagnosed with DM, 10% to 20% of patients suffer from painful DPN. Until recently, only pregabalin and duloxetine possessed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this condition. However, FDA recently approved tapentadol-ER [extended release] (Nucynta ER) for painful DPN. Tapentadol-ER is an opioid analgesic commonly used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain that contains a unique dual mechanism acting as both a weak mu-opiod receptor agonist and norepinephine-reuptake inhibitor. It is by way of this unique dual mechanism that allows for effective analgesic effects with increased tolerability. This new FDA approval provides an additional therapeutic option to treat DPN in symptomatic patients. PMID:24129223

Games, Gina; Hutchison, Amber

2013-10-01

256

The Effect of Exogenous Testosterone Administration on Peripheral Nerves Regeneration after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rat  

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There are extensive evidences those axonal processes of the nervous system (peripheral and/or central) may degenerate after nerve injuries. Wallerian degeneration and choromatolysis are the most conspicuous phenomena that occur in response to injuries. In this study the effects of exogenous testosterone administration on peripheral neurons regeneration after sciatic nerve compression in rat was investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats divided to 4 group (control, compression, compression+cas...

Tehranipour, M.; Kabiri, M.

2009-01-01

257

Effects of lectins on peripheral infections by herpes simplex virus of rat sensory neurons in culture.  

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Concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin are capable of preventing a productive peripheral infection of dissociated rat sensory neurons in culture by herpes simplex virus type 1. Concanavalin A binds to the herpes simplex virion, rendering it inactive, whereas wheat germ agglutinin binds to the peripheral neuritic extensions of the sensory neurons, rendering them incapable of initiating a productive viral infection. This latter effect (i) seems to be specific for wheat germ agglutinin since o...

Ziegler, R. J.; Pozos, R. S.

1981-01-01

258

Atorvastatin and simvastatin as analgesic agents in experimental models  

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Objectives: 1) To evaluate the analgesic effect of atorvastatin and simvastatin. 2) To compare analgesic activity of these with an established drug tramadol. Materials and Methods: Healthy Albino rats were taken. They were randomly divided into 4 groups of six animals each. Group I: Normal Saline (0.5 ml), Group II: Tramadol (10 mg/kg BW), Group III: Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW) and Group IV: Simvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). The animals were subjected to 3 different tests at different interval of time. The tests conducted were tail clip method, Eddy?s hot plate and hot water tail immersion method. Results: Atorvastatin and simvastatin differ significantly from control hence they have analgesic action and even at any of the time intervals they do not differ significantly from tramadol; hence their analgesic effect is nearly comparable to tramadol. The results of the present study indicate that atorvastatin and simvastatin have analgesic action. Conclusion: These statins are found to have analgesic effect other than hypolipidemic activity and can be used in these patients. However further study has to be undertaken in a broader way.

Dwajani, S.; Kumar, V. S. Harish; Keerthi, D.

2012-01-01

259

Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Diospyros Cordifolia Extract  

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In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia (MEDC) Roxb. The analgesic effects of the stem bark of the plant was assessed in mice using the tail-flick method while carrageenan, histamine and dextran induced paw oedema was used to study the antiinflammatory effects in rats. The MEDC exhibited significant (p<0.01) analgesic effects comparable to the reference drug diclofenac sodium. MEDC also was evaluate...

Das, Sudipta; Haldar, Pallab K.; Pramanik, Goutam; Panda, Siva P.; Bera, Samit

2011-01-01

260

Comparison of the analgesic effect of ibuprofen with mesalamine after discectomy surgery in patients with lumbar disc herniation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Background: Pain management is an important component in the postoperative period following discectomy. Aims: We hypothesized that mesalamine considering its better safety profile, is likely to be a better choice, if it would be as effective as ibuprofen in controlling post-discectomy pain. Settings and Design: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed on patients who underwent lumbar discectomy surgery. Materials and Methods: Of the 58 patients who had lumbar discectomy, 27 patients were randomized to oral ibuprofen 500 mg and 31 patients to mesalamine 400 mg, three times a day for nine days following surgery. There was no placebo group. Severity of pain was assessed by using 10- cm visual analogue scale (VAS, once before operation and for nine days after. Statistical Analysis: Mean ± SD pain scores were compared between groups and the statistical difference was estimated by Student?s test using SPSS (Version 13. We also calculated the power of each t-test. Repeated measure ANOVA was performed for measuring the effect of time. Results: The age range of the patients was 35 to 60 years (mean: 42.2 years. Mean ± SD preoperative pain scores for ibuprofen or mesalamine-treated groups were 7.852 ± 2.441 and 7.806 ± 2.892, respectively. At the end of day 9, mean ± SD of pain score was 2.704 ± 2.284 and 2.717 ± 2.273 for ibuprofen and mesalamine-treated groups respectively. Both drugs significantly reduced postoperative pain and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.Conclusions: Since both drugs showed almost equal analgesic effect, considering its safety profile mesalamine, seems to be the preferred choice to alleviate post-discectomy surgery pain.

Toroudi Hamidreza

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Effect of analgesics, antidepressants and their combinations on changes of structures' of the central nervous system activity in animals with simulated depression  

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Full Text Available Experiments were carried out on outbred rabbits of both sexes using neurophysiological methods. We resurched the ability of analgesics, antidepressants and their combinations tochange parameters of electrophysiological brain activity under conditions of normal functioning of the central nervous system and on the background ofsimulated depression. Found that in brain pathology combination analgesics with amitriptyline caused activation of the reticular formation (RF and in-creased excitability of dorsomedial tonsils (DMT in comparison with its action in intact rabbits. Analysis of these data on reserpine showed the change of the sign of excitability in the frontal cortex (FC, RF (from inhibition to activation, and re-duction in the dorsal hippocampus (DH, or leveling DMT increased excitability of brain structures under the influence of this combination. Functional relationships between structures were characterized by increasing activating influence of RFon the FC and inhibiting influence of RFon DMT (increasing analgesic activity and reduce brake control DH on FC (increase antidepressant properties. Notably, the combination of celecoxib with the amitriptyline caused fewer changes in excitability of brain structures and intracentral relationships between them that assotiates with less manifested analgesic activity com-pared with the combination of" meloxicam +amitriptyline."

Khomiak O.V.

2012-01-01

262

Free Radical Scavenging and Analgesic Activities of Cucumis sativus L. Fruit Extract  

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The aqueous fruit extract of Cucumis sativus L. was screened for free radical scavenging and analgesic activities. The extract was subjected to in vitro antioxidant studies at 250 and 500 ?g/ml and analgesic study at the doses 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. The free radical scavenging was compared with ascorbic acid, BHA (Butylated hydroxyl anisole), whereas, the analgesic effect was compared with Diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg). The C. sativus fruit extract showed maximum antioxidant and ana...

2010-01-01

263

Free radical scavenging and analgesic activities of Cucumis sativus L. fruit extract  

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The aqueous fruit extract of Cucumis sativus L. was screened for free radical scavenging and analgesic activities. The extract was subjected to in vitro antioxidant studies at 250 and 500 ?g/ml and analgesic study at the doses 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. The free radical scavenging was compared with ascorbic acid, BHA (Butylated hydroxyl anisole), whereas, the analgesic effect was compared with Diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg). The C. sativus fruit extract showed ma...

2010-01-01

264

Effect of successful 131I treatment on the peripheral blood picture in hyperthyroid patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the effect of successful 131I therapy on the levels peripheral blood picture in hyperthyroid patients. Methods: Serum T3, T4, TSH (with ACCESS microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay) and blood Hb, RBC, WBC and DC, Plt (with COULTER three assortments) counts were determined in 110 controls and 210 hyperthyroid patients both before and after 131I therapy. Results: 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism in this group of patients was very successful (P131I therapy. Conclusion: The application of 131I to treat hyperthyroidism was very successful with no remarkable effect on peripheral blood picture. (authors)

2004-12-01

265

Evaluation of Analgesic and Antioxidant Potency of Various Extracts of Cinnamomum iners Bark  

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Full Text Available The multiple traditional uses with fewer scientific investigations about C. iners bark made imperative to further exploit this plant for the evaluation of its therapeutic value. Analgesic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic, aqueous and alkaloid extracts prepared from C. iners bark was studied using both in vivo and spectrometric experimental models. Results of hot plate and tail flick studies show that all the screened extracts are devoid of central analgesic activity. However, promising findings regarding the peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was revealed from the formalin induced pain method with alkaloid extract possessing significant activity followed by ethanolic and aqueous extract. Moreover, the results of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was also confirmed the presence of higher amount polyphenolic content in ethanolic extract with significant antioxidant activity. The observed peripheral analgesic activity by ethanolic and aqueous extract might be due to the presence of higher amount polyphenolic present in them. Results of this study also supported the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of pain. Hence, it was concluded from the study that C. iners bark extract can be utilized as new source of peripheral analgesic in the treatment of pain.

S. Ramanathan

2012-01-01

266

EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT BOERHAVIA REPENS (FAMILY: NYCTAGINACEAE  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-diarrheal activity of the whole plant Boerhavia repens. Sun dried roots, stems, barks and the leaves of B. repens were extracted using methanol at room temperature. The crude methanol extract was fractionated in two different solvents using Petroleum ether and Carbon Tetrachloride. The peripheral analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid induced Writhing method. The petroleum ether soluble materials at a dose of 400 mg/kg exhibited significant analgesic activity with 37.05% inhibition of writhing compared to that of 50% produced by the standard diclofenac. Evaluation of central analgesic activity was carried out by tail flicking method using Morphine as a positive control. Petroleum ether soluble fraction exhibited highest central analgesic activity after 30 minutes at a dose of 400 mg/kg dose. The central analgesic activity decreased in a time dependent manner. After 90 minutes there was almost no central analgesic activity. The anti-diarrheal activity of the different fractions of the crude extract of B. repens was evaluated using the model of castor oil induced diarrhea in mice. No fractions showed significant anti-diarrheal activity.

Dey Avijit

2012-10-01

267

STUDIES OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY, ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TRADITIONAL HERBAL DRUG ON RODENTS  

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Aqueous extract of combination of stems of Tinospora cordifolia, fruits of Emblica officinalis and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus has been used as traditional herbal drug in Indian medicine system for treatment of fever, body ache, joint pain and inflammation. The collected botanicals were subject to physiochemical, pharmacognostical & phytochemical screening before animal experiments. After acute toxicity studies, anti-inflammatory effect was assessed using carrageen induced paw oedema test an...

2013-01-01

268

Effect of oral clonidine premedication on perioperative haemodynamic response and postoperative analgesic requirement for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

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Clonidine has anti-hypertensive properties and augments the effects of anaesthesia, hence we considered it to be an ideal agent to contain the stress response to pneumoperitoneum. We studied the clinical efficacy of oral clonidine premedication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Fifty patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive premedication with either oral clonidine 150 ?g (Group I, n = 25) or...

2011-01-01

269

Effect of oral clonidine premedication on perioperative haemodynamic response and post-operative analgesic requirement for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

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Clonidine has anti-hypertensive properties and augments the effects of anaesthesia, hence we considered it to be an ideal agent to contain the stress response to pneumoperitoneum. We studied the clinical efficacy of oral clonidine premedication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Fifty patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive premedication with either oral clonidine 150 ?g (Group I, n = 25...

Singh Shivinder; Arora Kapil

2011-01-01

270

Comparison the Analgesic Effects of Single Dose Administration of Tramadol or Piroxicam on Postoperative Pain after Cesarean Delivery  

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"nA multimodal approach to postcesarean pain management may enhance analgesia and reduce side effects after surgery. We investigated postoperative pain in a double-blinded, randomized, single-dose comparison of the monoaminergic and µ-opioid agonist tramadol, 100 mg (Group T) and piroxicam 20 mg (Group P) given IM alone- single dose in 150 patients who had elective cesarean delivery. All patients were assessed at 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours post operation for pain degree (by Visual Analo...

Amir Farshchi; Golbarg Ghiasi

2010-01-01

271

Efecto analgésico y antiartrítico de Corallocarpus epigaeus / Analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of Corallocarpus epigaeus / Efeito analgésico e antiartrítico de Corallocarpus epigaeus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A artrite eumatóide é uma doença inflamatória crônica das articulações que se encontra associada ao desenvolvimento de estresse oxidativo e inflamação. No presente estudo é avaliado o perfil de segurança e de eficácia de um extrato metanólico a 85% de Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE). No perfil de segura [...] nça foi determinado o valor de DL50 levando a cabo um estudo de toxicidade aguda. No perfil de eficácia, a atividade analgésica foi avaliada tanto pelo método de prato quente como por meio do teste de imersão da cauda. Foi avaliada a atividade antiinflamatória por edema de pata induzido por carragenina e o efeito antiartrítico mediante artrite induzida por adjuvante completo de Freund. Também se têm levado a cabo a análise fitoquímica das famílias de compostos presentes em diferentes extratos de CE e a análise quantitativa da erva crua e do extrato metanólico a 85%. O extrato metanólico apresentou atividade analgésica ao aumentar o tempo de resposta tanto no método do prato quente como no teste de imersão da cauda. O extrato exibiu 23,19% de atividade antiinflamatória e 33,59% de efeito antiartrítico em edema de pata induzido por adjuvante completo de Freund. O extrato de CE aumentou o nível antioxidante, ao mesmo tempo que diminuiu o estresse oxidativo desenvolvido pela artrite induzida pelo adjuvante completo de Freund. Em conclusão, CE é uma fonte rica de compostos fitoquímicos com atividades analgésicas, anti-inflamatórias e antioxidantes. Abstract in spanish La artritis reumatoidea es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de las articulaciones que se encuentra asociada con el desarrollo de estrés oxidativo e inflamación. En el presente estudio se evalúa el perfil de seguridad y de eficacia de un extracto metanólico al 85% de Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE). E [...] n el perfil de seguridad se determinó el valor de DL50 llevando a cabo un estudio de toxicidad aguda. En el perfil de eficacia, la actividad analgésica se evaluó tanto por el método de plato caliente como por medio de la prueba de inmersión de la cola. Se evaluó la actividad antiinflamatoria por edema de pata inducido por carragenina y el efecto antiartrítico mediante artritis inducida por adyuvante completo de Freund. También se han llevado a cabo el análisis fitoquímico de las familias de compuestos presentes en diferentes extractos de CE y el análisis cuantitativo de la hierba cruda y del extracto metanólico al 85%. El extracto metanólico presentó actividad analgésica al incrementar el tiempo de respuesta tanto en el método del plato caliente como en la prueba de inmersión de la cola. El extracto exhibió 23,19% de actividad antiinflamatoria y 33,59% de efecto antiartrítico en edema de pata inducido por adyuvante completo de Freund. El extracto de CE aumentó el nivel antioxidante al tiempo que disminuyó el estrés oxidativo desarrollado por la artritis inducida por el adyuvante completo de Freund. En conclusión, CE es una fuente rica de compuestos fitoquímicos con actividades analgésicas, antiinflamatorias y antioxidantes. Abstract in english Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. The safety and efficacy profile of 85% methanolic extract of Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE) was evaluated in the present study. In safety profile LD50 value was determined [...] by carrying out an acute toxicity study. In efficacy profile, the analgesic activity was evaluated by both hot plate and tail immersion tests. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan-induced paw edema and anti-arthritic effect by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. Phytochemical screening of different CE extracts and quantitative analysis of both raw herb and 85% methanolic extract have been also carried out. The methanolic extract displayed analgesic activity by increasing the response time in both hot plate and tail immersion method. Extract ex

Uthrapathy, Subashini; Shabi, Mohamed M; Krishnamoorthy, Gayathri; Ravindhran, Dhevi; Rajamanickam, Victor G; Pillay Dubey, Govindha.

