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Sample records for peripheral analgesic effect

  1. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteers...... on 3 separate days with 7-day intervals. They received either (1) subcutaneous infiltration with ketamine in the burn area (local treatment) and contralateral placebo injections, or (2) subcutaneous ketamine contralateral to the burn (systemic treatment) and placebo in the burn area, or (3) placebo...... significant hyperalgesia. Local ketamine infiltration reduced pain during the burn injury compared with systemic treatment and placebo (P < 0.01). Heat pain thresholds were increased by local ketamine treatment compared with placebo immediately after injection (P < 0.03), and so were the mechanical pain...

  2. Capsaicin 8 % as a cutaneous patch (Qutenza™): analgesic effect on patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

    Raber, Julia Marie; Reichelt, Doris; Grüneberg-Oelker, Ute; Philipp, Konstanze; Stubbe-Dräger, Bianca; Husstedt, Ingo-W

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of the analgesic effect after a single application of the capsaicin 8 % cutaneous patch (Qutenza™) in 37 patients suffering from painful, distal symmetric polyneuropathy (PNP) for an average of 5 years. Patients ranged from 40 to 78 years of age and 22 subjects were HIV-positive. Patients were observed 4 weeks prior to 12 weeks post administration. An evaluation of the therapeutic effect of capsaicin 8 % as a dermal patch in terms of pain reduction, change of sleeping behavior and social activities was performed and statistical analysis of data was conducted using non-parametric methods. Patients were selected according to clinical criteria. Numerical rating scale (NRS 0-10) was used to inquire pain intensity and a pain score was calculated using the painDETECT(©) questionnaire Freynhagen R (Curr Med Res Opin 22:1911-1920, [2006]). A significant reduction of pain was achieved for up to 12 weeks, with a maximum after 2-4 weeks post administration. After patient education and before application of capsaicin patch, a significant reduction of three levels on the NRS was observed. Symptoms of painful PNP decreased over the period of investigation and 8 patients reported a reduction of systemic pain medication. In patients with an HIV infection, a significant extension of sleep was achieved for 2, 4 and 8 weeks after application. Thus, the application of the capsaicin 8 % patch resulted in a significant relief of neuropathic pain, a prolongation of sleep, a reduction of oral pain medication and a resumption of social activities. PMID:25421590

  3. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  4. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine, produced mainly by the pineal gland. Melatonin has been proven to have chronobiotic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anxiolytic and sedative properties. There are also experimental and clinical data supporting an analgesic role of melatonin. In experimental...

  5. The selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole has acute analgesic but not cumulative effects in a rat model of peripheral neuropathy

    Henry JL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liliane J Dableh, James L HenryDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Chronic neuropathic pain that may arise from various nerve injuries or insults remains notoriously difficult to manage. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS has been shown to be involved in the spinal transmission of nociception in animal models of chronic pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of single dose and repeated administration of a selective nNOS inhibitor. Rats were unilaterally implanted with a 2-mm polyethylene cuff around the sciatic nerve. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured using von Frey filament stimulation. Rats were given 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, or vehicle, on days 2, 5, and 7 after model induction, respectively. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured before and at 30 and 60 min after injection. 7-NI significantly increased paw withdrawal thresholds at 60 min at the 20 and 30 mg/kg dosages. In the second part of this study, rats were given 20 mg/kg 7-NI daily for five days starting immediately after cuff implantation (days 0 to 4, and the cuff was removed on day 4. Withdrawal thresholds were measured intermittently over a 24-day observation period. No differences in withdrawal thresholds were observed between drug and vehicle-treated rats. Therefore, early and repeated administration of 7-NI did not affect the development or progression of the model. In conclusion, inhibition of nNOS had an analgesic but not a pre-emptive effect in this model of peripheral neuropathic pain.Keywords: neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, 7-nitroindazole, neuropathic pain, peripheral nerve injury, nociception 

  6. [Analgesic effect of Pilostigma reticulatum (nguiguis)].

    Diallo, B; Diouf, A

    2000-12-01

    Mankind has always given himself means to fight pain by using at first, means offered to him by his environment particularly the plants. African pharmacopoeia is rich of thousand of plants. It changes in term of its ecosystem and its vegetation. Decocted leaves of pilostigma reticulatum (nguiguis in ouolof) are used in western Africa, because of its analgesic properties in case of "borom bop" literally meaning headache associated to odontalgias and mumps. In our study we used lyophilisate obtained from dry leaves of the plant which has been used for experimentation while the decocted dry leaves have been used for clinical application. So, it appeared that leaves of pilostigma reticulatum are almost atoxic when administrated by oral tract (DL50 = 17 g/kg) according to GLEASON classification which recognizes as atoxic every substance having a DL50 higher to 15 g of lyophilisate by kilogram of corporal weight. Elsewhere the study of the peripheric analgesic activity (according to the acetic acid test) has shown a very significant peripheric analgesia since the dose of 750 mg/kg which climbs with it. The clinical survey carried out at the dental community center of Pikine Icotaf based on the usual method of the utilization of the decocted (as mouth rinse) has shown that, this plant procures pain sedation in 97% of the patients having undergone dental avulsion and in 78% of the cases of desmondontal syndromes. This inaugural report must be continued in order to certify the pharmacologic or toxic effects of that plant and define clinical doses from experimental doses we have cleared. PMID:11372139

  7. Investigation of the Central and Peripheral Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Kutajarishta, an Indian Ayurvedic formulation

    Ashraful Kabir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kutajarishta (KTJ is an Ayurvedic formulation approved by the “National formulary of Ayurvedic Medicine 2011”, of Bangladesh. It is widely available in the Bangladeshi market as an effective preparation to treat lumbago, sciatia and arthritic pain of joints. Our present studies make an attempt toward identifying probable anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of KTJ. KTJ, at three doses, (10mL/kg, 20mL/kg, and 40mL/kg showed no involvement of the CNS in anti-nociceptive activity of KTJ. Carrageenan induced paw edema and acetic acid writhing tests both gave significant results (P ≤ 0.05, indicating possible peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory action. Formalin induced paw-licking test showed that KTJ had significant effect in suppressing inflammatory pain (P≤0.05 but not neurogenic pain. Hence our study shows anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic action for KTJ.

  8. Investigation of the Central and Peripheral Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Kutajarishta, an Indian Ayurvedic formulation

    Ashraful Kabir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kutajarishta (KTJ is an Ayurvedic formulation approved by the “National formulary of Ayurvedic Medicine 2011”, of Bangladesh. It is widely available in the Bangladeshi market as an effective preparation to treat lumbago, sciatia and arthritic pain of joints. Our present studies make an attempt toward identifying probable anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of KTJ. KTJ, at three doses, (10mL/kg, 20mL/kg, and 40mL/kg showed no involvement of the CNS in anti-nociceptive activity of KTJ. Carrageenan induced paw edema and acetic acid writhing tests both gave significant results (P ? 0.05, indicating possible peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory action. Formalin induced paw-licking test showed that KTJ had significant effect in suppressing inflammatory pain (P?0.05 but not neurogenic pain. Hence our study shows anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic action for KTJ.

  9. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn...... injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm2, 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of allodynia and...... secondary hyperalgesia. RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant increases in erythema (P <.0001) and hyperalgesia (P <.001) in both groups. Pain ratings and development of tactile allodynia during the burn did not differ between dexamethasone and placebo treatments (P >.6). There were no significant...

  10. Botulinum toxin type A induces direct analgesic effects in chronic neuropathic pain.

    Ranoux, Danièle; Attal, Nadine; Morain, Françoise; Bouhassira, Didier

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been reported to have analgesic effects independent of its action on muscle tone, possibly by acting on neurogenic inflammation. Such a mechanism may be involved in peripheral neuropathic pain. METHODS: A possible direct analgesic effect of BTX-A pain processing was investigated in 29 patients with focal painful neuropathies and mechanical allodynia using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Patients received a one-time intraderm...

  11. Evaluation of peripheral and central analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in experimental animals

    Anand Kale

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The study showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activity of EECI which may be attributed to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. C. infortunatum Linn. as a commercial source of analgesic drug should be subjected to further research. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 912-918

  12. Effective analgesic dose of dexamethasone after painless abortion

    Quan, Zhe-Feng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; LI, Xin; He, Hai-Li

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dexamethasone is known to produce analgesic effects, but the optimal analgesic dosage of dexamethasone remains unclear, especially in patients without postoperative use of other analgesics. The purpose of this study was to explore the effective analgesic dose of dexamethasone in day surgery patients undergoing painless abortion. Methods: 287 patients undergoing painless abortion were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control group receiving saline and dexamethas...

  13. CHRONIC CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM IN RODENT MODELS

    Chandrashekar R.; S N Rao

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the chronic peripheral analgesic activity of Ethanolic Extract of the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum (EECV) by acetic acid induced writhing reflex test in mice and chronic central analgesic activity of EECV by tail immersion method in rats. Dried powdered leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  14. Local analgesic effect of tramadol is not mediated by opioid receptors in early postoperative pain in rats

    Angela Maria Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tramadol is known as a central acting analgesic drug, used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Local analgesic effect has been demonstrated, in part due to local anesthetic-like effect, but other mechanisms remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect is not known. In this study, we examined role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect of tramadol in the plantar incision model. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, intraplantar tramadol, intravenous tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol, and intravenous naloxone. After receiving the assigned drugs (tramadol 5 mg, naloxone 200 µg or 0.9% NaCl, rats were submitted to plantar incision, and withdrawal thresholds after mechanical stimuli with von Frey filaments were assessed at baseline, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after incision. RESULTS: Plantar incision led to marked mechanical hyperalgesia during the whole period of observation in the control group, no mechanical hyperalgesia were observed in intraplantar tramadol group, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol group and intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol. In the intravenous tramadol group a late increase in withdrawal thresholds (after 45 min was observed, the intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol group and intravenous naloxone remained hyperalgesic during the whole period. CONCLUSIONS: Tramadol presented an early local analgesic effect decreasing mechanical hyperalgesia induced by plantar incision. This analgesic effect was not mediated by peripheral opioid receptors.

  15. The analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine in mice.

    Bukhari, I A; Pivac, N; Alhumayyd, M S; Mahesar, A L; Gilani, A H

    2013-12-01

    Piperine, is the major active principal of black pepper. In traditional medicine, black pepper has been used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent and in the treatment of epilepsy. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine in mice. The analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine were studied in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick assay, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and picrotoxin (PIC)-induced seizures models. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of piperine (30, 50 and 70 mg/kg) significantly inhibited (Pblack pepper, may be contributing factor in the medicinal uses of black pepper in pain and epilepsy. PMID:24388894

  16. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  17. Caffeine Accelerates Absorption and Enhances the Analgesic Effect of Acetaminophen

    Renner, Bertold; Clarke, Geoff; Grattan, Tim; Beisel, Angelika; Mueller, Christian; Werner, Ulrike; Kobal, Gerd; Brune, Kay

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the analgesic effect of acetaminophen compared to a combination of both caffeine and acetaminophen or caffeine alone using tonic and phasic pain stimulation. Twenty-four subjects were treated orally with 1000 mg acetaminophen, 130 mg caffeine, and a combination of both in a 4-way crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects were assessed by means of an experimental pain model based on pain-related cortical pot...

  18. Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs: Analgesic effects of toad cake

    Inoue Eiji; Shimizu Yasuharu; Masui Ryo; Usui Tomomi; Sudoh Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing h...

  19. Investigation of centrally and peripherally acting analgesic and anti inflammatory activity of biological immune response modulator (an Amazonian plant extract) in animal models of pain and inflammation

    Mital Ravalji; Edwin Cevallos-Arellano; Suresh Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biological immune response modulator (BIRM) - An aqueous extract of dried roots of the species Dulcamara (family Solanaceae) grown in Ecuador, considered as a natural remedy for various disease is promoted as a natural herbal medicine. Our aim of the study was to assess the central and peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory property of BIRM and to study its mechanism of action. Methods: Peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acetic acid indu...

  20. Effect of intraoperative lidocaine on anesthetic consumption, and bowel function, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast surgery

    Choi, Soo Joo; Kim, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hui Yeon; Lee, Jeong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Perioperative lidocaine infusion improves postoperative outcomes, mostly after abdominal and urologic surgeries. Knowledge of the effect of lidocaine on peripheral surgeries is limited. Presently, we investigated whether intraoperative lidocaine infusion reduced anesthetic consumption, duration of ileus, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast plastic surgeries. Methods Sixty female patients, aged 20-60 years, enrolled in this prospective study were ran...

  1. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  2. Nociceptive behavior induced by mustard oil injection into the temporomandibular joint is blocked by a peripheral non-opioid analgesic and a central opioid analgesic.

    Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; da Silva, Adriana Pelegrini; Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera; Ferraz de Arruda Veiga, Maria Cecília

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the mustard oil (MO) induced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) nociception model and to investigate the potential analgesic activity of systemic dipyrone and tramadol on the nociceptive behavioral responses induced by injection of low concentrations of the MO into the rat TMJ region. TMJ injection of 2.5% MO produced a significant nociceptive behavior expressed by head flinching and orofacial rubbing. This activity was related to the MO injection since mineral oil (vehicle) did not elicit response. Local application of the lidocaine N-ethyl bromide quaternary salt, QX-314 (2%) and systemic administration of morphine (4 mg/kg) significantly reduced the MO-induced nociceptive responses, validating the nociceptive character of the behaviors. The pretreatment with systemic dipyrone (19, 57 or 95 mg/kg) as well as tramadol (5, 7.5 or 10 mg/kg) was effective in decreasing the nociceptive behavioral responses induced by the injection of MO into the rat TMJ. In conclusion, TMJ injection of low concentrations of MO in rats produces well defined and quantifiable nociceptive behaviors constituting a reliable behavioral model for studying TMJ pain mechanisms and testing analgesic drugs. The results also suggest that dipyrone and tramadol could be effective analgesic options in the management of TMJ pain. PMID:18755210

  3. [Analgesic effects of cannabinoids on central pain syndrome].

    Igon'kina, S I; Churiukanov, M V; Churiukanov, V V; Kukushkin, M L

    2011-01-01

    It was shown that cannabinoids anandamide, HU210 and WIN 55,212-2 inhibit both spontaneous episodes of pain and mechanical allodynia in rats with central pain syndrome caused by disturbance of inhibitory processes in the dorsal horns of lumbar spinal cord. The analgesic effect is most pronounced in the intrathecal route of administration. The intensity of analgesic actions of cannabinoids on the central pain syndrome in rats, depending on the drug is as follows: HU210 > WIN 55,212-2 > anandamide. PMID:22359935

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus.

    Silva, Jeane; Abebe, Worku; Sousa, S M; Duarte, V G; Machado, M I L; Matos, F J A

    2003-12-01

    Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced writhes in mice and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats, it was shown that the essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus tereticornis (ET), and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) induced analgesic effects in both models, suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, essential oil extracts from the three Eucalyptus species produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. However, no consistent results were observed for some of the parameters evaluated, both in terms of activities and dose-response relationships, reflecting the complex nature of the oil extracts and/or the assay systems used. Taken together, the data suggest that essential oil extracts of EC, ET, and EG possess central and peripheral analgesic effects as well as neutrophil-dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activities. These initial observations provide support for the reported use of the eucalyptus plant in Brazilian folk medicine. Further investigation is warranted for possible development of new classes of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from components of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. PMID:14611892

  5. Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological effects of Atropa belladonna.

    Owais, Farah; Anwar, Sohail; Saeed, Farah; Muhammad, Shafi; Ishtiaque, Saiqa; Mohiuddin, Omair

    2014-11-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate, in vivo, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neuro-pharmacological activities of the methanolic extract of Atropa belladonna. The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition test. The neuro-pharmacological activities were evaluated by open field, rearing test, cage cross, swim test, head dip and traction tests. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by formalin induce inflammation on hind paw. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) analgesic activity with % inhibitions of writhing response at doses 100 and 300mg/kg body weight were 28.5% and 57.1%, respectively. The extract at both doses showed significant (p<0.05) sedative effect in-cage cross test and highly significance value (p<0.001) in high dose. In-open field test, the extract showed significant (P<0.05) anxiolytic activity at higher dose whereas in rearing test activity shows significant p-value at both doses. The extract also showed significant value for anti-inflammatory activity. The findings of the study clearly indicated the presence of significant analgesic, neuro-pharmacological and anti-inflammatory properties of the plant, which demands further investigation including, compounds isolation. PMID:26045383

  6. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking.

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I; Zagrean, Leon; Moldovan, Mihai

    2007-06-11

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain threshold induced by smoking. The effect could not be explained by a cumulative raise in blood pressure. Our data suggest that caffeine enhances the analgesic effect of nicotine. PMID:17515802

  7. Spinal Reflexes and Windup In Vitro: Effects of Analgesics and Anesthetics.

    Rivera-Arconada, Ivan; Roza, Carolina; Lopez-Garcia, Jose A

    2016-02-01

    The spinal cord is the first relay center for nociceptive information. Following peripheral injury, the spinal cord sensitizes. A sign of spinal sensitization is the hyper-reflexia which develops shortly after injury and can be detected in the isolated spinal cord as a "memory of pain." In this context, it is easy to understand that many analgesic compounds target spinally located sites of action to attain analgesia. In vitro isolated spinal cord preparations have been used for a number of years, and experience on the effects of compounds of diverse pharmacological families on spinal function has accumulated. Recently, we have proposed that the detailed study of spinal segmental reflexes in vitro may produce data relevant to the evaluation of the analgesic potential of novel compounds. In this review, we describe the main features of segmental reflexes obtained in vitro and discuss the effects of compounds of diverse chemical nature and pharmacological properties on such reflexes. Our aim was to compare the different profiles of action of the compounds on segmental reflexes in order to extract clues that may be helpful for pharmacological characterization of novel analgesics. PMID:26384473

  8. KETAMINE HAS NO PRE-EMPTIVE ANALGESIC EFFECT

    M E Darabi; S.M. Mireskandari; Sadeghi, M.; P. Salamati; E Rahimi

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, provides a pre-emptive analgesic effect and pre-emptive analgesia improves postoperative pain management. The aim of this study was to determine the effict of pre-incisional vs. post-incisional intravenous low dose of racemic ketamine in postoperative pain in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Seventy-five children aged 1-6 years who were scheduled for inguinal herniorrhaphy were includ...

  9. Analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of Corallocarpus epigaeus

    Subashini Uthrapathy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. The safety and efficacy profile of 85% methanolic extract of Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE was evaluated in the present study. In safety profile LD50 value was determined by carrying out an acute toxicity study. In efficacy profile, the analgesic activity was evaluated by both hot plate and tail immersion tests. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan-induced paw edema and anti-arthritic effect by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. Phytochemical screening of different CE extracts and quantitative analysis of both raw herb and 85% methanolic extract have been also carried out. The methanolic extract displayed analgesic activity by increasing the response time in both hot plate and tail immersion method. Extract exhibited 23,19% of anti-inflammatory activity and 33,59% of anti-arthritic effect in complete Freund's adjuvant induced paw edema. The CE extract increased the antioxidant level, along with a decrease of the oxidative stress developed by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. In conclusion, CE is a rich source of phytochemicals with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  10. [Has ketamine preemptive analgesic effect in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy?].

    Karaman, Semra; Kocabaş, Seden; Zincircioğlu, Ciler; Firat, Vicdan

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if preemptive use of the NMDA receptor antogonist ketamine decreases postoperative pain in patients undergoing abdominal hystrectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for total abdominal hysterectomy were included in this study after the approval of the ethic committee, and the patients were randomly classified into three groups. After standart general anaesthesia, before or after incision patients received bolus saline or ketamine. Group S received only saline while Group Kpre received ketamine 0.4 mg/kg before incision and saline after incision, and Group Kpost received saline before incision and 0.4 mg/kg ketamine after incision. Postoperatif analgesia was maintained with i.v. PCA morphine. Pain scores were assessed with Vizüal Analog Scale (VAS), Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) at 1., 2, 3., 4., 8., 12. ve 24. hours postoperatively. First analgesic requirement time, morphine consumption and side effects were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to VAS / VRS scores, the time for first analgesic dose, and morphine consumption ( p>0.05). Patients in Group S had significantly lower sedation scores than either of the ketamine treated groups ( pketamin had no preemptive analgesic effect in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy, but further investigation is needed for different operation types and dose regimens. PMID:17089229

  11. Non-analgesic effects of opioids

    Højsted, Jette; Kurita, Geana Paula; Kendall, Sally; Lundorff, Lena; de Mattos Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli; Sjøgren, Per

    2012-01-01

    Opioids constitute the basis for pharmacological treatment of moderate to severe pain in cancer pain and non-cancer pain patients. Their action is mediated by the activation of opioid receptors, which integrates the pain modulation system with other effects in the central nervous system including...... cognition resulting in complex interactions between pain, opioids and cognition. The literature on this complexity is sparse and information regarding the cognitive effects of opioids in chronic pain patients is substantially lacking. Two previous systematic reviews on cancer pain and non-cancer pain...... patients only using controlled studies were updated. Fourteen controlled studies on the cognitive effects of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain patients and eleven controlled studies in cancer pain patients were included and analyzed. Opioid treatment involved slightly opposite outcomes in the two patient...

  12. Analgesic effects of gabapentine in tonsillectomy

    Waleed Abdelmageed*, Salah Abdelrazik**, Ahmad Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the preemptive effects of gabapentin on postoperative pain relief and its effect on meperidine consumption in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Methods: This study took place in King Abdulaziz Naval Base Hospital in the year 2009. Sixty patients ASA I and II were randomly assigned in a prospective randomized double- blind placebo-control clinical trial. Gabapentine 1200 mg or placebo was given orally two hours before induction of anesthesia to patients undergoing tonsillectomy under general anesthesia. Postoperative pain score was recorded on a visual analogue scale at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 postoperative hours. Patients received meperidine 1 mg/ kg i.m once every 4 h if pain score 3 or if requested by the patient. Total dose of meperidine consumption was recorded. Results: Thirty patients in the gabapentine group and 30 patients in the placebo group completed the study. Patients in gabapentine group had significantly lower pain score in comparison to placebo group. Total postoperative meperidine consumption in the gabapentin group was (48.8±33.9 VS 93.8 ± 54.6 in the placebo group (P< 0.001. There was higher incidence of nausea, vomiting, and use of antiemetic drugs in the placebo group. Conclusion: Preemptive use of gabapentine decreased pain score and post operative meperidine consumption and reduced meperidine ­related adverse effects in patients undergoing tonsillectomy under general anesthesia.

  13. Evaluation of analgesic effect of local administration of morphine after iliac crest bone graft harvesting: A double blind study

    Singh, Devinder; K K Gombar; Bhatia, Nidhi; Gombar, Satinder; Garg, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Pain is a complex process influenced by both physiological and psychological factors. In spite of an armamentarium of analgesic drugs and techniques available to combat post-operative pain, appropriate selection, and effective management for relief of post-operative pain still poses unique challenges. The discovery of peripheral opioid receptors has led to growing interest in the use of locally applied opioids (intra-articular, intra-pleural, intra-peritoneal, and pe...

  14. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I; Zagrean, Leon; Moldovan, Mihai

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  15. Analgesic effect of Persian Gulf Conus textile venom

    Nasim Tabaraki; Delavar Shahbazzadeh; Ali Mashinchian Moradi; Gholamhossein Vosughi; Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Cone snails are estimated to consist of up to 700 species. The venom of these snails has yielded a rich source of novel peptides. This study was aimed to study the analgesic effect of Persian Gulf Conus textile and its comparison with morphine in mouse model. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected in Larak Island. The venom ducts were Isolated and kept on ice then homogenized. The mixture centrifuged at 10000 × g for 20 min. Supernatant was considered as extracted venom. ...

  16. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DENDROCNIDE SINUATA (BLUME CHEW

    Binita Angom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous root extracts of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume Chew (AEDS in Swiss albino mice and wistar rats. The animals were orally administered AEDS at doses 30 and 100 mgkg-1 (p.o. For analgesic study, acetic acid-induced Writhing test, Eddy’s hot plate and Tail Flick model was performed in mice. For antiinflammatory study, carrageen-induced paw edema study was performed in rats. In acetic acid induced model, effect of AEDS was comparable with the standard meloxicam 10 mgkg-1 (i.p. In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 30 min at a dose of 100 mgkg-1 (p.o which was comparable with the standard Pentazocine 10 mgkg-1 (p.o, whereas in the tail flick model no significant changes were observed. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, administration of AEDS showed significant (P < 0.05 dose dependent inhibition of edema formation. AEDS was effective in both narcotic and non-narcotic models of analgesia. It also showed a significant dose-dependent increase in antiedematogenic activity which revealed good peripheral anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

  17. A Pain Monitoring Program for nurses: effect on the administration of analgesics.

    de Rond ME; de Wit R; van Dam FS; Muller, M J

    2000-12-15

    Both physicians and nurses are responsible for adequate pain management. The aim of this study was to assess pain management behavior of physicians and nurses, and to evaluate the effects of a Pain Monitoring Program for nurses on the extent to which nurses administer analgesics. The Pain Monitoring Program consisted of two components: educating nurses about pain, pain assessment and pain management; and implementing daily pain assessment by means of a numeric rating scale. Several outcomes were distinguished to evaluate the administration of analgesics by nurses: the prescribed analgesics by physicians, the administered analgesics by nurses, and the discrepancy between the ordered and the administered analgesics. The effects of the Pain Monitoring Program on these outcomes were measured in a quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group. In total, 703 patients participated: 358 patients in the control group and 345 in the intervention group. Patients were interviewed twice, i.e. at the beginning and at the end of hospitalization. Results of the control group showed that at the first interview 70% of the patients were prescribed analgesics by physicians and only 74% of those patients were actually administered analgesics by nurses. Consequently, 50% of the patients in pain received analgesics. The administered analgesics was in absolute agreement with the prescribed analgesics in 60% of the patients with routine analgesics and in 85% of the patients with PRN analgesics. The relative difference between ordered and administered routine analgesics was small, namely 15% for opioids and 20% for non-opioids. Similar results of the control group were found for the second interview. In addition, the results showed that the Pain Monitoring Program was effective in improving nurses' administration of analgesics. At the first interview more patients received analgesics that were prescribed on a PRN basis and the doses of administered routine non-opioids including PRN increased. At the time of the second interview, more patients received weak opioids. The Pain Monitoring Program was especially effective in patients with moderate to severe pain. However, the discrepancy between the analgesics ordered by physicians and actually administered by nurses did not change as a result of the Pain Monitoring Program. Based on this study it can be concluded that the use of a simple method such as a numeric rating scale together with pain education for nurses is effective in improving the administration of analgesics by nurses. These are important results because nurses play an essential role in helping patients to cope with their pain. Because the Pain Monitoring Program (PMP) was effective in a heterogeneous population in multiple care settings, the possibility of implementing the PMP in routine nursing practice should be considered. PMID:11113290

  18. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  19. Analgesic effect of Persian Gulf Conus textile venom

    Nasim Tabaraki

    2014-10-01

    Results: SDS-PAGE indicated 12 bands ranged between 6 and 180 KDa. Finally, ten ng of Conus crude venom showed the best analgesic activity in formalin test. No death observed up to 100 mg/kg. Analgesic activity of crude venom was more significant (P

  20. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    Kristensen, David M; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Gaudriault, Pierre; Lesné, Laurianne; Serrano, Tania; Main, Katharina M; Jégou, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have......Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...

  1. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    M.A. Cimmino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%, analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7% patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%, inflammatory arthritis (24.2%, soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%, nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%, and connective tissue diseases (2.6%. Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5% patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%. Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthrits were: (a partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two. Conclusions: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis.

  2. Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality

    Johnson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology may serve as an effective non-pharmacological analgesic to aid pain management. During VR distraction, the individual is immersed in a game presented through a head-mounted display (HMD). The technological level of the HMD can vary, as can the use of different input devices and the inclusion of sound. While more technologically advanced designs may lead to more effective pain management the specific roles of individual components within such systems are not yet fully understood. Here, the role of supplementary auditory information was explored owing to its particular ecological relevance. Healthy adult participants took part in a series of cold-pressor trials submerging their hand in cold water for as long as possible. Individual pain tolerances were measured according to the time (in seconds) before the participant withdrew their hand. The concurrent use of a VR game and the inclusion of sound was varied systematically within participants. In keeping with previous literature, the use of a VR game increased pain tolerance across conditions. Highest pain tolerance was recorded when participants were simultaneously exposed to both the VR game and supplementary sound. The simultaneous inclusion of sound may therefore play an important role when designing VR to manage pain. PMID:27069646

  3. Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality.

    Johnson, Sarah; Coxon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology may serve as an effective non-pharmacological analgesic to aid pain management. During VR distraction, the individual is immersed in a game presented through a head-mounted display (HMD). The technological level of the HMD can vary, as can the use of different input devices and the inclusion of sound. While more technologically advanced designs may lead to more effective pain management the specific roles of individual components within such systems are not yet fully understood. Here, the role of supplementary auditory information was explored owing to its particular ecological relevance. Healthy adult participants took part in a series of cold-pressor trials submerging their hand in cold water for as long as possible. Individual pain tolerances were measured according to the time (in seconds) before the participant withdrew their hand. The concurrent use of a VR game and the inclusion of sound was varied systematically within participants. In keeping with previous literature, the use of a VR game increased pain tolerance across conditions. Highest pain tolerance was recorded when participants were simultaneously exposed to both the VR game and supplementary sound. The simultaneous inclusion of sound may therefore play an important role when designing VR to manage pain. PMID:27069646

  4. Effects of Peripherally Restricted κ Opioid Receptor Agonists on Pain-Related Stimulation and Depression of Behavior in Rats

    Negus, S Stevens; O'Connell, Robert; Morrissey, Ember; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C

    2012-01-01

    κ Opioid receptor agonists that do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier are peripherally restricted and distribute poorly to the central nervous system after systemic administration. Peripherally restricted κ agonists have promise as candidate analgesics, because they may produce antinociception mediated by peripheral κ receptors more potently than they produce undesirable sedative and psychotomimetic effects mediated by central κ receptors. The present study used assays of pain-related ...

  5. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  6. Analgesic and Nonanalgesic Effects of Intravenous Hydromorphone - Relation to Plasma Concentrations in Healthy Volunteers

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the analgesic and nonanalgesic effects and the pharmacokinetics of an intravenous infusion of 2 mg hydromorphone over 20 mins.DESIGN: Open study.SUBJECTS: Twelve healthy volunteers.MEASUREMENTS: The analgesic effect of hydromorphone was evaluated serially using pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) measured on the third fingers and toes. The nonanalgesic effects of hydromorphone were measured as miosis, decrease of saliva production and central nervous effects such as euph...

  7. Heterotheca inuloides: anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.

    Gené, R M; Segura, L; Adzet, T; Marin, E; Iglesias, J

    1998-03-01

    Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae) is used in the traditional medicine of Mexico. The aqueous extract obtained from the flowers of H. inuloides was assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced edema test. At 100 mg/kg, i.p, it produced 29% inhibition of inflammation. Ethyl ether (HI-1), butanol (HI-2) and aqueous fraction (HI-3) were obtained from the aqueous extract. The biological assay, by carrageenan-induced edema test, gave the following values (% inhibition): HI-1, 19.9; HI-2, 58.0 and HI-3, 30.0. HI-2 was significantly more effective than HI-1 and HI-3. The dose-effect curve of HI-2 was obtained and the calculated ED50 was 29.7 (22.5-39.2) mg/kg. The peritoneal examination after the treatment with HI-2 showed that the anti-inflammatory action of H. inuloides was not due to an irritating effect at the injection site. At 50-100 mg/kg, i.p., HI-2 inhibited inflammation induced by dextran (38.9-68.1% inhibition) and arachidonic acid (0-33.9%). No effect was observed at the same doses for zymosan or C16-paf-induced edema. In addition, HI-2 reduced abdominal constrictions in mice following injection of acetic acid: at 50-100 mg/kg, it gave 73.8-78.2% inhibition. The ulcerogenic assay showed that ulcer indices after HI-2 i.p. treatment were 0.5 +/- 0.5 at 50 mg/kg and 1.2 +/- 0.4 at 100 mg/kg. The results showed related anti-inflammatory activity and the analgesic effect of HI-2. PMID:9582006

  8. Evaluation of analgesic effectiveness of infrared radiation and interference currents in degenerative diseases

    Kawa Malgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this research is to evaluate analgesic effectiveness of infrared radiation and interference currents in degenerative diseases of joints. On the grounds of current practical and theoretical experience, the following hypothesis was formed: Application of interference currents and infrared radiation constitutes effective analgesic therapy in degenerative diseases, and in the case of the applied treatment, its effectiveness is long-term.

  9. Comparison of the Analgesic Effects of Dronabinol and Smoked Marijuana in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D.; Haney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and femal...

  10. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Lepidagathis Anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae)

    Richard, Sawadogo Wamtinga; Marius, Lompo; Noya, Somé; Innocent Pierre, Guissou; Germaine, Nacoulma-Ouedraogo Odile

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 ...

  11. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AND ANALGESIC EFFECT OF ALOE VERA LEAF EXTRACT IN RATS

    Aruna Devaraj; Thirunethiran Karpagam

    2011-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs envisages the development of side effects that makes efficacy of a drug arguable. Alternatively, indigenous drug with fewer side effects is the major thrust area of research in the management of pain and inflammation. In the present study aqueous extract of whole leaf of Aloe vera at various concentrations was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in albino wistar rats. Carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced ...

  12. Intravenous Acetaminophen Effect on Postoperative Narcotic Analgesic Demand after Elective Cesarean Section

    Mahshid Ghasemi; Maryam Vosoughian; Mastaneh Dahi-Taleghani; Mehrnaz Sohrabi; Seyed Amir Mohajerani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Opioid analgesics are the mainstay of the treatment of postoperative pain. Appropriate monitoring of patients receiving opioid analgesics is essential to detect those with side effects such as respiratory depression. The discovery of Acetaminophen as a COX-3 variant may represent a primary central mechanism by which acetaminophen decrease pain. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intravenous acetaminophen on morphine requirement in post-operation pain after elective ...

  13. Effect of intravenous esmolol on analgesic requirements in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Ritima Dhir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Perioperative beta blockers are also being advocated for modulation of acute pain and reduction of intraoperative anesthetic requirements. This study evaluated the effect of perioperative use of esmolol, an ultra short acting beta blocker, on anesthesia and modulation of post operative pain in patients of laproscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adult ASA I & II grade patients of either sex, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups E or C according to computer generated numbers. Group E- Patients who received loading dose of injection esmolol 0.5 mg/kg in 30 ml isotonic saline, before induction of anesthesia, followed by an IV infusion of esmolol 0.05 μg/kg/min till the completion of surgery and Group C- Patients who received 30 ml of isotonic saline as loading dose and continuous infusion of isotonic saline at the same rate as the esmolol group till the completion of surgery. Results: The baseline MAP at 0 minute was almost similar in both the groups. At 8th minute (time of intubation, MAP increased significantly in group C as compared to group E and remained higher than group E till the end of procedure. Intraoperatively, 16.67% of patients in group C showed somatic signs as compared to none in group E. The difference was statistically significant. 73.33% of patients in group C required additional doses of Inj.Fentanyl as compared to 6.67% in group E. Conclusions: We conclude that intravenous esmolol influences the analgesic requirements both intraoperatively as well as postoperatively by modulation of the sympathetic component of the pain i.e. heart rate and blood pressure.

  14. The Study of Analgesic Effect of Hydroalcoholilc Extract of vitis vinifsraseedon Rat by Formalin TEST

    Ardeshir Arzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Due to the increased role of medicinal plants in therapy, the aim of this research was to study and compare the analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of the seeds of Vitis vinifera with morphine and aspirin as a common analgesic.Subjects and Methods: In this study, the hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera seed was prepared by maceration method. This study was done on male Wistar rat species. The animals were divided into 7 groups (n= 9: Negative control group received a single dose of (5mg/kg of serum physiology, two positive control groups (one group 2.5mg/kg of morphine and another 300mg/kg of aspirin, 4 treatment groups (100,200,400and 800 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of the seeds of Vitis vinifera via intraperitoneally. In this study the analgesic effect was investigated by using formalin test.Results: The results indicated that the analgesic effect of 400mg/kg of extract on the phase 1 of pain was more than the aspirin and less than the morphine. Its chronic analgesic effect on phase 2 of pain was less than morphine but there weren't any significant differences with those of the aspirin.Conclusion: The results indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinefera seed contains analgesic effect in both acute and chronic phases of pain. This can probably be due to the influence of the antioxidants of this extract.

  15. Secoisolariciresinol diglycoside, a flaxseed lignan, exerts analgesic effects in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes: Engagement of antioxidant mechanism.

    Hu, Pei; Mei, Qi-Yong; Ma, Li; Cui, Wu-Geng; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Zhao, Qing; Xu, Dong-Ying; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Qin; Hu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-11-15

    Peripheral painful neuropathy is one of the most common complications in diabetes and necessitates improved treatment. Secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), a predominant lignan in flaxseed, has been shown in our previous studies to exert antidepressant-like effect. As antidepressant drugs are clinically used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate the potential analgesic efficacy of SDG against diabetic neuropathic pain in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. We subjected mice to diabetes by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg), and Hargreaves test or von Frey test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia, respectively. Chronic instead of acute SDG treatment (3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o., twice per day for three weeks) ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice, and these analgesic actions persisted about three days when SDG treatment was terminated. Although chronic treatment of SDG to diabetic mice did not impact on the symptom of hyperglycemia, it greatly attenuated excessive oxidative stress in sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissues, and partially counteracted the condition of weight decrease. Furthermore, the analgesic actions of SDG were abolished by co-treatment with the reactive oxygen species donor tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), but potentiated by the reactive oxygen species scavenger phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). These findings indicate that chronic SDG treatment can correct neuropathic hyperalgesia and allodynia in mice with type 1 diabetes. Mechanistically, the analgesic actions of SDG in diabetic mice may be associated with its antioxidant activity. PMID:26494631

  16. Analgesic Effects of Intrathecal Curcumin in the Rat Formalin Test

    Han, Yong Ku; Lee, Seong Heon; Jeong, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Sun; Yoon, Myung Ha; Kim, Woong Mo

    2012-01-01

    Background Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, and antinociceptive activity when administered systemically. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal curcumin in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were prepared for intrathecal catheterization. Pain was evoked by injection of formalin solution (5%, 50 µl) into the hind paw. Curcumin doses of 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 µg were delivered thr...

  17. Analgesic Effects of 1st Generation Anti-histamines in Mice.

    Takahashi, Mebae; Shima, Kazuhiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sugawara, Shunji; Fujita, Takuo; Tadano, Takeshi; Watanabe, Makoto; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Endo, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is sensed, transmitted, and modified by a variety of mediators and receptors. Histamine is a well-known mediator of pain. In addition to their anti-histaminic effects, the classical, or 1st generation, anti-histamines (1st AHs) possess, to various degrees, anti-muscarinic, anti-serotonergic, anti-adrenergic, and other pharmacologic effects. Although there have been attempts to use 1st AHs as analgesics and/or analgesic adjuvants, the advent of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) discouraged such trials. We previously reported that in patients with temporomandibular disorders, osteoporosis, and/or osteoarthritis, the analgesic effects of certain 1st AHs (chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine) are superior to those of the NSAIDs flurbiprofen and indomethacin. Here, we compared analgesic effects among 1st AHs and NSAIDs against responses shown by mice to intraperitoneally injected 0.7% acetic acid. Since 1st AHs are water soluble, we selected water-soluble NSAIDs. For direct comparison, drugs were intravenously injected 30 min before the above tests. Histamine-H1-receptor-deficient (H1R-KO) mice were used for evaluating H1-receptor-independent effects. The tested 1st AHs (especially cyproheptadine) displayed or tended to display analgesic effects comparable to those of NSAIDs in normal and H1R-KO mice. Our data suggest that the anti-serotonergic and/or anti-adrenergic effects of 1st AHs make important contributions to their analgesic effects. Moreover, combination of a 1st AH with an NSAID (cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor) produced remarkably potent analgesic effects. We propose that a 1st AH, by itself or in combination with a cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor, should undergo testing to evaluate its usefulness in analgesia. PMID:27040636

  18. Peripherally-acting opioids.

    Smith, Howard S

    2008-03-01

    Opioids are broad-spectrum analgesics with potent pain-relieving qualities but also with potential adverse effects related to both short-term and long-term therapy. Researchers have attempted to alter existing opioid analgesics, utilize different routes/formulations, or combine opioid analgesics with other compounds in efforts to improve analgesia while minimizing adverse effects. Exogenous opioids, administered in efforts to achieve analgesia, work by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Endogenous opioids and their receptors are located in the brain (supraspinal areas), spinal cord, and periphery. Although opioids and opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord have received much attention over many years, peripheral endogenous opioid analgesic systems have only been extensively studied during the past decade. It has been known since 1990 that following injection into the rodent hindpaw, D-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO) [a muopioid receptor agonist] probably exerts its antinociceptive effects locally, since the doses administered are too low to have an effect in the central nervous system (CNS). This notion has been supported by the observation that the quaternary compound morphine methyliodide, which does not as readily cross the bloodbrain barrier and enter the CNS, produced antinociception following intradermal administration into the hindpaw, but not when the same dose was administered systemically (subcutaneously at a distant site). With a growing appreciation of peripheral endogenous opioids, peripheral endogenous opioid receptors, and peripheral endogenous opioid analgesic systems, investigators began growing hopeful that it may be possible to achieve adequate analgesics while avoiding unwanted central untoward adverse effects (e.g. respiratory depression, somnolence, addiction). Peripherally-acting opioids, which capitalize on peripheral endogenous opioid analgesic systems, may be one potential future strategy which may be utilized in efforts to achieve potent analgesia with minimal side effects. PMID:18443636

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Spartium junceum L. flower extracts: a preliminary study.

    Menghini, Luigi; Massarelli, Paola; Bruni, Giancarlo; Pagiotti, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of extract of Spartium junceum L. flowers. Samples of flowers were collected from wild plants, dried, powdered, and extracted with hexane and methanol. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then suspended in suitable solvent. They were then tested for anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenin rat paw edema test and for analgesic activity in the Randall and Selitto mechanical pressure test and in the tail-flick test. Twenty-four hours after treatment, the gastric mucosa of each rat was observed macroscopically. Based on these results the hexane extract was fractioned by column chromatography, and the fractions obtained were tested in the same way. The results showed good anti-inflammatory activity only for a single fraction of the hexane extract, while all the extracts and all the other hexane fractions showed both peripheral and central analgesic activity. In rats treated with the tested compounds hyperemia and ulcers were absent. The data from this preliminary study reveal interesting pharmacological properties of S. junceum L. flowers extract related to the marked analgesic activity and the absence of gastric ulcerogenic activity. PMID:17004903

  20. Spinal and supraspinal analgesic effects of Nimodipine : The role of Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal(HPA axis .

    mojtaba dolatshahi-somesofla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nimodipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, can induce analgesia. However, it is not clear that this analgesic effect is at the level of spinal or supraspinal pain pathway. In addition, it has been reported that the analgesic effect of nifedipine, another L-type calcium channel blocker is related to the HPA axis, but there is no report indicating the role of this axis in the analgesic effect of nimodipine. Methods: Analgesia was measured by tail-flick (TF test involving spinal reflexes and by hot-plate (HP requiring an intact central nervous system. Assays were done before and 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration in the intact, sham operated and adrenalectomized rats. To identify the interaction between nimodipine and HPA axis, plasma corticosterone level was measured using the radioimmunoassay. Results: Nimodipine significantly decreased the plasma corticosterone level, and showed significant antinociception in both tests. Adrenalectomy potentiated the analgesic effect of nimodipine which was reversed by corticosterone replacement. Furthermore, nimodipine analgesic effect in ADX rats was more potent in HP test (compared to TF test. Nimodipine, at mentioned doses, did not alter animal’s movement indices in activity monitoring test. Conclusion: Nimodipine involves both spinal and supraspinal sites to control thermal pain transmission in presence of adrenal gland. It seems that there is a mutual interaction between nimodipine and HPA axis, especially at supraspinal levels.

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock)

    Saikat Chowdhury; K. Nishteswar; Mukesh Kumar Nariya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedies are preferred much because of lesser side effects and also a lower tendency for habit formation. Pentatropis capensis is such an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug which is popular among folklore remedies for various injuries and inflammatory problems. It is called by the name of Kākanāsikā in Ayurvedic works. This study was designed to investigate the analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of P. capensis leave...

  2. A comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy. Forty patients, aged between 20-60 years and undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were enrolled into the study protocol that was carried out in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January and June 2007. General anesthesia protocol was the same in all patients. At the end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). Group L received 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and Group B received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine intra-articularly. We evaluated the level of postoperative pain (by visual analoque scale at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery), first analgesic requirement time (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), and total analgesic consumption during 24 hours. There were no significant difference in the postoperative pain scores of the patients between groups. The first analgesic requirement times were not statistically different. Twelve patients in Group L (60%) and 9 patients in Group B (45%) needed no additional analgesic during the 24 hours (p>0.05). No complications and side effects were found related to the intra-articular treatment. The results of the study show that intra-articular 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine provides effective analgesia comparable to that provided by 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. (author)

  3. Analgesic effects of lappaconitine in leukemia bone pain in a mouse model

    Xiao-Cui Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone pain is a common and severe symptom in cancer patients. The present study employed a mouse model of leukemia bone pain by injection K562 cells into tibia of mouse to evaluate the analgesic effects of lappacontine. Our results showed that the lappaconitine treatment at day 15, 17 and 19 could effectively reduce the spontaneous pain scoring values, restore reduced degree in the inclined-plate test induced by injection of K562 cells, as well as restore paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency induced by injection of K562 cells to the normal levels. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of lappaconitine’s analgesic effects may be related to affect the expression levels of endogenous opioid system genes (POMC, PENK and MOR, as well as apoptosis-related genes (Xiap, Smac, Bim, NF-κB and p53. Our present results indicated that lappaconitine may become a new analgesic agent for leukemia bone pain management.

  4. [Does iv paracetamol have preemptive analgesic effect on lumber disc surgeries?].

    Toygar, Pinar; Akkaya, Taylan; Ozkan, Derya; Ozel, Ozgür; Uslu, Ebru; Gümüş, Haluk

    2008-04-01

    In this study, postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous paracetamol administration in lumbar discectomy patients were evaluated. After the approval of ethic committee, 90 patients undergoing lumbar disc hernia operation randomly divided into 3 groups. After standart general anesthesia, patients in group I received 1 gr i.v. paracetamol infusion 15 minutes before the induction, patients in group II received i.v. Paracetamol infusion started 15 minutes before the end of surgery. i.v morphine via PCA is used for postoperative analgesia maintenance and patients pain scores were assessed with VAS at 0., 1., 2., 3., 6., 12. and 24. hours. First analgesic requirement time, total morphine consumption and side effects were recorded. In group I and II, VAS scores, 24 h morphine consumption and first morphine requirement times were significantly different comparing to group III. As a result, we think that in lumbar discectomy cases preoperative administration of 1 gr paracetamol has no preemptive analgesic effect. PMID:19021006

  5. Enhanced analgesic effects of tramadol and common trace element coadministration in mice.

    Alexa, Teodora; Marza, Aurelia; Voloseniuc, Tudor; Tamba, Bogdan

    2015-10-01

    Chronic pain is managed mostly by the daily administration of analgesics. Tramadol is one of the most commonly used drugs, marketed in combination with coanalgesics for enhanced effect. Trace elements are frequent ingredients in dietary supplements and may enhance tramadol's analgesic effect either through synergic mechanisms or through analgesic effects of their own. Swiss Weber male mice were divided into nine groups and were treated with a combination of the trace elements Mg, Mn, and Zn in three different doses and a fixed dose of tramadol. Two groups served as positive (tramadol alone) and negative (saline) controls. Nociceptive assessment by tail-flick (TF) and hot-plate (HP) tests was performed at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after intraperitoneal administration. Response latencies were recorded and compared with the aid of ANOVA testing. All three trace elements enhanced tramadol's analgesic effect, as assessed by TF and HP test latencies. Coadministration of these trace elements led to an increase of approximately 30% in the average pain inhibition compared with the tramadol-alone group. The most effective doses were 0.6 mg/kg b.w. for Zn, 75 mg/kg b.w. for Mg, and 7.2 mg/kg b.w. for Mn. Associating trace elements such as Zn, Mg, and Mn with the standard administration of tramadol increases the drug's analgesic effect, most likely a consequence of their synergic action. These findings impact current analgesic treatment because the addition of these trace elements may reduce the tramadol dose required to obtain analgesia. PMID:26078209

  6. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Elhwuegi, Abdalla S.; Kalthom M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg), imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg), fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg), mi...

  7. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Elhwuegi, Abdalla S.; Hassan, Kalthom M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice. Methods: Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg), imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg), fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg),...

  8. Antiulcerogenic and analgesic effects of Maytenus aquifolium, Sorocea bomplandii and Zolernia ilicifolia.

    Gonzalez, F G; Portela, T Y; Stipp, E J; Di Stasi, L C

    2001-09-01

    Maytenus aquifolium (Celastraceae), Sorocea bomplandii (Moraceae) and Zolernia ilicifolia (Fabaceae) are native plants from the Tropical Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica, Brazil) known as "espinheira-santa". These plants are traditionally used as analgesic and antiulcerogenic medicine, with the same traditional uses of the true "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia, Celastraceae), an efficient antiulcerogenic agent. Pharmacological and toxicological studies with these plants have not been carried out. The purpose in this study was to evaluate the efficacy (analgesic and antiulcerogenic activities), safety (acute toxicity) and quality (phytochemical profile) of these three plants. The analgesic effect was analyzed by writhing and tail flick tests, while antiulcerogenic effect was performed through ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin/bethanecol assays. LD(50) and acute toxic effects, as well as phytochemical profiles of all plants also were carried. Surprisingly, the three plants showed analgesic and antiulcerogenic effects at dose of 1000 mg/kg, v.o. Maytenus aquifolium lowering all ulcerogenic parameters (ethanol test), but increased the ulcerogenic effects in the indomethacin/bethanecol test. Sorocea bomplandii produced antiulcerogenic effects in both experimental models used, while Zolernia ilicifolia showed significant effects only in indomethacin/bethanecol-induced gastric lesions. Pre-treatment with Zolernia ilicifolia induced someone toxic effects. A phytochemical profile for each plant species was determined and its main chemical classes of compounds were described. PMID:11483377

  9. Translational pain research: evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Christrup, Lona Louring; Upton, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    analgesics in detail. In combination with pharmacokinetic studies and objective assessment such as electroencephalography, new information regarding a given drug substance and its effects can be obtained. Results from experimental human visceral pain research can bridge the gap in knowledge between animal...... achieved through standardized experimental human pain models. Experimental pain models in healthy volunteers are advantageous for evaluation of analgesic action, as this is often difficult to assess in the clinic because of confounding factors such as sedation, nausea and general malaise. These pain models...... facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical...

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock

    Saikat Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The observed effects were comparable with the standard drug-treated group thus demonstrating effective central analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory potentials of the P. capensis leaves aqueous extract and the observations substantiate its folklore use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  11. Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs

    Inoue Eiji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA, the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug ?-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Results: Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Conclusion: Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system.

  12. Effects of repeated oxycodone administration on its analgesic and subjective effects in normal, healthy volunteers

    Cooper, Ziva D; Sullivan, Maria A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Manubay, Jeanne M; Haney, Margaret; Foltin, Richard W; Evans, Suzette M; Kowalczyk, William J; Saccone, Phillip A; Comer, Sandra D

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance to the analgesic effects of opioids has been demonstrated in laboratory animals after repeated drug administration, yet this effect has been studied less frequently under controlled laboratory conditions in humans. This within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine if tolerance developed to the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of the commonly prescribed opioid oxycodone when it was administered daily for 5 days. The effects of oxycodone’s (0, 5, and 20 mg/70 kg, p.o.) were compared, using a within-session cumulative dosing procedure, on the 1st and 5th days of the ‘daily’ dosing phase to assess for tolerance; active oxycodone was administered on the 2nd-4th days of the daily dosing phase. Changes in the effects of oxycodone were also compared when the medication was only administered on the 1st and 5th day of a 5-day ‘intermittent’ dosing phase; placebo medication was administered on the 2nd–4th days of the intermittent dosing phase. A 9-day ‘washout’ period occurred between phases when no medication was administered. Healthy volunteers (N=10) with no history of drug dependence or current drug use participated in this outpatient study. Analgesia was assessed using the Cold-Pressor Test (CPT), pain and drug effects were measured using a variety of questionnaires, and pupil diameter was monitored as an index of physiological effects. When administered daily, no differences were observed in oxycodone-induced analgesia between the 1st and 5th days, but tolerance did develop to some of the positive subjective effects of oxycodone. In contrast, oxycodone-induced analgesia and participant ratings of some positive subjective drug effects were greater on the 5th day compared to the 1st day of the intermittent dosing phase. No differences in the miotic effects of oxycodone between the 1st and 5th days of either dosing phase were detected. Though obtained under limited experimental conditions, these findings suggest that tolerance may not develop to the analgesic effects of therapeutic doses of oxycodone under short-term daily dosing conditions, even though some of its subjective effects may decrease. These data also suggest that intermittent administration may enhance the analgesic effects of oxycodone, while also increasing some of the drug’s positive subjective effects related to abuse liability. PMID:22495183

  13. The Influence of Genotype Polymorphism on Morphine Analgesic Effect for Postoperative Pain in Children

    Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Although opioids are the most commonly used medications to control postoperative pain in children, the analgesic effects could have a large inter-individual variability according to genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the analgesic effect of morphine for postoperative pain in children. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 88 healthy children undergoing tonsillectomy, who received morphine during the operation. The postoperative pain score, frequency of rescue analgesics, and side effects of morphine were assessed in the post-anesthesia care unit. The children were genotyped for OPRM1 A118G, ABCB1 C3435T, and COMT Val158Met. Results Children with at least one G allele for OPRM1 (AG/GG) had higher postoperative pain scores compared with those with the AA genotype at the time of discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (P = 0.025). Other recovery profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant relationship between genotypes and postoperative pain scores in analysis of ABCB1 and COMT polymorphisms. Conclusions Genetic polymorphism at OPRM1 A118G, but not at ABCB1 C3435T and COMT Val158Met, influences the analgesic effect of morphine for immediate acute postoperative pain in children.

  14. Post-operative analgesic effects of paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations: a topical review.

    Dahl, J B; Nielsen, R V; Wetterslev, J; Nikolajsen, L; Hamunen, K; Kontinen, V K; Hansen, M S; Kjer, J J; Mathiesen, O

    2014-11-01

    In contemporary post-operative pain management, patients are most often treated with combinations of non-opioid analgesics, to enhance pain relief and to reduce opioid requirements and opioid-related adverse effects. A diversity of combinations is currently employed in clinical practice, and no well-documented 'gold standards' exist. The aim of the present topical, narrative review is to provide an update of the evidence for post-operative analgesic efficacy with the most commonly used, systemic non-opioid drugs, paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/COX-2 antagonists, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids, and combinations of these. The review is based on data from previous systematic reviews with meta-analyses, investigating effects of non-opioid analgesics on pain, opioid-requirements, and opioid-related adverse effects. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin reduced 24?h post-operative morphine requirements with 6.3 (95% confidence interval: 3.7 to 9.0)?mg, 10.2 (8.7, 11.7)?mg, 10.9 (9.1, 12.8)?mg, and???13?mg, respectively, when administered as monotherapy. The opioid-sparing effect of glucocorticoids was less convincing, 2.33 (0.26, 4.39)?mg morphine/24?h. Trials of pregabalin?>?300?mg/day indicated a morphine-sparing effect of 13.4 (4, 22.8)?mg morphine/24?h. Notably, though, the available evidence for additive or synergistic effects of most combination regimens was sparse or lacking. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, selective COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin all seem to have well-documented, clinically relevant analgesic properties. The analgesic effects of glucocorticoids and pregabalin await further clarification. Combination regimens are sparsely documented and should be further investigated in future studies. PMID:25124340

  15. Analgesic Effects of Oligonol, Acupuncture and Quantum Light Therapy on Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis

    Akdere, Hakan; Oztekin, Ilhan; Arda, Ersan; Aktoz, Tevfik; Turan, Fatma Nesrin; Burgazli, Kamil Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis (CNBP) is a condition that frequently causes long-term pain and a significant decrease in the quality of life. Objectives: The present study aimed to examine the analgesic effects of oligonol, acupuncture, quantum light therapy and their combinations on estrogen-induced CNBP in rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Edirne, Turkey, using a simple randomized allocation. A total of 90 adult male Wistar rats were randomized into 9 groups of 10 rats each: Group I, control; Group II, CNBP, Group III, oligonol only, Group IV, acupuncture only; Group V, quantum only; Group VI, oligonol + quantum; Group VII, acupuncture + oligonol; Group VIII, quantum + acupuncture; Group IX, acupuncture + quantum + oligonol. Oligonol treatment was given at a dose of 60?mg/day for 6 weeks. Conceptual vessels (CV) 3 and 4, and bilaterally urinary bladder (Bl) 32 and 34 points were targeted with 1-hour acupuncture stimulation. The quantum light therapy was applied in 5-minute sessions for 6 weeks (3-times/a week). For pain measurements, mechanical pressure was applied to a point 2 cm distal to the root of the tail to elicit pain and consequent parameters (peak force, latency time of response and total length of measurement) were assessed. Results: Analgesic effects were observed with all treatment regimens; however, the most prominent median analgesic effect was shown in the quantum light therapy in combination with acupuncture for estrogen-induced CNBP (PF1 = 663.9, PF2 = 403.4) (P = 0.012). Furthermore, we observed that monotherapy with quantum light showed a better analgesic efficacy as compared to oligonol and acupuncture monotherapies (PF1 = 1044.6, PF2 = 661.2) (P = 0.018, P = 0.008, P = 0.018; respectively). Conclusions: All treatment modalities showed a significant analgesic effect on CNBP in rats, being most prominent with the quantum light therapy. PMID:26023344

  16. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

    Shan Hu; Yu Chen; Zhi-Fu Wang; Qi-Liang Mao-Ying; Wen-Li Mi; Jian-Wei Jiang; Gen-Cheng Wu; Yan-Qing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could a...

  17. Comparing the Duration of the Analgesic Effects of Intravenous and Rectal Acetaminophen Following Tonsillectomy in Children

    Haddadi, Soudabeh; Marzban, Shideh; Karami, Mohammad Seddigh; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Parvizi, Arman; Naderi Nabi, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain control (especially, after adenotonsillectomy) has a very important effect on recovery time, hospitalization duration, hemodynamic disorders, bleeding, nausea, vomiting and medical costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of intravenous and rectal acetaminophen on controlling post-adenotonsillectomy pain in children, and duration of their analgesic effects. Patients and Methods: In this randomized double-blinded clinica...

  18. Post-operative analgesic effects of paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations

    Dahl, J B; Nielsen, R V; Wetterslev, J; Nikolajsen, L; Hamunen, K; Kontinen, V K; Hansen, M S; Kjer, J J; Mathiesen, O

    2014-01-01

    well-documented 'gold standards' exist. The aim of the present topical, narrative review is to provide an update of the evidence for post-operative analgesic efficacy with the most commonly used, systemic non-opioid drugs, paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/COX-2 antagonists......, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids, and combinations of these. The review is based on data from previous systematic reviews with meta-analyses, investigating effects of non-opioid analgesics on pain, opioid-requirements, and opioid-related adverse effects. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin....... Trials of pregabalin > 300 mg/day indicated a morphine-sparing effect of 13.4 (4, 22.8) mg morphine/24 h. Notably, though, the available evidence for additive or synergistic effects of most combination regimens was sparse or lacking. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, selective COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin all...

