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Sample records for peripheral analgesic effect

  1. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteers...... on 3 separate days with 7-day intervals. They received either (1) subcutaneous infiltration with ketamine in the burn area (local treatment) and contralateral placebo injections, or (2) subcutaneous ketamine contralateral to the burn (systemic treatment) and placebo in the burn area, or (3) placebo...... significant hyperalgesia. Local ketamine infiltration reduced pain during the burn injury compared with systemic treatment and placebo (P < 0.01). Heat pain thresholds were increased by local ketamine treatment compared with placebo immediately after injection (P < 0.03), and so were the mechanical pain...

  2. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J;

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine, produced mainly by the pineal gland. Melatonin has been proven to have chronobiotic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anxiolytic and sedative properties. There are also experimental and clinical data supporting an analgesic role of melatonin. In experimental...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...... may reduce anxiety, which leads to lower levels of pain. In this paper, we review the current evidence regarding the analgesic properties of melatonin in animals and humans with chronic pain....

  3. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J;

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine, produced mainly by the pineal gland. Melatonin has been proven to have chronobiotic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anxiolytic and sedative properties. There are also experimental and clinical data supporting an analgesic role of melatonin. In experimental...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid μ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...... may reduce anxiety, which leads to lower levels of pain. In this paper, we review the current evidence regarding the analgesic properties of melatonin in animals and humans with chronic pain....

  4. Dose-related analgesic effects of flupirtine.

    Hummel, T; Friedmann, T; Pauli, E.; Niebch, G.; Borbe, H. O.; Kobal, G

    1991-01-01

    1. Flupirtine is a novel and, in all probability, centrally acting, analgesic. The present investigation was conducted in order to investigate dose-related effects of perorally administered flupirtine in man, with special regard to specifically analgesic actions, employing a model based on pain-related chemosomatosensory evoked potentials and subjective intensity estimates of painful stimuli. 2. Plasma concentrations of flupirtine measured 2 h after dosing linearly increased as a function of ...

  5. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn m...... administration of dexamethasone 2 hours before a burn injury does not reduce the inflammatory-mediated changes in quantitative sensory thresholds, pain perception, or skin erythema in humans....... differences between treatments in regard to skin erythema (P >.8), thermal or mechanical thresholds (P >.2), thermal or mechanical pain response (P >.2), or mechanical secondary hyperalgesia (P >.2). Dexamethasone had no analgesic effects in normal skin. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that systemic...... model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn...

  6. Evaluation of peripheral and central analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in experimental animals

    Anand Kale

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The study showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activity of EECI which may be attributed to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. C. infortunatum Linn. as a commercial source of analgesic drug should be subjected to further research. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 912-918

  7. Local analgesic effect of tramadol is not mediated by opioid receptors in early postoperative pain in rats

    Angela Maria Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tramadol is known as a central acting analgesic drug, used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Local analgesic effect has been demonstrated, in part due to local anesthetic-like effect, but other mechanisms remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect is not known. In this study, we examined role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect of tramadol in the plantar incision model. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, intraplantar tramadol, intravenous tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol, and intravenous naloxone. After receiving the assigned drugs (tramadol 5 mg, naloxone 200 µg or 0.9% NaCl, rats were submitted to plantar incision, and withdrawal thresholds after mechanical stimuli with von Frey filaments were assessed at baseline, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after incision. RESULTS: Plantar incision led to marked mechanical hyperalgesia during the whole period of observation in the control group, no mechanical hyperalgesia were observed in intraplantar tramadol group, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol group and intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol. In the intravenous tramadol group a late increase in withdrawal thresholds (after 45 min was observed, the intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol group and intravenous naloxone remained hyperalgesic during the whole period. CONCLUSIONS: Tramadol presented an early local analgesic effect decreasing mechanical hyperalgesia induced by plantar incision. This analgesic effect was not mediated by peripheral opioid receptors.

  8. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  9. Caffeine Accelerates Absorption and Enhances the Analgesic Effect of Acetaminophen

    Renner, Bertold; Clarke, Geoff; Grattan, Tim; Beisel, Angelika; Mueller, Christian; Werner, Ulrike; Kobal, Gerd; Brune, Kay

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the analgesic effect of acetaminophen compared to a combination of both caffeine and acetaminophen or caffeine alone using tonic and phasic pain stimulation. Twenty-four subjects were treated orally with 1000 mg acetaminophen, 130 mg caffeine, and a combination of both in a 4-way crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects were assessed by means of an experimental pain model based on pain-related cortical pot...

  10. Effect of intraoperative lidocaine on anesthetic consumption, and bowel function, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast surgery

    Choi, Soo Joo; Kim, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hui Yeon; Lee, Jeong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Perioperative lidocaine infusion improves postoperative outcomes, mostly after abdominal and urologic surgeries. Knowledge of the effect of lidocaine on peripheral surgeries is limited. Presently, we investigated whether intraoperative lidocaine infusion reduced anesthetic consumption, duration of ileus, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast plastic surgeries. Methods Sixty female patients, aged 20-60 years, enrolled in this prospective study were ran...

  11. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  12. Analgesic effect of clove essential oil in mice

    Mahmoud Hosseini; Mina Kamkar Asl; Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Results obtained from literature reviews and human studies have shown the analgesic effects of clove plant in toothache. The present work was undertaken in order to investigate the possible analgesic effect of clove oil in mice. Materials and Methods: Fifty mice were divided into 5 groups: 1) Saline; 2) Essential oil (Ess) 2%, 3) Ess 5%, 4) Ess10% and 5) Ess 20%. The hot plate test (55±0.2 °C; Cut-off 60 sec) was performed as a base record 15 min before injection of drugs (Salin...

  13. [Analgesic effects of cannabinoids on central pain syndrome].

    Igon'kina, S I; Churiukanov, M V; Churiukanov, V V; Kukushkin, M L

    2011-01-01

    It was shown that cannabinoids anandamide, HU210 and WIN 55,212-2 inhibit both spontaneous episodes of pain and mechanical allodynia in rats with central pain syndrome caused by disturbance of inhibitory processes in the dorsal horns of lumbar spinal cord. The analgesic effect is most pronounced in the intrathecal route of administration. The intensity of analgesic actions of cannabinoids on the central pain syndrome in rats, depending on the drug is as follows: HU210 > WIN 55,212-2 > anandamide. PMID:22359935

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus.

    Silva, Jeane; Abebe, Worku; Sousa, S M; Duarte, V G; Machado, M I L; Matos, F J A

    2003-12-01

    Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced writhes in mice and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats, it was shown that the essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus tereticornis (ET), and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) induced analgesic effects in both models, suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, essential oil extracts from the three Eucalyptus species produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. However, no consistent results were observed for some of the parameters evaluated, both in terms of activities and dose-response relationships, reflecting the complex nature of the oil extracts and/or the assay systems used. Taken together, the data suggest that essential oil extracts of EC, ET, and EG possess central and peripheral analgesic effects as well as neutrophil-dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activities. These initial observations provide support for the reported use of the eucalyptus plant in Brazilian folk medicine. Further investigation is warranted for possible development of new classes of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from components of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. PMID:14611892

  15. Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality

    Johnson, Sarah,; Coxon, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology may serve as an effective non-pharmacological analgesic to aid pain management. During VR distraction, the individual is immersed in a game presented through a head-mounted display (HMD). The technological level of the HMD can vary, as can the use of different input devices and the inclusion of sound. While more technologically advanced designs may lead to more effective pain management the specific roles of individual components within such systems are not yet...

  16. Analgesic effect of clove essential oil in mice

    Mahmoud Hosseini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Results obtained from literature reviews and human studies have shown the analgesic effects of clove plant in toothache. The present work was undertaken in order to investigate the possible analgesic effect of clove oil in mice.Materials and Methods: Fifty mice were divided into 5 groups: 1 Saline; 2 Essential oil (Ess 2%, 3 Ess 5%, 4 Ess10% and 5 Ess 20%. The hot plate test (55±0.2 °C; Cut-off 60 sec was performed as a base record 15 min before injection of drugs (Saline or 2, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations of Essential oil and consequently repeated every 15 minutes after injection. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA test showed that maximal percent effect (MPE in animal groups treated by 5, 10 and 20% essential oil was significantly higher than saline group. Comparison between 4 treated groups showed that MPE in 10% essential group was higher than 2 and 5% groups however; there was no significant difference between 10% and 20% groups.Conclusion: The result of present study showed that clove essential oil has analgesic effect inmice using hot plate test. More investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism (s.

  17. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ginger Oil

    JIA Yong-liang; XIE Qiang-min; ZHAO Jun-ming; ZHANG Lin-hui; SUN Bao-shan; BAO Meng-jing; LI Fen-fen; SHEN Jian; SHEN Hui-jun; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the "acetic acid" and "hot-plate" test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.

  18. Impairment of aspirin antiplatelet effects by non-opioid analgesic medication

    Amin; Polzin; Thomas; Hohlfeld; Malte; Kelm; Tobias; Zeus

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay in prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases. Impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects are associated with enhanced incidence of cardiovascular events. Comedication with non-opioid analgesic drugs has been described to interfere with aspirin,resulting in impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects. Additionally,nonopioid analgesic medication has been shown to enhance the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Pain is very frequent and many patients rely on analgesic drugs to control pain. Therefore effective analgesic options without increased risk of cardiovascular events are desirable. This review focuses on commonly used nonopioid analgesics,interactions with aspirin medication and impact on cardiovascular risk.

  19. Analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of Corallocarpus epigaeus

    Subashini Uthrapathy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. The safety and efficacy profile of 85% methanolic extract of Corallocarpus epigaeus (CE was evaluated in the present study. In safety profile LD50 value was determined by carrying out an acute toxicity study. In efficacy profile, the analgesic activity was evaluated by both hot plate and tail immersion tests. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan-induced paw edema and anti-arthritic effect by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. Phytochemical screening of different CE extracts and quantitative analysis of both raw herb and 85% methanolic extract have been also carried out. The methanolic extract displayed analgesic activity by increasing the response time in both hot plate and tail immersion method. Extract exhibited 23,19% of anti-inflammatory activity and 33,59% of anti-arthritic effect in complete Freund's adjuvant induced paw edema. The CE extract increased the antioxidant level, along with a decrease of the oxidative stress developed by complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. In conclusion, CE is a rich source of phytochemicals with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  20. Non-analgesic effects of opioids

    Højsted, Jette; Kurita, Geana Paula; Kendall, Sally;

    2012-01-01

    Opioids constitute the basis for pharmacological treatment of moderate to severe pain in cancer pain and non-cancer pain patients. Their action is mediated by the activation of opioid receptors, which integrates the pain modulation system with other effects in the central nervous system including...... cognition resulting in complex interactions between pain, opioids and cognition. The literature on this complexity is sparse and information regarding the cognitive effects of opioids in chronic pain patients is substantially lacking. Two previous systematic reviews on cancer pain and non-cancer pain...... groups: no effects or worsening of cognitive function in cancer pain patients and no effect or improvements in the chronic non-cancer pain patients, however, due to methodological limitations and a huge variety of designs definite conclusions are difficult to draw from the studies. In studies of higher...

  1. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I;

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  2. Molecular mechanisms underlying the enhanced analgesic effect of oxycodone compared to morphine in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

    Karine Thibault

    Full Text Available Oxycodone is a μ-opioid receptor agonist, used for the treatment of a large variety of painful disorders. Several studies have reported that oxycodone is a more potent pain reliever than morphine, and that it improves the quality of life of patients. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of these two opioids are only partially understood. The aim of this study was to define the molecular changes underlying the long-lasting analgesic effects of oxycodone and morphine in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy induced by a chemotherapic agent, vincristine. Using a behavioural approach, we show that oxycodone maintains an optimal analgesic effect after chronic treatment, whereas the effect of morphine dies down. In addition, using DNA microarray technology on dorsal root ganglia, we provide evidence that the long-term analgesic effect of oxycodone is due to an up-regulation in GABAB receptor expression in sensory neurons. These receptors are transported to their central terminals within the dorsal horn, and subsequently reinforce a presynaptic inhibition, since only the long-lasting (and not acute anti-hyperalgesic effect of oxycodone was abolished by intrathecal administration of a GABAB receptor antagonist; in contrast, the morphine effect was unaffected. Our study demonstrates that the GABAB receptor is functionally required for the alleviating effect of oxycodone in neuropathic pain condition, thus providing new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the sustained analgesic action of oxycodone.

  3. Etodolac: analgesic effects in musculoskeletal and postoperative pain.

    Pena, M

    1990-01-01

    Numerous clinical trials have shown etodolac to be an effective analgesic. The purpose of the present report is to review results of 14 studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of etodolac in a variety of painful conditions. Presented are the results of four postsurgical pain studies, one study of acute gouty arthritis and nine studies of acute musculoskeletal disorders: acute low back pain, acute painful shoulder, tendinitis and bursitis, and acute sports injuries. A single oral dose of etodolac (25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg) was compared with aspirin (650 mg) or a combination of acetaminophen (600 mg) plus codeine (60 mg) for the relief of pain up to 12 h following oral, urogenital or orthopedic surgery. In multiple dose studies of acute gouty arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions, etodolac 200 or 300 mg twice a day (b.i.d.) or 200 mg three times a day (t.i.d.) was compared with naproxen 500 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d., diclofenac 50 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d., and piroxicam 20 or 40 mg once a day (o.d.) administered over 5 to 14 days. The efficacy of etodolac was at least equal and in some ways superior to aspirin and acetaminophen plus codeine in the relief of postsurgical pain. In studies of acute gouty arthritis, significant improvement from baseline were seen for all efficacy parameters evaluated for both the etodolac- and naproxen-treated patients. All the present studies of musculoskeletal conditions have shown etodolac to be effective and comparable in analgesic efficacy to naproxen, diclofenac or piroxicam. In summary, etodolac therapy for pain following surgery, in acute gouty arthritis and in acute musculoskeletal conditions resulted in analgesia comparable to that provided by several well-established analgesic or anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:2150571

  4. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  5. Vasorelaxant effect of the analgesic clonixin on rat aorta.

    Morales, M A; Silva, A; Brito, G; Bustamante, S; Ponce, H; Paeile, C

    1995-03-01

    1. A novel vasorelaxant effect of clonixinate of L-lysine (Clx), analgesic and anti-inflammatory, was studied in rat aortic rings. 2. Clx completely relaxed aortic rings contracted by KCl 70 mM and together with its analog flunixin exhibited lesser potency but equal efficacy than verapamil. In comparison, indomethacin, which is a more potent cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor relaxed only about 40% of the maximal contraction of aortic rings. 3. Furthermore, Clx antagonized Ca2+ dependent aortic contraction and BAY K-8644 induced aortic contraction suggesting its calcium antagonist character. 4. From these results it can be concluded that the hypotensive effect seen in rats in vivo after Clx i.v. injection arises because of vasodilatory effect of Clx and gives further support to the proposal that the pharmacological mechanism of action of Clx should be calcium antagonism. PMID:7590098

  6. The future of topical analgesics.

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain. PMID

  7. Analgesic effect of Persian Gulf Conus textile venom

    Nasim Tabaraki

    2014-10-01

    Results: SDS-PAGE indicated 12 bands ranged between 6 and 180 KDa. Finally, ten ng of Conus crude venom showed the best analgesic activity in formalin test. No death observed up to 100 mg/kg. Analgesic activity of crude venom was more significant (P

  8. Evaluation of Analgesic effects of Clove Extracton Male Offspring of Surrey Female Miceduring Lactation

    Kazem Hatami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The analgesic effects of Clove plant is due to the presence of phenolic substances. Since no study has yet evaluated the analgesic effect of this plant extract during lactation, hencethe present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic effect of clove oil orally on offspringmalemiceduringlactation. Methods: Inthe present experimental study, two groupsoffemalemice, receiving cloveoil and control groupwere used. After delivery, animalsweretreatedorallywith cloveextract at the dose of 4% on the first day of delivery. In order toassess pain,formalin was used inmaleoffspringafterthirty daysofbirth. Data were analyzed using GraphPad prismstatistical software. Results: The results of this study showed that treating lactating female mice during lactation by clove oil induced analgesic effects of male offspring and this analgesia in the chronic phase of itself was shown significantly (P<0.01. Conclusions: Analgesic effectinduced byfeedingratswithcloveextractinmalemice possibly will be favorable inclinical usein the near future.

  9. Combination of pharmacotherapy and lidocaine analgesic block of the peripheral trigeminal branches for trigeminal neuralgia: a pilot study

    Fabrizio Di Stani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical trigeminal neuralgia (CTN is treated predominantly by pharmacotherapy but side effects and unsuccessful occurs. The current study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic effect of combination of pharmacotherapy and lidocaine block. Thirteen patients with CTN managed with pharmacotherapy were recruited and assigned either to no additional treatment (Group I or to additional analgesic block (Group II. The primary endpoint was the reduction in the frequency of pain episodes in a month assessed at 30 and 90 days. Comparisons of measurements of pain, general health and depression scales were secondary endpoints. The results from the follow-up visits at 30 and 90 days showed the Group II to have larger reduction in the frequency of pain and exhibited a bigger improvement in the scores of the pain, general health and depression scales. The results from this preliminary study suggest a clinical benefit of the combination of pharmacotherapy and lidocaine block.

  10. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre;

    2016-01-01

    policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have......Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...

  11. 信息动态%Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of granule to pelvic inflammation

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of granucle to pelvic inflammation. Methods The anti-inflammatory effects were studied by dimethylbenzene-induced swelling oar in mouse, carrageenin induced paw edema and tampon-induced proliferation in rats. The analgesic effects were studied by acetic acid-induced writhing and optothermal-induced pain in mice. Results Granule to pelvic inflammation significantly reduced swelling oar in mouse, paw edema and proliferation in rats;prolonged latency of writhing test, reduced the writhing number and improved optothermal-induced analgesia percentage. Conclusion Granule to pelvic inflammation has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

  12. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    M.A. Cimmino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%, analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7% patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%, inflammatory arthritis (24.2%, soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%, nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%, and connective tissue diseases (2.6%. Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5% patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%. Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthrits were: (a partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two. Conclusions: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis.

  13. Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality.

    Johnson, Sarah; Coxon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology may serve as an effective non-pharmacological analgesic to aid pain management. During VR distraction, the individual is immersed in a game presented through a head-mounted display (HMD). The technological level of the HMD can vary, as can the use of different input devices and the inclusion of sound. While more technologically advanced designs may lead to more effective pain management the specific roles of individual components within such systems are not yet fully understood. Here, the role of supplementary auditory information was explored owing to its particular ecological relevance. Healthy adult participants took part in a series of cold-pressor trials submerging their hand in cold water for as long as possible. Individual pain tolerances were measured according to the time (in seconds) before the participant withdrew their hand. The concurrent use of a VR game and the inclusion of sound was varied systematically within participants. In keeping with previous literature, the use of a VR game increased pain tolerance across conditions. Highest pain tolerance was recorded when participants were simultaneously exposed to both the VR game and supplementary sound. The simultaneous inclusion of sound may therefore play an important role when designing VR to manage pain. PMID:27069646

  14. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  15. The effect of whole body irradiation on the action of strong analgesics of mice

    The effect of whole body irradiation of male mice with single doses of 3 and 7 Gy (60Co source) on analgesic action of three morphine-like drugs was studied. Over the first 6 days after irradiation, the analgesic effect of alfentanil and fentanyl was significantly less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones. During the subsequent period of 24 days till the end of experiment, the analgesic effect in irradiated animals gradually increased reaching and exceeding the control values. On the contrary, the analgesic effect of butorphanole was less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones, although the difference was not significantly. The difference between butorphanole and other two drugs are probably due to chemical structure and the metabolic fate in the body. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Comparison of the Analgesic Effects of Dronabinol and Smoked Marijuana in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D.; Haney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and femal...