272

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment on chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits induced by ?-ray irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment on chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits induced by 60Co ?-rays irradiation were studied. It was found that there is no effect of HBO itself on chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes, and definite promotion effect of HBO treatment on recovery of chromosome damage in preipheral lymphocytes in rabbits induced by irradiation

1990-01-01

273

The Analgesic Interaction of Misoprostol with Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of misoprostol when combined with ibuprofen or diclofenac Na. Animal experiments using the inflamed rat paw formalin model suggested that misoprostol potentiates the analgesic effect of some NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) including diclofenac Na but not propionic acid derivatives or opiates. The dental pain model was used to evaluate the clinical relevance of this interaction. Patients received a single oral dose of study medication following surgical removal of impacted teeth. Patients were medicated for moderate to severe postsurgical pain and then filled in an analgesic diary for a 6-h observation period. Several blood samples were taken over the observation period. In addition, microdialysis samples were taken directly from the extraction socket and were analyzed for immunoreactive prostaglandin E(2) levels. The studies were single-dose, parallel group and double-blind assays. In the first study, 70 patients received an oral dose of either placebo (n = 13), misoprostol 200 &mgr;g (n = 18), ibuprofen 200 mg (n = 19), or the combination of misoprostol + ibuprofen (n = 20). Misoprostol alone demonstrated a small analgesic effect compared to placebo. Both the ibuprofen and combination groups were substantially more effective than placebo but not different from each other. The combination group had higher ibuprofen blood levels during the first 45 min but had a lower C(max) and longer time to T(max). The second study evaluated oral doses of placebo (n = 11), misoprostol 200 &mgr;g (n = 21), diclofenac Na 50 mg (n = 18), and the combination of misoprostol + diclofenac Na (n = 20). Relative to placebo, misoprostol performance was similar to the first study. When the results of the two studies were combined, there was a small, but statistically significant, analgesic effect for misoprostol. Diclofenac Na was superior to both placebo and to misoprostol alone. The combination was the most effective treatment, and for hours 4--6 it was significantly better than diclofenac Na alone. Analysis of the blood samples showed an earlier and higher peak effect for the diclofenac Na group compared to the combination, and the combination again had a lower C(max). The microdialysis probe assays demonstrated that misoprostol depressed PGE(2) levels at the peripheral site of trauma over the first 2 h after surgery. These pilot studies used small samples, and the results only suggest trend effects. Both studies demonstrated that misoprostol 200 &mgr;g, a prostaglandin analog, does have an analgesic effect. When combined with ibuprofen, there was no potentiation of analgesia. In contrast, the combination of misoprostol + diclofenac Na demonstrated an enhanced peak effect, total effect for pain intensity difference and pain relief (sum pain intensity difference [SPID] and total pain relief [TOTPAR]), and PMID:11862259

Cooper, Stephen A.; Cowan, Alan; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Hargreaves, Kenneth; Roszkowski, Mark; Jamali, Fakhreddin; Borenstein, Michael; Lucyk, Dan; Fielding, Allen F.; Smith, Brian; Feng, Dan

1996-04-01

274

[The characteristics of the analgesic action of nitrosorbide and no-shpa].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted on experimental models of pain sense induced in mice by exposure to thermic or chemical factors and in rats by exposure to electric factors. Nitrosorbide and no-spa possess a dose-dependent analgesic effect. Both drugs excelled analgin in the intensity and duration of analgesic effect. PMID:9783101

Stepaniuk, A G; Stepaniuk, N G; Stoliarchuk, A A; Stepaniuk, G I; Chernobrovy?, V N

1998-01-01

275

EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF PICRORHIZA KURROA  

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Full Text Available Methodology:-The selected drug from the authentic literature is in form of dried roots of Picrohiza kurroa belonging to family scrophulariaceae.  Analgesic  activity of root powder is extracted with alcohol for 7 days.  The extracts in these dose levels of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg were tested.  The analgesic activity was studied by using the Hot plate and Acetic acid induced-writhing method in albino mice of either sex. The writhing are measured within 10 min. Results:- The 500mg/kg drug of picrorhiza kurroa having similar effect to the standard drug pentazocin at ½ hrs.pentazocin is agonist-antagonist type of analgesic drug.in hot plate method the 500mg/ kg drug of picrorhiza kurroa is effective at the ½ hrs than the 250mg/ kg Conclusions:-Dose effective of ethanolic extract of  picrorhiza kurroa 500 mg/kg. by Hot    plate method and Acetic acid induced writhing method.

rupali laxman shid

2013-07-01

276

Pharmacologic interventions for painful diabetic neuropathy: an umbrella systematic review and comparative effectiveness network meta-analysis (Protocol)  

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Abstract Background Neuropathic pain can reduce the quality of life and independence of 30% to 50% of patients with diabetes. The comparative effectiveness of analgesics for patients with diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. The aim of the current work, therefore, was to summarize the evidence about the analgesic effectiveness of the most common oral and topical agents used for the treatment of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Methods We will use an umbrella appr...

Griebeler Marcio L; Tsapas Apostolos; Brito Juan P; Wang Zhen; Phung Olivia J; Montori Victor M; Murad M

2012-01-01

277

Efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona sobre a hiperalgesia persistente induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático em ratos: participação do óxido nítrico / Long term analgesic effect of dipyrone on the persistent hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats: involviment of nitric oxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona foi avaliado em um modelo de dor neuropática assim como a participação da via óxido nítrico-GMPc neste mecanismo analgésico. Uma única administração intraplantar de dipirona (80 µg), no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática induzida pe [...] la constrição do nervo ciático exerceu um efeito analgésico, significativo e de longa duração. A inibição da óxido nítrico sintetase com L-NAME (50 ou 100 µg/pata), ou do óxido nítrico (NO) endógeno com hemoglobina (10 ou 30 µg/pata), bloquearam o desenvolvimento do efeito analgésico da dipirona. A L-arginina (500 µg/pata) reverteu o efeito do L-NAME. Cloreto de metiltionínio (azul de metileno) (500 µg/pata), ODQ (50 µg/pata) (bloqueadores da guanilil ciclase) ou glibenclamida (100, 200 ou 300 µg/pata) (bloqueador de canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP) inibiram o efeito analgésico da dipirona. O nitroprussiato de sódio administrado no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática também exerceu efeito analgésico de longa duração, semelhante ao observado com a dipirona. Sugerimos que a ação analgésica periférica e de longa duração da dipirona, neste modelo experimental, ocorra devido a provável dessensibilização dos nociceptores, envolvendo a via óxido nítrico - GMPc e canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP. Abstract in english The long term analgesic effect of dipyrone was evaluated on a model of neuropathic pain and the role of nitric oxide/GMPc pathway in this antinociceptive mechanism. One intraplantar dipyrone administration (80 mg), at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, induced a sig [...] nificant and long term analgesic effect. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with L-NAME (50 or 100 mg/paw) or scavenging of the endogenous NO with hemoglobin (10 or 30 mg/paw) inhibited the development of the dipyrone analgesia. L-arginine (500 mg/paw) could reverted the effect of L-NAME. Metylene blue (500 mg/paw) or ODQ (50 mg/paw) (blockers of guanyl cyclase), or glybenclamide (100, 200 or 300 mg/paw) (blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels) inhibited the development of dipyrone analgesia. The sodium nitroprussiate administered at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve also induced a long term analgesic effect similar to that of dipyrone. Our data may support the suggestion that the peripheral and the long term analgesic action of dipyrone on this model experimental occurs due to a probable nociceptor desensitisation with involviment of activation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, followed by an opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

Reis, Fábio José; Rocha, Noeli Pereira.

278

Peripheral and Central GLP-1 Receptor Populations Mediate the Anorectic Effects of Peripherally Administered GLP-1 Receptor Agonists, Liraglutide and Exendin-4  

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The long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, exendin-4 and liraglutide, suppress food intake and body weight. The mediating site(s) of action for the anorectic effects produced by peripheral administration of these GLP-1R agonists are not known. Experiments addressed whether food intake suppression after ip delivery of exendin-4 and liraglutide is mediated exclusively by peripheral GLP-1R or also involves direct central nervous system (CNS) GLP-1R activation. Results sh...

Kanoski, Scott E.; Fortin, Samantha M.; Arnold, Myrtha; Grill, Harvey J.; Hayes, Matthew R.

2011-01-01

279

Analgésicos tópicos / Topical analgesics / Analgésicos tópicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O tratamento da dor envolve a utilização de analgésicos opioides, analgésicos comuns, anti-inflamatórios não hormonais (AINH's) e analgésicos adjuvantes. Tradicionalmente, estes fármacos são administrados por via sistêmica ou no neuroeixo. Entretanto, quando aplicados por [...] estas vias, estão associados a efeitos colaterais importantes, os quais podem inviabilizar o seu uso. A administração tópica de analgésicos é uma alternativa. O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir os analgésicos tópicos, seus mecanismos de ação e eficácia clínica. CONTEÚDO: Trata-se de um trabalho de revisão que aborda a utilização tópica de anestésicos locais, capsaicina, clonidina, antidepressivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides e canabinoides, discutindo o seu mecanismo de ação e a sua eficácia. CONCLUSÕES: Os analgésicos tópicos são promissores como estratégia para o tratamento da dor, já que estão associados à menor incidência de efeitos colaterais. O benefício dos anestésicos locais, dos AINH's e da capsaicina está bem estabelecido, entretanto, a eficácia de clonidina, antidepressivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides e canabinoides ainda é questionável. Trabalhos demonstram que a abordagem multimodal é uma alternativa, porém estudos são necessários para confirmar esta hipótese. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El tratamiento del dolor involucra la utilización de analgésicos opioides, analgésicos comunes, antiinflamatorios no hormonales (AINH's) y analgésicos adyuvantes. Tradicionalmente, esos fármacos son administrados por vía sistémica o en el neuro eje. Sin embargo, cuando se [...] aplican por esas vías, están asociados a los efectos colaterales importantes, los cuales pueden impedir su uso. La administración tópica de analgésicos es una alternativa. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir los analgésicos tópicos, sus mecanismos de acción y la eficacia clínica. CONTENIDO: Se trata de un trabajo de revisión que aborda la utilización tópica de anestésicos locales, capsaicina, clonidina, antidepresivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides y canabinoides, discutiendo su mecanismo de acción y su eficacia. CONCLUSIONES: Los analgésicos tópicos son promisorios como una estrategia para el tratamiento del dolor, ya que están asociados con una menor incidencia de efectos colaterales. El beneficio de los anestésicos locales, de los AINH's y de la capsaicina está muy bien establecido, sin embargo, la eficacia de la clonidina, los antidepresivos tricíclicos, cetamina, opioides y canabinoides, todavía es cuestionable. Algunos trabajos demuestran que el abordaje multimodal es una alternativa, pero más estudios son necesarios para poder confirmar esa hipótesis. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain treatment involves the usage of common and opioid analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and adjuvant analgesics. Traditionally, these drugs are administered systemically or into the neuraxis. However, when analgesics are applied through these pathw [...] ays, they are associated with significant side effects, which can hinder its use. Topical administration of analgesics is an alternative. The objective of this paper is to discuss topical analgesics, the mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. CONTENT: This is a review paper addressing the usage of the topical local anesthetics: capsaicin, clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids, discussing mechanism of action and effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Topical analgesics are promising as a strategy for pain treatment, as they are associated with lower incidence of side effects. The benefit of local anesthetics, NSAID's and capsaicin is well established. However, the efficacy of clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids is still questionable. Studies have shown that the multimodal approach is an alternative, but studies are nee

Murilo Pereira, Flores; Anita Perpetua Carvalho Rocha de, Castro; Jedson dos Santos, Nascimento.

280

Effects of food on the central and peripheral haemodynamic response to upright exercise in normal volunteers.  

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The central and peripheral haemodynamic effects of a modest meal were investigated in healthy volunteers at rest and in response to submaximal exercise. The meal increased heart rate, cardiac output, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation at rest and during exercise. The effects of food were additive to those induced by the exercise. Food had no effect on limb blood flow and lowered total systemic vascular resistance suggesting that there were no compensatory ch...

Yi, J. J.; Fullwood, L.; Stainer, K.; Cowley, A. J.; Hampton, J. R.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Combined parecoxib and I.V. paracetamol provides additional analgesic effect with better postoperative satisfaction in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

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Background : Adequacy of postoperative analgesia is one of the most important factors that determine early hospital discharge and patients? ability to resume their normal activities postoperatively. The optimal non-opioid analgesic technique for postoperative pain management would reduce pain and enhance patient satisfaction, and it also facilitates earlier mobilization and rehabilitation by reducing pain-related complications after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

Elseify Zeinab; El-Khattab Salwa; Khattab Ahmed; Atta Eman; Ajjoub Layal

2011-01-01

282

[Analgesic action and pharmacokinetics of lysine acetylsalicylate administered intramuscularly].  