  19. Analgesic effect of highly reversible ω-conotoxin FVIA on N type Ca2+ channels

    Kim Hyun Jeong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-type Ca2+ channels (Cav2.2 play an important role in the transmission of pain signals to the central nervous system. ω-Conotoxin (CTx-MVIIA, also called ziconotide (Prialt®, effectively alleviates pain, without causing addiction, by blocking the pores of these channels. Unfortunately, CTx-MVIIA has a narrow therapeutic window and produces serious side effects due to the poor reversibility of its binding to the channel. It would thus be desirable to identify new analgesic blockers with binding characteristics that lead to fewer adverse side effects. Results Here we identify a new CTx, FVIA, from the Korean Conus Fulmen and describe its effects on pain responses and blood pressure. The inhibitory effect of CTx-FVIA on N-type Ca2+ channel currents was dose-dependent and similar to that of CTx-MVIIA. However, the two conopeptides exhibited markedly different degrees of reversibility after block. CTx-FVIA effectively and dose-dependently reduced nociceptive behavior in the formalin test and in neuropathic pain models, and reduced mechanical and thermal allodynia in the tail nerve injury rat model. CTx-FVIA (10 ng also showed significant analgesic effects on writhing in mouse neurotransmitter- and cytokine-induced pain models, though it had no effect on acute thermal pain and interferon-γ induced pain. Interestingly, although both CTx-FVIA and CTx-MVIIA depressed arterial blood pressure immediately after administration, pressure recovered faster and to a greater degree after CTx-FVIA administration. Conclusions The analgesic potency of CTx-FVIA and its greater reversibility could represent advantages over CTx-MVIIA for the treatment of refractory pain and contribute to the design of an analgesic with high potency and low side effects.

  20. Endomorphin-1 analogues (MELs) penetrate the blood-brain barrier and exhibit good analgesic effects with minimal side effects.

    Wang, Yuan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Dan; Yang, Junxian; Zhao, Long; Yu, Jing; Wang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Endomorphins are endogenous opioid peptides in mammals and display a strong antinociceptive effect after central administration. However, the clinical usage of these peptides is limited because of their diminished analgesic effect following systemic injection and their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we characterized the in vivo effects of four novel endomorphin-1 analogues (termed MELs), which previously showed potential as highly potent analgesics with a good pharmacological profile in vitro. The analogues were administered intravenously to several rodent pain models to examine their antinociception and blood-brain barrier permeability. The tested peptides, especially MEL1214, showed good analgesic activity and blood-brain barrier permeability. Behavioral studies showed dose-dependent analgesic effect after systematic administration of MEL1214 in the tested pain models. Pre-treatment of subcutaneous administration of naloxone methiodide did not affect the antinociception of these peptides. As compared to morphine, MEL1214 was less prone to induce tolerance after consecutive intravenous administration for 5 days. Gastrointestinal transit was evaluated by the isolated colon response and bead expulsion to determine the potential constipation effect. In contrast to morphine, MEL1214 produced no significant constipation effect at an equivalent dose. MEL1214 shows promise as a suitable compound to treat pain with reduced side effects, and exhibits good potential to be further developed as a novel opioid analgesic in pain treatment. PMID:26116761

  1. Evaluation of analgesic effect of local administration of morphine after iliac crest bone graft harvesting: A double blind study

    Devinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Pain is a complex process influenced by both physiological and psychological factors. In spite of an armamentarium of analgesic drugs and techniques available to combat post-operative pain, appropriate selection, and effective management for relief of post-operative pain still poses unique challenges. The discovery of peripheral opioid receptors has led to growing interest in the use of locally applied opioids (intra-articular, intra-pleural, intra-peritoneal, and perineural for managing acute pain. As bone graft harvesting is associated with significant post-operative pain and there is a paucity of literature on the use of peripheral opioids at the iliac crest bone harvesting site, the present study was planned to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of local administration of morphine after iliac crest bone graft harvesting. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients, 20-50 years of age scheduled to undergo elective surgery for delayed and non-union fracture both bone leg with bone grafting under general anaesthesia (GA were randomly assigned to one of the four groups of 15 patients each: group 1: 2.5 ml normal saline (NS +2.5 ml NS infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 1 ml NS intramuscularly (i/m; Group 2: 2.5 ml NS + 2.5 ml NS infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 5 mg morphine in 1 ml i/m.; Group 3: 2.5 mg (2.5 ml morphine + 2.5 mg (2.5 ml morphine infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 1 ml NS i/m; Group 4: 0.5 mg naloxone (2.5 ml +5 mg (2.5 ml morphine infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 1 ml NS i/m. Pain from the bone graft site and operative site was assessed for 24 h post-operatively. Results: The patients who had received morphine infiltration (Group 3 had significantly less pain scores at the graft site at 4, 6, and 10 post-operative hours. They also had significantly less morphine consumption and overall better pain relief as compared to the other groups. Conclusions: Morphine administered peripherally provided better analgesia as compared to that given systemically and this effect was noticeable after 4 h post-operatively.

  2. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in mice

    Matheus Alves de Lima, Mota; José Saul Peixoto, Landim; Thiago Sousa Silva, Targino; Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro da, Silva; Sônia Leite da, Silva; Márcio Roberto Pinho, Pereira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in mice. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effect of alcoholic extracts of green tea (AE) was evaluated in a cell migration assay with four groups of six Swiss mice receiving 0.07g/Kg or 0.14g/Kg EA (trea [...] tment groups), saline (negative control) or 10mg/Kg indomethacin (positive control) by gavage. One hour later 300 µg carrageen an was administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. The analgesic effect was evaluated using four groups of six animals receiving 0.07g/Kg or 0.14g/Kg EA, saline or 10mg/Kg indomethacin subcutaneously, followed 30 minutes later by 1% acetic acid. RESULTS: When administered subcutaneously at either dose (0.07g/Kg and 0.14g/Kg), AE inhibited carrageenan-induced cell migration (p

  3. Flexibilide Obtained from Cultured Soft Coral Has Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Analgesic Effects through the Upregulation of Spinal Transforming Growth Factor-β1 in Neuropathic Rats

    Nan-Fu Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuroinflammation plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. The compound flexibilide, which can be obtained from cultured soft coral, possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in the rat carrageenan peripheral inflammation model. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive properties of flexibilide in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI model of neuropathic pain. First, we found that a single intrathecal (i.t. administration of flexibilide significantly attenuated CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia at 14 days after surgery. Second, i.t. administration of 10-μg flexibilide twice daily was able to prevent the development of thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing deficits in CCI rats. Third, i.t. flexibilide significantly inhibited CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes, as well as the upregulated proinflammatory enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Furthermore, flexibilide attenuated the CCI-induced downregulation of spinal transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 at 14 days after surgery. Finally, i.t. SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, blocked the analgesic effects of flexibilide in CCI rats. Our results suggest that flexibilide may serve as a therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain. In addition, spinal TGF-β1 may be involved in the anti-neuroinflammatory and analgesic effects of flexibilide.

  4. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  5. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  6. Analgesic effectiveness of prophylactic therapy and continued therapy with naproxen sodium post simple extraction.

    Angel Steven Asmat-Abanto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effectiveness of prophylactic therapy and continued therapy with naproxen sodium post simple extraction. Material and methods: Prospective randomized, parallel, single-blind clinical assay, was developed in the Clínica Estomatológica of Universidad Alas Peruanas Filial Trujillo (Peru. Patients who required a simple extraction by dental caries, were randomized into three groups: 30 received naproxen sodium 550 mg preoperatively and then every 12 hours, 30 received naproxen sodium 550 mg postoperatively and then every 12 hours, and 30, ibuprofen (control group 400 mg postoperatively and then every 8 hours, according to the established criteria. The procedure was standardized and the analgesic efficacy assessed by visual analog scale, and the presence of adverse drug reactions. Data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics 22, using ANOVA and Duncan test, considering a significance level of 5%. Result: continued therapy with naproxen sodium showed higher analgesic effectiveness at 1, 8 and 24 hours (p

  7. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ficus Iteophylla Leaves in Rodents

    Abdulmalik, IA; Sule, MI; Musa, A M; A.H. Yaro; Abdullahi, MI; Abdulkadir, MF; Yusuf, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg−1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100mgkg−1, 200mgkg−1,...

  8. Phytochemical, analgesic, antibacterial, and cytotoxic effects of Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt leaf extract.

    Abu Ahmed, A M; Sharmen, Farjana; Mannan, Adnan; Rahman, Md Atiar

    2015-10-01

    This research evaluated the phytochemical contents as well as the analgesic, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial effects of the methanolic extract of Alpinia nigra leaf. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using established methods. The analgesic effects of the extract were measured with the formalin test and tail immersion test. The antibacterial activity of the extract was evaluated using the disc diffusion technique. Cytotoxicity was assessed with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance using statistical software (SPSS, Version 19.0). The qualitative phytochemical screening of A. nigra leaf extract showed the presence of medicinally active secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides, and saponins. The extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg revealed a prevailed central nociception increasing the reaction time in response to thermal stimulation. The extract also showed a response to chemical nociceptors, causing pain inhibition in the late phase. The leaf extract (2 mg/disc) showed mild antibacterial activity compared to tetracycline (50 μg/disc). In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LC50 (lethal concentration 50) value of the extract was found to be 57.12 μg/mL, implying a promising cytotoxic effect. The results evidenced the moderate analgesic and antibacterial effects with pronounced cytotoxic capability. PMID:26587396

  9. Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem

    Hao-Yuan Cheng; Meng-Shiou Lee; Li-Heng Pao; Wen-Huang Peng; Jiunn-Wang Liao; Jung Chao

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited a...

  10. The cumulative analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture involves synaptic remodeling in the hippocampal CA3 region☆

    Xu, Qiuling; Liu, Tao; CHEN, SHUPING; Gao, Yonghui; Wang, Junying; Qiao, Lina; Liu, Junling

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture at bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) once a day for 14 consecutive days in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. In addition, concomitant changes in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression and synaptic ultrastructure of neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region were examined. The thermal pain threshold (paw withdrawal latency) was incr...

  11. Correlation of ADRB1 rs1801253 Polymorphism with Analgesic Effect of Fentanyl After Cancer Surgeries

    Wei, Wei; Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Chunlei; Sui, Zhifu; Liu, Chang; Wang, Congmin; Yang, Rongya

    2015-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to explore the association between ?1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1) rs1801253 polymorphism and analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgeries in Chinese Han populations. Material/Methods Postoperative fentanyl consumption of 120 patients for analgesia was recorded. Genotype distributions were detected by allele specific amplification-polymerase chain reaction (ASA-PCR) method. Postoperative pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) method. Differences in postoperative VAS score and postoperative fentanyl consumption for analgesia in different genotype groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test was also performed to test the analgesic effect of fentanyl. Results Frequencies of Gly/Gly, Gly/Arg, Arg/Arg genotypes were 45.0%, 38.3%, and 16.7%, respectively, and passed the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) test. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the heart rate (HR) had no significant differences at different times. After surgery, the VAS score and fentanyl consumption in Arg/Arg group were significantly higher than in other groups at the postoperative 2nd hour, but the differences were not obvious at the 4th hour, 24th hour, and the 48th hour. The results suggest that the Arg/Arg homozygote increased susceptibility to postoperative pain. The preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test suggested that individuals with Arg/Arg genotype showed worse analgesic effect of fentanyl compared to other genotypes. Conclusions In Chinese Han populations, ADRB1 rs1801253 polymorphism might be associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgery. PMID:26694722

  12. Altered Frequency Distribution in the Electroencephalogram is Correlated to the Analgesic Effect of Remifentanil

    Graversen, Carina; Malver, Lasse P; Kurita, Geana P; Staahl, Camilla; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2014-01-01

    Opioids alter resting state brain oscillations by multiple and complex factors, which are still to be elucidated. To increase our knowledge, multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was subjected to multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to identify the most descriptive frequency bands and scalp...... remifentanil treatment. As the EEG alterations were correlated to the analgesic effect, the approach may prove to be a novel methodology for monitoring individual efficacy to opioids....

  13. Pharmacodynamic effects of oral oxymorphone: abuse liability, analgesic profile and direct physiologic effects in humans.

    Babalonis, Shanna; Lofwall, Michelle R; Nuzzo, Paul A; Walsh, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    Oxymorphone is a semisynthetic μ-opioid agonist, marketed as a prescription analgesic purported to be twice as potent as oxycodone for pain relief. Oral formulations of oxymorphone were reintroduced in the United States in 2006 and reports of abuse ensued; however, there are limited data available on its pharmacodynamic effects. The current study aimed to examine the direct physiologic effects, relative abuse liability, analgesic profile and overall pharmacodynamic potency of oxymorphone in comparison with identical doses of oxycodone. Healthy, non-dependent opioid abusers (n = 9) were enrolled in this within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week inpatient study. Seven experimental sessions (6.5 hours) were conducted, during which an oral dose of immediate-release formulations of oxymorphone (10, 20 and 40 mg), oxycodone (10, 20 and 40 mg) or placebo was administered. An array of physiologic, abuse liability and experimental pain measures was collected. At identical doses, oxymorphone produced approximately twofold less potent effects on miosis, compared with oxycodone. Oxymorphone also produced lesser magnitude effects on measures of respiratory depression, two experimental pain models and observer-rated agonist effects. However, 40 mg of oxymorphone was similar to 40 mg of oxycodone on several abuse-related subjective ratings. Formal relative potency analyses were largely invalid because of the substantially greater effects of oxycodone. Overall, oxymorphone is less potent on most pharmacodynamic measures, although at higher doses, its abuse liability is similar to oxycodone. These data suggest that the published clinical equianalgesic estimates may not be consistent with the observed direct physiologic effects of opioids, results of experimental pain models or abuse liability measures, as assessed in the human laboratory. PMID:25130052

  14. The effect of acupressure at SP6 point on analgesic taking in women during labor

    Parisa Samad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the potential side effects of analgesics and anaesthetic drugs to control the labour pains, it is possible to replace non-medical method for palliative treatment. The purpose of this research is to assess the effect of acupressure in spleen point 6 (SP6 on the amount of analgesic drug taking during labour. Materials and Method: We conducted one sided blind randomized clinical trial in 2008. 131 term pregnant women randomly selected and divided into three groups; including one experimental group (pressure on SP6:41 persons and two control groups (SP6 touch: 41 cases and common care: 49 persons. The data has been analyzed by using the descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS-16 software.Results: Comparing the average amounts of the consumed drug between three groups showed a significant decrease in the experimental group more than the other two control groups (p=0.006. The average amount of consumed pethidine in the experimental group showed a significant decrease (p=0.02.Conclusion: The findings of our study showed that the pressure on SP6 is an effective method to decrease the amount of analgesic consumption in labor specially pethidine

  15. Heel lance in newborn during breastfeeding: an evaluation of analgesic effect of this procedure

    Tozzini Danila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The reduction of pain due to routine invasive procedures (capillary heel stick blood sampling for neonatal metabolic screening in the newborn is an important objective for the so-called "Hospital with no pain". Practices such as skin to skin contact, or breastfeeding, in healthy newborn, may represent an alternative to the use of analgesic drugs. The aim of our work is to evaluate the analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture in full term healthy newborn. Methods We studied 200 healthy full term newborns (100 cases and 100 controls, proposing the puncture to mothers during breastfeeding, and explaining to them all the advantages of this practice. Pain assessment was evaluated by DAN scale (Douleur Aigue Nouveau ne scale. Results The difference in score of pain according to the DAN scale was significant in the two groups of patients (p = 0.000; the medium score was 5.15 for controls and 2.65 for cases (newborns sampled during breastfeeding. Conclusion Our results confirmed the evidence of analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture. This procedure could easily be adopted routinely in maternity wards.

  16. Baclofen prolongs the analgesic effect of fentanyl in man.

    Panerai, A E; Massei, R; de Silva, E; Sacerdote, P; Monza, G; Mantegazza, P

    1985-10-01

    Pretreatment with baclofen prolonged the duration of fentanyl-induced analgesia from 18 to 30 min in patients undergoing neurosurgical anaesthesia (fentanyl plus nitrous oxide in oxygen). This observation is consistent with a potentiating effect of GABA on opioid analgesia. PMID:4041321

  17. Analgesic effects of palonosetron in the intravenous propofol injection

    Ryu, Han-Bom; Kim, Su-jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Propofol is a good induction agent, but it has the disadvantage of causing pain on intravenous injection. The incidence of propofol-induced pain is approximately 70%. Palonosetron is a novel second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist. We presumed that palonosetron would be effective in reducing the occurrence of propofol-induced pain based on similar mechanisms to other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. Methods Eighty patients were randomized to either Group...

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Ceiba pentandra Gaertn

    Romaric De Garde Elion Itou; Rokia Sanogo; Arnaud Wilfrid Etou Ossibi; Freddy Gelase Nsondé Ntandou; Radard Ondelé; Bonaventure Max Pénemé; Nadége Okiémy Andissa; Drissa Diallo; Jean Maurille Ouamba; Ange Antoine Abena

    2014-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Ceiba pentandra Gaertn (Bombacaceae) were recorded in rat and mice. Inflammation was induced by carrageenan and cotton pellet. The pain was studied using analgesymeter, Koster and hot plate Methods. Aqueous extract (400 and 800 mg/kg) of Ceiba pentandra presents a significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Flavono?ds present in the extract seem to be responsible for the activity.

  19. Investigation of the central and peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Draksharishta an Indian Ayurvedic formulation

    Kabir, Ashraf-ul; Samad, Mehdi Bin; D′Costa, Ninadh Malrina; Hannan, Juardar Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Draksharishta (DRK) is an Ayurvedic formulation approved by the “National formulary of Ayurvedic Medicine 2011”, of Bangladesh. It is widely available in the Bangladeshi market as an effective preparation to treat lumbago, sciatia and arthritic pain of joints. But there are very scientific evidences available to support their common uses. Objectives: Our present studies make an attempt toward identifying probable antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanisms of DR...

  20. Shock titration in the rhesus monkey: effects of opiate and nonopiate analgesics.

    Bloss, J L; Hammond, D L

    1985-11-01

    This study evaluated the antinociceptive effects of several opiate and nonopiate analgesics in the rhesus monkey using a discrete trial shock titration paradigm. Morphine sulfate (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg i.m.) and codeine sulfate (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg i.m.) produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in mean shock threshold that was not accompanied by a significant increase in mean response latency. The mean number of shocks terminated was significantly decreased at the highest dose of each opiate. Aspirin (100 and 300 mg/kg p.o.) or ibuprofen (200 mg/kg p.o.) did not significantly increase mean shock threshold or mean response latency or decrease mean number of shocks terminated. However, 6 mg/kg i.m. of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol produced a significant increase in mean shock threshold and mean response latency with no significant effect on mean number of shocks terminated. The absence of any effects of a 2-mg/kg dose of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol and the severe side effects produced by 10 mg/kg prevented determination of its dose-response relationship. Diazepam (0.5, 2 and 8 mg/kg i.m.) produced a significant, dose-dependent increase in mean shock threshold and a significant increase in mean response latency with no consistent or significant effect on mean number of shocks terminated. Doses of 2 and 8 mg/kg of diazepam also produced signs of ataxia. These results suggest that the discrete trial shock titration paradigm is suitable for demonstration of the antinociceptive effects of opiate and certain nonopiate analgesics, but not nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics in the rhesus monkey. PMID:4057079

  1. Comparison of the Analgesic Effects of Dronabinol and Smoked Marijuana in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20 mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4 °C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56% 20 mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98% 20 mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56% 20 mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20 mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana. PMID:23609132

  2. Building a Better Analgesic: Multifunctional Compounds that Address Injury-Induced Pathology to Enhance Analgesic Efficacy while Eliminating Unwanted Side Effects

    Largent-Milnes, T. M.; Brookshire, S. W.; Skinner, D. P.; Hanlon, K. E.; Giuvelis, D.; Yamamoto, T.; Davis, P.; Campos, C. R.; Nair, P.; Deekonda, S.; Bilsky, E. J.; Porreca, F.; Hruby, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    The most highly abused prescription drugs are opioids used for the treatment of pain. Physician-reported drug-seeking behavior has resulted in a significant health concern among doctors trying to adequately treat pain while limiting the misuse or diversion of pain medications. In addition to abuse liability, opioid use is associated with unwanted side effects that complicate pain management, including opioid-induced emesis and constipation. This has resulted in restricting long-term doses of opioids and inadequate treatment of both acute and chronic debilitating pain, demonstrating a compelling need for novel analgesics. Recent reports indicate that adaptations in endogenous substance P/neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1) are induced by chronic pain and sustained opioid exposure, and these changes may contribute to processes responsible for opioid abuse liability, emesis, and analgesic tolerance. Here, we describe a multifunctional mu-/delta-opioid agonist/NK1 antagonist compound [Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-Phe-Met-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(CF3)2 (TY027)] that has a preclinical profile of excellent antinociceptive efficacy, low abuse liability, and no opioid-related emesis or constipation. In rodent models of acute and neuropathic pain, TY027 demonstrates analgesic efficacy following central or systemic administration with a plasma half-life of more than 4 hours and central nervous system penetration. These data demonstrate that an innovative opioid designed to contest the pathology created by chronic pain and sustained opioids results in antinociceptive efficacy in rodent models, with significantly fewer side effects than morphine. Such rationally designed, multitargeted compounds are a promising therapeutic approach in treating patients who suffer from acute and chronic pain. PMID:23860305

  3. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can increase analgesic effect in refractory cancer pain

    Hao Jiqing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effects of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil for the refractory pain in cancer patients. Methods 2109 patients were screened from the department of medical oncology, the first affiliated hospital of Anhui medical university in China between October of 2007 and October of 2008. Thirty-seven cases of cancer patients who had bad effect from anaesthetic drugs were received administration of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil with dose of 50 mg/5 ml/day. The pain score was evaluated for pre- and post- treatment by Pain Faces Scale criteria, and the side effects were also observed. Results Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil increased the analgesic effects. The total effective rate was 92%. The side effects, such as abdominal pain, alimentary tract bleeding which were found in using NSAIDs or constipation, nausea, vomit, sleepiness which were found in using opioid drugs did not be found. Conclusion Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil could provide better analgesia effects and few side effects to patients with refractory cancer pain. It could also increase analgesia effects when combining with anesthetic drugs in treatment of moderate or severe pain, especially breakthrough pain, and suit to patients who can not take oral drugs for the reason of constipation and psychosomatic symptoms.

  4. Investigation of the Central and Peripheral Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Kutajarishta, an Indian Ayurvedic formulation

    Ashraful Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Kutajarishta (KTJ) is an Ayurvedic formulation approved by the “National formulary of Ayurvedic Medicine 2011”, of Bangladesh. It is widely available in the Bangladeshi market as an effective preparation to treat lumbago, sciatia and arthritic pain of joints. Our present studies make an attempt toward identifying probable anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of KTJ. KTJ, at three doses, (10mL/kg, 20mL/kg, and 40mL/kg) showed no involvement of the CNS in anti-nociceptive activity ...

  5. Experimental study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Yitieling Paste

    Xu, Li-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Yitieling Paste (YTLP). Methods: YTLP and aspirin (as a control drug) were introduced to treat the edematous ears of mice induced by xylene and swollen toes of mice induced by carrageenin, and to relieve the pain in mice induced by heat and acetic acid. The swelling degree, pain threshold and body distortions were measured. Results: The repression rates of the ear edema in groups of YTLP of high and low dosages and the aspir...

  6. [Non-opioid analgesics--irreplaceable in cancer pain therapy?

    Ladner, E; Plattner, R; Friesenecker, B; Berger, J; Javorsky, F

    2000-11-01

    Sufficient therapy of pain is essential for the treatment of tumor patients. World Health Organisation (WHO)-guidelines recommend a combination of opioids with non-opioid-analgesics (NOA) for patients with medium to strong pain. Cancer pain is often a combination of pain caused by the tumor itself, tumor associated and pain caused by therapy. Various substances act by different mechanisms and therefore combinations may demonstrate superior effects. Opioids ("central analgesics") inhibit neuronal transduction within the spinal cord, enhance inhibiting function of midbrain nuclei on ascending pain transduction and influence pain perception via modulation of the limbic system. NOAs ("peripheral analgesics") inhibit cyclooxygenase hindering activation of the peripheral nociceptor-system. There are 2 different classes of NOAs: 1) non-acidic, antipyretic analgesics like pyrazolones (metamizol) and anilin-derivates (paracetamol) and 2) non-steroidal antirheumatics (NSAR) like salicylates (acetylsalicylic acid), derivates of propionic acid (ibuprofen, naproxen), acetate acid (indomethacin, diclofenac), enolic acid (piroxicam, meloxicam) and anthranil acid (mefenamin). Adjuvant therapy is necessary to control common NSAR-side-effects like dyspepsia, ulcer and gastrointestinal bleeding. Due to its exceptional analgesic, antipyretic and spasmolytic properties, metamizol is an essential substance in tumor therapy. As agranulocytosis-incidence of 1:1,000,000 is low, good gastrointestinal and renal tolerance makes metamizol an excellent alternative to NSAR. There is scientific evidence that adequate combinations of non-opioids, opioids and adjuvant drugs, considering adverse side effects, were effective and safe in the treatment of cancer pain. PMID:11130128

  7. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds

    Schulteis Gery

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture provides a means of peripheral stimulation for pain relief. However, the detailed neuronal mechanisms by which acupuncture relieves pain are still poorly understood and information regarding optimal treatment settings is still inadequate. Previous studies with a short burst of unilateral electroacupuncture (EA in the Tendinomuscular Meridians (TMM treatment model for pain demonstrated a transient dermatomally correlated bilateral analgesic effect with corresponding peripheral modality-specific sensory threshold alterations. However, the impact of EA duration on the analgesic effect in this particular treatment model is unknown. To obtain mechanistically and clinically important information regarding EA analgesia, this current prospective cross-over study assesses the effects of EA duration on analgesia and thermal sensory thresholds in the TMM treatment model. Methods Baseline peripheral sensory thresholds were measured at pre-marked testing sites along the medial aspects (liver and spleen meridians of bilateral lower extremities. A 5-second hot pain stimulation was delivered to the testing sites and the corresponding pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were recorded. Three different EA (5Hz stimulation durations (5, 15 and 30 minutes were randomly tested at least one week apart. At the last 10 seconds of each EA session, 5 seconds of subject specific HP stimulation was delivered to the testing sites. The corresponding pain and EA VAS scores of de qi sensation (tingling during and after the EA were recorded. The measurements were repeated immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the EA stimulation. A four-factor repeat measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of stimulation duration, time, location (thigh vs. calf and side (ipsilateral vs. contralateral of EA on sensory thresholds and HP VAS scores. Results A significant (P Conclusion Longer durations of EA stimulation provide a more sustainable analgesic benefit to hot noxious stimulation than a shorter duration of stimulation. The increase of cold threshold with sustained warm threshold temperature elevation as observed in the longer durations of EA suggests that as the duration of EA lengthened, there is a gradual shifting from an initial predominantly spinally mediated analgesic effect to a supraspinally mediated modulatory mechanism of thermal pain. The 15-minute stimulation appeared to be the optimal setting for treating acute pain in the lower extremities.

  8. Effects of Laser Irradiation on Peripheral Nerve

    Baxter, G. D.; Chow, R.; Armati, P.; Bjordal, J. M.; Laakso, L.

    2009-06-01

    A literature review was undertaken to determine the electrophysiological effects of Laser Irradiation (LI) on peripheral mammalian nerves, as a means of elucidating the potential mechanisms underlying pain relief associated with laser therapy. Relevant computerized databases and reference lists were searched, and experts consulted for further articles. A total of 38 studies, comprising 82 separate experiments were identified. In human studies, all types of LI (red and infrared, pulsed and cw) slowed nerve conduction velocity, and reduced compound action potential of irradiated nerves. In animal studies, infrared LI suppressed conduction velocity, as well as noxious stimulation evoked potential. This review thus indicates the potential of laser irradiation to inhibit activity in peripheral nerves, and highlights one potential mechanism of action for laser-mediated pain relief.

  9. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  10. Evaluation of analgesic effect of tapentadol, a central novel analgesic versus tramadol, a widely used opioid analgesic in treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    Zaki Anwar Zaman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to compare efficacy and tolerability (safety of tapentadol with tramadol in the treatment of low back pain. Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized, single blinded, total 102 patients are recruited for study in which 44 patients are prescribed (50mgtwice daily tapentadol and 58 patients prescribed (50mg twice daily tramadol for 4 weeks. Follow-up was done on days 7, 14, 28 and 4 week after stoppage of treatment. Assessment of improvement were performed by Indian Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (Indian HAQDI, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and measurement of Pain Relief Rate (PRR. Adverse events were recorded. Results: Scores in Indian HAQDI, VAS and NRS improved significantly in both groups in the last visit but more so with tapentadol. PRR was reasonably higher with tapentadol [27(n=4461.36%] patients experiencing significant to complete pain relief at the end of the study, compared to tramadol [25(n=58 43.10%]. Adverse effects was less in tapentadol group [15(n=4434.09%] versus 33(n=5856.89%], p<0.05]. Conclusion: Tapentadol has better sustained efficacy and tolerability than tramadol in low back pain. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 392-396

  11. Anti-dermatitis, anxiolytic and analgesic effects of Rhazya stricta from Balochistan.

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammed, Shafi; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Jan, Syed Umer; Qureshi, Zia-Ul-Rehaman

    2014-05-01

    Current study was carried out on Rhazya stricta. Plant material was collected from Jhalmagsi Dist. Balochistan, Pakistan. Methanolic extract of Rhazya stricta was tested for anti-dermatitis, analgesic, anxiolytic effects, insecticidal activity and Brine shrimp Bioassay. Crude extract showed significant anti-dermatitis activity, as the results of intensity score showed mild Excoriation or erosion, moderate Edema or populations and absence of Erythema or hemorrhage, Scratching time was decreased to 1.45 and histological observations of mice treated with crude extract showed mild changes and few inflammatory cells in several microscopic fields. The results of analgesic activity were significant and the percentage inhibition of writhes were 73.54% and 69.38% at 300mg/kg and 500mg/kg respectively. The overall response of crude extract in anxiolytic activities were depressive and crude extract showed sedative effects. In Brine shrimp (Artemsia salina) lethality bioassay crude extract showed dose depended significant activity, and showed positive lethality with LD(50) 3.3004?g/ml. Insecticidal activity was positive against Callosbruchus analis, the percent mortality was 40%. PMID:24811805

  12. Nanoparticles prolong N-palmitoylethanolamide anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in vivo.

    Tronino, Diana; Offerta, Alessia; Ostacolo, Carmine; Russo, Roberto; De Caro, Carmen; Calignano, Antonio; Puglia, Carmelo; Blasi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    N-Palmitoylethanolamide showed great therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammation and pain but its unfavourable pharmacokinetics properties will hinder its use in the clinical practice. A nanotechnology-based formulation was developed to enhance the probability of N-palmitoylethanolamide therapeutic success, especially in skin disease management. Lipid nanoparticles were produced and characterized to evaluate their mean size, ζ-potential, thermal behaviour, and morphology. The ability of N-palmitoylethanolamide to diffuse across the epidermis as well as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were investigated. Particles had a mean size of about 150nm and a ζ-potential of -40mV. DSC data confirmed the solid state of the matrix and the embedding of N-palmitoylethanolamide while electron microscopy have evidenced a peculiar internal structure (i.e., low-electrondense spherical objects within the matrix) that can be reliably ascribed to the presence of oil nanocompartments. Lipid nanoparticles increased N-palmitoylethanolamide percutaneous diffusion and prolonged the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in vivo. Lipid nanoparticles seem a good nanotechnology-based strategy to bring N-palmitoylethanolamide to clinics. PMID:26866893

  13. Enhanced analgesic effect of morphine-nimodipine combination after intraspinal administration as compared to systemic administration in mice

    Dilip Verma; Subrata Basu Ray; Ishan Patro; Shashi Wadhwa

    2005-09-01

    Calcium plays an important role in the pathophysiology of pain. A number of studies have investigated the effect of L-type calcium channel blockers on the analgesic response of morphine. However, the results are conflicting. In the present study, the antinociceptive effect of morphine (2.5 g) and nimodipine (1 g) co-administered intraspinally in mice was observed using the tail flick test. It was compared to the analgesic effect of these drugs (morphine – 250 g subcutaneously; nimodipine – 100 g intraperitoneally) after systemic administration. Nimodipine is highly lipophilic and readily crosses the blood brain barrier. Addition of nimodipine to morphine potentiated the analgesic response of the latter when administered through the intraspinal route but not when administered through systemic route. It may be due to direct inhibitory effect of morphine and nimodipine on neurons of superficial laminae of the spinal cord after binding to -opioid receptors and L-type calcium channels respectively.

  14. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.

    1999-12-16

    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  15. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ISOLATED COMPOUND FROM MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA SEEDS GIVES SIGNIFICANT ANALGESIC EFFECT

    Chirantan S. Chakma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the analgesic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of isolated compound from M.longifolia seeds in rats and mice model. All three animal groups were administered the aq. and alc.ext of M.longifolia at a dose of 4 mg to 64 mg/kg body weight. The standard drug diclofenac 5 mg/kg b.w is used in three screening method. The paw licking time, tail withdrawal time and chemical writhings in mice both aq. and alc. extracts of M.longifolia prevents significant dose dependent anti-nociceptive effect. Diclofenac 5 mg/kg failed to alter significantly the antinociceptive effect of 16 to 32 mg of both extracts or the effect on chemical assay.

  16. Anticonvulsant, Analgesic and Hypothermic Effects of Aridanin Isolated from Tetrapleura tetrapetra Fruit in Mice

    A.O. Aderibigbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aridanin (an N-acetylglycoside of oleanolic acid isolated from Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit was investigated for anticonvulsant, analgesic and hypothermic activities in mice. Aridanin at doses of 15 and 30 mg kg-1 by intraperitoneal administration was shown to protect animals in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure but not in strychnine and picrotoxin induced convulsions. The same dose of aridanin equally decreased rectal temperature and acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. The hypothermic action of aridanin was reversed by pretreatment with cyproheptadine (0.1 mg kg-1, atropine (2 mg kg-1, naltrexone (0.25 mg kg-1, but not with haloperidol (0.1 mg kg-1. The effect on acetic acid-induced writhes was completely blocked by naltrexone, but not by atropine, cyproheptadine and haloperidol. The results suggest that aridanin could be acting as a Central Nervous System (CNS depressant and that its anticonvulsant property is mediated through the membrane stabilizing property and not through GABA and glycine neurotransmitters respectively. Analgesic and hypothermic actions were mediated through opioids and cholinergic, 5-HT receptors, respectively.

  17. The analgesic effect of pregabalin in chronic pain patients is reflected by changes in pharmaco-EEG spectral indices

    Gravesen, Carina; Olesen, Søren S; Olesen, Anne E; Lindegaard Steimle, Kristoffer; Farina, Dario; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Bouwense, Stefan A W; van Goor, Harry; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2012-01-01

    approach to monitor the analgesic effect of pregabalin in pharmacological studies. SUMMARY: Aim: To identify electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarkers for the analgesic effect of pregabalin in patients with chronic visceral pain. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in thirty......-one patients suffering from visceral pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Patients received increasing doses of pregabalin (75mg-300mg twice a day) or matching placebo during 3 weeks of treatment. Pain scores were documented in a diary based on the visual analogue scale. In addition, brief pain inventory...

  18. Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Caudal Epidural Tramadol, Tramadol-Lidocaine, and Lidocaine in Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis)

    Ayman Atiba; Alaa Ghazy; Naglaa Gomaa; Tarek Kamal; Mustafa Shukry

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and a combination of tramadol-lidocaine with that produced by lidocaine administration in the epidural space in buffalo calves. In a prospective randomized crossover study, ten male buffalo calves were used to compare the epidural analgesic effect of tramadol (1 mg/kg) and tramadol-lidocaine combination (0.5 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg, resp.) with that produced by 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg). Loss of sensation was examined by pin-prick...

  19. Low-dose spinal neostigmine further enhances the analgesic effect of spinal bupivacaine combined with epidural dexamethasone, following orthopedic surgery

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids are considered mainstream for combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, but frequently limited by adverse effects. The aim of this study was to examine whether low-dose spinal neostigmine, epidural dexamethasone or their combination enhances analgesia from spinal bupivacaine without adverse effects. Materials and Methods : A total of 60 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery were randomized to one of four groups and evaluated for 24-h after surgery for analgesia (time to first rescue analgesic and rescue analgesic consumption. Patients received 15 mg bupivacaine plus the test drug intrathecally (saline or 1 microgram (μg neostigmine. The epidural test drug was either saline or 10 mg dexamethasone. The Control group (CG received spinal and epidural saline. The Neostigmine group (NG, spinal neostigmine and epidural saline; the Dexamethasone group (DG, spinal saline and epidural dexamethasone; and the Neostigmine-dexamethasone group (NDG, spinal neostigmine and epidural dexamethasone. Results: The CG (282 ± 163 min and NG (524 ± 142 min were similar in their times to first rescue analgesic and analgesic consumption. The time to first rescue analgesic was longer for the DG (966 ± 397 min compared with CG and NG (P < 0.0002, and the DG had less ketoprofen consumption and lower overall visual analogue scale-pain sores compared with CG and NG (P < 0.0005. Addition of 1 mg-neostigmine (NDG resulted in longer time to rescue analgesic (1205 ± 303 min; P < 0.02 and lower ketoprofen consumption (P < 0.05 compared to DG. Sporadic cases of vesical catheterization and emesis were observed, however adverse effects were similar among groups. Conclusion: Spinal 1 microgram (μg neostigmine further enhanced analgesia from spinal bupivacaine combined with epidural dexamethasone, without increasing the incidence of adverse effects.

  20. INTRATHECAL MIDAZOLAM PROLONGS THE ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF SPINAL BLOCKADE WITH LIDOCAINE FOR PERINEAL OPERATION

    B. Jahangiri R. Jahangiri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal administration of midazolam has been reported to have antinociceptive action, and to be an effective analgesic agent. In this prospective double-blind study we aimed to evaluate the postoperative effects of intrathecal midazolam with lidocaine following perineal operation. Forty patients were randomly allocated to two groups: 20 patients in the control group received 2 ml of 5% heavy lidocaine plus 0.4 ml of 0.9% saline intrathecally; 20 patients in the midazolam group received 2 ml of 5% heavy lidocaine plus 0.4 ml of 0.5% midazolam. Duration of analgesia was significantly greater in the midazolam group (7 ? 1 hours compared to the control group (1.5 ? 0.5 hours.

  1. Analgesic Effect of Perioperative Escitalopram in High Pain Catastrophizing Patients after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Lunn, T. H.; Frokjaer, V. G.; Hansen, T. B.; Wagner Kristensen, Per; Lind, T.; Kehlet, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sufficient pain treatment remains a challenge after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), especially in high pain catastrophizing patients. Serotonergic signaling may be involved in pain processing, but the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on well-defined postoperative pain......) scheduled for TKA were randomized in a double-blind manner to either 10 mg escitalopram or placebo daily from preanesthesia to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were overall pain during well-defined...... mobilizations and at rest from 2 to 48 h and from days 2 to 6, morphine equivalents, anxiety, depression, and side effects. Results: Pain upon ambulation (mean [95% CI]) 24 h after surgery in the escitalopram versus placebo group was 58 (53 to 64) versus 64 (58 to 69), the mean difference being -5 (-13 to 3), P...

  2. Analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after total abdominal hysterectomy

    Røjskjaer, Jesper O; Gade, Erik; Kiel, Louise B; Lind, Morten N; Pedersen, Lars M; Kristensen, Billy B; Rasmussen, Yvonne H; Foss, Nicolai B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ropivacaine compared with placebo as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial following the CONSORT criteria. SETTING: Hvidovre...... morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were pain scores at rest and during coughing, postoperative nausea and vomiting at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h, and time to first mobilization. RESULTS: There was no difference in the mean 24-h postoperative morphine consumption between the two groups (p = 0.733). The...... ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. As part of a multimodal regimen the transversus abdominis plane block showed some effect on pain scores at rest only in the early postoperative period....

  3. Percutaneous neuromodulation therapy: does the location of electrical stimulation effect the acute analgesic response?

    White, P F; Craig, W F; Vakharia, A S; Ghoname, E; Ahmed, H E; Hamza, M A

    2000-10-01

    We studied the effect of the location of electrical stimulation on the acute analgesic response to percutaneous neuromodulation therapy in patients with nonradiating neck pain. Sixty-eight patients received three different nonpharmacologic modalities, namely "needles only" (neck), local (neck) dermatomal stimulation, and remote (lower back) dermatomal stimulation in a random sequence over the course of an 11-wk study period. All treatments were given for 30 min, 3 times per week for 3 wk, with 1 wk "off" between each modality. The assessment tools included the health status survey short form (SF-36) questionnaire, as well as 10-cm visual analog scales for assessing pain, physical activity, and quality of sleep. The pain visual analog scale was repeated 5-10 min after each treatment session. The daily oral nonopioid analgesic requirements were recorded in the patient diary during the entire study period. At the end of each 3-wk treatment block, the SF-36 questionnaire was repeated. Compared with needles only and remote dermatomal stimulation, local dermatomal stimulation produced a significantly greater decrease in pain (38%+/-17% vs 9%+/- 16% and 13%+/-18%), increase in physical activity (41%+/-21% vs 11% +/-17% and 16%+/-15%), and improvement in the quality of sleep (34% +/-18% vs 7%+/-17% and 10%+/-18%) compared with baseline values (P<0.05). The need for oral analgesic medications was decreased by an average of 6%+/-15%, 37%+/-18%, and 9%+/-13% during the 3-wk treatment period with the needle only, local dermatomal, and remote dermatomal stimulation, respectively. The posttreatment SF-36 test results revealed that all three modalities produced improvements compared with the prestudy scores for both the physical component summary and mental component summary. However, the magnitude of the changes in the physical component summary and mental component summary with local dermatomal stimulation was significantly greater (+7.9 and +3.6, respectively) than needle only (+3.4 and +1.7, respectively) or remote dermatomal stimulation (+3.7 and +1.9, respectively). No side effects were reported at the needle insertion sites. We conclude that electrical stimulation at the specific dermatomal levels corresponding to the local pathology produces greater short-term improvements in pain control, physical activity, and quality of sleep in patients with chronic neck pain. PMID:11004055

  4. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Pedalium Murex Linn. Fruits

    Patel, Mahendra K.; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Tejas K Patel; Barvaliya, Manish J; Tripathi, C. B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan induced paw oedema in Wistar albino rats; analgesic activity with doses of 280 mg/kg and 560 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method i...

  5. A CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC EFFECT OF TRAMADOL AND PENTAZOCINE IN POST - OPERATIVE PATIENTS FOLLOWING UPPER ABDOMINAL SURGERY

    Jamuna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The post - operative pain can be treated by various approaches. Aim of this randomised prospective study was to compare two drugs (Tramadol and Pentazocine . 100 adult patients of both sexes of ASA status 1 & 2 posted for elective upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, where Group 1 received Tramadol intravenously and Group 2 received Pentazocine intravenously as post - opera tive pain management. The efficacy of the analgesic effect of intravenous Tramadol & Pentazocine was compared during post - operative pain management. It was observed that Tramadol has got more potent analgesic action compared to equianalgesic dose of Pentaz ocine.

  6. Synthesis and biological screening of 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl) piperidine derivatives as effective analgesics

    A variety of 4(1-pyrrolidinyl) piperidine analogs 2-6 with variable substituents on phenyl ring of phenacyl moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their analgesic inhibitory potential by tail flick method revealed significant analgesic activity. The synthetic compounds exhibit analgesic inhibitory potential was ranging from significant to highly significant activity. Compounds were evaluated by thermal stimuli (tail immersion method) at the dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight. The compounds 2-5 showed significant and highly significant analgesic activity. Pethidine was used as reference drug. Same compounds tested at the dose of 75mg/kg of body weight showed toxicity. The size of the substituent, electron donating or withdrawing affect of substituents as well as the position of substituent on phenyl ring affected the activity. These compounds could be considered to develop a new class of analgesics. (author)

  7. Noninterventional study of transdermal fentanyl (fentavera) matrix patches in chronic pain patients: analgesic and quality of life effects.

    Heim, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl is considered to be an effective, transdermal treatment of chronic, cancer, and noncancer pain. This noninterventional, clinical practice-based study, on 426 patients attending 42 practices, assessed a proprietary, Aloe vera-containing, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch (Fentavera), for its analgesic effects, patients' quality of life (QoL) effects, tolerability, and adhesiveness. Study outcomes were mean changes from baseline of patient (11-point scales) and physician (5-point scales) ratings. After 1 and 2 months treatment, there were significant (P 30% at 2 months (response = 2-point decrease on 11-point rating scale). In a large majority of patients, the physicians rated the matrix patch as good or very good for analgesic effect, systemic and local tolerance, and adhesiveness. There were 30 adverse events in 4.2% of patients and analgesic comedications were reduced during treatment compared to before treatment. It is concluded, from this population-based data, that the proprietary, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch is effective and safe for chronic pain management in clinical practice, with significant positive analgesic and QoL effects, while being well tolerated and exhibiting good or very good adhesiveness. PMID:25861472

  8. Comparative analysis of preemptive analgesic effect of dexamethasone and diclofenac following third molar surgery

    José Leonardo, Simone; Waldyr Antonio, Jorge; Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini, Horliana; Talita Girio, Canaval; Isabel Peixoto, Tortamano.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the analgesic effectiveness of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium administered preemptively after surgical removal of third molars. Forty-four ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I patients (19 men, 35 women; 16–28 years old) randomly and double-bli [...] ndly received diclofenac sodium (50?mg) or dexamethasone (8?mg) or placebo 1?h before surgery. Intensity of pain, measured with a visual analog scale (VAS), was the variable studied at different postoperative times (1?h, 2?h, 3?h, 6?h, 8?h, 12?h, 48?h, 4?d and 7?d). The total amount of rescue medication (TARM) ingested (paracetamol) was another variable of the study. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test was used. A p value of

  9. Analgesic effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy versus ultrasound therapy in chronic tennis elbow.

    Lizis, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the analgesic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy with those of ultrasound therapy in patients with chronic tennis elbow. [Subjects] Fifty patients with tennis elbow were randomized to receive extracorporeal shock wave therapy or ultrasound therapy. [Methods] The extracorporeal shock wave therapy group received 5 treatments once per week. Meanwhile, the ultrasound group received 10 treatments 3 times per week. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale during grip strength evaluation, palpation of the lateral epicondyle, Thomsen test, and chair test. Resting pain was also recorded. The scores were recorded and compared within and between groups pre-treatment, immediately post-treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. [Results] Intra- and intergroup comparisons immediately and 3 months post-treatment showed extracorporeal shock wave therapy decreased pain to a significantly greater extent than ultrasound therapy. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock wave therapy can significantly reduce pain in patients with chronic tennis elbow. PMID:26357440

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Leaf Extracts of Hibiscus Populnea Linn.

    Hareeshbabu E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus populnea or Indian Tulip Tree or Pacific Rosewood, has been traditionally used for thetreatment of many diseases including inflammatory conditions. A number of chemical constituentsnamely, thespesin, gossypol, DL-gossypol, populnin, populneol, glycosides of quercetin, epoxylic acid,rutin, kaemferol-3-flucoside, lupenone, mansonone, myricyl alcohol, lipids and ? sitosterol have beenisolated from the plant. Many of these compounds are proved to have the claimed activities. But nowork has been specifically carried out to establish the anti inflammatory effects of the ripe and olderleaves. Hence in the present study an attempt was made, with the leaves, for the phytochemicalscreening of the methanol, pet. ether and aqueous extracts along with their anti-inflammatory andanalgesic potential also. In order to study the anti-inflammatory effects, dextran-induced paw edemamethod and carrageenan - induced paw edema methods were used. Similarly analgesic activity wastested using acetic acid writhing. Anti arthritic study was also tried. Regarding carrageenan- inducedpaw edema, the level of activity of the petroleum ether extract was less than that of the reference drugand the methanolic extract exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity. But the activity of the aqueousextract was more than that of Indomethacin. From the results of the experimentally induced arthriticstudy it was seen that the activity of the petroleum ether extract was quite stable throughout the period ofassay where as the methanolic extract was proved to be more active against the chronic phase thanagainst the acute phase. The aqueous extract was seen to be a very potent anti inflammatory agentagainst both phases of the inflammatory process with more or less the same activity as that ofindomethacin, the reference standard. The analgesic activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts werefound to be very significant (P < 0.001.

  11. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: opioid-induced respiratory depression.

    Boom, Merel; Niesters, Marieke; Sarton, Elise; Aarts, Leon; Smith, Terry W; Dahan, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Opioids induce respiratory depression via activation of ?-opioid receptors at specific sites in the central nervous system including the pre-Bötzinger complex, a respiratory rhythm generating area in the pons. Full opioid agonists like morphine and fentanyl affect breathing with onset and offset profiles that are primarily determined by opioid transfer to the receptor site, while the effects of partial opioid agonists such as buprenorphine are governed by transfer to the receptor site together with receptor kinetics, in particular dissociation kinetics. Opioid-induced respiratory depression is potentially fatal but may be reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, an agent with a short elimination half-life (30 min). The rate-limiting factor in naloxone-reversal of opioid effect is the receptor kinetics of the opioid agonists that requires reversal. Agents with slow dissociation kinetics (buprenorphine) require a continuous naloxone infusion while agents with rapid kinetics (fentanyl) will show complete reversal upon a single naloxone dose. Since naloxone is non-selective and will reverse analgesia as well, efforts are focused on the development of compounds that reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression without affecting analgesic efficacy. Such agents include ampakines and serotonin agonists which are aimed at selectively enhancing central respiratory drive. A novel approach is aimed at the reduction of respiratory depression from opioid-activation of (micro-)glia cells in the pons and brainstem using micro-glia cell stabilizers. Since this approach simultaneously enhances opioid analgesic efficacy it seems an attractive alternative to the classical reversal strategies with naloxone. PMID:22747535

  12. PK20, a new opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide that exhibits central and peripheral antinociceptive effects

    Tsuda Yuko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical treatment of various types of pain relies upon the use of opioid analgesics. However most of them produce, in addition to the analgesic effect, several side effects such as the development of dependence and addiction as well as sedation, dysphoria, and constipation. One solution to these problems are chimeric compounds in which the opioid pharmacophore is hybridized with another type of compound to incease antinociceptive effects. Neurotensin-induced antinociception is not mediated through the opioid system. Therefore, hybridizing neurotensin with opioid elements may result in a potent synergistic antinociceptor. Results Using the known structure-activity relationships of neurotensin we have synthesized a new chimeric opioid-neurotensin compound PK20 which is characterized by a very strong antinociceptive potency. The observation that the opioid antagonist naltrexone did not completely reverse the antinociceptive effect, indicates the partial involvement of the nonopioid component in PK20 in the produced analgesia. Conclusions The opioid-neurotensin hybrid analogue PK20, in which opioid and neurotensin pharmacophores overlap partially, expresses high antinociceptive tail-flick effects after central as well as peripheral applications.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF THE ANALGESIC EFFECT AT COMBINED INFLUENCE OF THE ELECTROSTIMULATION AND THE PERCUSSIVE-FRICTIONAL MASSAGE AND IMPULSE CURRENTS REGISTRATION

    M. G. Kiselev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental complex of percussive-frictional massager with electrostimulation function and softand hardware of original design gives a possibility to use various mechanical and electrical parameters of massage and electrostimulation and it can be used like the alternative instead of the accepted medicine analgesics. Analgesic effect decreases pain sensation of the patient up to 50 %.

  14. Analgesic effects of low-dose intravenous orphenadrine in the state of capsaicin hyperalgesia. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study using laser somatosensory evoked potentials obtained from capsaicin-irritated skin in healthy volunteers.

    Schaffler, Klaus; Reitmeir, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to elucidate the analgesic efficacy of 30 mg of intravenous orphenadrine citrate (CAS 4682-36-4) in a human pain model. Eighteen healthy female and male subjects were enrolled and received single infusions of 30 mg orphenadrine citrate and matching placebo in two periods which were separated by a 1 week washout period. The study was designed as a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period, cross-over trial. The intended neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia were induced by topical, occlusive application of 1% capsaicin solution (INCI: Capsicum frutescens, containing capsaicinoides from Capsicum annuum annuum, CAS 84603-55-4) for 30 min on defined skin areas of the back. The pain response to CO2 laser pulses applied to the capsaicin pre-treated skin was measured by event related Vertex-EEG recordings. This technique allowed studying the influence of orphenadrine citrate on the (central) P2-component and the (peripheral) Ni-component of the pain response (LSEP). Both, orphenadrine citrate and placebo were given as intravenous infusions over 60 min. Orphenadrine citrate exerted a significant reduction in central and peripheral components of the pain response when compared to placebo. The effect on the central component was highly significant and more pronounced than the peripheral effect of the drug. The analgesic effect developed fast, was already present during infusion, was ongoing, and exceeded the observational period of 4 h after start of infusion. In summary, orphenadrine citrate was able to exert an analgesic/anti-hyperalgesic effect in a low-dose paradigm (30 mg dose) which was predominantly due to central/spinal mechanisms in this capsaicin model with laser somatosensory evoked potentials. PMID:15553107

  15. The application of a penile block before circumcision: effects on the postoperative FLACC score and analgesic requirement

    Sacit Nuri Görgel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effect of the application of a penile block before circumcision on the postoperative Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC score and the analgesic requirement.Material and methods: In this study, 240 patients were included, age range 1 to 9 years, between April 2012 and August 2012. A penile block was performed in 125 of the 240 patients (Group 1 and was not performed in 115 of the 240 patients (Group 2. Both groups were compared in terms of age, operation times, FLACC score and analgesic requirement.Results: The mean age of the patients was 4.8±2.1 years in Group 1 and 5.3±3.1 years in group 2 (p=0.126. The mean operation time was 14.9±5.1 min in Group 1 and 15.2±6.2 min in Group 2 (p=0.242. The mean FLACC score of the patients was 3.1±1.9 (0-6 in group 1 and 6.4±3.3 (3-10 in group 2 (p<0.05. There was a postoperative analgesic requirement in 20 patients (16% of Group 1 and 75 patients (65% of Group 2. Early complications were not observed in any patients.Conclusion: We detected a significantly lower postoperative analgesic requirement and a mean FLACC score in patients with the application of a penile block before circumcision.

  16. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of A-286501, a novel orally active adenosine kinase inhibitor.

    Jarvis, Michael F; Yu, Haixia; McGaraughty, Steve; Wismer, Carol T; Mikusa, Joe; Zhu, Chang; Chu, Katharine; Kohlhaas, Kathy; Cowart, Marlon; Lee, Chih Hung; Stewart, Andrew O; Cox, Bryan F; Polakowski, James; Kowaluk, Elizabeth A

    2002-03-01

    Adenosine (ADO) is an inhibitory neuromodulator that can increase nociceptive thresholds in response to noxious stimulation. Inhibition of the ADO-metabolizing enzyme, adenosine kinase (AK) increases extracellular ADO concentrations at sites of tissue trauma and AK inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. N7-((1'R,2'S,3'R,4'S)-2',3'-dihydroxy-4'-amino-cyclopentyl)-4-amino-5-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-a]pyrimidine (A-286501) is a novel and potent (IC50=0.47 nM) carbocyclic nucleoside AK inhibitor that has no significant activity (IC50 >100 microM) at other sites of ADO interaction (A1, A2A, A3 receptors, ADO transporter, and ADO deaminase) or other (IC50 value >10 microM) neurotransmitter and peptide receptors, ion channel proteins, neurotransmitter reuptake sites and enzymes, including cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. A-286501 showed equivalent potency to inhibit AK from several mammalian species and kinetic studies revealed that A-286501 was a reversible and competitive inhibitor with respect to ADO and non-competitive with respect to MgATP2-. A-286501 was orally effective to reduce nociception in animal models of acute (thermal), inflammatory (formalin and carrageenan), and neuropathic (L5/L6 nerve ligation and streptozotocin-induced diabetic) pain. A-286501 was particularly potent (ED50=1 micromol/kg, p.o.) to reduce carrageenan-induced inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia as compared to its analgesic actions in other pain models (acute and neuropathic) and its ability to alter hemodynamic function and motor performance. A-286501 was also effective to reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity, a measure of neutrophil influx (ED50=10 micromol/kg, p.o.), in the injured paw. The anti-nociceptive effects of A-286501 in the L5/L6 nerve injury model of neuropathic pain (ED50=20 micromol/kg, p.o.) were not blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone, but were blocked by the ADO receptor antagonist, theophylline. Following repeated administration, A-286501 showed less potential to produce tolerance as compared to morphine. Thus, A-286501 is a structurally novel AK inhibitor that effectively attenuates nociception by a non-opioid, non-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ADO, receptor mediated mechanism. PMID:11932067

  17. An update on analgesics.

    Power, I

    2011-07-01

    Recent introduction of new analgesics into the clinic is best described as a slow process with activity classified into two main areas: improving analgesic efficacy/potency and reducing side-effect profile. This review article describes some of the recent advances with an emphasis on use in the acute setting. In this respect, opioids continue to be the mainstay (but not the only) analgesic and there have been important improvements in their clinical effect profile. For example, tapentadol has been introduced as a mixed opioid and norepinephrine uptake inhibitor which, unlike tramadol, does not require metabolic activation and does not suffer from isomer-dependent pharmacodynamics. Opioid antagonists have received much attention recently either used alone, methylnaltrexone (s.c) or alvimopan (p.o), or in combination, Targinact (oxycodone/naloxone), and appear to be effective in reducing opioid side-effects such as those in the gastrointestinal tract. Other agents where there has been recent development include the use of gabapentin, methylxanthines, and local anaesthetics. An interesting area of translation of basic research is in the inhibition of breakdown of endogenous opioids with opiorphin, targeting of the endocannabinoid system, and the use of ampakines to obtund opioid-induced side-effects. It is clear that there is still much work to be done, but the need for highly efficacious analgesics with good side-effect profile remains. PMID:21624966

  18. Noninterventional Study of Transdermal Fentanyl (Fentavera) Matrix Patches in Chronic Pain Patients: Analgesic and Quality of Life Effects

    Manuel Heim

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl is considered to be an effective, transdermal treatment of chronic, cancer, and noncancer pain. This noninterventional, clinical practice-based study, on 426 patients attending 42 practices, assessed a proprietary, Aloe vera-containing, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch (Fentavera), for its analgesic effects, patients' quality of life (QoL) effects, tolerability, and adhesiveness. Study outcomes were mean changes from baseline of patient (11-point scales) and physician (5-point scale...

  19. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.

    Prozialeck, Walter C; Jivan, Jateen K; Andurkar, Shridhar V

    2012-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed. PMID:23212430

  20. Analgesic effect of a broad-spectrum dihydropyridine inhibitor of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Gadotti, Vinicius M; Bladen, Chris; Zhang, Fang Xiong; Chen, Lina; Gündüz, Miyase Gözde; ?im?ek, Rahime; ?afak, Cihat; Zamponi, Gerald W

    2015-12-01

    Voltage-activated calcium channels are important facilitators of nociceptive transmission in the primary afferent pathway. Consequently, molecules that block these channels are of potential use as pain therapeutics. Our group has recently reported on the identification of a novel class of dihydropyridines (DHPs) that included compounds with preferential selectivity for T-type over L-type channels. Among those compounds, M4 was found to be an equipotent inhibitor of both Cav1.2 L- and Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels. Here, we have further characterized the effects of this compound on other types of calcium channels and examined its analgesic effect when delivered either spinally (i.t.) or systemically (i.p.) to mice. Both delivery routes resulted in antinociception in a model of acute pain. Furthermore, M4 was able to reverse mechanical hyperalgesia produced by nerve injury when delivered intrathecally. M4 retained partial activity when delivered to Cav3.2 null mice, indicating that this compound acts on multiple targets. Additional whole-cell patch clamp experiments in transfected tsA-201 cells revealed that M4 also effectively blocks Cav3.3 (T-type) and Cav2.2 (N-type) currents. Altogether, our data indicate that broad-spectrum inhibition of multiple calcium channel subtypes can lead to potent analgesia in rodents. PMID:26286466

  1. MULTIMODAL ANALGESIC EFFECT ON PROINFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES SERUM

    Muhammad Ramli Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of combination epidural bupivacaine and intravenous parecoxib analgesia on immune response in patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the lower limb under epidural anesthesia. Methods: This research was conducted using the randomized, placebo-controlled double blind trial method on 52 patients who were randomly divided into 2 groups: the Parecoxib group which received 40 mg intravenous parecoxib for 30 minutes before incision and the control group which received an equal volume of 0.9% normal saline. Both groups received epidural anesthesia and postoperative epidural 0.125% bupivacaine analgesia continously. Venous blood samples were obtained before parecoxib administration, 2 and 24 hours after the surgery. The data were analyzed using Mann Whitney U and independent t tests (p<0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05 in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 levels and proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory ratio, 2 hours after surgery. Conclusions: Multimodal analgesic combination of 40 mg IV parecoxib and 0.125% bupivacaine epidural analgesia have the effect to alter and stabilize the systemic immune response.