  17. Effect of intravenous esmolol on analgesic requirements in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Ritima Dhir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Perioperative beta blockers are also being advocated for modulation of acute pain and reduction of intraoperative anesthetic requirements. This study evaluated the effect of perioperative use of esmolol, an ultra short acting beta blocker, on anesthesia and modulation of post operative pain in patients of laproscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adult ASA I & II grade patients of either sex, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups E or C according to computer generated numbers. Group E- Patients who received loading dose of injection esmolol 0.5 mg/kg in 30 ml isotonic saline, before induction of anesthesia, followed by an IV infusion of esmolol 0.05 μg/kg/min till the completion of surgery and Group C- Patients who received 30 ml of isotonic saline as loading dose and continuous infusion of isotonic saline at the same rate as the esmolol group till the completion of surgery. Results: The baseline MAP at 0 minute was almost similar in both the groups. At 8th minute (time of intubation, MAP increased significantly in group C as compared to group E and remained higher than group E till the end of procedure. Intraoperatively, 16.67% of patients in group C showed somatic signs as compared to none in group E. The difference was statistically significant. 73.33% of patients in group C required additional doses of Inj.Fentanyl as compared to 6.67% in group E. Conclusions: We conclude that intravenous esmolol influences the analgesic requirements both intraoperatively as well as postoperatively by modulation of the sympathetic component of the pain i.e. heart rate and blood pressure.

  18. ANALGESIC AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF TOTAL EXTRACT, FLAVONOID FRACTION AND VOLATILE OIL OF SALVIA HYDRANGEA

    V.A HAJ HASHEMI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gol-e-arvaneh with the scientific name of salvia hydrangea (Labiatea belongs to Salvia genus. In traditional medicine it has been used as analgesic, relieving headache, cold remedy, antipyretic and diuretic. Since until now this plant has not been investigated pharacologically. This study was aimed to find any anti-inflammatory or analgesic activity of the plant. Methods. At first, total extract, flavonoid fraction and volatile oil was prepared. Analgesic effect was assessed using light tail flick and acetic acid writhing test. Male wistar rats (180-220g and mice (25±2g were used in these tests. Carrageen in test was used for assessing anti-inflammatory activity. Results. Total extract and flavonoid fraction could not produce analgesic effect in light tail flick test, while morphine as a standard drug 15 and 30 min. after administration produced 35% and 90% of MPE respectively. In writhing test, total extract and flavonoid fraction had considerable analgesic effect which was comparable to that of indomethacin. Results of Carageenin test showed that both total extract and flavonoid fraction had marked anti-inflammatory activity and volatile oil had only a slight effect. Discussion. Since potent drugs (such as opioids show positive response to light tail flick test, it seems that the plant lacks such compounds. Considerable analgesic activity of total extract and flavonoid fraction in writhing test and also their anti-inflammatory activity indicate that this plant is probably useful for relieving pains, particularly with inflammatory origin.

  19. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects.

    Kristensen, David M; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Gaudriault, Pierre; Lesné, Laurianne; Serrano, Tania; Main, Katharina M; Jégou, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have endocrine disruptive properties capable of altering animal and human reproductive function from fetal life to adulthood in both sexes. Medical and public awareness about these health concerns should be increased, particularly among pregnant women. PMID:27150289

  20. Analgesic Effects of Intrathecal Curcumin in the Rat Formalin Test

    Han, Yong Ku; Lee, Seong Heon; Jeong, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Sun; Yoon, Myung Ha; Kim, Woong Mo

    2012-01-01

    Background Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, and antinociceptive activity when administered systemically. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal curcumin in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were prepared for intrathecal catheterization. Pain was evoked by injection of formalin solution (5%, 50 µl) into the hind paw. Curcumin doses of 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 µg were delivered thr...

  1. Analgesic Effects of 1st Generation Anti-histamines in Mice.

    Takahashi, Mebae; Shima, Kazuhiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sugawara, Shunji; Fujita, Takuo; Tadano, Takeshi; Watanabe, Makoto; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Endo, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is sensed, transmitted, and modified by a variety of mediators and receptors. Histamine is a well-known mediator of pain. In addition to their anti-histaminic effects, the classical, or 1st generation, anti-histamines (1st AHs) possess, to various degrees, anti-muscarinic, anti-serotonergic, anti-adrenergic, and other pharmacologic effects. Although there have been attempts to use 1st AHs as analgesics and/or analgesic adjuvants, the advent of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) discouraged such trials. We previously reported that in patients with temporomandibular disorders, osteoporosis, and/or osteoarthritis, the analgesic effects of certain 1st AHs (chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine) are superior to those of the NSAIDs flurbiprofen and indomethacin. Here, we compared analgesic effects among 1st AHs and NSAIDs against responses shown by mice to intraperitoneally injected 0.7% acetic acid. Since 1st AHs are water soluble, we selected water-soluble NSAIDs. For direct comparison, drugs were intravenously injected 30 min before the above tests. Histamine-H1-receptor-deficient (H1R-KO) mice were used for evaluating H1-receptor-independent effects. The tested 1st AHs (especially cyproheptadine) displayed or tended to display analgesic effects comparable to those of NSAIDs in normal and H1R-KO mice. Our data suggest that the anti-serotonergic and/or anti-adrenergic effects of 1st AHs make important contributions to their analgesic effects. Moreover, combination of a 1st AH with an NSAID (cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor) produced remarkably potent analgesic effects. We propose that a 1st AH, by itself or in combination with a cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor, should undergo testing to evaluate its usefulness in analgesia. PMID:27040636

  2. Effects of analgesics and antidepressants on TREK-2 and TRESK currents.

    Park, Hyun; Kim, Eun-Jin; Han, Jaehee; Han, Jongwoo; Kang, Dawon

    2016-07-01

    TWIK-related K(+) channel-2 (TREK-2) and TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) channel are members of two-pore domain K(+) channel family. They are well expressed and help to set the resting membrane potential in sensory neurons. Modulation of TREK-2 and TRESK channels are involved in the pathogenesis of pain, and specifi c activators of TREK-2 and TRESK may be benefi cial for the treatment of pain symptoms. However, the effect of commonly used analgesics on TREK-2 and TRESK channels are not known. Here, we investigated the effect of analgesics on TREK-2 and TRESK channels. The effects of analgesics were examined in HEK cells transfected with TREK-2 or TRESK. Amitriptyline, citalopram, escitalopram, and fluoxetine significantly inhibited TREK-2 and TRESK currents in HEK cells (p<0.05, n=10). Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, nabumetone, and bupropion inhibited TRESK, but had no effect on TREK-2. These results show that all analgesics tested in this study inhibit TRESK activity. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms by which the analgesics modulate TREK-2 and TRESK differently. PMID:27382354

  3. Effect of drugs modulating serotonergic system on the analgesic action of paracetamol in mice

    Karandikar, Yogita S.; Belsare, Peeyush; Panditrao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The underlying mechanisms for the analgesic action of paracetamol (PCT) are still under considerable debate. It has been recently proposed that PCT may act by modulating the Serotonin system. This study was conducted to verify the influence of Serotonin modulating drugs (buspirone, ondansetron, and fluoxetine) on the analgesic effect of PCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult albino mice were assigned to five groups: Normal saline, PCT, fluoxetine selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) + PCT, buspirone (5-HT1A Agonist) + PCT, and ondansetron (5HT3 antagonist) + PCT. Hot-plate and formalin test were used to determine pain threshold, tests being conducted 60 min after the last treatment. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance followed by Dunnet's test. Results: Coadministration of buspirone with PCT attenuated the antinociceptive activity of PCT (P < 0.001), whereas fluoxetine + PCT increased pain threshold in the hot-plate and formalin test (P = 0.0046). Analgesic effect of PCT was not affected by ondansetron in formalin models. It attenuated analgesic action of PCT in hot-plate test (P = 0.0137). Conclusion: The results suggest that 5-HT1 receptors could also be responsible for the analgesic effect of PCT. Also, higher analgesia is produced by co-administration of SSRI (fluoxetine) + PCT. PMID:27298498

  4. [Does iv paracetamol have preemptive analgesic effect on lumber disc surgeries?].

    Toygar, Pinar; Akkaya, Taylan; Ozkan, Derya; Ozel, Ozgür; Uslu, Ebru; Gümüş, Haluk

    2008-04-01

    In this study, postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous paracetamol administration in lumbar discectomy patients were evaluated. After the approval of ethic committee, 90 patients undergoing lumbar disc hernia operation randomly divided into 3 groups. After standart general anesthesia, patients in group I received 1 gr i.v. paracetamol infusion 15 minutes before the induction, patients in group II received i.v. Paracetamol infusion started 15 minutes before the end of surgery. i.v morphine via PCA is used for postoperative analgesia maintenance and patients pain scores were assessed with VAS at 0., 1., 2., 3., 6., 12. and 24. hours. First analgesic requirement time, total morphine consumption and side effects were recorded. In group I and II, VAS scores, 24 h morphine consumption and first morphine requirement times were significantly different comparing to group III. As a result, we think that in lumbar discectomy cases preoperative administration of 1 gr paracetamol has no preemptive analgesic effect. PMID:19021006

  5. Study of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Lappaconitine Gelata

    WANG Ying-zi; XIAO YONG-qing; ZHANG Chao; SUN Xiu-mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lappaconitine gelata (LA). Methods:The writhing response induced by acetic acid, the pain response induced by formaldehyde and hot plate method in the mouse, and the paw edema induced by egg albumen in the rat and the ear edema induced by xylene in the mouse were used for investigation on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of LA.Results: The writhing response induced by acetic acid, the pain response induced by formaldehyde and hot plate methods was significantly inhibited by LA. In addition, the paw edema induced by egg albumen in the rat and the ear edema induced by xylene in the mouse were all significantly suppressed by LA. Conclusion:LA has the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  6. Analgesic effects of lappaconitine in leukemia bone pain in a mouse model

    Xiao-Cui Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone pain is a common and severe symptom in cancer patients. The present study employed a mouse model of leukemia bone pain by injection K562 cells into tibia of mouse to evaluate the analgesic effects of lappacontine. Our results showed that the lappaconitine treatment at day 15, 17 and 19 could effectively reduce the spontaneous pain scoring values, restore reduced degree in the inclined-plate test induced by injection of K562 cells, as well as restore paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency induced by injection of K562 cells to the normal levels. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of lappaconitine’s analgesic effects may be related to affect the expression levels of endogenous opioid system genes (POMC, PENK and MOR, as well as apoptosis-related genes (Xiap, Smac, Bim, NF-κB and p53. Our present results indicated that lappaconitine may become a new analgesic agent for leukemia bone pain management.

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  8. Translational pain research: Evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    Anne Estrup Olesen; Trine Andresen; Lona Louring Christrup; Richard N Upton

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can be achieved through standardized experimental human pain models. Experimental pain models in healthy volunteers are advantageous forevaluation of analgesic action, as this is often difficult to assess in the clinic because of confounding factors such as sedation, nausea and general malaise. These pain models facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical treatment of visceral pain. To improve treatment of visceral pain, it is important to study the underlying mechanisms of pain and the action of analgesics used for its treatment. An experimental pain model activates different modalities and can be used to investigate the mechanism of action of different analgesics in detail. In combination with pharmacokinetic studies and objective assessment such as electroencephalography, new information re- garding a given drug substance and its effects can be obtained. Results from experimental human visceral pain research can bridge the gap in knowledge between animal studies and clinical condition in patients suffering from visceral pain, and thus constitute the missing link in translational pain research.

  9. Analgesic efficacy of cerebral and peripheral electrical stimulation in chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomized, double-blind, factorial clinical trial

    Hazime, Fuad Ahmad; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Maretto, Rafaela Lasso; Carvalho, Nilza Aparecida de Almeida; Hasue, Renata Hydee; João, Silvia Maria Amado

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic non-specific low back pain is a major socioeconomic public health issue worldwide and, despite the volume of research in the area, it is still a difficult-to-treat condition. The conservative analgesic therapy usually comprises a variety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The neuromatrix pain model and the new findings on the process of chronicity of pain point to a higher effectiveness of treatments t...

  10. Translational pain research: evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Christrup, Lona Louring; Upton, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    analgesics in detail. In combination with pharmacokinetic studies and objective assessment such as electroencephalography, new information regarding a given drug substance and its effects can be obtained. Results from experimental human visceral pain research can bridge the gap in knowledge between animal...... achieved through standardized experimental human pain models. Experimental pain models in healthy volunteers are advantageous for evaluation of analgesic action, as this is often difficult to assess in the clinic because of confounding factors such as sedation, nausea and general malaise. These pain models...... facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical...

  11. Analgesic effect of interferon-alpha via mu opioid receptor in the rat.

    Jiang, C L; Son, L X; Lu, C L; You, Z D; Wang, Y X; Sun, L Y; Cui, R Y; Liu, X Y

    2000-03-01

    Using the tail-flick induced by electro-stimulation as a pain marker, it was found that pain threshold (PT) was significantly increased after injecting interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) into the lateral ventricle of rats. This effect was dosage-dependent and abolished by monoclonal antibody (McAb) to IFN alpha. Naloxone could inhibit the analgesic effect of IFN alpha, suggesting that the analgesic effect of IFN alpha be related to the opioid receptors. Beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA), the mu specific receptor antagonist could completely block the analgesic effect of IFN alpha. The selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist, ICI174,864 and the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-BNI both failed to prevent the analgesic effect of IFN alpha. IFN alpha could significantly inhibit the production of the cAMP stimulated by forskolin in SK-N-SH cells expressing the mu-opioid receptor, not in NG108-15 cells expressing the delta-opioid receptor uniformly. The results obtained provide further evidence for opioid activity of IFN alpha and suggest that this effect is mediated by central opioid receptors of the mu subtype. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that multiple actions of cytokines, such as immunoregulatory and neuroregulatory effects, might be mediated by distinct domains of cytokines interacting with different receptors. PMID:10676852

  12. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery

    Prins, Sandra A.; Van Dijk, Monique; Van Leeuwen, Pim; Searle, Susan; Anderson, Brian J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous and rectal paracetamol were compared in nonventilated infants after craniofacial surgery in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Methods: During surgery all infants (6 months-2 years) received a rectal loading dose of 40 mg.kg

  13. The Influence of Genotype Polymorphism on Morphine Analgesic Effect for Postoperative Pain in Children

    Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Although opioids are the most commonly used medications to control postoperative pain in children, the analgesic effects could have a large inter-individual variability according to genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the analgesic effect of morphine for postoperative pain in children. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 88 healthy children undergoing tonsillectomy, who received morphine during the operation. The postoperative pain score, frequency of rescue analgesics, and side effects of morphine were assessed in the post-anesthesia care unit. The children were genotyped for OPRM1 A118G, ABCB1 C3435T, and COMT Val158Met. Results Children with at least one G allele for OPRM1 (AG/GG) had higher postoperative pain scores compared with those with the AA genotype at the time of discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (P = 0.025). Other recovery profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant relationship between genotypes and postoperative pain scores in analysis of ABCB1 and COMT polymorphisms. Conclusions Genetic polymorphism at OPRM1 A118G, but not at ABCB1 C3435T and COMT Val158Met, influences the analgesic effect of morphine for immediate acute postoperative pain in children. PMID:26839669

  14. Ibuprofen as a pre-emptive analgesic is as effective as rofecoxib for mandibular third molar surgery

    Morse, Zac; Tump, Anna; Kevelham, Ester

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pre-emptive analgesic effect of rofecoxib, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, with a more traditional and commonly used analgesic, ibuprofen, for mandibular third molar surgery, utilizing a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clin

  15. Analgesic drugs

    Kerec Kos, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In the management of pain analgesic drugs are chosen regarding the intensity and type of pain. The selection of analgesic drug depends on pharmacokinetic properties of the drug and available pharmaceutical dosage forms. Beside non-opioid analgesics (non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen), opioid analgesic drugs have an important role in the treatment of pain. Pri zdravljenju bolečine izberemo analgetik glede na jakost in vrsto bolečine. Na izbiro ustreznega analgetika vplivaj...

  16. Evaluation of peripheral and central analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in experimental animals

    Anand Kale; Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. (Verbenaceae) is an important and widely used medicinal plant. Though variously used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Homeopathy system of medicine in the case of ailments such as diarrhoea, skin disorders, venereal and scrofulous complaints, wounds, post-natal complications, as anti-helminthic, and external applications on tumors, the plant needs thorough investigation for its specific medicinal activity. This study evaluates both the central and peripheral...

  17. Comparing the Duration of the Analgesic Effects of Intravenous and Rectal Acetaminophen Following Tonsillectomy in Children

    Haddadi, Soudabeh; Marzban, Shideh; Karami, Mohammad Seddigh; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Parvizi, Arman; Naderi Nabi, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain control (especially, after adenotonsillectomy) has a very important effect on recovery time, hospitalization duration, hemodynamic disorders, bleeding, nausea, vomiting and medical costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of intravenous and rectal acetaminophen on controlling post-adenotonsillectomy pain in children, and duration of their analgesic effects. Patients and Methods: In this randomized double-blinded clinica...

  18. Post-operative analgesic effects of paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations

    Dahl, Jørgen Berg; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2014-01-01

    well-documented 'gold standards' exist. The aim of the present topical, narrative review is to provide an update of the evidence for post-operative analgesic efficacy with the most commonly used, systemic non-opioid drugs, paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/COX-2 antagonists......, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids, and combinations of these. The review is based on data from previous systematic reviews with meta-analyses, investigating effects of non-opioid analgesics on pain, opioid-requirements, and opioid-related adverse effects. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin....... Trials of pregabalin > 300 mg/day indicated a morphine-sparing effect of 13.4 (4, 22.8) mg morphine/24 h. Notably, though, the available evidence for additive or synergistic effects of most combination regimens was sparse or lacking. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, selective COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin all...

  19. Analgesic effect of highly reversible ω-conotoxin FVIA on N type Ca2+ channels

    Kim Hyun Jeong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-type Ca2+ channels (Cav2.2 play an important role in the transmission of pain signals to the central nervous system. ω-Conotoxin (CTx-MVIIA, also called ziconotide (Prialt®, effectively alleviates pain, without causing addiction, by blocking the pores of these channels. Unfortunately, CTx-MVIIA has a narrow therapeutic window and produces serious side effects due to the poor reversibility of its binding to the channel. It would thus be desirable to identify new analgesic blockers with binding characteristics that lead to fewer adverse side effects. Results Here we identify a new CTx, FVIA, from the Korean Conus Fulmen and describe its effects on pain responses and blood pressure. The inhibitory effect of CTx-FVIA on N-type Ca2+ channel currents was dose-dependent and similar to that of CTx-MVIIA. However, the two conopeptides exhibited markedly different degrees of reversibility after block. CTx-FVIA effectively and dose-dependently reduced nociceptive behavior in the formalin test and in neuropathic pain models, and reduced mechanical and thermal allodynia in the tail nerve injury rat model. CTx-FVIA (10 ng also showed significant analgesic effects on writhing in mouse neurotransmitter- and cytokine-induced pain models, though it had no effect on acute thermal pain and interferon-γ induced pain. Interestingly, although both CTx-FVIA and CTx-MVIIA depressed arterial blood pressure immediately after administration, pressure recovered faster and to a greater degree after CTx-FVIA administration. Conclusions The analgesic potency of CTx-FVIA and its greater reversibility could represent advantages over CTx-MVIIA for the treatment of refractory pain and contribute to the design of an analgesic with high potency and low side effects.

  20. Evaluation of analgesic effect of local administration of morphine after iliac crest bone graft harvesting: A double blind study

    Devinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Pain is a complex process influenced by both physiological and psychological factors. In spite of an armamentarium of analgesic drugs and techniques available to combat post-operative pain, appropriate selection, and effective management for relief of post-operative pain still poses unique challenges. The discovery of peripheral opioid receptors has led to growing interest in the use of locally applied opioids (intra-articular, intra-pleural, intra-peritoneal, and perineural for managing acute pain. As bone graft harvesting is associated with significant post-operative pain and there is a paucity of literature on the use of peripheral opioids at the iliac crest bone harvesting site, the present study was planned to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of local administration of morphine after iliac crest bone graft harvesting. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients, 20-50 years of age scheduled to undergo elective surgery for delayed and non-union fracture both bone leg with bone grafting under general anaesthesia (GA were randomly assigned to one of the four groups of 15 patients each: group 1: 2.5 ml normal saline (NS +2.5 ml NS infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 1 ml NS intramuscularly (i/m; Group 2: 2.5 ml NS + 2.5 ml NS infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 5 mg morphine in 1 ml i/m.; Group 3: 2.5 mg (2.5 ml morphine + 2.5 mg (2.5 ml morphine infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 1 ml NS i/m; Group 4: 0.5 mg naloxone (2.5 ml +5 mg (2.5 ml morphine infiltrated into the harvest site at 2 sites + 1 ml NS i/m. Pain from the bone graft site and operative site was assessed for 24 h post-operatively. Results: The patients who had received morphine infiltration (Group 3 had significantly less pain scores at the graft site at 4, 6, and 10 post-operative hours. They also had significantly less morphine consumption and overall better pain relief as compared to the other groups. Conclusions

  1. The Role of Spinal Dopaminergic Transmission in the Analgesic Effect of Nefopam on Rat Inflammatory Pain

    Kim, Do Yun; Chae, Joo Wung; Lim, Chang Hun; Heo, Bong Ha; Park, Keun Suk; Lee, Hyung Gon; Choi, Jeong Il; Yoon, Myung Ha; Kim, Woong Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background Nefopam has been known as an inhibitor of the reuptake of monoamines, and the noradrenergic and/or serotonergic system has been focused on as a mechanism of its analgesic action. Here we investigated the role of the spinal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the antinociceptive effect of nefopam administered intravenously or intrathecally. Methods The effects of intravenously and intrathecally administered nefopam were examined using the rat formalin test. Then we performed a microdi...