Science.gov (United States)

The analgesic effect, acute toxicity and pharmacokinetics of lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS), a water-soluble salt of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) were studied as compared with a 50% solution of analgin and a 4% solution of amidopyrine at intramuscular administration and ASA administered intragastrically. During inflammation-induced pain in rats LAS exerts a pronounced analgesic effect exceeding the activity of other agents. LD50 of LAS was similar to that of analgin and ASA. LAS toxicity was significantly less than that of amidopyrine. Bioavailability of ASA at intramuscular administration to rabbits was close to that at intravenous injection and significantly higher as compared with intragastric administration. PMID:3145214

Libina, V V; Cha?ka, L A; Kosheleva, L P; Khadzha?, Ia I; Pichugin, V V

1988-01-01

283

Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Ethanol Extract of Aerial Parts of Justicia gendarussa Burm.  

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethanol extract of aerial parts of Justicia gendarussa (EJG) in animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated by using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma method. The analgesic activity of the extract was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions by using Eddy’s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhin...

Jothimanivannan, C.; Kumar, R. S.; Subramanian, N.

2010-01-01

284

A Review of the Adverse Effects of Peripheral Alpha-1 Antagonists in Hypertension Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Doxazosin and its role as an antihypertensive agent have come under recent scrutiny as a result of the early termination of that treatment arm in ALLHAT. It is unclear why the cardiovascular (CV event rate in this randomized, controlled trial (RCT, especially heart failure, is higher in those treated with a doxazosin-based regimen than with a chlorthalidone based-regimen. There has been little work in the past to summarize information on peripheral alpha-1 antagonists that may be helpful in evaluating the results of this randomized controlled trial. Methods Using Medline and the Cochrane databases, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature on the use of peripheral alpha-1 antagonists as antihypertensive agents, focusing on available information that could explain the excess cardiovascular events observed in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT. Results Minimal data were available concerning the effects of peripheral alpha-1 antagonists on CV endpoints. A multitude of short-term studies-ranging from small observational studies to short-term moderate-sized RCTs – focused on safety, efficacy, and tolerability, and some studies investigated the physiologic effects of these agents. These previously reported studies reveal associations with weight gain, fluid retention, and neurohormonal changes among various populations of those treated with peripheral alpha-1 antagonists. Conclusion These findings suggest several possible mechanisms by which doxazosin may be inferior to low-dose diuretics as antihypertensive therapy for the prevention of heart failure.

Bryson Chris L

2002-04-01

285

Mobilizing effect induced by low dose irradiation on mouse peripheral blood stem-progenitor cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the mobilizing effect induced by low dose irradiation on mouse peripheral blood stem/progenitor cells. Methods: Peripheral blood CFU-GM was cultivated in methylcellulose semi-solid culture system, and c-kit+ cells were counted by flow cytometry after low dose irradiation or combined with G-CSF. Results: The CFU-GM and c-kit+ cells of peripheral blood in irradiated mice were much higher than those in control mice, the CFU-GM started to increase at 24 h after irradiation, reached maximum at 72 h and stayed high level till 96 h. The CFU-GM and c-kit+ cells at 72 h after 75 mGy irradiation were the most. The CFU-GM and c-kit+ cells in semi-dose G-CSF + 75 mGy group were much higher than those in simple low dose irradiation group and were close to those in the group dealt with adequate G-CSF. Conclusion: Low dose irradiation can mobilize peripheral blood stem/progenitor cells, and low dose irradiation combined with G-CSF can produce synergetic effect. (authors)

2006-07-01

286

Effects of trapidil after crush injury in peripheral nerve.  

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In this study, we evaluated the effects of trapidil on crush injury by monitoring nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and transforming growth factor-Beta2 levels and by transmission electron microscopy in the rat sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve was compressed for 20 sec by using a jewelers forceps. Trapidil treatment groups were administrated a single dose of trapidil (8 mg/kg) intraperitoneally just after the injury. The crush and crush + trapidil treatment groups were evaluated on the 2...

Kurtoglu, Zeliha; Ozturk, Ahmet Hakan; Bagdatoglu, Celal; Polat, Gurbuz; Aktekin, Mustafa; Uzmansel, Deniz; Camdeviren, Handan; Bagdatoglu, Ozlen; Sargon, Mustafa

2005-01-01

287

Visceral analgesics: drugs with a great potential in functional disorders??  

Science.gov (United States)

Irritable bowel syndrome remains an incompletely understood, common syndrome with significant unmet medical needs. In IBS patients, abdominal pain is a primary factor related to quality of life impairment, symptom severity and health care utilization, and chronic visceral hyperalgesia has been identified as an important aspect of IBS pathophysiology. However, the development of therapies aimed at reducing this hyperalgesia (visceral analgesics) has been only partially successful despite preclinical evidence supporting the potential usefulness of several preclinical compounds aimed at peripheral as well as central targets.

Bradesi, Sylvie; Herman, Jeremy; Mayer, Emeran A

2009-01-01

288

NATURAL AND PARTIALLY SYNTETIC ANALGESICS  

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Humans have a long hystory of stimulating and mind-altering substances use. Depressive drugs, including morphine and other narcotics, barbiturates and ethanol, are strongly addictive for susceptible individuals. The phenomenon is most striking in the case of opiates. Morphine is an alkaloid of opium. Named after the Roman god of dreams, Morpheus, the compound has potent analgesic properties toward all types of pain. By supstitution of two hydroxylic groups of morphine many natural and semysyn...

2005-01-01

289

Analgesic effect of intra-articularly administered morphine, dexmedetomidine, or a morphine-dexmedetomidine combination immediately following stifle joint surgery in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective-To compare the analgesic effects of intra-articularly administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, morphine, dexmedetomidine, and a morphine-dexmedetomidine combination in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery for cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Design-Randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Animals-44 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture that underwent tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) or tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Procedures-Dogs received intra-articular injections of saline solution (0.2 mL/kg [0.09 mL/lb]), morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]), dexmedetomidine (2.5 ?g/kg [1.14 ?g/lb]), or a combination of morphine (0.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (2.5 ?g/kg). Intra-articular injections of the stifle joint were performed after completion of the corrective osteotomy procedure, just prior to skin closure. Signs of pain were assessed every 2 hours thereafter on the basis of mean behavioral and objective pain scores. Dogs with pain scores exceeding predetermined thresholds were given hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], SC) as rescue analgesia. Results-Time to rescue analgesia did not significantly differ between dogs that underwent TTA versus TPLO. No significant difference in time to rescue analgesia was found among dogs receiving intra-articular injections of dexmedetomidine (median, 6 hours; range, 2 to 10 hours), morphine (median, 7 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours), or saline solution (median, 5 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours). However, time to rescue analgesia for dogs receiving intra-articular injection of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination (median, 10 hours; range, 6 to 14 hours) was significantly longer than the time to rescue analgesia for other treatment groups. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Intra-articular administration of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination provided longer-lasting postoperative analgesia, compared with either morphine or dexmedetomidine alone, in dogs undergoing TTA or TPLO. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1291-1297). PMID:24846429

Soto, Natalia; Fauber, Amy E; Ko, Jeff C H; Moore, George E; Lambrechts, Nicolaas E

2014-06-01

290

Coupled channel effects in peripheral reactions in the closed formalism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The closed formalism for heavy-ion elastic, inelastic and transfer reactions is generalized to include coupled-channels effects. The radial Gell-Mann-Goldberger equation is used to obtain perturbative corrections to the normal amplitudes. These corrections are, in principle, completely determined by the normal elastic amplitude provided the coupling strengths to the different channels that give rise to these corrections are predetermined experimentally. All the corrections are evaluated in closed form. This aspect of the theory, i.e., the dynamical relation between the different amplitudes, is particularly emphasized in connection with the application of the formalism to discuss heavy-ion elastic, inelastic and transfer data at backward angles

1979-11-01

291

Regenerative effects of pulsed magnetic field on injured peripheral nerves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies confirm that pulsed magnetic field (PMF) accelerates functional recovery after a nerve crush lesion. The contention that PMF enhances the regeneration is still controversial, however. The influence of a new PMF application protocol (trained PMF) on nerve regeneration was studied in a model of crush injury of the sciatic nerve of rats. To determine if exposure to PMF influences regeneration, we used electrophysiological recordings and ultrastructural examinations. After the measurements of conduction velocity, the sucrose-gap method was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs) from sciatic nerves. PMF treatment during the 38 days following the crush injury enhanced the regeneration. Although the axonal ultrastructures were generally normal, slight to moderate myelin sheath degeneration was noted at the lesion site. PMF application for 38 days accelerated nerve conduction velocity, increased CAP amplitude and decreased the time to peak of the CAP. Furthermore, corrective effects of PMF on. the abnormal characteristics of sensory nerve fibers were determined. Consequently, long-periodic trained-PMF may promote both morphological and electrophysiological properties of the injured nerves. In addition, corrective effects of PMF on sensory fibers may be considered an important finding for neuropathic pain therapy. PMID:17017754

Mert, Tufan; Gunay, Ismail; Gocmen, Cemil; Kaya, Mehmet; Polat, Sait

2006-01-01

292

Peripheral and central adrenoceptor modulation of the behavioural effects of clozapine in the paw test.  

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1. In rats, the atypical neuroleptic, clozapine, has been found to increase the hindlimb retraction time but not the forelimb retraction time, in the paw test. These parameters have predictive validity for the antipsychotic efficacy and extrapyramidal side-effects of drugs, respectively. The present study analysed to what extent drugs acting on adrenoceptors affect the behavioural effect of clozapine in the paw test. 2. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, ST 587 but not the peripherally working...

1994-01-01

293

Protective effect of quercetin against oxidative stress caused by dimethoate in human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

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Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of quercetin in alleviating the cytotoxic effects of Dimethoate in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods Lymphocytes were divided into too groups. The first group, lymphocytes were incubated for 4 h at 37°C with different concentrations (0, 40, 60 and 100 mM) of Dimethoate. The second group was preincubated with quercetin for 30 min and followed by Dim incubation for 4 h at 37°C. ...

Gargouri Bochra; Mansour Riadh; Abdallah Fatma; Elfekih Abdelfetteh; Lassoued Saloua; Khaled Hamden

2011-01-01

294

Effect of green tea extracts on oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats  

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Abstract Background A common side effect of oxaliplatin is peripheral neurotoxicity. Oxidative stress to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) may be one of important pathogenic mechanisms. Green tea contains four polyphenol catechins, which are known to be potent antioxidants. The present work is aimed to determine whether green tea extracts have neuroproective or palliative effects on neurotoxicity symptoms induced by oxaliplatin. Methods We conducted behavioral tests in...

Lee Jung; Kim Yoon; Jeon Eun; Won Hye; Cho Young-Seok; Ko Yoon

2012-01-01

295

Role of ionotropic cannabinoid receptors in peripheral antinociception and antihyperalgesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the wealth of information on cannabinoid-induced peripheral antihyperalgesic and antinociceptive effects in many pain models, the molecular mechanism(s) for these actions remains unknown. Although metabotropic cannabinoid receptors have important roles in many pharmacological actions of cannabinoids, recent studies have led to the recognition of a family of at least five ionotropic cannabinoid receptors (ICRs). The known ICRs are members of the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and include TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1. Cannabinoid activation of ICRs can result in desensitization of the TRPA1 and TRPV1 channel activities, inhibition of nociceptors and antihyperalgesia and antinociception in certain pain models. Thus, cannabinoids activate both metabotropic and ionotropic mechanisms to produce peripheral analgesic effects. Here, we provide an overview of the pharmacology of TRP channels as ICRs.

Akopian, Armen N.; Ruparel, Nikita B.; Jeske, Nathaniel A.; Patwardhan, Amol; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.

2010-01-01

296

Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation  

CERN Multimedia

The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Sellner, S; Moller, S; Kovacevic, S; Welsch, C; Hajdukovic, D; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Knudsen, H; Caccia, M; Comor, J; Beyer, G

2002-01-01

297

The effect of sarsasapogenine on peripheral lymphocyle ?-adrenoceptors in rabbit hydrocortisone models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sarsasapogenine (SAR), an active principle of Anemorrhenae Rhizome, on peripheral lymphocyte ?-adrenoceptors (?-AR) and serum cortisol contents were studied in rabbit hydrocortisone models produced by repeated injections of therapeutic doses of hydrocortisone. The lymphocyte ?-AR binding sites (SB) were measured with 125I-PIN binding assay and the serum cortisol contents were estimated with radioimmunoassay. Experimental data revealed that hydrocortisone treatment markedly elevated the lymphocyte SB (0.65 ± 0.03 and 1.48 ± 0.13 fmol/106 cells before and after treatment) as well as the serum cortisol (128 ± 21 and 239 ± 45 nmol/1 before and after treatment). Oral administration of SAR for 6 days decreased the lymphocyte ?-AR significantly (1.48 ± 0.13 and 0.76 ± 0.06 fmol/106 cells before and after administration). On the contrary, SAR showed no significant effect on serum cortisol contents. Therefore the down-regulation effect of SAR on peripheral lymphocyte ?-AR, which might reflect one of the clinical effects of Anemorrhenae Rhizome for treating 'Yin Deficiency'syndrome, is unlikely to be mediated through an influence on serum cortisol content. The mechanism of the down-regulation effect of SAR on peripheral lymphocyte ?-AR remains to be studied

1992-05-01

298

The effects of prostaglandin E{sub 1} on peripheral arteriography  

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The effectiveness and side effects intraarterial use of prostaglandin E{sub 1} (PGE{sub 1}) as a vasodilator were evaluated in 40 peripheral arteriographies which were performed on 20 patients at Hanyang University Hospital from Dec. 1985 to Mar. 1987. Both control and PGE{sub 1}-used arteriographies were performed on each patient. In PGE{sub 1} study, 20 {mu} g of prostaglandin E{sub 1} was slowly injected for 30 seconds intraarterially 30 seconds before injection of contrast media. The peripheral arteriographies using intraarterial PGE{sub 1} were more effective in diagnostic arteriography without any significant hemodynamic side effects. The results were as follows: 1. The PGE{sub 1}-used arteriograms revealed more earlier visualization of optimal phase than control arteriograms in most of the patients, as well as in visualization of venous system. 2. There were greater incidence of peripheral visualization of arterial branches and improved opacification of arterial system in PGE{sub 1}-used arteriograms than in control arteriograms. 3. In PGE{sub 1}study{sub 1}, the total amount and injection speed of contrast media should be increased to obtain better arteriogram. 4. There was no significant hemodynamic side effects after intraarterial use of prostaglandin E{sub 1}.