  2. In Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats, Acupuncture Analgesic Effects Are Histamine Dependent: Potential Reasons for Acupoint Preference in Clinical Practice

    Meng Huang; Di Zhang; Zhe-yan Sa; Ying-yuan Xie; Chen-li Gu; Guang-hong Ding

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether immediate acupuncture effects in the acupoint are histamine dependent. Both histamine injection and manual acupuncture stimulation increased the pain threshold (PT) after treatment compared with the model group (P < 0.01), producing an analgesic effect. After pretreatment with clemastine, an H1 receptor antagonist and an antipruritic, the increase in the animals' pain threshold after acupuncture was suppressed compared with the Acu group (P < 0.01); however, th...

  3. Effect of single dose pretreatment analgesia with three different analgesics on postoperative endodontic pain: A randomized clinical trial

    Priyank Sethi; Manish Agarwal; Hemant Ramesh Chourasia; Mahesh Pratap Singh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the aims of root canal treatment is to prevent or eliminate pain. Postoperative endodontic pain control continues to be a significant challenge. Aim: To compare and evaluate the effect of single oral dose of 100 mg of tapentadol, 400 mg of etodolac, or 10 mg of ketorolac as a pretreatment analgesic for the prevention and control of postoperative endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The incidence of side effects was recorded as secondary ...

  4. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract

    U. Srinivasa; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

    2007-01-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  5. Effect of Celecoxib on the Peripheral NO Production

    Parichehr Hassanzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Objective(s)Celecoxib acts through both COX-2-dependent and -independent pathways. According to the paradoxical effect of NO on the inflammatory and nociceptive signal processing, the present study designed to evaluate the probable contribution of NO in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of celecoxib. Materials and MethodsDifferent intensities of inflammatory pain were induced by acute and chronic sc administration of 1%, 2.5%, or 5% formalin and spectrophotometrical analysis of t...

  6. [Analgesic effect of TES therapy in the early postoperative period in patients who underwent tonsillectomy].

    Semënov, F V; Kade, A Kh; Banashek-Meshchiarkova, T V; Vartanian, M S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiarities of the analgesic action of therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES therapy) in the early postoperative period in the patients who underwent tonsillectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for this surgery to the specialized otorhinolaryngological department were available for observation. They were divided into two groups depending on the pain relief strategy. The patients of the study group (n=30) underwent courses of transcranial electrical stimulation on a daily basis (from the onset of hospitalization) in addition to the administration of a standard analgetic. The standard dose of tramadol (2.0 ml) was given to the patients of the control group (n=30) who complained of strong pain. The results of the objective and subjective estimations indicate that the degree of pharyngeal pain in the patients treated with TES therapy and the standard analgetic was significantly different. The patients receiving TES therapy could sooner resume their habitual diet and required smaller amounts of the analgetic which makes this modality a cost-effective supplement to the standard postoperative treatment. PMID:23887374

  7. ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF LEECH THERAPY (JALAUKAVCHARAN IN THE PATIENTS OF OSTEOARTHRITIS (SANDHIGATA VATA

    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease is the most common joint disorder. It mostly affects cartilage. The top layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away. Osteoarthritis is of two types, primary (idiopathic and secondary. In idiopathic osteoarthritis, the most common form of the disease, no predisposing factor is apparent. Secondary OA is pathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic OA but is attributable to an underlying cause. The NSAID’S are main drug of choice in modern medicine which have lots of side effect therefore are not safe for long term therapy. Raktamokshan viz bloodletting is one of the ancient and important parasurgical procedure described in Ayurveda for treatment of various diseases. Of them, Jalaukavacharana or Leech Therapy has gained greater attention globally, because of its medicinal values. The saliva of leech contains numerous biologically active substances, which has anti-inflammatory, analgesic as well as anesthetic property. Keeping this view in mind we have started leech therapy in the patients of osteoarthritis and found encouraging results.

  8. Cortical potentials evoked by tooth pulp stimulation differentiate between the analgesic and sedative effects of morphine in awake rats.

    Danneman, P J

    1994-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the cortical potential (CEP) evoked by noxious electrical stimulation of the incisor tooth pulp can be used to measure analgesia in the presence of sedation in the awake rat. Changes in the CEP produced by morphine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg s.c.), an opioid analgesic with sedative effects, were compared with those produced by droperidol (1.25 mg/kg s.c.), a neuroleptic agent with no analgesic activity. Both drugs had similar small effects on CEP latency. However, whereas morphine produced a dose-related decrease in amplitude and area under the curve, particularly in the earliest component of the CEP, droperidol produced an increase in amplitude and area under the curve. Naloxone (0.5-2 mg/kg s.c.) reversed all effects of morphine. Similar CEPs could be evoked by electrical stimulation of the tooth pulp or surrounding gingiva in lightly anesthetized rats. However, the tooth pulp stimulation-evoked CEP was unchanged after anesthesia of the gingiva with lidocaine, and the gingiva-evoked CEP was unchanged after anesthesia of the tooth pulp. Therefore, stimulation of the rat's incisor can selectively activate intrapulpal fibers, which are sufficient to generate a CEP. This CEP is an indicator of nociception which can be used to distinguish the analgesic effects of drugs such as morphine from their sedative effects. PMID:8014853

  9. Validación preclínica de actividad analgésica periférica y central de la decocción de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) y Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) / Preclinical validation of the peripheral and central analgesic activity of decoction of fresh leaves of Persea americana Mill. (avocado) and Musa x paradisiaca L. (banana)

    Ana Ibis, García Hernández; Marisol, López Barreiro; Zulema, Morejón Rodríguez; Elisa, Boucourt Rodríguez; María del Carmen, Victoria Amador; Ioanna, Martínez Hormaza; Lérida Lázara, Acosta de la Luz; Abel, Doménigo González; Gisselle, Brito Alvarez; Francisco J, Morón Rodríguez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) y Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano), son dos plantas medicinales que entre sus usos tradicionales reportados, se cita, el efecto beneficioso de la decocción de las hojas frescas de aguacate para la infección urinaria, tos, bronquitis y las de plátano par [...] a la gripe, tos e inflamación. Documentado por las encuestas TRAMIL. No se encontró información preclínica suficiente en las bases de datos: SciELO, CUMED, LIS CUBA y MEDLINE para validar sus usos. Objetivos: evaluar la actividad analgésica periférica y central preclínicas de la decocción al 30 % de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) y Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano). Métodos: se colectaron las hojas frescas de P. americana y M. paradisiaca y se realizaron las decocciones al 30 %. Se evaluó la actividad analgésica periférica mediante el modelo de contorsiones inducidas por ácido acético(writhing test), y la actividad analgésica central fue evaluada aplicando el modelo de retirada de la cola por inmersión en agua 55 ºC (tail flick) en ratones, con dosis de 1, 5, y 10 gramos de material vegetal/kg de peso corporal. Resultados: las decocciones de hojas frescas de P. americana y M. paradisiaca a las dosis estudiadas, inhibieron de forma significativa la respuesta dolorosa inducida por ácido acético con p=6,909e-08 y p=2,842e-03respectivamente. En la evaluación del tail flick, la decocción de hojas frescas de P. americana, tuvo una respuesta significativa no dosis dependiente a (5g/kg), con una p=7,018e-03; las otras dosis estudiadas y la decocción de M. paradisiaca no tuvieron respuesta significativa. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos permiten realizar la validación preclínica de la actividad analgésica periférica de la decocción de hojas frescas P. americana (aguacate) y M. paradisiaca (plátano), así como de la actividad analgésica central de P. americana, lo que avala su uso tradicional. Abstract in english Introduction: Persea americana Mill. (avocado) and Musa x paradisiaca L. (banana) are medicinal plants with traditional uses in folk medicine. Reports refer to the beneficial effects of a decoction of fresh leaves of avocado in the treatment of urinary infection, coughing and bronchitis. Decoction o [...] f banana fresh leaves is used to treat the flu, coughing and inflammation. This has been documented by TRAMIL surveys. The preclinical information found in the databases SciELO, CUMED, LIS CUBA and MEDLINE was not sufficient to validate the uses listed above. Objectives: evaluate the preclinical peripheral and central analgesic activity of a 30 % decoction of fresh leaves of Persea americana Mill. (avocado) and Musa x paradisiaca L. (banana). Methods: fresh leaves of P. americana and M. paradisiaca were collected and 30 % decoctions were prepared. Peripheral analgesic activity was evaluated with the acetic acid induced writhing model (writhing test), whereas central analgesic activity was assessed with the tail flick model in mice by immersion in 55 ºC water. The doses used were 1, 5 and 10 grams of plant material / kg of body weight. Results: decoctions of fresh leaves of P. americana and M. paradisiaca at the study doses significantly inhibited the painful response induced by acetic acid with p=6.909e-08 and p=2.842e-03, respectively. In the tail flick evaluation the decoction of fresh leaves of P. americana had a significant non-dose dependent response at 5g/kg with p=7.018e-03. A significant response was not obtained from the other doses studied or from the M. paradisiaca decoction. Conclusions: results permit the preclinical validation of the peripheral analgesic activity of the decoction of fresh leaves of P. americana (avocado) and M. paradisiaca (banana), as well as the central analgesic activity of P. americana, validating the traditional use of both plants.

  10. Analgesic effects of electroacupuncture combined with Celebrex on rats with tibial cancer pain

    Qi-liang MAO-YING

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a proper experimental model of bone cancer pain in rat for acupuncture research, and observe the pain-relieving effect of electroacupuncture (EA and/or Celebrex on bone cancer pain in rats.Methods: The rat model of bone cancer pain was established by percutaneous direct puncture technique and inoculating the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells Walker 256 into tibial medullary cavity directly, and evaluated by detecting the bone tumor growth and mechanical allodynia. The effects of daily EA treatment and/or Celebrex treatment on the rat mechanical allodynia after intratibial Walker 256 inoculation was observed in this study.Results: Significant mechanical allodynia in ipsilateral hind paw and tumor growth in proximal end of tibial bone of rats in the untreated group were observed after intratibial Walker 256 inoculation. The mechanical allodynia thresholds in rats that received EA or 5 mg/(kg·d Celebrex treatment showed no significant difference as compared with that of rats in the untreated group. However, the mechanical allodynia thresholds of rats in 10 mg/(kg·d Celebrex group showed significant increase after 22- and 26-day treatment as compared with that in the methyl cellulose (MC group. There was significant difference between rats with EA combined with 5 mg/(kg·d Celebrex treatment and rats in the untreated group after 10-, 18- and 23-day treatment.Conclusion: EA and 5 mg/(kg·d Celebrex have synergistic effect on pain relieving and their combined use may enhance the analgesic effect on bone cancer pain.

  11. Superior Analgesic Effect of an Active Distraction versus Pleasant Unfamiliar Sounds and Music: The Influence of Emotion and Cognitive Style

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain indu...

  12. Comparison of the Effects of Laparoscopic and Open Repair Techniques on Postoperative Pain and Analgesic Consumption in Pediatric Unilateral Inguinal Hernia

    Ferda Yılmaz İnal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although laparoscopic inguinal hernia (IH repair in adults is widely accepted, its advantages in pediatric age group are questionable. We aimed to compare the effects of open inguinal hernia repair and laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair on length of anaesthesia, postoperative pain and analgesic consumption in boys who underwent unilateral inguinal hernia repair. Methods: Forty patients aged between 7 and 14 years who underwent open and laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: unilateral open inguinal hernia repair group (OR n=20 and unilateral laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair group (LR n=20. All patients underwent general anesthesia. The duration of anaesthesia and the duration of surgery were recorded. The Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA device was set at a 0.01 mg/kg bolus dose, 10 minutes lockout interval and 4 hour limit of 4 mg morphine. The patients, who received morphine PCA for 24 hours postoperatively, were monitored with continuous oximetry. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to measure pain (0 cm: no pain, 10 cm: worst possible pain. We recorded the side effects of morphine, such as respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, pruritus. SpO2 level and Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores at intervals 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 hours as well as amount of analgesics consumed and number of requests within 24 hours postoperatively were recorded. Time to first walking was recorded. Results: In group OR, the mean duration of anaesthesia and surgery were 39.85 minutes and 28.85 minutes, respectively. In group LR, the mean duration of anaesthesia and surgery were 26.11 and 20.53 minutes, respectively. VAS scores and time to first walking were similar in both groups. There was no significant difference in amount of analgesics consumed and number of request between the two groups. In group OR, the number of unsuccessful requests was higher than in group LR. There was not any side effects except for a higher NRS score of higher than 2 in one patient. Peripheral oxygen saturation was never less than 95%. RSS scores were never higher than 2. Conclusion: Higher number of unsuccessful request implies that children who undergo an open inguinal hernia repair feel more pain, thus, it can be thought that laparoscopic hernia repair is an alternative technique although the duration of anaesthesia and surgery was significantly longer in unilateral laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair technique. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 84-8

  13. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanolic Root Extract of Hippocratea africana

    Jude E. Okokon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic root extract of Hippocratea africana (200-600 mg kg-1 was evaluated for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. The extract dose dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking and thermally -induced pain in mice. The extract also inhibited fresh egg albumin, carrageenin and xylene-induced inflammation in mice. These inhibitions were statistically significant (p<0.05 when compared to control. The roots extracts was also found to reduce pyrexia in rats. The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the extract may be related to its active constituents such as tannins, saponins, steroid and flavonoids.

  14. Synthesis and Analgesic Effects of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain

    Yu Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available μ-TRTX-Hhn1b (HNTX-IV is a 35-amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of the spider, Ornithoctonus hainana. It inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, which has been considered as a therapeutic target for pain. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the analgesic effects of synthetic μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on animal models of pain. The peptide was first synthesized and then successfully refolded/oxidized. The synthetic peptide had the same inhibitory effect on human Nav1.7 current transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells as the native toxin. Furthermore, the analgesic potentials of the synthetic peptide were examined on models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. μ-TRTX-Hhn1b produced an efficient reversal of acute nociceptive pain in the abdominal constriction model, and significantly reduced the pain scores over the 40-min period in the formalin model. The efficiency of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on both models was equivalent to that of morphine. In the spinal nerve model, the reversal effect of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on allodynia was longer and higher than mexiletine. These results demonstrated that μ-TRTX-Hhn1b efficiently alleviated acute inflammatory pain and chronic neuropathic pain in animals and provided an attractive template for further clinical analgesic drug design.

  15. Analgesic effect of simultaneous exposure to infrared laser radiation and μT magnetic field in rats

    Cieslar, Grzegorz; Mrowiec, Janina; Kasperczyk, Slawomir; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina; Sieron, Aleksander

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the experiment was to estimate the effect of repeated simultaneous exposures to infrared laser radiation and μT variable magnetic field used in magnetostimulation on pain perception in rats, as well as the involvement of endogenous opioid system in the mechanism of this effect. In experimental group clean-shaven scull of male Wistar rats placed individually in a specially designed plastic chamber were simultaneously exposed to infrared laser radiation (wavelength - 855 nm, mean power - 4,1 mW, energy density - 30 J/cm2) and variable magnetic field of saw-like shape of impulse, at a frequency of basic impulse 180-195 Hz and mean induction value of 120 μT generated by magneto-laser applicator of device for magnetostimulation Viofor JPS (Med & Life, Poland) 12 minutes daily for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days, with 2 days-lasting break between them, while control animals were sham-exposed. The pain perception was determined by means of "hot plate" test on the basis of calculated analgesic index. As a result of repeated exposures a significant increase in analgesic index persisting also till 14 th day after the end of a cycle of exposures was observed. This analgesic effect was inhibited by prior i.p. injection of opioid antagonist - Naloxone.

  16. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus

    H.P. Aithal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II. The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min. Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II, and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

  17. Different antinociceptive effects of botulinum toxin type A in inflammatory and peripheral polyneuropathic rat models.

    Favre-Guilmard, Christine; Auguet, Michel; Chabrier, Pierre-Etienne

    2009-09-01

    In addition to inhibition of acetylcholine release in the neuromuscular junction botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) also inhibits the release of mediators involved in pain perception. We have investigated the effect of two types of BoNT-A on mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat models of carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. A subplantar (s.p.) injection of BoNT-A in the ipsilateral hindpaw 3 days before carrageenan administration reduced hypersensitivity. Dysport and Botox elicited comparable antihyperalgesic effects. Dysport up to 30 U/kg and Botox up to 20 U/kg did not impair the rat withdrawal nociceptive reflex or the locomotor performance as assessed by the rotarod test. Intraperitoneal administration of the skeletal muscle relaxant dantrolene produced, in contrast to BoNT-A, more motor impairment than analgesia. Paclitaxel treatment resulted in a peripheral neuropathy that affected the two hindpaws. Injection of 20 U/kg (s.p.) Dysport produced a significant antihyperalgesic effect in the injected paw of neuropathic animals 3 days after administration. Unexpectedly, a similar analgesic effect was observed in the contralateral paw. The same results were also observed when Botox was used instead of Dysport. In contrast, a contralateral administration of Dysport in the carrageenan test was ineffective. We conclude that BoNT-A elicits antinociceptive effects independent of the effects on muscular relaxation. Our results suggest that different mechanisms of action are responsible for the effect of BoNT-A in inflammatory and peripheral polyneuropathic rat models. PMID:19576881

  18. Induction of anesthesia in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine

    Elif Basagan-Mogo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine by comparing it with propofol starting at the induction of anesthesia until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. INTRODUCTION: Anesthetic induction and maintenance may induce myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. A primary goal in the anesthesia of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is both the attenuation of sympathetic responses to noxious stimuli and the prevention of hypotension. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were randomized to receive either ketamine 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K or propofol 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group P during induction of anesthesia. Patients also received standardized doses of midazolam, fentanyl, and rocuronium in the induction sequence. The duration of anesthesia from induction to skin incision and sternotomy, as well as the supplemental doses of fentanyl and sevoflurane, were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, stroke work index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indices were obtained before induction of anesthesia; one minute after induction; one, three, five, and ten minutes after intubation; one minute after skin incision; and at one minute after sternotomy. RESULTS: There were significant changes in the measured and calculated hemodynamic variables when compared to their values before induction. One minute after induction, mean arterial pressure and the systemic vascular resistance index decreased significantly in group P (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between groups in the consumption of sevoflurane or in the use of additional fentanyl. The combination of ketamine, midazolam, and fentanyl for the induction of anesthesia provided better hemodynamic stability during induction and until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  19. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: The influence of emotion and cognitive style

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a superior analgesic effect of favorite music over other passive or active distractive tasks. However, it is unclear what mediates this effect. In this study we investigated to which extent distraction, emotional valence and cognitive styles may explain part of the...... of valence they relieved pain to a similar degree. The emotional ratings of the conditions were correlated with the amount of pain relief and cognitive styles seemed to influence the analgesia effect. These findings suggest that the pain relieving effect previously seen in relation to music may be at...... least partly mediated by distraction, emotional factors and cognitive styles rather than by the music itself....

  20. The analgesic effect of Magnesium Sulfate in postoperative pain of inguinal hernia repair

    Mehraein A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4 has been used as a pharmacologic agent in different situations for many years in the treatment of tachyarrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, preeclampsia, and tocolysis among others. The analgesic effect of MgSO4 for postoperative pain has been used since the 1990s. Postoperative pain is one of the most common complications in the perioperative period and can result in serious consequences in different organs if left untreated. Inguinal herniorrhaphy is among the most common surgeries and is almost always accompanied by severe pain. The object of this study is to determine the effect of a pre-induction infusion of MgSO4 on the reduction of postsurgical pain after herniorrhaphy. Methods: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial included 105 ASA class I and class II herniorrhaphy patients at Shariati Hospital in years 2004 and 2005. For statistical analysis, the 2 and T tests were used. The patients were divided into three groups based on block randomization. Patients in the following groups received: Group A, 200 ml of normal saline infusion (placebo; Group B, 25 mg/kg MgSO4 in 200 ml of normal saline; Group C, 50 mg/kg MgSO4 in 200 ml of normal saline. All groups were infused twenty minutes before induction of anesthesia using identical methods and dosage in all three groups. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP at pre- and postintubation and so at skin incision time were charted. Visual analog scale (VAS pain score, nausea, vomiting and the amount of morphine used before recovery room discharge and in six, twelve and twenty-four hours after recovery discharge was recorded. Results: The average age for the different groups was as follows: Group A: 33.6, Group B: 37.37, Group C: 32.74. Nausea and vomiting between the case and control groups were not statistically different (60% vs. 71.4%, p=0.0499, nor was the amount of Morphine used. On recovery room discharge, the VAS scores were 8.1, 7.2, and 5.5 for the first, second and third groups, respectively (P<0.001. However, no statistical significance was found for the VAS scores six hours after recovery room discharge. Conclusion: The results in this study show that pre-induction with MgSO4 has no remarkable effect on decreasing postoperative pain or morphine use for inguinal herniorrhaphy.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tacca integrifolia in rodents

    Thatree Autsavakitipong; Parirat Khonsung; Ampai Panthong; Natthakarn Chiranthanut; Puongtip Kunanusorn; Narong Nuntasaen; Thaworn Jaipetch; Samreang Bunteang; Vichai Reutrakul

    2015-01-01

    Summary. This is a preliminary investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia (TIE) for the analgesic activity using writhing response in mice, tail flick test in rats and for anti-inflammatory activity using ethyl phenyl propiolate (EPP)-induced ear edema, carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema, as well as cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The results showed that TIE (200 mg/kg, PO) significantly inhibited pain caused by acetic...

  2. Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of carprofen in medetomidine premedicated dogs undergoing ovariectomy

    Seliškar Alenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of pre-operative administration of carprofen were investigated in 16 medetomidine-premedicated dogs undergoing elective ovariectomy. Dogs were randomly allocated into carprofen (n=8; 4 mg/kg, intramuscularly or placebo group (n = 8. After medetomidine (1000 [xg/m2, intramuscularly premedication, they were induced with propofol (1 mg/kg, intravenously and maintained with isoflurane (FE'ISO 1.0 % in 100% oxygen. During anaesthesia, the analgesia was assessed in terms of changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure as a response to the surgery. Assessments of post-operative sedation (simple numerical rating scale and pain (multifactorial pain scale were made at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1,2,3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after the surgery. In addition, pulse rate, respiratory rate and body temperature were measured at the same time. During anaesthesia, lower heart rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial blood pressure and higher tidal volume of respiration were observed in the carprofen group. Post-operative pain score was relatively low in both groups of dogs, however it was higher, but not significantly, in the placebo group. There was no difference between the groups in terms of respiratory and pulse rate after surgery. The post-operative sedation score was higher in the placebo group only in the early post-operative period most probably due to misinterpretation of pain behaviour. Carprofen together with other anaesthetic drugs provided sufficient intra-operative analgesia only until major painful surgical stimulus occurred, after which analgesia had to be supplemented with a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine. Comparing to that analgesia was insufficient in the placebo group throughout the procedure. The post-operative pain scoring system was probably not sensitive enough to detect the differences between the groups; however, the effects of other drugs that extended in the post-operative period may be responsible for a low post­operative pain score in both groups of dogs.

  3. Health-related quality of life and its predictive role for analgesic effect in patients with painful polyneuropathy

    Otto, Marit; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S; Sindrup, Søren H

    2007-01-01

    Painful polyneuropathy is a common neuropathic pain condition. The present study describes health-related quality of life (HRQL) in a sample of patients with painful polyneuropathy of different origin and the possible predictive role of HRQL for analgesic effect. Ninety-three patients with a...... drugs had not shown a pain relieving effect in former analysis. The SF-36 scale of bodily pain (BP) was improved by venlafaxine treatment (p=0.023). General health (GH) and vitality (VT) were improved under treatment with imipramine (GH: p=0.006, VT: p=0.015). In a multivariate logistic regression...

  4. The effect of retinal image slip on peripheral visual acuity

    Macedo, António Filipe; Crossland, Michael; Rubin, G S

    2008-01-01

    Retinal image slip promoted by fixational eye movements prevents image fading in central vision. However, in the periphery a higher amount of movement is necessary to prevent this fading. We assessed the effect of different levels of retinal image slip in peripheral vision by measuring peripheral visual acuity (VA), with and without crowding, while modulating retinal image slip by using gaze-linked stimuli. Measurements were carried out at four isoeccentric positions at 5 and at 10 degrees ec...

  5. Orexin type 1 receptor antagonism in rat locus coeruleus prevents the analgesic effect of intra-LC met-enkephalin microinjection.

    Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, S; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2015-09-01

    Long-term administration of opiates leads to development of tolerance to analgesic effects. This in turn compromise clinical use of these drugs for pain management. Although extensive studies have been conducted, the involved cellular mechanisms are still poorly understood. The nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), which is a dense homogenous cluster of noradrenergic neurons in brainstem, has been reported to be involved in mediating opiate effects including analgesia and tolerance. LC neurons express a high density of opioid receptors. On the other hand, orexinergic neurons send widespread projections to the LC region. Among the two types of orexin receptors (OX1R and OX2R), OX1R is highly expressed in LC neurons. It has been shown that orexin-A is involved in modulation of nociceptive behavior. Also, previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of OX1R in the development of morphine induced analgesia and tolerance. In the present study, the involvement of OX1R in development of met-enkephalin (ME) analgesic tolerance was investigated in LC nucleus. The tail flick test was used to evaluate the analgesic effect of intra-LC microinjection of ME in male Wistar rats (250-300g). Analgesic responses were reported as the percentage of maximum possible effect (% of MPE). Also, SB-334867 was used as a selective OX1R antagonist. Results indicate that intra-LC microinjection of ME (5?g/100nL) results in development of analgesic tolerance in 3days. Also, OX1R antagonism in LC nucleus significantly prevents the analgesic effect of intra-LC met-enkephalin microinjection. It appears that the analgesic effect of ME in LC neurons is mediated by orexinergic system. PMID:26210888

  6. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of calcitonin on neuropathic pain interacting with its peripheral receptors

    Ito Akitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is clinically well known for its ability to relieve neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome. Mechanisms for its analgesic effect, however, remain unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism of anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Results Subcutaneous injection of elcatonin, a synthetic derivative of eel calcitonin, relieved hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the CCI provoked the upregulation of tetrodotoxin (TTX-sensitive Nav.1.3 mRNA and downregulation of TTX-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA on the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion (DRG, which would consequently increase the excitability of peripheral nerves. These changes were reversed by elcatonin. In addition, the gene expression of the calcitonin receptor and binding site of 125I-calcitonin was increased at the constricted peripheral nerve tissue but not at the DRG. The anti-hyperalgesic effect and normalization of sodium channel mRNA by elcatonin was parallel to the change of the calcitonin receptor expression. Elcatonin, however, did not affect the sensitivity of nociception or gene expression of sodium channel, while it suppressed calcitonin receptor mRNA under normal conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that the anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin on CCI rats could be attributable to the normalization of the sodium channel expression, which might be exerted by an unknown signal produced at the peripheral nerve tissue but not by DRG neurons through the activation of the calcitonin receptor. Calcitonin signals were silent in the normal condition and nerve injury may be one of triggers for conversion of a silent to an active signal.

  7. Inflammation-induced reduction of spontaneous activity by adjuvant: A novel model to study the effect of analgesics in rats.

    Matson, David J; Broom, Daniel C; Carson, Susan R; Baldassari, James; Kehne, John; Cortright, Daniel N

    2007-01-01

    The majority of rodent models used to evaluate analgesic drug effects rely on evoked measures of nociceptive thresholds as primary outcomes. These approaches are often time-consuming, requiring extensive habituation sessions and repeated presentations of eliciting stimuli, and are prone to false-positive outcomes due to sedation or tester subjectivity. Here, we describe the reduction of spontaneous activity by adjuvant (RSAA) model as an objective and quantifiable behavioral model of inflammatory pain that can predict the analgesic activity of a variety of agents following single-dose administration. In the RSAA model, activity was measured in nonhabituated rats using standard, photocell-based monitors. Bilateral inflammation of the knee joints by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) reduced the normal level of activity (horizontal locomotion and vertical rearing) by approximately 60% in a novel environment. This reduction in activity was dose-dependently reversed by ibuprofen, rofecoxib, celecoxib, piroxicam, and dexamethasone, whereas gabapentin and amitriptyline were inactive. Morphine significantly reversed the activity-suppressing effects of CFA, at 1 mg/kg s.c., but at higher doses locomotor activity progressively declined, coincident with the induction of sedation. In contrast to morphine and anti-inflammatory therapies, amphetamine did not affect vertical rearing, even though it increased horizontal locomotion. Thus, unlike standard measures of analgesia such as alteration in thermal or mechanical sensitivity, the RSAA model operationally defines analgesia as a drug-induced increase in spontaneous behavior (vertical rearing in a novel environment). We conclude that the RSAA model is valuable as an objective measure of analgesic efficacy that is not dependent on an evoked stimulus response. PMID:17050782

  8. Antinociceptive effect of palm date spathe hydroalcoholic extract on acute and chronic pain in mice as compared with analgesic effect of morphine and diclofenac

    Peyghambari, Fatemeh; Dashti-Rahmatabadi, Mohammad Hossein; Rozabadi, Mansooreh Dehghanfi; Rozabadi, Razieh Dehghanfi; Rozabadi, Fatemeh Dehghanfi; Pangalizadeh, Mohammadesmaeil; Dehghanimohammadabadi, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: In Persian traditional medicine, palm date spathe (PDS) is introduced as an analgesic. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of PDS on acute and chronic pain in mice in comparison with diclofenac and morphine. Materials and Methods: In this study, which was conducted in summer 2014, 220 male mice (20–30 g) were randomly divided into two categories, each consists of 11 groups as follows: A normal control group, a solvent (Tween 80) control group, 3 morphine positive control groups (2, 4 and 8 mg/kg), 3 diclofenac positive control groups (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg), and 3 main experimental PDS groups (2, 20, and 200 mg/kg). Hot plate was applied on animals in one category and writing test on the other category to assess acute and chronic pain, respectively. Results: In the writing test, the average writing time and number of animals receiving a maximum dosage of morphine, diclofenac, and PDS were significantly less than the control group. In the hot plate test, only groups receiving different doses of morphine at different time points and those received 30 mg/kg diclofenac at 15 min after the intervention showed significant difference with the control group. Conclusion: 200 mg/kg extract of PDS, revealed a significant analgesic effect on chronic pain, but it did not show any analgesic effect on acute pain. PMID:26693469

  9. Analgesic Treatment in Patients With Acute Extremity Trauma and Effect of Training

    Funda KARBEK AKARCA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies indicate that emergency physicians (EP under-evaluate and undertreat the pain experienced by their patients. The objective of this study was to investigate how EPs treat pain in adult patients with limb trauma and to determine if their behavior could be affected by training in the short-term. Methods: All consecutive adult patients admitted to the university-based emergency department (ED within two months were enrolled in the study. The patients were asked to rate their level of pain on the NRS in triage. NRS scores were noted again after 30 minutes and 60 minutes, and on discharge. Patient prescriptions were also tracked to identify any analgesics. After completion of the pre-education phase, four hours of training on pain evaluation and treatment were undertaken under the leadership of experienced staff faculty. The aforementioned outcomes were gathered again in a 30-day period after training and we compared the pre and post training periods. Results: A hundred and forty-three patients (81 female were enrolled in the pre-education phase, and 130 patients (58 female were eligible for the post-education phase. The mean NRS scores of the females noted on admission were significantly higher than those of the males (7.4±2.3 vs. 6.7±2.5, respectively; p=0.020. Patients included in the first phase received analgesia less frequently (42.7% vs. 70.0%, respectively; p<0.001. The mean period of time between admission and initial analgesic administration was shorter in the second phase (41.3 vs. 19.3 minutes, respectively; p<0.001. The ratio of patients receiving analgesia within thirty minutes was greater after training. All patients in the second phase received analgesia within 60 minutes. The residents prescribed analgesics more frequently after training. Conclusions: A four-hour training program resulted in apparent changes in the residents’ management of pain in patients with extremity trauma. In addition to a more timely administration, the rates of analgesic treatment increased.

  10. Comparing the analgesic effect of heat patch containing iron chip and ibuprofen for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial

    Navvabi Rigi Shahindokht

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a common and sometimes disabling condition. In recent years, some studies aimed to improve the treatment of dysmenorrhea, and therefore, introduced several therapeutic measures. This study was designed to compare the analgesic effect of iron chip containing heat wrap with ibuprofen for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods In this randomized (IRCT201107187038N2 controlled trial, 147 students (18–30 years old with the diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea were enrolled considering the CONSORT guideline. Screening for primary dysmenorrhea was done by a two-question screening tool. The participants were randomly assigned into one of the intervention groups (heat Patch and ibuprofen. Data regarding the severity and emotional impact of the pain were recorded by a shortened version of McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. Results The maximum and minimum pain severities were observed at 2 and 24 hours in both groups. The severity of sensual pain at 8, 12, and 24 hours was non-significantly less in the heat Patch group. There was also no significant difference between the groups regarding the emotional impact of pain at the first 2, 4, 8, 12 and 12 hours of menstruation. Conclusions Heat patch containing Iron chip has comparable analgesic effects to ibuprofen and can possibly be used for primary dysmenorrhea. Trial registration IRCT201107187038N2

  11. Efecto analgésico del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Analgesic effect of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Pedro Barzaga Fernández

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Drogas con capacidad de inhibir la síntesis o acción de mediadores como los eicosanoides, histamina, bradicinina, entre otras, impiden la acción sensibilizadora de éstos sobre las terminaciones nerviosas nociceptivas. Teniendo en cuenta la actividad antiinflamatoria demostrada del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L., fue objetivo de este trabajo evaluar sus propiedades analgésicas en modelos animales. Dosis de O. tenuiflorum de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg fueron evaluadas en modelos de inducción del dolor por vías química y térmica. Como resultado de este estudio se obtuvo que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O tenuiflorum mostró efecto analgésico en los modelos del plato caliente a la dosis de 1 000 mg/kg; en el de contorsiones por ácido acético en ratones y foco calorífico en ratas a las dosis de 250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg. Estos resultados indicaron que el extracto acuoso liofilizado de O. tenuiflorum ejerce un efecto antinociceptivo, preferentemente sobre la vía periférica.Drugs with the capacity of inhibiting the synthesis or action of mediators such as eikosanoids, histamine, bradycine, and others, hinder the sensitizing action of them on the nociceptive nervous terminationes. Taking into account the shown antiinflammatory activity of the freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., it was the objective of this paper to evaluate the analgesic properties of it in animal models. Doses of O. tenuiflorum of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were evaluated in pain-induction models by chemical and thermic ways. As a result of this study it was observed that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum. had an analgesic effect in the hot dish model at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg, and in that of contortions by acetic acid in mice and calorific focus in rats at doses of 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg. These results indicated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract of O. tenuiflorum has an antinociceptive effect, mainly on the peripheral pathway.

  12. Effect of Motor Impairment on Analgesic Efficacy of Dopamine D2/3 Receptors in a Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Dourado, Margarida; Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Monteiro, Clara; Galhardo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Testing the clinical efficacy of drugs that also have important side effects on locomotion needs to be properly designed in order to avoid erroneous identification of positive effects when the evaluation depends on motor-related tests. One such example is the evaluation of analgesic role of drugs that act on dopaminergic receptors, since the pain perception tests used in animal models are based on motor responses that can also be compromised by the same substances. The apparent analgesic effect obtained by modulation of the dopaminergic system is still a highly disputed topic. There is a lack of acceptance of this effect in both preclinical and clinical settings, despite several studies showing that D2/3 agonists induce antinociception. Some authors raised the hypothesis that this antinociceptive effect is enhanced by dopamine-related changes in voluntary initiation of movement. However, the extent to which D2/3 modulation changes locomotion at analgesic effective doses is still an unresolved question. In the present work, we performed a detailed dose-dependent analysis of the changes that D2/3 systemic modulation have on voluntary locomotor activity and response to four separate tests of both thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity in adult rats. Using systemic administration of the dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist quinpirole, and of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride, we found that modulation of D2/3 receptors impairs locomotion and exploratory activity in a dose-dependent manner across the entire range of tested dosages. None of the drugs were able to consistently diminish either thermal or mechanical pain perception when administered at lower concentrations; on the other hand, the larger concentrations of raclopride (0.5–1.0 mg/kg) strongly abolished pain responses, and also caused severe motor impairment. Our results show that administration of both agonists and antagonists of dopaminergic D2/3 receptors affects sensorimotor behaviors, with the effect over locomotion and exploratory activity being stronger than the observed effect over pain responses. PMID:27081316

  13. Comparison of speed of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect appearance of nimesulid and diclofenac sodium tablets in gout arthritis: a randomized study

    F. M. Kudaeva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess speed of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect appearance of nimesulid and diclofenac sodium tablets in gout arthritis. 90 male pts with gout were included in an open clinical study. They were randomly assigned into three groups (30 pts in each. Group 1 pts received nimesulid tablets (Nise 100 mg twice a day, group 2 pts — tablets of an other nimesulid preparation and group 3 pts — diclofenac sodium 75 mg twice a day. Duration of treatment was 7 days. Nise significantly earlier provided anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, gout arthritis, nimesulid, period till effect appearance, tolerability.

  14. Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats

    Zhao-Xiang Bian, Man Zhang, Quan-Bin Han, Hong-Xi Xu, Joseph JY Sung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021, a Chinese herbal formula, and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS: JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials. All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005. In a neonatal maternal separation (NMS model, male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14, or no specific handling (NH. Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered JCM-16021 (2, 4, 8 g/kg per day orally twice a day for 28 d. Pain threshold pressure and electromyographic activities of external oblique muscles in response to colorectal distention recorded with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International, were tested as pain indices. Changes in serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA concentrations in the colon of rats were analyzed; the enterochromaffin cell numbers and serotonin transporter in the colon of rats were also evaluated with an immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: NMS treatment significantly reduced pain threshold pressure (37.4 ± 1.4 mmHg, as compared to that of NH rats (57.7 ± 1.9 mmHg, P < 0.05. After JCM-16021 treatment, the pain threshold pressure significantly increased when compared to that before treatment (34.2 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 52.8 ± 2.3 mmHg in the high dose group, 40.2 ± 1.6 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.3 mmHg in the middle dose group, and 39.3 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.6 mmHg in the low dose group, P < 0.05. Also JCM-16021 significantly and dose-dependently decreased electromyographic activity to the graded colorectal distension (CRD, (the mean ?AUC values were: 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.06 ± 0.18, 1.22 ± 0.24 in the high dose group; 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.17, 1.27 ± 0.26, 1.8 ± 0.3 in the middle dose group; and 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.8 ± 0.16, 1.53 ± 0.24, 2.1 ± 0.21 in the low dose group for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg, as compared to the NMS vehicle group. The mean ?AUC values were: 0.57 ± 0.12, 1.33 ± 0.18, 2.57 ± 0.37, 3.08 ± 0.37 for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg (P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly reduced the 5-HT concentrations (from high, middle and low dosage groups: 60.25 ± 5.98 ng/100 mg, 60.32 ± 4.22 ng/100 mg, 73.31 ± 7.65 ng/100 mg, as compared to the NMS vehicle groups (93.11 ± 9.85 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; and increased the 5-HIAA concentrations (after treatment, from high, middle and low dosage groups: 54.24 ± 3.27 ng/100 mg, 50.34 ± 1.26 ng/100 mg, 51.37 ± 2.13 ng/100 mg when compared to that in the NMS vehicle group (51.75 ± 1.98 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; but did not change the enterochromaffin cell numbers in the colon of rats. In addition, NMS rats had higher SERT expression (n = 10 than NH rats (n = 8, P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly decreased SERT expression when compared to the NMS group (P < 0.01-0.001.CONCLUSION: JCM-16021 can attenuate visceral hypersensitivity, and this analgesic effect may be mediated through the serotonin signaling pathway in the colon of rats.

  15. Botulinum neurotoxin A enhances the analgesic effects on inflammatory pain and antagonizes tolerance induced by morphine in mice.

    Vacca, Valentina; Marinelli, Sara; Eleuteri, Cecilia; Luvisetto, Siro; Pavone, Flaminia

    2012-03-01

    Over the recent years compelling evidence has accumulated indicating that botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) results in analgesic effects on neuropathic as well as inflammatory pain, both in humans and in animal models. In the present study, the pharmacological interaction of BoNT/A with morphine in fighting inflammatory pain was investigated in mice using the formalin test. Moreover, the effects of BoNT/A on the tolerance-induced by chronic administration of morphine were tested and the behavioral effects were correlated with immunofluorescence staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein, the specific marker of astrocytes, at the spinal cord level. An ineffective dose of BoNT/A (2 pg/paw) combined with an ineffective dose of morphine (1 mg/kg) exerted a significant analgesic action both during the early and the late phases of formalin test. A single intraplantar injection of BoNT/A (15 pg/paw; i.pl.), administered the day before the beginning of chronic morphine treatment (7 days of s.c. injections of 20 mg/kg), was able to counteract the occurrence of tolerance to morphine. Moreover, BoNT/A reduces the enhancement of the expression of astrocytes induced by inflammatory formalin pain. Side effects of opiates, including the development of tolerance during repeated use, may limit their therapeutic use, the possibility of using BoNT/A for lowering the effective dose of morphine and preventing the development of opioid tolerance would have relevant implications in terms of potential therapeutic perspectives. PMID:22281280

  16. Evaluation of efficacy of sedative and analgesic effects of single IV dose of dexmedetomidine in post-operative patients

    Manasa CR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the post-operative period, it has always been an important consideration for clinicians, to keep the patient comfortable, calm and pain free. So there is a constant need for an ideal sedative for postoperative patients. Alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonists such as dexmedetomidine could provide an answer to this problem because they have several relevant physiological properties like sedation, anxiolysis, analgesia and arousability. Hence, the current study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in post-operative patients in order to avoid polypharmacy.Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who were operated under general anesthesia electively were randomly selected . All patients received 1 μg/kg bodyweight of dexmedetomidine intravenously with normal saline making up to 10 ml over 20 minutes. If the verbal numerical scale (VNS of pain was mild (i.e. 1 to 3 one hour after extubation. The patients were assessed for degree and duration of sedation, hemodynamic changes, episodes of side effects, requirement of analgesics at every 5 min for first 30 min, every 10 min for next 1hr, every 15 min for next 1 h, and eve-ry 30 min for next 1h, every 1 h for 3h and 6th hourly till 24h. The need for rescue analgesic was noted.Results: The mean duration of sedation was 129.6 ± 41.02 min, degree of sedation was -1 at 30 min, duration of analgesia 241.5 min, and mean degree of analgesia was 0 at 30 min, mean degree of sedation was -1. Mean time of administration of rescue analgesia was 170 min. Mean heart rate was 67.8 ± 5.24/min and mean arterial pressure was 78.0 ± 8.97mm of Hg, mean respiratory rate was 15.8 ± 2.33 breaths/min, mean partial pressure of oxygen SpO2 was 99.5 ± 0.56%. No patient had any episode of shivering, vomiting, hypotension and respiratory depression.Conclusion: Single IV dose of dexmedetomidine could provide adequate sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects with no accompanying respiratory depression, thereby minimizing polypharmacy.

  17. Differential proteomics analysis of the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture intervention in the hippocampus following neuropathic pain in rats

    Gao Yong-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is building steadily on the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy in pain relief and repeated acupuncture-induced pain relief is accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neural synaptic plasticity. To further test the cellular and molecular changes underlying analgesic effect of acupuncture, the global change of acupuncture associated protein profiles in the hippocampus under neuropathic pain condition was profiled. Methods The chronic constrictive injury (CCI model was established by ligature of the unilateral sciatic nerve in adult Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into normal control (NC group, CCI group, and CCI with electroacupuncture (EA stimulation group. EA was applied to bilateral Zusanli (ST36 and Yanglingquan (GB34 in the EA group. Differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus in the three groups were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The functional clustering of the identified proteins was analyzed by Mascot software. Results After CCI, the thermal pain threshold of the affected hind footpad was decreased and was reversed gradually by 12 sessions of acupuncture treatment. Following EA, there were 19 hippocampal proteins identified with significant changes in expression (>2-fold, which are involved in metabolic, physiological, and cellular processes. The top three canonical pathways identified were “cysteine metabolism”, “valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation” and “mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling”. Conclusions These data suggest that the analgesic effect of EA is mediated by regulation of hippocampal proteins related to amino acid metabolism and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  18. Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Caudal Epidural Tramadol, Tramadol-Lidocaine, and Lidocaine in Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    Atiba, Ayman; Ghazy, Alaa; Gomaa, Naglaa; Kamal, Tarek; Shukry, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and a combination of tramadol-lidocaine with that produced by lidocaine administration in the epidural space in buffalo calves. In a prospective randomized crossover study, ten male buffalo calves were used to compare the epidural analgesic effect of tramadol (1 mg/kg) and tramadol-lidocaine combination (0.5 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg, resp.) with that produced by 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg). Loss of sensation was examined by pin-prick test. Onset time, duration, and degree of analgesia and ataxia were recorded after each treatment. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature, and haematobiochemical parameters were recorded after all treatments. Time to onset and duration of analgesia, respectively, were as follows: tramadol 11 ± 2 min and 208 ± 15 min; tramadol-lidocaine 6 ± 2 min and 168 ± 9 min; lidocaine 4 ± 1 min and 67 ± 13 min. Onset time and duration were significantly longer with tramadol than the other treatments. Duration was significantly longer with tramadol-lidocaine than lidocaine. Ataxia was mildly observed in tramadol-lidocaine and was moderate in lidocaine. HR, RR, and rectal temperature did not differ significantly from baseline after any treatment. Haematobiochemical parameters returned to basal levels by 24 h after all treatments. This combination might be clinically useful to provide analgesia in buffalo for long-duration surgical procedures. PMID:26770870

  19. Analgesic Effects of Bee Venom Derived Phospholipase A2 in a Mouse Model of Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain

    Dongxing Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A single infusion of oxaliplatin, which is widely used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer, induces specific sensory neurotoxicity signs that are triggered or aggravated when exposed to cold or mechanical stimuli. Bee Venom (BV has been traditionally used in Korea to treat various pain symptoms. Our recent study demonstrated that BV alleviates oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats, via noradrenergic and serotonergic analgesic pathways. In this study, we have further investigated whether BV derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2 attenuates oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia in mice and its mechanism. The behavioral signs of cold and mechanical allodynia were evaluated by acetone and a von Frey hair test on the hind paw, respectively. The significant allodynia signs were observed from one day after an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.. Daily administration of bvPLA2 (0.2 mg/kg, i.p. for five consecutive days markedly attenuated cold and mechanical allodynia, which was more potent than the effect of BV (1 mg/kg, i.p.. The depletion of noradrenaline by an injection of N-(2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP4, 50 mg/kg, i.p. blocked the analgesic effect of bvPLA2, whereas the depletion of serotonin by injecting DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 150 mg/kg, i.p. for three successive days did not. Furthermore, idazoxan (α2-adrenegic receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p. completely blocked bvPLA2-induced anti-allodynic action, whereas prazosin (α1-adrenegic antagonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p. did not. These results suggest that bvPLA2 treatment strongly alleviates oxaliplatin-induced acute cold and mechanical allodynia in mice through the activation of the noradrenergic system, via α2-adrenegic receptors, but not via the serotonergic system.

  20. Effect of single dose pretreatment analgesia with three different analgesics on postoperative endodontic pain: A randomized clinical trial

    Priyank Sethi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the aims of root canal treatment is to prevent or eliminate pain. Postoperative endodontic pain control continues to be a significant challenge. Aim: To compare and evaluate the effect of single oral dose of 100 mg of tapentadol, 400 mg of etodolac, or 10 mg of ketorolac as a pretreatment analgesic for the prevention and control of postoperative endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The incidence of side effects was recorded as secondary outcome. Materials and Methods: Sixty emergency patients with moderate to severe pain, diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were randomly allocated (1:1:1 to any of the three groups; tapentadol, etodolac, or ketorolac. Medications were administered 30 min before beginning of the endodontic treatment. Patients recorded pain intensity on 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS after treatment, for upto 24 h. Results: At 24 h, mean ±standard deviation (SD of VAS scores (in cm for tapentadol, etodolac, and ketorolac were 0.89 ± 0.83, 2.68 ± 2.29, and 0.42 ± 0.69, respectively. Kruskal-Wallis (K-W test showed significant difference among the three groups (P = 0.001. Mann-Whitney test showed significantly lower VAS scores in tapentadol and ketorolac than etodolac group (P = 0.013 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Single oral dose of 10 mg of ketorolac and 100mg of tapentadol as a pretreatment analgesic significantly reduced postoperative endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis when compared to 400 mg of etodolac.

  1. Analgesic effect and side effects of celecoxib and meloxicam in canine hip osteoarthritis

    Víctor Molina D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the pharmacological, clinical and toxicological effects of celecoxib and meloxicam for analgesia for 30 days in dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients were evaluated, 75% were females with an average age of 7.16 ± 2.06 years and twenty five percent were males with an average age of 7.83 ± 2.22 years. All patients had hip osteoarthritis and they were randomized into two groups; one group received oral celecoxib 5 mg/kg every 12 hours during one month and the second group received oral meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg every 24 hours during 1 month. The patients were evaluated for analgesia, and hematological, renal, liver, and coagulation tests on days 0, 10th and 30th after treatment initiation, and a gastric endoscopy on day 30. Statistical analysis was performed using a HSD Tukey test and c2 with a 5% level of statistical significance. Results. Both drugs reduced articular pain according to the Melbourne scale during the 30 days of treatment (p?0.05. Hematological, renal, hepatic and coagulation tests were normal in both treatment groups. All patients presented chronic gastritis on endoscopy on day 30th. Conclusions. Both drugs decreased pain at day 30th without causing alterations in hematological, renal, hepatic or coagulation tests after 30 days of treatment. However, both drugs induced chronic gastritis.

  2. Analgesic and antisympathetic effects of clonidine in burn patients, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Ostadalipour Abbas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Unlike most other Analgesic drugs, α2 adrenoceptor agonists are capable of producing analgesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Analgesic and antisympathetic effects of clonidine, an α2 adrenoceptor agonist in burn patients. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed on one hundred burn patients in Zarea Hospital, Mazandaran, Iran from august 2004 to July 2005. All patients divided in two groups. Case group (n=50 received oral clonidine, 3.3μg/kg TDS and controls (n=50 received placebo. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure and pain severity Visual analogue score (VAS, were recorded after clonidine administration. Statistical analysis was done by means of Mann Witney U test. Results: 50 patients (mean age 28.96±10 years in case group, and 50 patients (mean age 27.60±11.4 years in control group were studied. VAS pain scores and heart rate in the clonidine group were significantly lower than the control group (P< 0.0001, P< 0.02.there were no significant difference in systolic blood pressure between the two groups on the first and second day but on third day the systolic blood pressure in clonidine group, was lower than controls significantly (P=0.002. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the use of oral clonidine affects the hemodynamic response to pain in burn patients. Our study demonstrated that clonidine can produce good analgesia and decreased in sympathetic over activity in burn patients, and also reduce opioid dose requirements.

  3. Effects of the extracts from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves on analgesic and behavioral activities in experimental animals

    Kitja Sawangjaroen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (M. speciosa were extracted with methanol to give methanol extract. The methanol extract was made in acid and then in alkaline and extracted with chloroform to give alkaloid extract. The effects of the methanol and alkaloid extracts on analgesic activities in hot plate test in mice and tail flick test in rats and behavioral activities in locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, were examined. In acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of oral administration of the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves in mice were 4.90 g/kg and 173.20 mg/kg, respectively. Oral administration (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract of M. speciosa leaves significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response on hot plate test in mice. The alkaloid extract of M. speciosa also increased the pain response latency at the dose of 20 mg/kg but less potent than those of the methanol extract (100 mg/kg in mice (comparing 5-10 mg/kg alkaloid extract with corresponding to approximately 200 mg/kg of methanol extract. The antinociceptive action of either methanol extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. or alkaloid extract (20 mg/kg, p.o. of M. speciosa leaves was blocked by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. Neither the methanol extract nor the alkaloid extract significantly prolonged latency of nociceptive response on tail flick test in rats. Both of the extracts had no significant change on spontaneous motor activity or pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, respectively. These results suggest that the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves possess the analgesic activity which partly acted at opioid receptors in the supraspinal opioid system.

  4. Analgesic activity of double endorphins in vivo.

    Dorociak, A; Misterek, K; Rewerski, W; Ciupak, S

    1984-01-01

    The effects of double endorphins DALA2, DYNO2, CASO2 on pain threshold in the rats were compared with those of DALA (D-Ala2-Met5-enkephalinamide). Marked differences in the analgesic potency of the investigated peptides were noted. The most potent analgesic effect was exerted by DALA2. DYNO2 was weaker than DALA and DALA2 due to lack of glycine residue in position 3, probably responsible for the receptor affinity and analgesic activity in vivo. The weak analgesic activity of CASO2 in vivo corresponds with the weak opiate agonistic action of this peptide in vitro [see 7]. All investigated peptides induced changes in animal behaviour when injected i.c.v. The results indicated that among peptides in the novel group of double endorphins, DALA2 is of special interest because of a potent and long lasting analgesic action. PMID:6545925

  5. Gabapentin, an Analgesic Used Against Cancer-Associated Neuropathic Pain: Effects on Prostate Cancer Progression in an In Vivo Rat Model.

    Bugan, Ilknur; Karagoz, Zeynep; Altun, Seyhan; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2016-03-01

    A major problem associated with clinical management of cancer is controlling the accompanying pain, and various analgesics are in common use for this purpose. Recent evidence suggests that some of the targets of analgesics, such as ion channels and receptors, may also be involved in the cancer process, thereby raising the possibility that such use of some analgesics may impact upon cancer itself. The main aim of this study was to determine whether gabapentin, a common adjuvant analgesic in current use against cancer-associated neuropathic pain, would affect tumour development and progression in vivo. The Dunning rat model of prostate cancer was used. Strongly metastatic Mat-LyLu cells were implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic Copenhagen rats which were then treated every other day with 4.6-16.8 ?g/kg gabapentin by gavage. Primary tumourigenesis was monitored daily. Lung metastases were counted and measured after killing the rats 21 days later. Gabapentin had no effect on primary tumourigenesis but produced dose-dependent effects on lung metastasis. Whilst 4.6 ?g/kg had no effect, 9.1 ?g/kg gabapentin decreased the number of lung metastases significantly by 64%. In contrast, 16.8 ?g/kg gabapentin promoted metastasis significantly by 112% and showed a strong tendency to shorten mean survival time. It is concluded that gabapentin prescribed to cancer patients against pain could impact upon the cancer process itself. PMID:26335695

  6. Qigong Effects on Heart Rate Variability and Peripheral Vasomotor Responses.

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2015-11-01

    Population aging is occurring worldwide, and preventing cardiovascular event in older people is a unique challenge. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week qigong (eight-form moving meditation) training program on the heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor response of middle-aged and elderly people in the community. This was a quasi-experimental study that included the pre-test, post-test, and nonequivalent control group designs. Seventy-seven participants (experimental group = 47; control group = 30) were recruited. The experimental group performed 30 min of eight-form moving meditation 3 times per week for 12 weeks, and the control group continued their normal daily activities. After 12 weeks, the interaction effects indicated that compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited significantly improved heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor responses. PMID:24869492

  7. The Effect of Skin Traction on Preoperative Pain and Need for Analgesics in Patients With Intertrochanteric Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Manafi Rasi, Alireza; Amoozadeh, Farzad; Khani, Salim; Kamrani Rad, Amin; Sazegar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preoperative skin traction is applied for many patients with hip fracture. However, the efficacy of this modality in pain relief is controversial. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of skin traction on pain in patients with intertrochanteric fractures. Patients and Methods: A total of 40 patients contributed in this randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups: the skin traction (3 kg) and control groups. The severity of pain was recorded at admission and 30 minutes, one, six, 12, and 24 hours after skin traction application utilizing a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In addition, the number of requests for analgesics was recorded. Finally, the mean severity of pain in each measurement and the mean number of analgesic requests were compared between the two groups. Results: The severity of pain was significantly decreased in skin traction group only at the end of the first day after traction application (2.7 ± 0.8 vs. 3.3 ± 0.9; P = 0.042), while there was no significant difference between the two groups in other pain measurements. The number of requests for analgesics was the same between the two groups. Conclusions: Although skin traction had no effect on analgesic consumption, it significantly decreased the pain at the end of the first day. The application of skin traction in patients with intertrochanteric fractures is recommended. PMID:26401491

  8. Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone: An Overview on the Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Amin, Bahareh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    For many centuries, seeds of Nigella sativa (black cumin), a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used as a seasoning spice and food additive in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. Traditionally, the plant is used for asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances. The literature regarding the biological activities of seeds of this plant is extensive, citing bronchodilative, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. The active ingredients of N. sativa are mainly concentrated in the fixed or essential oil of seeds, which are responsible for most health benefits. This review will provide all updated reported activities of this plant with an emphasis on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results of various studies have demonstrated that the oil, extracts, and their active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting the common folk perception of N. Sativa as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Many protective properties are attributed to reproducible radical scavenging activity as well as an interaction with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation, including proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. However, there is a need for further investigations to find out the precise mechanisms responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant and its active constituents. PMID:26366755

  9. The study of Analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and Anti-oxidant Effect of Ethanolic Extracts of Ecbolium linnaenum in Albino Mice

    Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ecbolium linnaenum(leaves is used as a folk medicine in Bangladesh for pain, diarrhea and infectious diseases. Phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of Ecboliumlinnaenumleaves demonstratesthese pharmacologic effect for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, gums,flavonoids and absence of carbohydrates, steroids, saponins. In this present study an attempt was made to determine the analgesic, antidiarrhoel, antioxidantand antimicrobial effectin Swiss Albino mice. Ethanolic extracts of250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant inhibition of writhing reflex 36.20% (P< 0.01 and 54.48% (P< 0.001, respectively while the standard drug diclofenac-Na was 75.52% (P< 0.001 at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight.In the castor oil-induced diarrhoealmice, the ethanolic extracts of 250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg, raised the latent period and reduced the number of stools comparing with standard drug Loperamide. 0.02% DPPH solution of ethanol on TLC plate showed the presence of anti-oxidant components in the Ecboliumlinnaenum.From the % inhibition of ascorbic acid and Ecboliumlinnaenum we observe that it has anti-oxidation effect. The IC50 (inhibitory conc. 50% for ascorbic acid is approximately 1 µg/ml and for the sample it is more than 500 µg/ml. The ethanolic extract of Ecboliumlinnaenum was tested for antimicrobial activity against a number of both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria but it does not show any anti-microbial effect.

  10. Evaluation of in vitro effects of some analgesic drugs on erythrocyte and recombinant carbonic anhydrase I and II.

    Gökçe, Başak; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay; Turkoğlu, Sumeyye Aydogan; Alper, Meltem; Köçkar, Feray

    2012-02-01

    The in vitro effects of the injectable form of analgesic drugs, dexketoprofen trometamol, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, metamizole sodium, diclofenac sodium, thiocolchicoside, on the activity of purified human carbonic anhydrase I and II were evaluated. The effect of these drugs on erythrocyte hCA I and hCA II was compared to recombinant hCA I and hCA II expressed in Ecoli. IC(50) values of the drugs that caused inhibition were determined by means of activity percentage diagrams. The IC(50) concentrations of dexketoprofen trometamol and dexamethasone sodium phosphate on hCA I were 683 μM and 4250 μM and for hCA II 950 μM and 6200 μM respectively. Conversely, the enzyme activity was increased by diflofenac sodium. In addition, thiocolchicoside has not any affect on hCA I and hCA II. The effect of these drugs on erythrocyte hCA I and hCA II were consistent with the inhibition of recombinant enzymes. PMID:21534860

  11. Effect of Hypoxia and Bedrest on Peripheral Vasoconstriction

    McDonnell, Adam C.; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Jaki Mekjavic, Polona; Eiken, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Future planetary habitats may expose astronauts to both microgravity and hypobaric hypoxia, both inducing a reduction in peripheral perfusion. Peripheral temperature changes have been linked to sleep onset and quality [5]. However, it is still unknown what effect combining hypoxia and bedrest has on this relationship. Eleven male participants underwent three 10-day campaigns in a randomized manner: 1) normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAmb); 2) normobaric hypoxic bed rest (HBR); 3) normobaric normoxic bed rest (NBR). There was no change in skin temperature gradient between the calf and toes, an index of peripheral perfusion (Δ Tc-t), over the 10-d period in the HAmb trial. However, there was a significant increase (p< 0.001) in daytime (9am-9pm) Δ Tc-t on day 10 of the inactivity/unloading periods (HBR and NBR trials). This reduction in the perfusion of the toes during the daytime was augmented during the HBR trial compared to NBR (p< 0.001). Before and on day 10 of the interventions we conducted polysomnographic assessment, which revealed no changes in sleep onset and/or architecture. These data support the theory that circadian changes in temperature are functionally linked to sleepiness [1].