  2. Analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after total abdominal hysterectomy

    Røjskjaer, Jesper O; Gade, Erik; Kiel, Louise B;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ropivacaine compared with placebo as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial following the CONSORT criteria. SETTING: Hvidovre...... ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. As part of a multimodal regimen the transversus abdominis plane block showed some effect on pain scores at rest only in the early postoperative period....

  3. Flexibilide Obtained from Cultured Soft Coral Has Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Analgesic Effects through the Upregulation of Spinal Transforming Growth Factor-β1 in Neuropathic Rats

    Nan-Fu Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuroinflammation plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. The compound flexibilide, which can be obtained from cultured soft coral, possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in the rat carrageenan peripheral inflammation model. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive properties of flexibilide in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI model of neuropathic pain. First, we found that a single intrathecal (i.t. administration of flexibilide significantly attenuated CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia at 14 days after surgery. Second, i.t. administration of 10-μg flexibilide twice daily was able to prevent the development of thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing deficits in CCI rats. Third, i.t. flexibilide significantly inhibited CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes, as well as the upregulated proinflammatory enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Furthermore, flexibilide attenuated the CCI-induced downregulation of spinal transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 at 14 days after surgery. Finally, i.t. SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, blocked the analgesic effects of flexibilide in CCI rats. Our results suggest that flexibilide may serve as a therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain. In addition, spinal TGF-β1 may be involved in the anti-neuroinflammatory and analgesic effects of flexibilide.

  4. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  5. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  6. Peripherally applied opioids for postoperative pain

    Nielsen, B N; Henneberg, S W; Schmiegelow, K;

    2015-01-01

    2013), Embase (1980 to June 2013), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6). Randomized controlled trials investigating the postoperative analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids vs. systemic opioids or placebo, measured by pain intensity...... scores, consumption of supplemental analgesics and time to first analgesic were included. Trials with sample sizes of fewer than 10 patients per treatment group or trials with opioids administered intra-articularly or as peripheral nerve blocks were excluded. RESULTS: Data from 26 studies, including 1531...

  7. The unsolved case of "bone-impairing analgesics": the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism.

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Raffa, Robert B; Mattia, Consalvo

    2015-01-01

    The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1) the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2) reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3) chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine). Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ≥100 mg morphine daily) should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. PMID:25848298

  8. Phytochemical, analgesic, antibacterial, and cytotoxic effects of Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt leaf extract.

    Abu Ahmed, A M; Sharmen, Farjana; Mannan, Adnan; Rahman, Md Atiar

    2015-10-01

    This research evaluated the phytochemical contents as well as the analgesic, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial effects of the methanolic extract of Alpinia nigra leaf. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using established methods. The analgesic effects of the extract were measured with the formalin test and tail immersion test. The antibacterial activity of the extract was evaluated using the disc diffusion technique. Cytotoxicity was assessed with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance using statistical software (SPSS, Version 19.0). The qualitative phytochemical screening of A. nigra leaf extract showed the presence of medicinally active secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides, and saponins. The extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg revealed a prevailed central nociception increasing the reaction time in response to thermal stimulation. The extract also showed a response to chemical nociceptors, causing pain inhibition in the late phase. The leaf extract (2 mg/disc) showed mild antibacterial activity compared to tetracycline (50 μg/disc). In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LC50 (lethal concentration 50) value of the extract was found to be 57.12 μg/mL, implying a promising cytotoxic effect. The results evidenced the moderate analgesic and antibacterial effects with pronounced cytotoxic capability. PMID:26587396

  9. Analgesic effect of preoperative versus intraoperative dexamethasone after laparoscopic cholecystectomy with multimodal analgesia

    Lim, Se Hun; Jang, Eun Ho; KIM, Myoung-Hun; Cho, Kwangrae; Lee, Jeong Han; Lee, Kun Moo; Cheong, Soon Ho; Kim, Young-Jae; Shin, Chee-Mahn

    2011-01-01

    Background Pain after laparoscopy is multifactorial and different treatments have been proposed to provide pain relief. Multimodal analgesia is now recommended to prevent and treat post-laparoscopy pain. Dexamethasone is effective in reducing postoperative pain. The timing of steroid administration seems to be important. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of preoperative intravenous dexamethasone 1 hour before versus during laparoscopic cholecystectomy with multimodal analgesia. Methods One ...

  10. Analgesic effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy versus ultrasound therapy in chronic tennis elbow

    Paweł LIZIS

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the analgesic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy with those of ultrasound therapy in patients with chronic tennis elbow. [Subjects] Fifty patients with tennis elbow were randomized to receive extracorporeal shock wave therapy or ultrasound therapy. [Methods] The extracorporeal shock wave therapy group received 5 treatments once per week. Meanwhile, the ultrasound group received 10 treatments 3 times per week. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue ...

  11. Analgesic effect of Minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerv...

  12. Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of carprofen in medetomidine premedicated dogs undergoing ovariectomy

    Seliškar Alenka; Rostaher Ana; Ostrouška Maja; Butinar J.

    2005-01-01

    Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of pre-operative administration of carprofen were investigated in 16 medetomidine-premedicated dogs undergoing elective ovariectomy. Dogs were randomly allocated into carprofen (n=8; 4 mg/kg, intramuscularly) or placebo group (n = 8). After medetomidine (1000 [xg/m2, intramuscularly) premedication, they were induced with propofol (1 mg/kg, intravenously) and maintained with isoflurane (FE'ISO 1.0 %) in 100% oxygen. During anaesthesia, t...

  13. The Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Morphine and Paracetamol in the Patients Undergoing Laparotomy, Using PCA Method

    Yaghoubi, Siamak; Pourfallah, Reza; Barikani, Ameneh; Kayalha, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: postoperative pain increases the activity of the sympathetic system, causes hypermetabolic conditions, retains salt and water, increases glucose, fatty acid lactate and oxygen consumption, weakens the immunity system which delays wound healing. Our object was comparison of the analgesic effect of morphine and paracetamol in the patients undergoing laparotomy, using PCA method. Method: Seventy patients who had undergone laparotomy were studied using double blind randomized clinical ...

  14. The analgesic effect of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Ra, Yoon Suk; Kim, Chi Hyo; Lee, Guie Yong; Han, Jong In

    2010-01-01

    Background Several methods are performed to control the pain after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Recently, the transverse abdominis plane block has been proposed to compensate for the problems developed by preexisting methods. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block (US-TAP block) and compare efficacy according to the concentration of local analgesics in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Fifty-four pati...

  15. The effect of acupressure at SP6 point on analgesic taking in women during labor

    Parisa Samad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the potential side effects of analgesics and anaesthetic drugs to control the labour pains, it is possible to replace non-medical method for palliative treatment. The purpose of this research is to assess the effect of acupressure in spleen point 6 (SP6 on the amount of analgesic drug taking during labour. Materials and Method: We conducted one sided blind randomized clinical trial in 2008. 131 term pregnant women randomly selected and divided into three groups; including one experimental group (pressure on SP6:41 persons and two control groups (SP6 touch: 41 cases and common care: 49 persons. The data has been analyzed by using the descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS-16 software.Results: Comparing the average amounts of the consumed drug between three groups showed a significant decrease in the experimental group more than the other two control groups (p=0.006. The average amount of consumed pethidine in the experimental group showed a significant decrease (p=0.02.Conclusion: The findings of our study showed that the pressure on SP6 is an effective method to decrease the amount of analgesic consumption in labor specially pethidine

  16. Assimilation: central and peripheral effects

    Weert, C.M.M. de; Kruysbergen, N.A.W.H. van

    1997-01-01

    Assimilation and contrast have opposite effects: Contrast leads to an increase of perceived differences between neighbouring fields, whereas assimilation leads to a reduction. It is relatively easy to demonstrate these effects, but the precise localisation of these effects in the perceptual system is not yet possible. In an experiment the strength of assimilation effects was modified by adding spatial noise. By varying the localisation in perceived space of the added noise (by presentation of...

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Mohammad M. Hassan; Shahneaz A. Khan; Amir H. Shaikat; Md. Emran Hossain; Md. Ahasanul Hoque; Md Hasmat Ullah; Saiful Islam

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight...

  18. A comparison Comparison between analgesic effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of mentha longifolia and morphine in male rats

    Ezatollah Paknia; Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani; Mohammad Hossain Dashti-Rahmatabadi; Majid Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Long-term consumption of many drugs followed by reduction of their effectiveness has necessitated performing research on new analgesics .Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of mentha longifolia and morphine in mice using writhing and hot plate tests. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 70 male rats were divided into 7 equal groups. The groups included the control, three experimental groups receiving 400, 800, or 1600 m...

  19. Effect of intravenous esmolol on analgesic requirements in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Ritima Dhir; Mirley Rupinder Singh; Tej Kishan Kaul; Anurag Tewari; Ripul Oberoi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Perioperative beta blockers are also being advocated for modulation of acute pain and reduction of intraoperative anesthetic requirements. This study evaluated the effect of perioperative use of esmolol, an ultra short acting beta blocker, on anesthesia and modulation of post operative pain in patients of laproscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adult ASA I & II grade patients of either sex, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anes...

  20. Effect of some analgesics on paraoxonase-1 purified from human serum.

    Ekinci, Deniz; Beydemir, Sükrü

    2009-08-01

    The in vitro effects of the analgesic drugs, lornoxicam, indomethacin, tenoxicam, diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen and lincomycine, on the activity of purified human serum paraoxonase (hPON1) (EC 3.1.8.1.) were evaluated. hPON1 was purified from human serum with a final specific activity of 3840 U mg(-1) and a purity of 25.3 % using simple chromatographic methods, including DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange and Sepharose 4B-L-tyrozine-1-napthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated a single protein band corresponding to hPON1. The six analgesics dose-dependently decreased in vitro hPON1 activity, with IC(50) values for lornoxicam, indomethacin, tenoxicam, diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen and lincomycine of 0.136, 0.195, 0.340, 1.639, 6.23 and 9.638 mM, respectively. K(i) constants were 0.009, 0.097, 0.306, 0.805, 13.010 and 11.116 mM, respectively. Analgesics showed different inhibition mechanisms: lornoxicam, diclofenac sodium and lincomycine were uncompetitive, indomethacin and tenoxicam were competitive, ketoprofen was noncompetitive. According to the results, inhibition potency was lornoxicam>indomethacin>tenoxicam> diclofenac sodium>ketoprofen> lincomycine. PMID:19548782

  1. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunostimulatory effects of Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae bark

    Roseane Leandra da Rosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae is a plant widely used for treatment of various inflammatory and infectious conditions; however few reports discuss its biological properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects as well as the macrophage activity in mice treated with the hydroalcoholic crude extract of L. divaricata(CLD. Thin layer chromatography revealed presence of epicathequin, stigmasterol, lupeol and α,β-amyrin in the extract. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, animals were subjected to paw edema induced by carrageenan test, writhing, formalin and capsaicin tests. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by adhesion and phagocytic capacity, lysosomal volume, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production by peritoneal macrophages, after daily treatment with CLD for 15 days. CLD promoted reduction in paw edema (36.8% and 50.2%; p<0.05 at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, inhibited writhing behavior at the higher dose (64.4%, p<0.05, reduced formalin reactivity (81.2% and 91.6% at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, p<0.05, and reduced capsaicin reactivity by 63.9% (300 mg/kg. CLD (200 mg• kg-1• day-1 increased phagocytosis capacity of macrophages (~3 fold, p<0.05, neutral red uptake (~50%, p<0.001, and ROS production (~90%, p<0.001. These data suggest that CLD possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunostimulatory properties.

  2. Analgesic effects of intra-articular fentanyl, pethidine and dexamethasone after knee arthroscopic surgery

    H Saryazd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many different methods have been used in an effort to provide adequate analgesia after knee arthroscopic surgery. In this study analgesic effect of intra-articular fentanyl, pethidine and dexamethasone was compared. METHODS: In a double blind randomized study 48 male patients undergoing knee arthroscopic meniscectomy were allocated to groups receiving intra-articular fentanyl 50 µg or pethidine 20 mg or dexamethasone 8 mg at the end of arthroscopy during general aesthesia. Postoperative pain scores using visual analogue scale were measured and also analgesic requirements and the time of ability to walk were recorded. RESULTS: Pain scores at one, two, six and 24 h after intra-articular injection were not significantly different for fentanyl and pethidine but were higher significantly for dexamethasone at all four mentioned times. The mean average time of ability to walk was significantly longer for dexamethasone. The analgesic requirements during the first 24 h after intraarticular injection were significantly greater only for dexamethasone too. CONCLUSION: Better postoperative analgesia, less pain score and shorter time to walk were achieved by fentanyl and pethidine in comparison to dexamethasone but the results were not significantly different between fentanyl group and pethidine. KEYWORDS: Arthroscopy, opioid, pain.

  3. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene;

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a superior analgesic effect of favorite music over other passive or active distractive tasks. However, it is unclear what mediates this effect. In this study we investigated to which extent distraction, emotional valence and cognitive styles may explain part of the...... of valence they relieved pain to a similar degree. The emotional ratings of the conditions were correlated with the amount of pain relief and cognitive styles seemed to influence the analgesia effect. These findings suggest that the pain relieving effect previously seen in relation to music may be at...... least partly mediated by distraction, emotional factors and cognitive styles rather than by the music itself....

  4. [Analgesics in geriatric patients. Adverse side effects and interactions].

    Gosch, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Pain is a widespread symptom in clinical practice. Older adults and chronically ill patients are particularly affected. In multimorbid geriatric patients, pharmacological pain treatment is an extension of a previously existing multimedication. Besides the efficacy of pain treatment, drug side effects and drug-drug interactions have to be taken into account to minimize the health risk for these patients. Apart from the number of prescriptions, the age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes significantly increase the risk among older adults. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is widespread but NSAIDs have the highest risk of adverse drug reactions and drug interactions. In particular, the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and coagulation systems are affected. Apart from the known toxic effect on the liver (in high doses), paracetamol (acetaminophen) has similar risks although to a lesser degree. According to current data, metamizol is actually better than its reputation suggests. The risk of potential drug interactions seems to be low. Apart from the risk of sedation in combination with other drugs, tramadol and other opioids can induce the serotonin syndrome. Among older adults, especially in the case of polypharmacy, an individualized approach should be considered instead of sticking to the pain management recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to minimize drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. PMID:26152872

  5. Effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on hemodynamic changes, analgesic requirement, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations

    Serpil Dagdelen Dogan; Faik Emre Ustun; Elif Bengi Sener; Ersin Koksal; Yasemin Burcu Ustun; Cengiz Kaya; Fatih Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. METHODS: The first group (n = 30) received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5 mg/kg/min and the second group (n = 30) received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1 mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and rec...

  6. Spider peptide Phα1β induces analgesic effect in a model of cancer pain.

    Rigo, Flavia Karine; Trevisan, Gabriela; Rosa, Fernanda; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Cueto, Ana Paula; de Castro Junior, Célio José; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurelio; Cordeiro, Marta do N; Richardson, Michael; Ferreira, Juliano; Gomez, Marcus V

    2013-09-01

    The marine snail peptide ziconotide (ω-conotoxin MVIIA) is used as an analgesic in cancer patients refractory to opioids, but may induce severe adverse effects. Animal venoms represent a rich source of novel drugs, so we investigated the analgesic effects and the side-effects of spider peptide Phα1β in a model of cancer pain in mice with or without tolerance to morphine analgesia. Cancer pain was induced by the inoculation of melanoma B16-F10 cells into the hind paw of C57BL/6 mice. After 14 days, painful hypersensitivity was detected and Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA (10-100 pmol/site) was intrathecally injected to evaluate the development of antinociception and side-effects in control and morphine-tolerant mice. The treatment with Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA fully reversed cancer-related painful hypersensitivity, with long-lasting results, at effective doses 50% of 48 (32-72) or 33 (21-53) pmol/site, respectively. Phα1β produced only mild adverse effects, whereas ω-conotoxin MVIIA induced dose-related side-effects in mice at analgesic doses (estimated toxic dose 50% of 30 pmol/site). In addition, we observed that Phα1β was capable of controlling cancer-related pain even in mice tolerant to morphine antinociception (100% of inhibition) and was able to partially restore morphine analgesia in such animals (56 ± 5% of inhibition). In this study, Phα1β was as efficacious as ω-conotoxin MVIIA in inducing analgesia in a model of cancer pain without producing severe adverse effects or losing efficacy in opioid-tolerant mice, indicating that Phα1β has a good profile for the treatment of cancer pain in patients. PMID:23718272

  7. Shock titration in the rhesus monkey: effects of opiate and nonopiate analgesics.

    Bloss, J L; Hammond, D L

    1985-11-01

    This study evaluated the antinociceptive effects of several opiate and nonopiate analgesics in the rhesus monkey using a discrete trial shock titration paradigm. Morphine sulfate (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg i.m.) and codeine sulfate (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg i.m.) produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in mean shock threshold that was not accompanied by a significant increase in mean response latency. The mean number of shocks terminated was significantly decreased at the highest dose of each opiate. Aspirin (100 and 300 mg/kg p.o.) or ibuprofen (200 mg/kg p.o.) did not significantly increase mean shock threshold or mean response latency or decrease mean number of shocks terminated. However, 6 mg/kg i.m. of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol produced a significant increase in mean shock threshold and mean response latency with no significant effect on mean number of shocks terminated. The absence of any effects of a 2-mg/kg dose of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol and the severe side effects produced by 10 mg/kg prevented determination of its dose-response relationship. Diazepam (0.5, 2 and 8 mg/kg i.m.) produced a significant, dose-dependent increase in mean shock threshold and a significant increase in mean response latency with no consistent or significant effect on mean number of shocks terminated. Doses of 2 and 8 mg/kg of diazepam also produced signs of ataxia. These results suggest that the discrete trial shock titration paradigm is suitable for demonstration of the antinociceptive effects of opiate and certain nonopiate analgesics, but not nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics in the rhesus monkey. PMID:4057079

  8. Comparison of the analgesic effects of robenacoxib, buprenorphine and their combination in cats after ovariohysterectomy.

    Staffieri, F; Centonze, P; Gigante, G; De Pietro, L; Crovace, A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effects of robenacoxib and buprenorphine alone or in combination, in cats after ovariohysterectomy. Thirty healthy cats were randomly assigned to receive buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, n=10; GB), robenacoxib (2mg/kg, n=10; GR) or their combination at the same dosages (n=10; GBR) SC. After 30 min cats were sedated with an IM administration of medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg) and ketamine (5mg/kg). General anaesthesia was induced with propofol and after intubation was maintained with isoflurane. Before premedication and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24h after extubation, pain and sedation were assessed using a simple descriptive pain scale, ranging from 0 (no pain/no sedation) to 4 (intense pain/ deep sedation). If the pain score was ≥ 3, rescue analgesia was provided using buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg) administered IM. Pain score was higher in GB at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8h compared to baseline and compared to GBR at the same study times. Moreover, the pain score was also higher in GB compared to GR at 2, 3, 4 and 6h. Pain score was similar at all study times between GR and GBR. Sedation at 1 and 2h was higher than baseline values in all groups. Cats in GB received rescue analgesia more often than cats assigned to GR or GBR. Robenacoxib was an effective analgesic drug in cats up to 24h after ovariohysterectomy. The addition of buprenorphine did not provide any additional analgesic effects compared to robenacoxib alone. PMID:23434263

  9. Paroxetine engenders analgesic effects through inhibition of p38 phosphorylation in a rat migraine model

    Chuanming Wang; Wei Bi; Yanran Liang; Xiuna Jing; Songhua Xiao; Yannan Fang; Qiaoyun Shi; Enxiang Tao

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a model of migraine was established by electrical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus in rats. These rats were then treated orally with paroxetine at doses of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg per day for 14 days. Following treatment, mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly higher, extracellular concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the periaqueductal grey matter and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis were higher, and the expression of phosphorylated p38 in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis was lower. Our experimental findings suggest that paroxetine has analgesic effects in a rat migraine model, which are mediated by inhibition of p38 phosphorylation.