Lee, Seung Chul; Kwon, Yong Hwa; Joo, Jung Hee; Sohn, Hyung Kuk; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Soon Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1987-08-15

299

The role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in peripheral analgesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids has been studied and investigated through centuries, although many interesting discoveries have emerged from this field in the past decades. Indeed, peripheral analgesic effects of cannabinoids are a new avenue of treatment since they are avoiding the deleterious central side effects of systemic administration. Recently, it has been demonstrated that cannabinoid receptors (more specifically CB(1) and CB(2) receptors) and their endogenous ligands are present at the peripheral level, especially in different layers of skin, and mostly, in the epidermis and dermis. Those findings are reinforcing and confirming the efficacy of peripheral administration of cannabinoids used to alleviate pain in many different animal models. However, many studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system interacts with other receptors and pathways to modulate pain at the peripheral level. Thereof, the main goal of this review is to explain, in a better way, the different interactions regarding the cannabinoid system with other cellular components of its environment, its involvement in the modulation of pain at the peripheral level and, more precisely, in different layers of the skin. PMID:20021453

Guindon, Josëe; Beaulieu, Pierre

2009-01-01

300

Analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block commenced prior to operative fixation of fractured neck of femur  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

AbstractBackgroundPeripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF) is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) in patients with FNF.MethodsFollowing institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1) or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2). Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score) at 30?min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10). The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later.ResultsOf 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7) vs 27.5(14.2) h, P?=?0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4) vs 31(28), P?=?0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30?min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6?h 30.7(23.4) vs 67.0(32.0), P?=?0.004]. Cumulative morphine consumption over 72?h was less in Group 2. Patient satisfaction scores were greater in Group 2 [9.4(1.1) vs 7.6(1.8), P?=?0.014].ConclusionsCFNB provides more effective perioperative analgesia than a standard opiate-based regimen for patients undergoing fixation of FNF. It is associated with lesser opiate use and greater patient satisfaction.

Szucs, Szilard

2012-06-27

 
 
 
 
301

TRPA1 antagonists as potential analgesic drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The necessity of safe and effective treatments for chronic pain has intensified the search for new analgesic drugs. In the last few years, members of a closely-related family of ion channels, called transient receptor potential (TRP) have been identified in different cell types and their functions in physiological and pathological conditions have been characterized. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), originally called ANKTM1 (ankyrin-like with transmembrane domains protein 1), is a molecule that has been conserved in different species during evolution; TRPA1 is a cation channel that functions as a cellular sensor, detecting mechanical, chemical and thermal stimuli, being a component of neuronal, epithelial, blood and smooth muscle tissues. In mammals, TRPA1 is largely expressed in primary sensory neurons that mediate somatosensory processes and nociceptive transmission. Recent studies have described the role of TRPA1 in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, its participation in cold sensation has not been agreed in different studies. In this review, we focus on data that support the relevance of the activation and blockade of TRPA1 in pain transmission, as well as the mechanisms underlying its activation and modulation by exogenous and endogenous stimuli. We also discuss recent advances in the search for new analgesic medicines targeting the TRPA1 channel. PMID:22119554

Andrade, E L; Meotti, F C; Calixto, J B

2012-02-01

302

Effects of peripheral substituents and axial ligands on the electronic structure and properties of iron phthalocyanine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of peripheral substituents and axial ligands on the electronic structure and properties of iron phthalocyanine, H(16)PcFe, have been investigated using a DFT method. Substitution by electron-withdrawing fluorinated groups alters the ground state of H(16)PcFe and gives rise to large changes in the ionization potentials and electron affinity. For the six-coordinate adducts with acetone, H(2)O, and pyridine, the axial coordination of two weak-field ligands leads to an intermediate-spin ground state, while the strong-field ligands make the system diamagnetic. The electronic configuration of a ligated iron phthalocyanine is determined mainly by the axial ligand-field strength but can also be affected by peripheral substituents. Axial ligands also exert an effect on ionization potentials and electron affinity and can, as observed experimentally, even change the site of oxidation/reduction. PMID:15500354

Liao, Meng-Sheng; Kar, Tapas; Gorun, Sergiu M; Scheiner, Steve

2004-11-01

303

Use of simple analgesics in rheumatoid arthritis.  

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The usefulness of anti-inflammatory drugs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is beyond dispute. The role of simple analgesics is less clear and has been disputed. A survey of 21 rheumatologists indicated that a majority sometimes supplemented anti-inflammatory treatment of RA with simple analgesics. A random sample of 120 RA patients treated by the same doctors revealed that 47% ranked pain relief as the most desirable objective of their treatment and 54% were taking analgesics regularly. Of those ...

Gibson, T.; Clark, B.

1985-01-01

304

Modulation of peripheral ?-opioid analgesia by ?1 receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the effects of ?1-receptor inhibition on ?-opioid-induced mechanical antinociception and constipation. ?1-Knockout mice exhibited marked mechanical antinociception in response to several ?-opioid analgesics (fentanyl, oxycodone, morphine, buprenorphine, and tramadol) at systemic (subcutaneous) doses that were inactive in wild-type mice and even unmasked the antinociceptive effects of the peripheral ?-opioid agonist loperamide. Likewise, systemic (subcutaneous) or local (intraplantar) treatment of wild-type mice with the selective ?1 antagonists BD-1063 [1-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride] or S1RA [4-[2-[[5-methyl-1-(2-naphthalenyl)1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]ethyl] morpholine hydrochloride] potentiated ?-opioid antinociception; these effects were fully reversed by the ?1 agonist PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl)1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate) hydrochloride], showing the selectivity of the pharmacological approach. The ?-opioid antinociception potentiated by ?1 inhibition (by ?1-receptor knockout or ?1-pharmacological antagonism) was more sensitive to the peripherally restricted opioid antagonist naloxone methiodide than opioid antinociception under normal conditions, indicating a key role for peripheral opioid receptors in the enhanced antinociception. Direct interaction between the opioid drugs and ?1 receptor cannot account for our results, since the former lacked affinity for ?1 receptors (labeled with [(3)H](+)-pentazocine). A peripheral role for ?1 receptors was also supported by their higher density (Western blot results) in peripheral nervous tissue (dorsal root ganglia) than in several central areas involved in opioid antinociception (dorsal spinal cord, basolateral amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and rostroventral medulla). In contrast to its effects on nociception, ?1-receptor inhibition did not alter fentanyl- or loperamide-induced constipation, a peripherally mediated nonanalgesic opioid effect. Therefore, ?1-receptor inhibition may be used as a systemic or local adjuvant to enhance peripheral ?-opioid analgesia without affecting opioid-induced constipation. PMID:24155346

Sánchez-Fernández, Cristina; Montilla-García, Ángeles; González-Cano, Rafael; Nieto, Francisco Rafael; Romero, Lucía; Artacho-Cordón, Antonia; Montes, Rosa; Fernández-Pastor, Begoña; Merlos, Manuel; Baeyens, José Manuel; Entrena, José Manuel; Cobos, Enrique José

2014-01-01

305

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Centella asiatica extract in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

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Centella asiatica (CA) is a medicinal herb which has been valued in ayurvedicmedicine for its different activities. In the present studies, CA methanolic extract wasprepared by Soxhlet extraction and then evaluated for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity incultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mitotic Index (MI) Cell ProliferationKinetics (CPK) and Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) were scored to measure thecytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the CA extract in cultures set up from the thre...

2012-01-01

306

Participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of fentanyl in rats  

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We examined the effect of several K+ channel blockers such as glibenclamide, tolbutamide, charybdotoxin (ChTX), apamin, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and cesium on the ability of fentanyl, a clinically used selective µ-opioid receptor agonist, to promote peripheral antinociception. Antinociception was measured by the paw pressure test in male Wistar rats weighing 180-250 g (N = 5 animals per group). Carrageenan (250 µg/paw) decreased the threshold of responsiven...

Rodrigues, A. R. A.; Castro, M. S. A.; Francischi, J. N.; Perez, A. C.; Duarte, I. D. G.

2005-01-01

307

Effect of Lead Exposure and Ergonomic Stressors on Peripheral Nerve Function  

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In this study we investigated the effect of recent and chronic lead exposure, and its interaction with ergonomic stressors, on peripheral nerve function. In a cross-sectional design, we used retrospective exposure data on 74 primary lead smelter workers. We measured blood and bone lead levels and, from historical records, calculated lead dose metrics reflecting cumulative lead exposure: working-lifetime integrated blood lead (IBL) and working-lifetime weighted-average blood lead (TWA). We add...

Bleecker, Margit L.; Ford, D. Patrick; Vaughan, Christopher G.; Lindgren, Karen N.; Tiburzi, Michael J.; Walsh, Karin Scheetz

2005-01-01

308

Peripheral PDLIM5 expression in bipolar disorder and the effect of olanzapine administration  

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Abstract Background One of the genes suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BPD) is PDLIM5, which encodes LIM domain protein. Our main objective was to examine the effect of olanzapine treatment on PDLIM5 mRNA expression in the peripheral blood leukocytes of BPD patients. Methods We measured the expression of PDLIM5 mRNA from 16 patients with BPD Type I after 0, 4, and 8 weeks of treatment with ...

Zain Mohd; Jahan Suffee; Reynolds Gavin P; Zainal Nor; Kanagasundram Sharmilla; Mohamed Zahurin

2012-01-01

309

Invention of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Mimosa Pudica  

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The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Mimosa pudica at the doses of 200 and 400mg/kg was tested for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The extract produced dose dependent and significant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw oedema.The analgesic activity was found to be more significant on the acetic acid induced writhing model (p<0.001) than the tail flick model (p<0.001). So the extract inhibits predominantly the peripheral mechanism. The presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extr...

2012-01-01

310

The impact of stress on tumor growth: peripheral CRF mediates tumor-promoting effects of stress  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stress has been shown to be a tumor promoting factor. Both clinical and laboratory studies have shown that chronic stress is associated with tumor growth in several types of cancer. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF is the major hypothalamic mediator of stress, but is also expressed in peripheral tissues. Earlier studies have shown that peripheral CRF affects breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. The aim of the present study was to assess the significance of peripheral CRF on tumor growth as a mediator of the response to stress in vivo. Methods For this purpose we used the 4T1 breast cancer cell line in cell culture and in vivo. Cells were treated with CRF in culture and gene specific arrays were performed to identify genes directly affected by CRF and involved in breast cancer cell growth. To assess the impact of peripheral CRF as a stress mediator in tumor growth, Balb/c mice were orthotopically injected with 4T1 cells in the mammary fat pad to induce breast tumors. Mice were subjected to repetitive immobilization stress as a model of chronic stress. To inhibit the action of CRF, the CRF antagonist antalarmin was injected intraperitoneally. Breast tissue samples were histologically analyzed and assessed for neoangiogenesis. Results Array analysis revealed among other genes that CRF induced the expression of SMAD2 and ?-catenin, genes involved in breast cancer cell proliferation and cytoskeletal changes associated with metastasis. Cell transfection and luciferase assays confirmed the role of CRF in WNT- ?-catenin signaling. CRF induced 4T1 cell proliferation and augmented the TGF-? action on proliferation confirming its impact on TGF?/SMAD2 signaling. In addition, CRF promoted actin reorganization and cell migration, suggesting a direct tumor-promoting action. Chronic stress augmented tumor growth in 4T1 breast tumor bearing mice and peripheral administration of the CRF antagonist antalarmin suppressed this effect. Moreover, antalarmin suppressed neoangiogenesis in 4T1 tumors in vivo. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating that peripheral CRF, at least in part, mediates the tumor-promoting effects of stress and implicates CRF in SMAD2 and ?-catenin expression.

Stathopoulos Efstathios N

2010-09-01

311

Modification of antiallodynic and antinociceptive effects of morphine by peripheral and central action of fluoxetine in a neuropathic mice model.  

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We have previously reported that serotonin concentration was reduced in the brain of mice with neuropathic pain and that it may be related to reduction of morphine analgesic effects. To further prove this pharmacological action, we applied fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, to determine whether it suppressed neuropathic pain and examined how its different administration routes would affect antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects of morphine in diabetic (DM) and sciatic nerve ligation (SL) mice, as models of neuropathic pain. Antiallodynia and antinociceptive effect of drugs were measured by using von Frey filament and tail pinch tests, respectively. Fluoxetine given alone, intracerebroventicularly (i.c.v., 15 microg/mouse) or intraperitoneally (i.p., 5 and 10 mg/kg) did not produce any effect in either model. However, fluoxetine given i.p. enhanced both antiallodynic and antinociceptive effects of morphine. Administration of fluoxetine i.c.v., slightly enhanced only the antiallodynic effect of morphine in SL mice. Ketanserine, a serotonin 2A receptor antagonist (i.p., 1 mg/kg) and naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist (i.p., 3 mg/kg), blocked the combined antinociceptive effect of fluoxetine and morphine. Our data show that fluoxetine itself lacks antinociceptive properties in the two neuropathy models, but it enhances the analgesic effect of morphine in the periphery and suggests that co-administration of morphine with fluoxetine may have therapeutic potential in treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:18277463

Sounvoravong, S; Nakashima, M N; Wada, M; Nakashima, K

2007-12-01

312

The Spectator Electromagnetic Effect on Charged Pion Spectra in Peripheral Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions  

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We estimate the electromagnetic effect of the spectator charge on the momentum spectra of $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ produced in peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies. We find that the effect is large and results in strongly varying structures in the $x_F$ dependence of the $\\pi^+/\\pi^-$ ratio, especially at low transverse momenta where a deep valley in the above ratio is predicted at $x_F \\sim$ 0.15 -- 0.20. It appears that the effect depends on initial conditions. Thus, i...