  12. [Mechanism of action of the analgesic flupirtine].

    Nickel, B; Herz, A; Jakovlev, V; Tibes, U

    1985-01-01

    To answer the questions of mode and site of action partly supplementary, partly new investigations with flupirtine (Katadolon) were carried out which are described below. The investigation for opiate receptor affinity of flupirtine in rat brain homogenate did not show any reduction in 3He-etorphine binding up to the highest concentration of flupirtine of 10(-5) mol/1. This result suggests that flupirtine either has a very low opiate receptor affinity or lacks it fully. Therefore the analgesic activity of flupirtine is not based on opiate mechanism. The intracerebroventricular and intrathecal administration of flupirtine and the other analgesics tested showed dose dependent analgesic activity in doses which, when applied systemically, did not cause any analgesia in rats. Thus these substances show cerebral or spinal analgesic activity. In relation to the effective doses (ED50 in micrograms/rat) flupirtine was of the same efficacy in both kinds of administration. Pethidine tested comparatively was found to be less potent by intrathecal than by intracerebroventricular application. On the other hand, morphine was weaker by intracerebroventricular than by intrathecal application. As in the experiments by oral administration, naloxone did not show any effect on the analgesic activity of flupirtine, neither by intracerebroventricular nor by intrathecal application. On the other hand, the analgesic effects of pethidine and morphine were completely suppressed by naloxone. These results demonstrate that the analgesic activity of flupirtine is not caused by the opiate mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3002399

  13. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effect of ropivacaine during continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief

    Erichsen, C J; Sjövall, J; Kehlet, H; Hedlund, C; Arvidsson, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ropivacaine (2.5 mg/ml) during a 24-h continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief in 20 patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were characterized using an open-label, increasing-dose design. METHODS: Through an epidural...... catheter inserted at T10-T12, a test dose of 7.5 mg ropivacaine was given 3 min before a bolus dose of 42.5 mg and immediately followed by a 24-h continuous epidural infusion with either 10 or 20 mg/h. Peripheral venous plasma samples were collected up to 48 h after infusion, and urinary excretion was...... varied between estimates after 8 h of infusion and the end of treatment, i.e., a 5.3% decrease from 10.4 +/- 5.3 l/min to 9.5 +/- 3.9 l/min (P < 0.05). The unbound fraction of ropivacaine in plasma decreased during treatment, and this was related to the increase in alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentration...

  14. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Reza Heidari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was performed on 32 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic, melatonin-treated diabetic and vitamin E-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (50 mg/kg injection. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p. and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 2 weeks after 21st day of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, pain-related behavior was assessed using 0.5% formalin test according to two spontaneous flinching and licking responses. The levels of lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were evaluated in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.ResultsFormalin-evoked flinching and total time of licking were increased in both acute and chronic phases of pain in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, whereas treatment with melatonin or vitamin E significantly reduced the pain indices. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in diabetic rats. Both antioxidants reversed the biochemical parameters toward their control values.ConclusionThese results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to induction of pain in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidants, melatonin and vitamin E, can reduce peripheral neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  15. Comparison between the analgesic effects of morphine and tramadol delivered epidurally in cats receiving a standardized noxious stimulation.

    Castro, Douglas S; Silva, Marta F A; Shih, Andre C; Motta, Pedro P A; Pires, Marcos V M; Scherer, Paulo O

    2009-12-01

    This study compared the analgesic effects of epidural tramadol versus morphine in six healthy cats. Under general anesthesia, each cat received an epidural injection of saline 0.22 ml/kg (control treatment, CT), tramadol 1mg/kg (tramadol treatment, TT), or morphine 0.1mg/kg (morphine treatment, MT). After cats had recovered from anesthesia a simple descriptive scale (SDS), visual analog scale (VAS) and physiological parameters (respiratory and heart rate) were used to assess analgesia level to a noxious stimulus (base of the tail skin fold clamping) at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12h post-epidural. Group TT had a higher SDS and VAS score when compared to MT at 8, 10 and 12h post-epidural. CT had higher SDS and VAS score at all time points when compared to TT and MT. In conclusion both morphine and tramadol provided analgesia in this model for the first 6h; with epidural morphine resulting in longer lasting analgesia when compared to tramadol. PMID:19540784

  16. The analgesic effect on neuropathic pain of retrogradely transported botulinum neurotoxin A involves Schwann cells and astrocytes.

    Marinelli, Sara; Vacca, Valentina; Ricordy, Ruggero; Uggenti, Carolina; Tata, Ada Maria; Luvisetto, Siro; Pavone, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a growing debate is about whether botulinum neurotoxins are retrogradely transported from the site of injection. Immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 (cl-SNAP-25), the protein of the SNARE complex targeted by botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A), could represent an excellent approach to investigate the mechanism of action on the nociceptive pathways at peripheral and/or central level. After peripheral administration of BoNT/A, we analyzed the expression of cl-SNAP-25, from the hindpaw's nerve endings to the spinal cord, together with the behavioral effects on neuropathic pain. We used the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in CD1 mice as animal model of neuropathic pain. We evaluated immunostaining of cl-SNAP-25 in the peripheral nerve endings, along the sciatic nerve, in dorsal root ganglia and in spinal dorsal horns after intraplantar injection of saline or BoNT/A, alone or colocalized with either glial fibrillar acidic protein, GFAP, or complement receptor 3/cluster of differentiation 11b, CD11b, or neuronal nuclei, NeuN, depending on the area investigated. Immunofluorescence analysis shows the presence of the cl-SNAP-25 in all tissues examined, from the peripheral endings to the spinal cord, suggesting a retrograde transport of BoNT/A. Moreover, we performed in vitro experiments to ascertain if BoNT/A was able to interact with the proliferative state of Schwann cells (SC). We found that BoNT/A modulates the proliferation of SC and inhibits the acetylcholine release from SC, evidencing a new biological effect of the toxin and further supporting the retrograde transport of the toxin along the nerve and its ability to influence regenerative processes. The present results strongly sustain a combinatorial action at peripheral and central neural levels and encourage the use of BoNT/A for the pathological pain conditions difficult to treat in clinical practice and dramatically impairing patients' quality of life. PMID:23110146

  17. Comparison of the Analgesic Effect of Diclofenac Sodium-Eudragit® RS100 Solid Dispersion and Nanoparticles Using Formalin Test in the Rats

    Adibkia, Khosro; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Siavash; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Shiva, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the intensity and duration of analgesic effect of diclofenac Na - Eudragit® RS100 solid dispersion and nanoparticles were evaluated by using formalin test in the rats. Methods: The animals received different formulations of diclofenac Na and subsequently 50 μl of formalin solution (2.5%) was injected subcutaneously in the right paws after 1 h, 2 h and 3 h. The paw licking behavior was then evaluated in two phases. A dose of 20 mg/kg of pure diclofenac Na powder was determined as effective dose. Results: In the first phase, in term of reduced paw licking time, no significant differences were found in any of the groups compared to the control group. However, in the second phase, the animals which received pure drug powder and the physical mixture of diclofenac Na with Eudragit® RS100 showed significant differences at the first and second hours. In the animals received the nanoparticles and solid dispersion, significant differences were observed in the third hour compared to the control group. Conclusion: The analgesic effect of diclofenac Na could be improved by formulating its nanoparticles and solid dispersion with Eudragit® RS100. However, the nanoparticles revealed significantly higher analgesic effect than solid dispersion. PMID:25789222

  18. Comparison of the Analgesic Effect of Diclofenac Sodium-Eudragit® RS100 Solid Dispersion and Nanoparticles Using Formalin Test in the Rats

    Khosro Adibkia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study the intensity and duration of analgesic effect of diclofenac Na - Eudragit® RS100 solid dispersion and nanoparticles were evaluated by using formalin test in the rats. Methods: The animals received different formulations of diclofenac Na and subsequently 50 μl of formalin solution (2.5% was injected subcutaneously in the right paws after 1 h, 2 h and 3 h. The paw licking behavior was then evaluated in two phases. A dose of 20 mg/kg of pure diclofenac Na powder was determined as effective dose. Results: In the first phase, in term of reduced paw licking time, no significant differences were found in any of the groups compared to the control group. However, in the second phase, the animals which received pure drug powder and the physical mixture of diclofenac Na with Eudragit® RS100 showed significant differences at the first and second hours. In the animals received the nanoparticles and solid dispersion, significant differences were observed in the third hour compared to the control group. Conclusion: The analgesic effect of diclofenac Na could be improved by formulating its nanoparticles and solid dispersion with Eudragit® RS100. However, the nanoparticles revealed significantly higher analgesic effect than solid dispersion.

  19. Preclinical, Pharmacological and Toxicological studies of Karpoora Chindhamani Mathirai (KCM) for Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-pyretic effects in rats

    Meena R; Ramaswamy R S

    2012-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is indigenous to India. The drug Karpoora Chindhamani Mathirai chosen from classic Siddha text is subjected to preclinical toxicity studies and for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects in rats. These preclinical studies are performed to bring a strong evidence based support on the traditional medicine. Toxicity studies are performed as per OECD guidelines and Karpoora Chindhamani Mathirai at the dose of 2000 mg/kg/po did not exhibit any mortality in r...

  20. Correlation between the cumulative analgesic effect of electroacupuncture intervention and synaptic plasticity of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons in rats with sciatica☆

    Xu, Qiuling; Liu, Tao; CHEN, SHUPING; Gao, Yonghui; Wang, Junying; Qiao, Lina; Liu, Junling

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain was established by ligation of the sciatic nerve and a model of learning and memory impairment was established by ovariectomy to investigate the analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture stimulation at bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34). In addition, associated synaptic changes in neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus were examined. Results indicate that the thermal pain threshold (paw withd...

  1. Neurotransmission in CNS regions involved in pain modulation : Neurochemical effects of analgesic drugs and spinal cord stimulation in the spinal cord and midbrain periaqueductal grey of the rat

    Stiller, Carl-Olav

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmission in CNS Regions Involved in Pain Modulation Neurochemical effects of analgesic drugs and spinal cord stimulation in the dorsal horn and midbrain periaqueductal grey of the rat by Carl-Olav Stiller From the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Division of Pharmacology Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden The dorsal hom of the spinal cord and the midbrain penaqueductal grey matter (PAG) are important regions for pain modulation. In ...

  2. Opioid and adjuvant analgesics: compared and contrasted.

    Khan, Mohammed Ilyas Ahmed; Walsh, Declan; Brito-Dellan, Norman

    2011-08-01

    An adjuvant (or co-analgesic) is a drug that in its pharmacological characteristic is not necessarily primarily identified as an analgesic in nature but that has been found in clinical practice to have either an independent analgesic effect or additive analgesic properties when used with opioids. The therapeutic role of adjuvant analgesics (AAs) is to increase the therapeutic index of opioids by a dose-sparing effect, add a unique analgesic action in opioid-resistant pain, or reduce opioid side effects. A notable difference between opioids and AAs is that unlike opioids some AAs are associated with permanent organ toxicity, for example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and renal failure. It is impossible to predict in advance in a given individual what opioid dose they may require to control cancer pain. Most AAs have a ceiling effect for their analgesic actions, but often with continued dose-related toxicities and side effects (with the exception of glucocorticoids). The blood levels of opioids (and their metabolites) can be measured with great precision and accuracy. There is sometimes a role for drug blood levels of certain AAs, like tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants when used for neuropathic pain. Age affects metabolism of most opioids. The therapeutic window of opioids is wide, with no ceiling effect. Most AAs (except corticosteroids) have a narrow therapeutic window. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist that competes and displaces opioids from their receptor sites. All clinically useful opioids are mu opioid receptor agonists. Not all routes of administration are available to all opioids. Adjuvant analgesics lack the versatility in routes of administration that opioids possess. Dosing flexibility is a major advantage when treating cancer-related pain with opioids. Dose flexibility is much less with AAs than opioids. Unlike opioids, the analgesic response is usually observed within hours to days of attaining an adequate dose with most AAs (1-2 days). Rotation among opioids is a useful therapeutic strategy to improve analgesic response or minimize toxicity. Most AAs are unsuitable for rescue dosing because of their pharmacological characteristics. The mu agonist side effect profile is similar among the different opioid agents, regardless of the route of administration. The appropriate use of AAs will reduce opioid-related side effects. No apparent tolerance to analgesia develops with AAs. Abrupt discontinuation of an opioid after chronic repeated use for more than a few days will cause a withdrawal syndrome of variable severity. Adjuvant analgesics are an essential tool in cancer pain. PMID:21622486

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of a Novel Biflavonoid from Shells of Camellia oleifera

    Yong Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum (p < 0.01, revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  4. Acute effects of analgesics on driving performance in a highway surrounding depending on age

    BERTHELON, Catherine; Amato, Jean-Noël; Marie, Sullivan; DENISE, Pierre; BOCCA, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Among drugs, the association of codeine/paracetamol could decrease vigilance and thus impair driving performance. However, few experimental study evaluated codeine effects on driving, and they only tested these effects on young healthy drivers whereas elderly people represent a large part of drivers and are used to consume this type of drugs. The effects were evaluated in two groups of 16 subjects, young (20-30 years) and aged (55 to 65 years). One hour of monotonous driving performance was ...

  5. Effect of intramuscular tramadol hydrochloride as a labor analgesic in primagravidae

    Asha Rani K. N. M.

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: In low risk primigravidae, IM tramadol hydrochloride appears to be effective with minimal side effects. Hence, in developing nations, where availability of facilities is the main limiting factor, IM opioids can be considered as suitable alternatives. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 615-619

  6. Perioperative analgesic effects of intravenous paracetamol: Preemptive versus preventive analgesia in elective cesarean section

    Hassan, Hossam Ibrahim Eldesuky Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cesarean section (CS) is the one of the most common surgical procedure in women. There is preoperative stress effect before the delivery of the baby as (intubation and skin incision). There is acute postoperative pain, which may be progressed to chronic pain. All these perioperative stress effects need for various approach of treatment, which including systemic and neuraxial analgesia. The different analgesia modalities may affect and impair early interaction between mother and in...

  7. Effect of alprazolam on analgesic action of ibuprofen in treatment of dysmenorrhea in 18-25 years old girls

    Mahmoud Baradaran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecologic complications in young women. Given the widespread use of ibuprofen in the treatment of dysmenorrhea, the purpose of present study was to determine the analgesic effect of ibuprofen by alprazolam in treatment of dysmenorrhea.Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a double blind clinical trial and cross-over study. 40 young female students with dysmenorrhea were randomly divided into two groups of 20. In the first month, the first 20 persons were received ibuprofen (400mg every 8 hours and received placebo nightly from the time of menarche and the second group were received ibuprofen (400mg every 8 hours and a single dose of alprazolam (0.5mg every night for a period of 3 days. Then for the second month, the medicine regime was swiped between two groups. Data were collected using Cox menstrual symptom scale questionnaires. Results: The mean scores of abdominal pain for the day 2 and 4 after treatment in ibuprofen-alprazolam group were lower than those one were observed for ibuprofen- placebo group ( both, P=0.000. Also, the mean scores of low back pain in both day 2 and 4 after treatment with ibuprofen-alprazolam group were significantly lower than those one were observed in the group, which was given ibuprofen- placebo (P=0.000, P=0.005, respectively.Conclusion: According to these findings, it might be proposed ibuprofen-alprazolam compound for relief of dysmenorrheal symptoms, which results in minimum adverse effects of pain on daily living activities as well as pain relief.

  8. Analgesic Activity of Psidium guajava root extracts

    Girish Kumar Gupta1, Manisha Bhatia, Randhir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Natural products constitute the major division of pharmacotherapy. Psidium guajava Linn. has received much attention due to a variety of potential beneficial effects. Numerous polyphenolic compounds, triterpenoids and other chemical compounds are present in this plant. So the present study was designed to investigate the analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract of Psidium guajava in rats. In the present study, analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract and chlor...

  9. Narcotic receptor blockade and its effect on the analgesic response to placebo and ibuprofen after oral surgery.

    Hersh, E V; Ochs, H; Quinn, P; MacAfee, K; Cooper, S A; Barasch, A

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous opiates to the analgesic response after treatment with placebo, codeine, and ibuprofen after oral surgery. Eighty-one patients undergoing complicated dental extractions were pretreated with either a placebo or the narcotic antagonist naltrexone 50 mg, 30 minutes before surgery. After surgery, patients self administered one of three possible postsurgical medications, which included placebo, codeine 60 mg, and ibuprofen 400 mg, when their pain reached a moderate or severe intensity. The study was double-blind with the three postsurgical treatments being randomly allocated within each presurgical treatment block. Pain intensity, pain relief, pain half gone, and overall evaluations were assessed for up to 6 hours. Ibuprofen was significantly more efficacious (p < .05) than codeine or placebo for most analgesic measures. The administration of naltrexone before surgery reduced the analgesic response to both placebo and codeine. Pretreatment with naltrexone did not diminish the peak analgesic response to ibuprofen, but surprisingly prolonged (p < .05) the duration of its action. The results suggest that a blockade of endogenous opiates by naltrexone diminished the placebo response, but that naltrexone may prolong ibuprofen analgesia by some unknown mechanism. PMID:8387662

  10. Effects of estrogen peripheral metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis

    M. Cutolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the immune reactivity is modulated by gender. In fact, women show a more effective immune response as well as a more frequent development of autoimmune diseases. In particular, 17b-estradiol (E2 in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases leads to an higher production of IgG and IgM in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC and the secretion of metalloproteinases and IL-6 by synovial fibroblasts. The effect of E2 seems to be partially related to its concentration. In fact, at the physiological concentration, E2 seems to exert a pro-inflammatory effect, while at pharmacological concentrations shows anti-inflammatory effects. Steroid hormones can be converted in downstream hormones along defined pathways. The conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA in peripheral macrophages leads to the androgen production. Subsequently the enzyme aromatase converts androgens in estrogens, and its activity is increased by some inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-a. In the synovial fluids of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients the levels of estrogens result significantly increased compared with controls, showing the consequence of this unbalanced steroid metabolism. Furthermore, the metabolism of estrogens leads to some downstream hydroxylated metabolites, that are not waste products, but still active molecules in the inflammatory response. In fact, it has been found that synovial fluids of RA patients present a different ratio of 16-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites/ 2-hydroxylated metabolites, confirming that also the unbalanced metabolism of estrogens and not only the estrogen concentration seems to be related to the development and worsening of rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Effect of spasmolytic analgesic drugs on the motility patterns of the equine small intestine.

    Davies, J V; Gerring, E L

    1983-05-01

    The effect of acepromazine, Buscopan (Crown Chemicals), pethidine and methadone was evaluated in ponies prepared with Thiry-Vella (T-V) loops. Motility was assessed by electrophysiological means (bipolar electrodes and strain gauge transducers) and by the passage through the T-V loop of a fluid test meal. Results were obtained from 26 experiments in three ponies and compared with six control experiments, in which saline had been administered to the same ponies. Each pony acted as its own control in each experiment and pre and post treatment values for slow wave frequency, spiking activity, delivery rate and flow rate were compared. Acepromazine reduced electrical activity, but increased volume transport. Buscopan produced little change, while pethidine and methadone both decreased electrical activity, but increased volume transit. These effects may be due to a decrease in tone with resulting increase in luminal volume of the intestine. PMID:6878886

  12. Mechanisms Underlying the Analgesic Effect of Moxibustion on Visceral Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review

    Renjia Huang; Jimeng Zhao; Luyi Wu; Chuanzi Dou; Huirong Liu; Zhijun Weng; Yuan Lu; Yin Shi; Xiaomei Wang; Cili Zhou; Huangan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder that causes recurrent abdominal (visceral) pain. Epidemiological data show that the incidence rate of IBS is as high as 25%. Most of the medications may lead to tolerance, addiction and toxic side effects. Moxibustion is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine and has been used to treat IBS-like abdominal pain for several thousand years in China. As a mild treatment, moxibustion has been widely applied in clinical tr...

  13. Tianeptine prevents respiratory depression without affecting analgesic effect of opiates in conscious rats.

    Cavalla, David; Chianelli, Fabio; Korsak, Alla; Hosford, Patrick S; Gourine, Alexander V; Marina, Nephtali

    2015-08-15

    Respiratory depression remains an important clinical problem that limits the use of opiate analgesia. Activation of AMPA glutamate receptors has been shown to reverse fentanyl-induced respiratory changes. Here, we explored whether tianeptine, a drug known for its ability to phosphorylate AMPA receptors, can be used to prevent opiate-induced respiratory depression. A model of respiratory depression in conscious rats was produced by administration of morphine (10mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were pre-treated with test compounds or control solutions 5min prior to administration of morphine. Respiratory activity was measured using whole-body plethysmography. In conscious animals, tianeptine (2 and 10mg/kg, ip) and DP-201 (2-(4-((3-chloro-6-methyl-5,5-dioxido-6,11-dihydrodibenzo[c,f][1,2] thiazepin-11-yl)amino)butoxy)acetic acid; tianeptine analogue; 2mg/kg, ip) triggered significant (~30%) increases in baseline respiratory activity and prevented morphine-induced respiratory depression. These effects were similar to those produced by an ampakine CX-546 (15mg/kg, ip). The antinociceptive effect of morphine (hot plate test) was unaffected by tianeptine pre-treatment. In conclusion, the results of the experiments conducted in conscious rats demonstrate that systemic administration of tianeptine increases respiratory output and prevents morphine-induced respiratory depression without interfering with the antinociceptive effect of opiates. PMID:26068549

  14. Effect of intraoperative esmolol infusion on anesthetic, analgesic requirements and postoperative nausea-vomitting in a group of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients

    Necla Dereli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Postoperative pain and nausea/vomitting (PNV are common in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Sympatholytic agents might decrease requirements for intravenous or inhalation anesthetics and opioids. In this study we aimed to analyze effects of esmolol on intraoperative anesthetic-postoperative analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV. METHODS: Sixty patients have been included. Propofol, remifentanil and vecuronium were used for induction. Study groups were as follows; I - Esmolol infusion was added to maintenance anesthetics (propofol and remifentanil, II - Only propofol and remifentanil was used during maintenance, III - Esmolol infusion was added to maintenance anesthetics (desflurane and remifentanil, IV - Only desflurane and remifentanil was used during maintenance. They have been followed up for 24 h for PNV and analgesic requirements. Visual analog scale (VAS scores for pain was also been evaluated. RESULTS: VAS scores were significantly lowest in group I (p = 0.001-0.028. PNV incidence was significantly lowest in group I (p = 0.026. PNV incidence was also lower in group III compared to group IV (p = 0.032. Analgesic requirements were significantly lower in group I and was lower in group III compared to group IV (p = 0.005. Heart rates were significantly lower in esmolol groups (group I and III compared to their controls (p = 0.001 however blood pressures were similar in all groups (p = 0.594. Comparison of esmolol groups with controls revealed that there is a significant decrease in anesthetic and opioid requirements (p = 0.024-0.03. CONCLUSION: Using esmolol during anesthetic maintenance significantly decreases anesthetic-analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV.

  15. Morphine-6-glucuronide: analgesic effects and receptor binding profile in rats

    The antinociceptive effects of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were examined in two animal models of pain, the tail immersion test (reflex withdrawal to noxious heat) and the formalin test (behavioral response to minor tissue injury). In the tail immersion test, M6G produced and increase in withdrawal latency that rose rapidly between 0.01 and 0.025 ug ICV or 1 and 2 mg/kg SC. A further increase occurred at doses greater than 0.2 ug ICV or 4 mg/kg SC and was associated with marked catelepsy and cyanosis. Naloxone, 0.1 mg/kg SC, shifted the lower component of the dose-effect relation by a factor of 24. In the formalin test, 0.01 ug M6G ICV produced hyperalgesia, while between 0.05 and 0.2 ug ICV, antinociception increased rapidly without toxicity. The dose effect relations for hyperalgesia and antinociception were shifted to the right by factors of 20- and 3-fold, respectively. By comparison, ICV morphine was 60 (formalin test) to 145-200 (tail immersion test) times less potent than M6G. At sub-nanomolar concentrations, M6G enhanced the binding of [3H]-etorphine, [3H]-dihydromorphine and [3H]-naloxone to rat brain membrane receptors by 20-40%. At higher concentrations, M6G displaced each ligand from binding sites, with K/sub i/ values of about 30 nM, as compared to morphine K/sub i/ values of about 3 nM

  16. Morphine-6-glucuronide: analgesic effects and receptor binding profile in rats

    Abbott, F.V.; Palmour, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were examined in two animal models of pain, the tail immersion test (reflex withdrawal to noxious heat) and the formalin test (behavioral response to minor tissue injury). In the tail immersion test, M6G produced and increase in withdrawal latency that rose rapidly between 0.01 and 0.025 ug ICV or 1 and 2 mg/kg SC. A further increase occurred at doses greater than 0.2 ug ICV or 4 mg/kg SC and was associated with marked catelepsy and cyanosis. Naloxone, 0.1 mg/kg SC, shifted the lower component of the dose-effect relation by a factor of 24. In the formalin test, 0.01 ug M6G ICV produced hyperalgesia, while between 0.05 and 0.2 ug ICV, antinociception increased rapidly without toxicity. The dose effect relations for hyperalgesia and antinociception were shifted to the right by factors of 20- and 3-fold, respectively. By comparison, ICV morphine was 60 (formalin test) to 145-200 (tail immersion test) times less potent than M6G. At sub-nanomolar concentrations, M6G enhanced the binding of (/sup 3/H)-etorphine, (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine and (/sup 3/H)-naloxone to rat brain membrane receptors by 20-40%. At higher concentrations, M6G displaced each ligand from binding sites, with K/sub i/ values of about 30 nM, as compared to morphine K/sub i/ values of about 3 nM.

  17. Analgesics for postoperative pain after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children

    O'Mathuna, Donal; Wiffen, Philip J; Conlon, Joy

    2007-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of analgesics for management of post-operative pain in children who have undergone a tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, or both. The questions to be addressed are: 1. What analgesics (or combination of analgesics) are effective for the treatment of post-operative pain in children who have undergone a tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, or both? 2. What adverse effects, if a...

  18. Clinical effects of preemptive analgesia using three different analgesics in strabismus surgery

    Chun - Jian Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the effects of preemptive analgesia of parecoxib, butorphanol, and pethidine used in and after strabismus surgery, and explore an effective and safe method of analgesia for strabismus surgery. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.After the ethic committee approval and written conformed consent were obtained, 80 ASA ? patients aged 18-50 years undergoing strabismus surgery under local anesthesia were randomly allocated to 4 groups(n=20 each: group P received intramuscular parecoxib(40mg, group B received intramuscular butorphanol(1mg, group D received intramuscular pethidine(50mg, and group N received intramuscular normal saline(2mL. All patients received the drug at 30 minutes before surgery. Basal heart rate(HRand meananerial pressure(HAPwere recorded on the day before surgery. The intensity of pain was measured using(numeric rating scalesNRS(0-10, 0=no pain, 10=worst painand recorded during operation time(T1. Meanwhile, culocardiacreflex(OCR, nausea and vomiting, and sweating were also recorded. NRS, nausea and vomiting were recorded at 2 hours(T2, 4 hours(T3, 8 hours(T4after operation. RESULTS: The NRS scores at T1 were significantly lower in groups P, B, and D than in group N. OCR, nausea and vomiting, and sweating at T1 were not significantly different among the 4 groups. The nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in group D than in groups P, B, and N. The NRS scores at T2 were not significantly different among the 4 groups. The NRS scores in groups D and N at T3 were significantly higher than those at T2. And the NRS scores at T3 were significantly higher in group D and N than groups P and B. The nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in group D than in groups P, B, and N. The NRS, nausea and vomiting were not significantly different among the 4 groups. The NRS scores in groups P and B were not significantly different at T2, T3, and T4. CONCLUSION:Preemptive analgesia with 40mg of parecoxib for strabismus surgery under local anesthesia is effective intraoperatively and postoperatively, and can reduce the postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  19. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Thoracic Epidural Morphine and Fentanyl

    Gönül Sağıroğlu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to compare epidural morphine and fentanyl analgesia and the side effects in post-thoracotomy pain management. Material and Methods: Forty patients, planned for elective thoracotomy were included. Bupivacain- morphine was administered through an epidural catheter to the patients in Group-M while bupivacain-fentanyl was given in Group-F. Pain assessment was carried out with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and VAS-I and VAS-II were assessed in 0, 4, 16 and 24th hour in the postoperative unit. Adverse effects were recorded after the 24th hour. Statistical analyses were performed by using Two-sample independent-t test, Mann Whitney-U test, Wilcoxon-signed ranks test and Pearson chi-squared tests. Results: Although, the VAS-I and VAS-II scores were lower in Group-M than Group-F, the difference was not significant statistically (p>0.05. When other hours were compared with initial states, beginning from the 4th hour, in both groups there was a statistically significant drop in VAS-I and VAS-II scores at all times (p<0.001. Comparing the complications between the groups, in Group-M nausea-vomiting (p<0.015 and bradycardia (p<0.012 were found significantly more frequently than in Group-F. Conclusion: We concluded that, in pain management after thoracic surgery, either morphine or fentanyl may be chosen in thoracal epidural analgesia but, especially in the early postoperative hours, close follow-up is necessary due to the risk of bradycardia development.

  20. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of subcutaneous methadone after cesarean section

    Mitra Jabalameli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate pain control has a significant role in maternal and neonatal health in early post-partum period which interferes with breastfeeding and has a negative influence on child normal growth. The aim of this study is evaluation of subcutaneous methadone effectiveness on post-operative pain control. Materials and Methods: Double blind randomized prospective clinical trial involving 60 term pregnancy patients through 2008 to 2009 Undergo cesarean. Inclusion criteria: Prime gravid candidate of elective cesarean and spinal anesthesia class 1 or 2. Known case of drug allergy and methadone interaction, addiction, uncontrolled medical disease excluded. Case group injected 10 mg of subcutaneous methadone in the site of incision before final suture. Morphine was a pain reliever in follow up examination. Data include mean of pain, nausea and vomiting, MAP, etc., collected and analyzed by independent-T test and Man Whitney test. Results: Although mean usage of morphine between groups was not significant statistically but the mean pain severity (P value < 0.05 and mean satisfactory (P value = 0.02 was statistically significant between groups. Other parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusion: We suggest subcutaneous methadone as a safe pain reliever in post cesarean section patients.

  1. Combined effects of ?-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    The combined effects of ?-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberration, micronucleus and transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied. The results indicated that there were no significant influence for effects of high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberrations, transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced ?-ray radiation, and that high atmospheric pressure increased effect of micronucleus in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro induced ?-ray radiation

  2. EFFECT OF PREOPERATIVE PREGABALIN ON POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIC REQUIREMENT AFTER SKIN GRAFTING

    Mamta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain relief after surgical procedures continues to be a major medical challenge. The alleviation of pain is given a high priority by the medical profession and health authorities. Preemptive analgesia is an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered processing of afferent input which amplifies postoperative pain. The present study evaluated the efficacy of two different doses (75mg & 150mg of pregabalin on post-operative analgesia. METHOD: This randomized, double blind study was conducted in 90 patients of ASA grade I & II, aged (20-60 yrs. undergoing lower limb plastic surgery (SSG under spinal anesthesia. All patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups of 30 each. Group I received oral pregabalin 150mg, group II oral pregabalin 75mg and group III oral diazepam 5mg. All groups in addition received 1gm paracetamol orally. All drugs were given with a sip of water one hour before spinal anesthesia. After 4 hours of surgery, 1gm paracetamol was given and then repeated every 8 hrs. Rescue analgesia was provided with tramadol 100mg I/V when VAS>3. Patients VAS score was recorded at rest and during motion at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours after operation. Request for additional analgesia, nausea, number of vomits, sedation and dizziness were noted. RESULT: After observation in all 3 groups it was found that VAS score was significantly lower in group I than group II and III. Level of Sedation at 2 & 4 hrs. was significantly higher in group I as compared to II and III but at 6 and 24 hrs. difference was not significant. Total amount of rescue analgesia required was significantly less in group I as compared to group II and III. It was less in group II as compared to group III. CONCLUSION: Preemptive use of pregabalin 150mg in patients undergoing SSG under spinal anesthesia resulted in significant analgesia, decreased need for rescue analgesia, favorable sedation and anxiolysis without cardiovascular, respiratory adverse effects.

  3. NATURAL AND PARTIALLY SYNTETIC ANALGESICS

    Stevan Glogovac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a long hystory of stimulating and mind-altering substances use. Depressive drugs, including morphine and other narcotics, barbiturates and ethanol, are strongly addictive for susceptible individuals. The phenomenon is most striking in the case of opiates. Morphine is an alkaloid of opium. Named after the Roman god of dreams, Morpheus, the compound has potent analgesic properties toward all types of pain. By supstitution of two hydroxylic groups of morphine many natural and semysyntetic derivatives with different pharmacological activity and analgesic action are obtained. Determinations and quantifications of narcotic analgesics in drug addicts are important in forensic medicine and clinical toxicology. With development of highly sensitive chromatography technique (HPLC-GC, GH-MS, more and more substances are determined, including opioid drugs: morphine, codeine, dyhydrocodeine, and heroin and 6-monoacetyl morphine. Hair analysys by HPLC/MS spectroscopy is an effective forensic tool for determining the use of abused drugs. The “fingerprint” for heroin in the mixture with the other substances(1-10 components is determined by 1D-TOCSY NMR.

  4. Effects of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in rats

    Jin-ling YIN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in Wistar rats.Methods A total of 100 Wistar rats(180-220g were exposed to microwave with different average power densities of 5,10,30 and 60 mW/cm2,and sham exposure of 0mW/cm2 was performed in a control group at the same time.At day 1,7,14 and 28 after microwave irradiation,the changes in peripheral CD3+,CD4+,CD8+ T cells,ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and CD45RA+ B lymphocyte in rats were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM.Results The CD3+ T cells decreased significantly in 10-30mW/cm2 groups at day 7 and in 5-30 mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05,and CD4+ T cells decreased significantly in 10mW/cm2 group at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.01.From day 1 to day 14 after radiation,CD8+ T cells showed a reduction in number in all irradiated groups when compared with the control,but statistical significance was only found in the 30mW/cm2 group(P < 0.05.The CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased in 5mW/cm2 group on day 1,while decreased significantly in 5-30mW/cm2 groups on day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05.After microwave exposure,however,CD45RA+ B cells in 30mW/cm2 group at day 1 and in 30-60mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion A definite dosage of microwave radiation,ranging from 5-60mW/cm2,may induce changes in subpopulations of peripheral lymphocytes and cause acute immune function impairment in rats.

  5. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

    Apurba Mukherjee, Meghali Chaliha and Swarnamoni Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  6. Anticonvulsant, Analgesic and Hypothermic Effects of Aridanin Isolated from Tetrapleura tetrapetra Fruit in Mice

    A.O. Aderibigbe; E.O. Iwalewa; S.K. Adesina; Adebanjo, A O; O.E. Ukponmwan

    2007-01-01

    Aridanin (an N-acetylglycoside of oleanolic acid) isolated from Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit was investigated for anticonvulsant, analgesic and hypothermic activities in mice. Aridanin at doses of 15 and 30 mg kg-1 by intraperitoneal administration was shown to protect animals in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure but not in strychnine and picrotoxin induced convulsions. The same dose of aridanin equally decreased rectal temperature and acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. The hypotherm...

  7. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanolic Root Extract of Hippocratea africana

    Jude E. Okokon; Bassey S. Antia; Emem Umoh

    2008-01-01

    The ethanolic root extract of Hippocratea africana (200-600 mg kg-1) was evaluated for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. The extract dose dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking and thermally -induced pain in mice. The extract also inhibited fresh egg albumin, carrageenin and xylene-induced inflammation in mice. These inhibitions were statistically significant (p<0.05) when compared to control. The roots extracts was al...

  8. Effect of analgesic therapy on clinical outcome measures in a randomized controlled trial using client-owned dogs with hip osteoarthritis

    Malek Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver placebo effect is typically evident. However, little is known about effect sizes of common outcome-measures in canine clinical trials evaluating treatment of OA pain. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with hip OA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective trial. After a 1 week baseline period, dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment (ABT-116 – transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 antagonist, Carprofen – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, Tramadol - synthetic opiate, or Placebo for 2 weeks. Outcome-measures included physical examination parameters, owner questionnaire, activity monitoring, gait analysis, and use of rescue medication. Results Acute hyperthermia developed after ABT-116 treatment (P P ? 0.01 and tramadol (P ? 0.001 led to improved mobility assessed by owner questionnaire. Nighttime activity was increased after ABT-116 treatment (P = 0.01. Kinetic gait analysis did not reveal significant treatment effects. Use of rescue treatment decreased with treatment in the ABT-116 and Carprofen groups (P R ? ±0.40, P ? 0.005. Placebo treatment effects were evident with all variables studied. Conclusion Treatment of hip OA in client-owned dogs is associated with a placebo effect for all variables that are commonly used for efficacy studies of analgesic drugs. This likely reflects caregiver bias or the phenomenon of regression to the mean. In the present study, outcome measures with significant effects also varied between groups, highlighting the value of using multiple outcome measures, as well as an a priori analysis of effect size associated with each measure. Effect size data from the present study could be used to inform design of future trials studying analgesic treatment of canine OA. Our results suggest that analgesic treatment with ABT-116 is not as effective as carprofen or tramadol for treatment of hip arthritis pain in client-owned dogs.

  9. The effects of recombinant interleukin 2-activated natural killer cells on autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitors

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate that resting and rIL-2-activated NK cells had no inhibitory effects on peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor (HP) cells. Peripheral blood HP cells were similar to bone marrow progenitors in phenotype and clonogenic colony formation capabilities. Peripheral blood HP cells could be cocultured in vitro with rIL-2-activated autologous NK cells for 3 d without adverse effects on the HP cells. Acute myelogenous leukemia patients in stable remission w...

  10. Synergism between analgesics

    Kehlet, H

    1995-01-01

    The concept and value of 'multimodal' or 'balanced' analgesia in the treatment of postoperative pain is reviewed. Based upon the relatively few multimodal studies compared to unimodal studies, it is concluded that a combination of analgesics will improve pain relief including movement-associated ...

  11. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

    Y.J. Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50 of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m., respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

  12. Peripheral oedema as a side-effect of fluticasone

    Myers, Alice; Godden, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl had experienced gross peripheral oedema for nearly 2 years. She was under review by several paediatric specialists for a variety of problems. Her local paediatric team were unable to find the cause of her oedema, despite extensive investigations. Eventually, her mother discovered the cause was inhaled fluticasone, prescribed at normal dosage for asthma. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first reported case of peripheral oedema associated with the use of fluticaso...

  13. Comparison of the Analgesic Effect of Diclofenac Sodium-Eudragit® RS100 Solid Dispersion and Nanoparticles Using Formalin Test in the Rats

    Khosro Adibkia; Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi; Mohammad Barzegar-Jalali; Siavash Hosseinzadeh; Saeed Ghanbarzadeh; Afshin Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the intensity and duration of analgesic effect of diclofenac Na - Eudragit® RS100 solid dispersion and nanoparticles were evaluated by using formalin test in the rats. Methods: The animals received different formulations of diclofenac Na and subsequently 50 μl of formalin solution (2.5%) was injected subcutaneously in the right paws after 1 h, 2 h and 3 h. The paw licking behavior was then evaluated in two phases. A dose of 20 mg/kg of pure diclofenac Na powder was d...

  14. Opioid Analgesics and P-glycoprotein Efflux Transporters: A Potential Systems-Level Contribution to Analgesic Tolerance

    Mercer, Susan L.; Coop, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Chronic clinical pain remains poorly treated. Despite attempts to develop novel analgesic agents, opioids remain the standard analgesics of choice in the clinical management of chronic and severe pain. However, mu opioid analgesics have undesired side effects including, but not limited to, respiratory depression, physical dependence and tolerance. A growing body of evidence suggests that P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, may contribute a systems-level approach to the development o...

  15. CR4056, a new analgesic I2 ligand, is highly effective against bortezomib-induced painful neuropathy in rats

    Meregalli C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Meregalli,1 Cecilia Ceresa,1 Annalisa Canta,1 Valentina Alda Carozzi,1 Alessia Chiorazzi,1 Barbara Sala,1 Norberto Oggioni,1 Marco Lanza,2 Ornella Letar,i2 Flora Ferrari,2 Federica Avezza,1 Paola Marmiroli,1 GianFranco Caselli,2 Guido Cavaletti11Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Technologies, University of Milan-Bicocca, 2Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Rottapharm | Madaus Research Center, Monza, ItalyAbstract: Although bortezomib (BTZ is the frontline treatment for multiple myeloma, its clinical use is limited by the occurrence of painful peripheral neuropathy, whose treatment is still an unmet clinical need. Previous studies have shown chronic BTZ administration (0.20 mg/kg intravenously three times a week for 8 weeks to female Wistar rats induced a peripheral neuropathy similar to that observed in humans. In this animal model of BTZ-induced neurotoxicity, the present authors evaluated the efficacy of CR4056, a novel I2 ligand endowed with a remarkable efficacy in several animal pain models. CR4056 was administered in a wide range of doses (0.6–60 mg/kg by gavage every day for 2–3 weeks in comparison with buprenorphine (Bupre (28.8 µg/kg subcutaneously every day for 2 weeks and gabapentin (Gaba (100 mg/kg by gavage every day for 3 weeks. Chronic administration of BTZ reduced nerve conduction velocity and induced allodynia. CR4056, Bupre, or Gaba did not affect the impaired nerve conduction velocity. Conversely, CR4056 dose-dependently reversed BTZ-induced allodynia (minimum effective dose 0.6 mg/kg. The optimal dose found, 6 mg/kg, provided a constant pain relief throughout the treatment period and without rebound after suspension, being effective when coadministered with BTZ, starting before or after allodynia was established, or when administered alone after BTZ cessation. A certain degree of tolerance was seen after 7 days of administration, but only at the highest doses (20 and 60 mg/kg. Bupre was effective only acutely, since tolerance was evident from the fourth day onwards. Gaba showed a significant activity only at the fourth day of treatment. CR4056, over the range of concentrations of 3–30 µM, was unable to hinder BTZ cytotoxicity on several tumor cell lines, which could indicate that this substance does not directly interfere with BTZ antitumor activity. Therefore, CR4056 could represent a new treatment option for BTZ-induced neuropathic pain.Keywords: imidazoline I2 receptor ligand, antinociception, allodynia, neuropathic pain, bortezomib

  16. Evolution in pharmacologic thinking around the natural analgesic palmitoylethanolamide: from nonspecific resistance to PPAR-? agonist and effective nutraceutical

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink Department of Pharmacology, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany Abstract: The history of development of new concepts in pharmacology is a highly interesting topic. This review discusses scientific insights related to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and its progression over a period of six decades, especially in light of the work of the science sociologists, Ludwig Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. The discovery of the cannabis receptors and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was the beginning of a completely new understanding of many important homeostatic physiologic mechanisms in the human body. These discoveries were necessary for us to understand the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of PEA, a body-own fatty amide. PEA is a nutrient known already for more than 50 years. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and has a multitude of physiologic functions related to metabolic homeostasis. PEA was identified in the 1950s as a therapeutic principle with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Since 1975, its analgesic properties have been noted and explored in a variety of chronic pain states. Since 2008, PEA has been available as a nutraceutical under the brand names Normast® and PeaPure®. A literature search on PEA meanwhile has yielded over 350 papers, all referenced in PubMed, describing the physiologic properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacologic and therapeutic profile. This review describes the emergence of concepts related to the pharmacologic profile of PEA, with an emphasis on the search into its mechanism of action and the impact of failing to identify such mechanism in the period 1957–1993, on the acceptance of PEA as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound. Keywords: palmitoylethanolamide, sociology, science, paradigm, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, nutraceutical

  17. Evaluation of analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis in albino rats

    Bhomik Goel

    2014-04-01

    Results: Emblica officinalis extract did not produced statistically significant (p>0.05 analgesia when compared with the control group in hot plate latency, but produced a statistically significant reduction in 6% NaCl induced abdominal writhing (pEmblica officinalis exhibit analgesic activity involving peripheral mechanisms. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 365-368

  18. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  19. Analgesic Effect of the Newly Developed S(+)-Flurbiprofen Plaster on Inflammatory Pain in a Rat Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model.

    Sugimoto, Masanori; Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Hirose, Takuya; Endo, Hiromi; Futaki, Nobuko; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical Research This article describes the properties of a novel topical NSAID (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) patch, SFPP (S(+)-flurbiprofen plaster), containing the potent cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, S(+)-flurbiprofen (SFP). The present studies were conducted to confirm human COX inhibition and absorption of SFP and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of SFPP in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. COX inhibition by SFP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen was evaluated using human recombinant COX proteins. Absorption of SFPP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen from patches through rat skin was assessed 24 h after application. The AIA model was induced by injecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis followed 20 days later by the evaluation of the prostaglandin PGE2 content of the inflamed paw and the pain threshold. SFP exhibited more potent inhibitory activity against COX-1 (IC50  = 8.97 nM) and COX-2 (IC50  = 2.94 nM) than the other NSAIDs evaluated. Absorption of SFP was 92.9%, greater than that of ketoprofen and loxoprofen from their respective patches. Application of SFPP decreased PGE2 content from 15 min to 6 h and reduced paw hyperalgesia compared with the control, ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches. SFPP showed analgesic efficacy, and was superior to the ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches, which could be through the potent COX inhibitory activity of SFP and greater skin absorption. The results suggested SFPP can be expected to exert analgesic effect clinically. Drug Dev Res 76 : 20-28, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26763139

  20. Analgesic Effect of the Newly Developed S(+)‐Flurbiprofen Plaster on Inflammatory Pain in a Rat Adjuvant‐Induced Arthritis Model

    Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Hirose, Takuya; Endo, Hiromi; Futaki, Nobuko; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preclinical Research This article describes the properties of a novel topical NSAID (Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug) patch, SFPP (S(+)‐flurbiprofen plaster), containing the potent cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, S(+)‐flurbiprofen (SFP). The present studies were conducted to confirm human COX inhibition and absorption of SFP and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of SFPP in a rat adjuvant‐induced arthritis (AIA) model. COX inhibition by SFP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen was evaluated using human recombinant COX proteins. Absorption of SFPP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen from patches through rat skin was assessed 24 h after application. The AIA model was induced by injecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis followed 20 days later by the evaluation of the prostaglandin PGE2 content of the inflamed paw and the pain threshold. SFP exhibited more potent inhibitory activity against COX‐1 (IC50 = 8.97 nM) and COX‐2 (IC50 = 2.94 nM) than the other NSAIDs evaluated. Absorption of SFP was 92.9%, greater than that of ketoprofen and loxoprofen from their respective patches. Application of SFPP decreased PGE2 content from 15 min to 6 h and reduced paw hyperalgesia compared with the control, ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches. SFPP showed analgesic efficacy, and was superior to the ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches, which could be through the potent COX inhibitory activity of SFP and greater skin absorption. The results suggested SFPP can be expected to exert analgesic effect clinically. Drug Dev Res 76 : 20–28, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26763139

  1. Opioid analgesics: does potency matter?

    Passik, Steven D; Webster, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics with a wide range of potencies are currently used for the treatment of chronic pain. Yet understanding the clinical relevance and therapeutic consequences of opioid potency remains ill defined. Both patients and clinicians alike have misperceptions about opioid potency, expecting that less-potent opioids will be less effective or fearing that more-potent opioids are more dangerous or more likely to be abused. In this review, common myths about the potency of opioid analgesics will be discussed. Clinicians should understand that pharmacologic potency per se does not necessarily imply more effective analgesia or higher abuse liability. Published dose conversion tables may not accurately calculate the dose for effective and safe rotation from one opioid to another in patients receiving long-term opioid therapy because they are based on limited data that may not apply to chronic pain. Differences in pharmacologic potency are largely accounted for by the actual doses prescribed, according to individualized patient need. Factors for achieving effective analgesia and reducing the risks involved with opioid use include careful medication selection based on patient characteristics, appropriate dosing titration and opioid rotation practices, knowledge of product formulation characteristics (eg, extended release, immediate release, and tamper-resistant features), and an awareness of differences in opioid pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Clinicians should remain vigilant in monitoring patients on any opioid medication, regardless of classification along the opioid potency continuum. PMID:25162606

  2. Paracetamol and analgesic nephropathy: Are you kidneying me?

    Waddington F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Freya Waddington, Mark Naunton, Jackson Thomas Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia Introduction: Analgesic nephropathy is a disease resulting from the frequent use of combinations of analgesic medications over many years, leading to significant impairment of renal function. The observation of a large number of cases of renal failure in patients abusing analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin led to the initial recognition of the nephrotoxicity from the use of analgesics. Phenacetin was subsequently exclusively blamed for this disease. However, the role of a single analgesic as a sole cause of analgesic nephropathy was challenged, and a number of researchers have since attempted to determine the extent of involvement of other analgesics including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, aspirin, and paracetamol. Case presentation: We present the case of an 83-year-old woman with a history of NSAID-induced nephropathy with poor pain control and reluctance to use paracetamol. We attempt to briefly review the evidence of paracetamol being implicated in the development of analgesic-induced nephropathy. Conclusion: There is a lack of concrete data regarding causative analgesics, including paracetamol. Patients should therefore not be withheld paracetamol, an effective and commonly recommended agent, for fear of worsening renal function. Keywords: kidney, paracetamol, nephropathy, phenacetin

  3. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the analgesic therapy of postoperative pain Análisis de costo-efectividad en el tratamiento analgésico para dolor post-operatorio Análise custo-efetividade da terapia analgésica utilizada na dor pós-operatória

    Silvia Regina Secoli; Kátia Grillo Padilha; Júlio Litvoc

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to compare cost-effectiveness of analgesic schemes administered to 89 patients submitted to hemorrhoidectomy, on the 1st postoperative day. The descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in a General Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In order to carry out the cost-effectiveness analysis, the five most frequently used analgesic schemes were identified in practice. The main outcome was the absence of breakthrough pain episodes. While calculating the costs, analgesics and all...

  5. Effects of Dioscoreae Rhizoma (SanYak on Peripheral Neuropathy and its Safety

    Kim Min-jung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature for the safety and efficacy of Dioscoreae Rhizoma (DR for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Literature searches were performed in MEDLINE and three Korean medical databases up to April 2013. All studies evaluating the effects on peripheral neuropathy or the safety of DR monopreparations were considered. Results: Three studies - DR extract per os (po on diabetic neuropathy in mice, DR extract injection on the peripheral sciatic nerve after crush injury in rats and DR extract injection to patients with peripheral facial paralysis proved that DR treatments were effective for the treatment of nerve injuries. Conclusions: In conclusion, we found the DR has a strong positive potential for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, but studies addressing direct factors related to the nerve still remain insufficient.

  6. Acute Metabolic Changes Associated With Analgesic Drugs

    Hansen, Tine Maria; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Simonsen, Carsten Wiberg; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe; Lelic, Dina; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum

    2016-01-01

    serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and to explore the association between metabolite changes and the analgesic effect and side effects. METHODS: Single voxel proton spectroscopy measurements were performed in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula and prefrontal cortex in 20 healthy subjects...

  7. The Analgesic Effect on Neuropathic Pain of Retrogradely Transported botulinum Neurotoxin A Involves Schwann Cells and Astrocytes

    Marinelli, Sara; Vacca, Valentina; Ricordy, Ruggero; Uggenti, Carolina; Tata, Ada Maria; Luvisetto, Siro; Pavone, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a growing debate is about whether botulinum neurotoxins are retrogradely transported from the site of injection. Immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 (cl-SNAP-25), the protein of the SNARE complex targeted by botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A), could represent an excellent approach to investigate the mechanism of action on the nociceptive pathways at peripheral and/or central level. After peripheral administration of BoNT/A, we analyzed the expression of cl-SNAP-25, from t...

  8. Antinociceptive Effect of Memantine and Morphine on Vincristine-induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Park, Sang Hee; Kim, Woong Mo; Yoon, Myung Ha; Lee, Hyung Gon

    2010-01-01

    Background Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major dose limiting side effect and thus effective therapeutic strategy is required. In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of memantine and morphine on a vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy model in rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 220-240 g were used in all experiments. Rats subsequently received daily intraperitoneal injections of either vincristine sulfate (0.1 ml/kg/day) or saline (0.1 ml/kg...

  9. Inhibition of spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation correlates with the analgesic effects of ketamine in neuropathic pain

    Wang Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that inhibition of astrocytic activation contributes to the analgesic effects of intrathecal ketamine on spinal nerve ligation (SNL-induced neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family, has been reported to be critical for spinal astrocytic activation and neuropathic pain development after SNL. Ketamine can decrease lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced phosphorylated JNK (pJNK expression and could thus exert its anti-inflammatory effect. We hypothesized that inhibition of astrocytic JNK activation might be involved in the suppressive effect of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocytic activation. Methods Immunofluorescence histochemical staining was used to detect SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression and localization. The effects of ketamine on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia were confirmed by behavioral testing. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot were used to quantify the SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression after ketamine administration. Results The present study showed that SNL induced ipsilateral pJNK up-regulation in astrocytes but not microglia or neurons within the spinal dorsal horn. Intrathecal ketamine relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia without interfering with motor performance. Additionally, intrathecal administration of ketamine attenuated SNL-induced spinal astrocytic JNK activation in a dose-dependent manner, but not JNK protein expression. Conclusions The present results suggest that inhibition of JNK activation may be involved in the suppressive effects of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocyte activation. Therefore, inhibition of spinal JNK activation may be involved in the analgesic effects of ketamine on SNL-induced neuropathic pain.

  10. Analgesic effect of morphine microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus after electrolytic lesion of nucleus cuneiformis in tail-flick and formalin tests in rat

    Leila Ahmad-Molaei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The antinociceptive effect of morphine is, in part, mediated through the activation of a descending pathway. One of the major components of this pathway is the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM. Our previous study demonstrated the involvement of NRM in the analgesic effect of morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis (NCF in a descending manner. The aim of the current study was to investigate another aspect of the interaction between these two nuclei in both acute and chronic inflammatory pain models. Methods: In order to calculate 50% effective dose (ED50 of morphine, animals received bilateral morphine injections (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/0.5 μl saline into the NRM. The obtained ED50 of morphine was applied into the NRM with/without bilateral electrolytic lesion (500 μA, 30 sec of the NCF. Tail-flick and formalin tests were applied as behavioral analgesic tests in this study. Results: Results interestingly showed that the intra-NRM morphine injection (ED50; 1 μg/0.5 μl saline resulted in an increase in tail flick latencies (morphine-induced antinociception at 30-min intervals, while bilateral electrolytic lesions in the NCF could notably decreased the morphine-induced antinociception during 30-90 min after the injection of morphine. Data also showed that bilateral morphine microinjected into the NRM, dose-dependently increases the antinociceptive responses during both early and late phases of formalin test. The antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjected into the NRM was significantly attenuated at the late phase but not early phase following the bilateral destruction of NCF in formalin test. Conclusion: It could be concluded that there is a reciprocal interaction between NRM and NCF during morphine - induced antinociception in both acute and chronic inflammatory pain models in rat.

  11. Superior analgesic effect of H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2 ([Dmt1]DALDA), a multifunctional opioid peptide, compared to morphine in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    Shimoyama, Megumi; Schiller, Peter W; Shimoyama, Naohito; Toyama, Satoshi; Szeto, Hazel H

    2012-01-01

    H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2 ([Dmt1]DALDA), is a synthetic tetrapeptide with extraordinary selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor and is an extremely potent analgesic. [Dmt1]DALDA is unusual in the way that the greater part of its analgesic potency appears to be produced by its actions in the spinal cord. Furthermore, [Dmt1]DALDA inhibits norepinephrine re-uptake and is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. Such characteristics may make [Dmt1]DALDA particularly effective against neuropathic pain. T...

  12. Full Inhibition of Spinal FAAH Leads to TRPV1-Mediated Analgesic Effects in Neuropathic Rats and Possible Lipoxygenase-Mediated Remodeling of Anandamide Metabolism

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Among those tested, the 200 µg/rat dose of URB597 was the only one that elevated the levels of the FAAH non-endocannabinoid and anti-inflammatory substrates, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and of the endocannabinoid FAAH substrate, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and fully inhibited thermal and tactile nociception, although in a manner blocked almost uniquely by TRPV1 antagonism. Surprisingly, this dose of URB597 decreased spinal AEA levels. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses demonstrated altered spinal expression of lipoxygenases (LOX), and baicalein, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX, significantly reduced URB597 analgesic effects, suggesting the occurrence of alternative pathways of AEA metabolism. Using immunofluorescence techniques, FAAH, 15-LOX and TRPV1 were found to co-localize in dorsal spinal horn neurons of CCI rats. Finally, 15-hydroxy-AEA, a 15-LOX derivative of AEA, potently and efficaciously activated the rat recombinant TRPV1 channel. We suggest that intrathecally injected URB597 at full analgesic efficacy unmasks a secondary route of AEA metabolism via 15-LOX with possible formation of 15-hydroxy-AEA, which, together with OEA and PEA, may contribute at producing TRPV1-mediated analgesia in CCI rats. PMID:23573230

  13. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

    Ali Pourmotabbed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sCurrent study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant (P< 0.01 inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model, while only the high dose (200 mg/kg of the extract showed an analgesic effect in the first phase. The extract also inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes in a dose-dependent manner. The tail flick latency was dose dependently enhanced by the extract but this was significantly (P< 0.05 lower than that produced by morphine (10 mg/kg. The extract (25–250 mg/kg administered 1 hr before carrageenan-induced paw swelling produced a dose dependent inhibition of the oedema. No effect was observed with the dextran-induced oedema model. Results of the phytochemical screening show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids in the extract.ConclusionThe data obtained also suggest that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The role of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids will evaluate in future studies.

  14. A comparative study of analgesic property of whole plant and fruit extracts of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models

    Lalit Kanodia; Swarnamoni Das

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of fruits and whole plant of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models. The extracts were prepared by percolation method and oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flickmethod (for central action) and acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action). Fruit extract, whole plant extract and aspirin showed significant analgesic activity, both ...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION FOR ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF MAMSYADI KWATHA

    Shreevathsa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Siddha Yoga Sangraha of Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, states about Mamsyadi kwatha, an Ayurvedic formulation which is said to be effective in minor mental disorders. The ingredients of Mamsyadi kwatha are Jatamamsi (Nardistachys jatamansi DC, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn and Parasika yavani (Hyoscymus niger Linn, in 8:4:1 ratio respectively. The test formulation was subjected to assess its analgesic effect. The model selected for the assessment of analgesic effect was tail flick test, in albino mice. The test formulation possesses analgesic effect, which is mainly due to its component Parasika yavani.

  16. Effect of peripheral nerve action currents on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Roth, Bradley J

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have attempted to detect neural currents directly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The action currents of a peripheral nerve create their own magnetic field that can cause the phase of the spins to change. Our goal in this paper is to use the measured magnetic field of a nerve to estimate the resulting phase shift in the magnetic resonance signal. We examine three cases: the squid giant axon, the frog sciatic nerve, and the human median nerve. In each case, the phase shift is much less than one degree, and will be very difficult to measure with current technology. PMID:19963781

  17. An effect of wrapping peripheral nerve anastomosis with pedicled muscle flap on nerve regeneration in experiment

    Naumenko L.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite intrinsic capacity of peripheral nerves to regenerate, functional outcomes of peripheral nerves injury remain poor. Nerve ischemia, intra-/perineurial fibrosis and neuroma formation contribute a lot to that. Several authors demonstrated beneficial effects of increased vascularization at the site of injury on peripheral nerves regeneration. The use of highly vascularized autologous tissues (greater omentum as a source of peripheral nerves neovascularization shows promising re-sults. We proposed a surgical technique in which injured peripheral nerves anastomosis was wrapped in a pedicled muscular flap and performed morphological assessment of the efficacy of such technique with the aid of immunohistochemistry. 14 rats (which underwent sciatic nerve transection were operated according to proposed technique. Another 14 rats, in which only end-to-end nerve anastomosis (without muscular wrapping was performed served as controls. Morphological changes were evaluated at 3 weeks and 3 months periods. Higher blood vessel and axon counts were observed in experimental groups at both checkpoints. There was also an increase in Schwann cells and macrophages counts, and less collagen content in pe-ripheral nerves of experimental groups. Axons in neuromas of experimental groups showed a higher degree of arrangement. We conclude that proposed surgical technique provides better vascularisation of injured peripheral nerves, which is beneficial for nerve regeneration.