  10. Stress-induced changes in the analgesic and thermic effects of opioid peptides in the rat.

    Appelbaum, B D; Holtzman, S G

    1986-07-01

    Stress (e.g. restraint) potentiates analgesia and alters changes in body temperature induced by morphine administered either systemically or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) in rats. In order to extend the generality of this phenomenon to opioid peptides, we determined whether the analgesic and thermic effects of i.c.v. D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) or D-Ala2-N-MePhe4-Gly5(ol)-enkephalin (DAGO), agonists selective for delta- and mu-opioid receptors, respectively, were affected by restraint stress. Analgesia was measured in the tail-flick test and core body temperature by rectal probe. The unstressed rats exhibited a dose-dependent increase in tail-flick latencies after administration of either DAGO or DADLE. Restrained rats treated with DAGO or DADLE had a greater analgesic response to each dose of peptide than did unstressed rats; both the magnitude and duration of the drug effect were increased. The unstressed group of rats responded to all doses of DAGO and DADLE with an increase of core temperature. In contrast, restrained rats showed a decrease of core temperature following injection with either DAGO or DADLE. Thus, restraint stress can significantly modify the effects of DAGO and DADLE on analgesia and body temperature in a manner that is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that observed previously for morphine administered by the i.c.v. route. PMID:3015351

  11. Stress-induced changes in the analgesic and thermic effects of morphine administered centrally.

    Appelbaum, B D; Holtzman, S G

    1985-12-01

    Stress (e.g. restraint) potentiates analgesia and changes in body temperature induced by morphine administered systemically to rats. In order to determine if stress-induced potentiation of these effects of morphine are mediated within the central nervous system, restrained and unstressed groups of rats were injected in the lateral ventricle (i.c.v.) with graded doses of morphine, and their analgesic and body temperature responses were measured. Compared to unstressed animals, restrained rats had a greater analgesic response at each dose of morphine, characterized by an increase in both the magnitude and duration of the drug effect. The unstressed group of rats responded consistently to 1.0-100 micrograms of morphine with a 1.5-2.0 degrees C increase in core temperature. Restrained rats had either a smaller increase in body temperature or a hypothermia at these doses of morphine. Thus, restraint stress can modify the effects of morphine administered i.c.v. on analgesia and body temperature in a manner similar to that seen after systemic administration of morphine, indicating that this phenomenon is mediated centrally. PMID:4075121

  12. The analgesic effect of clonixine is not mediated by 5-HT3 subtype receptors.

    Paeile, C; Bustamante, S E; Sierralta, F; Bustamante, D; Miranda, H F

    1995-10-01

    1. The analgesic effect of clonixinate of L-lysine (Clx) in the nociceptive C-fiber reflex in rat and in the writhing test in mice is reported. 2. Clx was administered by three routes, i.v., i.t. and i.c.v., inducing a dose-dependent antinociception. 3. The antinociceptive effect of Clx was 40-45% with respect to the control integration values in the nociceptive C-fiber reflex method. 4. The writhing test yielded ED50 values (mg/kg) of 12.0 +/- 1.3 (i.p.), 1.8 +/- 0.2 (i.t.) and 0.9 +/- 0.1 (i.c.v.) for Clx administration. 5. Ondansetron was not able to antagonize the antinociception response of Clx in the algesiometric tests used. 6. Chlorophenilbiguanide did not produce any significative change in the analgesic effect of Clx in the nociceptive C-fiber reflex method. 7. It is suggested that the mechanism of action of the central analgesia of Clx is not mediated by 5-HT3 subtype receptors. PMID:7590133

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ketoprofen in palm oil esters nanoemulsion.

    Sakeena, M H F; Yam, M F; Elrashid, S M; Munavvar, A S; Azmin, M N

    2010-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been used in the treatment of various kinds of pains, inflammation and arthritis. However, oral administration of ketoprofen produces serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. One of the promising methods to overcome these adverse effects is to administer the drug through the skin. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from topically applied ketoprofen entrapped palm oil esters (POEs) based nanoemulsion and to compare with market ketoprofen product, Fastum(®) gel. The novelty of this study is, use of POEs for the oil phase of nanoemulsion. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were performed on rats by carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema test and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test to compare the ketoprofen entrapped POEs based nanoemulsion formulation and market formulation. Results indicated that there are no significant different between ketoprofen entrapped POEs nanoemulsion and market formulation in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema study and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold study. However, it shows a significant different between POEs nanoemulsion formulation and control group in these studies at p<0.05. From these results it was concluded that the developed nanoemulsion have great potential for topical application of ketoprofen. PMID:21099145

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  15. Analgesic effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on central post-stroke pain.

    Bae, Sea-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Do; Kim, Kyung-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Pain that occurs after a stroke lowers the quality of life. Such post-stroke pain is caused in part by the brain lesion itself, called central post-stroke pain. We investigated the analgesic effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients through quantitative sensory testing. Fourteen participants with central post-stroke pain (7 female and 7 male subjects) were recruited and were allocated to either tDCS (n = 7) or sham-tDCS (n = 7) group. Their ages ranged from 45 to 55 years. tDCS was administered for 20 min at a 2-mA current intensity, with anodal stimulations were performed at primary motor cortex. The sham-tDCS group was stimulated 30-second current carrying time. Both group interventions were given for 3 days per week, for a period of 3 weeks. Subjective pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0 to 10. Sensations of cold and warmth, and pain from cold and heat were quantified to examine analgesic effects. The sham-tDCS group showed no statistically significant differences in time. In contrast, tDCS group showed decreased VAS scores and skin temperature (p temperatures for the sense of cold and pain from cold increased (p heat decreased (p stroke patients with central post-stroke pain. PMID:25341455

  16. Enhanced analgesic effect of morphine-nimodipine combination after intraspinal administration as compared to systemic administration in mice

    Dilip Verma; Subrata Basu Ray; Ishan Patro; Shashi Wadhwa

    2005-09-01

    Calcium plays an important role in the pathophysiology of pain. A number of studies have investigated the effect of L-type calcium channel blockers on the analgesic response of morphine. However, the results are conflicting. In the present study, the antinociceptive effect of morphine (2.5 g) and nimodipine (1 g) co-administered intraspinally in mice was observed using the tail flick test. It was compared to the analgesic effect of these drugs (morphine – 250 g subcutaneously; nimodipine – 100 g intraperitoneally) after systemic administration. Nimodipine is highly lipophilic and readily crosses the blood brain barrier. Addition of nimodipine to morphine potentiated the analgesic response of the latter when administered through the intraspinal route but not when administered through systemic route. It may be due to direct inhibitory effect of morphine and nimodipine on neurons of superficial laminae of the spinal cord after binding to -opioid receptors and L-type calcium channels respectively.

  17. Evaluation of analgesic effect of tapentadol, a central novel analgesic versus tramadol, a widely used opioid analgesic in treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    Zaki Anwar Zaman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to compare efficacy and tolerability (safety of tapentadol with tramadol in the treatment of low back pain. Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized, single blinded, total 102 patients are recruited for study in which 44 patients are prescribed (50mgtwice daily tapentadol and 58 patients prescribed (50mg twice daily tramadol for 4 weeks. Follow-up was done on days 7, 14, 28 and 4 week after stoppage of treatment. Assessment of improvement were performed by Indian Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (Indian HAQDI, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and measurement of Pain Relief Rate (PRR. Adverse events were recorded. Results: Scores in Indian HAQDI, VAS and NRS improved significantly in both groups in the last visit but more so with tapentadol. PRR was reasonably higher with tapentadol [27(n=4461.36%] patients experiencing significant to complete pain relief at the end of the study, compared to tramadol [25(n=58 43.10%]. Adverse effects was less in tapentadol group [15(n=4434.09%] versus 33(n=5856.89%], p<0.05]. Conclusion: Tapentadol has better sustained efficacy and tolerability than tramadol in low back pain. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 392-396

  18. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.

    1999-12-16

    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  19. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ISOLATED COMPOUND FROM MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA SEEDS GIVES SIGNIFICANT ANALGESIC EFFECT

    Chirantan S. Chakma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the analgesic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of isolated compound from M.longifolia seeds in rats and mice model. All three animal groups were administered the aq. and alc.ext of M.longifolia at a dose of 4 mg to 64 mg/kg body weight. The standard drug diclofenac 5 mg/kg b.w is used in three screening method. The paw licking time, tail withdrawal time and chemical writhings in mice both aq. and alc. extracts of M.longifolia prevents significant dose dependent anti-nociceptive effect. Diclofenac 5 mg/kg failed to alter significantly the antinociceptive effect of 16 to 32 mg of both extracts or the effect on chemical assay.

  20. Mechanisms Underlying the Analgesic Effect of Moxibustion on Visceral Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review

    Renjia Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder that causes recurrent abdominal (visceral pain. Epidemiological data show that the incidence rate of IBS is as high as 25%. Most of the medications may lead to tolerance, addiction and toxic side effects. Moxibustion is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine and has been used to treat IBS-like abdominal pain for several thousand years in China. As a mild treatment, moxibustion has been widely applied in clinical treatment of visceral pain in IBS. In recent years, it has played an irreplaceable role in alternative medicine. Extensive clinical studies have demonstrated that moxibustion for treatment of visceral pain is simple, convenient, and inexpensive, and it is being accepted by an increasing number of patients. There have not been many studies investigating the analgesic mechanisms of moxibustion. Studies exploring the analgesic mechanisms have mainly focused on visceral hypersensitivity, brain-gut axis neuroendocrine system, and immune system. This paper reviews the latest developments in moxibustion use for treatment of visceral pain in IBS from these perspectives. It also evaluates potential problems in relevant studies on the mechanisms of moxibustion therapy to promote the application of moxibustion in the treatment of IBS.

  1. Effect of gender on pain perception and analgesic consumption in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: An observational study

    Aziza M Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence regarding gender affecting the response to pain and its treatment is inconsistent in literature. The objective of this prospective, observational study was to determine the effect of gender on pain perception and postoperative analgesic consumption in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: We recruited 60 male and 60 female patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were observed for additional intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. Numerical rating scale was documented at 10 min interval for 1 h in post-anesthesia recovery room and at 4, 8, and 12 h postoperatively. Boluses of tramadol given as rescue analgesia were also noted. There were no dropouts. Results: The mean pain scores were significantly higher in female patients at 20 and 30 min following surgery. Mean dose of tramadol consumption was significantly higher in female patients for the first postoperative hour (P = 0.002, but not in the later period. Conclusion: Female patients exhibited greater intensity of pain and required higher doses of analgesics compared to males in in the immediate postoperative period in order to achieve a similar degree of analgesia.

  2. Analgesic effect of acetaminophen, phenyltoloxamine and their combination in postoperative oral surgery pain.

    Forbes, J A; Barkaszi, B A; Ragland, R N; Hankle, J J

    1984-01-01

    In this factorial study, 148 outpatients with pain after oral surgery were randomly assigned, on a double-blind basis, a single oral dose of acetaminophen 650 mg, phenyltoloxamine 60 mg, a combination of acetaminophen 650 mg with phenyltoloxamine 60 mg, or placebo. Using a self-rating record, subjects rated their pain and its relief hourly for 6 hours after medication. Measures of total and peak analgesia were derived from these subjective reports. The acetaminophen effect was significant for every measure of total and peak analgesia. The phenyltoloxamine effect was not significant for any measure of analgesia. Although efficacy was lower for the acetaminophen-phenyltoloxamine combination than for acetaminophen alone, for every variable, the contrast for interaction was not statistically significant. The results of this study differ from those of previous studies in patients with headache and musculoskeletal pain. All adverse effects were transitory and consistent with the known pharmacologic profiles of the study medications or the backup analgesic. PMID:6483639

  3. Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Caudal Epidural Tramadol, Tramadol-Lidocaine, and Lidocaine in Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis)

    Ayman Atiba; Alaa Ghazy; Naglaa Gomaa; Tarek Kamal; Mustafa Shukry

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and a combination of tramadol-lidocaine with that produced by lidocaine administration in the epidural space in buffalo calves. In a prospective randomized crossover study, ten male buffalo calves were used to compare the epidural analgesic effect of tramadol (1 mg/kg) and tramadol-lidocaine combination (0.5 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg, resp.) with that produced by 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg). Loss of sensation was examined by pin-prick...

  4. Analgesic effect of minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain.

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N

    2014-03-15

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  5. Analgesic effects of adding lidocaine to morphine pumps after orthopedic surgeries

    Mahmoud Reza Alebouyeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opiate is used in patient-controlled intravenous analgesia pumps (PCIA for controlling pain in post-surgical patients. Other drugs are remarkably added to opioid pumps to enhance quality, lengthen analgesia, and reduce side effects. Lidocaine, a local anesthetic which inhibits sodium channels, has anesthetic and analgesic effects when injected locally or intravenously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding lidocaine 1% to different doses of morphine via IV pump to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA after orthopedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery of lower extremities were divided into three equal groups to control postoperative pain. Intravenous pump with 5 ml/h flow rate was used as the analgesic method. The solution consisted of lidocaine 1% plus 20 mg morphine for the first group, lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine for the second group, and only 20 mg morphine for the third group (control group. Patients were checked every 12 h, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS, extra opioid doses, nausea/vomiting, and sedation scale were examined. Results: Pain score was lower in the first group compared to the other two groups. Mean VAS was 2.15 ± 0.2, 2.75 ± 0.2, and 2 ± 0.25 on the first day and 1.88 ± 0.1, 2.74 ± 0.3, and 2.40 ± 0.3 on the second day, respectively, in the three groups and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively. Also, 10% of patients in the first group needed extra opioid doses, while this figure was 30% in the second group and 25% in the third group (P < 0.01. Nausea/vomiting and sedation scores were not statistically different among the three groups. Conclusion: Compared to lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine or 20 mg morphine alone in PCIA, adding lidocaine 1% to 20 mg morphine decreases the pain score and opioid dose after orthopedic surgeries without having side

  6. Low-dose spinal neostigmine further enhances the analgesic effect of spinal bupivacaine combined with epidural dexamethasone, following orthopedic surgery

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids are considered mainstream for combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, but frequently limited by adverse effects. The aim of this study was to examine whether low-dose spinal neostigmine, epidural dexamethasone or their combination enhances analgesia from spinal bupivacaine without adverse effects. Materials and Methods : A total of 60 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery were randomized to one of four groups and evaluated for 24-h after surgery for analgesia (time to first rescue analgesic and rescue analgesic consumption. Patients received 15 mg bupivacaine plus the test drug intrathecally (saline or 1 microgram (μg neostigmine. The epidural test drug was either saline or 10 mg dexamethasone. The Control group (CG received spinal and epidural saline. The Neostigmine group (NG, spinal neostigmine and epidural saline; the Dexamethasone group (DG, spinal saline and epidural dexamethasone; and the Neostigmine-dexamethasone group (NDG, spinal neostigmine and epidural dexamethasone. Results: The CG (282 ± 163 min and NG (524 ± 142 min were similar in their times to first rescue analgesic and analgesic consumption. The time to first rescue analgesic was longer for the DG (966 ± 397 min compared with CG and NG (P < 0.0002, and the DG had less ketoprofen consumption and lower overall visual analogue scale-pain sores compared with CG and NG (P < 0.0005. Addition of 1 mg-neostigmine (NDG resulted in longer time to rescue analgesic (1205 ± 303 min; P < 0.02 and lower ketoprofen consumption (P < 0.05 compared to DG. Sporadic cases of vesical catheterization and emesis were observed, however adverse effects were similar among groups. Conclusion: Spinal 1 microgram (μg neostigmine further enhanced analgesia from spinal bupivacaine combined with epidural dexamethasone, without increasing the incidence of adverse effects.

  7. MECHANISM OF ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF PROPOFOL ON INCISIONAL PAIN: A RAT MODEL STUDY

    HUANG Zhi-hua; SONG Xiao-xing; HU Jiong; YU Bu-wei

    2009-01-01

    Objective To clarify the role of propofol in controlling incisional pain and its potential effects on the spinal opioid receptor expression.Methods A postoperative model of nociception was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g. A total of 96 rats were randomly divided into 8 groups. All drugs were administered intravenously either 5min pre-operation or 5min post-operation. The analgesic effects of systemic propofol were demonstrated by the measurement of a cumulative pain score (CPS). After that, the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord was removed to evaluate the mRNA level of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) by RT-PCR.Results CPS and DOR mRNA expressions significantly increased after the operation. Both propofol post-treatment and propofol pre-treatment groups showed significant suppression of the increased CPS and the expression of DOR mRNA evoked by pain stimulation. Interestingly, propofol pre-treatment had a more pronounced effect in decreasing CPS and the expression of DOR mRNA. Furthermore, these observations were dose-dependent. MOR mRNA expression significantly increased after operation in all animals and propofol treatment had no impact on it.Conclusion Based on these findings, we suggest that propofol can serve as a valuable adjunct in acute postoperative pain management. Systemic propofol induces an analgesic effect on acute incisional pain in a dose-dependant manner, and this effect is mediated in the spinal cord and may be associated with the spinal DOR.

  8. The analgesic effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics after breast surgery

    Byager, N; Hansen, Mads; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, J B

    2014-01-01

    -operative pain after breast surgery. METHODS: A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, the Cochrane database and Embase for randomised, blinded, controlled trials of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics for post-operative pain relief in female adults undergoing breast surgery......BACKGROUND: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics is commonly used during breast surgery in an attempt to reduce post-operative pain and opioid consumption. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics compared with a control group on post...... statistically significant reduction in post-operative, supplemental opioid consumption that was, however, of limited clinical relevance. CONCLUSION: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics may have a modest analgesic effect in the first few hours after surgery. Pain after breast surgery is, however...

  9. Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of melatonin in a human inflammatory pain model

    Andersen, Lars P H; Gögenur, Ismail; Fenger, Andreas Q;

    2015-01-01

    Antinociceptive effects of melatonin have been documented in a wide range of experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic, antihyperalgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin using a validated burn injury (BI) model in healthy male volunteers. The...... design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm crossover study. Each volunteer participated in 3 identical study sessions with intravenous administration of placebo, melatonin 10 mg, or melatonin 100 mg. Sixty minutes after bolus injection of study medication, a BI was induced by a...... primary outcomes. Twenty-nine volunteers were randomized and completed the study. While the BI induced large secondary hyperalgesia areas and significantly increased the markers of inflammation, no significant effects of melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared with...

  10. LABORATORY MODELS FOR SCREENING ANALGESICS

    Parle Milind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a complex unpleasant phenomenon composed of sensory experiences that include time, space, intensity, emotion, cognition and motivation. Analgesics are the agents, which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS or by peripheral pain mechanisms without significantly altering consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical and technical problems. Philosophically, there is a problem that pain cannot be monitored directly in animals but can only be measured by examining their responses to nociceptive stimuli. The observed reactions are almost always motor responses ranging from spinal reflexes to complex behavior. The animal models employed for screening of analgesic agents, include Pain-state models based on the use of thermal stimuli, mechanical stimuli, electrical stimuli and chemical stimuli. The neuronal basis of most of the above laboratory models is poorly understood, however their application is profitable in predicting analgesic activity of newly discovered substances.

  11. A CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC EFFECT OF TRAMADOL AND PENTAZOCINE IN POST - OPERATIVE PATIENTS FOLLOWING UPPER ABDOMINAL SURGERY

    Jamuna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The post - operative pain can be treated by various approaches. Aim of this randomised prospective study was to compare two drugs (Tramadol and Pentazocine . 100 adult patients of both sexes of ASA status 1 & 2 posted for elective upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, where Group 1 received Tramadol intravenously and Group 2 received Pentazocine intravenously as post - opera tive pain management. The efficacy of the analgesic effect of intravenous Tramadol & Pentazocine was compared during post - operative pain management. It was observed that Tramadol has got more potent analgesic action compared to equianalgesic dose of Pentaz ocine.

  12. Noninterventional study of transdermal fentanyl (fentavera) matrix patches in chronic pain patients: analgesic and quality of life effects.