Rybicki, Andrzej; Szczurek, Antoni

2006-01-01

313

Regenerative effects of adipose-tissue-derived stem cells for treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.  

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Peripheral nerve injuries are a common occurrence affecting the nerves found outside the central nervous system. Complete nerve transections necessitate surgical re-anastomosis, and, in cases where there is a significant gap between the two ends of the injured nerve, bridging strategies are required to repair the defect. The current clinical gold standard is the nerve graft, but this has a number of limitations, including donor site morbidity. An active area of research is focused on developing other techniques to replace these grafts, by creating tubular nerve-guidance conduits from natural and synthetic materials, which are often supplemented with biological cues such as growth factors and regenerative cells. In the present short review, we focus on the use of adipose-tissue-derived stem cells and the possible mechanisms through which they may exert a positive influence on peripheral nerve regeneration, thereby enabling more effective nerve repair. PMID:24849239

Kolar, Mallappa K; Kingham, Paul J

2014-06-01

314

Percutaneous Ablation of Peripheral Pseudoaneurysms Using Thrombin: A Simple and Effective Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of tissue adhesive and thrombin solution in the percutaneous ablation of peripheral artery pseudoaneurysms.Methods: Twenty-five pseudoaneurysms were treated over a 33-month period; all had failed ultrasound-guided compression. Tissue adhesive or thrombin solution was injected percutaneously, with needle tip position and changes within the aneurysm confirmed with color Doppler ultrasound. In 19 cases we utilized a protective balloon inflated across the aneurysm neck prior to the injection of tissue adhesive and in six cases used thrombin injection alone. Seven patients were anticoagulated. Patients were followed up after the procedure.Results: All 25 aneurysms were treated successfully; two patients required a return visit and there were no immediate complications or peripheral emboli detected. One patient developed a contralateral pseudoaneurysm.Conclusions: The percutaneous injection of pseudoaneurysms is a safe, atraumatic, and effective treatment for femoral artery pseudoaneurysms in the peripheral circulation. There are significant advantages over ultrasound-guided compression or surgical repair

2000-11-01

315

Percutaneous Ablation of Peripheral Pseudoaneurysms Using Thrombin: A Simple and Effective Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of tissue adhesive and thrombin solution in the percutaneous ablation of peripheral artery pseudoaneurysms.Methods: Twenty-five pseudoaneurysms were treated over a 33-month period; all had failed ultrasound-guided compression. Tissue adhesive or thrombin solution was injected percutaneously, with needle tip position and changes within the aneurysm confirmed with color Doppler ultrasound. In 19 cases we utilized a protective balloon inflated across the aneurysm neck prior to the injection of tissue adhesive and in six cases used thrombin injection alone. Seven patients were anticoagulated. Patients were followed up after the procedure.Results: All 25 aneurysms were treated successfully; two patients required a return visit and there were no immediate complications or peripheral emboli detected. One patient developed a contralateral pseudoaneurysm.Conclusions: The percutaneous injection of pseudoaneurysms is a safe, a traumatic, and effective treatment for femoral artery pseudoaneurysms in the peripheral circulation. There are significant advantages over ultrasound-guided compression or surgical repair

2000-11-01

316

The effect of plyometric training on central and peripheral fatigue in boys.  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity plyometric training (PT) on central and peripheral fatigue during exercise performed at maximal intensity in prepubertal boys. The boys (n=13, age 10.3+/-0.3 years) performed continuous 2-min maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) before and after 16 high-intensity PT sessions (two training sessions per week, 30 jumps in each session, 20 s between jumps). The greatest effect of PT was on excitation-contraction coupling: twitch force increased by 323.2+/-210.8% and the height of a counter-movement jump increased by 36.7+/-11.7%, whereas quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle voluntary activation index, central activation ratio and MVC did not change significantly after PT. The thickness of QF increased by 8.8+/-7.9% after PT. Central fatigue increased significantly by about 15-20% after PT, whereas peripheral fatigue decreased significantly by about 10% during the 2-min MVC. Central fatigue and peripheral fatigue during the 2-min MVC were inversely related before PT, but this relationship disappeared after PT. PMID:20432197

Skurvydas, A; Brazaitis, M; Streckis, V; Rudas, E

2010-07-01

317

Electroacupuncture and analgesic function of it  

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Full Text Available The basis of acupuncture is still being studied from many different aspects. Some preliminary views include: 1 The analgesic function of acupuncture derives from the clashing of the biochemical lines of acupuncture and those of the pain stimulus in the transmitting processes of the central nervous system, the former overriding the latter. 2 Acupuncture strengthens the cerebral cortex's inhibiting processes and raises the pain threshold. 3 Acupuncture has an effect on the reticular structures of the brain stem and the limbic system of the cerebrum. 4 Acupuncture stimulates the sympathetic nerve centers of the hypothalamus, and it's functions are mediated by the sympathetic nerves. 5 Acupuncture's effect is transmitted through the chemicals in the body's fluids.

Jahangiri B

1995-07-01

318

A comparison and cost-effectiveness analysis of peripheral catheter dressings.  

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Peripheral catheter dressing use is common but information about cost-effectiveness remains limited. A prospective, descriptive 3-month study was conducted to 1) assess the cost-effectiveness of two dressings used for peripheral venous catheters and 2) identify statistical associations between the effectiveness variables and the patient's gender and age, category of the professional involved in care, and length of time the dressing was in place. The study was conducted among a homogenous sample of 120 adult patients; the majority (71/59.2%) were women, mean age 54.5 (+/- 18.8) years. All catheters were inserted in the surgical unit of the University of São Paulo Hospital: 54 traditional (microporous tape) and 66 transparent film dressings were applied. Clinical effectiveness was defined as dressing adherence and the absence of complications. Cost effectiveness was assessed using incremental analysis and potential statistical associations. The measured outcomes are expressed in terms of the cost per unit/patient of success or effect. Traditional dressings were found to have a lower total cost ($12.53) but were less adherent (P <0.001) compared to film dressings. The rate of complications in each group was similar. Results confirm that traditional dressings may be used for short-term use catheter care (approximately 3 days); whereas, film dressings may be more cost-effective for longer-term use. Larger studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of various dressings to secure longer-term use catheters are needed. PMID:17893427

Salles, Fernanda Torquato; Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia; Secoli, Silvia Regina; Aron, Suzana; Debbio, Carolina Beltrame Del; Baptista, Cleide C M; Rogenski, Noemi Marisa Brunet

2007-09-01

319

Effects of posture on upper and lower limb peripheral resistance following submaximal cycling.  

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The purpose of this study was to determine postural effects on upper and lower limb peripheral resistance (PR) after submaximal exercise. Twelve subjects (six men and six women) completed submaximal cycle ergometer tests (60% age-predicted maximum heart rate) in the supine and upright seated positions. Each test included 20 minutes of rest, 20 minutes of cycling, and 15 minutes of recovery. Stroke volume and heart rate were determined by impedance cardiography, and blood pressure was measured by auscultation during rest, immediately after exercise, and at minutes 1-5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 of recovery. Peripheral resistance was calculated from values of mean arterial pressure and cardiac output. No significant (p less than 0.05) postural differences in PR were noted during rest for either limb. Immediately after exercise, PR decreased (55% to 61%) from resting levels in both limbs, independent of posture. Recovery ankle PR values were significantly different between postures. Upright ankle PR returned to 92% of the resting level within four minutes of recovery, compared to 76% of the resting level after 15 minutes in the supine posture. Peripheral resistance values in the supine and upright arm were not affected by posture and demonstrated a gradual pattern of recovery similar to the supine ankle recovery response (85% to 88% of rest within 15 minutes). The accelerated recovery rate of PR after upright exercise may result from local vasoconstriction mediated by a central regulatory response to stimulation from gravitational pressure on lower body circulation. PMID:2774885

Swan, P D; Spitler, D L; Todd, M K; Maupin, J L; Lewis, C L; Darragh, P M

1989-09-01

320

Effects of low-dose continuously fractionated X-ray irradiation on murine peripheral blood lymphocytes  

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For estimating biological risks from low doses continual irradiation, we investigated the effects of exposure to continuously fractionated X-rays on murine immune system. The BALB/c mice were irradiated with 0.07Gy at the first day and 0.08 Gy/d in the following 12 days at a dose rate of 0.2 Gy/min. The peripheral blood lymphocyte cycle and death were determined by flow cytometry at the cumulative doses of 0, 0.07, 0.23, 0.39, 0.55, 0.71, 0.87 and 1.03 Gy respectively. The results showed that the cycle of peripheral blood lymphocyte was arrested in G0/G1 at cumulative doses of 0.07, 0.23, 0.71 and 0.87 Gy, and in G2/M at cumulative doses of 0.39 and 1.03 Gy; the percentage of death of peripheral blood lymphocyte was ascended with dose increasing, and reached the death peak at cumulative doses of 0.71 Gy. The results suggested that low doses continual X-rays total-body irradiated could result in changes of cellular cycle and death, and some damages to immunocytes, which accorded to linear square model. (authors)

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

EFFECT OF MODERATE ALTITUDE ON PERIPHERAL MUSCLE OXYGENATION DURING LEG RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN YOUNG MALES  

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Full Text Available Training at moderate altitude (~1800m is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL. They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (% from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 % than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %. SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 % than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %. Differences (SL - 1800AL in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660. These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore , that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles.

Toshio Matsuoka

2004-09-01

322

Effect of propranolol on the splanchnic and peripheral renin angiotensin system in cirrhotic patients  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of ?-blockade on angiotensins in the splanchnic and peripheral circulation of cirrhotic patients and also to compare hemodynamic parameters during liver transplantation according to propranolol pre-treatment or not.METHODS: Patients were allocated into two groups: outpatients with advanced liver disease(LD and during liver transplantation(LT. Both groups were subdivided according to treatment with propranolol or not. Plasma was collected through peripheral venipuncture to determine plasma renin activity(PRA, Angiotensin(Ang?I, Ang II, and Ang-(1-7 levels by radioimmunoassay in LD group. During liver transplantation, hemodynamic parameters were determined and blood samples were obtained from the portal vein to measure renin angiotensin system(RAS components.RESULTS: PRA, Ang?I, Ang II and Ang-(1-7 were significantly lower in the portal vein and periphery in all subgroups treated with propranolol as compared to non-treated. The relationships between Ang-(1-7 and Ang?I?levels and between Ang II and Ang?I?were significantly increased in LD group receiving propranolol. The ratio between Ang-(1-7 and Ang II remained unchanged in splanchnic and peripheral circulation in patients under ?-blockade, whereas the relationship between Ang II and Ang?I?was significantly increased in splanchnic circulation of LT patients treated with propranolol. During liver transplantation, cardiac output and index as well systemic vascular resistance and index were reduced in propranolol-treated subgroup.CONCLUSION: In LD group, propranolol treatment reduced RAS mediators, but did not change the ratio between Ang-(1-7 and Ang II in splanchnic and peripheral circulation. Furthermore, the modification of hemodynamic parameters in propranolol treated patients was not associated with changes in the angiotensin ratio.

Walkíria Wingester Vilas-Boas, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira Jr, Renata da Cunha Ribeiro, Renata Lúcia Pereira Vieira, Jerusa Almeida, Ana Paula Nadu, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Robson Augusto Souza Santos

2008-11-01

323

[Combined action of mexidol and non-narcotic analgesics on pain thresholds and emotional stress behavior in animals].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of non-narcotic analgesics analgin and pentalgin in the basic pharmacological effects of diazepam and mexidol has been studied in outbred male albino rats. It is established that both analgesics do not influence the activity of diazepam. At the same time, they potentiate the analgesic action of mexidol without influencing its antistress action and not inducing any side effects. The strengthening influence of pentalgin was more pronounced. It is concluded that mexidol can be administered in combination with non-narcotic analgesics, in particular with pentalgin, for relieving painful syndrome on the background of stress. PMID:17523444

Molodavkin, G M; Voronina, T A; Larentsova, L I; Pchelkina, M I; Meletova, O K

2007-01-01

324

The paradoxical effects of somatostatin on the bioactivity and production of cytotoxins derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

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Somatostatin (SMS), a naturally occurring peptide is known to inhibit the production of certain protein molecules and to diminish the ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to proliferate. We tested the effects of three forms of SMS on the bioactivity of both lymphotoxin (LT) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF). We also tested the effects of these agents on production of cytotoxins by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found the 28 amino acid form of SMS significantly enhanced the bio...

Yousefi, S.; Vaziri, N.; Carandang, G.; Le, W.; Yamamoto, R.; Granger, G.; Ocariz, J.; Cesario, T.

1991-01-01

325

Effects of anticancer agents on cell viability, proliferative activity and cytokine production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells  

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We investigated the effects of anticancer agents on peripheral blood mononuclear cells for the purpose of providing data to support new translational chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells were treated with one of four anticancer agents (5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, cisplatin, and gemcitabine) for 2 h, after which cell viability was determined. For assessment of effects of each drug on proliferation and cytokine production, cells were stimulated with phytohemagglutini...

Sakai, Hiromi; Kokura, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Reiko; Okajima, Manabu; Matsuyama, Tatsuzou; Adachi, Satoko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

2013-01-01

326

Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Mimusops elengi Linn  

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Full Text Available In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy?s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer?s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer?s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

Purnima A

2010-01-01

327

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a fraction rich in gaultherin isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (FRANCH.) REHDER.  