  18. Endothelin B receptors exert antipruritic effects via peripheral κ-opioid receptors

    Ji, Wenjin; Liang, Jiexian; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    Endothelin B receptor agonists exert antipruritic effects on itching induced via endothelin-1 (ET-1) and compound 48/80. Peripheral µ- and κ-opioid receptors (MORs and KORs, respectively) are reported to be involved in the anti-nociceptive properties triggered by ETB agonists. Therefore, we investigated the role of peripheral opioid receptors in the scratching response induced by ET-1. ETA and ETB antagonists and non-selective and selective opioid receptor antagonists were co-injected with ET...

  19. Possible analgesic effect of vigabatrin in animal experimental chronic neuropathic pain Possível efeito analgésico da vigabatrina na dor neuropática crônica experimental animal

    NILZA D. ALVES

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Since anticonvulsants have been used for treating neuralgias, an interest has arisen to experimentally test vigabatrin for its gabaergic mechanism of action. For this, 41 Wistar rats were used, and in 25 of them a constrictive sciatic neuropathy was induced (Bennet & Xie model. For testing pain symptoms, spontaneous (scratching and evoked behaviors to noxious (46o C and non-noxious (40o C thermal stimuli were quantified. Moreover, a comparative pharmacological study of vigabatrin with other analgesic anticonvulsant drugs was also performed. The results showed a possible dose-dependent analgesic effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl-GABA on experimental neuropathic pain, as shown by the significant (pO uso de anticonvulsivantes no tratamento de neuralgias despertou um interesse em testar novas drogas anticonvulsivantes, e dentre essas a vigabatrina por possuir mecanismo de ação gabaérgico. Para isso, foram usados 41 ratos Wistar e em 25 deles induziu-se neuropatia ciática constritiva (modelo de Bennett & Xie. Para testar sintomas de dor, foram quantificados comportamentos espontâneos (coçar-se e evocados, por meio de estímulos térmicos nocivos (46oC e não-nocivos (40oC. Além disso, realizou-se estudo comparativo da vigabatrina com outros anticonvulsivantes analgésicos. Os resultados mostraram um possível efeito analgésico, dose-dependente, de vigabatrina (gama-vinil-GABA em dor neuropática experimental. Isso foi evidenciado pela diminuição significativa (p<0,05 do comportamento de coçar-se e pelo aumento significativo (p<0,05 da latência de retirada da pata posterior direita a estímulos térmicos nocivos. Isso foi corroborado por achados semelhantes em experimentos com anticonvulsivantes (carbamazepina, fenitoína e ácido valpróico analgésicos. Esse possível efeito analgésico da vigabatrina (ainda não descrito na literatura não é mediado pelo sistema opióide.

  20. Analgesic, Sedative and Hemodynamic Effects of Dexmedetomidine Following Major Abdominal Surgeries: A Randomized, Double Blinded Comparative Study with Morphine

    Khaled Taha

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This was a randomized double-blinded study; in which 60 ASAI-II adult patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries (colostomy, radical cystectomy, major gynecological surgery, and abdominal vascular surgery were received standard general anesthesia. Twenty minutes before the anticipated end of surgery, patients were randomized into two equal groups: dexmedetomidine group (group D and morphine group (group M. Group D received dexmedetomidine IV infusion 4µg/kg/h for 15 minutes (1µg/Kg followed by 0.4µg/kg/h for 3h. Group M received morphine sulfate IV (0.07mg/kg. All patients were given a morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA pump in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU, delivering IV morphine 2mg with a lockout time of 5 minutes if pain score assessed through visual analog scale (VAS was more than 5 at any given 5-min assessment. During the PACU recovery period, morphine consumption; pain and sedation scores; hemodynamic variables (heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate; and postoperative nausea, retching and vomiting (PONV were recorded every 30 min for 3h (study period by a member of staff blinded to the treatment. The study demonstrated that the use of dexmedetomidine led to significant decrease in the total amount of morphine consumed throughout the entire PACU recovery period (P0.05; significant decrease in mean arterial pressure (P0.05; without any significant changes in oxygen saturation (P<0.05 or respiratory rate (P<0.05. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine exhibited both analgesic and sedative properties. The associated cardiovascular protective pharmacological profile and the lack of respiratory depression made it potentially extremely interesting for postoperative analgesia after major abdominal surgeries.

  1. Effects of GADD45A gene expression in Human peripheral blood after 60Co ?-ray irradiation

    Objective: To explore the changes of GADD45A gene expression in human peripheral blood induced by 60Co ? ray irradiation and offer the fundamental materials for the research of boimarker in early diagnosis of radiation damage. Methods: Human peripheral blood was irradiated to 0.05-3 Gy 60Co ?-ray and changes of GADD45A genes in peripheral blood were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Results: After irradiation, the expression of GADD45A genes in human peripheral blood changes significantly. Specifically, from 0.05 Gy to 0.6 Gy, the expression of GADD45A genes decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. And from 1 Gy to 3 Gy, the expression of GADD45A genes increased with the increase of irradiation dose compared with the control. Conclusion: 60Co ? ray irradiation can induce the changes of GADD45A gene expression in human peripheral blood. And the changes of GADD45A gene shows fine dose-effect relationship from 1 Gy to 3 Gy. From 0.05 Gy to 0.2 Gy, peripheral blood lymphocytes showed stimulation effect. (authors)

  2. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION FOR ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF MAMSYADI KWATHA

    Shreevathsa; Ravishankar B; Dwivedi R. R; Rao Ravi S; Krishnamurthy M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Siddha Yoga Sangraha of Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, states about Mamsyadi kwatha, an Ayurvedic formulation which is said to be effective in minor mental disorders. The ingredients of Mamsyadi kwatha are Jatamamsi (Nardistachys jatamansi DC), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn) and Parasika yavani (Hyoscymus niger Linn), in 8:4:1 ratio respectively. The test formulation was subjected to assess its analgesic effect. The model selected for the assessment of analgesic effect was tail flick test, ...

  3. Evidence of peripheral nerve blocks for cancer-related pain

    Klepstad, P; Kurita, G P; Mercadante, S; Sjøgren, P

    2015-01-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care has initiated a comprehensive program to achieve an over-all review of the evidence of multiple cancer pain management strategies in order to extend the current guideline for treatment of cancer pain. The present systematic review analyzed the existing...... good pain relief and no side effects. The use of peripheral blocks is based upon anecdotal evidence. However, this review only demonstrates the lack of studies, which does not equal a lack of effectiveness....... evidence of analgesic efficacy for peripheral nerve blocks in adult patients with cancer. A search strategy was elaborated with words related to cancer, pain, peripheral nerve and block. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. The number of abstracts...

  4. Analgesic Effects of Inhalation of Nitric Oxide (Entonox and Parenteral Morphine Sulfate in Patients with Renal Colic; A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Hamid Kariman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the analgesiceffects of Nitrous oxide and morphine sulfate in patients with acute renal colic due to urolithiasis. Methods: This was randomized clinical trial being performed in Imam Hossein hospital affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from May2013 to May2014. A total of number of 100 patients, with an age range of 20-50 years, who presented with renal colic secondary to urolithiasis confirmed by ultrasonography were randomly assigned to receive morphine sulfate injection (0.1 mg/kg with 100 mg diclofenac suppository (n=50 or Entonox exhalation (50% nitric oxide and 50% oxygenfor 30-minutes with 100 mg diclofenac suppository (n=50. Quantitative measurement was of pain was performed according to a visual analogue scale (VAS, before, 3, 5, 10 and 30-minute after the intervention. The pain severity and side effects were measured between two study groups. Results: The baseline characteristics of the patients in two study groups were comparable. The frequencies of pain persistence (at least 50% at 3-, 5-, 10- and 30-minute intervals in morphine sulfategroup were 96%, 80%, 50% and 8%, respectively; these frequencies in Entonex were 82%, 42%, 12% and 2%, respectively (p<0.001. Cox regression modeling showed that use of Entonox was the only effective agent in the success of treatment, compared to the use of morphine, i.e. use of Entonox increased the success of treatment up to 2.1 folds compared to the use of morphine (HR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.2-3.6; p=0.006. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that inhalation of Entonox is an effective and safe analgesic regimen for acute renal colic. It acts more rapidly and is more potent in relieving renal colic when compared to morphine sulfate.Entonox can be regarded as an appropriate alternative to analgesics like opioids in this ground. Clinical Trial Registry: The current study is registered with Iranian Registry for Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir; IRCT2014120215620N4

  5. A novel and cost-effective way to follow-up adequacy of pain relief, adverse effects, and compliance with analgesics in a palliative care clinic

    Radhika Kannan; Sridharan Kamalini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A way to assess compliance with analgesics in an outpatient palliative care clinic is essential since often the patient is too ill or weak to come to hospital for weekly follow-ups. A pilot study was conducted using Short Messaging Service via mobile phone as a follow-up tool. Context: A predominantly outpatient palliative care clinic of a 300 bedded multidisciplinary hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients attending the palliative care clinic were enrolled in t...

  6. Effect of Diet and Exercise on the Peripheral Immune System in Young Balb/c Mice

    Martínez-Carrillo, B. E.; R. A. Jarillo-Luna; Campos-Rodríguez, R.; Valdés-Ramos, R.; Rivera-Aguilar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Although diet and exercise clearly have an influence on immune function, studies are scarce on the effect caused by exercise and the consumption of a carbohydrate-rich or fat-rich diet on the peripheral immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise and the two aforementioned unbalanced diets on young Balb/c mice, especially in relation to BMI, the level of glucose, and the percentage of lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood. The changes found were ...

  7. Biphalin preferentially recruits peripheral opioid receptors to facilitate analgesia in a mouse model of cancer pain - A comparison with morphine.

    Lesniak, Anna; Bochynska-Czyz, Marta; Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Benhye, Sandor; Misicka, Aleksandra; Bujalska-Zadrozny, Magdalena; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2016-06-30

    The search for new drugs for cancer pain management has been a long-standing goal in basic and clinical research. Classical opioid drugs exert their primary antinociceptive effect upon activating opioid receptors located in the central nervous system. A substantial body of evidence points to the relevance of peripheral opioid receptors as potential targets for cancer pain treatment. Peptides showing limited blood-brain-barrier permeability promote peripheral analgesia in many pain models. In the present study we examined the peripheral and central analgesic effect of intravenously administered biphalin - a dimeric opioid peptide in a mouse skin cancer pain model, developed by an intraplantar inoculation of B16F0 melanoma cells. The effect of biphalin was compared with morphine - a golden standard in cancer pain management. Biphalin produced profound, dose-dependent and naloxone sensitive spinal analgesia. Additionally, the effect in the tumor-bearing paw was largely mediated by peripheral opioid receptors, as it was readily attenuated by the blood-brain-barrier-restricted opioid receptor antagonist - naloxone methiodide. On the contrary, morphine facilitated its analgesic effect primarily by activating spinal opioid receptors. Both drugs induced tolerance in B16F0 - implanted paws after chronic treatment, however biphalin as opposed to morphine, showed little decrease in its activity at the spinal level. Our results indicate that biphalin may be considered a future alternative drug in cancer pain treatment due to an enhanced local analgesic activity as well as lower tolerance liability compared with morphine. PMID:27094782

  8. Peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites on striated muscles of the rat: Properties and effect of denervation

    Mueller, W.E.; Ickstadt, A. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Pharmakologisches Inst.); Hopf, H.Ch. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1985-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites mediate some direct effects of benzodiazepines on striated muscles, the properties of specific /sup 3/H-Ro 5-4864 binding to rat biceps and rat diaphragm homogenates were investigated. In both tissues a single population of sites was found with a Ksub(D) value of 3 nmol/l. The density of these sites in both muscles was higher than the density in rat brain, but was considerably lower than in rat kidney. Competition experiments indicate a substrate specificity of specific /sup 3/H-Ro 5-4864 binding similar to the properties already demonstrated for the specific binding of this ligand to peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites in many other tissues. The properties of these sites in the rat diaphragm are not changed after motoric denervation by phrenicectomy. It is concluded that peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites are not involved in direct effects of benzodiazepines on striated muscles.

  9. Peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites on striated muscles of the rat: Properties and effect of denervation

    In order to test the hypothesis that peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites mediate some direct effects of benzodiazepines on striated muscles, the properties of specific 3H-Ro 5-4864 binding to rat biceps and rat diaphragm homogenates were investigated. In both tissues a single population of sites was found with a Ksub(D) value of 3 nmol/l. The density of these sites in both muscles was higher than the density in rat brain, but was considerably lower than in rat kidney. Competition experiments indicate a substrate specificity of specific 3H-Ro 5-4864 binding similar to the properties already demonstrated for the specific binding of this ligand to peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites in many other tissues. The properties of these sites in the rat diaphragm are not changed after motoric denervation by phrenicectomy. It is concluded that peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites are not involved in direct effects of benzodiazepines on striated muscles. (Author)

  10. Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (λ= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

  11. Analgesics and sedatives in vascular interventionist radiologic

    Interventionist radiology routinely requires the use of different drugs (analgesics and sedatives) in the course of a procedure. Aside from their therapeutic action, these drugs can produce secondary or undesirable effects, making necessary an in-depth knowledge of them to assure their safe and efficient management. The aim of this work is to provide the vascular interventionist radiologist with additional information on the management of those drugs that contribute to minimizing patient discomfort and pain in interventionist procedures. Author

  12. Peripheral neuropathy

    Peripheral neuritis; Neuropathy - peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy ... Neuropathy is very common. There are many types and causes. Often, no cause can be found. Some ...

  13. Analgesic and sedative effects of perioperative gabapentin in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study.

    Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Hansen, Lars Tambour; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized (1:1:1) to either gabapentin 1300 mg/d (group A), gabapentin 900 mg/d (group B), or placebo (group C) daily from 2 hours preoperatively to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 hours after surgery, and the secondary outcome was sedation 6 hours after surgery. Other outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest and sedation during the first 48 hours and from days 2-6, morphine use, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and nausea, vomiting, dizziness, concentration difficulty, headache, visual disturbances, and adverse reactions. Pain upon ambulation (visual analog scale, mean [95% confidence interval]) 24 hours after surgery in group A vs B vs C was as follows: 41 [37-46] vs 41 [36-45] vs 42 [37-47], P = 0.93. Sedation (numeric rating scale, median [range]) 6 hours after surgery was as follows: 3.2 [0-10] vs 2.6 [0-9] vs 2.3 [0-9], the mean difference A vs C being 0.9 [0.2-1.7], P = 0.046. No between-group differences were observed in overall pain or morphine use the first 48 hours and from days 2-6. Sleep quality was better during the first 2 nights in group A and B vs C. Dizziness was more pronounced from days 2-6 in A vs C. More severe adverse reactions were observed in group A vs B and C. In conclusion, gabapentin may have a limited if any role in acute postoperative pain management of opioid-naive patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and should not be recommended as a standard of care. PMID:26230741

  14. Transdermal therapeutic system of narcotic analgesics using nonporous membrane (I) : Effect of the ethanol permeability on vinylacetate content of EVA membrane

    Kwon, H.; Song, H.Y. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Khang, G.S. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea); Lee, H.B. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    The fundamental properties of transdermal therapeutic patch as narcotic analgesics agent has been investigated. From the study of drug and ethanol release patterns from the fentanyl base (FB) patches through diffusion cell and hairless mouse skin, it was observed that the FB release patterns were largely affected by the content of vinyl acetate (VA) of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) membrane, and volume fraction of ethanolic solution. Additionally, a variety of control membrane as a function of VA content were examined for swelling following equilibration with ethanolic solutions. Generally, ethanol was incorporated into a transdermal therapeutic device to enable the controlled delivery of enhancer and drug to the skin surface. In vitro skin permeation analysis of the control membrane showed that ethanol flux was linearly related to the ethanol volume fraction. This result was shown that drug permeability increased with increasing as the content of VA. But, the FB flux from saturated aqueous ethanol solutions increases until 80% ethanol volume fraction. Over 80% ethanol volume fraction, the FB flux through skin samples is independent of ethanol volume. These results showed that the decrease in skin permeation due to dehydration nis the dominant effect. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  15. On the effectiveness of effective field theory in peripheral nucleon-nucleon scattering

    Birse, M C; Birse, Michael C.; Govern, Judith A. Mc

    2003-01-01

    Peripheral nucleon-nucleon scattering is analysed in the framework of an effective field theory. Distorted-wave methods are used to remove the effects of one-pion exchange. Two-pion exchange and recoil corrections to one-pion exchange are then subtracted pertubatively. This removes all contributions up to order Q^3 in the chiral expansion. We have applied this to the 1D2, 1F3 and 1G4 waves, using phase shifts from various partial-wave analyses by the Nijmegen group. In regions where these analyses agree we find no evidence for a breakdown of the chiral expansion. One of the terms in the effective short-range potential, the leading one in the 1D2 channel, is larger might be expected, but in general these terms have momentum scales of about 400 MeV. We also see hints of isospin breaking in the pi-N couplings.

  16. Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

  17. Effects of Motion in the Far Peripheral Visual Field on Cognitive Test Performance and Cognitive Load.

    Bevilacqua, Andy; Paas, Fred; Krigbaum, Genomary

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive load theory posits that limited attention is in actuality a limitation in working memory resources. The load theory of selective attention and cognitive control sees the interplay between attention and awareness as separate modifying functions that act on working memory. Reconciling the theoretical differences in these two theories has important implications for learning. Thirty-nine adult participants performed a cognitively demanding test, with and without movement in the far peripheral field. Although the results for movement effects on cognitive load in this experiment were not statistically significant, men spent less time on the cognitive test in the peripheral movement condition than in the conditions without peripheral movement. No such difference was found for women. The implications of these results and recommendations for future research that extends the present study are presented. PMID:27166327

  18. A Study of Scientific Reasoning in a Peripheral Context: The Discovery of the Raman Effect

    Dasgupta, Deepanwita

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reconstruct how C.V. Raman, a peripheral scientist in the early 20th century colonial India, managed to develop a research programme in physical optics from his remote colonial location. His attempts at self-training and self-education eventually led him to the discovery of the Raman Effect and to the Nobel Prize in…

  19. A Study of Scientific Reasoning in a Peripheral Context: The Discovery of the Raman Effect

    Dasgupta, Deepanwita

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reconstruct how C.V. Raman, a peripheral scientist in the early 20th century colonial India, managed to develop a research programme in physical optics from his remote colonial location. His attempts at self-training and self-education eventually led him to the discovery of the Raman Effect and to the Nobel Prize in…

  20. Botulinum toxin A increases analgesic effects of morphine, counters development of morphine tolerance and modulates glia activation and ? opioid receptor expression in neuropathic mice.

    Vacca, Valentina; Marinelli, Sara; Luvisetto, Siro; Pavone, Flaminia

    2013-08-01

    The use of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) against pain, with emphasis for its possible use in alleviating chronic pain, still represents an outstanding challenge for experimental research. In this study, we examined the effects of BoNT/A on morphine-induced tolerance during chronic morphine treatment in neuropathic CD1 mice subjected to sciatic nerve lesion according to the Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. We measured the effects of BoNT/A on CCI-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia and on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, marker of astrocytes), complement receptor 3/cluster of differentiation 11b (CD11b, marker of microglia), and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) at the spinal cord level. We also analyzed the colocalized expression of GFAP, CD11b and NeuN with phosphorylated p-38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and with ?-opioid receptor (MOR). A single intraplantar injection of BoNT/A (15 pg/paw) into the injured hindpaw, the day before the beginning of chronic morphine treatment (9 days of twice daily injections of 40 mg/kg morphine), was able to counteract allodynia and enhancement of astrocytes expression/activation induced by CCI. In addition, BoNT/A increased the analgesic effect of morphine and countered morphine-induced tolerance during chronic morphine treatment. These effects were accompanied, in neurons, by re-expression of MORs that had been reduced by repeated morphine administration. The combinatory effects of BoNT/A and morphine could have relevant therapeutic implications for sufferers of chronic pain who could benefit of pain relief reducing tolerance due to repeated treatment with opiates. PMID:23402794

  1. A novel and cost-effective way to follow-up adequacy of pain relief, adverse effects, and compliance with analgesics in a palliative care clinic

    Radhika Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A way to assess compliance with analgesics in an outpatient palliative care clinic is essential since often the patient is too ill or weak to come to hospital for weekly follow-ups. A pilot study was conducted using Short Messaging Service via mobile phone as a follow-up tool. Context: A predominantly outpatient palliative care clinic of a 300 bedded multidisciplinary hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients attending the palliative care clinic were enrolled in the study. Analgesic drugs, co-analgesics, and adjuvants were prescribed on an outpatient basis. If possible, patients were admitted for 1 or 2 days. A simple scoring system was devised and taught to the patients and their attenders. A short message service had to be sent to the author′s mobile number. The period was fixed at 2 weeks by which the patients and attenders were familiar with the drugs and pain relief as well. Drowsiness was a worrisome complaint. The mobile number of the patient was called and attender instructed to skip one or two doses of morphine and reassurance given. If required, attender was asked to bring patient to the hospital or come to the hospital for a different prescription as the situation warranted. Results: Out of 60 patients, 22 were admitted initially for dose titration and all others were outpatients. Three patients were lost to follow-up and one patient died after 7 days. 93% of patients responded promptly. Random survey was done in 10 patients to confirm their SMS response and the results were analyzed. Conclusion: Mobile phones are available with all strata of people. It is easy to train patients to send an SMS.This technology can be used to follow- up palliative care patients and help them comply with their treatment regimen.

  2. Peripheral and Central GLP-1 Receptor Populations Mediate the Anorectic Effects of Peripherally Administered GLP-1 Receptor Agonists, Liraglutide and Exendin-4

    Kanoski, Scott E; Fortin, Samantha M; Arnold, Myrtha; Grill, Harvey J; Hayes, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, exendin-4 and liraglutide, suppress food intake and body weight. The mediating site(s) of action for the anorectic effects produced by peripheral administration of these GLP-1R agonists are not known. Experiments addressed whether food intake suppression after ip delivery of exendin-4 and liraglutide is mediated exclusively by peripheral GLP-1R or also involves direct central nervous system (CNS) GLP-1R activation. Results sh...

  3. The effect on knee-joint load of instruction in analgesic use compared with neuromuscular exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Clausen, Brian; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Søndergaard, Jens; Christensen, Robin; Andriacchi, Thomas P; Roos, Ewa M

    2014-01-01

    , compared with optimized analgesics and antiinflammatory drug use, on the measures of knee-joint load in people with mild to moderate medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis. METHOD/DESIGN: One hundred men and women with mild to moderate medial knee osteoarthritis will be recruited from general medical...... performance measures, in addition to changes in self-reported pain, function, health status, and quality of life. DISCUSSION: These findings will help determine whether 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise is superior to optimized use of analgesics and antiinflammatory drugs regarding knee-joint load, pain and...... practices and randomly allocated (1:1) to one of two 8-week treatments, either (a) NEMEX therapy twice a week or (b) information on the recommended use of analgesics and antiinflammatory drugs (acetaminophen and oral NSAIDs) via a pamphlet and video materials. The primary outcome is change in knee load...

  4. [Botulinum toxin and painful peripheral neuropathies: what should be expected?].

    Ranoux, D

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is a potent neurotoxin that blocks acetylcholine release from presynaptic nerve terminals by cleaving the SNARE complex. BTX-A has been reported to have analgesic effects independent of its action on muscle tone. The most robust results have been observed in patients with neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain due to peripheral lesions has been the most widely studied. BTX-A has shown its efficacy on pain and allodynia in various animal models of inflammatory neuropathic pain. The only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with focal painful neuropathies due to nerve trauma or postherpetic neuralgia demonstrated significant effects on average pain intensity from 2 weeks after the injections to 14 weeks. Most patients reported pain during the injections, but there were no further local or systemic side effects. The efficacy of BTX-A in painful peripheral neuropathies has been more recently studied. Results were positive in the only study in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy. One study in patients with diabetic painful peripheral neuropathy demonstrated a significant decrease in Visual Analog Scale. In conclusion, one session of multiple intradermal injection of BTX-A produces long-lasting analgesic effects in patients with focal painful neuropathies and diabetic neuropathic pain, and is particularly well tolerated. The findings are consistent with a reduction of peripheral sensitisation, the place of a possible central effect remaining to define. Further studies are needed to assess some important issues, i.e. BTX-A efficacy in patients with small fiber neuropathies and the relevance of early and repeated injections. Future studies could also provide valuable insights into pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. PMID:21194720

  5. The analgesic effect of combined treatment with intranasal S-ketamine and intranasal midazolam compared with morphine patient-controlled analgesia in spinal surgery patients: a pilot study

    Riediger C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Christine Riediger,1,* Manuel Haschke,2,* Christoph Bitter,3 Thomas Fabbro,4 Stefan Schaeren,5 Albert Urwyler,1 Wilhelm Ruppen1 1Department for Anesthesia, Surgical Intensive Care, Prehospital Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, 2Clinical Pharmacology, 3Hospital Pharmacy, 4Clinical Trial Unit, 5Orthopedic Department, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: Ketamine is a well-known analgesic and dose-dependent anesthetic used in emergency and disaster medicine. Recently, a new formulation of S-ketamine, as an intranasal spray, was developed and tested in our institution in healthy volunteers. The authors investigated the effect of intranasal S-ketamine spray combined with midazolam intranasal spray in postoperative spinal surgery patients. Materials and methods: In this prospective, computer-randomized, double-blinded noninferiority study in spinal surgery patients, the effects of intranasal S-ketamine and midazolam were compared with standard morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA. The primary end point was the numeric rating scale pain score 24 hours after surgery. Results: Twenty-two patients finished this study, eleven in each group. There were similar numeric rating scale scores in the morphine PCA and the S-ketamine-PCA groups at 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery during rest as well as in motion. There were no differences in the satisfaction scores at any time between the groups. The number of bolus demands and deliveries was not significantly different. Discussion: In our study, we found that an S-ketamine intranasal spray combined with intranasal midazolam was similar in effectiveness, satisfaction, number of demands/deliveries of S-ketamine and morphine, and number/severity of adverse events compared with standard intravenous PCA with morphine. S-ketamine can be regarded as an effective alternative for a traditional intravenous morphine PCA in the postoperative setting. Keywords: S-ketamine, intranasal, patient-controlled analgesia, postoperative pain

  6. Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation

    Olga Pechanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS. The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology.

  7. Comparison of the effects of peripherally administered kisspeptins

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie; Juul, Anders

    Kisspeptins are structurally closely related peptides derived from the Kiss1 gene that have been demonstrated to stimulate the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis. The natural peptide products derived from post-translational processing of the kisspeptin precursor have not been elucidated. We...... peptides tested are active and supports the concept that their effect is mediated by a target upstream of the pituitary, such as the median eminence....

  8. Analgesic effect of percutaneously absorbed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: an experimental study in a rat acute inflammation model

    Kikuchi Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External medication that is absorbed percutaneously may be used to reduce inflammation and relieve pain from acute injuries such as ankle sprains and bruises. The plaster method of percutaneous absorption for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs was established in Japan in 1988. However, due to the possibility of a placebo effect, the efficacy of this method remains unclear. This experimental study was conducted to control for the placebo effect and to study the efficacy of the plaster method in relieving pain by using a rat model of inflammation. Methods Male Wistar-Imamichi rats were used. A yeast suspension was injected into the right hind paw to induce inflammation. A sheet (2.0 × 1.75 cm containing the drug was adhered to the inflamed paw. Five treatment groups were used, and each sheet contained a single drug: loxoprofen sodium (loxoprofen-Na (2.5 mg; felbinac (1.75 mg; indomethacin (1.75 mg; ketoprofen (0.75 mg; or base only (control, 0 mg. Mechanical pain threshold, expression of c-Fos in the dorsal horn, and amount of prostaglandin (PG E2 in the inflamed paw were evaluated. Results Pain threshold increased after treatment, and was significantly increased in the loxoprofen-Na group compared with the control group (p 2 were significantly decreased in the loxoprofen-Na and indomethacin groups compared with the control group (p p Conclusion Percutaneously absorbed NSAIDs have an analgesic effect, inhibit expression of c-Fos in the dorsal horn, and reduce PGE2 in inflamed tissue, indicating the efficacy of this method of administration for acute inflammation and localized pain.

  9. Comparison of the analgesic effect of ibuprofen with mesalamine after discectomy surgery in patients with lumbar disc herniation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Toroudi Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain management is an important component in the postoperative period following discectomy. Aims: We hypothesized that mesalamine considering its better safety profile, is likely to be a better choice, if it would be as effective as ibuprofen in controlling post-discectomy pain. Settings and Design: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed on patients who underwent lumbar discectomy surgery. Materials and Methods: Of the 58 patients who had lumbar discectomy, 27 patients were randomized to oral ibuprofen 500 mg and 31 patients to mesalamine 400 mg, three times a day for nine days following surgery. There was no placebo group. Severity of pain was assessed by using 10- cm visual analogue scale (VAS, once before operation and for nine days after. Statistical Analysis: Mean ± SD pain scores were compared between groups and the statistical difference was estimated by Student′s test using SPSS (Version 13. We also calculated the power of each t-test. Repeated measure ANOVA was performed for measuring the effect of time. Results: The age range of the patients was 35 to 60 years (mean: 42.2 years. Mean ± SD preoperative pain scores for ibuprofen or mesalamine-treated groups were 7.852 ± 2.441 and 7.806 ± 2.892, respectively. At the end of day 9, mean ± SD of pain score was 2.704 ± 2.284 and 2.717 ± 2.273 for ibuprofen and mesalamine-treated groups respectively. Both drugs significantly reduced postoperative pain and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.Conclusions: Since both drugs showed almost equal analgesic effect, considering its safety profile mesalamine, seems to be the preferred choice to alleviate post-discectomy surgery pain.

  10. A Review of the Adverse Effects of Peripheral Alpha-1 Antagonists in Hypertension Therapy

    Bryson Chris L

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doxazosin and its role as an antihypertensive agent have come under recent scrutiny as a result of the early termination of that treatment arm in ALLHAT. It is unclear why the cardiovascular (CV event rate in this randomized, controlled trial (RCT, especially heart failure, is higher in those treated with a doxazosin-based regimen than with a chlorthalidone based-regimen. There has been little work in the past to summarize information on peripheral alpha-1 antagonists that may be helpful in evaluating the results of this randomized controlled trial. Methods Using Medline and the Cochrane databases, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature on the use of peripheral alpha-1 antagonists as antihypertensive agents, focusing on available information that could explain the excess cardiovascular events observed in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT. Results Minimal data were available concerning the effects of peripheral alpha-1 antagonists on CV endpoints. A multitude of short-term studies-ranging from small observational studies to short-term moderate-sized RCTs – focused on safety, efficacy, and tolerability, and some studies investigated the physiologic effects of these agents. These previously reported studies reveal associations with weight gain, fluid retention, and neurohormonal changes among various populations of those treated with peripheral alpha-1 antagonists. Conclusion These findings suggest several possible mechanisms by which doxazosin may be inferior to low-dose diuretics as antihypertensive therapy for the prevention of heart failure.

  11. [Lack of pre-emptive analgesic effect of low-dose ketamine in postoperative patients. A prospective, randomised double-blind study].

    Lehmann, K A; Klaschik, M

    2001-08-01

    NMDA receptors are assumed to play an important role for neuronal plasticity. In vitro and animal experiments confirmed that NMDA antagonistic drugs can prevent hyperexitability of dorsal root neurons after strong pain stimuli. Clinical data, however, are more or less controversial in this respect. It was the aim of the present prospective, randomised, double-blind study to verify if low-dose preoperative ketamine, an NMDA antagonist, provides relevant postoperative analgesia in surgical patients and to re-examine positive results published by other investigators. 80 ASA I-II patients undergoing elective laparoscopic or proctologic surgery received at induction of general anaesthesia a single i.v. bolus dose of either ketamine 0.15 mg/kg or placebo (0.9% NaCl). Postoperative analgesia was provided by i.v. patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) using the opioid piritramide. Cardiovascular parameters, respiration, sedation, cumulative piritramide consumption and pain scores (visual analogue scale 1-10, verbal rating scale 0-4) were monitored at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12 and 24 hours after surgery. Additionally, a retrospective pain score was documented after the 24 hours observation period. There was no statistically significant difference in any study parameter. Cumulative PCA piritramide consumption after 24 hours was 25.0+/-16.2 mg in the ketamine group and 29.5+/-20.4 mg in the placebo group. Ketamine-specific side effects such as hallucinations or bad dreams were not observed. It is concluded that under the study conditions used, low dose ketamine, contrary to previously reported results [30], does not provide a clinically relevant pre-emptive analgesic effect in postoperative patients. PMID:11810363

  12. Interaction of U-69,593 with. mu. -, delta- and k-opioid binding sites and its analgesic and intestinal effects in rats

    La Regina, A.; Petrillo, P.; Sbacchi, M.; Tavani, A.

    1988-01-01

    The k-opioid compound U-69,593 was studied in rats in vitro in binding assays to assess its selectivity at the single types of opioid sites and in vivo to assess its analgesic activity and effect on intestinal propulsion. In vitro the U-69,593 inhibition curve of (/sup 3/H)-(-)-bremazocine binding suppressed at ..mu..- and delta-sites was biphasic and the inhibition constant (K/sub l/) at the high-affinity site (10-18nM) was two orders of magnitude smaller the K/sub l/ at the low-affinity site. The K/sub l/ at ..mu..- and delta-sites were respectively 3.3 and 8.5 ..mu..M. Thus (/sup 3/H)-(-)-bremazocine, suppressed at ..mu..- and delta-sites, may still bind more than one site, which U-69,593 might distinguish. In vivo U-69,593 i.p. prolonged the reaction time of rats on a 55/sup 0/C hot-plate and the dose of naloxone required to antagonize this effect was 40 times the dose that antagonized morphine-induced antinociception, suggesting the involvement of the k-receptor. In the intestinal transit test U-69,593 at doses between 0.5 and 15 mg/kg i.p. only slightly slowed intestinal transit of a charcoal meal in rats with no dose-relation; it partly but significantly antagonized morphine-induced constipation. These results suggest that the k-type of opioid receptor, with which U-69,593 interacts may induce analgesia, but has no appreciable role in the mechanisms of opioid-induced inhibition of intestinal transit in rats.

  13. Interaction of U-69,593 with μ-, δ- and k-opioid binding sites and its analgesic and intestinal effects in rats

    The k-opioid compound U-69,593 was studied in rats in vitro in binding assays to assess its selectivity at the single types of opioid sites and in vivo to assess its analgesic activity and effect on intestinal propulsion. In vitro the U-69,593 inhibition curve of [3H]-(-)-bremazocine binding suppressed at μ- and δ-sites was biphasic and the inhibition constant (K/sub l/) at the high-affinity site (10-18nM) was two orders of magnitude smaller the K/sub l/ at the low-affinity site. The K/sub l/ at μ- and δ-sites were respectively 3.3 and 8.5 μM. Thus [3H]-(-)-bremazocine, suppressed at μ- and δ-sites, may still bind more than one site, which U-69,593 might distinguish. In vivo U-69,593 i.p. prolonged the reaction time of rats on a 550C hot-plate and the dose of naloxone required to antagonize this effect was 40 times the dose that antagonized morphine-induced antinociception, suggesting the involvement of the k-receptor. In the intestinal transit test U-69,593 at doses between 0.5 and 15 mg/kg i.p. only slightly slowed intestinal transit of a charcoal meal in rats with no dose-relation; it partly but significantly antagonized morphine-induced constipation. These results suggest that the k-type of opioid receptor, with which U-69,593 interacts may induce analgesia, but has no appreciable role in the mechanisms of opioid-induced inhibition of intestinal transit in rats

  14. Analgesic Effects of GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 in a Mouse Model of NaV1.7-Mediated Pain.

    Deuis, Jennifer R; Wingerd, Joshua S; Winter, Zoltan; Durek, Thomas; Dekan, Zoltan; Sousa, Silmara R; Zimmermann, Katharina; Hoffmann, Tali; Weidner, Christian; Nassar, Mohammed A; Alewood, Paul F; Lewis, Richard J; Vetter, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of NaV1.7 lead to congenital insensitivity to pain, a rare condition resulting in individuals who are otherwise normal except for the inability to sense pain, making pharmacological inhibition of NaV1.7 a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain. We characterized a novel mouse model of NaV1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of the scorpion toxin OD1, which is suitable for rapid in vivo profiling of NaV1.7 inhibitors. Intraplantar injection of OD1 caused spontaneous pain behaviors, which were reversed by co-injection with NaV1.7 inhibitors and significantly reduced in NaV1.7(-/-) mice. To validate the use of the model for profiling NaV1.7 inhibitors, we determined the NaV selectivity and tested the efficacy of the reported NaV1.7 inhibitors GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 (raxatrigine). GpTx-1 selectively inhibited NaV1.7 and was effective when co-administered with OD1, but lacked efficacy when delivered systemically. PF-04856264 state-dependently and selectively inhibited NaV1.7 and significantly reduced OD1-induced spontaneous pain when delivered locally and systemically. CNV1014802 state-dependently, but non-selectively, inhibited NaV channels and was only effective in the OD1 model when delivered systemically. Our novel model of NaV1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of OD1 is thus suitable for the rapid in vivo characterization of the analgesic efficacy of NaV1.7 inhibitors. PMID:26999206

  15. Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation

    Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Kovacevic, S; Welsch, C; Hajdukovic, D; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Knudsen, H; Comor, J; Moller, S P; Beyer, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

  16. Effect of analgesics, antidepressants and their combinations on changes of structures' of the central nervous system activity in animals with simulated depression

    Khomiak O.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out on outbred rabbits of both sexes using neurophysiological methods. We resurched the ability of analgesics, antidepressants and their combinations tochange parameters of electrophysiological brain activity under conditions of normal functioning of the central nervous system and on the background ofsimulated depression. Found that in brain pathology combination analgesics with amitriptyline caused activation of the reticular formation (RF and in-creased excitability of dorsomedial tonsils (DMT in comparison with its action in intact rabbits. Analysis of these data on reserpine showed the change of the sign of excitability in the frontal cortex (FC, RF (from inhibition to activation, and re-duction in the dorsal hippocampus (DH, or leveling DMT increased excitability of brain structures under the influence of this combination. Functional relationships between structures were characterized by increasing activating influence of RFon the FC and inhibiting influence of RFon DMT (increasing analgesic activity and reduce brake control DH on FC (increase antidepressant properties. Notably, the combination of celecoxib with the amitriptyline caused fewer changes in excitability of brain structures and intracentral relationships between them that assotiates with less manifested analgesic activity com-pared with the combination of" meloxicam +amitriptyline."

  17. A low intensive ionized radiation effect on the ATP content in lymphocytes of peripheral blood

    Alterations of the ATP content in lymphocytes of rat peripheral blood under the effect of low-dose ionized radiation are studied. It is shown that the doses of 0.05-5 Gy lead to a considerable decreasing of the ATP concentration in cells. This effect is observed to be long-term. Possibly, it is concerned with the absence of any adaptive reaction of cells on the prolonged radiation as a result of radiation stress

  18. Immediate Effect of Shavasana on Cardiac Output and Systemic Peripheral Resistance in Untrained Young Adults

    Sharad Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shavasana is one of the most popular yogic exercises used for relaxation of body. Aim and Objectives: The present study was done to nd out direct effect of Shavasana on cardiac output and peripheral resistance by using Impedance Cardiovasograph (Nivomon, Larsen & Toubro Medical's. Material and Methods: One hundred asymptomatic healthy male subjects, aged 17-23 years, participated voluntarily in the present study. Cardiac output, systemic peripheral resistance and other cardiovascular parameters were measured before and after Shavasana of 30 minutes. Results: Statistically signicant decrement was observed in all cardiovascular parameters after shavasana but decrement was more pronounced in Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP, Heart Rate (HR, Systemic Peripheral Resistance (SPR and Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (SVRI in comparison to decrement in Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, Cardiac Output (CO, Stroke Volume (SV, Cardiac Index (CI, Stroke Volume Index (SI. Conclusion: The practice of Shavasana for short duration immediately improves cardiovascular parameters including cardiac output and systemic peripheral resistance which directly inuence blood pressure and might be benecial in normal subjects and hypertensive patients as well.

  19. Analgesic Effect of Regular Breathing Exercises with the Aim of Distraction during Venipuncture in School-aged Thalassemic Children

    Mohsenpour M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgroundPain is described as the fifth vital sign, and inadequate pain management is linked to numerous immediate and long-term negative outcomes. Venipuncture is one of the most painful medical procedures in children. Distraction is one of the main effective ways to relieve pain. Reducing patients’ pain sensation maybe feeling is important for all nurses for many reasons. Unnecessary pain can damage the nurse-patient relationship, whereas the knowledge of alternative techniques can improve patient care and satisfaction. Materials and MethodsForty patients (6–12 years suffering from thalassemia and requiring venipuncture were randomized into distraction group (n=20, regular breathing exercise and control group (n=20, without any intervention. The pediatric pain behavioral symptoms and Numeric Pain Rating Scale were used to assess pain caused by venipuncture.ResultsThe mean of pain score based on the numerical scale was 5.60 ± 3.13 in the control group and 1.85±1.42 in breathing exercises and the mean score of behavioral pain symptoms was 3.80±2.80 in the control group and 0.96±0.75 in breathing exercise group. Results showed a significant difference between the mean of pain scores (based on numeric scale and pain behavior scale. (p?0.001Conclusion Distraction demonstrated to be effective in reducing pain. This intervention requires minimum effort and time and may be a cost-effective and convenient nursing intervention that could be used easily in clinical settings.

  20. The effect of sarsasapogenine on peripheral lymphocyle Β-adrenoceptors in rabbit hydrocortisone models

    The effects of sarsasapogenine (SAR), an active principle of Anemorrhenae Rhizome, on peripheral lymphocyte Β-adrenoceptors (Β-AR) and serum cortisol contents were studied in rabbit hydrocortisone models produced by repeated injections of therapeutic doses of hydrocortisone. The lymphocyte Β-AR binding sites (SB) were measured with 125I-PIN binding assay and the serum cortisol contents were estimated with radioimmunoassay. Experimental data revealed that hydrocortisone treatment markedly elevated the lymphocyte SB (0.65 ± 0.03 and 1.48 ± 0.13 fmol/106 cells before and after treatment) as well as the serum cortisol (128 ± 21 and 239 ± 45 nmol/1 before and after treatment). Oral administration of SAR for 6 days decreased the lymphocyte Β-AR significantly (1.48 ± 0.13 and 0.76 ± 0.06 fmol/106 cells before and after administration). On the contrary, SAR showed no significant effect on serum cortisol contents. Therefore the down-regulation effect of SAR on peripheral lymphocyte Β-AR, which might reflect one of the clinical effects of Anemorrhenae Rhizome for treating 'Yin Deficiency'syndrome, is unlikely to be mediated through an influence on serum cortisol content. The mechanism of the down-regulation effect of SAR on peripheral lymphocyte Β-AR remains to be studied

  1. Sildenafil enhances the peripheral antinociceptive effect of ellagic acid in the rat formalin test

    Mohammad Taghi Mansouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ellagic acid (EA, a major polyphenolic compound of pomegranate juice, produces antinociceptive effects, which are mediated through opioidergic and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP pathways. The present study was conducted to elucidate the peripheral antinociceptive effect of EA alone and in combination with sildenafil in the rat formalin test. Materials and Methods: Pain was produced by intraplantar injection of formalin (2.5% in rats and nociceptive behavior was measured as the number of flinches every 5 min in 60 min after injection. Results: Local administration of EA and sildenafil dose-dependently increased the nociception threshold in both phases of the test. Moreover, sub-effective doses of sildenafil (25 or 50 mcg/paw, i.p. significantly and dose-dependently enhanced the antinociception induced by a sub-effective dose of EA (60 mcg/paw, i.pl. in both phases of the test. The antinociception produced by these drugs alone, or in combination, was due to a peripheral site of action, since the administration in the contralateral paw was ineffective. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EA has local peripheral antinociceptive activity, and enhancement of this effect with sildenafil probably occurs through the inhibition of cGMP metabolism.

  2. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory activity of Amukkarac curanam

    A.Saraswathy; Devi, S. Nandini; Pradeep Chandran, R. V.

    2009-01-01

    Amukkarac curanam a polyherbal Siddha formulation was examined for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. The experimental methods used were tail immersion and acetic acid induced writhing method for analgesic and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation for antiinflammatory activity. Pentazocine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and aspirin (150 mg/kg, orally) clinically used analgesics were used as standard analgesics. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, orally) was used ...

  3. Analgesic Effects and Safety of Desmopressin, Tramadol and Indomethacin in Patients with Acute Renal Colic; A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Mehdi Shirazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the efficacy of desmopressin (DDAVP, tramadol and indomethacin on pain intensity of patients with acute renal colic caused by urolithiasis. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted between July 2005 and July 2006 including 120 patients (70 men and 50 women, mean age 38.2±5.8 years referring to emergency room of Shahid Faghihi hospital with renal colic caused by urolithiasis without any previous treatment. The patients were randomly assigned to three groups: group A received tramadol 50mg intramuscularly (n=40, group B received desmopressin 40 µg intranasally (n=40 and group C received indomethacin 100mg rectally (n=40. The pain was assessed both on admission and 30 minutes after the intervention. The pain intensity and the side effects were compared between two study groups. Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics. The intensity of pain of presentation was almost similar in all groups. In group A, 30 patients (75%, in group B, 15 patients (37.5% and in group C, 19 patients (47.5% had complete pain relief. The pain intensity decreased significantly after the intervention within all three groups ( p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, rectal indomethacin, intramuscular tramadol and intranasal desmopressin are effective and safe routs of controlling pain in acute renal colic secondary to urolithiasis. Tramadol was the most effective agent in controlling the pain. Clinical Trial Registry: The current study is registered with Iranian Registry for Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir; IRCT2015030919470N18

  4. Analgesic and Sensory Effects of the Pecs Local Anesthetic Block in Patients with Persistent Pain after Breast Cancer Surgery

    Wijayasinghe, Nelun; Geving Andersen, Kenneth; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) develops in 15% to 25% of patients, sometimes years after surgery. Approximately 50% of PPBCS patients have neuropathic pain in the breast, which may be due to dysfunction of the pectoral nerves. The Pecs local anesthetic block...... proposes to block these nerves and has provided pain relief for patients undergoing breast cancer surgery, but has yet to be evaluated in patients with PPBCS. METHODS: The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of the Pecs block on summed pain intensity (SPI) and sensory function (through...

  5. Analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of Corallocarpus epigaeus / Efeito analgésico e antiartrítico de Corallocarpus epigaeus / Efecto analgésico y antiartrítico de Corallocarpus epigaeus

    Subashini, Uthrapathy; Mohamed M, Shabi; Gayathri, Krishnamoorthy; Dhevi, Ravindhran; Victor G, Rajamanickam; Govindha, Pillay Dubey.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A artrite eumatóide é uma doença inflamatória crônica das articulações que se encontra associada ao desenvolvimento de estresse oxidativo e inflamação. No presente estudo é avaliado o perfil de segurança e de eficácia de um extrato metanólico a 85% de Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE). No perfil de segura [...] nça foi determinado o valor de DL50 levando a cabo um estudo de toxicidade aguda. No perfil de eficácia, a atividade analgésica foi avaliada tanto pelo método de prato quente como por meio do teste de imersão da cauda. Foi avaliada a atividade antiinflamatória por edema de pata induzido por carragenina e o efeito antiartrítico mediante artrite induzida por adjuvante completo de Freund. Também se têm levado a cabo a análise fitoquímica das famílias de compostos presentes em diferentes extratos de CE e a análise quantitativa da erva crua e do extrato metanólico a 85%. O extrato metanólico apresentou atividade analgésica ao aumentar o tempo de resposta tanto no método do prato quente como no teste de imersão da cauda. O extrato exibiu 23,19% de atividade antiinflamatória e 33,59% de efeito antiartrítico em edema de pata induzido por adjuvante completo de Freund. O extrato de CE aumentou o nível antioxidante, ao mesmo tempo que diminuiu o estresse oxidativo desenvolvido pela artrite induzida pelo adjuvante completo de Freund. Em conclusão, CE é uma fonte rica de compostos fitoquímicos com atividades analgésicas, anti-inflamatórias e antioxidantes. Abstract in spanish La artritis reumatoidea es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de las articulaciones que se encuentra asociada con el desarrollo de estrés oxidativo e inflamación. En el presente estudio se evalúa el perfil de seguridad y de eficacia de un extracto metanólico al 85% de Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE). E [...] n el perfil de seguridad se determinó el valor de DL50 llevando a cabo un estudio de toxicidad aguda. En el perfil de eficacia, la actividad analgésica se evaluó tanto por el método de plato caliente como por medio de la prueba de inmersión de la cola. Se evaluó la actividad antiinflamatoria por edema de pata inducido por carragenina y el efecto antiartrítico mediante artritis inducida por adyuvante completo de Freund. También se han llevado a cabo el análisis fitoquímico de las familias de compuestos presentes en diferentes extractos de CE y el análisis cuantitativo de la hierba cruda y del extracto metanólico al 85%. El extracto metanólico presentó actividad analgésica al incrementar el tiempo de respuesta tanto en el método del plato caliente como en la prueba de inmersión de la cola. El extracto exhibió 23,19% de actividad antiinflamatoria y 33,59% de efecto antiartrítico en edema de pata inducido por adyuvante completo de Freund. El extracto de CE aumentó el nivel antioxidante al tiempo que disminuyó el estrés oxidativo desarrollado por la artritis inducida por el adyuvante completo de Freund. En conclusión, CE es una fuente rica de compuestos fitoquímicos con actividades analgésicas, antiinflamatorias y antioxidantes. Abstract in english Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. The safety and efficacy profile of 85% methanolic extract of Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE) was evaluated in the present study. In safety profile LD50 value was determined [...] by carrying out an acute toxicity study. In efficacy profile, the analgesic activity was evaluated by both hot plate and tail immersion tests. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan-induced paw edema and anti-arthritic effect by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. Phytochemical screening of different CE extracts and quantitative analysis of both raw herb and 85% methanolic extract have been also carried out. The methanolic extract displayed analgesic activity by increasing the response time in both hot plate and tail immersion method. Extract exhibited 23,19% of anti-inflammatory activity and 33,59% of a

  6. Inhibitory effect of mitragynine, an analgesic alkaloid from Thai herbal medicine, on neurogenic contraction of the vas deferens.

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Leonardo T; Watanabe, Kazuo; Yano, Shingo; Shan, Jie; Pang, Peter K T; Ponglux, Dhavadee; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Horie, Syunji

    2005-11-26

    The effect of an indole-alkaloid mitragynine isolated from the Thai medicinal herb kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) on neurogenic contraction of smooth muscle was studied in guinea-pig vas deferens. Mitragynine inhibited the contraction of the vas deferens produced by electrical transmural stimulation. On the other hand, mitragynine failed to affect the responses to norepinephrine and ATP. Mitragynine did not reduce KCl-induced contraction in the presence of tetrodotoxin, prazosin and alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Mitragynine inhibited nicotine- or tyramine-induced contraction. By using the patch-clamp technique, mitragynine was found to block T- and L-type Ca2+ channel currents in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. In the Ca2+ measurement by a fluorescent dye method, mitragynine reduced KCl-induced Ca2+ influx in neuroblastoma cells. The present results suggest that mitragynine inhibits the vas deferens contraction elicited by nerve stimulation, probably through its blockade of neuronal Ca2+ channels. PMID:16107269

  7. The in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of remeron on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Norizadeh Tazehkand, Mostafa; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Remeron (Mirtazapine) is an antidepressant drug which exerts its action by blocking presynaptic α-2-adrenergic receptors and postsynaptic serotonin types 2 and 3 receptors. In this in vitro analysis, human peripheral blood lymphocytes was treated by remeron (10, 25, 40 and 55 μg/mL) for 24 hours and 48 hours periods, then it was attempted to study of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the substance on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by some tests such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal abnormalities (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. Also proliferating effect of the substance was investigated. Remeron didn't significantly cause chromosomal abnormalities and sister chromatid exchange while caused micronucleus at 40 μg/mL concentration and 24 h periodic time and increased proliferation index of the both 24 and 48 hours treated cells was decreased in a concentration manner. Also, exposing to the remeron for 24 and 48 hours leaded to a decrease in mitotic index and nucleus division index in the cells by concentration dependent manner. These findings showed that remeron did not have significantly genotoxic effects on human peripheral blood lymphocytes while it showed cytotoxic effects on the cells, which is the first report on genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of remeron. PMID:25156279

  8. Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in a Mouse Fibromyalgia Model: Roles of TRPV1, TRPV4, and pERK

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is among the most common chronic pain syndromes encountered in clinical practice, but there is limited understanding of FM pathogenesis. We examined the contribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPV4 channels to chronic pain in the repeated acid injection mouse model of FM and the potential therapeutic efficacy of electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture (EA) at the bilateral Zusanli (ST36) acupoint reduced the long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia induced by repeated acid saline (pH 4) injection in mouse hindpaw. Isolated L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from FM model mice (FM group) were hyperexcitable, an effect reversed by EA pretreatment (FM + EA group). The increase in mechanical hyperalgesia was also accompanied by upregulation of TRPV1 expression and phosphoactivation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) in the DRG, whereas DRG expression levels of TRPV4, p-p38, and p-JNK were unaltered. Blockade of TRPV1, which was achieved using TRPV1 knockout mice or via antagonist injection, and pERK suppressed development of FM-like pain. Both TRPV1 and TRPV4 protein expression levels were increased in the spinal cord (SC) of model mice, and EA at the ST36 acupoint decreased overexpression. This study strongly suggests that DRG TRPV1 overexpression and pERK signaling, as well as SC TRPV1 and TRPV4 overexpression, mediate hyperalgesia in a mouse FM pain model. The therapeutic efficacy of EA may result from the reversal of these changes in pain transmission pathways. PMID:26043006

  9. Drug interaction in the field of analgesic drugs.

    Lasagna, L

    1965-11-01

    The evidence for believing that mixtures of aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine provide advantages over the individual components of these mixtures is reviewed, and doubt expressed as to the rationale for the use of these mixtures in ordinary medical practice. The syndrome of ;analgesic nephropathy' is also reviewed, and on the basis of experiments in healthy volunteers it is suggested that individual ingredients of analgesic mixtures be scrutinized more carefully in an attempt to track down the agents responsible for toxic effects.The use of phenothiazine compounds, alone or in mixture with narcotics, is reviewed, and the opinion expressed that methotrimeprazine has special analgesic attributes.The narcotic antagonists represent an extremely interesting group of drugs which possess analgesic activity as well as the ability to antagonize certain effects of morphine and other narcotic agents. The patterns of respiratory effect, psychotomimesis, and abstinence phenomena seen with these antagonists illustrate the possibility of dissociating certain effects usually assumed to be linked inseparably in drugs possessing the analgesic power of morphine. PMID:5322679

  10. Antigenotoxic Effect of Trametes spp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells

    Aleksandar Kneževi?; Lada Živkovi?; Mirjana Staji?; Jelena Vukojevi?; Ivan Milovanovi?; Biljana Spremo-Potparevi?

    2015-01-01

    Trametes species have been used for thousands of years in traditional and conventional medicine for the treatment of various types of diseases. The goal was to evaluate possible antigenotoxic effects of mycelium and basidiocarp extracts of selected Trametes species and to assess dependence on their antioxidant potential. Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were the species studied. Antigenotoxic potentials of extracts were assessed on human peripheral white blood cells with basidi...

  11. Kidney Transplantation with Early Corticosteroid Withdrawal: Paradoxical Effects at the Central and Peripheral Skeleton

    Iyer, Sapna P.; Nikkel, Lucas E.; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Cremers, Serge; Zhang, ChiYuan; McMahon, Donald J; Boutroy, Stephanie; Liu, X. Sherry; Ratner, Lloyd E; Cohen, David J.; Guo, X Edward; Shane, Elizabeth; Nickolas, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of early corticosteroid withdrawal (ECSW) protocols after kidney transplantation has become common, but the effects on fracture risk and bone quality are unclear. We enrolled 47 first-time adult transplant recipients managed with ECSW into a 1-year study to evaluate changes in bone mass, microarchitecture, biomechanical competence, and remodeling with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), parathyroid hormone (PTH)...

  12. Effect of Lead Exposure and Ergonomic Stressors on Peripheral Nerve Function

    Bleecker, Margit L.; Ford, D. Patrick; Vaughan, Christopher G.; Lindgren, Karen N.; Tiburzi, Michael J.; Walsh, Karin Scheetz

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of recent and chronic lead exposure, and its interaction with ergonomic stressors, on peripheral nerve function. In a cross-sectional design, we used retrospective exposure data on 74 primary lead smelter workers. We measured blood and bone lead levels and, from historical records, calculated lead dose metrics reflecting cumulative lead exposure: working-lifetime integrated blood lead (IBL) and working-lifetime weighted-average blood lead (TWA). We add...

  13. Effect of ovarian hormones on maturation of dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes in dogs

    Wijewardana, Viskam; SUGIURA, Kikuya; WIJESEKERA, Daluthgamage Patsy H.; HATOYA, Shingo; Nishimura, Toshiya; KANEGI, Ryoji; USHIGUSA, Takahiro; Inaba, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported that ovarian hormones affect the immune response against E. coli isolated from the dogs affected with pyometra. In order to investigate mechanisms underlying the immune modulation, we examined the effects of ovarian hormones on the generation of dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen presenting cell. DCs were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes (PBMOs) using a cytokine cocktail. Both estrogen receptor and progesterone receptors were expressed by the ...

  14. Antinociceptive effects of gabapentin & its mechanism of action in experimental animal studies

    Kilic, Fatma Sultan; Sirmagul, Basar; YILDIRIM, Engin; Oner, Setenay; EROL, Kevser

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several studies have shown the possible analgesic effects of gabapentin, widely used as an antiepileptic. Thus, clinical studies have been carried out especially for neuropathic syndroms. This study was undertaken to investigate experimentally whether gabapentin has analgesic effects in mice and rats. Methods: The mice were divided into 10 groups (n=7) with various treatments to assess central and peripheral antinociceptive activity of gabapentin. Hot plate, tail clip...

  15. Intracisternal injection of palmitoylethanolamide inhibits the peripheral nociceptive evoked responses of dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons.

    González-Hernández, Abimael; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Javier; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Condés-Lara, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has a key role in pain modulation. Central or peripheral PEA can reduce nociceptive behavior, but no study has yet reported a descending inhibitory effect on the neuronal nociceptive activity of A?- and C-fibers. This study shows that intracisternal PEA inhibits the peripheral nociceptive responses of dorsal horn wide dynamic range cells (i.e., inhibition of A?- and C-fibers), an effect blocked by spinal methiothepin. These results suggest that a descending analgesic mechanism mediated by the serotonergic system could be activated by central PEA. PMID:24919882

  16. Propylthiouracil and peripheral neuropathy

    Valentina Van Boekel; José Maurício Godoy; Luiz A. Lamy; Samira Assuf; João G. Corrêa Meyer Neto; Salim L. Balassiano; Luiz E. Prata

    1992-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a rare manifestation in hyperthyroidism. We describe the neurological manifestations of a 38 year old female with Graves' disease who developed peripheral neuropathy in the course of her treatment with propylthiouracil. After the drug was tapered off, the neurological signs disappeared. Therefore, we call attention for a possible toxic effect on peripheral nervous system caused by this drug.

  17. III. Evidence for the nephrotoxicity of analgesics

    Gault, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Analgesic nephropathy in man is a definite but complex and probably multifactorial disorder, which largely follows long-term abuse of mixed analgesics. In North America the disorder has been almost entirely associated with heavy ingestion of the combination acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), phenacetin and caffeine. There is less clinical and experimental evidence for the nephrotoxicity of single analgesics; however, evidence for the nephrotoxicity of ASA alone is greater than that for phenacetin. In view of the evidence for nephrotoxicity of most mild analgesics, removal of phenacetin from the market would be unlikely to eliminate the problem of analgesic nephropathy. PMID:4638851

  18. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of Amukkarac curanam

    Saraswathy A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amukkarac curanam a polyherbal Siddha formulation was examined for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. The experimental methods used were tail immersion and acetic acid induced writhing method for analgesic and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation for antiinflammatory activity. Pentazocine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally and aspirin (150 mg/kg, orally clinically used analgesics were used as standard analgesics. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, orally was used as standard for antiinflammatory study. Amukkarac curanam showed significant analgesic and antiinflammatory activity in the above study.