    Heim, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl is considered to be an effective, transdermal treatment of chronic, cancer, and noncancer pain. This noninterventional, clinical practice-based study, on 426 patients attending 42 practices, assessed a proprietary, Aloe vera-containing, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch (Fentavera), for its analgesic effects, patients' quality of life (QoL) effects, tolerability, and adhesiveness. Study outcomes were mean changes from baseline of patient (11-point scales) and physician (5-point scales) ratings. After 1 and 2 months treatment, there were significant (P walking, general activity, sleep quality, and QoL. For each parameter, the patient response rate was >30% at 2 months (response = 2-point decrease on 11-point rating scale). In a large majority of patients, the physicians rated the matrix patch as good or very good for analgesic effect, systemic and local tolerance, and adhesiveness. There were 30 adverse events in 4.2% of patients and analgesic comedications were reduced during treatment compared to before treatment. It is concluded, from this population-based data, that the proprietary, transdermal fentanyl matrix patch is effective and safe for chronic pain management in clinical practice, with significant positive analgesic and QoL effects, while being well tolerated and exhibiting good or very good adhesiveness. PMID:25861472

  13. Analgesic effect of perioperative escitalopram in high pain catastrophizing patients after total knee arthroplasty

    Lunn, Troels H; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Hansen, Torben Bæk;

    2015-01-01

    has not previously been investigated. The authors hypothesized that perioperative escitalopram would reduce pain after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. METHODS: A total of 120 pain catastrophizing patients (selected using the pain catastrophizing scale as preoperative screening tool......) scheduled for TKA were randomized in a double-blind manner to either 10 mg escitalopram or placebo daily from preanesthesia to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were overall pain during well......-defined mobilizations and at rest from 2 to 48 h and from days 2 to 6, morphine equivalents, anxiety, depression, and side effects. RESULTS: Pain upon ambulation (mean [95% CI]) 24 h after surgery in the escitalopram versus placebo group was 58 (53 to 64) versus 64 (58 to 69), the mean difference being -5 (-13 to 3), P...

  14. Analgesic effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy versus ultrasound therapy in chronic tennis elbow

    Lizis, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the analgesic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy with those of ultrasound therapy in patients with chronic tennis elbow. [Subjects] Fifty patients with tennis elbow were randomized to receive extracorporeal shock wave therapy or ultrasound therapy. [Methods] The extracorporeal shock wave therapy group received 5 treatments once per week. Meanwhile, the ultrasound group received 10 treatments 3 times per week. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale during grip strength evaluation, palpation of the lateral epicondyle, Thomsen test, and chair test. Resting pain was also recorded. The scores were recorded and compared within and between groups pre-treatment, immediately post-treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. [Results] Intra- and intergroup comparisons immediately and 3 months post-treatment showed extracorporeal shock wave therapy decreased pain to a significantly greater extent than ultrasound therapy. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock wave therapy can significantly reduce pain in patients with chronic tennis elbow. PMID:26357440

  15. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS have a clinically relevant analgesic effect on different pain conditions? A literature review

    Asami Naka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS is a standard therapy used in different painful conditions such as low back pain, diabetic polyneuropathy or arthrosis. However, literature reviews focusing on the effects and the clinical implication of this method in various painful conditions are yet scarce. The purpose of this literature research was to determine, whether TENS provides an analgesic effect on common painful conditions in clinical practice. Literature research was performed using three data bases (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Database, focusing on papers published in the space of time from 2007 to 2012. Papers were evaluated from two reviewers independently concerning the clinical outcome, taking account for the level of external evidence according to the German Cochrane levels of evidence (Ia – IV. 133 papers of varying methodological quality dealing with different painful conditions were selected in total. A clinically relevant analgesic effect was described in 90 painful conditions (67%. In 30 painful states (22%, the outcome was inconclusive due to the study design. No significant analgesic effect of TENS was observed in 15 painful conditions (11%. The vast majority of the papers were classified as Cochrane evidence level Ib (n = 64; 48%, followed by level Ia (n = 23; 17%, level III (n = 18; 14%, level IV (n = 15; 11%, level IIb (n = 10; 8% and level IIa (n = 3; 2%. Most of the studies revealed an analgesic effect in various painful conditions, confirming the usefulness of TENS in clinical practice.

  16. PK20, a new opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide that exhibits central and peripheral antinociceptive effects

    Tsuda Yuko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical treatment of various types of pain relies upon the use of opioid analgesics. However most of them produce, in addition to the analgesic effect, several side effects such as the development of dependence and addiction as well as sedation, dysphoria, and constipation. One solution to these problems are chimeric compounds in which the opioid pharmacophore is hybridized with another type of compound to incease antinociceptive effects. Neurotensin-induced antinociception is not mediated through the opioid system. Therefore, hybridizing neurotensin with opioid elements may result in a potent synergistic antinociceptor. Results Using the known structure-activity relationships of neurotensin we have synthesized a new chimeric opioid-neurotensin compound PK20 which is characterized by a very strong antinociceptive potency. The observation that the opioid antagonist naltrexone did not completely reverse the antinociceptive effect, indicates the partial involvement of the nonopioid component in PK20 in the produced analgesia. Conclusions The opioid-neurotensin hybrid analogue PK20, in which opioid and neurotensin pharmacophores overlap partially, expresses high antinociceptive tail-flick effects after central as well as peripheral applications.

  17. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of the Analgesic and Antihyperalgesic Effects of Morphine after Intravenous Infusion in Human Volunteers

    Ravn, Pernille; Foster, David J. R.; Kreilgaard, Mads;

    2014-01-01

    Using a modelling approach, this study aimed to (i) examine whether the pharmacodynamics of the analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of morphine differ; (ii) investigate the influence of demographic, pain sensitivity and genetic (OPRM1) variables on between-subject variability of morphine pharm...

  18. A comparison Comparison between analgesic effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of mentha longifolia and morphine in male rats

    Ezatollah Paknia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Long-term consumption of many drugs followed by reduction of their effectiveness has necessitated performing research on new analgesics .Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of mentha longifolia and morphine in mice using writhing and hot plate tests. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 70 male rats were divided into 7 equal groups. The groups included the control, three experimental groups receiving 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg of mentha extract and three experimental groups which received 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of morphine .In order to measure pain, the two acceptable tests, writhing and hot plate tests, were applied. Pain scores were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45 or 60 min after administration of algogenic stimulus. Results: It was found that in hot plate test, only the dose of 1600mg/kg of Mentha extract after 60 minutes was significantly able to exert an analgesic effect (P<0.05. In wrighting test, mentha extract at different doses significantly reduced the number and time of wrightes in the rats, comparable to morphine (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that all doses of mentha extract in wrighting test have analgesic effects which indicate chronic pain inhibition of mentha hydroalcholic extract.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF THE ANALGESIC EFFECT AT COMBINED INFLUENCE OF THE ELECTROSTIMULATION AND THE PERCUSSIVE-FRICTIONAL MASSAGE AND IMPULSE CURRENTS REGISTRATION

    M. G. Kiselev; E. I. Labun

    2015-01-01

    The experimental complex of percussive-frictional massager with electrostimulation function and softand hardware of original design gives a possibility to use various mechanical and electrical parameters of massage and electrostimulation and it can be used like the alternative instead of the accepted medicine analgesics. Analgesic effect decreases pain sensation of the patient up to 50 %.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF THE ANALGESIC EFFECT AT COMBINED INFLUENCE OF THE ELECTROSTIMULATION AND THE PERCUSSIVE-FRICTIONAL MASSAGE AND IMPULSE CURRENTS REGISTRATION

    M. G. Kiselev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental complex of percussive-frictional massager with electrostimulation function and softand hardware of original design gives a possibility to use various mechanical and electrical parameters of massage and electrostimulation and it can be used like the alternative instead of the accepted medicine analgesics. Analgesic effect decreases pain sensation of the patient up to 50 %.

  1. Phytochemical screening and studies of analgesic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark extract on experimental animal model

    Shumaia Parvin; Md. Abu Shuaib Rafshanjani; Md. Abdul Kader; Most. Afia Akhtar; Tahmida Sharmin

    2014-01-01

    The work has been done for the phytochemical investigation and study of analgesic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. ethanolic stem bark extract using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing method. The effect of extract was tested for qualitative chemical analysis which reveals the presence of alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, carbohydrate etc. For peripheral analgesic effect acetic acid induced writhing test was used and for this stem bark extract was administered intraperitoneally at...

  2. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of Securidaca longepedunculata (Fresen.) [Polygalaceae] root-bark aqueous extract.

    Ojewole, J A O

    2008-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties of Securidaca longepedunculata (Fresen.) root-bark aqueous extract (SLE) in mice and rats. The analgesic effect of SLE was evaluated by 'hot-plate' and 'acetic acid' analgesic test methods in mice; while its anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects were examined in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal oedema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus models. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs for comparison. SLE (50-800 mg/kg i. p.) produced dose-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally- and chemically-induced nociceptive pain in mice. The plant's extract (SLE, 50-800 mg/kg p. o.) also dose-dependently and significantly inhibited (p < 0.05-0.001) fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation, and caused significant hypoglycaemia (p < 0.05-0.001) in normal (normoglycaemic) and STZ-treated diabetic (hyperglycaemic) rats. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that S. longepedunculata root-bark aqueous extract (SLE) possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties. These findings lend pharmacological credence to the anecdotal, folkloric and ethnomedical uses of S. longepedunculata root-bark in the treatment, management and/or control of painful, arthritic, inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural communities of South Africa. PMID:18046514

  3. Acute analgesic effects of nicotine and tobacco in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Ditre, Joseph W; Heckman, Bryan W; Zale, Emily L; Kosiba, Jesse D; Maisto, Stephen A

    2016-07-01

    Although animal models have consistently demonstrated acute pain inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco, human experimental studies have yielded mixed results. The main goal of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of nicotine/tobacco administration on human experimental pain threshold and tolerance ratings. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO online databases identified 13 eligible articles, including k = 21 tests of pain tolerance (N = 393) and k = 15 tests of pain threshold (N = 339). Meta-analytic integration for both threshold and tolerance outcomes revealed that nicotine administered through tobacco smoke and other delivery systems (eg, patch, nasal spray) produced acute analgesic effects that may be characterized as small to medium in magnitude (Hedges g = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.21-0.50). Publication bias-corrected estimates remained significant and indicated that these effects may be closer to small. Sex composition was observed to be a significant moderator, such that pain threshold effects were more robust among samples that included more men than women. These results help to clarify a mixed literature and may ultimately help to inform the treatment of both pain and nicotine dependence. Pain and tobacco smoking are both highly prevalent and comorbid conditions. Current smoking has been associated with more severe chronic pain and physical impairment. Acute nicotine-induced analgesia could make smoking more rewarding and harder to give up. Future research should use dynamic measures of experimental pain reactivity and further explore biopsychosocial mechanisms of action. PMID:27023418

  4. Tapentadol hydrochloride: A novel analgesic

    Dewan Roshan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with dual mechanism of action, combining mu-opioid receptor agonism with noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the same molecule. It has an improved side effect profile when compared to opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual mechanism of action makes Tapentadol a useful analgesic to treat acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain.

  5. Tapentadol hydrochloride: A novel analgesic

    Dewan Roshan Singh; Kusha Nag; Shetti, Akshaya N.; Krishnaveni, N.

    2013-01-01

    Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with dual mechanism of action, combining mu-opioid receptor agonism with noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the same molecule. It has an improved side effect profile when compared to opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual mechanism of action makes Tapentadol a useful analgesic to treat acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain.

  6. Preoperative education and use of analgesic before onset of pain routinely for post-thoracotomy pain control can reduce pain effect and total amount of analgesics administered postoperatively.

    Kol, Emine; Alpar, Sule Ecevit; Erdoğan, Abdullah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of preoperative pain management education and the role of analgesics administration before the onset of pain postoperatively. The study was a prospective, randomized, and single-blind clinical trial, which was conducted January 1, 2008 through October 1, 2008 in the Thoracic Surgery Unit of Akdeniz University Hospital. A total of 70 patients who underwent thoracotomy (35 in the control group and 35 in the study group) were included in the study. Of the patients, 70% (n = 49) were male and 30% (n = 21) were female. Mean age was 51 ± 10 years (range = 25-65). The same analgesia method was used for all patients; the same surgical team performed each operation. Methods, including preemptive analgesia and placement of pleural or thoracic catheter for using analgesics, that were likely to affect pain level, were not used. The same analgesia medication was used for both patient groups. But the study group, additionally, was educated on how to deal with pain preoperatively and on the pharmacological methods to be used after surgery. An intramuscular diclofenac Na 75 mg was administered to the study group regardless of whether or not they reported pain in the first two postoperative hours. The control group did not receive preoperative education, and analgesics were not administered to them unless they reported pain in the postoperative period. The routine analgesics protocol was as follows: diclofenac Na 75 mg (once a day) intramuscular administered upon the complaint of pain following extubation in the postoperative period and 20 mg mepederin intravenously (maximum dose, 100 mg/day), in addition, when the patient expressed pain. Pain severity was assessed during the second, fourth, eighth, 16th, 24th, and 48th hours, and marked using the Verbal Category Scale and the Behavioral Pain Assessment Scale. Additionally, the total dose of daily analgesics was calculated. The demographic characteristics showed a

  7. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.

    Prozialeck, Walter C; Jivan, Jateen K; Andurkar, Shridhar V

    2012-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed. PMID:23212430

  8. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil.

    Silva, Gabriela L da; Luft, Carolina; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Amaral, Robson H; Melo, Denizar A da Silva; Donadio, Márcio V F; Nunes, Fernanda B; de Azambuja, Marcos S; Santana, João C; Moraes, Cristina M B; Mello, Ricardo O; Cassel, Eduardo; Pereira, Marcos Aurélio de Almeida; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have investigated the antinociceptive, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of compounds found in the lavender essential oil (LEO), however to date, there is still lack of substantial data. The objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of lavender essential oil. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical decolorization assay was used for antioxidant activity evaluation. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using two models of acute inflammation: carrageenan-induced pleurisy and croton oil-induced ear edema. The antinociceptive activity was tested using the pain model induced by formalin. LEO has antioxidant activity, which is dose-dependent response. The inflammatory response evoked by carrageenan and by croton oil was reduced through the pre-treatment of animals with LEO. In the pleurisy model, the drug used as positive control, dexamethasone, was more efficacious. However, in the ear swelling, the antiedematogenic effect of the oil was similar to that observed for dexamethasone. In the formalin test, LEO consistently inhibited spontaneous nociception and presented a similar effect to that of tramadol. The results of this study reveal (in vivo) the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of LEO and demonstrates its important therapeutic potential. PMID:26247152

  9. Effect of Celecoxib on the Peripheral NO Production

    Parichehr Hassanzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Objective(s)Celecoxib acts through both COX-2-dependent and -independent pathways. According to the paradoxical effect of NO on the inflammatory and nociceptive signal processing, the present study designed to evaluate the probable contribution of NO in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of celecoxib. Materials and MethodsDifferent intensities of inflammatory pain were induced by acute and chronic sc administration of 1%, 2.5%, or 5% formalin and spectrophotometrical analysis of t...

  10. Evidence of peripheral nerve blocks for cancer-related pain

    Klepstad, P; Kurita, G P; Mercadante, S; Sjøgren, P

    2015-01-01

    evidence of analgesic efficacy for peripheral nerve blocks in adult patients with cancer. A search strategy was elaborated with words related to cancer, pain, peripheral nerve and block. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. The number of abstracts...... good pain relief and no side effects. The use of peripheral blocks is based upon anecdotal evidence. However, this review only demonstrates the lack of studies, which does not equal a lack of effectiveness....

  11. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Extract from Roots and Leaves of Citrullus lanatus

    DENG Jia-gang; WANG Shuo; GUO Li-cheng; FAN Li-li

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of extract from the roots and leaves of Citrulluslanatus and assess their acute toxicity in animals.Methods The mouse model with ear edema induced by xyleneand the rat model with paw edema or granuloma by carrageenin or cotton pellet were used for anti-inflammatoryeffects of the extract.Effects of the extract on analgesia was tested respectively by measuring the latency of micelicking hind foot from hot plates and by counting the times of body twisting in response to acetic acid.The acutetoxicity of the extract was determined with the method of Bliss.Results The extract significantly inhibited the earedema,granuloma hyperplasia,and paw edema.It significantly lifted the pain threshold on mouse hot-plateresponses and reduced their writhing times.During the 7 d observation period in its acute toxicity assay,no apparenttoxic reaction was shown and all mice survived at a dose of 87 g extract per kg body weight.Conclusion Theextract could protecte mice/rates from inflammation and analgesia,and may be safe as an orally administered naturalproduct for humans.

  12. Effects of some analgesic anaesthetic drugs on human erythrocyte glutathione reductase: an in vitro study.

    Senturk, Murat; Irfan Kufrevioglu, O; Ciftci, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    Inhibitory effects of some analgesic and anaesthetic drugs on human erythrocyte glutathione reductase were investigated. For this purpose, human erythrocyte glutathione reductase was initially purified 2139-fold in a yield of 29% by using 2', 5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity gel and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis confirmed the purity of the enzyme by sharing a single band. A constant temperature (+4 degrees C) was maintained during the purification process. Diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, tenoxicam, etomidate, morphine and propofol exhibited inhibitory effects on the enzyme in vitro using the Beutler assay method. K(i) constants and IC(50) values for drugs were determined from Lineweaver-Burk graphs and plotting activity % versus [I] graphs, respectively. The IC(50) values of diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, propofol, tenoxicam, etomidate and morphine were 7.265, 6.278, 0.3, 0.242, 0.082, 0.0523 and 0.0128 mM and the K(i) constants were 23.97 +/- 2.1, 22.14 +/- 7.6, 0.42 +/- 0.18, 0.418 +/- 0.056, 0.13 +/- 0.025, 0.0725 +/- 0.0029 and 0.0165 +/- 0.0013 mM, respectively. While diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, tenoxicam etomidate and morphine showed competitive inhibition, propofol displayed noncompetitive inhibition. PMID:18608753

  13. Analgesic, Anxiolytic and Anaesthetic Effects of Melatonin: New Potential Uses in Pediatrics

    Lucia Marseglia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous melatonin is used in a number of situations, first and foremost in the treatment of sleep disorders and jet leg. However, the hypnotic, antinociceptive, and anticonvulsant properties of melatonin endow this neurohormone with the profile of a drug that modulates effects of anesthetic agents, supporting its potential use at different stages during anesthetic procedures, in both adults and children. In light of these properties, melatonin has been administered to children undergoing diagnostic procedures requiring sedation or general anesthesia, such as magnetic resonance imaging, auditory brainstem response tests and electroencephalogram. Controversial data support the use of melatonin as anxiolytic and antinociceptive agents in pediatric patients undergoing surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate available evidence relating to efficacy and safety of melatonin as an analgesic and as a sedative agent in children. Melatonin and its analogs may have a role in antinociceptive therapies and as an alternative to midazolam in premedication of adults and children, although its effectiveness is still controversial and available data are clearly incomplete.

  14. MULTIMODAL ANALGESIC EFFECT ON PROINFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES SERUM

    Muhammad Ramli Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of combination epidural bupivacaine and intravenous parecoxib analgesia on immune response in patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the lower limb under epidural anesthesia. Methods: This research was conducted using the randomized, placebo-controlled double blind trial method on 52 patients who were randomly divided into 2 groups: the Parecoxib group which received 40 mg intravenous parecoxib for 30 minutes before incision and the control group which received an equal volume of 0.9% normal saline. Both groups received epidural anesthesia and postoperative epidural 0.125% bupivacaine analgesia continously. Venous blood samples were obtained before parecoxib administration, 2 and 24 hours after the surgery. The data were analyzed using Mann Whitney U and independent t tests (p<0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05 in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 levels and proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory ratio, 2 hours after surgery. Conclusions: Multimodal analgesic combination of 40 mg IV parecoxib and 0.125% bupivacaine epidural analgesia have the effect to alter and stabilize the systemic immune response.

  15. Effect of single dose pretreatment analgesia with three different analgesics on postoperative endodontic pain: A randomized clinical trial

    Priyank Sethi; Manish Agarwal; Hemant Ramesh Chourasia; Mahesh Pratap Singh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the aims of root canal treatment is to prevent or eliminate pain. Postoperative endodontic pain control continues to be a significant challenge. Aim: To compare and evaluate the effect of single oral dose of 100 mg of tapentadol, 400 mg of etodolac, or 10 mg of ketorolac as a pretreatment analgesic for the prevention and control of postoperative endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The incidence of side effects was recorded as secondary ...