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The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a salicylate derivatives fraction (SDF) isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (FRANCH.) REHDER and the mechanisms of actions were investigated in the present study. The major constituent of SDF, which represented around 50% of this fraction, was a methyl salicylate diglycoside named gaultherin. SDF showed a significant inhibition on the hind paw edema in rats (200, 400 mg/kg body wt., p.o.) and ear swelling in mice (200, 400, 800 mg/kg body wt., p.o.) caused by carrageenin and croton oil, respectively. In addition, SDF (400, 800 mg/kg body wt., p.o.) inhibited only the second phase (inflammatory) in the formalin test, and showed no effect in the hot-plate test in mice. The antinociceptive activity of SDF was predominantly peripheral and independent of the opioid system. These findings demonstrate that SDF from Gaultheria yunnanensis (FRANCH.) REHDER possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, which may be mediated, at least partly, through the suppression of inflammatory mediators or their release suggested by the animal experiment. The observed effects of SDF are probably due to the presence of high content of salicylate derivatives (80%), including gaultherin, MSTG-A and MSTG-B. PMID:17329839

Zhang, Bin; Li, Jian-Bei; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Ding, Yi; Du, Guan-Hua

2007-03-01

328

ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L.) STEM BARK  

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The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF) stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p.) and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o.) were used as reference drugs for comparison....

2012-01-01

329

[Pharmacological study on spleen-stomach warming and analgesic action of Cinnamomum cassia Presl].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study deals with the antiulcer effect of water extract and ether extract of Cinnamomum cassia on four types of experimental gastric ulcer and with the antidiarrhea effect on two types of medicine-induced diarrhea in mice. These extracts have choleretic effect in anesthetized rats, and are analgesic as well. This is the pharmacologic basis of spleen-stomach warming and analgesic action of Cinnamomum cassia. PMID:8011112

Zhu, Z P; Zhang, M F; Shen, Y Q; Chen, G J

1993-09-01

330

Opioid analgesics and P-glycoprotein efflux transporters: a potential systems-level contribution to analgesic tolerance.  

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Chronic clinical pain remains poorly treated. Despite attempts to develop novel analgesic agents, opioids remain the standard analgesics of choice in the clinical management of chronic and severe pain. However, mu opioid analgesics have undesired side effects including, but not limited to, respiratory depression, physical dependence and tolerance. A growing body of evidence suggests that P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, may contribute a systems-level approach to the development of opioid tolerance. Herein, we describe current in vitro and in vivo methodology available to analyze interactions between opioids and P-gp and critically analyze P-gp data associated with six commonly used mu opioids to include morphine, methadone, loperamide, meperidine, oxycodone, and fentanyl. Recent studies focused on the development of opioids lacking P-gp substrate activity are explored, concentrating on structure-activity relationships to develop an optimal opioid analgesic lacking this systems-level contribution to tolerance development. Continued work in this area will potentially allow for delineation of the mechanism responsible for opioid-related P-gp up-regulation and provide further support for evidence based medicine supporting clinical opioid rotation. PMID:21050174

Mercer, Susan L; Coop, Andrew

2011-01-01

331

Effect of 60Co ?-radiation on human peripheral T-lymphocytes and their subpopulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of radiation on human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes and their subpopulations was studied. With E rosette formation and nonspecific esterase staining (ANAE) methods, we have detected the kinetic changes of percentage of E rosette ormation and ANAE activity in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 15 healthy male adults who were exposed to 60Co ?-ray 25 to 800 rads and incubated in vitro for 2 and 18 hours. And by using EAG(Tr) and EAM(Tu) rosette forming assay, we have estimated the kinetic changes of the percentages of Tr and Tu cells at 24 and 48 hours after incubation following graded doses of ?-ray irradiation (100 to 1600 rad) to the peripheral T-lymphocytes of 10 healthy male adults. The results were as follows: (1) Ionizing radiation had a significant inhibitory effect on the ability of E rosette formation and ANAE activity of T-cells, and showed dose- and time-related reductions. Moreover, the stronger inhibition of ANAE activity seemed to be related to the higher sensitivity of T-lymphocytes to impairment. (2) Their dose-response curves were biphasic, and the D0 values of radiosensitive and radioresistant components of ERFC and ANAE were calculated, which suggested that there would be several subpopulations with different radiosensitivity in T-lymphocytes. (3) The decrease in percentage of EAG-RFC was more remarkable as compared with those of EAM-RFC, either 24 or 48 hours after irradiation; therefore, Tr cells are more radiosensitive than Tu cells

1984-12-01

332

Cost-effectiveness analysis of the analgesic therapy of postoperative pain / Análise custo-efetividade da terapia analgésica utilizada na dor pós-operatória / Análisis de costo-efectividad en el tratamiento analgésico para dolor post-operatorio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo realizou-se a analise custo-efetividade para comparar esquemas analgésicos administrados a 89 pacientes submetidos a hemorroidectomia, no 1º dia de pós-operatório. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo realizado em Hospital Geral de São Paulo. Para realização da análise [...] custo-efetividade identificou-se os 5 esquemas analgésicos mais utilizados na clinica. O principal desfecho foi ausência de escapes de dor. No cálculo dos custos foram considerados os analgésicos e dispositivos associados à administração. O esquema codeina 120mg + acetaminofeno 2000mg mostrou-se mais custo-efetivo, apresentando o menor custo por paciente sem escape de dor ($65,23). A análise incremental apontou que o padrão codeína 120 mg+acetamenofeno 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg apresentou um custo adicional de $238,31 para se obter um benefício extra de efetividade. A análise mostrou que a escolha do esquema analgésico deve contemplar, além dos aspectos econômicos e clínicos das opções terapêuticas, a disponibilidade de recursos da instituição. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio utilizó el análisis de costo-efectividad para comparar los esquemas analgésicos administrados en 89 pacientes sometidos a hemorroidectomía, durante el 1º día del post-operatorio. Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo realizado en el Hospital General de São Paulo. Para efectuar este [...] análisis se identificaron los 5 esquemas analgésicos más utilizados por el servicio. El efecto principal fue la ausencia de dolor. Para calcular los costos fueron incluidos los analgésicos y los materiales utilizados para la administración. El esquema codeína 120mg + acetaminofen 2000mg fue más efectivo, siendo de menor costo para el paciente sin dolor ($65,23). Este incremento mostró que la mezcla codeína 120 mg+acetamenofen 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg tuvo un costo adicional de $238,31 para poder obtener un beneficio extra de efectividad. A través del análisis, la selección del esquema analgésico requiere además de ser económico y clínico, la disponibilidad de recursos de la propia institución. Abstract in english The study aimed to compare cost-effectiveness of analgesic schemes administered to 89 patients submitted to hemorrhoidectomy, on the 1st postoperative day. The descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in a General Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In order to carry out the cost-effectiveness a [...] nalysis, the five most frequently used analgesic schemes were identified in practice. The main outcome was the absence of breakthrough pain episodes. While calculating the costs, analgesics and all devices related to the schemes were taken into consideration. Codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg was the most effective therapy with the lowest cost per patient with no breakthrough pain episodes ($65.23). Incremental analysis indicated that codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg+ketoprofen 200mg involved the additional cost of $238.31 in case an extra effectiveness benefit was needed. The analysis showed that the most suitable choice of analgesic therapy should consider the resources available at the institution along with economic and clinical aspects.

Silvia Regina, Secoli; Kátia Grillo, Padilha; Júlio, Litvoc.

333

Cost-effectiveness analysis of the analgesic therapy of postoperative pain Análisis de costo-efectividad en el tratamiento analgésico para dolor post-operatorio Análise custo-efetividade da terapia analgésica utilizada na dor pós-operatória  

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Full Text Available The study aimed to compare cost-effectiveness of analgesic schemes administered to 89 patients submitted to hemorrhoidectomy, on the 1st postoperative day. The descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in a General Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In order to carry out the cost-effectiveness analysis, the five most frequently used analgesic schemes were identified in practice. The main outcome was the absence of breakthrough pain episodes. While calculating the costs, analgesics and all devices related to the schemes were taken into consideration. Codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg was the most effective therapy with the lowest cost per patient with no breakthrough pain episodes ($65.23. Incremental analysis indicated that codeine 120mg+acetaminophen 2000mg+ketoprofen 200mg involved the additional cost of $238.31 in case an extra effectiveness benefit was needed. The analysis showed that the most suitable choice of analgesic therapy should consider the resources available at the institution along with economic and clinical aspects.El presente estudio utilizó el análisis de costo-efectividad para comparar los esquemas analgésicos administrados en 89 pacientes sometidos a hemorroidectomía, durante el 1º día del post-operatorio. Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo realizado en el Hospital General de São Paulo. Para efectuar este análisis se identificaron los 5 esquemas analgésicos más utilizados por el servicio. El efecto principal fue la ausencia de dolor. Para calcular los costos fueron incluidos los analgésicos y los materiales utilizados para la administración. El esquema codeína 120mg + acetaminofen 2000mg fue más efectivo, siendo de menor costo para el paciente sin dolor ($65,23. Este incremento mostró que la mezcla codeína 120 mg+acetamenofen 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg tuvo un costo adicional de $238,31 para poder obtener un beneficio extra de efectividad. A través del análisis, la selección del esquema analgésico requiere además de ser económico y clínico, la disponibilidad de recursos de la propia institución.No presente estudo realizou-se a analise custo-efetividade para comparar esquemas analgésicos administrados a 89 pacientes submetidos a hemorroidectomia, no 1º dia de pós-operatório. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo realizado em Hospital Geral de São Paulo. Para realização da análise custo-efetividade identificou-se os 5 esquemas analgésicos mais utilizados na clinica. O principal desfecho foi ausência de escapes de dor. No cálculo dos custos foram considerados os analgésicos e dispositivos associados à administração. O esquema codeina 120mg + acetaminofeno 2000mg mostrou-se mais custo-efetivo, apresentando o menor custo por paciente sem escape de dor ($65,23. A análise incremental apontou que o padrão codeína 120 mg+acetamenofeno 2000mg+ cetoprofeno 200mg apresentou um custo adicional de $238,31 para se obter um benefício extra de efetividade. A análise mostrou que a escolha do esquema analgésico deve contemplar, além dos aspectos econômicos e clínicos das opções terapêuticas, a disponibilidade de recursos da instituição.

Silvia Regina Secoli

2008-02-01

334

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Rheedia longifolia Planch & Triana  

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Rheedia longifolia Planch et Triana belongs to the Clusiaceae family. This plant is widely distributed in Brazil, but its chemical and pharmacological properties have not yet been studied. We report here that leaves aqueous extract of R. longifolia (LAE) shows analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Oral or intraperitoneal administration of this extract dose-dependently inhibited the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid in mice. The analgesic effect and the duration of action were ...

Valber da Silva Frutuoso; Márcia Magalhães Monteiro; Fábio Coelho Amendoeira; Andressa Luiza Figueiredo Almeida; Diogo Dibo do Nascimento; Ana Luiza Rangel Bérenger; Maria Auxiliadora Coelho Kaplan; Maria Raquel Figueiredo; Bozza, Patri?cia T.; Castro-faria-neto, Hugo C.

2007-01-01

335

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different fractions of Boswellia serrata  

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The study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of different fractions of Boswellia serrata. The effect of different fractions of Boswellia serrata were studied using carrageenan induced paw edema, acetic acid induced writhing response, formalin induced pain, hot plate and tail flick method for studying anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The different fractions of B. serrata, essential oil (10 ml/kg), gum (100 mg/kg, resin (100 mg...

Sharma, A.; Bhatia, S.; Kharya, M. D.; Gajbhiye, V.; Ganesh, N.; Namdeo, A. G.; Mahadik, K. R.

2011-01-01

336

Tolerance to Non-Opioid Analgesics is Opioid Sensitive in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus  

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Repeated injection of opioid analgesics can lead to a progressive loss of effect. This phenomenon is known as tolerance. Several lines of investigations have shown that systemic, intraperitoneal administration or the microinjection of non-opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) into the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter induces antinociception with some effects of tolerance. Our recent study has revealed that microinjection of three drugs analgin, ketorolac, and xe...

Tsagareli, Merab G.; Nozadze, Ivliane; Tsiklauri, Nana; Gurtskaia, Gulnaz

2011-01-01

337

Long lasting behavioral effects of dimethyl sulfoxide and the "peripheral" toxicant p-bromophenylacetylurea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral toxic effects caused by a relatively small dose of the "peripheral" neurotoxin, p-bromophenylacetylurea (BPAU), and of its vehicle, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were investigated. BPAU induces, in rats, a central-peripheral distal axonopathy similar to that produced in humans by toxic organophosphorus-containing compounds, and has been proposed as a model to study this type of toxicity in a convenient experimental mammal. Rats were injected with BPAU (50 or 100 mg/kg) in DMSO (1 ml/kg), with DMSO alone, or with saline. 100 mg BPAU/kg produced permanent weight loss and hind limb paresis; the low dose did not. Behavioral testing, 2 days to 4 mo post-treatment, indicated that DMSO and/or 50 mg/kg of BPAU retarded habituation of spontaneous exploratory activity, impaired acquisition of conditioned (auto-shaped) behavior, and changed the dose-response relationship ford-amphetamine-induced suppression of operant (fixed ratio 32) responding. BPAU-treated animals were also impaired in initial performance of operant behavior maintained by a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement, at high (greater than or equal to FR 16) ratio values. Thus, neurobehavioral toxicity may occur at doses too low to induce organophosphorus-type sensorimotor impairment or pathology. Further, DMSO may also exert effects on neurobehavioral function, suggesting it too may be potentially toxic within this domain. PMID:3873034

Fossom, L H; Messing, R B; Sparber, S B

1985-01-01

338

Effects of central and peripheral depletion of serotonergic system on carrageenan-induced paw oedema.  