  19. EVALUATION OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF ABUTILON INDICUM FOR ITS ANALGESIC AND SEDATIVE PROPERTY

    Deepraj Paul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydro alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Abutilon Indicum was tried for its efficacy as analgesic and sedative property. Several pain models namely Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test, tail clip test and hot water immersion test were tried and for sedative property actophotometer test was performed. As the extract has shown very significant (P˂0.01 result in Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test and hot water immersion test hence it is believed that the extract has certain central and peripheral analgesic property which may be mediated either by closing Na+ or/and Ca2+ channels or by facilitating chloride Cl- influx by acting on GABAA receptor. As the extract has significantly reduced loco motor activity hence the mechanism of action of the extract is believed to be mediated by opening of Cl- channel, indicating that the extract may have GABA mimetic or facilitating effect. As following the administration of the extract no straub reaction was observed hence may be in future it will gain more popularity to be used as a substitute for narcotics to treat pain and also as a good sedative.

  20. A comparative study of analgesic property of whole plant and fruit extracts of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models

    Lalit Kanodia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of fruits and whole plant of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models. The extracts were prepared by percolation method and oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flickmethod (for central action and acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Fruit extract, whole plant extract and aspirin showed significant analgesic activity, both central and peripheral, as compared to control (p< 0.01. Although fruit extract at dose of 500 mg/kg showed better activity than 250 mg/kg (p<0.05. Analgesic activities of fruit extract 250 mg/kg and whole plantextract 500 mg/kg were almost equivalent while aspirin was most potent among all with significantly greater activities as compared to all the extracts (p<0.05.

  1. Percutaneous Ablation of Peripheral Pseudoaneurysms Using Thrombin: A Simple and Effective Solution

    Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of tissue adhesive and thrombin solution in the percutaneous ablation of peripheral artery pseudoaneurysms.Methods: Twenty-five pseudoaneurysms were treated over a 33-month period; all had failed ultrasound-guided compression. Tissue adhesive or thrombin solution was injected percutaneously, with needle tip position and changes within the aneurysm confirmed with color Doppler ultrasound. In 19 cases we utilized a protective balloon inflated across the aneurysm neck prior to the injection of tissue adhesive and in six cases used thrombin injection alone. Seven patients were anticoagulated. Patients were followed up after the procedure.Results: All 25 aneurysms were treated successfully; two patients required a return visit and there were no immediate complications or peripheral emboli detected. One patient developed a contralateral pseudoaneurysm.Conclusions: The percutaneous injection of pseudoaneurysms is a safe, a traumatic, and effective treatment for femoral artery pseudoaneurysms in the peripheral circulation. There are significant advantages over ultrasound-guided compression or surgical repair

  2. Peripheral and central effects of intracerebroventricular microinjection of Hottentotta gentili (Pallary, 1924) (Scorpiones, Buthidae) venom.

    El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; El Hiba, Omar; Laadraoui, Jawad; Ferehan, Hind; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Central effects of scorpion venom toxins have been neglected, due both to the common belief that scorpion venoms act by targeting peripheral organs and also to the misunderstanding that these peptides do not cross the brain-blood barrier (BBB). Determining whether scorpion neurotoxicity is restricted to peripheral actions or whether a central mechanism may be partly responsible for systemic manifestations could be crucial in clinical therapy trends. The present study therefore aims to assess histopathological damages in some organs (heart, kidney, liver, and lungs) and the related biochemical impairments, together with a neurobehavioral investigation following an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) micro-injection of Hottentotta gentili (Scorpiones, Buthidae) venom (0.47 μg/kg). I.c.v. injection of venom produced focal fragmentation of myocardial fibers, while lungs showed rupture of the alveolar structure. Concurrently, there was a significant rise in the serum enzymes levels of ASAT, ALAT, CPK and LDH. Meanwhile, we observed behavioral alterations such as a hypoactivity, and in addition the venom seems to have a marked anxiogenic-like effect. The present investigation has brought new experimental evidence of a peripheral impact of central administration of H. gentili venom, such impact was manifested by physiological and behavioral disturbances, the last of these appearing to reflect profound neuro-modulatory action of H. gentili venom. PMID:26718260

  3. Carbon Ion Irradiated Neural Injury Induced the Peripheral Immune Effects in Vitro or in Vivo

    Runhong Lei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon ion radiation is a promising treatment for brain cancer; however, the immune system involved long-term systemic effects evoke a concern of complementary and alternative therapies in clinical treatment. To clarify radiotherapy caused fundamental changes in peripheral immune system, examinations were performed based on established models in vitro and in vivo. We found that brain-localized carbon ion radiation of neural cells induced complex changes in the peripheral blood, thymus, and spleen at one, two, and three months after its application. Atrophy, apoptosis, and abnormal T-cell distributions were observed in rats receiving a single high dose of radiation. Radiation downregulated the expression of proteins involved in T-cell development at the transcriptional level and increased the proportion of CD3+CD4−CD8+ T-cells in the thymus and the proportion of CD3+CD4+CD8− T-cells in the spleen. These data show that brain irradiation severely affects the peripheral immune system, even at relatively long times after irradiation. In addition, they provide valuable information that will implement the design of biological-based strategies that will aid brain cancer patients suffering from the long-term side effects of radiation.

  4. Carbon Ion Irradiated Neural Injury Induced the Peripheral Immune Effects in Vitro or in Vivo

    Lei, Runhong; Zhao, Tuo; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiao; Ma, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ion radiation is a promising treatment for brain cancer; however, the immune system involved long-term systemic effects evoke a concern of complementary and alternative therapies in clinical treatment. To clarify radiotherapy caused fundamental changes in peripheral immune system, examinations were performed based on established models in vitro and in vivo. We found that brain-localized carbon ion radiation of neural cells induced complex changes in the peripheral blood, thymus, and spleen at one, two, and three months after its application. Atrophy, apoptosis, and abnormal T-cell distributions were observed in rats receiving a single high dose of radiation. Radiation downregulated the expression of proteins involved in T-cell development at the transcriptional level and increased the proportion of CD3+CD4?CD8+ T-cells in the thymus and the proportion of CD3+CD4+CD8? T-cells in the spleen. These data show that brain irradiation severely affects the peripheral immune system, even at relatively long times after irradiation. In addition, they provide valuable information that will implement the design of biological-based strategies that will aid brain cancer patients suffering from the long-term side effects of radiation. PMID:26633364

  5. Late effects of ionizing radiations on central nervous system, spinal cord and peripheral nerves

    Despite the lack of characteristic features, demyelination is the dominant feature of radiation induced late effects observed in cerebral nervous system and spinal cord. Acute, subacute and chronic changes are described in terms of pathological, clinical and radiological observations. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, while imaging changes are observed with lower doses. The most widely observed dose limit for the spinal cord is 45 Gy, in absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radio-chemotherapy effects. The potential protective role of hyperfractionation is not yet clearly established. Peripheral nerves late effects, although rare, are described. (authors)

  6. Screening of cetirizine for analgesic activity in mice

    Priya M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is the most common symptom for which patients approach doctors. We have multitude of drugs for pain relief, but they have serious side effects ranging from peptic ulcer (e.g. NSAIDs to renal failure. The other group, opioids have well known side effects ranging from sedation to drug dependence. So a search for a drug for analgesia with high therapeutic effect and fewer side effects will be a boon for the patients. The objective of this study was to find whether cetirizine, a second generation antihistaminic drug, has got any analgesic activity in mice. Methods: Ten adult albino mice weighing 20-30 grams of either sex were randomized to two groups (n=5. Group I: control group (Treated with solvent 0.1 ml/kg, Group II: Test group (Cetirizine 1mg/kg. All drugs were given orally. The analgesic activity was evaluated by using tail flick, tail immersion and tail clip methods. Reaction time of animals to pain sensation before and after Cetirizine administration were noted at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes time intervals respectively on Day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10. Results: Mean reaction time was expressed as Mean±SEM, and one way ANOVA was used to assess statistical significance. Cetirizine was found to have statistically significant analgesic effect in mice and time dependent increase in analgesic effect were observed in all three pain models and maximum analgesic activity was observed at 60 minutes (p<0.001 after drug administration. Conclusions: Through this study, Cetirizine, a second generation antihistamine, is found to have significant analgesic activity in mice. This effect has to be studied further elaborately in animals as well as in humans. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 187-192

  7. Analgesic efficacy with rapidly absorbed ibuprofen sodium dihydrate in postsurgical dental pain

    Nørholt, Sven Erik; Hallmer, F; Hartlev, Jens; Pallesen, L; Blomlöf, J; Hansen, E J; Fernandes, N; Eriksson, L; Pinholt, E M

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid).......To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid)....

  8. Differences in the behavioral effects of oxytocin and carbetocin after their peripheral application to Wistar rats

    Vera Klenerova

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OXY is a neurohypophyseal nonapeptide, which has primarily the peripheral effects during parturation and lactation. In the brain OXY acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and plays, a prominent role in several central functions, like behavior, memory, learning, grooming etc. A number of OXY analogs have been designed as therapeutic substitutes with changed uterotonic activities. Carbetocin (CBT; deamino-1-monocarba-[2-O-methyltyrosine]-oxytocin was prepared as a long-acting OXY analog to control postpartum bleeding. Peripheral administration of OXY is known to produce behavioral effects; however, there are very limited experimental data on the central effects of CBT. The aim of this study was to compare the length of behavioral effects of OXY and CBT. Male Wistar rats were used. Spontaneous behavior was tested in circular open-field arena with 150 cm diameter. Behavioral parameters were recorded by AnyMaze software (Stoelting Co, USA. OXY and CBT (Polypeptides GmbH, Czech Republic were given i.p. 60 min before behavioral test and repeatedly tested in several following days. While OXY produced reduction of exploratory activity and increased grooming time, CBT had slight increasing effect on the exploratory activity and revealed no effect on grooming. The exploratory effect of CBT survives for several days while the effect of OXY was not long lasting. Our results support the possibility of using CBT in various psychic disorders like autism etc. Acknowledgements: Supported by MSM 0021620806.

  9. Cytotoxic and analgesic potentials of papaver pavoninum fisch and mey

    Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Papaver pavoninum was used to investigate its cytotoxic and analgesic potentials. Brine Shrimp Cytotoxic bioassay showed that 100 and 1000 micro g/ml doses produced highly significant cytotoxicities causing 83.3 ± 1.924 percentage and 96.7 ± 1.924 percentage lethalities respectively, with LD50 value of 2.54 micro g/ml. The analgesic bioassay, using acetic acid induced writhing behavior in mice showed that all the three doses of the extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) were highly effective and even more effective than the standard analgesic drug (Diclofenic Sodium), which reduced the number of writhes by 13.54 percentage, while the three doses of the plant extract reduced the writhing by 36.91 percentage, 57.01 percentage and 68.39 percentage respectively. (author)

  10. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION ON PERIPHERAL NERVE CONDUCTION IN CHILDREN

    Rubha S, Vinodha R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral nerve conduction changes caused by malnutrition can be shown clinically and electrophysiologically. They are produced mainly due to deficiency of micro and macronutrients like vitamins, minerals, protein, fat & Carbohydrate Aim : Protein energy malnutrition (PEM affects the myelination and growth of the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of PEM on peripheral nerve conduction in children. Materials & Methods: Study group includes 40 malnourished children of 5 – 10 years of age from Raja Mirasudar Hospital, Thanjavur based on Indian Academy of Paediatrics & WHO classification for malnutrition. Control group consists of 40 normal children of same age group. Nerve conduction study for median nerve was performed using eight channel digital polygraph. Nerve conduction velocity was evaluated. Results were analysed statistically using unpaired student ‘t’ test. Results : Nerve conduction study (NCS showed reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity ( p < 0.05 in children with Grade III malnutrition. Children with Grade I, II malnutrition showed reduced sensory nerve conduction velocity ( p < 0.05 . Conclusion: The present study shows significant reduction in nerve conducion velocity in children with malnutrition which may be due to nutritional deficiency affecting myelination of peripheral nerves which depends on duration and severity of malnutrition. So nerve conduction study can be used to detect malnutrition at its early stage.

  11. Factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use - a population-based study of more than 45,000 Danish women and men 18-45 years of age

    Hargreave, Marie; Andersen, Tina Veje; Nielsen, Ann; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Liaw, Kai-Li; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of and serious adverse effects associated with use of analgesics accentuates the need to consider factors related to analgesic use. The objective of this study was to describe continuous regular analgesics use and examine factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use....

  12. EFFECT OF MODERATE ALTITUDE ON PERIPHERAL MUSCLE OXYGENATION DURING LEG RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN YOUNG MALES

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Training at moderate altitude (~1800m is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL. They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (% from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 % than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %. SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 % than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %. Differences (SL - 1800AL in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660. These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore , that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles.

  13. Effect of moderate altitude on peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise in young males.

    Oguri, Kazuo; Du, Na; Kato, Yoshihiro; Miyamoto, Kei; Masuda, Takahiro; Shimizu, Katsuji; Matsuoka, Toshio

    2004-09-01

    Training at moderate altitude (~1800m) is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr) performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL). They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb) in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws) and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (%) from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660). These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore, that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles. Key PointsThe change in muscle oxygenation during the parallel squat at 1800 altitude and near sea level was investigated using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws)The muscle oxygenation during exercise at 1800 altitude decreased more dramatically compared to sea level.NIRcws could help to provide a better understanding of exercising muscle metabolism at moderate altitude. PMID:24482596

  14. Cytogenetic effects of sodium arsenite and X-rays on human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Cytogenetic effect of sodium arsenite (SA) and X-rays, alone and in combination, is evaluated. Lymphocytes isolated from human peripheral blood are treated in the Go cell cycle period as follows: SA alone at concentration 5 μM; irradiation alone at dose 1.5 or 3 Gy; irradiation in the presence of SA. Chromosomal aberrations in the first metaphases are scored. SA applied alone appears to be a much weaker mutagen as compared to irradiation. The cytogenetic effect of combined application of the two agents is synergetic in nature. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs. (author)

  15. Correlation analysis of peripheral DPYD gene polymorphism with 5-fluorouracil susceptibility and side effects in colon cancer patients

    Sun, Wenhui; Yan, Chungen; Jia, Shaochang; HU, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation of peripheral DPYD gene polymorphism with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) susceptibility and side effect in patients with colon cancer. Methods: The total DNA of peripheral mononuclear cells was extracted in 100 cases of colon cancer patients. Quantitative PCR was conducted to measure DPYD gene 14G1A, A1627G, T85C 3 loci polymorphism, and analyze the correlation of 5-FU susceptibility, side effects with DPYD gene polymorphism. Results: Mutations were detected a...

  16. The paradoxical effects of somatostatin on the bioactivity and production of cytotoxins derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    YOUSEFI, S.; Vaziri, N; Carandang, G.; Le, W.; Yamamoto, R.; Granger, G.; Ocariz, J.; Cesario, T.

    1991-01-01

    Somatostatin (SMS), a naturally occurring peptide is known to inhibit the production of certain protein molecules and to diminish the ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to proliferate. We tested the effects of three forms of SMS on the bioactivity of both lymphotoxin (LT) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF). We also tested the effects of these agents on production of cytotoxins by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found the 28 amino acid form of SMS significantly enhanced the bio...

  17. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2004-01-01

    infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated with an......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...

  18. Tramadol as an Analgesic to Treat Chronic Pain

    Gaurav Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain has now been equated to a fifth vital sign highlighting the significance of pain management in patient care. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic which is structurally related to codeine and morphine. It is effectively used to treat moderate to severe acute and chronic pain in diverse conditions. Tramadol is placed on the second step of WHO analgesic ladder and in contrast to traditional opioids, exerts its analgesic activity, a dual mechanism of action inhibiting transmission as well as perception of pain. Tramadol is more suitable than NSAID’s and coxib’s for patient with GI, renal and cardiovascular problems. Combined with low dependence/abuse potential, it has proven to be of significant advantage over other agents especially in the elderly.

  19. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated with an...

  20. In vitro Effects of Beet Root Juice on Stimulated and Unstimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Christiana Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants is suggested to reduce the incidence of cancer and coronary heart disease in humans. Exceptional antioxidant activity of beet root extracts has been reported. Likewise in animal models, e.g., extracts of red beetroot Beta vulgaris var. rubra revealed significant tumor inhibitory effects. Red beetroot concentrate is universally permitted as a food ingredient. In this study, effects of a commercially available beetroot juice on freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A were investigated in vitro. Tryptophan degradation and neopterin formation were monitored in culture supernatants to determine effects of test substances on immunobiochemical pathways which both are induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ. Compared to unstimulated cells, the mitogens induced significant formation of neopterin and degradation of tryptophan which is reflected by increasing concentrations of kynurenine together with diminished tryptophan levels in supernatants. Addition of beetroot extracts significantly suppressed these mitogen-induced changes, e.g. the rate of neopterin production as well as tryptophan degradation was dose-dependently suppressed. Our data show that beetroot extract is able to counteract pro-inflammatory cascades in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Because inflammation is strongly involved in the development and progression of several clinical conditions including coronary heart disease and cancer, beneficial effect of beetroot extract may relate to this anti-inflammatory capacity.

  1. Synergistic effect of DHT and IGF-1 hyperstimulation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Imperlini, Esther; Spaziani, Sara; Mancini, Annamaria; Caterino, Marianna; Buono, Pasqualina; Orrù, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    The abuse of mixed or combined performance-enhancing drugs is widespread among athletes and amateurs, adults and adolescents. Clinical studies demonstrated that misuse of these doping agents is associated with serious adverse effects to many organs in human. Previously, we demonstrated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes that high doses of anabolic androgenic steroids, such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have effects at gene and protein levels. Supraphysiological treatments of DHT and IGF-1 affected the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle disorders as well as in cell-mediated immunological response. At protein level, DHT hyperdosage affects cell motility and apoptosis; IGF-1 hyperstimulation triggers an active cytoskeletal reorganization and an overproduction of immune response- and inflammation-related cytokines. In this study, we investigate the combined effects of DHT and IGF-1 hyperdosage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a differential proteomic approach. DHT and IGF-1 combined treatment affects cell adhesion, migration, and survival through modulation of expression levels of cytokines and paxillin-signaling-related proteins, and activation of several pathways downstream focal adhesion kinase. Our results indicate a synergistic effect of DHT and IGF-1 which has potential implications for health risk factors. PMID:25669835

  2. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the peripheral nervous system

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Mølck, A.-M.; Bøgh, I. B.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) is a common acute side effect in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, especially during intensive insulin therapy. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) depends on glucose as its primary energy source during normoglycaemia and, consequently, it may be particularly...... susceptible to IIH damage. Possible mechanisms for adaption of the PNS to IIH include increased glucose uptake, utilisation of alternative energy substrates and the use of Schwann cell glycogen as a local glucose reserve. However, these potential adaptive mechanisms become insufficient when the hypoglycaemic...

  3. Examining the effectiveness of 2 solutions used to flush capped pediatric peripheral intravenous catheters.

    White, Mary L; Crawley, Jamie; Rennie, Elizabeth A; Lewandowski, Linda A

    2011-01-01

    An evidence-based study examined the effectiveness of 2 solutions, heparin and normal saline, when used to flush capped pediatric peripheral intravenous (CPP IV) catheters. This experimental study assessed patency, redness, swelling, clotting, bruising, leakage, and patient pain after each intervention/flush. Study participants included 62 children (32 heparin and 30 normal saline) who had CPP IV catheters using 20-, 22-, or 24-gauge catheters. No statistically significant differences were found in IV catheter patency between children in the normal saline group and children in the heparin group. A postimplementation follow-up study with 30 patients who received normal saline only as a flush experienced no patency issues. PMID:21734522

  4. Analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block commenced prior to operative fixation of fractured neck of femur

    Szucs, Szilard

    2012-06-27

    AbstractBackgroundPeripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF) is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) in patients with FNF.MethodsFollowing institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1) or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2). Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score) at 30 min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10). The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later.ResultsOf 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7) vs 27.5(14.2) h, P = 0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4) vs 31(28), P = 0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30 min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6 h 30.7(23.4) vs 67.0(32.0), P = 0.004]. Cumulative morphine consumption over 72 h was less in Group 2. Patient satisfaction scores were greater in Group 2 [9.4(1.1) vs 7.6(1.8), P = 0.014].ConclusionsCFNB provides more effective perioperative analgesia than a standard opiate-based regimen for patients undergoing fixation of FNF. It is associated with lesser opiate use and greater patient satisfaction.

  5. Analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block commenced prior to operative fixation of fractured neck of femur

    Szucs Szilard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB in patients with FNF. Methods Following institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1 or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2. Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score at 30 min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10. The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later. Results Of 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7 vs 27.5(14.2 h, P = 0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4 vs 31(28, P = 0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30 min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6 h 30.7(23.4 vs 67.0(32.0, P = 0.004]. Cumulative morphine consumption over 72 h was less in Group 2. Patient satisfaction scores were greater in Group 2 [9.4(1.1 vs 7.6(1.8, P = 0.014]. Conclusions CFNB provides more effective perioperative analgesia than a standard opiate-based regimen for patients undergoing fixation of FNF. It is associated with lesser opiate use and greater patient satisfaction.

  6. The effect of Ginkgo extract EGb761 in cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice

    Neuroprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in cisplatin (cis-diamminedi-chloroplatinum, or CDDP)-induced peripheral neuropathy was investigated. Swiss albino mice were treated with CDDP, 2 mg/kg ip twice a week for nine times. One group of the animals also received EGb761 in the drinking water at an estimated dosage of 100 mg/kg per day. Two other groups received vehicle (control) or EGb761 only. Development of neuropathy was evaluated with changes in sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Following the treatments, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) were microscopically examined and some were cultured for 3 days. EGb761 proved effective in preventing the reduction in NCV (P < 0.0001) caused by CDDP. CDDP caused a decrease in the number of migrating cells (P < 0.01) and in the length of outgrowing axons (P < 0.01) while EGb761 treatment prevented the latter. CDDP led to smaller nuclear and somatic sizes in neurons (P < 0.01), while with EGb761 co-administration, both were close to control values. Animals having EGb761 only had similar results with controls. In conclusion, EGb761 was found to be effective in preventing some functional and morphological deteriorations in CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy

  7. Glutamate and capsaicin effects on trigeminal nociception I: Activation and peripheral sensitization of deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents

    Lam, David K.; Barry J. Sessle; Hu, James W.

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the effect of the peripheral application of glutamate and capsaicin to deep craniofacial tissues in influencing the activation and peripheral sensitization of deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents. The activity of single trigeminal nociceptive afferents with receptive fields in deep craniofacial tissues were recorded extracellularly in 55 halothane-anesthetized rats. The mechanical activation threshold (MAT) of each afferent was assessed before and after injection of 0.5M g...

  8. Effects of Thai Foot Massage on Balance Performance in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy: A Randomized Parallel-Controlled Trial

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Plandee, Piyawan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complications of diabetic patients and leads to loss of plantar cutaneous sensation, movement perception, and body balance. Thai foot massage is an alternative therapy to improve balance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. Material/Methods Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned into e...

  9. EFFECT OF STRIPPER PERIPHERAL SPEEDS ON GRAIN PURITY, FIELD CAPACITY AND FIELD EFFICIENCY OF A DEVELOPED SELF PROPELLED STRIPPING HARVESTER

    F., ADISA A.

    2013-01-01

    In optimizing the critical operating parameters of stripping harvester, the study of stripper rotor peripheral speed’s influence on the stripper performance is essential. A self propelled 30cm width prototype stripping harvester was developed and evaluated in Zaria, Nigeria. The study of the effect of stripper peripheral rotor speed on grain purity, field capacity and field efficiency of the machine was carried out as part of optimization of the critical operating parameters of the stripper h...

  10. The effect of the acute combined action of radiation and some pesticides on the peripheral blood of rats

    The effects of the combined action of external gamma radiation and certain pesticides on peripheral blood were studied in rats. The pesticides introduced into the stomach were the organophosphoric compound Dipterex, the organochlorine compound Lindane or tetramethyl-thiuram disulphide. In the peripheral blood, the quantity of haemoglobin, red blood corpuscles and white blood corpuscles, and the leucocyte formula were defined and qualitative changes in the white blood cells revealed according to the frequency with which atypical cells were encountered. (UK)

  11. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

    P. Malairajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI (Compositae was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percentage protection found was 66.6 and 67.4 respectively. The result suggested that ALSI possess significant and dose dependent analgesic activity.

  12. Effect of Diet and Exercise on the Peripheral Immune System in Young Balb/c Mice

    Martínez-Carrillo, B. E.; Jarillo-Luna, R. A.; Campos-Rodríguez, R.; Valdés-Ramos, R.; Rivera-Aguilar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Although diet and exercise clearly have an influence on immune function, studies are scarce on the effect caused by exercise and the consumption of a carbohydrate-rich or fat-rich diet on the peripheral immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise and the two aforementioned unbalanced diets on young Balb/c mice, especially in relation to BMI, the level of glucose, and the percentage of lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood. The changes found were then related to the synthesis of leptin and adiponectin as well as the production of oxidative stress. The increase in BMI found with the carbohydrate-rich and fat-rich diets showed correlation with the levels of leptin and adiponectin. An increase in leptin and a decrease in adiponectin directly correlated with an increase in total lymphocytes and CD4+ cells and with a decrease in B cells. The increase in leptin also correlated with an increase in CD8+ cells. Glycemia and oxidative stress increased with the two unbalanced diets, negatively affecting the proliferation of total lymphocytes and the percentage of B cells, apparently by causing alterations in proteins through carbonylation. These alterations caused by an unbalanced diet were not modified by moderate exercise. PMID:26634209

  13. Identification of the effects of peripheral nerves injury on the muscle control - A review

    Cabaj, Anna; Zmyslowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Impairment of motor function following peripheral nerve injury is a serious clinical problem. Generally nerve injury leads to erroneous control of muscle activity that results in gait and voluntary movement abnormalities followed by muscle atrophy. This article presents a review of studies on the effects of peripheral nerve injury on the motor system performed on animal models. We focused our attention on the results that are fundamental for better understanding of the degenerative and regenerative processes induced by nerve injury as well as of the mechanisms of structural changes in neuronal networks controlling movement. Quoted results are also important for clinical applications because they allow to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques that can be used after nerve injury inducing motor deficits. However, till now no efficient therapy inducing satisfactory recovery was found. There is still a need to continue an advanced basic research directed to develop effective therapies. Thus the aim of this review is to compare the results of recent studies performed on various animal models in order to propose new methods for identification of mechanisms responsible for muscle deficits and propose targets for new pharmacological therapies.

  14. Comparative characteristics of the radioprotective effect of some radioprotectors on chromosomal changes in human peripheral blood

    Comparative in vitro study of the radioprotective capabilities of the preparation Adeturon and its constituting ptotectors (AET and ATF-2Na) and the mechanical mixture of AET and ATF-2Na on radiation injury to hereditary structures of peripheral human blood lymphocytes was carried out. To this end, 15 minutes before irradiation the whole peripheral human blood was added 200 mcg/ml AET, 550 mcg/ml ATF-2Na, mechanical combination of 542 mcg/ml ATF-2Na and 245 mcg/ml AET, respectively Adeturon in a dose of 550 mcg/ml. The quantitative proportions between AET and ATF-2Na in the mechanical mixture, respectively when administered alone, were the same as in Adeturon. Cytogenetic analysis of metaphase figures was carried out after 51 hours' cultivation. It was found that AET and the mechanical combination had no radioprotective effect upon irradiation with 93 rad. Only Adeturone displayed a distinct radioprotective effect to this dose. The radioprotective effect of AET to gamma-irradiation with doses from 188 to 372 rad was the same as that of the mechanical combination. After irradiation with 558 rad the radioprotective effect of the mechanical combination was inferior to that of AET alone. ATF-2Na, administered alone or in combination with AET, produced no radioprotective effect. Highest were the radioprotective capabilities of Adeturone. For the different chromosomal injuries its radioprotective effect was from 1.6 to 4.7 times higher than that of AET or the mechanical mixture of AET and ATF-2Na. It is therefore concluded that the radioprotective effect of Adeturone is a consequence of molecular binding between AET and ATF-2Na. (A.B.)

  15. Isospin and angular momentum effects in the peripheral heavy ion reactions

    The semi-classical Landau Vlasov model has been used to investigate the decay modes of peripheral Pb + Au reactions at 29 MeV/n. Statics and dynamics of these very massive nuclei are analyzed especially through the isospin dependence of the effective nuclear force. The degree of dissipation of the collisions is studied for different bins of impact parameter pointing out the influence of the nucleon-nucleon cross section. The appearance of intermediate mass fragments from neck-like structures is evidenced and the effects of angular momentum transfers are shown to play a fundamental role in this phenomenon. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data, showing the importance of the dynamical and out of equilibrium effects on the observables. (authors)

  16. [The effect of space flight factors on the peripheral blood in the newt Pleurodeles waltlii].

    Domaratskaia, E I; Mirchurina, T V; Nikonova, T M; Khrushchov, N G

    1994-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors (SFF) on the peripheral blood in Pleurodeles waltlii were assessed after 12-day flight on board of the biosatellite "Kosmos-2229". These animals were also used to study regeneration of the limb, tail and lens. The corresponding control groups of animals allowed to distinguish between the effects of the operation, non-specific and specific SFFs: (1) basal control-operated animals; (2) synchronous control-operated animals kept on the Earth under the same conditions as the flight group, and (3) intact animals. It has been shown that the relative content of neutrophils (mostly, young forms) increased and the proportion of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased under the influence of SFFs, while the capacity of blood cells for DNA synthesis was not affected. A conclusion has been drawn that the Spanish newts can be used for adequate studies of the SFF effects on the hemopoietic tissue. PMID:7987203

  17. Dynamical analysis of isospin and angular momentum effects in peripheral heavy-ion reactions

    The semi-classical Landau-Vlasov model has been used to investigate the decay modes of peripheral Pb+Au reactions at 29 MeV/n. Statics and dynamics of these very massive nuclei are analyzed especially through the isospin dependence of the effective nuclear force. The degree of dissipation of the collisions is studied for different bins of impact parameter pointing out the influence of the nucleon-nucleon cross section. The appearance of intermediate mass fragments from neck-like structures is evidenced, the effects of angular momentum transfers are shown to play a fundamental role in this phenomenon. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data, showing the importance of the dynamical and out-of-equilibrium effects on the observables. (orig.)

  18. The Contemporary Safety and Effectiveness of Lower Extremity Bypass Surgery and Peripheral Endovascular Interventions in the Treatment of Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Rehring, Thomas F.; Rogers, R. Kevin; Shetterly, Susan M.; Wagner, Nicole M.; Gupta, Rajan; Jazaeri, Omid; Hedayati, Nasim; Jones, W. Schuyler; Patel, Manesh R.; Ho, P. Michael; Go, Alan S.; Magid, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Treatment for symptomatic peripheral artery disease includes lower extremity bypass surgery (LEB) and peripheral endovascular interventions (PVIs); however, limited comparative effectiveness data exist between the 2 therapies. We assessed the safety and effectiveness of LEB and PVI in patients with symptomatic claudication and critical limb ischemia. Methods and Results— In a community-based clinical registry at 2 large integrated healthcare delivery systems, we compared 883 patients undergoing PVI and 975 patients undergoing LEB between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. Rates of target lesion revascularization were greater for PVI than for LEB in patients presenting with claudication (12.3±2.7% and 19.0±3.5% at 1 and 3 years versus 5.2±2.4% and 8.3±3.1%, log-rank PPVI, LEB was associated with increased rates of complications up to 30 days following the procedure (37.1% versus 11.9%, PPVI was associated with fewer 30-day procedural complications, higher revascularization rates at 1 and 3 years, and no difference in subsequent amputations. PMID:26362632

  19. Effect of different doses of rhIL-6 on peripheral blood recovery in irradiated mice

    The effects of recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) on the recovery of peripheral blood picture in 6.5 Gy γ-ray irradiated (132-127.7 R/min)C57BL/6J mice at the age of 80-90 days were studied. Group 1 served as the control and groups 2-5 were injected subcutaneously with rhIL-6 twice daily at doses of 10,200,500 and 1000 μg-1kg-1d-1, respectively, starting from 30 min after irradiation for 4 consecutive days. Peripheral WBC, RBC, and PLT counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit were determined before and 5,11,14,18,22 and 30 days after irradiation. It was shown that although the time of nadir emergence and the onset of recovery were similar in all the five groups, the nadir values were higher and the recovery was better, both being dose-dependent, in the IL-6 treated groups than in the control. Significant dose-response regression equations were obtained for WBC count on day 22, for RBC count on days 14 and 18, for PLT count on days 11 and 18. Our studies show that IL-6 is a candidate of thrombopoietic factor for treatment of radiation-induced thrombocytopenia

  20. Effects of manganese exposure on iron metabolism in peripheral blood of exposed population

    Yun-gang XIONG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  To investigate the adverse effect of manganese exposure on the iron metabolism in peripheral blood of professionally exposed workers. Methods  The manganese in air was collected using personal air sampler, and the time weighted average (TWA concentration of exposure to manganese was then calculated. The subjects were divided into exposure group (n=85 and control group (n=80 based on the exposure doses they received. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the plasma and blood cells of the subjects were determined using flame atomic absorption detector and graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. Serum ferritin, transferrin, transferrin receptor and total iron binding capacity were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results  The manganese contents in both plasma and blood cells were much higher in exposure group than in control group (P 0.05. It was revealed by linear correlation analysis that no linear correlation existed between the professional exposure time and manganese and iron contents in both plasma and blood cells, serum ferrin, transferrin, transferring receptor and total iron binding capacity (P>0.05. Conclusion  The long-term exposure to high dose manganese may result in an imbalance of iron metabolism in the peripheral blood in exposed population, manifesting a decrease of plasma iron and serum transferrin receptors, and an increase of serum transferrin.

  1. Local effect of celecoxib on peripheral nerve repair combined with silicone tubulization in rat

    Mohammadi Rahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?Objective: To assess local effect of celecoxib on nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Methods: Forty-five male healthy white Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15 for each: sham-oper ation (SHAM, control (SIL and celecoxib treated (SIL/CLX groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed and after homeostasis muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed in the same way and transected proximal to tibioperoneal bifurcation leaving a 10 mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 µl phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/CLX group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 µl celecoxib (0.1 g/L. Results: Functional study and gastrocnemius muscle mass confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/CLX than in SIL group(P<0.05. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed number and diameter of the my elinated fibers in SIL/CLX were significantly greater than those in control group. In immunohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/CLX was clearly more positive than that in SIL group. Conclusion: Response to local treatment of celecoxib demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. Key words: Peripheral nerve; Sciaticnerve; Celecoxib; Nerve regeneration

  2. Effect of alcohol consumption on peripheral blood Alu methylation in Korean men.

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Kim, Young Hun; Lee, Won Kee; Na, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Hae Sook

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create a substantial public health problem worldwide. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. They are complex diseases characterized by both genetic and environmental factors. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector of environmental signals and account for multi-factorial nature of the disease. Global DNA methylation of peripheral blood cells has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for disease risk. Alu elements host one-quarter of CpG dinucelotides in the genome to function as proxies for global DNA methylation. In this study, we evaluated the Alu methylation in the peripheral blood DNA of healthy volunteers and AUD patients using the pyrosequencing technology. The Alu methylation level is significantly higher in AUD compared to healthy controls (23.4 ± 1.6 versus 22.1 ± 1.0, t = 7.83, p correlation was found between Alu methylation and alcohol use disorders identification test score (r = 0.250, p AUD. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship. PMID:26846433

  3. Peripheral degenerative joint diseases

    Nilzio Antonio da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is the most commonrheumatic disorder mainly in a geriatric population. Manifestationsare pain, stiffness and functional loss in the affected joint.According to etiology it is classifi ed as primary (or idiopathicand secondary. Some risk factors for disease development aregenetics, race, age, sex, obesity, occupational activities andarticular biomechanics. Pathogenesis is the same for any cause orlocalization, being catabolic alterations, with synthesis, inhibitionand reparing intent of the cartilage matrix. Metalloproteinases andcytokines (IL-1,IL-6,TNF-α actions promote infl ammatory reactionand cartilage degradation. Pain, the most important symptom,does not correlate with radiologic fi ndings. Peripheral osteoarthritisoccurs predominantly in the knee, hip and hand. Diagnosis is basedon clinical features, laboratorial tests and radiological changes.Rheumatological associations’ guidelines for treatment includenon-pharmacologic (education, physiotherapy, assistive devices,and pharmacologic (analgesics, anti-infl ammatory drugs therapyand surgery. Arthroplasty seems to work better than medicines, butshould be used if other treatments have failed.

  4. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The...... analgesic treatment in LRYGB surgery....

  5. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  6. Combined parecoxib and I.V. paracetamol provides additional analgesic effect with better postoperative satisfaction in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Elseify Zeinab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adequacy of postoperative analgesia is one of the most important factors that determine early hospital discharge and patients? ability to resume their normal activities postoperatively. The optimal non-opioid analgesic technique for postoperative pain management would reduce pain and enhance patient satisfaction, and it also facilitates earlier mobilization and rehabilitation by reducing pain-related complications after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib when used alone, or in combination. Methods : Sixty American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA physical status I and II adult patients who were scheduled for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included in this study. Patients were allocated into three groups: group I patients received 1g intravenous paracetamol after induction and another 1 g 4 h later, group II received 40 mg parecoxib after induction, while group III received combination of both drugs (paracetamol 1 g and parecoxib 40 mg. Pain during rest and mobility was assessed in the immediate postoperative period, 2 h and 8 h successively using visual analog scale (VAS. Patient satisfaction was rated according to satisfaction score. Results : Total morphine requirements were lower in group III patients (6.9±2.7 mg in comparison to group I patients (12.6±3.6 mg or group II patients (9.8±2.8 mg. The least VAS scores were recorded during knee movement (3.8±1.1 in group III patients compared to group I (6.0±1.8 and group II patients (4.8±1.9. Eight hours postoperatively, group III patients were more satisfied regarding the postoperative pain management. Conclusion : Combination of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib provided better analgesia and higher patient satisfaction than each drug when used separately.

  7. Cytogenetic effect of 153 Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with metastatic cancer

    The 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine with promising results for the relief of metastatic pain. Therefore, there are few knowledge about the effects of 153Sm-EDTMP at cellular level. The present study was conduced with the aim of evaluating the cytogenetic effects of 153Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone metastasis (with and without previous radio and/or chemotherapy) by the chromosome aberration technique, either in vivo or in vitro. For that, the blood samples were collected before and one hour after the endovenous administration of 153Sm-EDTMP (mean activity of 42.53+/-5.31 MBq/kg body weight), taking into account the rapid blood clearance. The principal types of structural chromosome aberrations found gaps and breaks, acentric fragments centric rings, double minutes and dicentrics. The statistical analysis showed that the group submitted to previous radio and chemotherapy before 153Sm-EDTMP administration showed significant difference in chromosome aberrations frequency one hour after the treatment. The analysis of the chromosome modal number and the kinetics of cellular cycle showed no statistical difference among the groups, suggesting that the treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP, did not influence these parameters. The carrier molecule, EDTMP, did not influence the induction of chromosome aberration. In relation to the in vitro assays, the obtained data of peripheral lymphocytes of healthy donors and patients with no previous treatment exposed to different radioactive concentration of 153Sm-EDTMP (0.046 - 1.110 MBq/mL) were better adjusted by linear regression model (Y=A+BX). The chromosome damage induced by 153Sm-EDTMP observed in vitro was about 2 fold higher than that found in vivo for the group of patients with no previous treatment. The obtained data showed that the therapy with 153Sm-EDTMP induced a few quantity of cytogenetic damages in peripheral lymphocytes on hour after its administration in patients, although, theoretically, a long term stochastic effect cannot be disregarded. (author)

  8. Stimulation of peripheral Kappa opioid receptors inhibits inflammatory hyperalgesia via activation of the PI3K?/AKT/nNOS/NO signaling pathway

    Cunha Thiago M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to their central effects, opioids cause peripheral analgesia. There is evidence showing that peripheral activation of kappa opioid receptors (KORs inhibits inflammatory pain. Moreover, peripheral ?-opioid receptor (MOR activation are able to direct block PGE2-induced ongoing hyperalgesia However, this effect was not tested for KOR selective activation. In the present study, the effect of the peripheral activation of KORs on PGE2-induced ongoing hyperalgesia was investigated. The mechanisms involved were also evaluated. Results Local (paw administration of U50488 (a selective KOR agonist directly blocked, PGE2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in both rats and mice. This effect was reversed by treating animals with L-NMMA or N-propyl-L-arginine (a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS, suggesting involvement of the nNOS/NO pathway. U50488 peripheral effect was also dependent on stimulation of PI3K?/AKT because inhibitors of these kinases also reduced peripheral antinociception induced by U50488. Furthermore, U50488 lost its peripheral analgesic effect in PI3K? null mice. Observations made in vivo were confirmed after incubation of dorsal root ganglion cultured neurons with U50488 produced an increase in the activation of AKT as evaluated by western blot analyses of its phosphorylated form. Finally, immunofluorescence of DRG neurons revealed that KOR-expressing neurons also express PI3K? (? 43%. Conclusions The present study indicates that activation of peripheral KORs directly blocks inflammatory hyperalgesia through stimulation of the nNOS/NO signaling pathway which is probably stimulated by PI3K?/AKT signaling. This study extends a previously study of our group suggesting that PI3K?/AKT/nNOS/NO is an important analgesic pathway in primary nociceptive neurons.

  9. Phytochemical screening and studies of analgesic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark extract on experimental animal model

    Shumaia Parvin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The work has been done for the phytochemical investigation and study of analgesic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. ethanolic stem bark extract using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing method. The effect of extract was tested for qualitative chemical analysis which reveals the presence of alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, carbohydrate etc. For peripheral analgesic effect acetic acid induced writhing test was used and for this stem bark extract was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight to young Swiss-albino mice. Both doses of the extract significantly inhibited writhing response induced by acetic acid in a dose dependent manner which is comparable to the positive control drug Diclofenac Na. These two different doses were found to exhibit 13.22% and 28.94% writhing inhibitory response respectively where the Diclofenac Na inhibited about 42.15% of writhes at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight. The obtained results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of these crude extract in the treatment of pain.

  10. Antinociceptive effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin isolated from Heterotheca inuloides: role of peripheral 5-HT? serotonergic receptors.

    Rocha-González, Héctor Isaac; Blaisdell-López, Everardo; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Navarrete, Andrés

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive effect of Heterotheca inuloides in inflammatory pain and to identify the main compounds involved in this effect. Dose-response curves were obtained for hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from Heterotheca inuloides inflorescences in the formalin test. Hexane extract was more potent and effective than other extracts. Bio-guided fractionation was performed to determine the main antinociceptive compounds of the plant. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique demonstrated the composition of the most active fraction from hexane extract revealing the presence of caryophyllene oxide, cedrene, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin, 7-hydroxycadalene and a compound not identified. The isolated compounds were individually evaluated in the formalin test in a preliminary dose of 100 ?g/paw and only 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin showed a significant antinociceptive effect. Dose-response curves were then obtained for 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin and diclofenac, a prototypical analgesic drug. Both drugs were equieffective and equipotent in the second phase of the formalin test, but 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin was more effective and potent in the first phase than diclofenac. In addition, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin reduced carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, in mechanistic studies, the antinociceptive effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin in the formalin test was prevented by methiothepin, WAY100635, SB224289 and BRL15572 but not by naltrexone. Results support the use of H. inuloides inflorescences as analgesic in the Mexican traditional medicine. Moreover, data indicate that 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin is partly responsible of this pharmacological activity, and suggest that 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), and 5-HT(1D) serotonergic, but not opioid, receptors participate in the antinociceptive effect of this drug. PMID:20863828

  11. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Argyreia speciosa root

    Bachhav R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a methanolic extract (ME of Argyreia speciosa (AS root powder. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using male albino mice (20-25 gm and male wistar rats (100-150gm. The ME was prepared using soxhlet extraction process. The effect of ME of A. speciosa was investigated for analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, tail immersion method and hot plate method. The anti-inflammatory activity of ME of AS roots was studied using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Result: The ME of A. speciosa root was used in pain and inflammation models. The analgesic activity of AS at the dose of (30,100, and 300 mg/kg p.o showed significant (P< 0.01 decrease in acetic acid-induced writhing, whereas ME of A. speciosa at the dose of (100, 300 mg/kg p.o showed significant (P< 0.01 increase in latency to tail flick in tail immersion method and elevated mean basal reaction time in hot plate method. The ME of the A. speciosa at doses (30, 100, and 300mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.01 inhibition of carrageenan induced hind paw edema in rats. Conclusion: The ME of A. speciosa showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in mice and rat.

  12. Letter: The clinical course of patients with analgesic nephropathy.

    Gault, M. H.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with analgesic nephropathy were followed at intervals of 1 to 3 months with measurements of creatinine clearance and serum concentration of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for a total of 105 patient-years. Diagnostic criteria included total consumption of at least 2 kg of phenacetin and 3 kg of ASA, compatible tissue abnormality on biopsy and evidence of papillary necrosis on an intravenous pyelogram. Nephropathy was induced by the same compound analgesic containing ASA, pehnacetin, caffeine and codeine (APC&C) in 30. Phenacetin was removed from this preparation in 1970 and replaced by an approximately equal amount of ASA (ACC). Creatinine clearance remained unchanged or improved in 11 of 15 patients who stopped taking analgesics containing phenacetin or ASA and in 10 of 11 of those who continued to take the ACC preparation. In contrast, renal function deteriorated in seven of eight patients who continued to abuse APC&C analgesics. The results suggest that phenacetin is necessary for the major nephrotoxic effect of this APC&C combination, but that ASA is not absolved of some nephrotoxicity. PMID:1139519

  13. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Mimusops elengi Linn

    Purnima A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy′s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer′s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

  14. The effects of ILLLI on peripheral blood T lymphocytes subpopulation & NK cells in psoriasis treatment

    Zhu, Jing; Nie, Fan

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To research the effects of Intravascular low level laser irradiation (ILLLI) on the immulogic function of cells in treatment of psoriasis. Method: 49 patients suffered from psoriasis were treated by Intravascular low level laser irradiation (laser output power: 4-5mw, 1 hour per day, a course of treatment is 10 days). We checked the function of T lymphocyte subgroup and NK cell in peripheral blood between pre and post treatment. Results: 1.The mean value of CD3+ in post treatment is higher. PNK cell in post treatment increased little, nearly approach the mean value of natural person. 3.The mean value of CD4+,CD8+,NK cell which is under 30% increased the percent obviously after the treatment; The mean value of CD4+,CD8+ u higher than 30% obviously drop the percent, P#0.05 and cell.

  15. The effects of teriflunomide on lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Li, Li; Liu, Jingchun; Delohery, Thomas; Zhang, Donghui; Arendt, Christopher; Jones, Catherine

    2013-12-15

    Teriflunomide is an inhibitor of dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), and is hypothesized to ameliorate multiple sclerosis by reducing proliferation of stimulated lymphocytes. We investigated teriflunomide's effects on proliferation, activation, survival, and function of stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in vitro. Teriflunomide had little/no impact on lymphocyte activation but exerted significant dose-dependent inhibition of T- and B-cell proliferation, which was uridine-reversible (DHODH-dependent). Viability analyses showed no teriflunomide-associated cytotoxicity. Teriflunomide significantly decreased release of several pro-inflammatory cytokines from activated monocytes in a DHODH-independent fashion. In conclusion, teriflunomide acts on multiple immune cell types and processes via DHODH-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:24182769

  16. In vitro cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of curcumin on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Sebastià, Natividad; Soriano, Jose M; Barquinero, Joan F; Villaescusa, Juan I; Almonacid, Miguel; Cervera, José; Such, Esperanza; Silla, María A; Montoro, Alegría

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin has shown a wide range of properties such as anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Many of these effects, mainly the anti-carcinogenic effect, could be linked to its anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that this natural compound possesses both pro- and anti-oxidative effects and that curcumin could be a genotoxic agent for some cell lines. We evaluated the genetic damage induced by curcumin to human lymphocytes exposed to increasing concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) of curcumin. Biomarkers such as chromosome aberrations (CAs) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) were analyzed. In addition to the cytogenetic analysis, the effect of curcumin in the cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) by the proliferation index (PI) was also analyzed. The results indicated that high concentrations of curcumin induced CAs, mainly acentric fragments. SCEs rate was not statistically different from the control group in any curcumin treated cell group. The PI of cells treated with 2 and 5 μg/ml of curcumin were statistically significant from the control group and finally, the MI showed a tendency to increase in all the concentrations of curcumin tested. In conclusion, it can be assumed that the higher concentrations of curcumin evaluated have a cyto and genotoxic effect, in vitro, for human peripheral lymphocytes. PMID:22713711

  17. The effect of coinfusion of peripheral blood stem cells and stromal cells on hematopoietic reconstitution in lethally irradiated mice

    Objective: To study the effect of coinfusion of peripheral blood stem cells and stromal cells on hematopoietic reconstitution in lethally irradiated mice. Methods: BALB/e mice irradiated with 60Co ?-rays were treated with RBC infusion (control group), peripheral blood stem cells infusion (PBSCT group), or coinfusion of peripheral blood stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells (experimental group). Survival rate within 4 weeks, white blood cell count, bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNC), granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (GM-CFU), fibroblast colony-forming unit (F-CFU) were observed. Results: Survival rate, BMNC, GM-CFU, F-CFU counts were significantly higher in the experimental group than those of the control and PBSCT groups ( P < 0.05). The lowest number of WBC was significantly higher (P < 0.01 ) and WBC recovery was faster (P < 0.01 ) in the experimental group. Conclusion: Coinfusion of peripheral blood stem cells and stromal cells could accelerate hematopoietic reconstitution in lethally irradiated mice and the effect is better than that of peripheral blood stem cell infusion (transplantation) only

  18. Pharmacodynamic analysis of the analgesic effect of capsaicin 8% patch (QutenzaTM in diabetic neuropathic pain patients: detection of distinct response groups

    Martini C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian Martini1,*, Ashraf Yassen2,*, Erik Olofsen1, Paul Passier2, Malcom Stoker3, Albert Dahan1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 2Global Clinical Pharmacology and Exploratory Development, Astellas Pharma Global Development Europe, Leiderdorp, The Netherlands; 3Global Medical Sciences, Astellas Pharma Global Development Europe, Leiderdorp, The Netherlands*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Treatment of chronic pain is associated with high variability in the response to pharmacological interventions. A mathematical pharmacodynamic model was developed to quantify the magnitude and onset/offset times of effect of a single capsaicin 8% patch application in the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 91 patients. In addition, a mixture model was applied to objectively match patterns in pain-associated behavior. The model identified four distinct subgroups that responded differently to treatment: 3.3% of patients (subgroup 1 showed worsening of pain; 31% (subgroup 2 showed no change; 32% (subgroup 3 showed a quick reduction in pain that reached a nadir in week 3, followed by a slow return towards baseline (16% ± 6% pain reduction in week 12; 34% (subgroup 4 showed a quick reduction in pain that persisted (70% ± 5% reduction in week 12. The estimate of the response-onset rate constant, obtained for subgroups 1, 3, and 4, was 0.76 ± 0.12 week-1 (median ± SE, indicating that every 0.91 weeks the pain score reduces or increases by 50% relative to the score of the previous week (= t½. The response-offset rate constant could be determined for subgroup 3 only and was 0.09 ± 0.04 week-1 (t½ 7.8 weeks. The analysis allowed separation of a heterogeneous neuropathic pain population into four homogenous subgroups with distinct behaviors in response to treatment with capsaicin. It is argued that this model-based approach may have added value in analyzing longitudinal chronic pain data and allows optimization of treatment algorithms for patients suffering from chronic pain conditions.Keywords: diabetic neuropathic pain, capsaicin 8%, modeling, mixture model

  19. Trophic Effects of Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Schwann Cells in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Yamamoto, Tsubasa; Osako, Yohei; Ito, Masataka; Murakami, Masashi; Hayashi, Yuki; Horibe, Hiroshi; Iohara, Koichiro; Takeuchi, Norio; Okui, Nobuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Hidenori; Kurita, Kenichi; Nakashima, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Recently, mesenchymal stem cells have demonstrated a potential for neurotrophy and neurodifferentiation. We have recently isolated mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) gradient, which has high neurotrophic/angiogenic potential. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of MDPSC transplantation on peripheral nerve regeneration. Effects of MDPSC transplantation were examined in a rat sciatic nerve defect model and compared with autografts and control conduits containing collagen scaffold. Effects of conditioned medium of MDPSCs were also evaluated in vitro. Transplantation of MDPSCs in the defect demonstrated regeneration of myelinated fibers, whose axons were significantly higher in density compared with those in autografts and control conduits only. Enhanced revascularization was also observed in the MDPSC transplants. The MDPSCs did not directly differentiate into Schwann cell phenotype; localization of these cells near Schwann cells induced several neurotrophic factors. Immunofluorescence labeling demonstrated reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation in resident Schwann cells in the MDPSC transplant compared with control conduits. These trophic effects of MDPSCs on proliferation, migration, and antiapoptosis in Schwann cells were further elucidated in vitro. The results demonstrate that MDPSCs promote axon regeneration through trophic functions, acting on Schwann cells, and promoting angiogenesis. PMID:25903498

  20. Effects of peripheral dynamic movements on the lower-limb circulation assessed by thermography: three one-group studies

    Kaerki, Anne; Laehdeniemi, Matti

    2002-03-01

    Peripheral dynamic movements are used as part of postoperative protocols and for preventing vascular complications during bed rest. The effects of peripheral movements have not been studied. The purposes of these studies were to explain the effects of peripheral dynamic movements on lower limb circulation. The aim was also to explain how other factors like sex, age, BMI, medication, smoking, sports activity etc. affect the circulation. Healthy young subjects (N=19), healthy elderly subjects (N=19) and diabetic subjects (N=21) participated in the studies between 1997 and 1999. The study design was the same in each study. Infrared technology and image processing belong to our focus fields of applied research and IR is widely used in our real time industrial applications including also ongoing research of new possibilities. This paper presents the results of our newest application of IR thermography, where it was used to measure the skin temperature over the soleus muscle during and after dynamic ankle movements. The results showed that the skin temperature increased further during the recovery period after movements, and temperature was highest after 3- 5 minutes. Diabetic male subjects were the only subgroup that had immediate decrease during recovery period. The studies showed that smoking had a negative effect on circulation. BMI had also negative correlation (-0,356), showing that subjects with higher BMI had less increase. The results proved that peripheral movements were effective for increasing circulation in the soleus muscle and the effect was still seen after 15 minutes.

  1. Neurophysiological effects of an extract of Eschscholzia californica Cham. (Papaveraceae).

    Rolland, A; Fleurentin, J; Lanhers, M C; Misslin, R; Mortier, F

    2001-08-01

    An aqueous alcohol extract of Eschscholzia californica (Ec) has been evaluated for benzodiazepine, neuroleptic, antidepressant, antihistaminic and analgesic properties, in order to complete the study of the sedative and anxiolytic effects previously demonstrated. The plant extract did not protect mice against the convulsant effects of pentylenetetrazol, and did not cause muscle relaxant effects but appeared to possess an affinity for the benzodiazepine receptor: thus, flumazenil, an antagonist of these receptors, suppressed the sedative and anxiolytic effects of the extract. The Ec extract induced peripheral analgesic effects in mice but did not possess antidepressant, neuroleptic or antihistaminic effects. PMID:11507727

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of saponified fraction from Annona reticulata L. Bark

    Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.; SHINDE, DEVANAND B.

    2010-01-01

    The saponified petroleum ether extract (SPE) of the Annona reticulata L. bark were studied for fatty acid composition by GC-MS analysis. Six fatty acids amounting 86.68% of the total contents were identified. The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid was 22.10 % and 64.58 %, respectively. SPE at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight showed significant central as well as peripheral analgesic, along with anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Intra Peritoneal S Ketamine reduces Postoperative Analgesic Requirements in Morbidly Obese Patients A Controlled Study

    Hala Mostafa Goma; Basant Abd Elhamid

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the role of intraperitoneal S (+) ketamine in peripheral NMDA receptors blockade, and whether it reduces the postoperative analgesic requirements after bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients in comparison with intraperitoneal lidocaine. Patients and Methods The study included 45 patients, and a standardized general anesthetic technique including fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and vecuronium for muscle relaxation were used. At t...

  4. Analgesic activity of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    Jamaluddin Abu Taiab Md; Qais Nazmul; Howlader Md. Amran; Shams- Ud-Doha K. M; Sarker Apu Apurba; Ali Mirza Asif

    2011-01-01

    Successive petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were investigated for the analgesic activity. Experiments were carried out with these extracts for their peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick models in mice, respectively. In both the models, methanolic extract showed significant writhing inhibition as well as the elongation of tail-flick time at a dose of 500 ...

  5. Update on Analgesic Medication for Adult and Pediatric Dental Patients.

    Laskarides, Constantinos

    2016-04-01

    This article is an update on pain management in the dental care setting for adult and pediatric patients. The 3 main categories of analgesic medications are examined: (1) opioids, (2) nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and (3) nonopioid, non-NSAID medications. Pharmacology, side effects, patient selection, and treatment strategies and principles are examined. The information provided is aimed to facilitate the clinical perspective and update the oral health care clinician on providing safe and effective analgesia to adult and pediatric patients. PMID:27040289

  6. Pathobiology of cancer chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN

    MareeThereseSmith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a type of neuropathic pain that is a major dose-limiting side-effect of potentially curative cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens that develops in a ‘stocking and glove’ distribution. When pain is severe, a change to less effective chemotherapy agents may be required, or patients may choose to discontinue treatment. Medications used to alleviate CIPN often lack efficacy and/or have unacceptable side-effects. Hence the unmet medical need for novel analgesics for relief of this painful condition has driven establishment of rodent models of CIPN. New insights on the pathobiology of CIPN gained using these models are discussed in this review. These include mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress that are implicated as key mechanisms in the development of CIPN. Associated structural changes in peripheral nerves include neuronopathy, axonopathy and/or myelinopathy, especially intra-epidermal nerve fiber (IENF degeneration. In patients with CIPN, loss of heat sensitivity is a hallmark symptom due to preferential damage to myelinated primary afferent sensory nerve fibers in the presence or absence of demyelination. The pathobiology of CIPN is complex as cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens frequently involve drug combinations. Adding to this complexity, there are also subtle differences in the pathobiological consequences of commonly used cancer chemotherapy drugs, viz platinum compounds, taxanes, vincristine, bortezomib, thalidomide and ixabepilone, on peripheral nerves.

  7. Analgesic efficacy of local infiltration analgesia in hip and knee arthroplasty

    Andersen, Lasse Østergaard; Kehlet, H

    2014-01-01

    with TKA were selected for inclusion in the review. In THA, no additional analgesic effect of LIA compared with placebo was reported in trials with low risk of bias when a multimodal analgesic regimen was administered perioperatively. Compared with intrathecal morphine and epidural analgesia, LIA was...... reported to have similar or improved analgesic efficacy. In TKA, most trials reported reduced pain and reduced opioid requirements with LIA compared with a control group treated with placebo/no injection. Compared with femoral nerve block, epidural or intrathecal morphine LIA provided similar or improved...

  8. Antigenotoxic Effect of Trametes spp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells.

    Kneževi?, Aleksandar; Živkovi?, Lada; Staji?, Mirjana; Vukojevi?, Jelena; Milovanovi?, Ivan; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trametes species have been used for thousands of years in traditional and conventional medicine for the treatment of various types of diseases. The goal was to evaluate possible antigenotoxic effects of mycelium and basidiocarp extracts of selected Trametes species and to assess dependence on their antioxidant potential. Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were the species studied. Antigenotoxic potentials of extracts were assessed on human peripheral white blood cells with basidiocarp and mycelium extracts of the species. The alkaline comet test was used for detection of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as well as the extent of DNA migration. DPPH assay was used to estimate antioxidative properties of extracts. Fruiting body extracts of T. versicolor and T. gibbosa as well as T. hirsuta extracts, except that at 20.0 mg/mL, were not genotoxic agents. T. versicolor extract had at 5.0 mg/mL the greatest antigenotoxic effect in both pre- and posttreatment of leukocytes. The mycelium extracts of the three species had no genotoxic activity and significant antigenotoxic effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage, both in pre- and posttreatment. The results suggest that extracts of these three species could be considered as strong antigenotoxic agents able to stimulate genoprotective response of cells. PMID:26258163

  9. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.

    Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects. PMID:24176069

  10. In vitro hemorheological effects of parenteral agents used in peripheral arterial disease

    Biro, Katalin; Sandor, Barbara; Toth, Andras; Koltai, Katalin; Papp, Judit; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Kalman; Kesmarky, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. In PAD hemorheological parameters were defined as risk factors in a number of studies and several therapeutic agents were tried in these conditions. Our study aims to investigate and compare the in vitro hemorheological effects of various drugs generally used in the parenteral treatment of intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. Blood samples of healthy male volunteers were incubated with iloprost, alprostadil, pentoxifylline, sulodexide or pentosan polysulfate at calculated therapeutic serum concentration. Hematocrit (Hct) was determined by microhematocrit centrifuge. Plasma and apparent whole blood viscosities (WBV) were evaluated by capillary viscometer. Red blood cell aggregation was measured by LORCA (laserassisted optical rotational cell analyzer) aggregometer, and LORCA ektacytometer was used for measuring erythrocyte deformability at 37°C. Iloprost, alprostadil, and pentoxifylline incubation did not have any significant effect on plasma and apparent WBV. Elongation index increased in samples incubated with alprostadil at low shear stresses 0.95 and 0.53 Pa (p < 0.05). Sulodexide significantly improved WBV and Hct/WBV ratio (p < 0.05). Incubation with pentosan polysulfate resulted in higher WBV, lower Hct/WBV ratio and deterioration in the aggregation parameters (p < 0.05). Sulodexide may have beneficial effect on a macrorheological parameter; alprostadil may improve a microrheological parameter. Hemorheological alterations could be important in PAD patients with hampered vasodilator capacity.

  11. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance the Anabolic Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblasts

    Yoshida, Ryu; MURRAY, MARTHA M.

    2012-01-01

    Use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has shown promise in various orthopaedic applications, including treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. However, various components of blood, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), are removed in the process of making PRP. It is yet unknown whether these PBMCs have a positive or negative effect on fibroblast behavior.

  12. Effects of xenogeneic, allogeneic and isogeneic thymus grafts on lymphocyte populations in peripheral lymphoid organs of the nude rat

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B; Stenvang, J P; Kraemmer, J; Rygaard, J

    1987-01-01

    In order to gain information about the effect of xenografted, allografted and isografted thymic tissue on peripheral lymphoid organs of immune-deficient rats, athymic nude LEW rats of ninth backcross-intercross were grafted with fetal calf and neonatal BDIX and LEW thymus. Adrenalectomy was also ...

  13. Indirect Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Exendin-4 on the Peripheral Circadian Clocks in Mice

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentarou; Fujimura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks in peripheral tissues are powerfully entrained by feeding. The mechanisms underlying this food entrainment remain unclear, although various humoral and neural factors have been reported to affect peripheral clocks. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is rapidly secreted in response to food ingestion, influences multiple humoral and neural signaling pathways, we suggest that GLP-1 plays a role in the food entrainment of peripheral clocks. To test this, we compared the effects of exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on mRNA expression of the clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Nr1d1, Per1, Per2, and Cry1) with those of refeeding. In addition, we investigated whether exendin-4 could affect the rhythms of the peripheral clocks. In male C57BL/6J mice, although refeeding rapidly (within 2 h) altered mRNA levels of Per1 and Per2 in the liver and that of Per1 in adipose tissue, a single i.p. injection of exendin-4 did not cause such changes. However, unlike the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9–39), exendin-4 significantly influenced Per1 mRNA levels in the liver at 12 h after injection. Moreover, pretreatment with exendin-4 affected the rapid-feeding-induced change in Per1 not only in the liver, but also in adipose tissue, without effect on food intake. Furthermore, during light-phase restricted feeding, repeated dosing of exendin-4 at the beginning of the dark phase profoundly influenced both the food intake and daily rhythms of clock gene expression in peripheral tissues. Thus, these results suggest that exendin-4 modulates peripheral clocks via multiple mechanisms different from those of refeeding. PMID:24260546

  14. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Caesalpinia decapetala

    Amna Parveen; Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash; Kanwal Rehman; Qaisar Mehmood; Muhammad Imran Qadir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In many pathological conditions, pain, inflammation and fever are interdependent to each other. Due to the use of synthetic drugs, many unwanted effects usually appear. Various studies have been conducted on Caesalpinia decapetala (C. decapetala) to evaluate its effects in the treatment of various diseases but no sufficient scientific literature is available online to prove its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities. Methods: The analgesic, anti-infla...

  15. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Yu-Ling Ho; Shang-Chih Lai; Yuan-Shiun Chang; Wen-Huang Peng; Chun-Pin Kao; Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH). Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by ?-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH s...

  16. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of bupropion in animal models

    Hajhashemi, V.; Khanjani, P.

    2014-01-01

    Antidepressants are widely used for the treatment of various neuropathic pain conditions in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that bupropion is effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Also antidepressants like bupropion showed anti-inflammatory properties. So in the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of bupropion in mice and rat were investigated. The acetic acid, formalin and hot plate tests were used in male mice to assess analgesic activity. For eval...

  17. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different fractions of Boswellia serrata

    Sharma, A.; Bhatia, S.; M. D. Kharya; V. Gajbhiye; Ganesh, N.; A. G. Namdeo; K. R MAHADIK

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of different fractions of Boswellia serrata. The effect of different fractions of Boswellia serrata were studied using carrageenan induced paw edema, acetic acid induced writhing response, formalin induced pain, hot plate and tail flick method for studying anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The different fractions of B. serrata, essential oil (10 ml/kg), gum (100 mg/kg, resin (100 mg...

  18. Antioxidant and Analgesic Activities of Lannea coromandelica Linn. Bark Extract

    Julia Rea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of Lannea coromandelica Linn. bark (MLCB was subjected to evaluate its antioxidant and analgesic properties. The analgesic activity was determined for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions using hotplate as well as tail immersion method and acetic acid-induced writhing test with formalin induced pain in mice, respectively. To evaluate antioxidant potential of MLCB, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as total Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and assessment of reducing power were used. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1, produced a significant (p50 value of 12.32±0.16 and 34.72±0.48 μg mL-1, respectively with a good reducing power. In conclusion this study demonstrated the strong antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of the bark of L. coromandelica. Altogether, these results suggest that the MLCB could be used as a potential antinociceptive agent along with its antioxidant potentiality.

  19. Effect of bedrest and positive radial acceleration upon peripheral visual response time.

    Haines, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt to determine if peripheral visual response time (RT) could be used as a reliable advanced predictor of +G sub z-related blackout or grayout. The relatively high luminance of the peripheral stimuli used in the experiments may account for the finding that peripheral RT was not sensitive to impending blackout or grayout. The relatively consistent mean RTs within subjects across test days in bed is probably due to the relatively constant response characteristics of the retina and to the high repeatability of the stimuli.

  20. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Centella asiatica extract in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Seema chaitanya Chippada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (CA is a medicinal herb which has been valued in ayurvedicmedicine for its different activities. In the present studies, CA methanolic extract wasprepared by Soxhlet extraction and then evaluated for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity incultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mitotic Index (MI Cell ProliferationKinetics (CPK and Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE were scored to measure thecytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the CA extract in cultures set up from the three differenthealthy donors. The treatment of the cell culture was done employing two different CAmethanolic extract concentrations (500 & 1000 ?g/ml and the control (did not receive anyadditive. Our present studies revealed that the MI, CPK and SCES for control are 4.28,0.49 and 6.08 respectively where as the CA extracts has the MI, CPK and SCES for500?g/ml are 4.07, 0.47 and 5.84 respectively and for 1000 ?g/ml are 3.96, 0.46 and 5.52respectively. From the results, we can conclude that the MI and frequency of SCES of CAmethanolic extracts are almost similar to that of control which indicates that the CA plantextracts has no significant cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects in cultured humanperipheral blood lymphocytes.

  1. A study of peripheral monocytic effect in patients with cervical carcinoma following radio- and immunopotentiation therapy

    Activation of the monocyte-macrophage system is the principal mechanism underlying host defense, immune response with lymphocytic interaction and defence against spontaneous arising tumors. In view of these fact, we investigated effects of radio-and immunopotentiation therapy (OK432) on the following processes in patients of stage III and IV cervical carcinoma. 1) Number of Monocytes determined by Naphtyl Butyrate Esterase and Wright staining. 2) The rate of glucose utilization assessed by Conray-Ficoll density gradient separation. Comparison was made among patients all recieved radiotherapies with and without subsequent immunopotentiation therapy. In healthy female individuals, the number of peripheral monocytes determined by esterase staining was 338.5+-52.6/?l. Thus, immunopotentiation recovered the monocyte count, as long as the dose of OK432 was less than 8KE (679.3+-78.5/?l)(p<0.05). The difference was also found in the glucose utilization by monocytes in radiotherapies, the utilization rate was small (98.2+-1.3%), whereas it was much grater in immunopotentiation therapy (82.6+-3.2%). These collocetively indicate that the immunopotentiation therapy by OK432 results in non-specific activation of macrophage which will be evaluated as an indicator of cancer immunotherapy and will be also effective for the combined cytoreductive immunotherapies. (author)

  2. Eficacia y efectos secundarios de 3 técnicas analgesicas en el control del dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia de rodilla Efficacy and side effects of three analgesic techniques for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty

    M. Illescas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El dolor postoperatorio en artroplastia total de rodilla, aún considerándose uno de los más severos, es un reto por resolver. Con nuestro estudio pretendemos analizar y comparar la eficacia analgésica, incidencia y severidad de efectos secundarios de una pauta epidural, otra consistente en bloqueo femoral y una pauta intravenosa con morfina. Material y métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se revisan 359 hojas de seguimiento de pacientes sometidos a artroplastia total de rodilla. Según la pauta analgésica que recibieron en el postoperatorio fueron asignados a tres grupos diferentes: a Grupo Femoral (n=56 a los que se realizó bloqueo femoral continuo con ropivacaina al 0,2 %. En todos los casos se asoció un bloqueo del nervio ciático mediante punción única medio-femoral con ropivacaina al 0,2%. b Grupo epidural (n=135 a los que se coloca catéter epidural lumbar mediante el cuál se administra bupivacaina al 0,07%+ fentanilo 2 µg/ml. c Grupo intravenoso (n=168 a los que se administra morfina intravenosa. En todas las pautas el modo de administración es mediante perfusión continua con PCA. Todos los pacientes recibieron como analgesia complementaria Paracetamol IV 1g/6h. Valoramos el grado de analgesia en reposo, náuseas y vómitos, bloqueo motor, sedación, prurito y necesidad de analgesia de rescate en las primeras 24 horas del postoperatorio. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a eficacia analgésica entre las 3 pautas analizadas. Igualmente, no encontramos diferencias significativas respecto a sedación ni naúseas y vómitos, siendo el bloqueo motor y el prurito superiores en los casos de bloqueo femoral y epidural respectivamente. Conclusiones: Aunque el perfil de efectos secundarios sea discretamente mayor en cuanto a prurito en el grupo epidural y bloqueo motor en el grupo femoral, no podemos afirmar la superioridad en cuanto a eficacia analgésica de ninguna estrategia con respecto a otra.Purpose: Despite the fact that it is expected and intense, postoperative pain after knee arthroplasty is still an unresolved challenge. In our study we intend to analyse and compare analgesic efficacy, incidence and severity of adverse effects resulting from three different techniques: a Epidural analgesia , bFemoral block, and c intravenous analgesia with mor-phine. Patients and Methods: An observational and retrospective study is presented, re-viewing data obtained from 359 patients who had a total knee arthroplasty: Patients were assigned to three different groups, according to the method of pain relief that was prescribed for each of them: a Femoral group (n=56.A continuous femoral block was performed using ropivacaine 0.2%. Sciatic block was associated on each patient (single injection at middle femoral point with ropivacaine 0.2%. b Epidural group (n=135.This figure includes patients in whom an epidural catheter was inserted and bupivacaine 0.07% plus fentanyl 2 mc./mi was administered through the catheter. c Intravenous group (n=168. Intravenous morphine was administered to this group of patients. Each analgesic plan included continuous perfusión of drugs via PCA devices, and paracetamol (lg iv every 6 hourly was prescribed as complementary analgesia in all the cases. Parameters to evalúate: analgesia obtained at rest, nausea and vomiting, motor blockade, sedation, pruritus and complementary analgesia given in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Results: Significative differences were not appreciated at the moment of evaluation of the analgesic efficieney of the three analgesic plans. Equally, sedation, nausea and vomiting had the same incidence in all groups. Motor blockade and pruritus appeared more frequently in the cases treated with femoral block and epidural catheter respectively. Conclusión: We can not assert that any of the analgesic strategies was superior to the others as to its analgesic effectiveness, although pruritus appeared in the epidural group and motor blockade did in the femoral group, as adverse effects in few cases.

  3. Efeitos cardiovasculares e analgésicos da administração epidural de ropivacaína isolada ou associada à morfina, em felinos / Cardiovascular and analgesic effects of epidural administration of ropivacaine alone or in combination with morphine in cats

    Doughlas, Regalin; Marina, Moresco; Vanessa Sasso, Padilha; Ronise, Tocheto; Nilson, Oleskovicz.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares e analgésicos de dois protocolos epidurais em felinos submetidos à OSH, 16 gatas mestiças, adultas, que, após indução à anestesia geral, receberam anestesia epidural (L7 - S1) com 0,26mL kg-1 de ropivacaína 0,75%, isolada (GR) ou associada a 0,1mg kg-1 mor [...] fina (GRM). A ETCO2, f, FC, PAS, T°R e relaxamento muscular foram avaliados no momento basal, 30 minutos após epidural, após incisão de pele, ligadura dos pedículos ovarianos e cérvix, final da celiorrafia e cirurgia, sendo administrado fentanil, caso ocorresse aumento de 20% na PAS, FC ou f em relação ao momento basal. Ao final do procedimento, foram avaliados, com auxílio de uma escala multidimensional de dor aguda em felinos, durante 12 horas, e, quando a pontuação fosse ?8, era realizado resgate analgésico com morfina 0,2mg kg-1. Não ocorreram diferenças entre ETCO2, f, T°C e relaxamento muscular. A PAS aumentou em ambos os grupos durante o pinçamento dos pedículos ovarianos e cérvix, quando 100% dos animais do GR e 87,5% do GRM necessitaram fentanil transoperatório. Em 100% dos animais do GR, houve necessidade de morfina pós-operatória às 2 e 4 horas de avaliação, comparados com 50% e 37,5% no GRM. Nos momentos seguintes aos resgates, o somatório de pontos foi semelhante entre grupos. Conclui-se que a administração epidural de ropivacaína associada à morfina em gatas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia reduz o requerimento analgésico pós-operatório em até 56,2%, durante as primeiras 4 horas, e promove analgesia adequada durante 12 horas, quando comparado à ropivacaína isolada Abstract in english Seeking to evaluate the cardiovascular and analgesic effects of two epidural protocols in cats undergoing OH, 16 female adult mixed-breed cats were induced to general anesthesia, and then epidural was achieved with 0,26mL kg-1 of isolated ropivacaine (GR) (0,75%) or associated with 0,1mg kg-1 morphi [...] ne (GRM). ETCO2, RR, HR, SAP, T° and muscular relaxation were evaluated in baseline, 30 minutes after epidural; after skin incision, ovarian pedicles and uterine cervix ligation; end of laparohraphy; and end of surgery. They received fentanyl if SAP, HR or f, rise in 20% of baseline. At the end of OH, a multidimensional pain scale for cats was used during 12 hours, and rescued with morphine 0,2mg kg-1, when the scale score was ?8 points. There were no differences in ETCO2, RR, T°C and muscular relaxation. SAP increased in both groups during the ovarian pedicle and cervix clamping. In 100% of the animals in GR and 87.5% of the GRM, it was necessary fentanyl during surgery. In 100% of GR animals was required analgesic rescue with morphine at 2 and 4 hours of postoperative evaluation, compared with 50% and 37,5% in GRM, where after the analgesic rescue, in the next hours, the sum of points was similar between groups. It was concluded that epidural administration of morphine and ropivacaine in cats submitted to OH, reduces post operatory analgesic requirements to 56,2% during the first four hours, and promote adequate analgesia for 12 hours in cats submitted to OH, when compared to ropivacaine alone

  4. Effects of Peripheral Visual Field Loss on Eye Movements During Visual Search

    Wiecek, Emily; Louis R Pasquale; Fiser, Jozsef; Dakin, Steven; Bex, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Natural vision involves sequential eye movements that bring the fovea to locations selected by peripheral vision. How peripheral visual field loss (PVFL) affects this process is not well understood. We examine how the location and extent of PVFL affects eye movement behavior in a naturalistic visual search task. Ten patients with PVFL and 13 normally sighted subjects with full visual fields (FVF) completed 30 visual searches monocularly. Subjects located a 4° × 4° target, pseudo-randomly sele...

  5. Protective effects of alpha lipoic-acid and n-acetyl cysteine against acrylamide-induced peripheric neuropathy

    Meral Yuksel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR is a vinyl monomer with a significantly high chemical reactivity. It is easily absorbed by all routes of administration and peripheral nervous system is a selective target for its toxicity. The early clinical symptoms to ACR results in degeneration of nerves causing distal axonopathy. ACR has been reported to cause disturbances in oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of alpha lipoic-acid (LA and n-acetyl cysteine (NAC against acrylamide-induced peripheric neuropathy in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study. ACR was given i.p. at a dose of 45mg/kg/day. LA group received additionally 35mg/kg/day LA, and NAC group received 150mg/kg/day NAC for 10 days. Controls were injected saline at the same dose. After the time rats were sacrified and sciatic nerves were removed. For free radical determination luminol (selective for hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid and lucigenin (selective for superoxide radical enhanced chemiluminescence (CL method was used. Additionally histopathological examination was also made. Our luminol enhanced CL results was in ACR group higher than control group (21,6±7,1rlu/mg tissue vs. 11,2±1,9rlu/mg tissue;p0.05. LA has a low reducing effect but was also not significantly. Histopathological examination has shown normal myelination in peripheric neurons. In ACR group myelin organization was damaged and the count of disturbed myelinated nerve fibers was increased with respect to the control group. NAC and LA groups has shown a moderate reducing effect against myelin damage. ACR toxicity increased oxidative stress in peripheric neurons, which results with myelin damage. NAC and LA can reduce this damage. In conclusion, LA and NAC has protective effects against ACR induced peripheric neuropathy.

  6. Analgesic activity of gold preparations used in Ayurveda & Unani-Tibb.

    Bajaj, S; Vohora, S B

    1998-09-01

    Calcined gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma (SB) and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) were investigated for analgesic effects in rats and mice using four types of noxious stimuli. Auranofin (AN) used in modern medicine was also studied for comparisons. The test drugs SB and KTK (25-50 mg/kg, p.o.) and AN (2.5-5.0 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited analgesic activity against chemical (acetic acid induced writhing), electrical (pododolorimeter), thermal (Eddy's hot plate and analgesiometer) and mechanical (tail clip) test. While the analgesic effects of SB and KTK could be partly blocked by pretreatment with naloxone (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.,--15 min), such antagonism was not discernible with AN at the doses used. Involvement of opioidergic mechanism is suggested for the observed analgesic activity. PMID:9798337

  7. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    Saurabh Bhatia; Kiran Sharma; Ajay Sharma; Kalpana Nagpal; Tanmoy Bers

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among th...

  8. Olfactory Transfer of Analgesic Drugs After Nasal Administration

    Espefält Westin, Ulrika

    2007-01-01

    Nasal administration of analgesics for achieving rapid pain relief is currently a topic of great interest. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts access to the central nervous system (CNS) for several central-acting drugs, such as morphine and dihydroergotamine, which results in a substantial effect delay. Evidence for the olfactory transfer of drugs from the nasal cavity to the CNS after nasal administration, bypassing the BBB, is available for both animals and humans. The aims of this thes...

  9. Epidural tramadol infiltration decreases postoperative analgesic consumption after lumbar microdiscectomy

    ŞAHİN, Yasemin; APAN, Alparslan; ÖZ, Gökşen; EVLİYAOĞLU, Çetin Ayhan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the postoperative analgesic effects of epidural tramadol infiltration. Tramadol is a weak opioid that has local anesthetic and antiinflammatory properties. Materials and methods: Sixty patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy with general anesthesia were included in the study. The induction of anesthesia was performed with propofol (2-2.5 mg kg-1, rocuronium bromide (0.5 mg kg-1), and fentanyl (1 µg kg-1). A sevoflurane ...

  10. The proliferative effects of asbestos-exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells on mesothelial cells

    MAKI, YUHO; NISHIMURA, YASUMITSU; TOYOOKA, SHINICHI; SOH, JUNICHI; TSUKUDA, KAZUNORI; SHIEN, KAZUHIKO; FURUKAWA, MASASHI; MURAOKA, TAKAYUKI; UENO, TSUYOSHI; TANAKA, NORIMITSU; YAMAMOTO, HIROMASA; ASANO, HIROAKI; MAEDA, MEGUMI; KUMAGAI-TAKEI, NAOKO; LEE, SUNI; MATSUZAKI, HIDENORI; OTSUKI, TAKEMI; MIYOSHI, SHINICHIRO

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is thought to arise from the direct effect of asbestos on mesothelial cells. However, MM takes a long time to develop following exposure to asbestos, which suggests that the effects of asbestos are complex. The present study examined the effects of asbestos exposure on the cell growth of MeT-5A human mesothelial cells via cytokines produced by immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and CD28 upon exposure to the asbestos chrysotile A (CA) or crocidolite (CR); the growth of MeT-5A cells in media supplemented with PBMC culture supernatants was subsequently examined. MeT-5A cells exhibited an increase in proliferation when grown in supernatant from the 7-day PBMC culture exposed to CA or CR. Analysis of cytokine production demonstrated increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-3, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-17A in supernatants. Individual administration of these cytokines, excluding G-CSF and GM-CSF, led to an increase in cell growth of MeT-5A, whereas this effect was not observed following the combined administration of these cytokines. The results indicate that cytokines secreted by immune cells upon exposure to asbestos cause an increase in the growth activity of mesothelial cells, suggesting that alterations in the production of cytokines by immune cells may contribute to tumorigenesis in individuals exposed to asbestos.

  11. Further studies on the effects of acamprosate on tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine and NO synthesis in the brain

    Jacqueline Sepúlveda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate whether acamprosate modifies the expression of the enzyme responsible for neuronal NO synthesis (nNOS in the nucleus accumbens (NAc of mice chronically treated with morphine and during the abstinence syndrome induced by naloxone. The enzyme was monitored by the NADPH diaphorase method. The number of cells stained for NADPH diaphorase in the NAc of mice was counted in 40 ?m thick coronal brain slices at 40X. The intensity of the histochemical reaction of stained cells from naive morphine plus saline and morphine plus acamprosate treated mice was analyzed by Image Pro Plus 4.5.1. Morphine administered in a slow release preparation increased the stain intensity of the positive neurons. The increase in the NADPH staining persisted after naloxone was given to mice chronically treated with morphine. Acamprosate antagonized the effects induced by chronic morphine treatment in the NAc of mice. These results indicate that up-regulation of nNOS in the NAc is a consequence of the sustained effects of morphine stimulation, which, in turn, may result from an increased in glutamate release during the abstinence syndrome.

  12. What is the most effective vestibular rehabilitation technique in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders?

    Rossi-Izquierdo, Marcos; Santos-Pérez, Sofia; Soto-Varela, Andrés

    2011-11-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation has been found to be effective and safe in patients with instability. There is insufficient evidence, however, for distinguishing between the efficacies of different rehabilitation techniques. The objective of this study is to verify whether there are differences between two instrumental vestibular rehabilitation techniques, computerised dynamic posturography (CDP) and optokinetic stimulation (OKN), in order to establish the optimal strategy for each patient. We conducted a prospective, comparative study of the two techniques (CDP and OKN) in patients with instability due to chronic unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder. We randomly included 12 patients in each group, performing the evaluation with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the CDP with the sensorial organisation test (SOT), rhythmic weight shift and limits of stability (LOS). We found a statistically significant improvement in both groups in average balance score according to the SOT. In the OKN group, however, improvement was greater in visual preference. The CDP group showed greater benefits in the visual and vestibular input and LOS. Patients with poor vestibular and visual input or with reduced LOS will benefit more from an exercise protocol with CDP. Patients with poor visual preference, however, are ideal candidates for rehabilitation with OKN. PMID:21340557

  13. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of dioxacarb by human peripheral blood lymphocytes CAs and Allium test.

    Eren, Yasin; Erdo?mu?, Sevim Feyza; Aky?l, Dilek; Özkara, Arzu; Konuk, Muhsin; Sa?lam, Esra

    2015-12-01

    Dioxacarb (Elecron, Famid) is a phenyl methylcarbamate insecticide and in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of this pesticide on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and Allium root meristematic cells were investigated by chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and Allium test. Human lymphocytes were treated with 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 ppm doses of dioxacarb for CAs. CA/cell, abnormal cell % and mitotic index % (MI %) data were obtained from these concentrations in 24 and 48 h treatment periods. Dioxacarb did not increase the CA/cell frequency significantly, so this insecticide was not identified as genotoxic. But it was found cytotoxic especially at 250 and 500 ppm concentrations because of the reduced the MI % and increased the abnormal cell %. In Allium test, 25 ppm (EC50/2), 50 ppm (EC50) and 100 ppm (EC50 × 2) concentrations were used for root growth inhibition (EC50 determination) and Allium mitotic index (MI) determination tests. The used concentrations of dioxacarb induced dose-dependent inhibition of MI and root growth on root meristems. Mitotic inhibition of dioxacarb was found significantly higher than for the positive control. These Allium results indicated the high cytotoxicity of dioxacarb. The present study is the first research on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of dioxacarb by human lymphocyte CAs and Allium test. PMID:24848210

  14. A novel SOD1-ALS mutation separates central and peripheral effects of mutant SOD1 toxicity.

    Joyce, Peter I; Mcgoldrick, Philip; Saccon, Rachele A; Weber, William; Fratta, Pietro; West, Steven J; Zhu, Ning; Carter, Sarah; Phatak, Vinaya; Stewart, Michelle; Simon, Michelle; Kumar, Saumya; Heise, Ines; Bros-Facer, Virginie; Dick, James; Corrochano, Silvia; Stanford, Macdonnell J; Luong, Tu Vinh; Nolan, Patrick M; Meyer, Timothy; Brandner, Sebastian; Bennett, David L H; Ozdinler, P Hande; Greensmith, Linda; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham

    2015-04-01

    Transgenic mouse models expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been critical in furthering our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, such models generally overexpress the mutant protein, which may give rise to phenotypes not directly relevant to the disorder. Here, we have analysed a novel mouse model that has a point mutation in the endogenous mouse Sod1 gene; this mutation is identical to a pathological change in human familial ALS (fALS) which results in a D83G change in SOD1 protein. Homozgous Sod1(D83G/D83G) mice develop progressive degeneration of lower (LMN) and upper motor neurons, likely due to the same unknown toxic gain of function as occurs in human fALS cases, but intriguingly LMN cell death appears to stop in early adulthood and the mice do not become paralyzed. The D83 residue coordinates zinc binding, and the D83G mutation results in loss of dismutase activity and SOD1 protein instability. As a result, Sod1(D83G/D83G) mice also phenocopy the distal axonopathy and hepatocellular carcinoma found in Sod1 null mice (Sod1(-/-)). These unique mice allow us to further our understanding of ALS by separating the central motor neuron body degeneration and the peripheral effects from a fALS mutation expressed at endogenous levels. PMID:25468678

  15. Varied effects of thoracic irradiation on peripheral lymphocyte subsets in lung cancer patients

    Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Makino, Shigeki; Fukuda, Yasuki; Min, Kyong-Yob; Ikemoto, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Akira; Ohsawa, Nakaaki [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    To investigate the influence of thoracic irradiation on immunological competence in patients with lung cancer, we examined the changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 15 patients before and after radiation therapy by two-color flow cytometry techniques. After radiation therapy, the percentage and the absolute number of CD4+CD45RA+ cells (naive T cells) and CD56+and/orCD16+ cells (NK cells) decreased. The percentage of CD4+ human leukocyte antigen-DR(HLA-DR)+ cells (activated CD4T cells) and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells (activated CD8T cells) increased, although the absolute number did not change significantly. Naive T cells may be more selectively damaged than memory T cells by thoracic irradiation, through their recirculation behavior. The reduction of natural killer (NK) cells is disadvantageous for anti-tumor immunity. The percentage of HLA-DR positive T lymphocytes was significantly increased, and thus the possibility of HLA-DR enhancement by irradiation cannot be excluded. Therefore, thoracic irradiation has numerous varied effects on the immunological system of lung cancer patients. (author).

  16. Varied effects of thoracic irradiation on peripheral lymphocyte subsets in lung cancer patients

    To investigate the influence of thoracic irradiation on immunological competence in patients with lung cancer, we examined the changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 15 patients before and after radiation therapy by two-color flow cytometry techniques. After radiation therapy, the percentage and the absolute number of CD4+CD45RA+ cells (naive T cells) and CD56+and/orCD16+ cells (NK cells) decreased. The percentage of CD4+ human leukocyte antigen-DR(HLA-DR)+ cells (activated CD4T cells) and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells (activated CD8T cells) increased, although the absolute number did not change significantly. Naive T cells may be more selectively damaged than memory T cells by thoracic irradiation, through their recirculation behavior. The reduction of natural killer (NK) cells is disadvantageous for anti-tumor immunity. The percentage of HLA-DR positive T lymphocytes was significantly increased, and thus the possibility of HLA-DR enhancement by irradiation cannot be excluded. Therefore, thoracic irradiation has numerous varied effects on the immunological system of lung cancer patients. (author)

  17. Effects of exogenous and endogenous IL-2 on irradiated human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated with 1 to 40 Gy of γ-ray, and then cultured with PHA to prepare supernatant containing IL-2 for observation of kinetics of endogenous IL-2 production and reversion of lymphocyte proliferation after adding a highly purified IL-2. IL-2 activity was determined by the ability to sustain IL-2 dependent cell line (CTLL), lymphocyte proliferation was determined by 3H-TdR incorporation and T lymphocyte subsets by monoclonal antibodies. The experimental results showed that lymphocytes exposed to 60Co synthesized less DNA than nonirradiated lymphocytes. The inhibitory effect can partially reversed by purified IL-2 at the γ-ray dose range of 1 to 10 Gy, while irradiation with 2.5 Gy resulted in a reduction of T cells and T subsets, and increase in CD+4/CD+8 ratio. The ratio of subsets recovered after adding IL-2. The kinetics of IL-2 production showed that the endogenous IL-2 production rose markedly with increasing dose of irradiation at the range of 1 to 10 Gy, and the peak of IL-2 production was at the γ-ray dose of 10 Gy

  18. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Balanites aegyptiaca in experimental animal models

    Gaur Kalpesh; Nema R; Kori M; Sharma C.; Singh Virendra

    2008-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca were evaluated in experimental animals. We have determined the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of dried aerial parts of Balanites aegyptiaca by oral administration at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. The extracts were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in ...

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous extract of Cussonia paniculata stem Bark

    Adedapo, Adeolu A; Sofidiya, Margaret O.; Viola Maphosa; Busani Moyo; Masika, Patrick J; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    The aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cussonia paniculata was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight reduced significantly, the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract showed a good analgesic effect characterized by reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. The extract caused dose-dependent decrease of lic...

  20. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin

    Yung-jia Chiu; Chia-Yu Liu; Tai-Hung Huang; Ying-Chih Lin; Jung-Chun Liao; Tsung-Chun Lu; Wen-Huang Peng

    2011-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin (PC) is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat not only common cold, nausea and diarrhea but also headache and fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of standardized PC methanol extract (PCMeOH) in vivo. Investigations were performed in mice with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid-induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested by ?-carrageen...

  1. ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STUDIES ON METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF JASMINUM TRICHOTOMUM LEAVES

    Vijayakumar Mannangatti; Venkata Naresh babu Achuta; Sidharath Panda; Eatakota Usha rani; Pakalapati Prasanthi

    2011-01-01

    The present study was planned to evaluate the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanolic extract of Jasminum trichotomum leaves in albino rats following oral administration. The results showed that the methanolic extract significantly reduce the acetic acid induce writhing in analgesic model. Its effects on antipyretic activity were also appreciable it significantly reduces fever at higher doses within 2 hrs on yeast induce hyperthermia in rats. Edema induced by car...

  2. [Less pain during puncture by a peripheral venous catheter; a bibliographical review on adults].

    Prat González, Irene; Fuentes i Pumarola, Concepció; Bertran Noguer, Carme; Ballester Ferrando, David; Juvinyà Canal, Dolors; Vila Vidal, Dalmau

    2010-06-01

    Canalizing veins is a habitual technique carried out by nurses. Inserting a catheter in a peripheral vein causes pain. The importance of fine quality in nursing treatment implicitly bears on a person's well-being. In daily practice, health professionals do not use any method to reduce pain when inserting a catheter. The authors observations led them to believe in the need to carry out a bibliographical review whose objective was to discover all the methods used to reduce pain caused by puncturing a peripheral vein. Six randomly assigned clinical tests and a meta-analysis evaluate the effectiveness of: The use of Valsalva, an analgesic cream which contains two local amino-amide anesthetics; lidocaine and prylocaine (EMLA) compared to another analgesic cream, Myolaxin; a meta-analysis of twenty studies evaluates the degree by which pain is diminished by one such method: an EMLA cream; an anti-inflammatory skin dressing (diclofenaco), a diclofenaco dressing versus an EMLA anesthetic dressing, 0.25 ml subcutaneous injection of 1% mepivaína, an amida type local anesthetic; and direct photography moments before puncture occurs to use the effects of a flash of light. All these methods studied proved effective in reducing pain. Creams and dressing prove to be unaggressive methods but require some time for application prior to puncture. Using a camera flash, subcutaneous injection of mepivacaine and the application of Valsalva can be effective alternatives to reduce pain when puncturing veins in patients who require emergency care. PMID:20672715

  3. A Novel Behavioral Fish Model of Nociception for Testing Analgesics

    E. Don Stevens

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a major symptom in many medical conditions, and often interferes significantly with a person’s quality of life. Although a priority topic in medical research for many years, there are still few analgesic drugs approved for clinical use. One reason is the lack of appropriate animal models that faithfully represent relevant hallmarks associated with human pain. Here we propose zebrafish (Danio rerio as a novel short-term behavioral model of nociception, and analyse its sensitivity and robustness. Firstly, we injected two different doses of acetic acid as the noxious stimulus. We studied individual locomotor responses of fish to a threshold level of nociception using two recording systems: a video tracking system and an electric biosensor (the MOBS system. We showed that an injection dose of 10% acetic acid resulted in a change in behavior that could be used to study nociception. Secondly, we validated our behavioral model by investigating the effect of the analgesic morphine. In time-course studies, first we looked at the dose-response relationship of morphine and then tested whether the effect of morphine could be modulated by naloxone, an opioid antagonist. Our results suggest that a change in behavioral responses of zebrafish to acetic acid is a reasonable model to test analgesics. The response scales with stimulus intensity, is attenuated by morphine, and the analgesic effect of morphine is blocked with naloxone. The change in behavior of zebrafish associated with the noxious stimulus can be monitored with an electric biosensor that measures changes in water impedance.

  4. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 μg /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  5. Masker phase effects in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners: evidence for peripheral compression at low signal frequencies

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    The presence of cochlear-based compression at low frequencies was investigated by measuring phase effects in harmonic maskers. In normal-hearing listeners, the amount of masking produced depends strongly on the phase relationships between the individual masker components. This effect is thought t...... measures are affected by a common underlying mechanism, presumably related to cochlear outer hair cell function. The results also suggest that normal peripheral compression remains strong even at 250 Hz....

  6. Analgesic effect and side effects of celecoxib and meloxicam in canine hip osteoarthritis / Efectos analgésicos y secundarios de celecoxib y meloxicam en osteoartritis de cadera canina

    Víctor, Molina D; David, Álzate V; Jhon, Ruíz B; Manuela, Urrea A; Juan, Tobón J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto farmacológico, clínico y toxicológico de celecoxib y meloxicam utilizados como analgésicos durante 30 días en caninos con osteoartritis de cadera. Materiales y métodos. Fueron evaluados 24 pacientes, 75% hembras, con edad de 7.16 ± 2.06 años, y el 25% machos; con edad de [...] 7.83 ± 2.22 años, todos tenían osteoartritis de cadera, se asignaron aleatoriamente a dos grupos; un grupo recibió celecoxib 5 mg/kg oral cada 12 horas durante 1 mes y el segundo grupo recibió 0.2 mg/kg de meloxicam, oral cada 24 horas durante 1 mes. Todos fueron evaluados por grado de analgesia y pruebas renales, hepáticas y de coagulación al día 0, 10 y 30. Se realizó una endoscopía gástrica al día 30. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el test HSD Tukey y c², con nivel significancia del 5%. Resultados. Ambos tratamientos redujeron el dolor articular durante los 30 días, según la escala Melbourne (p?0.05). Las variables hemáticas, renales, hepáticas y de coagulación estuvieron dentro de los valores normales sin diferencia. Todos presentaron gastritis crónica por endoscopia a los 30 días. Conclusiones. Ambos fármacos redujeron el dolor, ninguno tuvo efectos sobre la hematología, función renal, hepática y de coagulación a los 30 días; sin embargo, hubo gastritis crónica a los 30 días. Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate the pharmacological, clinical and toxicological effects of celecoxib and meloxicam for analgesia for 30 days in dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients were evaluated, 75% were females with an average age of 7.16 ± 2.06 years and twenty five p [...] ercent were males with an average age of 7.83 ± 2.22 years. All patients had hip osteoarthritis and they were randomized into two groups; one group received oral celecoxib 5 mg/kg every 12 hours during one month and the second group received oral meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg every 24 hours during 1 month. The patients were evaluated for analgesia, and hematological, renal, liver, and coagulation tests on days 0, 10th and 30th after treatment initiation, and a gastric endoscopy on day 30. Statistical analysis was performed using a HSD Tukey test and c² with a 5% level of statistical significance. Results. Both drugs reduced articular pain according to the Melbourne scale during the 30 days of treatment (p?0.05). Hematological, renal, hepatic and coagulation tests were normal in both treatment groups. All patients presented chronic gastritis on endoscopy on day 30th. Conclusions. Both drugs decreased pain at day 30th without causing alterations in hematological, renal, hepatic or coagulation tests after 30 days of treatment. However, both drugs induced chronic gastritis.

  7. Effects on the peripheral nervous system of workers' exposure to carbon disulfide

    Johnson, B.L.; Boyd, J.; Burg, J.R.; Lee, S.T.; Xintaras, C.; Albright, B.E.

    An evaluation of the effects of occupational exposure to carbon disulfide was performed in a sample of 156 male viscos rayon workers. Effects of CS/sub 2/ on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) were evaluated in ulnar and peroneal nerves using measurements of maximum motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and distal latency; and sensory conduction velocity (SCV) in the sural nerve. Self-reported symptoms related to PNS disorders were also obtained from each study participant. Industrial hygiene records showed the rayon workers to have had CS/sub 2/ exposures that generally had not exceeded 20 ppm. The overall mean number of years of CS/sub 2/ exposure was 12.1 years (+/- 6.9 S.D.). The workers were divided prior to the study into three groups according to historical mean CS/sub 2/ levels calculated for job titles and area. Personal CS/sub 2/ samples were obtained during the conduct of the study to characterize each job. For these three groups the median CS/sub 2/ levels were measured to be 1.0, 4.1 and 7.6 ppm. The comparison group's median CS/sub 2/ level approximated 0.2 ppm. Results showed CS/sub 2/-exposed workers to have small but statistically significant (p less than .05) reductions in sural SCV and peroneal MCV. Other neurophysiological measures consisting of distal latency, residual latency, and muscle or nerve action potential amplitudes showed no significant differences between study groups. A reduction in the ratio of amplitudes of muscle action potentials obtained from peroneal nerve stimulation was significant (p less than .05). Reductions in the peroneal nerve MCV were found to be related, in a dose response sense, to workers' cumulative exposure to CS/sub 2/. No increase attributable to CS/sub 2/ was found in the prevalence of symptoms related to PNS disorders.

  8. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype predicts toxic effects of lead on workers' peripheral nervous system.

    Zheng, Guang; Tian, Liting; Liang, Yihuai; Broberg, Karin; Lei, Lijian; Guo, Weijun; Nilsson, Johan; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Skerfving, Staffan; Jin, Taiyi

    2011-08-01

    There is a wide variation in sensitivity to lead (Pb) exposure, which may be due to genetic susceptibility towards Pb. We investigated whether a polymorphism (rs1800435) in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene affected the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Pb. Among 461 Chinese Pb-exposed storage battery and 175 unexposed workers, allele frequencies for the ALAD1 and ALAD2 alleles were 0.968 and 0.032, respectively. The Pb-exposed workers had a higher fraction of the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype than unexposed workers (7.8% vs. 2.3%, p=0.01). The Pb levels in blood (B-Pb) and urine (U-Pb) were higher in Pb-exposed workers carrying the ALAD2 allele compared to homozygotes for ALAD1 (median B-Pb: 606 vs. 499 μg/L; U-Pb: 233 vs. 164 μg/g creatinine), while there was no statistically significant difference in the unexposed controls (median: 24 vs. 37 μg/L, and 3.9 vs. 6.4μg/g creatinine, respectively). High B-Pb and U-Pb were associated with statistically significantly lower sensory and motor conduction velocities in the median, ulnar and peroneal nerves. At the same B-Pb and U-Pb, ALAD1 homozygotes had lower conduction velocities than the ALAD2 carriers. There were similar trends for toxic effects on haem synthesis (zinc protoporphyrin and haemoglobin in blood) and renal function (albumin and N-acetyl-d-β-acetylglucosaminidase in urine), but without statistical significance. There was no difference in Pb toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics associated with VDR BsmI polymorphism. Our results show that the ALAD genotype modifies the relationship between Pb and its toxic effects on the peripheral nervous system. This must be considered in the assessment of risks at Pb exposure. PMID:21439310

  9. Effects of traditional Chinese medicine Tenghuanglin on peripheral T and B lymphocyte subsets in microwave irradiated rats

    Qiong MA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ?To observe the effect of Tenghuanglin (THL on peripheral T and B lymphocyte subsets in microwave irradiated rats, and explore the protective effect of THL on injury to immunity induced by microwave irradiation and its mechanism. Methods ?Eighty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=20: normal control group (CON, radiation group (RAD, radiation + Anduolin (positive control drug treatment group (ADL, and radiation + THL treatment group (THL. Rats in ADL and THL groups received gavage of the individual drug once a day for 7 days, and then exposed to 30mW/cm2 microwave whole body for 15min. Rats in RAD group received same dose of microwave irradiation, and those in CON group received sham irradiation. The animals were sacrificed on 7th and 14th day after irradiation, and the changes in peripheral blood smear was observed, and CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets, and CD45RA+ B lymphocyte subset were determined. Results ?Fourteen days after irradiation, peripheral red blood cells in RAD group was obviously lower than those in CON, ADL and THL groups, and there was no statistically significant difference of red cell count between CON, ADL and THL groups. Seven days after irradiation, peripheral CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in RAD group were lower in number than those in CON group, and they did not return to normal level up to 14th day. The peripheral CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in THL and ADL groups were obviously higher than those in RAD group, and peripheral CD3+, CD4+ T cells were still higher than those in RAD group 14d after irradiation, while the peripheral CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in THL and ADL groups were similar both at 7th and 14th day. Seven days after irradiation, the CD4/CD8 ratio was lower in RAD group than that in CON and THL groups (P<0.05, while the ratio in CON, ADL and THL groups was similar. The CD4/CD8 ratio in 4 groups was similar on 14th day after irradiation. Peripheral CD45RA+ B lymphocytes were lower in number in RAD group than in CON group on 7th and 14th days (P<0.05, while they were higher in ADL group on 7th day and in THL group on 7th and 14th days than in RAD group (P<0.05, but they were similar to CON group. Conclusions ?Peripheral T and B lymphocytes reduce in number, and CD4/CD8 ratio lowers early after the microwave irradiation, resulting in immunosuppression and immune imbalance in rats. Traditional Chinese medicine THL could increase the peripheral T and B lymphocyte counts and improve the CD4/CD8 ratio after microwave irradiation in rats. The present study provides a new basis for the research on drugs for preventing and treating micro-wave irradiation injury. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.13

  10. Peripheral Dose Heterogeneity Due to the Thread Effect in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy

    Purpose: To report potential dose heterogeneity leading to underdosing at different skeletal sites in total marrow irradiation (TMI) with helical tomotherapy due to the thread effect and provide possible solutions to reduce this effect. Methods and Materials: Nine cases were divided into 2 groups based on patient size, defined as maximum left-to-right arm distance (mLRD): small mLRD (≤47 cm) and large mLRD (>47 cm). TMI treatment planning was conducted by varying the pitch and modulation factor while a jaw size (5 cm) was kept fixed. Ripple amplitude, defined as the peak-to-trough dose relative to the average dose due to the thread effect, and the dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters for 9 cases with various mLRD was analyzed in different skeletal regions at off-axis (eg, bones of the arm or femur), at the central axis (eg, vertebrae), and planning target volume (PTV), defined as the entire skeleton plus 1-cm margin. Results: Average ripple amplitude for a pitch of 0.430, known as one of the magic pitches that reduce thread effect, was 9.2% at 20 cm off-axis. No significant differences in DVH parameters of PTV, vertebrae, or femur were observed between small and large mLRD groups for a pitch of ≤0.287. Conversely, in the bones of the arm, average differences in the volume receiving 95% and 107% dose (V95 and V107, respectively) between large and small mLRD groups were 4.2% (P=.016) and 16% (P=.016), respectively. Strong correlations were found between mLRD and ripple amplitude (rs=.965), mLRD and V95 (rs=−.742), and mLRD and V107 (rs=.870) of bones of the arm. Conclusions: Thread effect significantly influences DVH parameters in the bones of the arm for large mLRD patients. By implementing a favorable pitch value and adjusting arm position, peripheral dose heterogeneity could be reduced

  11. Peripheral Dose Heterogeneity Due to the Thread Effect in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy

    Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Verneris, Michael R. [Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Dusenbery, Kathryn E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Wilke, Christopher T. [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Storme, Guy; Weisdorf, Daniel J. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Hui, Susanta K., E-mail: huixx019@umn.edu [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To report potential dose heterogeneity leading to underdosing at different skeletal sites in total marrow irradiation (TMI) with helical tomotherapy due to the thread effect and provide possible solutions to reduce this effect. Methods and Materials: Nine cases were divided into 2 groups based on patient size, defined as maximum left-to-right arm distance (mLRD): small mLRD (?47 cm) and large mLRD (>47 cm). TMI treatment planning was conducted by varying the pitch and modulation factor while a jaw size (5 cm) was kept fixed. Ripple amplitude, defined as the peak-to-trough dose relative to the average dose due to the thread effect, and the dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters for 9 cases with various mLRD was analyzed in different skeletal regions at off-axis (eg, bones of the arm or femur), at the central axis (eg, vertebrae), and planning target volume (PTV), defined as the entire skeleton plus 1-cm margin. Results: Average ripple amplitude for a pitch of 0.430, known as one of the magic pitches that reduce thread effect, was 9.2% at 20 cm off-axis. No significant differences in DVH parameters of PTV, vertebrae, or femur were observed between small and large mLRD groups for a pitch of ?0.287. Conversely, in the bones of the arm, average differences in the volume receiving 95% and 107% dose (V95 and V107, respectively) between large and small mLRD groups were 4.2% (P=.016) and 16% (P=.016), respectively. Strong correlations were found between mLRD and ripple amplitude (rs=.965), mLRD and V95 (rs=?.742), and mLRD and V107 (rs=.870) of bones of the arm. Conclusions: Thread effect significantly influences DVH parameters in the bones of the arm for large mLRD patients. By implementing a favorable pitch value and adjusting arm position, peripheral dose heterogeneity could be reduced.

  12. Potential Analgesic & Anti-Pyretic Herbal drugs: A Comparative Review of Marketed Products

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Analgesic from the family of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have probably been used for more than 2000 years. In the 1900 ASA become an established treatment for pain and migraine. The detection of the main mechanism of the clinical effect of ASAs in John R.Vane’s group in 1972(who received the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1982 for his discovery of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition gave a new and persistent drive to the development of other chemically different NSAID. The currently available analgesic and antipyretic drugs in allopathic system of medicine are not so effective in combating wide variety of complications. The remedial measure may lie in the ayurvedic system of medicine. The various herbal drugs such as Acacia nilotica, Bauhinia racemosa Linn. Cleome viscose, Hippobromus panciflorus etc known for their potential analgesic and antipyretic activity shall be discussed. The various branded herbal formulations like Rumalaya, Charak, Rumartho, Arthrella, and Reosto etc available in the market as analgesic and antipyretic remedies are also discussed along with their clinical merits. It may be concluded that since ayurvedic formulations contain number of ingredients in which one ingredient may act to enhance the action of other ingredient. Also as a result of so many ingredients present in the particular ayurvedic formulation it helps in combating other diseases in addition to analgesic and antipyretic activity.

    Keywords: Analgesic, Ayurvedic system, Herbal drugs, Antipyretic.

  13. Comparación de la Eficacia Analgésica de Codeína más paracetamol vs Tramadol en el Tratamiento del Dolor por Cáncer Comparison of the analgesic effectiveness of codeine plus paracetamol vs Tramadol in the Treatment of Cáncer Pain

    R. F. Rodríguez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El dolor es el síntoma más importante en 70% de pacientes que padecen cáncer avanzado. La terapia con analgésicos utilizada en forma adecuada, controla el dolor en 80-90% de los pacientes. Objetivos. Comparar la eficacia analgésica y seguridad de la codeína más acetaminofén (CA y Clorhidrato de Tramadol (T en el alivio del dolor por cáncer. Método. Se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado doble ciego, en pacientes con dolor por cáncer de intensidad moderada o severa. En forma aleatoria se asignó un grupo de pacientes para ser tratados con la combinación de Codeína más paracetamol, mientras que el otro grupo recibió Clorhidrato de Tramadol por un periodo de tres semanas. La intensidad del dolor fue medida con una escala numérica de cero a diez, considerándose como dolor de intensidad moderada el marcado en la escala entre 5-7 y de intensidad severa de 8-10. El tratamiento analgésico se consideró eficaz cuando el dolor desapareció o disminuyó a una intensidad leve, comprendida entre 1-4. Resultados. Se incluyeron 115 pacientes: 59 recibieron CA y 56 recibieron T. En el grupo de pacientes que recibió CA 58% aliviaron con una dosis inicial de codeína de 150 mg/día y 8% con la dosis doblada; 34% no aliviaron. En el grupo de pacientes tratado con T el dolor alivió en 62% de los pacientes con la dosis inicial de 200mg/día y 11% con la dosis doblada, mientras que 27% no experimentó alivio. Las diferencias entre los dos grupos no fueron significativas en cuanto a su eficacia analgésica. El grupo que recibió Tramadol presentó en forma significativa, mayor incidencia de efectos colaterales de intensidad leve: náusea (p: 0.05, RR: 0.62; IC95%: 0.38-1.01, mareo (p: 0.04; RR: 0.58; IC95%: 0.33-1.01 y pérdida de apetito (p: 0.001; RR: 0.08; IC95%: 0.01-0.59. Conclusión. No existen diferencias en cuanto a la eficacia analgésica de CA y T en el tratamiento del dolor por cáncer. Con el uso de T se presentó una mayor incidencia de efectos colaterales de intensidad leve.Pain is the principal symptom in 70% of patients with severe cáncer. Analgesics therapy with a proper management controls pain in 80-90% of patients. Objective. Compare the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of codeine plus acetaminophen (CA and tramadol clorhydrate (T in the relief of cáncer pain. Method. A double blind, randomize controlled clinical trial was perform in patients with modérate to severe pain intensity. Randomly patients were assigned in a group for receiving codeine plus acetaminophen and in other group for receiving tramadol chlorhydrate for a three weeks period. Pain intensity was measure using a numeric scale from zero to ten in which modérate pain goes from 5-7, and severe pain goes from 8-10. Analgesic treatment was considered to be effective when pain disappear or become mild, 1-4 in the numeric scale. Results. One hundred fifteen patients participated, 59 receive CA and 56 T. In the group of patients that receive CA, 58% achieved pain relief with the initial dose of 150 mg/d and 8% responded to the double dose; 34% didn't experience pain relief. In the group patients treated with T pain relief occurred in 62% of patients with the initial dose of 200mg/d and 11% with the double dose; 27% didn't experienced pain relief. Differences between both groups were not significant in the analgesic efficacy. The tramadol group experienced in a significant way a higher incidence of adverse events of mild intensity: nausea (p: 0.05, RR: 0.62; IC95%: 0.38-1.01, dizziness (p: 0.04; RR: 0.58; IC95%: 0.33-1.01 and lost of appetite (p: 0.001; RR: 0.08; IC95%: 0.01-0.59. Conclusion. Efficacy of C and T during a treatment of 23 days was similar, no statistical differences were found. There were no differences in the analgesic effectiveness between CA and T in the management of cáncer pain. With the use of T a higher incidence of adverse events of mild intensity were reported.

  14. Effects of Lithium on Peripheral Neuropathy Induced by Vincristine in Rats

    Mohammad Sharifzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vincristine (VCR as a frequently used antimitotic agent which is commonly prescribed for wide spectrum of neoplasm, causes mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. Several evidences show lithium could be a neuroprotective agent, therefore to assess whether a pretreatment and at subtherapeutic dose it could prevent the peripheral neuropathy produced by VCR, rats were treated with VCR 0.1mg/kg i.p. for 3 alternative doses and / or lithium chloride (20mg/kg or 40 mg/kg i.p. daily from the first day to the day of sacrifice. Erythrocyte lithium concentration (ELC and plasma lithium concentration (PLC were measured at the seventh day of study and the day of scarification. After seventh day of lithium administration, PLC and ELC reached to a steady state at subtheraputic dose and they did not significantly change at normal housing situation. Hot plate, open field test and nerve conduction velocity were used to evaluate the sensory and motor neuropathy. Only VCR treated rats showed behavioral, electrophysiological and histological evidences of a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy by significant increase in hot plate latencies and a marked decrease in total distance moved and conduction velocities in both sensory and motor nerves. Lithium at the dose of 20mg/kg and specially 40mg/kg robustly reduced the rate of mortality, general toxicity and was able to ameliorate mixed sensorimotor neuropathy induced by VCR. These results suggest that lithium at dose of 20mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, potentially by its effects on cell survival pathways such as inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3?, can prevent both motor and sensory components of VCR neuropathy.

  15. Cardiovascular training effect associated with polestriding exercise in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Collins, Eileen G; Langbein, W Edwin; Orebaugh, Cynthia; Bammert, Christine; Hanson, Karla; Reda, Domenic; Edwards, Lonnie C; Littooy, Fred N

    2005-01-01

    Because individuals with claudication pain secondary to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are limited in both walking speed and duration, the benefits of walking exercise may be insufficient to yield a cardiovascular training effect. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether polestriding exercise training, performed by persons with PAD, would improve exercise endurance, elicit a cardiovascular training benefit, and improve quality of life (QoL). Persons (n = 49) whose claudication pain limited their exercise capacity were randomized into a 24-week polestriding training program (n = 25, 65.8 +/- 7.1 years of age) or a nonexercise attention control group (n = 24, 68.0 +/- 8.6 years of age). Those assigned to the polestriding group trained 3 times weekly. Control group subjects came to the laboratory biweekly for ankle blood pressure measurements. A symptom-limited ramp treadmill test, ratings of perceived leg pain, and QoL data (using the Short Form-36) were obtained at baseline and upon completion of training. After 24 weeks of polestriding training, subjects increased their exercise endurance from 10.3 +/- 4.1 minute to 15.1 +/- 4.5 minute. This was significantly greater than control group subjects whose exercise endurance declined (from 11.2 +/- 4.7 to 10.3 +/- 4.7 minute; P < .001). Relationships between systolic blood pressure (P < .001), heart rate (P = .04), rate pressure product (P = .05), oxygen uptake (P = .016), and perceived leg pain (P = .02) and exercise time improved from the baseline symptom-limited treadmill test to the 6-month symptom-limited treadmill test in the polestriding group compared to the control group. The improvement in the physical component summary score of the Short Form-36 was also greater in the polestriding group (P = .031). Polestriding training significantly improved the clinical indicators of cardiovascular fitness and QoL, and decreased symptoms of claudication pain during exertion. PMID:15870588

  16. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrus aurantium L. blossoms essential oil (neroli): involvement of the nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate pathway.

    Khodabakhsh, Pariya; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Asgarpanah, Jinous

    2015-07-01

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus aurantium L. blossoms essential oil (neroli) were investigated in mice and rats. The analgesic activity of neroli was assessed by acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot plate methods, while acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effects were investigated by inflammatory paw edema in rat and the cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue model, respectively. Mechanistic studies were conducted using L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Neroli significantly decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhes in mice compared to animals that received vehicle only. Also, it exhibited a central analgesic effect, as evidenced by a significant increase in reaction time in the hot plate method. The oil also significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The inhibitory activity of neroli (especially at 40 mg/kg) was found to be very close to the standard drug, diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg). In cotton pellet-induced granuloma, neroli was effective regarding the transudate and granuloma formation amount. Neroli was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and twenty-three constituents, representing 91.0 % of the oil, were identified. The major components of neroli were characterized as linalool (28.5 %), linalyl acetate (19.6 %), nerolidol (9.1 %), E,E-farnesol (9.1 %), α-terpineol (4.9 %), and limonene (4.6 %), which might be responsible for these observed activities. The results suggest that neroli possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have significant activity against acute and especially chronic inflammation, and have central and peripheral antinociceptive effects which support the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammation. PMID:25762161

  17. Effects of Blood Transportation on Human Peripheral Mononuclear Cell Yield, Phenotype and Function: Implications for Immune Cell Biobanking

    Posevitz-Fejfár, Anita; Posevitz, Vilmos; Gross, Catharina C; Bhatia, Urvashi; Kurth, Frank; Schütte, Verena; Bar-Or, Amit; Meuth, Sven G.; WIENDL, HEINZ

    2014-01-01

    Human biospecimen collection, processing and preservation are rapidly emerging subjects providing essential support to clinical as well as basic researchers. Unlike collection of other biospecimens (e.g. DNA and serum), biobanking of viable immune cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and/or isolated immune cell subsets is still in its infancy. While certain aspects of processing and freezing conditions have been studied in the past years, little is known about the effect o...

  18. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed In Vitro to Neonicotinoid Insecticides News

    Patricia Méndez-Pérez; Enrique Bañuelos-Ruíz; María Isabel Rodríguez-Romero; Diana Flores-Ramírez; Rocío García-Martínez; Josefina Cortés-Eslava; María del Carmen Calderón-Ezquerro; Yolanda Carbajal-López; Carmen Martínez-Valenzuela; Sandra Gómez-Arroyo; Rafael Villalobos-Pietrini; María Elena Calderón-Segura

    2012-01-01

    Calypso (thiacloprid), Poncho (clothianidin), Gaucho (imidacloprid), and Jade (imidacloprid) are commercial neonicotinoid insecticides, a new class of agrochemicals in México. However, genotoxic and cytotoxic studies have not been performed. In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of the four insecticides. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated using the alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DN...

  19. Computerized Dynamic Posturography in Patients with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and Visual Feedback-Based Balance Training Effects

    Mohieldin M. Ahmed; Douaa M. Mosalem; Wafaa A. Tarshouby; Aziz K. Alfeeli; Ayyoub B. Baqer; Mohamed, Mohamed H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) often has reduced stability during standing conditions. AIM: To compare balance control in diabetic patients and normal subjects using computerized dynamic posturography and to assess effect of visual feedback-based balance training in DPN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 57 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 age-matched normal control subjects were recruited. The sensory organization test was done before and after the traini...