  16. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) have a clinically relevant analgesic effect on different pain conditions? A literature review

    Asami Naka; Mohammed Keilani; Stefan Loefler; Richard Crevenna

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a standard therapy used in different painful conditions such as low back pain, diabetic polyneuropathy or arthrosis. However, literature reviews focusing on the effects and the clinical implication of this method in various painful conditions are yet scarce. The purpose of this literature research was to determine, whether TENS provides an analgesic effect on common painful conditions in clinical practice. Literature research was performed u...

  17. Enhanced analgesic effects of propacetamol and tramadol combination in rats and mice.

    Zhang, Yuyang; Du, Lili; Pan, He; Li, Li; Su, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Drug combinations have more potential advantage of greater analgesia than monotherapy. By the combination of analgesics with different mechanism, potency of analgesia can be maximized while the incidence of adverse effects is minimized. This study was aimed to assess a possible interaction in the antinociceptive effects between tramadol (T) and propacetamol (P) when administered in combination against nociceptive effects induced by physical or chemical injury in mice and rats. Three series of experiments were performed. The first was to determine effects of P and T alone or in combination in the acetic acid (AA)-induced writhing test in mice. Combination of T/P (3.9/67.5, 7.8/135, 15.6/271 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) elicited dose-dependent antinociception. The second determined whether the antinociceptive effects of the drugs observed in a test of persistent chemical pain could be seen in a test of acute thermal pain and the back-paw licking response was tested on the hot plate. The back-paw licking latency at different times after drugs obtained with the combination (16/270, 32/540 mg/kg, i.p. T/P) was longer than the respective values obtained with the individual agents. The third was designed to compare the antinociceptive effects between the drugs, either alone or in combination in the rat tail-flicks test. Combination of T/P (5.5/96, 11/192 mg/kg i.p.) both showed effects of higher potency than T and P, respectively. The data obtained confirmed that propacetamol is able to enhance the antinociceptive activity of tramadol. PMID:21372383

  18. The analgesic effect of electrostimulation (WoundEL®) in the treatment of leg ulcers.

    Leloup, Pauline; Toussaint, Pascal; Lembelembe, Jean-Paul; Célérier, Philippe; Maillard, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy of electrostimulation (ES), a recognised treatment for leg ulcers. Patients treated by ES for leg ulcers between 2011 and 2013 were included in the study. The pain score obtained with the numerical rating scale (NRS) was reported before the start of the ES (D0), after 3 days (D3) and 1 week following treatment initialisation. The analgesic treatments (AT) were reported at each assessment. Seventy-three patients were included (mean age 75·19 years): 31 venous leg ulcers, 21 mixed venous leg ulcers, 2 arterial ulcers, 17 hypertensive ischaemic ulcers, 1 Hydrea(®)-induced ulcer and an amputation stump ulcer. The NRS at D0 was on average 5·3 (median = 6) while it was 2·2 at D7 (median = 2), that is P < 0·001. The results were also significant between D0 and D3 (P < 0·001). A decrease in the number of AT used was observed between D0 (2·0 AT per patient on average) and D7 (1·7 AT on average) (P < 0·001). We also observed a decrease in the consumption of grade 3 analgesics on D0 and D7 (P = 0·03). This study demonstrates the rapid analgesic efficacy of ES in leg ulcers, with a clear impact on the NRS score and especially on the decrease in analgesic consumption. PMID:24618089

  19. [Analgesic effect of TES therapy in the early postoperative period in patients who underwent tonsillectomy].

    Semënov, F V; Kade, A Kh; Banashek-Meshchiarkova, T V; Vartanian, M S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiarities of the analgesic action of therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES therapy) in the early postoperative period in the patients who underwent tonsillectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for this surgery to the specialized otorhinolaryngological department were available for observation. They were divided into two groups depending on the pain relief strategy. The patients of the study group (n=30) underwent courses of transcranial electrical stimulation on a daily basis (from the onset of hospitalization) in addition to the administration of a standard analgetic. The standard dose of tramadol (2.0 ml) was given to the patients of the control group (n=30) who complained of strong pain. The results of the objective and subjective estimations indicate that the degree of pharyngeal pain in the patients treated with TES therapy and the standard analgetic was significantly different. The patients receiving TES therapy could sooner resume their habitual diet and required smaller amounts of the analgetic which makes this modality a cost-effective supplement to the standard postoperative treatment. PMID:23887374

  20. ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF LEECH THERAPY (JALAUKAVCHARAN IN THE PATIENTS OF OSTEOARTHRITIS (SANDHIGATA VATA

    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease is the most common joint disorder. It mostly affects cartilage. The top layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away. Osteoarthritis is of two types, primary (idiopathic and secondary. In idiopathic osteoarthritis, the most common form of the disease, no predisposing factor is apparent. Secondary OA is pathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic OA but is attributable to an underlying cause. The NSAID’S are main drug of choice in modern medicine which have lots of side effect therefore are not safe for long term therapy. Raktamokshan viz bloodletting is one of the ancient and important parasurgical procedure described in Ayurveda for treatment of various diseases. Of them, Jalaukavacharana or Leech Therapy has gained greater attention globally, because of its medicinal values. The saliva of leech contains numerous biologically active substances, which has anti-inflammatory, analgesic as well as anesthetic property. Keeping this view in mind we have started leech therapy in the patients of osteoarthritis and found encouraging results.

  1. Comparison of the Effects of Laparoscopic and Open Repair Techniques on Postoperative Pain and Analgesic Consumption in Pediatric Unilateral Inguinal Hernia

    Ferda Yılmaz İnal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although laparoscopic inguinal hernia (IH repair in adults is widely accepted, its advantages in pediatric age group are questionable. We aimed to compare the effects of open inguinal hernia repair and laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair on length of anaesthesia, postoperative pain and analgesic consumption in boys who underwent unilateral inguinal hernia repair. Methods: Forty patients aged between 7 and 14 years who underwent open and laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: unilateral open inguinal hernia repair group (OR n=20 and unilateral laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair group (LR n=20. All patients underwent general anesthesia. The duration of anaesthesia and the duration of surgery were recorded. The Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA device was set at a 0.01 mg/kg bolus dose, 10 minutes lockout interval and 4 hour limit of 4 mg morphine. The patients, who received morphine PCA for 24 hours postoperatively, were monitored with continuous oximetry. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to measure pain (0 cm: no pain, 10 cm: worst possible pain. We recorded the side effects of morphine, such as respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, pruritus. SpO2 level and Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores at intervals 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 hours as well as amount of analgesics consumed and number of requests within 24 hours postoperatively were recorded. Time to first walking was recorded. Results: In group OR, the mean duration of anaesthesia and surgery were 39.85 minutes and 28.85 minutes, respectively. In group LR, the mean duration of anaesthesia and surgery were 26.11 and 20.53 minutes, respectively. VAS scores and time to first walking were similar in both groups. There was no significant difference in amount of analgesics consumed and number of request between the two groups. In group OR

  2. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of low-level laser therapy on the postoperative healing process

    Fabre, Hebert S. C.; Navarro, Ricardo L.; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula V.P.; Oliveira, Rodrigo F.; Pires-Oliveira, Deise A. A.; Andraus, Rodrigo A. C.; Fuirini, Nelson; Fernandes, Karen B. P.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of intraoral application of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) to control pain, swelling and interincisal opening following the extraction of mandibular third molars. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients underwent removal of lower third molars using the same surgical protocol and pharmacological approach. In the postoperative period, all patients received four consecutive daily sessions of low-level laser therapy,...

  3. Effects of the extracts from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves on analgesic and behavioral activities in experimental animals

    Kitja Sawangjaroen; Wantana Reanmongkol; Niwat Keawpradub

    2007-01-01

    The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (M. speciosa) were extracted with methanol to give methanol extract. The methanol extract was made in acid and then in alkaline and extracted with chloroform to give alkaloid extract. The effects of the methanol and alkaloid extracts on analgesic activities in hot plate test in mice and tail flick test in rats and behavioral activities in locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, were examined. In acute toxicity test, the LD50 values o...

  4. Comparing the analgesic effect of heat patch containing iron chip and ibuprofen for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial

    Navvabi Rigi, Shahindokht; Kermansaravi, Fatihe; Navidian, Ali; Safabakhsh, Leila; Safarzadeh, Ameneh; Khazaian, Somaye; Shafie, Shahla; Salehian, Tahmineh

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a common and sometimes disabling condition. In recent years, some studies aimed to improve the treatment of dysmenorrhea, and therefore, introduced several therapeutic measures. This study was designed to compare the analgesic effect of iron chip containing heat wrap with ibuprofen for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods In this randomized (IRCT201107187038N2) controlled trial, 147 students (18–30 years old) with the diagnosis of primary dysmenorr...

  5. Superior Analgesic Effect of an Active Distraction versus Pleasant Unfamiliar Sounds and Music: The Influence of Emotion and Cognitive Style

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain indu...

  6. Superior Analgesic Effect of an Active Distraction versus Pleasant Unfamiliar Sounds and Music: The Influence of Emotion and Cognitive Style.

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Elvira Brattico; Lene Vase; Leif Østergaard; Peter Vuust

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain indu...

  7. Synthesis and Analgesic Effects of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain

    Yu Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available μ-TRTX-Hhn1b (HNTX-IV is a 35-amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of the spider, Ornithoctonus hainana. It inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, which has been considered as a therapeutic target for pain. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the analgesic effects of synthetic μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on animal models of pain. The peptide was first synthesized and then successfully refolded/oxidized. The synthetic peptide had the same inhibitory effect on human Nav1.7 current transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells as the native toxin. Furthermore, the analgesic potentials of the synthetic peptide were examined on models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. μ-TRTX-Hhn1b produced an efficient reversal of acute nociceptive pain in the abdominal constriction model, and significantly reduced the pain scores over the 40-min period in the formalin model. The efficiency of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on both models was equivalent to that of morphine. In the spinal nerve model, the reversal effect of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on allodynia was longer and higher than mexiletine. These results demonstrated that μ-TRTX-Hhn1b efficiently alleviated acute inflammatory pain and chronic neuropathic pain in animals and provided an attractive template for further clinical analgesic drug design.

  8. Analgesic effect of simultaneous exposure to infrared laser radiation and μT magnetic field in rats

    Cieslar, Grzegorz; Mrowiec, Janina; Kasperczyk, Slawomir; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina; Sieron, Aleksander

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the experiment was to estimate the effect of repeated simultaneous exposures to infrared laser radiation and μT variable magnetic field used in magnetostimulation on pain perception in rats, as well as the involvement of endogenous opioid system in the mechanism of this effect. In experimental group clean-shaven scull of male Wistar rats placed individually in a specially designed plastic chamber were simultaneously exposed to infrared laser radiation (wavelength - 855 nm, mean power - 4,1 mW, energy density - 30 J/cm2) and variable magnetic field of saw-like shape of impulse, at a frequency of basic impulse 180-195 Hz and mean induction value of 120 μT generated by magneto-laser applicator of device for magnetostimulation Viofor JPS (Med & Life, Poland) 12 minutes daily for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days, with 2 days-lasting break between them, while control animals were sham-exposed. The pain perception was determined by means of "hot plate" test on the basis of calculated analgesic index. As a result of repeated exposures a significant increase in analgesic index persisting also till 14 th day after the end of a cycle of exposures was observed. This analgesic effect was inhibited by prior i.p. injection of opioid antagonist - Naloxone.

  9. Effect of firefighter masks on monocular and binocular peripheral vision.

    Samo, Daniel G; Bahk, Jane K; Gerkin, Richard D

    2003-04-01

    Peripheral vision can impact essential job functions of firefighters and other workers who use Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus and other full face masks. It is important for physicians to know how these masks alter peripheral vision. Also, one must understand the effect of monocular vision on peripheral vision. Using the Goldman Perimeter Machine we measured peripheral vision in the monocular and binocular state, with and without two different types of masks. The results show that monocularity causes an average loss of 23 degrees in the nasal meridian. The use of the masks did not affect this difference. Also, the masks caused an average loss of 28 degrees of peripheral vision in the inferior meridian. How these losses affect the ability of the users of the masks to perform their essential job functions still needs to be researched. PMID:12708146

  10. STUDIES OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY, ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TRADITIONAL HERBAL DRUG ON RODENTS

    Gupta Mradu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of combination of stems of Tinospora cordifolia, fruits of Emblica officinalis and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus has been used as traditional herbal drug in Indian medicine system for treatment of fever, body ache, joint pain and inflammation. The collected botanicals were subject to physiochemical, pharmacognostical & phytochemical screening before animal experiments. After acute toxicity studies, anti-inflammatory effect was assessed using carrageen induced paw oedema test and antipyretic effect using yeast induced pyrexia method. Tail immersion, hot plate and writhings test were used for determining the analgesic properties. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenolic flavonoids, tannin and saponins. Significant anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties were noticed in dose dependant manner after aqueous extract administration especially at 600 mg/kg dose. These test drug activities were sustained and comparable to the standard drugs while exhibiting no acute toxicity. Aqueous extract of test drug possesses significantly high anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties without any acute toxicity possibly due to presence of flavonoids.

  11. 评《硫酸软骨素》%Study on Analgesic Effect of Headache Zhijing Extract

    袁勤生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the analgesic effect and mechanism of headache zhijing extract. Methods The evaluation was performed by acetic acid writhing test in mice, nitroglycerin-induced migraine test in rats and dextran-induced blood stasis test in rabbits. Results After 7 days with the administration of headache zhijing extract (0.36-1.44g/kg), the animals could significantly prolong the pain threshold, reduce the number of writhing within 15min after administration, and increase analgesic efficacy. Compared with the control group, the number of scratching heads, scratching cheek, climbing the cage were significantly reduced in headache zhijing extract (0.5-1.0g/kg) group, and the appearance of scratching heads and scratching cheek was significantly later and the disappearance was significantly earlier in a dose-dependent manner. Headache zhijing extract (0.448g/kg) could significantly reduce the low and high shearing stress of blood viscosity, and as well as the low and high shearing stress of blood reduced viscosity and plasma viscosity in rabbits. Conclusion Headache zhijing extract has strong analgesic effect on writhing mice induced by acetic acid and migraine rats induced by nitroglycerin, and it can significantly improve the hemorheology in blood stasis model of rabbit.

  12. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus

    H.P. Aithal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II. The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min. Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II, and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

  13. The Analgesic Effect Of Oxytocin In Humans:A Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Cross-Over Study Using Laser-Evoked Potentials

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Krahé, Charlotte; Maltezos, Stefanos; Williams, Steven C.; Howard, Matthew A.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide regulating social-affiliative and reproductive behavior in mammals. Despite robust preclinical evidence for exogenous oxytocin's antinociceptive effects and mechanisms of action, human studies have produced mixed results regarding oxytocin's analgesic role and are yet to show a specific modulation of neural processes involved in pain perception. Here we investigated the analgesic effects of 40IU of intranasal oxytocin in 13 healthy male volunteers using a double-bli...

  14. Effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on hemodynamic changes, analgesic requirement, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations

    Serpil Dagdelen Dogan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. METHODS: The first group (n = 30 received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5 mg/kg/min and the second group (n = 30 received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1 mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery characteristics were evaluated. RESULTS: In the lidocaine group, systolic arterial blood pressures values were lower after the induction of anesthesia and at 20 min following surgical incision (p < 0.05. Awakening time was shorter in the esmolol group (p < 0.001; Ramsay Sedation Scale scores at 10 min after extubation were lower in the esmolol group (p < 0.05. The modified Aldrete scores at all measurement time points during the recovery period were relatively lower in the lidocaine group (p < 0.05. The time to attain a modified Aldrete score of ≥9 points was prolonged in the lidocaine group (p < 0.01. Postoperative resting and dynamic VAS scores were higher in the lidocaine group at 10 and 20 min after extubation (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively. Analgesic supplements were less frequently required in the lidocaine group (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: In laparoscopic cholecystectomies, lidocaine infusion had superiorities over esmolol infusions regarding the suppression of responses to tracheal extubation and postoperative need for additional analgesic agents in the long run, while esmolol was more advantageous with respect to rapid recovery from anesthesia, attenuation of early postoperative pain, and modified Aldrete recovery (MAR scores and time to reach MAR score of 9 points.

  15. Evaluation of analgesic effects of intrathecal clonidine along with bupivacaine in cesarean section

    Nikhil Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Context: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of intrathecal clonidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia. Settings and Design : Randomized single blind trial. Methods: 210 ASA I-II pregnant females undergoing emergency cesarean section were randomized in a single-blind fashion to one of the three groups. In group I (n=70 patients received 12.5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally. In group II (n=70 patients received intrathecal mixture of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (8 mg and clonidine 50 μg. In group III (n=70 , patients received 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (10 mg intrathecally along with 50 μg of clonidine. Statistical Analysis Used: Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test. The proportion of adverse events was compared using the chi-square test (χ2 =57.2410. Results: On adding 50 μg clonidine, we were able to reduce intrathecal dose of bupivacaine for cesarean section to 8 mg. Patients receiving intrathecal clonidine along with bupivacaine had significantly long lasting analgesia with lower bupivacaine dose [246.21±5.15 min. (group II vs 146.0±4.55 min (group I, P=0.021; 95% confidence interval: 238.01-257.40, group II and 134.99-157.0 group I]. Conclusions: Addition of intrathecal clonidine causes some sedation in the postoperative period, but it provides adequate analgesia and motor paralysis at lower dose of bupivacaine. It also significantly prolongs postoperative pain relief.

  16. Analgesic and thermic effects, and cerebrospinal fluid and plasma pharmacokinetics, of intracerebroventricularly administered morphine in normal and sensitized rats.

    Bhargava, H N; Villar, V M; Cortijo, J; Morcillo, E J

    1998-02-01

    The relationship between asthma and opioids has barely been investigated. This study examines whether active sensitization of rats changes the analgesic and thermic effects of intracerebroventricular morphine or the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Morphine (5, 10 and 20 microg) was given intracerebroventricularly to sensitized (active immunization to ovalbumin and Al(OH)3 then airway challenge with ovalbumin after 12 days) and normal (i.e. non-sensitized) male Sprague-Dawley rats. The tail-flick latencies and changes in colon temperature were determined before morphine injection and at 30 min intervals for a period of 300 min afterwards. Results were expressed as the area under the time-response curve. The analgesic and hyperthermic response to morphine for sensitized rats was less than that obtained for normal rats. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected periodically for a period of 240 min and morphine levels were determined by a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay. The pharmacokinetic parameters half-life, terminal elimination rate constant and the mean residence time were determined in both cerebrospinal fluid and plasma by non-compartmental analysis. The area under the cerebrospinal fluid concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity was higher for sensitized rats than for normal rats for all three doses of morphine but these differences did not correspond with similar changes in pharmacological responses. In conclusion, the attenuated analgesic and thermic responses to intracerebroventricular morphine in the sensitized rats might be a result of pharmacodynamic alterations rather than to pharmacokinetic changes. PMID:9530988

  17. Phytochemical constituents,analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of Triumfetta rhomboidea leaves in animal models

    Uche FI; Okunna BU

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Triumfetta rhomboidea on mice and rats respectively.And to screen the phytochemical constituent of the ex-tract.Methods:The analgesic effect was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice.While the anti-inflammatory activity was determined by egg albumin-induced oedema of the rat paw.Phytochemical screening was done by standard procedures.Results:Triumfetta rhomboidea leaf extract (50 -400 mg/kg) caused a statistically significant inhibition on the egg albumin-induced eodema or inflammation in Wister albino rats with P <0.001 (ANOVA).This effect was higher than the observed effect with Piroxicam (0.5 mg/kg) which was used as a standard.The effect was also dose-dependent.Furthermore,Triumfetta rhomboidea ex-tract caused a statistically significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing in mice,with P<0.001 (ANOVA).These effects were also does-dependent and greater than the analgesic effects by parac-etamol which was used as a reference drug.Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids,ster-oids,triterpenoids alkaloids,tannins and saponins in Truimfetta rhomboidea leaf extract.Conclusion:Trium-fetta rhomboidea can be recommended for acute inflammatory disorders and diseases associated with pains.This also supports its traditional use as an anti-snake bite and anti-cancer or anti-tumor agent.Further study is on the way to find out the mechanism of its action and also to isolate,identify and characterize the active principle responsible for these effects in this plant.