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The role of serotonergic system was investigated on peripheral inflammation induced by intraplantary injection of carrageenan. Para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) was administered intracerebroventriculary (50, 100 microg/rat) or intraperitoneally (150 mg/kg, 3 days) and 2 or 24 h later, respectively, inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan. Paw oedema was decreased significantly in PCPA-treated (100 microg/rat, i.c.v.) rats compared to control groups. Injection of exogenous serotonin (i.c.v.) by dose of 0.70 nmol/10 microl/rat, but not the dose of 0.35 nmol/10 microl/rat, 15 min after induction of inflammation completely reversed the anti-inflammatory effects of PCPA. Myeloperoxidase activity in inflamed paws was reduced significantly in groups received PCPA (either i.c.v. or i.p.) compared to controls. Exogenous serotonin (0.70 nmol/10 microl/rat) reduced inflammatory response when injected (i.c.v.) 30 min before or 30 min after the induction of inflammation. Injection of serotonin at the time of induction of inflammation had no inflammatory/anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest that serotonin, as a neurotransmitter in central nervous system, may be involved in modulating peripheral inflammation. PMID:16102522

Maleki, Nasrin; Nayebi, Alireza Mohajjel; Garjani, Alireza

2005-11-01

339

Contrasting cardiovascular effects following central and peripheral injections of trout galanin in trout.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the role of galanin (Gal) in fish. In the present study, cardiovascular effects of central and peripheral administrations of a synthetic replicate of trout Gal (tGal) were investigated in the unanesthetized trout. Intracerebroventricular injection of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 nmol/kg body mass of the peptide demonstrated that the two highest doses tested produced a significant (P cardiac output compared with that produced by intracerebroventricular injection of vehicle only. In contrast, intra-arterial injections of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 nmol/kg body mass of tGal produced a dose-dependent decrease in PDA with a threshold dose for significant effects observed at a dose of 0.5 nmol/kg. None of the doses tested changed HR. At a dose of 1 nmol/kg, a significant decrease in Rs (P functions in trout depending on whether its site of action is the brain or the peripheral circulation. PMID:9756542

Le Mével, J C; Mabin, D; Hanley, A M; Conlon, J M

1998-10-01

340

Protective effects of bendazac lysine on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

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1. Diabetic neuropathy is a many faceted complication of both type I and II diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of bendazac lysine (BDL), an anticataract drug, on experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in rats. 2. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) dissolved in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer (pH 4.4). Bendazac lysine was administered to rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg twice a day for 12 weeks. 3. Diabetic rats without treatment showed hypopraxia, polydipsia, polyuria, slow weight gain, cataract, increased tail-flick threshold temperature, decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (nd induced pathological morphological changes of myelinated nerve fibres. All these symptoms were ameliorated in diabetic rats treated with BDL. Bendazac lysine ameliorated the blood glucose concentration, glycosylated haemoglobin levels and insulin levels in the plasma of diabetic rats, reduced aldose reductase activity in erythrocytes and advanced glycation end-products in both nerves and serum and increase the activity of glutathione peroxidase in the nerves and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the nerves and erythrocytes. 4. Bendazac lysine exerts its protective effects against the progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats through multiple mechanisms and is a potential drug for the prevention of deterioration in DPN. PMID:17184506

Yu, Jun-Xian; Yin, Xiao-Xing; Shen, Jian-Ping; Qiu, Jun; Yin, Hong-Lin; Jiang, Shao-Jun

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Coupling arterial windkessel with peripheral vasomotion: modeling the effects on low-frequency oscillations.  

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Arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) waves have long been recognized as an important sign of cardiovascular regulation, however, the underlying interactions involving vasomotion, arterial mechanisms and neural regulation have not been clarified. With the aid of simple dynamical models consisting of active peripheral vascular districts (PVDs) fed by a compliant/resistant arterial tree, the relationship between local AP and flow and systemic AP waves were analyzed. A PVD was described as a nonlinear flow regulation loop. Various feedback dynamics were experimented and general properties were focused. The PVDs displayed a region of active flow compensation against pressure changes, in which self-sustained low-frequency (LF, 0.1 Hz) appeared. Oscillations critically depended on parameter, Teq, analogous to a windkessel time constant, proportional to arterial compliances: a value of about 2 s (consistent with a normal pulse pressure) performed a buffering effect essential for LF oscillations in peripheral flow; conversely, stiffer arteries damped LF vasomotion. Two PVDs fed by a common compliance oscillated in phase opposition; the consequent negative interference cancelled systemic AP waves, even in presence of large peripheral oscillations. The partial disruption of phase opposition by a common neural drive oscillating at a LF proximal to that of the PVDs unveiled LF waves in AP. Also, several PVDs with randomly different natural frequencies displayed a tendency to reciprocal cancellation, while a limited neurally induced phase alignment unmasked LF oscillations at systemic level. It is concluded that vasomotion, arterial compliances and, neural drives are all elements which may cooperate in forming AP waves. PMID:16402603

Baselli, Giuseppe; Porta, Alberto; Pagani, Massimo

2006-01-01

342

Effects of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) on short-term cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although an optimal dose-regimen has still not been established, the antiviral drug 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine is known to improve the clinical condition of patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related complex. The drug effect has mainly been assessed in terms of survival time and/or immunological parameters. One of the most prominent immunological features associated with immunodeficiency virus infection is a persistant hypergammaglobulinaemia due to in vivo polyclonal B-lymphocyte activation. In vitro this is reflected by a hyporesponsiveness of peripheral blood B-lymphocytes to mitogen and antigen induced activation. The present paper deals with the in vitro impact of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine on the immunoglobulin secretion in short-term cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Twenty-four human immunodeficiency virus antibody positive (seropositive) and 24 antibody negative (seronegative) individuals were studied. In addition, T- and B-cell proliferation and the distribution of cell surface markers were determined in 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-supplemented cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes from eight seronegative subjects. At concentrations similar to those reported in clinical trials, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine was found to suppress the mitogen and antigen induced proliferation of T-cells from seronegative subjects. In contrast, B-cell proliferation and the distribution of membrane markers appeared to be unaffected by the drug. Furthermore, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine did not alter the in vivo immunoglobulin secretion capacity in autologous or allogeneic cultures of lymphocytes from seropositive subjects. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals the number of unactivated, circulating B-cells is significantly reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Tauris, P; Møller, B

1989-01-01

343

Spectator electromagnetic effect on charged pion spectra in peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimate the electromagnetic effect of the spectator charge on the momentum spectra of ?+ and ?- produced in peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at energies currently available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. We find that the effect is large and results in strongly varying structures in the xF dependence of the ?+/?- ratio, especially at low transverse momenta where a deep valley in this ratio is predicted at xF?0.15-0.20. It appears that the effect depends on initial conditions, i.e., on the time of initial pion emission, on the distance between the pion formation zone and the two spectator systems, and on the size of the pion emission source. Thus, it provides new information on the space and time evolution of the nonperturbative pion creation process

2007-05-01

344

Is endogenous opioid system involved in non-opioid analgesics tolerance?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent investigations using metamizol and lysine-acetylsalicylate have shown that these non-opioid analgesics produce central anti-nociceptive effects probably through neural substrates that also support the analgesic effects of opiates. The aim of this study was to examine whether a clinically relevant approach, e.g. systemic administration of analgine, ketorolac and xefocam causes tolerance to them, and cross-tolerance to morphine. The experiments were carried out on experimental and control rats with saline by the model of tail-flick reflex to the stimulation of focusing light. Latency increase of this reflex indicates the degree of antinociception. This study of non-opioid analgesic effects on the latency of tail-flick reflex in rats has shown that systemic injections of analgine, ketorolac and xefocam result in significant antinociception as compared with the control group of rats with saline. Repeated administrations of these drugs revealed tolerance to them and cross-tolerance to morphine. Intraperitoneal injections of naloxone did not significantly decrease the morphine analgesic effect in analgine- and ketorolac-tolerant rats, whereas in saline-treated animals morphine analgesic effect was reverted. Taken together the present and previous findings support the notion that the contribution of the CNS, particularly of downstream pain-control structures, to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs involves endogenous opioidergic mechanisms. Thus, obtained data support the suggestion about a close relation between non-opioid tolerance and endogenous opioid system. PMID:16980767

Tsiklauri, N; Gurtskaia, G; Tsagareli, M

2006-08-01

345

Peripheral degenerative joint diseases  

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Full Text Available Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is the most commonrheumatic disorder mainly in a geriatric population. Manifestationsare pain, stiffness and functional loss in the affected joint.According to etiology it is classifi ed as primary (or idiopathicand secondary. Some risk factors for disease development aregenetics, race, age, sex, obesity, occupational activities andarticular biomechanics. Pathogenesis is the same for any cause orlocalization, being catabolic alterations, with synthesis, inhibitionand reparing intent of the cartilage matrix. Metalloproteinases andcytokines (IL-1,IL-6,TNF-? actions promote infl ammatory reactionand cartilage degradation. Pain, the most important symptom,does not correlate with radiologic fi ndings. Peripheral osteoarthritisoccurs predominantly in the knee, hip and hand. Diagnosis is basedon clinical features, laboratorial tests and radiological changes.Rheumatological associations’ guidelines for treatment includenon-pharmacologic (education, physiotherapy, assistive devices,and pharmacologic (analgesics, anti-infl ammatory drugs therapyand surgery. Arthroplasty seems to work better than medicines, butshould be used if other treatments have failed.

Nilzio Antonio da Silva

2008-03-01

346

Antioxidant and Analgesic Activities of Lannea coromandelica Linn. Bark Extract  

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Full Text Available Methanolic extract of Lannea coromandelica Linn. bark (MLCB was subjected to evaluate its antioxidant and analgesic properties. The analgesic activity was determined for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions using hotplate as well as tail immersion method and acetic acid-induced writhing test with formalin induced pain in mice, respectively. To evaluate antioxidant potential of MLCB, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as total Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and assessment of reducing power were used. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1, produced a significant (p50 value of 12.32±0.16 and 34.72±0.48 ?g mL-1, respectively with a good reducing power. In conclusion this study demonstrated the strong antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of the bark of L. coromandelica. Altogether, these results suggest that the MLCB could be used as a potential antinociceptive agent along with its antioxidant potentiality.

Julia Rea

2012-01-01

347

Analgesic activity of Eugenia jambolana leave constituent: A dikaempferol rhamnopyranoside from ethyl acetate soluble fraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Context: Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, and pain. Objective: We investigated the antinociceptive effect of kaempferol-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside]- 4'-O-4'-[kaempferol-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (EJ-01), isolated from the E. jambolana leaves. Materials and methods: EJ-01 (3, 10, and 30?mg?kg(-1), orally) was assessed for peripheral (formalin-nociception and acetic acid-writhing) and central (hot plate and tail flick test) analgesic activity in mice and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (25, 50, and 100?µg?mL(-1)) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Results and discussion: EJ-01 (10 and 30?mg?kg(-1)) significantly inhibited mean writhing counts (37.74 and 36.83) in acetic acid writhing and paw licking time (55.16 and 45.66?s) in the late phase of the formalin test as compared with the respective control (60.66 and 104.33?s). EJ-01 did not show analgesic activity in central pain models. Significant reduction in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? (295.48, 51.20, and 49.47?pg?mL(-1)) and interleukin (IL)-1? (59.38, 20.08, and 15.46?pg?mL(-1)) levels were observed in EJ-01-treated medium (25, 50, and 100?µg?mL(-1)) as compared with vehicle-treated control values (788.67 and 161.77?pg?mL(-1)), respectively. Significant reduction in total nitrite plus nitrate (NOx) levels (70.80?nmol) was observed in the EJ-01-treated medium (100?µg?mL(-1)) as compared with the vehicle-treated value (110.41?nmol). Conclusion: EJ-01 is a valuable analgesic constituent of E. jambolana leaves and this study supports the pharmacological basis for the use of this plant in traditional medicine for curing inflammatory pain. PMID:25017653

Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Anand, Shikha; Balaganur, Venkanna; Kumari, Rashmi Rekha; More, Amar Sunil; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhadoria, Brijesh Kumar; Tandan, Surendra Kumar

2014-08-01

348

Effect of different doses of rhIL-6 on peripheral blood recovery in irradiated mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) on the recovery of peripheral blood picture in 6.5 Gy ?-ray irradiated (132-127.7 R/min)C57BL/6J mice at the age of 80-90 days were studied. Group 1 served as the control and groups 2-5 were injected subcutaneously with rhIL-6 twice daily at doses of 10,200,500 and 1000 ?g-1kg-1d-1, respectively, starting from 30 min after irradiation for 4 consecutive days. Peripheral WBC, RBC, and PLT counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit were determined before and 5,11,14,18,22 and 30 days after irradiation. It was shown that although the time of nadir emergence and the onset of recovery were similar in all the five groups, the nadir values were higher and the recovery was better, both being dose-dependent, in the IL-6 treated groups than in the control. Significant dose-response regression equations were obtained for WBC count on day 22, for RBC count on days 14 and 18, for PLT count on days 11 and 18. Our studies show that IL-6 is a candidate of thrombopoietic factor for treatment of radiation-induced thrombocytopenia

1996-12-01

349

Amelioration effect of Zhenqing Capsule on peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of Zhenqing Capsule (ZQC, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, in treating type 1 diabetic rats with peripheral neuropathy.Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced by caudal vein injection of high-dose streptozotocin in 30 male Wistar rats. The thirty diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups: ZQC-treated group, untreated group and aminoguanidine-treated group. Another group of 10 rats was taken as normal control. After 10-week treatment, the changes of body weight and fasting plasma glucose level were measured, and the serum MDA level and the changes of neurological electrophysiology were analyzed. The samples of sciatic nerve in diabetic rats were taken for morphological observation.Results: The MDA level in type 1 diabetic rats was notably reduced in ZQC-treated group as compared with the untreated group (P<0.01. Compared with the untreated group, ZQC could improve the electrophysiology of sciatic nerve including conduction velocity (P<0.05, latency (P<0.01 and wave amplitude (P<0.05. The nerve myelin staining results showed that segmental demyelination of the nerve fibers in ZQC-treated group was not as serious as that in the untreated group.Conclusion: ZQC can obviously ameliorate the neurological electrophysiological function and the pathological changes of peripheral nerve in type 1 diabetic rats through the removal of free radical and resistance of lipid peroxidation.