  20. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

    2006-07-19

    In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method. PMID:16647234

  1. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC POTENTIAL OF KIGELIA PINNATA LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR RATS

    Parmar Namita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the analgesic activity of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata on wistar rats. Analgesic activity of the leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata at a dose of 200 mg/kg & 400 mg/kg was evaluated against the standard drug pentazocine at a dose of 10mg/kg. Wistar rats of either sex of five numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated by hot plate and tail flick method. The both doses of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata was found to produce significant (p < 0.001 analgesic activity. In hot plate method, the analgesia began at 60 min, remained for 120 min and the peak effect was noted at 90 min in comparison to control but in tail flick method, the extract at 200mg/kg showed significant analgesic activity (P<0.001 after 60 minutes and remained for 90 min. The results showed significant analgesic activity. The leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata have potential analgesic activity against stimuli in the tested animals. So, it can be recommened for further studies.

  2. Effects of endothelin receptor antagonism with bosentan on peripheral nerve function in experimental diabetes.

    Stevens, E J; Tomlinson, D R

    1995-05-01

    1. The effects of the non-selective endothelin (ET) receptor (ETA/ETB) antagonist, bosentan, on sciatic nerve dysfunction in experimental diabetes were investigated. 2. Rats with 5-6 weeks untreated streptozotocin-diabetes exhibited characteristic slowed motor nerve conduction velocity (mean +/- s.d., 36.6 +/- 3.4 m s-1) and nerve laser Doppler flux (197 +/- 64 arbitrary units) compared to age-matched control animals (42.7 +/- 2.4 m s-1 and 398 +/- 77 arbitrary units, respectively). Preventative treatment of diabetic rats with bosentan at 100 mg kg-1 day-1 p.o. attenuated both these deficits (39.7 +/- 3.0 m s-1 and 305 +/- 56 arbitrary units, respectively) without affecting mean arterial pressure. 3. In control and untreated diabetic rats, ET-1, 1 nmol kg-1 i.v., caused an initial hypotension (duration, 30 +/- 13 and 26 +/- 9 s, respectively; change in mean arterial pressure, -27 +/- 13 and -25 +/- 7 mmHg, respectively) followed by prolonged hypertension (change in mean arterial pressure, 52 +/- 18 and 31 +/- 5 mmHg, respectively). Effectiveness of the chronic bosentan treatment was demonstrated by inhibition of the hypotensive response to ET-1 in treated diabetic rats (duration, 5 +/- 2 s; change in mean arterial pressure, -4 +/- 2 mmHg) although the hypertension was unaltered (change in mean arterial pressure, 32 +/- 9 mmHg). 4. Acute i.v. administration of 10 mg kg-1 bosentan caused variable and transient rises in nerve laser Doppler flux in control (78 +/- 63 arbitrary units) and untreated diabetic rats (93 +/- 77 arbitrary units). Acute bosentan blocked the hypotensive response to subsequent ET-1 administration and attenuated the later hypertension (change in mean arterial pressure, 21 +/-9 mmHg in control, 29 +/- 10 mmHg in diabetic).5. Our results indicate that oral treatment of diabetic rats with an ET receptor antagonist can improves ciatic nerve perfusion and conduction, suggesting that the vasoconstrictor action of endogenous ET may contribute to peripheral nerve dysfunction in experimental diabetes. PMID:7670740

  3. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is concerned with the health risks to astronauts, particularly those risks related to radiation exposure. Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of (A) peripheral leukocyte distribution; (B) plasma cytokine levels; (C) cytokine production profiles following whole blood stimulation of either T cells or monocytes.

  4. INTRARTICULAR ANALGESICS FOLLOWING SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY: COMPARISON OF ROPIVACAINE/DEXAMETHASONE WITH ROPIVACAINE

    Ranajit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Shoulder arthroscopy is a common orthopedics procedure performed on day - case basis. Adequate pain relief reduces surgical stress response, patient’s morbidity and improves postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. Various drugs have been tried intra - articularly t o provide postoperative analgesia. PURPOSE: We studied analgesic effect of dexamethasone 16mg (4ml with ropivacaine and compared it with ropivacaine intra - articularly in shoulder arthroscopic procedures in search of the ideal analgesic combination. METHODS: A Prospective Multicenter Double Blind study on 60 patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery from July’13 - April’14. Patients were assigned into 3 groups randomly - Group I (20 ml normal saline,Group II (20 ml 0.2% ropivacaine and Group III (16 ml 0.2% of ropivacaine & dexamethasone - 4 ml containing 16 mg. VARIABLES ASSESSED: Analgesic effect (VAS Score, time to first postoperative analgesic request, Analgesic used during first 24 hours. RESULTS: Group III had significant low pain scores for 1 st 20 hours as compared to Group II and Group I. Time to first analgesic requirement was longest in Group III (1356.2±193.10mins (p<0.01. Intensity of pain &Total analgesic requirement was significantly less in Group III (38.2±27.83 mg(p<0.01 in comparison to Group II and I. No significant side - effects were noted. CONCLUSION: A16 mg (4ml dosage of Dexamethasone is safe, cost effective and free from relative side effects, has a better patient compliance in terms of post - operative pain, need for analgesia and should be used routinely in arthroscopic shoulder surgeries. Helps in the recovery of patients to the pre - operative level.

  5. Comparative effects of inhaled relatively insoluble forms of 90Y, 144Ce, and 90Sr on canine peripheral lymphocyte function

    Dogs that have inhaled relatively insoluble forms of either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides manifest a peripheral lymphopenia, the development and course of which depends on both total dose and dose rate. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes in dogs exposed to longer lived beta-emitting radionuclides showed a depressed function as measured by the ability to respond to plant mitogens in vitro. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of dose rate on peripheral lymphocyte function by exposing dogs to aerosols of radionuclides with varied effective half-lives in the lung: 90Y (2.6 days), 144Ce (170 days), and 90Sr (650 days). Three groups of four adult beagle dogs each were exposed by inhalation to 90Y, 144Ce, or 90Sr in fused-clay particles. Two controls were matched with each group. Initial lung burdens and initial dose rates to the lung were 520 to 610 μCi/kg of body weight and 2200 to 2600 rads/day in the 90Y group, 33 to 60 μCi/kg and 200 to 350 rads/day in the 144Ce group, and 25 to 32 μCi/kg and 130 to 170 rads/day in the 90Sr group. Hematologic parameters and lymphocyte function as measured by the ability of lymphocytes to respond to plant mitogen stimulation were evaluated on a weekly or biweekly basis for 8 weeks after exposure and on a monthly basis thereafter. The 90Y-exposed dogs showed a marked lymphopenia within 1 week with a return to control levels by 20 weeks after exposure. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes, however, showed no functional changes in these dogs. Animals exposed to 144Ce or 90Sr developed a progressive and persisent lymphopenia and showed functional depression of the remaining lymphocytes as well. The relationships among dose pattern, lymphopenia, and lymphocyte-function depression are discussed

  6. Efeito analgésico de antagonistas do receptor da histamina H1 em modelo de dor provocada por formalina em ratos Efecto analgésico de antagonistas del receptor de la histamina H1 en un modelo de dolor provocado por formalina en ratones Analgesic effects of H1 receptor antagonists in the rat model of formalin-induced pain

    Hazem Adel Ashmawi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os receptores de histamina mediam vias nociceptivas principalmente no sistema nervoso central. Alguns estudos mostraram efeito analgésico de antagonistas de receptor de histamina no sistema nervoso periférico. Não está claro se o efeito analgésico local é classe específico ou droga específico. MÉTODO: Para responder a essa questão, utilizamos três diferentes antagonistas do receptor H1 (pirilamina, prometazina e cetirizina administrados diretamente na pata do rato, pela via intraperitoneal ou por bloqueio de nervo periférico em modelo de dor induzida por formalina. Observamos o efeito das drogas no comportamento do número de elevações da pata. RESULTADOS: Na fase I, a pirilamina local diminuiu o número de elevações da pata de forma dose-dependente. Na dose mais alta, a diminuição foi de 97,8%. Para a prometazina, a diminuição foi de 92% e para cetizirina, 23,9%. Na fase II, a pirilamina diminuiu o número de elevações da pata em 93,5%, a prometazina em 78,2% e a cetirizina em 80,1%. A administração dos fármacos por via intraperitoneal não alterou o comportamento doloroso. Quando utilizadas para bloqueio de nervo periférico, na fase I, a pirilamina diminuiu o número de elevações da pata em 96,7%, a prometazina em 73,3% e a cetirizina em 23,9%. Na fase II, a pirilamina levou à diminuição de 86,6%, a prometazina de 64,4% e a cetirizina de 19,9%. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostraram que os antagonistas de receptor da histamina H1 apresentam efeitos analgésicos locais, diferentes do efeito sistêmico, sendo um deles anti-inflamatório e classe específico e o outro específico para prometazina e pirilamina, semelhante a efeito clínico anestésico local.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los receptores de histamina intermedian las vías nociceptivas, principalmente en el sistema nervioso central. Algunos estudios arrojaron un efecto analgésico de antagonistas de receptor de histamina en el sistema nervioso periférico. No queda claro si el efecto analgésico local es de clase específico o un fármaco específico. MÉTODO: Para responder a esa pregunta, utilizamos tres diferentes antagonistas del receptor H1 (pirilamina, prometazina y cetirizina, administrados directamente en la pata del ratón, por vía intraperitoneal o por bloqueo de nervio periférico en modelo de dolor inducido por formalina. Observamos el efecto de los fármacos en el comportamiento del número de elevaciones de la pata. RESULTADOS: En la fase I, la pirilamina local redujo el número de elevaciones de la pata de forma dosis dependiente. En la dosis más alta, la reducción fue de un 97,8%. Para la prometazina, la disminución fue de un 92% y para la cetizirina de 23.9%. En la fase II, la pirilamina redujo el número de elevaciones de la pata en un 93,5%, la prometazina, un 78,2% y la cetirizina un 80,1%. La administración de los fármacos por vía intraperitoneal no alteró el comportamiento doloroso. Cuando se usaron para bloqueo del nervio periférico en la fase I, la pirilamina redujo el número de elevaciones de la pata en un 96,7%, la prometazina en un 73,3% y la cetirizina en un 23,9%. En la fase II, la pirilamina redujo un 86,6%, la prometazina un 64,4% y la cetirizina un 19,9%. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados mostraron que los antagonistas del receptor de la histamina H1 presentaron efectos analgésicos locales, diferentes del efecto sistémico, siendo uno de ellos antiinflamatorio y clase específico, y el otro específico para la prometazina y la pirilamina, parecido con el efecto clínico anestésico local.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Histamine receptors mediate nociceptive pathways, especially in the central nervous system. Some studies have demonstrated the analgesic effects of histamine receptor antagonists in the peripheral nervous system. It is not clear whether the local analgesic effect is class-specific or drug-specific. METHODS: To answer this question, we used three different H1 receptor antagonists (pyrilamine, promethazine, and cetirizine administered directly in the paw of the rat, intraperitoneally, or in peripheral nerve blockade in the formalin-induced pain model. The effects of the drugs on the number of paw elevations were observed. RESULTS: In phase I, the local administration of pyrilamine caused a dose-dependent reduction on the number of paw elevations; in the highest dose, the number of paw elevations was reduced by 97.8%. Promethazine decreased it by 92%, while cetirizine decreased by 23.9%. In phase II, pyrilamine decreased the number of paw elevations by 93.5%, promethazine by 78.2%, and cetirizine by 80.1%. Intraperitoneal administration of drugs did not change painful behavior. When used in peripheral nerve block, in phase I pyrilamine reduced the number of paw elevations by 96.7%, promethazine by 73.3%, and cetirizine by 23.9%. In phase II, pyrilamine reduced the number of paw elevations by 86.6%, promethazine by 64.4%, and cetirizine by 19.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that H1 receptor antagonists have local analgesic effects, different from the systemic effects, one of them an anti-inflammatory and class-specific effect and the other similarly to the local anesthetic effect, specific for promethazine and pyrilamine

  7. Management of cancer pain: 1. Wider implications of orthodox analgesics

    Lee SK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Susannah K Lee,1 Jill Dawson,2 Jack A Lee,3 Gizem Osman,4 Maria O Levitin,5 Refika Mine Guzel,5 Mustafa BA Djamgoz5,61Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA; 2Healthcare Communications Consultancy, Danville, CA, USA; 3College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; 5Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Neuroscience Solutions to Cancer Research Group, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK; 6Cyprus International University, Biotechnology Research Centre, Haspolat, North Cyprus, Mersin, TurkeyAbstract: In this review, the first of two parts, we first provide an overview of the orthodox analgesics used commonly against cancer pain. Then, we examine in more detail the emerging evidence for the potential impact of analgesic use on cancer risk and disease progression. Increasing findings suggest that long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly aspirin, may reduce cancer occurrence. However, acetaminophen may raise the risk of some hematological malignancies. Drugs acting upon receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and GABA “mimetics” (eg, gabapentin appear generally safe for cancer patients, but there is some evidence of potential carcinogenicity. Some barbiturates appear to slightly raise cancer risks and can affect cancer cell behavior in vitro. For cannabis, studies suggest an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, larynx, and possibly lung. Morphine may stimulate human microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis; it is not clear whether this might cause harm or produce benefit. The opioid, fentanyl, may promote growth in some tumor cell lines. Opium itself is an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and possibly cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung. It is concluded that analgesics currently prescribed for cancer pain can significantly affect the cancer process itself. More futuristically, several ion channels are being targeted with novel analgesics, but many of these are also involved in primary and/or secondary tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to elucidate possible cellular and molecular effects of orthodox analgesics and their possible long-term impact, both positive and negative, and thus enable the best possible clinical gain for cancer patients.Keywords: NSAIDs, cannabinoids, opioids, GABA-ergic drugs, GABA mimetics, ion channels

  8. Reassessment of human peripheral T-lymphocyte lifespan deduced from cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects of radiation

    Estimates of the mean lifetime of human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBTL) have ranged from 1.5 to 10 year. To derive an improved estimate, kinetic and dose parameters of four deterministic, two-compartment models of loss and replacement of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were fitted to a previously published extensive data set on loss of dicentrics plus rings (DR) in PBL sampled from X-ray-treated ankylosing spondylitis patients for > 20-year-post-treatment, involving a fixed external-dose regimen (with dose to PBL unknown). The four models investigated all incorporated fixed dose-response submodels for radiation-induced cytogenic damage and cell killing that were based entirely on in vitro data for X-ray-exposed human PBTL. (Author)

  9. Effect of intratumoral application of methotrexate in vivo on frequency of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Novakovi? Tanja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methotrexate is a cytostatic drug belonging to the group of antimetabolites; it is an antagonist of folic acid with an intensive application in gynecology practice. METHODS: The frequency of micronuclei (MN in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 30 patients with myoma uteri was analyzed before and after intratumoral application of methotrexate (MTX in total dose from 50 to 115 mg. Analysis of micronuclei was performed by the application of cytokinesis-block technique (CB. RESULTS: Average frequency of MN in lymphocytes of patients before the therapy was 4.6±0.4 MN/1000 analyzed cells. After the completion of therapy with six separate doses during six consecutive menstrual average frequency of MN increased 1.5 times (7.0±0.6 in comparison to control frequency before the therapy. Statistically significant difference (p<0.001 was established by the Student t test. CONCLUSION: Methotrexate intratumoral treatment of the myoma uteri significantly increased micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  10. Screening of Anti-Arthritic, Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of a Polyherbal Formulation

    S. Meera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Arthosansar (AS, a polyherbal formulation was evaluated and validated in various animal models. Arthritis was induced by Complete Freund`s Adjuvant (CFA injection in metatarsal footpad of Sprague-Dawley rats. Degree of inflammation was evaluated by hind paw swelling and body weight, estimation of AST, ALT and TP supported by histopathology of knee joint. AS reduced hind paw swelling, body weight, AST, ALT and TP Histopathology revealed significant reduction in mononuclear infiltration, pannus formation and bone erosion. AS decreased the paw volume in carageenan treated rats. As shows moderate central and peripheral analgesic activities in hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method in mice.

  11. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of Amukkarac curanam

    Saraswathy A; Devi S; Pradeep Chandran R

    2009-01-01

    Amukkarac curanam a polyherbal Siddha formulation was examined for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. The experimental methods used were tail immersion and acetic acid induced writhing method for analgesic and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation for antiinflammatory activity. Pentazocine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and aspirin (150 mg/kg, orally) clinically used analgesics were used as standard analgesics. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, orally) was used...

  12. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Estrid; Blaakaer, Jan; Høgdall, Claus; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types.......The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  13. Expression of CXCR4 on feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells: effect of feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Willett, B. J.; Cannon, C.A.; Hosie, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    CXCR4 expression on feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed. While monocytes and B lymphocytes expressed CXCR4, no CXCR4 was detected on T lymphocytes, in stark contrast to the expression pattern on T lymphocytes from humans. In spite of the important role that CXCR4 plays in infection with feline immunodeficiency virus, expression on PBMC in vivo was unaffected by infection with either a primary or a cell culture-adapted virus strain.

  14. ANALGELSIC EFFECT OF BUPRENORPHINE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF PAINFUL DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY

    Chiorazzi, A.; Carozzi, V; Canta, A; Meregalli, C.; Oggioni, N; BIANCHI, R; Lombardi, R.; Camozzi, F; Lauria, G.; Cavaletti, G

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a complication of inadequately treated diabetes mellitus leading to sensory loss and neuropathic pain. DPN of different severity is present during in the majority of diabetic patients. Although most patients with DPN do not have pain, a clinically-relevant proportion of them complain of chronic painful symptoms that affect their quality of life, disrupt sleep, and can lead to depression. Recent advances in understanding DPN-associated pain are like...

  15. A Review of the Adverse Effects of Peripheral Alpha-1 Antagonists in Hypertension Therapy

    Bryson Chris L; Psaty Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Doxazosin and its role as an antihypertensive agent have come under recent scrutiny as a result of the early termination of that treatment arm in ALLHAT. It is unclear why the cardiovascular (CV) event rate in this randomized, controlled trial (RCT), especially heart failure, is higher in those treated with a doxazosin-based regimen than with a chlorthalidone based-regimen. There has been little work in the past to summarize information on peripheral alpha-1 antagonists th...

  16. Preservation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors: differential effects of freezing on (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 and (3H)PK 11195 binding

    Basile, A.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Skolnick, P.

    1987-04-01

    A statistically significant decrease in the density of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed in renal membranes of rats beginning 2 weeks after adrenalectomy when compared with sham-operated controls. This decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was manifest as a decrease in the Bmax of two ligands (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 and (/sup 3/H)PK 11195, without accompanying changes in their apparent affinity (Kd) for this site. Similar changes were not seen in another aldosterone-sensitive organ, the submandibular salivary gland. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in observed in adrenalectomized rat renal membranes was restored to control levels after 1 week of aldosterone administration using a dose (12.5 micrograms/kg/day) that had no effect on peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in sham-operated animals. In contrast, dexamethasone administration (50 micrograms/kg/day, 1 week) had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density when administered to either adrenalectomized or sham-operated rats. Further, adrenal demedullation had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density or affinity. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was localized to the renal cortex and the outer stripe of the medulla by gross dissection of renal slices and renal tissue section autoradiography. The specific effect of adrenalectomy on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density, the lack of direct effect of aldosterone on (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding, and the localization of the change in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density to the renal cortex and outer stripe suggests that these changes may reflect an adaptation of the renal nephron (possibly the distal convoluted tubule, intermediate tubule and/or the collecting duct) to the loss of mineralocorticoid hormones.

  17. Preservation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors: differential effects of freezing on [3H]Ro 5-4864 and [3H]PK 11195 binding

    A statistically significant decrease in the density of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed in renal membranes of rats beginning 2 weeks after adrenalectomy when compared with sham-operated controls. This decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was manifest as a decrease in the Bmax of two ligands [3H]Ro 5-4864 and [3H]PK 11195, without accompanying changes in their apparent affinity (Kd) for this site. Similar changes were not seen in another aldosterone-sensitive organ, the submandibular salivary gland. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in observed in adrenalectomized rat renal membranes was restored to control levels after 1 week of aldosterone administration using a dose (12.5 micrograms/kg/day) that had no effect on peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in sham-operated animals. In contrast, dexamethasone administration (50 micrograms/kg/day, 1 week) had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density when administered to either adrenalectomized or sham-operated rats. Further, adrenal demedullation had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density or affinity. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was localized to the renal cortex and the outer stripe of the medulla by gross dissection of renal slices and renal tissue section autoradiography. The specific effect of adrenalectomy on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density, the lack of direct effect of aldosterone on [3H]Ro 5-4864 binding, and the localization of the change in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density to the renal cortex and outer stripe suggests that these changes may reflect an adaptation of the renal nephron (possibly the distal convoluted tubule, intermediate tubule and/or the collecting duct) to the loss of mineralocorticoid hormones

  18. Effect of autologous transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells on dogs with acute radiation sickness

    In a study of autologous transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells for the treatment of radiation sickness, 16 adult male mongrel dogs were used. All the animals received 1000 rad irradiation from a 60Co source at a dose rate of 9.7 to 11.0 R/min. Five dogs in the control group survived 6.6 days on the average after irradiation. Six dogs in the symptomatic treatment group survived 9.4 days. Another 5 dogs were transfused with monocytoid cells from the peripheral blood of their own, and the number of cells was 29.9x109, in which the CFU-C content was 12.6x105. The therapeutic regimen other than the transplantation of stem cells from the peripheral blood consisted of supportive measures to overcome serious symptoms of gastro-intestinal disorders. Results showed that four of the transfused dogs survived the whole period of observation - a total of 40 days. The recipients developed much more milder systematic symptoms than the control animals. (author)

  19. Effects of peripheral visual field loss on eye movements during visual search

    EmilyWiecek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural vision involves sequential eye movements that bring the fovea to locations selected by peripheral vision. How peripheral visual field loss (PVFL affects this process is not well understood. We examine how the location and extent of PVFL affects eye movement behavior in a naturalistic visual search task. Ten patients with PVFL and thirteen normally sighted subjects with full visual fields (FVF completed 30 visual searches monocularly. Subjects located a 4 x 4 degree target, pseudo-randomly selected within a 26 x 11 degree natural image. Eye positions were recorded at 50 Hz. Search duration, fixation duration, saccade size, and number of saccades per trial were not significantly different between PVFL and FVF groups (p > 0.1. A Chi-square test showed that the distributions of saccade directions for PVFL and FVL subjects were significantly different in 8 out of 10 cases (p < .01. Humphrey Visual Field pattern deviations for each subject were compared with the spatial distribution of eye movement directions. There were no significant correlations between saccade directional bias and visual field sensitivity across the 10 patients. Visual search performance was not significantly affected by peripheral visual field loss. An analysis of eye movement directions revealed patients with PVFL show a biased directional distribution that was not directly related to the locus of vision loss, challenging feed-forward models of eye movement control. Consequently, many patients do not optimally compensate for visual field loss during visual search.

  20. The pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla involves multiple peripheral mechanisms

    Rita C. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the peripheral mechanism that mediates the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla was investigated. METHOD: Angiotensin-(1-7 (25 pmol was bilaterally microinjected in the rostral ventrolateral medulla near the ventral surface in urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats that were untreated or treated (intravenously with effective doses of selective autonomic receptor antagonists (atenolol, prazosin, methyl-atropine, and hexamethonium or a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH25 -Tyr(Me-AVP] given alone or in combination. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, the pressor response produced by angiotensin-(1-7 (16 ± 2 mmHg, n = 12, which was not associated with significant changes in heart rate, was not significantly altered by peripheral treatment with prazosin, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, hexamethonium or methyl-atropine. Similar results were obtained in experiments that tested the association of prazosin and atenolol; methyl-atropine and the vasopressin V1 antagonist or methyl-atropine and prazosin. Peripheral treatment with the combination of prazosin, atenolol and the vasopressin V1 antagonist abolished the pressor effect of glutamate; however, this treatment produced only a small decrease in the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The combination of hexamethonium with the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist or the combination of prazosin, atenolol, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist and methyl-atropine was effective in blocking the effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that angiotensin-(1-7 triggers a complex pressor response at the rostral ventrolateral medulla that involves an increase in sympathetic tonus, release of vasopressin and possibly the inhibition of a vasodilatory mechanism.

  1. Effects of thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy: a randomized parallel-controlled trial.

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Plandee, Piyawan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complications of diabetic patients and leads to loss of plantar cutaneous sensation, movement perception, and body balance. Thai foot massage is an alternative therapy to improve balance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned into either the Thai foot massage or control groups. The Thai foot massage group received a modified Thai traditional foot massage for 30 min, 3 days per week for 2 weeks. We measured timed up and go (TUG), one leg stance: OLS), the range of motion (ROM) of the foot, and foot sensation (SWMT) before treatment, after the first single session, and after the 2-week treatment. RESULTS After the single treatment session, only the Thai foot massage group showed a significant improvement in TUG. After the 2-week treatment, both Thai foot massage and control groups showed a significant improvement of TUG and OLS (PThai foot massage group showed better improvement in TUG than the control group (pThai foot massage group also showed significant improvements in ROM and SWMT after the 2-week treatment. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that Thai foot massage is a viable alternative treatment for balance performance, ROM of the foot, and the foot sensation in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25892354

  2. Time-effect relationship of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cell after X ray irradiation

    To investigate the time-effect of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray, human peripheral whole blood samples were collected from two healthy individuals, and exposed to X rays with dose from 0 to 10 Gy. The genomic DNAs were isolated from the whole-blood samples, and the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and copy number of total mtDNA in the DNA samples were detected by Real-time PCR after irradiation at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that the copy number of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and total mtDNA, and the rates of mtDNA 4977bp deletion increase with incubation time with dose at 5 Gy after irradiation. Moreover, they increased with dose from 0 to 10 Gy after irradiation at 24 h and 72 h, respectively. The results suggested that the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and the copy number of total mtDNA in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray were accumulated with incubation time and dose increase, respectively. (authors)

  3. Effect of peripheral vision training on the attack of beginner indoor soccer players: a study during competition

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted within the context of Human Motor Skill Science, in the area of Biophysical Dimension and following the research line of the Study of Learning Mechanisms and Processes and of Motor Conduct within the epistemological construct of phenomenological explanation. The objective of this study was to investigate peripheral vision training (PVT and its effect on attack runs during indoor soccer, taking into account dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function in both learning speed andoffensive skills. Ten beginner indoor soccer players aged 10.4 ± 2.31 years, from Lar da Criança Padre Franz Neumair, Ititioca, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participated in the study. The boys were divided into an experimental group (EG, n = 5 and a controlgroup (CG, n = 5 with similar dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function (H (EG: 80% left H and 20% right H, CG: 60% left H and 40% right H. The players underwent nine training sessions, followed by a championship, and then six additional sessions, followed by a second championship. Each championship was filmed for scoutvideo analysis. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in peripheral vision during offensive runs between CG and EG, with marked acquisition of peripheral vision in EG. The quality of the attack runs was significant (two-way ANOVA. EG was the better team at the beginning of the attack runs and during attack development, whereas CG was better at attack finalization during the first championship. EG showed more competence in attack run finalization during the second championship. No significant difference in the number of goals scored was observed between the two groups (two-wayANOVA, p>0.05. The frequency of participation in the training sessions was significant (t-test for independent samples, p≤0.05, with EG attending more sessions. In conclusion, EG acquired peripheral vision, a finding suggesting that PVT improves the attack capacity of indoor soccer players.

  4. Effect of low-dose methylprednisolone on peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells and its significance in rats after brain injury

    Bin ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of low-dose methylprednisolone(MP treatment after traumatic brain injury(TBI in rats on the number of peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs and injury area of the brain.Methods One hundred and fifty-four adult male Wistar rats were involved in the present study,and they were randomly divided into normal control group(n=18,TBI control group(n=38,MP control group(n=30,MP+TBI group(n=30 and TBI+MP group(n=38.The TBI model was reproduced by fluid percussion injury(FPI.MP(5mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered once a day for 4 days.Peripheral venous blood samples were taken on day 1,3,7 and 14,and the counts of EPCs were determined by flow cytometry.The rats were sacrificed on day 1 and 3,brain edema was estimated by dry-wet weight method,and the blood-brain barrier(BBB permeability was determined by Evans-blue extravasation.Results The counts of peripheral blood EPCs were significantly higher in MP control group,MP+TBI group and TBI+MP group on day 1,3 and 7 than that in normal control and TBI control group,and it returned to the level of normal control group on day 14.The BBB permeability was improved and brain edema alleviated in MP+TBI and TBI+MP group on day 3.Conclusion The administration of low-dose MP may increase the count of peripheral blood EPCs in rats,decrease BBB damage,and alleviate brain edema.

  5. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over study to evaluate the analgesic activity of Boswellia serrata in healthy volunteers using mechanical pain model

    K. Prabhavathi; U. Shobha Jagdish Chandra; Radhika Soanker; P. Usha RANI

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Experimental pain models in human healthy volunteers are advantageous for early evaluation of analgesics. All efforts to develop nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are devoid of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system effects are still far from achieving a breakthrough. Hence we evaluated the analgesic activity of an ayurvedic drug, Boswellia serrata by using validated human pain models which has shown its analgesic activity both in-vitro and preclinical studies...

  6. A critical review of controlled clinical trials for peripheral neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndromes.

    Kingery, W S

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify and analyze the controlled clinical trial data for peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) and complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). A total of 72 articles were found, which included 92 controlled drug trials using 48 different treatments. The methods of these studies were critically reviewed and the results summarized and compared. The PNP trial literature gave consistent support (two or more trials) for the analgesic effectiveness of tricyclic antidepressants, intravenous and topical lidocaine, intravenous ketamine, carbamazepine and topical aspirin. There was limited support (one trial) for the analgesic effectiveness of oral, topical and epidural clonidine and for subcutaneous ketamine. The trial data were contradictory for mexiletine, phenytoin, topical capsaicin, oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and intravenous morphine. Analysis of the trial methods indicated that mexiletine and intravenous morphine were probably effective analgesics for PNP, while non-steroidals were probably ineffective. Codeine, magnesium chloride, propranolol, lorazepam, and intravenous phentolamine all failed to provide analgesia in single trials. There were no long-term data supporting the analgesic effectiveness of any drug and the etiology of the neuropathy did not predict treatment outcome. Review of the controlled trial literature for CRPS identified several potential problems with current clinical practices. The trial data only gave consistent support for analgesia with corticosteroids, which had long-term effectiveness. There was limited support for the analgesic effectiveness of topical dimethylsulfoxyde (DMSO), epidural clonidine and intravenous regional blocks (IVRBs) with bretylium and ketanserin. The trial data were contradictory for intranasal calcitonin and intravenous phentolamine and analysis of the trial methods indicated that both treatments were probably ineffective for most patients. There were consistent trial data indicating that guanethidine and reserpine IVRBs were ineffective, and limited trial data indicating that droperidol and atropine IVRBs were ineffective. No placebo controlled data were available to evaluated sympathetic ganglion blocks (SGBs) with local anesthetics, surgical sympathectomy, or physical therapy. Only the capsaicin trials presented data which allowed for meta-analysis. This meta-analysis demonstrated a significant capsaicin effect with a pooled odds ratio of 2.35 (95% confidence intervals 1.48, 3.22). The methods scores were higher (P < 0.01) for the PNP trials (66.2 +/- 1.5, n = 66) than the CRPS trials (57.6 +/- 2.9, n = 26). The CRPS trials tended to use less subjects and were less likely to use placebo controls, double-blinding, or perform statistical tests for differences in outcome measures between groups. There was almost no overlap in the controlled trial literature between treatments for PNP and CRPS, and treatments used in both conditions (intravenous phentolamine and epidural clonidine) had similar results. PMID:9415498

  7. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO. PMID:20645831

  8. Effect of DNA-loaded erythrocyte ghosts and DNA on some parameters of hematopoiesis and peripheral blood in irradiated mice

    The effect of DNA-loaded erythrocyte ghosts (DNA-LEs) on hematopoiesis, concentration of nucleic acids and electrophoretic mobility is studied in peripheral blood cells from mice irradiated with gamma rays at dose 4-8 Gy. Native exogenous thymus DNA studied as DNA-Les and DNA solution reduces the damage inflicted to hematopoietic organs assayed by the quantity of endogenous spleen and bone marrow. Simultaneously, it has a positive therapeutic effect on nucleic acids in the leukocytes and on electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes in the post-irradiation recovery period. 1 tab., 2 figs., 14 refs. (orig.)

  9. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF GABAPENTIN A CONVENTIONAL ANTICONVULSANT WITH CONVENTIONAL ANALGESIC TREMADOL IN VISCERAL PAIN MODEL OF RODENTS

    Saurabh Kansal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabmazepine is an established drug for trigeminal neuralgia while gabapentin has been tried in postoperative pain but its effectiveness in visceral pain and when compared to conventional analgesics needs to be evaluated.The present study was planned to study the analgesic effects of gabapentin in animal pain model of visceral nociception like writhing test and to compare it with conventional analgesic tremadol. This study has been carried out for evaluation of role of gabapentin in visceral nociception in mice . In the writhing test, a significant reduction in number of writhes have been observed in pretreated groups of mice reflects antinociceptive efficacy of gabapentin in acetic acid induced visceral nociception

  10. Pharmacological FMRI in the development of new analgesic compounds.

    Schweinhardt, Petra; Bountra, Chas; Tracey, Irene

    2006-10-01

    Chronic pain is a major problem for the individual and for society. Despite a range of drugs being available to treat chronic pain, only inadequate pain relief can be achieved for many patients. There is therefore a need for the development of new analgesic compounds. The assessment of pain depends to date entirely on the subjective report of the patient, in contrast to many other clinical conditions where biomarkers that help determine the severity and stage of the disease enable the physician to monitor the course of the disease and treatment effects longitudinally. In this article, we illustrate that magnetic resonance-based imaging techniques have the potential to provide sensitive and specific biomarkers of the pain experience, as well as clarifying disease mechanisms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is particularly suited to investigating the effects of pharmacological agents on pain processing within the human central nervous system. Combination of FMRI and drug administration is termed pharmacological FMRI (phFMRI). In addition to outlining several methodological considerations that have to be taken into account when performing phFMRI, we discuss phFMRI studies that have already used this technique to study the effects of analgesic compounds. These studies provide promising data for the use of phFMRI as sensitive tool in assessing a potential drug effect. Such pharmacodynamic readouts obtained early in the process of drug development would not only save the pharmaceutical industry substantial amounts of money, but would also avoid the unnecessary exposure of patients to molecules with limited or no therapeutic value. We are therefore optimistic that phFMRI will be used as a tool with high sensitivity and specificity for evaluating analgesic agents in early drug development and clinical studies. PMID:16986120

  11. THE IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS (PBMCS OF ALLERGIC PATIENTS

    Somaya M. El Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases represent major health burden. An allergic reaction is characterized by a disrupted T- helper 1⁄T-helper 2 balance toward a preferential allergen specifically induced TH2 cytokine profile, causing allergic inflammation Probiotic bacteria have various benificial effects in many pathologic situation. Studies have shown that the bacteria present in the intestinal micro flora play a role in the TH1/TH2 balance and its modulation can promote the control of infectious and immune processes. Testing the effects of probiotic bacteria on TH1/TH2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic patients and control subjects. This study included 24 patients allergic to date pollen and 16 healthy control subjects. PBMC of both groups were separated and cultured for 72 h with date pollen allergen (home-made in the presence or absence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 (Living and dead and C- phycocyanin (extracted from Spirulina platensis. The cell culture supernatants were collected to measure Interlukin 4 and Interferon gamma by quantitative ELISA. Incubation of PBMCs of allergic patients with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 showed marked reduction in IL4 production (median IL4 concentarion = 3.9 pg. compared to PBMCs callenged with pollen alone (mediam IL4 conentration = 52.6 pg. When PBMC were incubated with living Lactobacillus rhamnosus in absence of allergen significant increase in and IFNγ (median concentration = 42.75 pg. was obtained, compared to PBMC challenged with allergen alone (median = 22.8 pg. When PBMCs incubated with heat killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus either in presence or absence of the offending allergen, marked reduction in IL4 production was obtained (median = 10.6, 3.6 pg respectively compared to PBMC incubated with allergen alone (median = 52.6 pg. When PBMCs incubated with dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus, marked increase in IFNγ production was obtained (median = 49 pg when compared to IFNγ production by PBMC challenged with allergen (median 22.8 pg. PBMCs challenged with PC in the presence or absence of allergen showed marked decrease of IL4 production (median = 19.8, 17 pg respectively when compared to PBMC incubated with the offending allergen alone (median = 52.6 pg. PBMCs incubated with PC showed significant increase of and IFNγ production (median= 319.6 pg when compared to PBMC incubated with the offending allergen alone (median = 22.8 pg. Conclusion: Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and C-phycocyanin (extracted from Spirulina platensis inversed the TH1: TH2 polarization in allergic patients and could be a promissing line of treatment.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive (Analgesic) Properties of Momordical balsamina Linn. (Balsam Apple) Leaves in Rats

    Y. Karumi; P. Onyeyili; V. O. OGUGBUAJA

    2003-01-01

    The effect of aqueous leaves extract of M. balsamina on acetic acid induced writhes/stretches (Anti nociceptive/analgesic effect) and egg albumen induced edema (Anti-inflammatory effect) was studied. Three different doses of the leaves extract were administered to three groups of rats 30 minutes prior to the administration of acetic acid. Pentzocin was used as the standard Analgesic drug. Another Randomized Block Design of three blocks was administered with three different doses of the leaf p...

  13. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide, a nonsteroidal analgesic, decreases the effect of radiation therapy in head-and-neck cancer cells

    Czembirek, Cornelia; Eder-Czembirek, Christina; Turhani, Dritan [Dept. of Cranio-, Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Erovic, Boban M.; Thurnher, Dietmar [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Spittler, Andreas [Dept. of Surgery, Research Labs., Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Selzer, Edgar; Poetter, Richard [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology and CLEXO (Center of Excellence for Clinical and Experimental Oncology), Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    Background: no data are available on the effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor nimesulide in combination with irradiation on the survival of head-and-neck carcinoma cells. Material and methods: two head-and-neck carcinoma cell lines (SCC9 and SCC25) were treated with nimesulide (50-600 {mu}M) and irradiated concomitantly or sequentially. Early effects on cell survival were investigated by counting cell numbers, long-term effects by colony-forming assays. Cell-cycle effects were analyzed 24-72 h after treatment with nimesulide by flow cytometry. Results: unexpectedly, nimesulide solely inhibited cell proliferation without affecting colony-forming ability. In addition, no evidence for a radiosensitizing effect of nimesulide in short-term assays was seen. Nimesulide alone had no effect on clonogenic survival alone or in combination with radiation. Conclusion: nimesulide differentially affects cell proliferation and clonogenic survival and may decrease the efficacy of radiotherapy. Short-term assays to assess tumor growth may not correctly predict the clinically relevant long-term effect of COX-2 inhibitors. (orig.)

  14. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide, a nonsteroidal analgesic, decreases the effect of radiation therapy in head-and-neck cancer cells

    Background: no data are available on the effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor nimesulide in combination with irradiation on the survival of head-and-neck carcinoma cells. Material and methods: two head-and-neck carcinoma cell lines (SCC9 and SCC25) were treated with nimesulide (50-600 μM) and irradiated concomitantly or sequentially. Early effects on cell survival were investigated by counting cell numbers, long-term effects by colony-forming assays. Cell-cycle effects were analyzed 24-72 h after treatment with nimesulide by flow cytometry. Results: unexpectedly, nimesulide solely inhibited cell proliferation without affecting colony-forming ability. In addition, no evidence for a radiosensitizing effect of nimesulide in short-term assays was seen. Nimesulide alone had no effect on clonogenic survival alone or in combination with radiation. Conclusion: nimesulide differentially affects cell proliferation and clonogenic survival and may decrease the efficacy of radiotherapy. Short-term assays to assess tumor growth may not correctly predict the clinically relevant long-term effect of COX-2 inhibitors. (orig.)

  15. Effect of 188Re on chromosome aberration in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Human peripheral blood exposed with 188ReO4- at various radioactivities for 54 h was examined to observe the chromosome and chromatin aberrations at metaphases in the mitosis of lymphocytes. The findings indicate that there is an increasing tendency of the aberration yields of both types with increasing 188ReO4- concentration and a dose dependency could be obtained. The aberration yield was best fitted by a quadratic model. Chromatin aberrations, aberration cells and chromosome fragments were fitted into a linear-regression model

  16. Effect of inspiratory muscle work on peripheral fatigue of locomotor muscles in healthy humans

    Romer, LM; Lovering, AT; Haverkamp, HC; Pegelow, DF; Dempsey, JA

    2006-01-01

    The work of breathing required during maximal exercise compromises blood flow to limb locomotor muscles and reduces exercise performance. We asked if force output of the inspiratory muscles affected exercise-induced peripheral fatigue of locomotor muscles. Eight male cyclists exercised at ≥ 90% peak O2 uptake to exhaustion (CTRL). On a separate occasion, subjects exercised for the same duration and power output as CTRL (13.2 ± 0.9 min, 292 W), but force output of the inspiratory muscles was r...

  17. Full Inhibition of Spinal FAAH Leads to TRPV1-Mediated Analgesic Effects in Neuropathic Rats and Possible Lipoxygenase-Mediated Remodeling of Anandamide Metabolism

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodyni...

  18. Protective and worsening peripheral nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor-mediated effect in a rat model of experimental colitis.

    Petrella, Carla; Giuli, Chiara; Broccardo, Maria; Eutamene, Helene; Cartier, Christel; Leveque, Mathilde; Bedini, Andrea; Spampinato, Santi; Bueno, Lionel; Theodorou, Vassilia; Improta, Giovanna; Agostini, Simona

    2013-04-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and nociceptin orphanin peptide (NOP) receptors represent an endogenous system modulating gastrointestinal functions and inflammation. We investigated the peripheral effect of N/OFQ and of UFP-101, the NOP antagonist, in a model of colitis induced by TNBS (2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid; 60mg/kg). Male rats received two intraperitoneal injections per day of N/OFQ, UFP-101 or saline for 3 days after colitis induction. Four days after TNBS, animals were sacrificed and colonic histological damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and cytokine (IL-1? and IL-10) levels were evaluated. N/OFQ plasmatic levels were assessed by radioimmunoassay. TNBS increased all the inflammatory variables considered. In colitic rats, N/OFQ (0.02 and 0.2nmol/kg) improved microscopic damage, MPO activity and decreased IL-1? levels in comparison with TNBS group, whereas at the highest dose (20nmol/kg) the peptide worsened colitis. UFP-101 at the dose of 1nmol/kg, without pharmacological activity, antagonised the protective effect of N/OFQ (0.2nmol/kg) on colitis, but at a dose level of 3 and 10nmol/kg worsened inflammation, revealing the endogenous N/OFQergic system protective role. N/OFQ plasmatic levels were not modified in TNBS-treated rats compared with controls, whereas they were reduced in rats treated with the doses of UFP-101 aggravating colitis. In conclusion, peripheral low doses of N/OFQ have a beneficial effect on colonic inflammation in rats. In contrast, N/OFQ at a dose 100-1000-fold higher than those that protect worsens colitis, probably through different mechanisms. The peripheral N/OFQergic system can represent a new field of investigation in some intestinal inflammatory conditions. PMID:23353033

  19. Analgesic action of laser therapy (LLLT) in an animal model

    Daniel Pozza; Patricia Fregapani; João Weber; Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira; Marcos André de Oliveira; Nelson Ribeiro Neto; João Macedo Sobrinho

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analgesic effect of laser therapy on healthy tissue of mice.STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five animals were divided in three groups of 15: A--infrared laser irradiation (830 nm, Kondortech, São Carlos, SP, Brazil); B--red laser irradiation (660 nm, Kondortech, São Carlos, SP, Brazil); C-- ham irradiation with laser unit off. After laser application, the mice remained immobilized for the injection of 30 microl of 2% formalin in the plantar pad of the irradiated hind paw. The ...

  20. Topical and intranasal analgesic therapy in a woman with refractory postherpetic neuralgia.

    Hohmeier, Kenneth C; Almon, Lyndsey M

    2015-01-01

    A patient-specific, stepped approach to topical and intranasal analgesic pharmacotherapy was effective in reducing refractory postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) not responding to the current standard of care for PHN. The use of topical analgesic therapy allowed for higher concentrations of medication locally while reducing the likelihood of systemic side effects common to the drugs used. No adverse effects were noted for either topical or intranasal drug therapy. The patient-specific, stepped approach resulted in clinically significant decreases in pain on visual analog scale (VAS), with the use of intranasal ketamine 10% solution and topical gabapentin 6%, ketoprofen 10%, lidocaine 5%, and ketamine 10% cream. PMID:25949241

  1. The effects of diabetes and/or peripheral neuropathy in detecting short postural perturbations in mature adults

    Fulk George D; Robinson Charles J; Mondal Sumona; Storey Christopher M; Hollister Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study explored the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy (PN) on the ability to detect near-threshold postural perturbations. Methods 83 subjects participated; 32 with type II DM (25 with PN and 7 without PN), 19 with PN without DM, and 32 without DM or PN. Peak acceleration thresholds for detecting anterior platform translations of 1 mm, 4 mm, and 16 mm displacements were determined. A 2(DM) × 2(PN) factorial MANCOVA with weight as a covariate w...

  2. Peripheral lung mass attached to the pleura: Diagnostic effectiveness of ultrasonically guided biopsy

    To evaluate the usefulness of real-time ultrasound-guided biopsy as an aid in diagnosing pleural attached lung lesions. Over a 2 year period(March 1992 through February 1994), 52 US-guided diagnostic biopsies were performed in 50 patients with peripheral lung lesions in contact with chest wall. 15 cases were performed with gun biopsy and 37 cases with fine needles. Final diagnosis was confirmed by surgery and clinical follow-up. In 44 of 52 cases(84.6%), we obtained histologic or cytologic material by US-guided biopsy. Diagnostic accuracy and tissue type specific accuracy for malignancy were 83.9%(26/31) and 67.7%(21/31), respectively. Eighteen cases were reported to be benign and one of them was proven to be metastatic lesion. We could not find any complications such as hemoptysis or pneumothorax. Ultrasound-guided biopsy is a simple, safe and accurate diagnostic procedure for evaluation of peripheral lung lesion attached to the pleura

  3. Novel environment influences the effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation upon brain and peripheral cytokine gene expression.

    Ashley, Noah T; Sams, David W; Brown, Audrey C; Dumaine, Jennifer E

    2016-02-26

    Sleep loss increases inflammatory mediators in brain and peripheral tissues, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Male C57BL/6j mice were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 24h using the modified multiple platform (MMP) technique (platforms over water) or two different controls: home cage or a dry platform cage, which constituted a novel environment. PSD mice exhibited increased IL-1β and TNF-α pro-inflammatory gene expression in brain (hypothalamus, hippocampus, pre-frontal cortex), as well as in peripheral tissues (liver, spleen), when compared with home-cage controls. In addition, among PSD mice, TGFβ1, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was increased in pre-frontal cortex, liver, and spleen in conjunction with elevated serum corticosterone concentration relative to home-cage controls. However, these differences were nearly abolished when PSD mice were compared with control mice subjected to a dry MMP cage, suggesting that simply exposing mice to a novel environment can induce an acute inflammatory response. PMID:26806035

  4. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Balanites aegyptiaca in experimental animal models

    Gaur Kalpesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca were evaluated in experimental animals. We have determined the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of dried aerial parts of Balanites aegyptiaca by oral administration at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. The extracts were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 0 and 3h after injection. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts were also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and tail-flick method in albino rats. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, significantly (P< 0.05 reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by Eddy′s hot plate method and tail-flick method in albino mice. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts showed a greater anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect comparative to the standard drugs, indomethacin and diclofenac sodium respectively. The present results indicated the ethanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited more significant activity than petroleum ether in the treatment of pain and inflammation.

  5. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Shreedhara C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy?s hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP at the dose level of 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg. Results: The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P < 0.001. The maximum analgesic effect was observed at 120 min at the dose of 100mg/kg (i.p. and was comparable to that of standard analgin (150mg/kg and the percentage of edema inhibition effect was 46.4% and 77% for 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg (i.p respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (5mg/kg. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different fractions of Boswellia serrata

    A. Sharma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of different fractions of Boswellia serrata. The effect of different fractions of Boswellia serrata were studied using carrageenan induced paw edema, acetic acid induced writhing response, formalin induced pain, hot plate and tail flick method for studying anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The different fractions of B. serrata, essential oil (10 ml/kg, gum (100 mg/kg, resin (100 mg/kg oleo-resin (100 mg/kg and oleo-gum-resin (100 mg/kg significantly reduces carrageenan induced inflammation in rats and shows analgesic activity, as determined by acetic acid induced writhing response, formalin induced pain, hot plate and tail flick method. The different fractions of B. serrata showed prompt anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity due to the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase enzyme.

    Keywords: Analgesic; Boswellia serrata; Inflammation; 5- lipoxygenase; Burseraceae.

  7. Observation on analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of intrathecal administration of bupivacaine versus bupivacaine-midazolam combination in lower limb surgeries in a tertiary care hospital

    Md. Mohsin; Rekha Kumari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain relief can improve functionality, reduce physiological and emotional morbidity and improve quality of life. Neuraxial blocks not only reduce the incidence of venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cardiac complications, bleeding transfusion requirements and respiratory depressions but also provide effective postoperative analgesia. One of the methods of providing postoperative is to prolong the duration of intrathecally administered bupivacaine by using additive...

  8. Analgesic activity of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    Jamaluddin Abu Taiab Md

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Successive petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were investigated for the analgesic activity. Experiments were carried out with these extracts for their peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick models in mice, respectively. In both the models, methanolic extract showed significant writhing inhibition as well as the elongation of tail-flick time at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. A linear dose response relationship was also observed.

  9. Comet assay to assess the non-target effect of neutron-radiation in human peripheral blood

    The non-target effect of neutron-irradiation was assessed in unirradiated human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. The isolated cells were incubated with an autologous plasma for 1 h at 37 deg C before performing the assay. The cells exhibited a significant increase in the tailmoment when the irradiated blood (2 Gy, 570 keV neutron) was the source of plasma. The genotoxic effect lasted for 96 h when stored at -20 deg C. It is believed to be mediated by the release of cytokines or other factors released by the irradiated cells. Plasma obtained from unirradiated blood or further irradiation of plasma did not enhance the tailmoment significantly. Thus, the adverse effect of neutron-exposure can be passed on to unirradiated neighbourhood through irradiated blood tissue without involving cell-cell contact. The non-targeted radiation effect assumes greater consequences in radiotherapy and biodosimetry. (author)

  10. Conditional gene deletion reveals functional redundancy of GABAB receptors in peripheral nociceptors in vivo

    Bettler Bernhard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter which mainly mediates its effects on neurons via ionotropic (GABAA and metabotropic (GABAB receptors. GABAB receptors are widely expressed in the central and the peripheral nervous system. Although there is evidence for a key function of GABAB receptors in the modulation of pain, the relative contribution of peripherally- versus centrally-expressed GABAB receptors is unclear. Results In order to elucidate the functional relevance of GABAB receptors expressed in peripheral nociceptive neurons in pain modulation we generated and analyzed conditional mouse mutants lacking functional GABAB(1 subunit specifically in nociceptors, preserving expression in the spinal cord and brain (SNS-GABAB(1-/- mice. Lack of the GABAB(1 subunit precludes the assembly of functional GABAB receptor. We analyzed SNS-GABAB(1-/- mice and their control littermates in several models of acute and neuropathic pain. Electrophysiological studies on peripheral afferents revealed higher firing frequencies in SNS-GABAB(1-/- mice compared to corresponding control littermates. However no differences were seen in basal nociceptive sensitivity between these groups. The development of neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain was similar across the two genotypes. The duration of nocifensive responses evoked by intraplantar formalin injection was prolonged in the SNS-GABAB(1-/- animals as compared to their control littermates. Pharmacological experiments revealed that systemic baclofen-induced inhibition of formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors was not dependent upon GABAB(1 expression in nociceptors. Conclusion This study addressed contribution of GABAB receptors expressed on primary afferent nociceptive fibers to the modulation of pain. We observed that neither the development of acute and chronic pain nor the analgesic effects of a systematically-delivered GABAB agonist was significantly changed upon a specific deletion of GABAB receptors from peripheral nociceptive neurons in vivo. This lets us conclude that GABAB receptors in the peripheral nervous system play a less important role than those in the central nervous system in the regulation of pain.

  11. Biomedicine of Enkephalin-Derived Glycopeptide Analgesics

    Polt, Robin

    The incorporation of glycosides into peptide neurotransmitters imparts drug-like character to the neurotransmitter "message" via "membrane hopping". The importance of the glycopeptide-membrane interaction is emphasized, and the biousian theory is briefly explained. Application of this approach to enkephalins, the endogenous opioid peptides, leads to potent analgesic compounds capable of systemic delivery. The clinical applications of these compounds are advocated by the author.

  12. Three Newly Approved Analgesics: An Update

    Saraghi, Mana; Hersh, Elliot V

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, three new analgesic entities, tapentadol immediate release (Nucynta) diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules (Zipsor), and bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (EXPAREL) were granted US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to treat acute pain. Tapentadol immediate-release is a both a mu-opioid agonist and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules are a novel formula...

  13. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel analgesic agents targeting both cyclooxygenase and TRPV1.

    Yan, Lin; Pan, Miaobo; Fu, Mian; Wang, Jingjie; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2016-02-15

    Multitarget-directed ligands might offer certain advantages over traditional single-target drugs and/or drug combinations. In the present study, a series of novel analgesic agents targeting both cyclooxygenase and TRPV1 were prepared and evaluated in an effort to optimize properties of previously described lead compounds from piperazine, ethanediamine cores. These compounds were evaluated for antagonism of hTRPV1 activation by capsaicin and the ability to inhibit Ovine COX-1 and human recombinant COX-2 in vitro. The favorable potentials of these test compounds were further characterized in preliminary analgesic and side-effects tests in vivo. On the basis of comprehensive evaluations, compound 8d which showed strong TRPV1 antagonistic activity, middle COX-2 inhibition, weak ulcerogenic action and had no hyperthermia side-effect was considered as a safe candidate for the further development of analgesic drugs. PMID:26795113

  14. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF SAMANEA SAMAN MERR., AND PROSOPIS CINERARIA DRUCE.

    Ahmed Syed Muzammil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study was designed to explore the analgesic effects of methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., using tail immersion test. The painful reactions in mice were produced by thermal stimuli through dipping the tail tips of mice into hot water. Methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., were administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 100mg /kg body weight. Pethidine 50mg/Kg intraperitoneally was used as standard analgesic drug. The tail flick latency delay was measured at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 hour after the intraperitoneal administration. Both extracts produce analgesic effects when compare with pethidine.

  15. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L. STEM BARK

    M. Ashraf Ali et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p. and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o. were used as reference drugs for comparison. The extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic (hyperglycaemic and glucose induced hyperglycemic (normo-hyperglycaemic rats orally at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The glucose tolerance results showed significant (p<0.05 improved at the dose 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (b. wt. of ethanolic extract respectively. On the Other hand, the analgesic activity of extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg dose level were produced 45% and 62% writhing inhibitory response but diclofenac was observed 82% of that when compared to control group. The plant's extract produced dose-dependent, significant (P<0.05 analgesic effects against chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins etc. were present in the plant which has antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties. However a glucose tolerance hypoglycemic test is comparable to diabetic control group and effect is a dose dependent. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Cassia fistula stem-bark ethanolic extract possesses analgesic and antihyperglycemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment and/or management of painful, inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Comparison of the postoperative analgesic effects of paracetamol-codeine phosphate and naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate for lumbar disk surgery.

    Polat, Reyhan; Peker, Kevser; Gülöksüz, Çi?dem Topçu; Ergil, Julide; Akkaya, Taylan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compared the efficacy of paracetamol-codeine phosphate and naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate on postoperative pain and tramadol consumption during the first 24 hours after a lumbar disk surgery. After Ethics Committee approval and informed consent had been obtained, 64 patients were allocated into three groups. Patients received oral paracetamol-codeine (300 mg + 30 mg; Group P), naproxen sodium-codeine (550 mg + 30 mg; Group N), or placebo tablets (Group C) 30 minutes prior to induction of anesthesia. Patient-controlled analgesia was supplied postoperatively using tramadol. Pain intensity, tramadol consumption, and side effects were recorded every 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after surgery. Whole study period pain intensity (visual analogue scale scores) was lower in Group P (p = 0.007) and Group N (p = 0.001), compared with Group C, however, there was no statistically significant difference between Group P and Group N regarding pain intensity (p > 0.05). Tramadol consumption was lower in Group P and Group N, compared with Group C (p codeine and naproxen sodium-codeine combination significantly reduced tramadol consumption and provided more effective analgesia compared with placebo. The paracetamol-codeine combination was superior to naproxen sodium-codeine with regard to tramadol consumption. PMID:26362959

  17. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia morrisonensis Hayata in Mice

    Shen-Chieh Chou; Yung-Jia Chiu; Chao-Jung Chen; Ying-Chih Lin; Chung-Hao Wu; Chien-Ti Chao; Ching-Wen Chang; Wen-Huang Peng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the ethanolic extract of A. morrisonensis Hayata (AMEtOH). Two models were employed for evaluation of the analgesic effects: acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results demonstrated that AMEtOH decreased writhing response for both the acetic acid assay and the licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by paw edema of mi...

  18. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Cissus repens in Mice

    Ching-Wen Chang; Wen-Te Chang; Jung-Chun Liao; Yung-Jia Chiu; Ming-Tsuen Hsieh; Wen-Huang Peng; Yu-Chin Lin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the CRMeOH. Analgesic effect was evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by ?-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathologic analyses. The results showed that CRMeOH (500?mg/kg) decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. CRMeOH (100 a...

  19. Investigation of the potentiation of the analgesic effects of fentanyl by ketamine in humans: a double-blinded, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study of experimental pain[ISRCTN83088383

    Nadeson Raymond

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite preclinical evidence suggesting a synergistic interaction between ketamine and opioids promoting analgesia, several clinical trials have not identified dosing regimens capable of eliciting a benefit in the co-administration of ketamine with opioids. Methods Ten healthy volunteers participated in a double blinded, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover laboratory study in order to determine whether a low dose of ketamine potentiated the antinociceptive effect of fentanyl without causing an increase in sedative effects. A battery of tests was used to assess both nociception and sedation including electrical current, pressure, thermal stimuli, psychometric tests, and both subjective and objective scores of sedation. Target controlled infusions of the study drugs were used. Ketamine and fentanyl were administered alone and in combination in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Saline was used as the control, and propofol was used to validate the tests of sedation. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were also assessed. Results The electrical current pain threshold dose response curve of fentanyl combined with ketamine was markedly steeper than the dose response curve of fentanyl alone. While a ketamine serum concentration of 30 ng/ml did not result in a change in electrical pain threshold when administered alone, when it was added to fentanyl, the combination resulted in greater increase in pain threshold than that of fentanyl administered alone. When nociception was assessed using heat and pressure stimuli, ketamine did not potentiate the anti-nociceptive effect of fentanyl. There was no difference between the sedative effect of fentanyl and fentanyl in combination with ketamine as assessed by both subjective and objective measures of sedation. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were unaffected by the study drugs at the doses given. Conclusion A serum concentration of ketamine that did not alter indices of sedation potentiated the antinociceptive effect of fentanyl. This potentiation of antinociception occurred without an increase in sedation suggesting that low steady doses of ketamine (30–120 ng/ml might be combined with μ opioid agonists to improve their analgesic effect in a clinical setting. (296 words

  20. Radiomodifying effect of boron and gadolinium compounds in human peripheral lymphocytes evaluated by the comet assay

    This study was carried out to investigate the modification of radioresponse due to pretreatment of boron (Borax) and gadolinium compounds (Gd- DTPA) in human peripheral lymphocytes using the comet assay, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. The lymphocytes were treated with boron and gadolinium compounds for 10 minutes right before irradiation. The doses of gamma-ray were 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy. Pretreatment with 10B (each of 50 nM and 250 nM) gave rise to a dose-dependent reduction in radiosensitivity of lymphocytes. On the other hand, pretreatment of 157 Gd- DTPA (50 nM) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in radiosensitivity, especially in the lymphocytes irradiated with 4 Gy. (P<0.001)