  18. The analgesic effect of Magnesium Sulfate in postoperative pain of inguinal hernia repair

    Mehraein A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4 has been used as a pharmacologic agent in different situations for many years in the treatment of tachyarrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, preeclampsia, and tocolysis among others. The analgesic effect of MgSO4 for postoperative pain has been used since the 1990s. Postoperative pain is one of the most common complications in the perioperative period and can result in serious consequences in different organs if left untreated. Inguinal herniorrhaphy is among the most common surgeries and is almost always accompanied by severe pain. The object of this study is to determine the effect of a pre-induction infusion of MgSO4 on the reduction of postsurgical pain after herniorrhaphy. Methods: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial included 105 ASA class I and class II herniorrhaphy patients at Shariati Hospital in years 2004 and 2005. For statistical analysis, the 2 and T tests were used. The patients were divided into three groups based on block randomization. Patients in the following groups received: Group A, 200 ml of normal saline infusion (placebo; Group B, 25 mg/kg MgSO4 in 200 ml of normal saline; Group C, 50 mg/kg MgSO4 in 200 ml of normal saline. All groups were infused twenty minutes before induction of anesthesia using identical methods and dosage in all three groups. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP at pre- and postintubation and so at skin incision time were charted. Visual analog scale (VAS pain score, nausea, vomiting and the amount of morphine used before recovery room discharge and in six, twelve and twenty-four hours after recovery discharge was recorded. Results: The average age for the different groups was as follows: Group A: 33.6, Group B: 37.37, Group C: 32.74. Nausea and vomiting between the case and control groups were not statistically different (60% vs. 71.4%, p=0.0499, nor was the amount of Morphine used. On recovery room discharge, the VAS scores were 8.1, 7.2, and 5

  19. Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of carprofen in medetomidine premedicated dogs undergoing ovariectomy

    Seliškar Alenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and post-operative analgesic effects of pre-operative administration of carprofen were investigated in 16 medetomidine-premedicated dogs undergoing elective ovariectomy. Dogs were randomly allocated into carprofen (n=8; 4 mg/kg, intramuscularly or placebo group (n = 8. After medetomidine (1000 [xg/m2, intramuscularly premedication, they were induced with propofol (1 mg/kg, intravenously and maintained with isoflurane (FE'ISO 1.0 % in 100% oxygen. During anaesthesia, the analgesia was assessed in terms of changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure as a response to the surgery. Assessments of post-operative sedation (simple numerical rating scale and pain (multifactorial pain scale were made at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1,2,3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after the surgery. In addition, pulse rate, respiratory rate and body temperature were measured at the same time. During anaesthesia, lower heart rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial blood pressure and higher tidal volume of respiration were observed in the carprofen group. Post-operative pain score was relatively low in both groups of dogs, however it was higher, but not significantly, in the placebo group. There was no difference between the groups in terms of respiratory and pulse rate after surgery. The post-operative sedation score was higher in the placebo group only in the early post-operative period most probably due to misinterpretation of pain behaviour. Carprofen together with other anaesthetic drugs provided sufficient intra-operative analgesia only until major painful surgical stimulus occurred, after which analgesia had to be supplemented with a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine. Comparing to that analgesia was insufficient in the placebo group throughout the procedure. The post-operative pain scoring system was probably not sensitive enough to detect the differences between the groups; however, the effects of other drugs that extended in the post

  20. The Analgesic Effect of Obturator Nerve Block Added to a Femoral Triangle Block After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Runge, Charlotte; Børglum, Jens; Jensen, Jan Mick;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with severe pain, and effective analgesia is essential for the quality of postoperative care and ambulation. The analgesic effects of adding an obturator nerve block (ONB) to a femoral triangle block (FTB) after TKA have not...... been tested previously. We hypothesized that combined ONB and FTB will reduce opioid consumption and pain compared with those of a single FTB or local infiltration analgesia (LIA). METHODS: Seventy-eight patients were randomized to combined ONB and FTB, single FTB, or LIA after primary unilateral TKA...

  1. Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, and Anti-pyretic Effects of Origanum majorana Ethanolic Extract in Experimental Animals

    In the present investigation, various biological studies (toxicological, pharmacological, biochemical and histopathological) were carried out on Origanum majorana ethanolic extract. The acute toxicity study revealed that 0. majorana ethanolic extract is quietly safe. Both doses (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt.) of 0. majorana ethanolic extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory (acute and systemic), analgesic, and anti-pyretic effect. Moreover, histopathological findings of stomach and intestine of irradiated rats revealed that both doses of tested extract possess a gastrointestinal protective effect against radiation induced gastritis and enteritis

  2. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of calcitonin on neuropathic pain interacting with its peripheral receptors

    Ito Akitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is clinically well known for its ability to relieve neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome. Mechanisms for its analgesic effect, however, remain unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism of anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Results Subcutaneous injection of elcatonin, a synthetic derivative of eel calcitonin, relieved hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the CCI provoked the upregulation of tetrodotoxin (TTX-sensitive Nav.1.3 mRNA and downregulation of TTX-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA on the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion (DRG, which would consequently increase the excitability of peripheral nerves. These changes were reversed by elcatonin. In addition, the gene expression of the calcitonin receptor and binding site of 125I-calcitonin was increased at the constricted peripheral nerve tissue but not at the DRG. The anti-hyperalgesic effect and normalization of sodium channel mRNA by elcatonin was parallel to the change of the calcitonin receptor expression. Elcatonin, however, did not affect the sensitivity of nociception or gene expression of sodium channel, while it suppressed calcitonin receptor mRNA under normal conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that the anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin on CCI rats could be attributable to the normalization of the sodium channel expression, which might be exerted by an unknown signal produced at the peripheral nerve tissue but not by DRG neurons through the activation of the calcitonin receptor. Calcitonin signals were silent in the normal condition and nerve injury may be one of triggers for conversion of a silent to an active signal.

  3. Haplotypes of P2RX7 gene polymorphisms are associated with both cold pain sensitivity and analgesic effect of fentanyl

    Ide, Soichiro; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Fukuda, Ken-ichi; Kasai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Junko; Hayashida, Masakazu; Minami, Masabumi; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    Background The P2X7 receptor is a member of the P2X family of adenosine 5′-triphosphate-gated cation channels. Several recent studies have demonstrated that this receptor is involved in mechanisms related to pain and inflammation. However, unknown is whether polymorphisms of the P2RX7 gene that encodes the human P2X7 receptor influence pain sensitivity and analgesic effects of opioids. The P2RX7 gene is known to be highly polymorphic. Thus, the present study examined associations between fent...

  4. Antitussive, expectorant and analgesic effects of the ethanol seed extract of Picralima nitida (Stapf) Th. & H. Durand

    Dapaah, Gabriel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Ben, Inemesit Okon

    2016-01-01

    Picralima nitida is used traditionally for management of cough. This study, therefore, investigated the antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties of the ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida (PNE), and ascertained its safety for use. Presence of secondary metabolites, and safety of PNE (10-2000 mg/kg) were evaluated by preliminary phytochemical screening, and by Irwin's test respectively. Percentage reduction in cough count, percentage increase in latency of cough, and percentage protection offered by PNE were established by the citric acid-induced cough, acetylcholine- and Histamine-induced bronchoconstriction models. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were treated with 100-500 mg/kg PNE or reference drugs, dihydrocodiene, atropine, mepyramine. Expectorant property of PNE (100-1000 mg/kg) was determined using the tracheal phenol red secretion; with ammonium chloride as a reference medication. Percentage maximal possible analgesic effect in the tail immersion test and the total nociceptive score in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, after treatment of BALB/c mice with PNE (100-500 mg/kg), diclofenac, and morphine were also estimated. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. PNEdid not cause any extract-related physical, pharmacological and CNS toxicities or mortality; sedation was observed at doses 1000-2000 mg/kg. It showed significant dose-dependent reduction in cough count, and increased cough latency. PNE (1000 mg/kg) enhanced tracheal phenol red secretion. PNE (100–500 mg/kg) significantly and dose dependently increased tail withdrawal latencies, and nociceptive score. PNE has antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties, with an LD50>2000 mg/kg. PMID:27168749

  5. Antitussive, expectorant and analgesic effects of the ethanol seed extract of Picralima nitida (Stapf) Th. & H. Durand.

    Dapaah, Gabriel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Ben, Inemesit Okon

    2016-01-01

    Picralima nitida is used traditionally for management of cough. This study, therefore, investigated the antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties of the ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida (PNE), and ascertained its safety for use. Presence of secondary metabolites, and safety of PNE (10-2000 mg/kg) were evaluated by preliminary phytochemical screening, and by Irwin's test respectively. Percentage reduction in cough count, percentage increase in latency of cough, and percentage protection offered by PNE were established by the citric acid-induced cough, acetylcholine- and Histamine-induced bronchoconstriction models. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were treated with 100-500 mg/kg PNE or reference drugs, dihydrocodiene, atropine, mepyramine. Expectorant property of PNE (100-1000 mg/kg) was determined using the tracheal phenol red secretion; with ammonium chloride as a reference medication. Percentage maximal possible analgesic effect in the tail immersion test and the total nociceptive score in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, after treatment of BALB/c mice with PNE (100-500 mg/kg), diclofenac, and morphine were also estimated. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. PNEdid not cause any extract-related physical, pharmacological and CNS toxicities or mortality; sedation was observed at doses 1000-2000 mg/kg. It showed significant dose-dependent reduction in cough count, and increased cough latency. PNE (1000 mg/kg) enhanced tracheal phenol red secretion. PNE (100-500 mg/kg) significantly and dose dependently increased tail withdrawal latencies, and nociceptive score. PNE has antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties, with an LD50>2000 mg/kg. PMID:27168749

  6. Aerosol Stable Peptide-Coated Liposome Nanoparticles: A Proof-of-Concept Study with Opioid Fentanyl in Enhancing Analgesic Effects and Reducing Plasma Drug Exposure

    HOEKMAN, JOHN D; SRIVASTAVA, PRAMOD; HO, RODNEY J Y

    2014-01-01

    Previous we reported a novel pressurized olfactory drug (POD) delivery device that deposit aerosolized drug preferentially to upper nasal cavity. This POD device provided sustained CNS levels of soluble morphine analgesic effects. However, analgesic onset of less soluble fentanyl was more rapid but brief, likely due to hydrophobic fentanyl redistribution readily back to blood. To determine whether fentanyl incorporated into an aerosol stable liposome that binds to nasal epithelial cells will enhance CNS drug exposure and analgesic effects and reduce plasma exposure, we constructed RGD liposomes anchored with acylated integrin binding peptides (palmitoyl-GRGDS). The RGD liposomes, which assume gel-phase membrane structure at 25°C were stable under the stress of aerosolization as only 2.2 ± 0.5 % calcein leakage detected. The RGD mediated integrin binding of liposome is also verified to be unaffected by aerosolization. Rats treated with fentanyl in RGD-liposome and POD device exhibited greater analgesic effect, compared to the free drug counterpart (AUCeffect = 1387.l vs. 760.1 %MPE*min); while ~20% reduced plasma drug exposure was noted (AUC0-120 = 208.2 vs 284.8 ng*min/ml). Collectively, fentanyl incorporated in RGD-liposomes are physically and biologically stable under aerosolization, enhanced the overall analgesic effects and reduced plasma drug exposure for the first 2 hours. PMID:24909764

  7. Comparing the analgesic effect of heat patch containing iron chip and ibuprofen for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial

    Navvabi Rigi Shahindokht

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a common and sometimes disabling condition. In recent years, some studies aimed to improve the treatment of dysmenorrhea, and therefore, introduced several therapeutic measures. This study was designed to compare the analgesic effect of iron chip containing heat wrap with ibuprofen for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods In this randomized (IRCT201107187038N2 controlled trial, 147 students (18–30 years old with the diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea were enrolled considering the CONSORT guideline. Screening for primary dysmenorrhea was done by a two-question screening tool. The participants were randomly assigned into one of the intervention groups (heat Patch and ibuprofen. Data regarding the severity and emotional impact of the pain were recorded by a shortened version of McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. Results The maximum and minimum pain severities were observed at 2 and 24 hours in both groups. The severity of sensual pain at 8, 12, and 24 hours was non-significantly less in the heat Patch group. There was also no significant difference between the groups regarding the emotional impact of pain at the first 2, 4, 8, 12 and 12 hours of menstruation. Conclusions Heat patch containing Iron chip has comparable analgesic effects to ibuprofen and can possibly be used for primary dysmenorrhea. Trial registration IRCT201107187038N2

  8. Redoubling the ring size of an endomorphin-2 analog transforms a centrally acting mu-opioid receptor agonist into a pure peripheral analgesic.

    Piekielna, Justyna; De Marco, Rossella; Gentilucci, Luca; Cerlesi, Maria Camilla; Calo', Girolamo; Tömböly, Csaba; Artali, Roberto; Janecka, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The study reports the synthesis and biological evaluation of two opioid analogs, a monomer and a dimer, obtained as products of the solid-phase, side-chain to side-chain cyclization of the pentapeptide Tyr-d-Lys-Phe-Phe-AspNH2 . The binding affinities to the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors, as well as results obtained in a calcium mobilization functional assay are reported. Tyr-[d-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]2 -NH2 1 was a potent and selective full agonist of mu with sub-nanomolar affinity, while the dimer (Tyr-[d-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]2 -NH2 )2 2 showed a significant mixed mu/kappa affinity, acting as an agonist at the mu. Molecular docking computations were utilized to explain the ability of the dimeric cyclopeptide 2 to interact with the receptor. Interestingly, in spite of the increased ring size, the higher flexibility allowed 2 to fold and fit into the mu receptor binding pocket. Both cyclopeptides were shown to elicit strong antinociceptive activity after intraventricular injection but only cyclomonomer 1 was able to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, the cyclodimer 2 displayed a potent peripheral antinociceptive activity in a mouse model of visceral inflammatory pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 309-317, 2016. PMID:27038094

  9. Effect of Motor Impairment on Analgesic Efficacy of Dopamine D2/3 Receptors in a Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Dourado, Margarida; Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Monteiro, Clara; Galhardo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Testing the clinical efficacy of drugs that also have important side effects on locomotion needs to be properly designed in order to avoid erroneous identification of positive effects when the evaluation depends on motor-related tests. One such example is the evaluation of analgesic role of drugs that act on dopaminergic receptors, since the pain perception tests used in animal models are based on motor responses that can also be compromised by the same substances. The apparent analgesic effect obtained by modulation of the dopaminergic system is still a highly disputed topic. There is a lack of acceptance of this effect in both preclinical and clinical settings, despite several studies showing that D2/3 agonists induce antinociception. Some authors raised the hypothesis that this antinociceptive effect is enhanced by dopamine-related changes in voluntary initiation of movement. However, the extent to which D2/3 modulation changes locomotion at analgesic effective doses is still an unresolved question. In the present work, we performed a detailed dose-dependent analysis of the changes that D2/3 systemic modulation have on voluntary locomotor activity and response to four separate tests of both thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity in adult rats. Using systemic administration of the dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist quinpirole, and of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride, we found that modulation of D2/3 receptors impairs locomotion and exploratory activity in a dose-dependent manner across the entire range of tested dosages. None of the drugs were able to consistently diminish either thermal or mechanical pain perception when administered at lower concentrations; on the other hand, the larger concentrations of raclopride (0.5–1.0 mg/kg) strongly abolished pain responses, and also caused severe motor impairment. Our results show that administration of both agonists and antagonists of dopaminergic D2/3 receptors affects sensorimotor behaviors, with the effect over

  10. Antinociceptive effects of topical mepivacaine in a rat model of HIV-associated peripheral neuropathic pain

    Sagen J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline Sagen, Daniel A Castellanos,† Aldric T Hama The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA †Daniel A Castellanos passed away on April 14, 2010 Background: A consequence of HIV infection is sensory neuropathy, a debilitating condition that degrades the quality of life of HIV patients. Furthermore, life-extending antiretroviral treatment may exacerbate HIV sensory neuropathy. Analgesics that relieve other neuropathic pains show little or no efficacy in ameliorating HIV sensory neuropathy. Thus, there is a need for analgesics for people with this particular pain. While lidocaine is used in the management of painful peripheral neuropathies, another local anesthetic mepivacaine, with a potentially improved bioavailability, could be utilized for the management of HIV neuropathic pain.Methods: The efficacy of topical anesthetics was evaluated in a preclinical rodent model of painful peripheral neuropathy induced by epineural administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 delivered using saturated oxidized cellulose implanted around the sciatic nerve. Beginning at 2 weeks following gp120 administration, the effects of local anesthetics topically applied via gauze pads were tested on heat and mechanical hyperalgesia in the hind paw. Rats were tested using several concentrations of mepivacaine or lidocaine during the following 2 weeks.Results: By 2 weeks following epineural gp120 implantation, the ipsilateral hind paw developed significant hypersensitivity to noxious pressure and heat hyperalgesia. A short-lasting, concentration-dependent amelioration of pressure and heat hyperalgesia was observed following topical application of mepivacaine to the ipsilateral plantar hind paw. By contrast, topical lidocaine ameliorated heat hyperalgesia in a concentration-dependent manner but not pressure hyperalgesia. Equipotent concentrations of mepivacaine and lidocaine applied topically to the

  11. Postoperative catecholamine response to onychectomy in isoflurane-anesthetized cats. Effects of analgesics.

    Benson, G J; Wheaton, L G; Thurmon, J C; Tranquilli, W J; Olson, W A; Davis, C A

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy adult cats were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen. Six cats (group 1) served as controls; onychectomy of the forefeet was performed in the other three groups. Saline was administered intravenously to group 1, and morphine, xylazine, and salicylate were administered to groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Mixed venous blood samples were drawn for catecholamine analysis before induction of anesthesia, after recovery from anesthesia, and 30 minutes and 60 minutes after administration of the analgesic agent. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Isoflurane anesthesia alone induced a transient increase in epinephrine concentration. Norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations increased significantly after onychectomy. Morphine and xylazine significantly decreased postoperative norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations; salicylate did not. PMID:1853554

  12. Absence of analgesic effect of intravenous melatonin administration during daytime after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Kücükakin, Bülent; Werner, Mads U;

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether melatonin administered intraoperatively reduced pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. SETTING: Two surgical departments in Copenhagen. PATIENTS: 44 women between 18 and 70 years of age, who...... mg of intravenous (IV) melatonin or placebo were administered at the time of surgical incision. MEASUREMENTS: Pain was assessed by a set of questionnaires documenting "pain at rest" using a visual analog scale (VAS). The use of rescue medication was recorded. Sleep quality and general well-being were...... between the two groups in the postoperative period. The use of postoperative rescue medication did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of 10mg of IV melatonin administered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy did not affect postoperative pain or use of analgesic medication....

  13. ANALGESIC AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CHELIDONIUM MAJUS L. (CHELIDONIUM MAJUS L.’UN ANALJEZİK VE HEPATOPROTEKTİF ETKİLERİ)

    SEVER-YILMAZ, Betül; ÖZBEK, Hanefi; SALTAN ÇİTOĞLU, Gülçin; Uğraş, Serdar; Bayram, İrfan; ERDOĞAN, Ender

    2007-01-01

    Water extract of Chelidonium majus L. (CM) was investigated for analgesic effect in mice andhepatoprotective effect in rats.Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using tail-flick test. Mice were injected CMintraperitoneally (i.p.) in doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. Pain tresholds were measuredwith tail-flick test before administration and at 30th, 90th and 150th minutes after treatment.Hepatoprotective activity of CM on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver toxici...

  14. [Chronic use of analgesics].

    Bronder, E; Klimpel, A; Pommer, W; Molzahn, M

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative aspects of longterm analgesic intake are presented, based on a case-control-study on the relation between regular analgesic intake and endstage renal failure in the area of West Berlin (1984-86). Lifetime analgesic consumption of more than 1000 persons were investigated. A total of 285 longterm analgesic users (185 cases = 35.8%; 100 controls = 19.3%) were detected. An odd ratio of 2.44 (95% CI: 1.77-3.39) was computed. Regular analgesic intake was defined as an intake of at least 15 analgesic doses per month continuously over a period of at least 12 months. 90% of the regular users preferred mixed analgesics compounds, in most cases with the psychotropic additive caffeine. PMID:2238838

  15. Analgesic and sedative effects of perioperative gabapentin in total knee arthroplasty A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study

    Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik; Laursen, Mogens Berg;

    2015-01-01

    Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized...... (1:1:1) to either gabapentin 1300 mg/d (group A), gabapentin 900 mg/d (group B), or placebo (group C) daily from 2 hours preoperatively to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 hours after surgery, and the...