Xiu-ying WEN

2008-03-01

350

Effects of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of human induced by ?-rays irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the dose-effect curve of the human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes irradiated by ?-rays. Methods: The immediate irradiation-caused DNA damage in the human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes irradiated with ?-rays ws investigated. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE, Comet Assay) were used to detect the extent of DNA damage. Results: After 0 Gy, 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1 Gy, 2 Gy and 3 Gy ?-rays irradiation, the curve of dose(x) to content of DNA in tail(y) is y=-1.1063x2 + 10.398x+3.5362, while the curve of dose(x) to tail moment(y) is y=-0.0345x2 + 3.5282x + 0.6542. Conclusion: The results indicated that the content of DNA in tail and tail moment for the immediate DNA damage caused by irradiation had a positively binomial curve correlation with the irradiation dose in the dose range of 0-3 Gy, and SCGE might be used as a new biological dosimeter. (authors)

2006-12-01

351

Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with peripheral and central neuropathic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy on pain intensity and functional capacity in patients with either peripheral neuropathic pain or central neuropathic pain. Methods: A total of 40 patients (20 with peripheral neuropathic pain and 20 with central neuropathic pain) were included in this study. Pain severity, pain quality, and functional capacity were assessed with a visual analogue scale, a neuropathic pain scale, and the Brief Pain Inventory, respectively. A pre-post-treatment design was used. Semmes Weinstein monofilaments were used to evaluate touch sensation. Mild pressure was applied to provoke static mechanical allodynia. The presence of any severe and sharp pains upon pricking was considered a positive sign for hyperalgesia. The 2 groups of patients received 20/30-min sessions of TENS therapy over 4 weeks. Results: No significant differences were found between the 2 groups regarding the pre-treatment values for visual analogue scale, neuropathic pain scale, and Brief Pain Inventory. The pain parameters in both groups were significantly decreased by TENS therapy for 4 weeks (p?neuropathic pain presented more overall improvements than the group with central neuropathic pain (p?

K?l?nç, Muhammed; Livanelio?lu, Ayse; Y?ld?r?m, Sibel Aksu; Tan, Ersin

2014-04-23

352

Effects of manganese exposure on iron metabolism in peripheral blood of exposed population  

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Full Text Available Objectives ?To investigate the adverse effect of manganese exposure on the iron metabolism in peripheral blood of professionally exposed workers. Methods ?The manganese in air was collected using personal air sampler, and the time weighted average (TWA concentration of exposure to manganese was then calculated. The subjects were divided into exposure group (n=85 and control group (n=80 based on the exposure doses they received. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the plasma and blood cells of the subjects were determined using flame atomic absorption detector and graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. Serum ferritin, transferrin, transferrin receptor and total iron binding capacity were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results ?The manganese contents in both plasma and blood cells were much higher in exposure group than in control group (P 0.05. It was revealed by linear correlation analysis that no linear correlation existed between the professional exposure time and manganese and iron contents in both plasma and blood cells, serum ferrin, transferrin, transferring receptor and total iron binding capacity (P>0.05. Conclusion ?The long-term exposure to high dose manganese may result in an imbalance of iron metabolism in the peripheral blood in exposed population, manifesting a decrease of plasma iron and serum transferrin receptors, and an increase of serum transferrin.

Yun-gang XIONG

2012-11-01

353

Analgesic activity of gold preparations used in Ayurveda & Unani-Tibb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcined gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma (SB) and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) were investigated for analgesic effects in rats and mice using four types of noxious stimuli. Auranofin (AN) used in modern medicine was also studied for comparisons. The test drugs SB and KTK (25-50 mg/kg, p.o.) and AN (2.5-5.0 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited analgesic activity against chemical (acetic acid induced writhing), electrical (pododolorimeter), thermal (Eddy's hot plate and analgesiometer) and mechanical (tail clip) test. While the analgesic effects of SB and KTK could be partly blocked by pretreatment with naloxone (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.,--15 min), such antagonism was not discernible with AN at the doses used. Involvement of opioidergic mechanism is suggested for the observed analgesic activity. PMID:9798337

Bajaj, S; Vohora, S B

1998-09-01

354

Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on peripheral sensory nerve latency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this randomized, double-blind study was to determine the effect of a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser on latency of peripheral sensory nerve. Forty healthy subjects with no history of right upper extremity pathological conditions were assigned to either a Laser or a Placebo Group. Six 1-cm2 blocks along a 12-cm segment of the subjects' right superficial radial nerve received 20-second applications of either the He-Ne laser or a placebo. We assessed differences between pretest and posttest latencies with t tests for correlated and independent samples. The Laser Group showed a statistically significant increase in latency that corresponded to a decrease in sensory nerve conduction velocity. Short-duration He-Ne laser application significantly increased the distal latency of the superficial radial nerve. This finding provides information about the mechanism of the reported pain-relieving effect of the He-Ne laser.

Snyder-Mackler, L.; Bork, C.E.

1988-02-01

355

Evaluation of genotoxic effects of ipronidazol, Gastrogal 10R, in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

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Full Text Available In this work, we examined the genotoxic effect of the antibiotic preparation ipronidazol (Gastrogal 10. An experiment was performed in vitro on human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange tests. Clastogenic effects of ipronidazol were examined at three experimental concentrations (25 (g/ml, 50 (g/ml i 100 (g/ml in eight experimental cycles. The results demonstrate that Gastrogal 10 has the ability to change the human lymphocyte kariotype, i.e. it induces numerical aberrations (aneuploidies and polyploidies, as well as chromosome gaps and breaks. Moreover, Gastrogal 10 induces a significant increase of sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes. The obtained results demonstrate that the examined preparation exhibits a certain genotoxic potential.

Markovi? Biljana 1

2002-01-01

356

Amiodarone: Effects on thyroid function and the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to the effects of Amiodarone on the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones and on pituitary TSH secretion, a major complication of therapy is the relatively high frequency of iodide-induced thyroid dysfunction. The mean T_4 and T_3 concentration following Amiodarone application was measured in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients and in control patients with and without cardiac disorders. Furthermore, the serum TSH was determined in euthyroid Amiodarone-treated euthyroid patients. "1"3"1I uptake was studied in patients with Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. The difficulties of the therapy of Amiodarone-induced hyper-thyroidism are outlined. Preliminary studied of the effect of Amiodarone and its analogues on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in the rat indicate that Amiodarone may act as a thyroid hormone agonist in the pituitary. (MG)

1985-11-01

357

Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

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  • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
  • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
  • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
  • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

Afshar Jafari

2009-09-01

358

Preclinical Evaluation of the Abuse Potential of the Analgesic Bicifadine  

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The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, ...

Nicholson, Katherine L.; Balster, Robert L.; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P.; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S.

2009-01-01

359

Human experimental pain models for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of analgesic drugs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pain models in animals have shown low predictivity for analgesic efficacy in humans, and clinical studies are often very confounded, blurring the evaluation. Human experimental pain models may therefore help to evaluate mechanisms and effect of analgesics and bridge findings from basic studies to the clinic. The present review outlines the concept and limitations of human experimental pain models and addresses analgesic efficacy in healthy volunteers and patients. Experimental models to evoke pain and hyperalgesia are available for most tissues. In healthy volunteers, the effect of acetaminophen is difficult to detect unless neurophysiological methods are used, whereas the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be detected in most models. Anticonvulsants and antidepressants are sensitive in several models, particularly in models inducing hyperalgesia. For opioids, tonic pain with high intensity is attenuated more than short-lasting pain and nonpainful sensations. Fewer studies were performed in patients. In general, the sensitivity to analgesics is better in patients than in healthy volunteers, but the lower number of studies may bias the results. Experimental models have variable reliability, and validity shall be interpreted with caution. Models including deep, tonic pain and hyperalgesia are better to predict the effects of analgesics. Assessment with neurophysiologic methods and imaging is valuable as a supplement to psychophysical methods and can increase sensitivity. The models need to be designed with careful consideration of pharmacological mechanisms and pharmacokinetics of analgesics. Knowledge obtained from this review can help design experimental pain studies for new compounds entering phase I and II clinical trials.

Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine

2012-01-01

360

Non-analgesic effects of opioids : the cognitive effects of opioids in chronic pain of malignant and non-malignant origin. An update  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Opioids constitute the basis for pharmacological treatment of moderate to severe pain in cancer pain and non-cancer pain patients. Their action is mediated by the activation of opioid receptors, which integrates the pain modulation system with other effects in the central nervous system including cognition resulting in complex interactions between pain, opioids and cognition. The literature on this complexity is sparse and information regarding the cognitive effects of opioids in chronic pain patients is substantially lacking. Two previous systematic reviews on cancer pain and non-cancer pain patients only using controlled studies were updated. Fourteen controlled studies on the cognitive effects of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain patients and eleven controlled studies in cancer pain patients were included and analyzed. Opioid treatment involved slightly opposite outcomes in the two patient groups: no effects or worsening of cognitive function in cancer pain patients and no effect or improvements in the chronic non-cancer pain patients, however, due to methodological limitations and a huge variety of designs definite conclusions are difficult to draw from the studies. In studies of higher quality of evidence opioid induced deficits in cognitive functioning were associated with dose increase and the use of supplemental doses of opioids in cancer patients. Future perspectives should comprise the conduction of high quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving relevant control groups and validated neuropsychological assessments tools before and after opioid treatment in order to further explore the complex interaction between pain, opioids and cognition.

Højsted, Jette; Kurita, Geana Paula

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities  

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Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg) produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals.

Patel, S. S.; Verma, N. K.; Chatterjee, C.; Gauthaman, K.

2010-01-01

362

Cingulate NMDA NR2B receptors contribute to morphine-induced analgesic tolerance  

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Abstract Morphine is widely used to treat chronic pain, however its utility is hindered by the development of tolerance to its analgesic effects. While N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are known to play roles in morphine tolerance and dependence, less is known about the roles of individual NMDA receptor subtypes. In this study, Ro 256981, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, was used to reduce the expression of analgesic tolerance to morphine. The mechanisms altered...

Ko Shanelle W; Wu Long-Jun; Shum Fanny; Quan Jessica; Zhuo Min

2008-01-01

363

Analgesic and Antioxidant Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Terminalia catappa L. Leaves  

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa (TCSE) leaves obtained by soxhlet extraction. The analgesic effects of TCSE extract was studied by formalin induced pain, hot plate and tail flick tests where as antioxidant activity was evaluated by ABTS radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. In formalin test, 80 mg kg-1 (p.o.) dose of TCSE extract inhibited both the phases (p<0.05) of ...

Annegowda, H. V.; Mordi, M. N.; Ramanathan, S.; Mansor, S. M.

2010-01-01

364

Effect of glial inhibition in attenuation of neuropathic pain and improvement of morphine analgesic effect in a rat model of neuropathy  

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Introduction: Pharmacological blockage of glial activity has been proved useful for treatment of neuropathic pain by lowering proinflammatory cytokines. The present study is to confirm the effect of post-injury administration of pentoxifylline on chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain symptoms_ and improved the efficacy of morphine anti-nociception. Methods: Male Wistar rats (230-270 g) underwent surgery for induction of CCI model of neuropathy. In the sham group the nerve...

2012-01-01

365

The effects of teriflunomide on lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teriflunomide is an inhibitor of dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), and is hypothesized to ameliorate multiple sclerosis by reducing proliferation of stimulated lymphocytes. We investigated teriflunomide's effects on proliferation, activation, survival, and function of stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in vitro. Teriflunomide had little/no impact on lymphocyte activation but exerted significant dose-dependent inhibition of T- and B-cell proliferation, which was uridine-reversible (DHODH-dependent). Viability analyses showed no teriflunomide-associated cytotoxicity. Teriflunomide significantly decreased release of several pro-inflammatory cytokines from activated monocytes in a DHODH-independent fashion. In conclusion, teriflunomide acts on multiple immune cell types and processes via DHODH-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:24182769

Li, Li; Liu, Jingchun; Delohery, Thomas; Zhang, Donghui; Arendt, Christopher; Jones, Catherine

2013-12-15

366

Pathobiology of cancer chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a type of neuropathic pain that is a major dose-limiting side-effect of potentially curative cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens that develops in a ‘stocking and glove’ distribution. When pain is severe, a change to less effective chemotherapy agents may be required, or patients may choose to discontinue treatment. Medications used to alleviate CIPN often lack efficacy and/or have unacceptable side-effects. Hence the unmet medical need for novel analgesics for relief of this painful condition has driven establishment of rodent models of CIPN. New insights on the pathobiology of CIPN gained using these models are discussed in this review. These include mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress that are implicated as key mechanisms in the development of CIPN. Associated structural changes in peripheral nerves include neuronopathy, axonopathy and/or myelinopathy, especially intra-epidermal nerve fiber (IENF degeneration. In patients with CIPN, loss of heat sensitivity is a hallmark symptom due to preferential damage to myelinated primary afferent sensory nerve fibers in the presence or absence of demyelination. The pathobiology of CIPN is complex as cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens frequently involve drug combinations. Adding to this complexity, there are also subtle differences in the pathobiological consequences of commonly used cancer chemotherapy drugs, viz platinum compounds, taxanes, vincristine, bortezomib, thalidomide and ixabepilone, on peripheral nerves.

MareeThereseSmith

2013-12-01

367

Cost-effectiveness of exercise training to improve claudication symptoms in patients with peripheral arterial disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exercise rehabilitation is a proven, yet poorly available, treatment for intermittent claudication, the primary symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Exercise rehabilitation is effective, non-invasive, and associated with minimal cardiovascular risk in appropriate patients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), especially of the iliac segment, is an alternative effective treatment for claudication. There are, however, minimal data currently available to compare the cost-effectiveness of these two interventions. We compared the cost-effectiveness of 3- and 6-month exercise programs with that of iliac PTA without stenting, using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER = (Cost2 - Cost1)/(Effectiveness2 - Effectiveness1)]. The ICER represented the price of an additional meter walked derived from each treatment based on conservative models of success of each procedure and specific care assumptions. PTA and exercise efficacy data were derived from a literature review and exercise costs were modeled per the current CPT code 93668. Effectiveness was defined as absolute claudication distance (ACD) at 3 and 6 months. Three treatment alternatives were assessed: (1) no treatment, (2) PTA, and (3) exercise rehabilitation. At 3 months, PTA was more effective than exercise therapy and resulted in an additional 38 meters at an additional cost of $6719, for an ICER of $177/meter. At 6 months, however, exercise was more effective than PTA, resulting in an additional 137 meters walked, and costs less ($61 less per meter gained). In conclusion, exercise rehabilitation at 6 months is more effective and costs less than PTA, and is therefore cost-saving. The cost-effectiveness and availability of claudication treatments has national implications for future PAD care; however, data to inform these care choices can best be obtained in prospective clinical trials. PMID:15678620