  16. Acute Metabolic Changes Associated With Analgesic Drugs

    Hansen, Tine Maria; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Simonsen, Carsten Wiberg;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used to measure brain metabolites. Limited data exist on the analgesic-induced spectroscopy response. This was an explorative study with the aims to investigate the central effects of two analgesic drugs, an opioid and a selective...

  17. The effects of prostaglandin E1 on peripheral arteriography

    The effectiveness and side effects intraarterial use of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as a vasodilator were evaluated in 40 peripheral arteriographies which were performed on 20 patients at Hanyang University Hospital from Dec. 1985 to Mar. 1987. Both control and PGE1-used arteriographies were performed on each patient. In PGE1 study, 20 μ g of prostaglandin E1 was slowly injected for 30 seconds intraarterially 30 seconds before injection of contrast media. The peripheral arteriographies using intraarterial PGE1 were more effective in diagnostic arteriography without any significant hemodynamic side effects. The results were as follows: 1. The PGE1-used arteriograms revealed more earlier visualization of optimal phase than control arteriograms in most of the patients, as well as in visualization of venous system. 2. There were greater incidence of peripheral visualization of arterial branches and improved opacification of arterial system in PGE1-used arteriograms than in control arteriograms. 3. In PGE1study1, the total amount and injection speed of contrast media should be increased to obtain better arteriogram. 4. There was no significant hemodynamic side effects after intraarterial use of prostaglandin E1

  18. Effect of single dose pretreatment analgesia with three different analgesics on postoperative endodontic pain: A randomized clinical trial

    Priyank Sethi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the aims of root canal treatment is to prevent or eliminate pain. Postoperative endodontic pain control continues to be a significant challenge. Aim: To compare and evaluate the effect of single oral dose of 100 mg of tapentadol, 400 mg of etodolac, or 10 mg of ketorolac as a pretreatment analgesic for the prevention and control of postoperative endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The incidence of side effects was recorded as secondary outcome. Materials and Methods: Sixty emergency patients with moderate to severe pain, diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were randomly allocated (1:1:1 to any of the three groups; tapentadol, etodolac, or ketorolac. Medications were administered 30 min before beginning of the endodontic treatment. Patients recorded pain intensity on 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS after treatment, for upto 24 h. Results: At 24 h, mean ±standard deviation (SD of VAS scores (in cm for tapentadol, etodolac, and ketorolac were 0.89 ± 0.83, 2.68 ± 2.29, and 0.42 ± 0.69, respectively. Kruskal-Wallis (K-W test showed significant difference among the three groups (P = 0.001. Mann-Whitney test showed significantly lower VAS scores in tapentadol and ketorolac than etodolac group (P = 0.013 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Single oral dose of 10 mg of ketorolac and 100mg of tapentadol as a pretreatment analgesic significantly reduced postoperative endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis when compared to 400 mg of etodolac.

  19. Intrathecal tramadol added to bupivacaine as spinal anesthetic increases analgesic effect of the spinal blockade after major gynecological surgeries

    Chakraborty Susmita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic effect of the centrally acting opioid, tramadol, is well-known. It has been shown in clinical studies that using tramadol epidurally can provide longer duration of analgesia, without the common side effects of opioids. The study was undertaken to evaluate the duration of analgesia and/or pain free period produced by intrathecal tramadol added to bupivacaine in patients undergoing major gynecological surgery in a randomized double blind placebo controlled protocol. Fifty patients ASA I & II scheduled for Wardmayo′s operation and Fothergill′s operation were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Group A (n=25 received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (15 mg with 0.2 ml of normal saline and Group B (n=25 received 3 ml 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 0.2 ml (20 mg tramadol by intrathecal route at L3-4 inter space. Standard monitoring of the vital parameters was done during the study period. Levels of sensory block and sedation score were recorded every two minutes for the first 20 minutes, and then every ten minutes for the rest of the surgical procedure. Assessment of pain was done using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The study was concluded when the VAS was more than 40 mm, postoperatively. The patient was medicated and the time was recorded. Duration of analgesia or pain free period was estimated from the time of completion of spinal injection to administration of rescue analgesic or when the VAS score was greater than 40 mm. In Group B patients, the VAS score was significantly lower, as compared to Group A patients. The duration of analgesia was 210 ± 10.12 min in Group A; whereas, in Group B, it was 380 ± 11.82 min, which was found to be significant.

  20. Comparing analgesic and hemodynamic effects of unilateral spinal levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine-fentanyl and levobupivacaine-morphine combinations for arthroscopic procedures

    Özlem Özorak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of the study was to compare the analgesic and hemodynamic effects of levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine-fentanyl, levobupivacaine-morphine for arthroscopic knee surgery under unilateral spinal anesthesia.Methods: A total of 44 ASA I/II patients scheduled for arthroscopy were included in the study. After prehydration patients kept in a lateral position on the nondependent side. Spinal puncture was performed at L3–4/L4–5 intervertebral space. Patients divided into three subgroups: Group L (n=14 received 0.5% levobupivacaine 1 ml+1 ml distilled water; Group LF (n=15, 25 mcg fentanyl (0.5 ml+0.5 ml distilled water; and Group LM (n=15, 0.01 mg morphine (0.5 ml+0.5 ml distilled water. Patients remained in that position for 15 minutes. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before and 1st, 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and 30th minutes after the block and every 15 minutes during the operation. Motor blockade and sensorial level, side effects, motor block regression time (MBRT, first urination time and first analgesic need (FAN were recorded.Results: Group LM had the longest MBRT, but difference with other groups did not reach to a significant level (p>0.05. Group LM had significantly longer FAN time compare with other groups (p<0.05. The first urination time was latest in Group LM (p<0.05. Motor blockade was least in Group L (p<0.05 and almost 50% patients had not motor block.Conclusion: All three groups had successful anesthesia. Morphine group added group had significantly longer analgesia without significant urinary retention and motor blockade regression time. We concluded that additional low doses of morphine will be a better choice.

  1. Comparison of analgesic effects of nimesulide, paracetamol, and their combination in animal models

    Ahmed Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the analgesic activity of nimesulide and paracetamol alone and their combination in animal models for the degree of analgesia and the time course of action. Materials and Methods: Analgesia was studied in albino rats using formalin test and in albino mice using writhing test and the radiant heat method. For each test, four groups of six animals each were orally fed with a single dose of nimesulide, paracetamol, and combination of nimesulide + paracetamol and gum acacia as control, respectively. Results: In all the three test models, all three drug treatments showed significant analgesia (P < 0.001 as compared to control, but there was no significant difference in the analgesia produced by either drugs alone or in combination. The radiant heat method demonstrated a quicker onset and longer duration of action with nimesulide, whereas writhing test showed a quicker onset of action with paracetamol. In formalin test, greater degree of analgesia was seen with individual drugs than that of the combination, though this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Nimesulide and paracetamol combination offers no advantage over nimesulide alone or paracetamol alone, either in terms of degree of analgesia or onset of action. Therefore, our study supports the reports claiming irrationality of the fixed dose combination of nimesulide and paracetamol.

  2. Analgesic effect of high intensity focused ultrasound in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    Xinjin Tan; Jian Chen; Li Ren; Ruilu Lin; Zailian Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic ef ect of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods:A total of 106 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer accompanied by abdominal pain were treated by HIFU. Pain intensities and quantities of morphine consumption before and after treatment were observed and compared. Results:The average pain intensities before treatment, and at d3, d7 after treatment were 5.80 ± 2.14, 2.73 ± 2.68, 2.45 ± 2.43 respectively (P<0.01). Fifty-nine cases (55.7%) got to extremely ef ective, and 29 cases (27.4%) ef ective. Total ef icient rate was 83.0%. The average quantities of morphine consumption before and after treatment in the patients with grade III pain were 114.9 ± 132.5 mg, 16.8 ± 39.7 mg each person everyday respectively (P<0.01). Conclusion:HIFU can relieve pain suf ered by patients with pancreatic cancer ef ectively. It is a new adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer pain.

  3. Analgesic effect and side effects of celecoxib and meloxicam in canine hip osteoarthritis

    Víctor Molina D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the pharmacological, clinical and toxicological effects of celecoxib and meloxicam for analgesia for 30 days in dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients were evaluated, 75% were females with an average age of 7.16 ± 2.06 years and twenty five percent were males with an average age of 7.83 ± 2.22 years. All patients had hip osteoarthritis and they were randomized into two groups; one group received oral celecoxib 5 mg/kg every 12 hours during one month and the second group received oral meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg every 24 hours during 1 month. The patients were evaluated for analgesia, and hematological, renal, liver, and coagulation tests on days 0, 10th and 30th after treatment initiation, and a gastric endoscopy on day 30. Statistical analysis was performed using a HSD Tukey test and c2 with a 5% level of statistical significance. Results. Both drugs reduced articular pain according to the Melbourne scale during the 30 days of treatment (p≤0.05. Hematological, renal, hepatic and coagulation tests were normal in both treatment groups. All patients presented chronic gastritis on endoscopy on day 30th. Conclusions. Both drugs decreased pain at day 30th without causing alterations in hematological, renal, hepatic or coagulation tests after 30 days of treatment. However, both drugs induced chronic gastritis.

  4. Analgesic effect of extracts of Alpinia galanga rhizome in mice%大高良姜根茎提取物对小鼠的镇痛作用

    Sahana Devadasa Acharya; Sheetal Dinkar Ullal; Shivaraj Padiyar; Yalla Durga Rao; Kousthubha Upadhyaya; Durga Pillai; Vishnu Raj

    2011-01-01

    , mice in the five groups with six in each received three different doses of ethanolic extracts of dried rhizome of AG suspended in 2% gum acacia orally, morphine subcutaneously and 2% gum acacia orally, respectively. Reaction time was observed after administration of vehicle or drugs. For the hot-plate test after naloxone pretreatment, mice in the five groups received naloxone subcutaneously 30 min prior to the administration of vehicle or drugs and reaction time was observed as explained above. In the writhing test, writhes were induced by injecting acetic acid intraperitoneally in another 30 mice which were randomly allocated to five groups of six in each and received three different doses of ethanolic extracts of dried rhizome of AG suspended in 2% gum acacia, aspirin suspended in 2% gum acacia and 2% gum acacia orally, respectively. The mice were observed individually for a period of 15 min and the number of writhes was recorded for each animal.Results: AG treatment significantly increased the latency period in the hot-plate test at all three doses at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min time intervals compared with control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Naloxone pretreatment significantly reduced the latency period in hot-plate test for both AG and morphine groups as compared with corresponding groups that did not receive naloxone pretreatment (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). AG at all doses significantly reduced the number of writhes compared with control group (P<0.01).Conclusion: The study confirmed the analgesic effect of AG rhizome and hence justified its use in ethnomedicine for the treatment of pain due to various causes. The probable mechanism of its analgesic action may be central as well as peripheral.

  5. Qigong Effects on Heart Rate Variability and Peripheral Vasomotor Responses.

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2015-11-01

    Population aging is occurring worldwide, and preventing cardiovascular event in older people is a unique challenge. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week qigong (eight-form moving meditation) training program on the heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor response of middle-aged and elderly people in the community. This was a quasi-experimental study that included the pre-test, post-test, and nonequivalent control group designs. Seventy-seven participants (experimental group = 47; control group = 30) were recruited. The experimental group performed 30 min of eight-form moving meditation 3 times per week for 12 weeks, and the control group continued their normal daily activities. After 12 weeks, the interaction effects indicated that compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited significantly improved heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor responses. PMID:24869492

  6. Effects of the extracts from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves on analgesic and behavioral activities in experimental animals

    Kitja Sawangjaroen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (M. speciosa were extracted with methanol to give methanol extract. The methanol extract was made in acid and then in alkaline and extracted with chloroform to give alkaloid extract. The effects of the methanol and alkaloid extracts on analgesic activities in hot plate test in mice and tail flick test in rats and behavioral activities in locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, were examined. In acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of oral administration of the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves in mice were 4.90 g/kg and 173.20 mg/kg, respectively. Oral administration (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract of M. speciosa leaves significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response on hot plate test in mice. The alkaloid extract of M. speciosa also increased the pain response latency at the dose of 20 mg/kg but less potent than those of the methanol extract (100 mg/kg in mice (comparing 5-10 mg/kg alkaloid extract with corresponding to approximately 200 mg/kg of methanol extract. The antinociceptive action of either methanol extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. or alkaloid extract (20 mg/kg, p.o. of M. speciosa leaves was blocked by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. Neither the methanol extract nor the alkaloid extract significantly prolonged latency of nociceptive response on tail flick test in rats. Both of the extracts had no significant change on spontaneous motor activity or pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice, respectively. These results suggest that the methanol and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa leaves possess the analgesic activity which partly acted at opioid receptors in the supraspinal opioid system.

  7. Analgesic and antisympathetic effects of clonidine in burn patients, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Ostadalipour Abbas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Unlike most other Analgesic drugs, α2 adrenoceptor agonists are capable of producing analgesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Analgesic and antisympathetic effects of clonidine, an α2 adrenoceptor agonist in burn patients. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed on one hundred burn patients in Zarea Hospital, Mazandaran, Iran from august 2004 to July 2005. All patients divided in two groups. Case group (n=50 received oral clonidine, 3.3μg/kg TDS and controls (n=50 received placebo. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure and pain severity Visual analogue score (VAS, were recorded after clonidine administration. Statistical analysis was done by means of Mann Witney U test. Results: 50 patients (mean age 28.96±10 years in case group, and 50 patients (mean age 27.60±11.4 years in control group were studied. VAS pain scores and heart rate in the clonidine group were significantly lower than the control group (P< 0.0001, P< 0.02.there were no significant difference in systolic blood pressure between the two groups on the first and second day but on third day the systolic blood pressure in clonidine group, was lower than controls significantly (P=0.002. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the use of oral clonidine affects the hemodynamic response to pain in burn patients. Our study demonstrated that clonidine can produce good analgesia and decreased in sympathetic over activity in burn patients, and also reduce opioid dose requirements.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effect of ropivacaine during continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief

    Erichsen, C J; Sjövall, J; Kehlet, H;

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ropivacaine (2.5 mg/ml) during a 24-h continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief in 20 patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were characterized using an open-label, increasing-dose design. METHODS: Through an epidural...... catheter inserted at T10-T12, a test dose of 7.5 mg ropivacaine was given 3 min before a bolus dose of 42.5 mg and immediately followed by a 24-h continuous epidural infusion with either 10 or 20 mg/h. Peripheral venous plasma samples were collected up to 48 h after infusion, and urinary excretion was...

  9. Effect of Hypoxia and Bedrest on Peripheral Vasoconstriction

    McDonnell, Adam C.; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Jaki Mekjavic, Polona; Eiken, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Future planetary habitats may expose astronauts to both microgravity and hypobaric hypoxia, both inducing a reduction in peripheral perfusion. Peripheral temperature changes have been linked to sleep onset and quality [5]. However, it is still unknown what effect combining hypoxia and bedrest has on this relationship. Eleven male participants underwent three 10-day campaigns in a randomized manner: 1) normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAmb); 2) normobaric hypoxic bed rest (HBR); 3) normobaric normoxic bed rest (NBR). There was no change in skin temperature gradient between the calf and toes, an index of peripheral perfusion (Δ Tc-t), over the 10-d period in the HAmb trial. However, there was a significant increase (p< 0.001) in daytime (9am-9pm) Δ Tc-t on day 10 of the inactivity/unloading periods (HBR and NBR trials). This reduction in the perfusion of the toes during the daytime was augmented during the HBR trial compared to NBR (p< 0.001). Before and on day 10 of the interventions we conducted polysomnographic assessment, which revealed no changes in sleep onset and/or architecture. These data support the theory that circadian changes in temperature are functionally linked to sleepiness [1].

  10. Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone: An Overview on the Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Amin, Bahareh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    For many centuries, seeds of Nigella sativa (black cumin), a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used as a seasoning spice and food additive in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. Traditionally, the plant is used for asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances. The literature regarding the biological activities of seeds of this plant is extensive, citing bronchodilative, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. The active ingredients of N. sativa are mainly concentrated in the fixed or essential oil of seeds, which are responsible for most health benefits. This review will provide all updated reported activities of this plant with an emphasis on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results of various studies have demonstrated that the oil, extracts, and their active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting the common folk perception of N. Sativa as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Many protective properties are attributed to reproducible radical scavenging activity as well as an interaction with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation, including proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. However, there is a need for further investigations to find out the precise mechanisms responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant and its active constituents. PMID:26366755

  11. Comparative Study on the Analgesic Effects of Different Moxibustion Methods with Tai-yi Moxa Stick in Treating Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Wu Jiu-long; Wang Yu-fan; Zhang Jian-bin; Wang Ling-ling; Chen Hong-yu; Tang Yi-chun; Ma Xiao-yu; Huan Jia-hui; Chen Ruo-yang; Mo Hui; Xu Xiu-zhu; Shen Xiao-jing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the therapeutic effects of two different moxibustion methods both with tai-yi moxa stick in treating primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: Forty-three patients were randomized into two groups by the random number table according to their treatment orders. The causalgic group was intervened by causalgic stimulation with tai-yi moxa stick while the tepid group was treated by mild thermal stimulation with tai-yi moxa stick. Shiqizhui (EX-B 8) was selected for both groups. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for observation before and during the treatment by every 10 min to compare the clinical efficacies between the two groups. Results: Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in pain intensity between the two groups (P>0.05). After treatment, both groups achieved significant improvements in pain intensity (P0.05), but the difference was enlarged comparing with that before treatment. The pain relief during the first 10 min of treatment was slower in the causalgic group than that in the tepid group. However, during the later 20 min, the pain relief in the calsalgia group gradually outpaced that in the tepid group. Conclusion: The two moxibustion methods with tai-yi moxa stick both have a good instant analgesic effect in treating primary dysmenorrhea. For patients with primary dysmenorrhea, if 30 min is regarded as the treatment time, mild stimulation was suggested to be used for the first 10 min, and causalgic stimulation for the later 20 min to achieve a better curative effect.

  12. The study of Analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and Anti-oxidant Effect of Ethanolic Extracts of Ecbolium linnaenum in Albino Mice

    Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ecbolium linnaenum(leaves is used as a folk medicine in Bangladesh for pain, diarrhea and infectious diseases. Phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of Ecboliumlinnaenumleaves demonstratesthese pharmacologic effect for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, gums,flavonoids and absence of carbohydrates, steroids, saponins. In this present study an attempt was made to determine the analgesic, antidiarrhoel, antioxidantand antimicrobial effectin Swiss Albino mice. Ethanolic extracts of250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant inhibition of writhing reflex 36.20% (P< 0.01 and 54.48% (P< 0.001, respectively while the standard drug diclofenac-Na was 75.52% (P< 0.001 at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight.In the castor oil-induced diarrhoealmice, the ethanolic extracts of 250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg, raised the latent period and reduced the number of stools comparing with standard drug Loperamide. 0.02% DPPH solution of ethanol on TLC plate showed the presence of anti-oxidant components in the Ecboliumlinnaenum.From the % inhibition of ascorbic acid and Ecboliumlinnaenum we observe that it has anti-oxidation effect. The IC50 (inhibitory conc. 50% for ascorbic acid is approximately 1 µg/ml and for the sample it is more than 500 µg/ml. The ethanolic extract of Ecboliumlinnaenum was tested for antimicrobial activity against a number of both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria but it does not show any anti-microbial effect.

  13. [Mechanism of action of the analgesic flupirtine].

    Nickel, B; Herz, A; Jakovlev, V; Tibes, U

    1985-01-01

    To answer the questions of mode and site of action partly supplementary, partly new investigations with flupirtine (Katadolon) were carried out which are described below. The investigation for opiate receptor affinity of flupirtine in rat brain homogenate did not show any reduction in 3He-etorphine binding up to the highest concentration of flupirtine of 10(-5) mol/1. This result suggests that flupirtine either has a very low opiate receptor affinity or lacks it fully. Therefore the analgesic activity of flupirtine is not based on opiate mechanism. The intracerebroventricular and intrathecal administration of flupirtine and the other analgesics tested showed dose dependent analgesic activity in doses which, when applied systemically, did not cause any analgesia in rats. Thus these substances show cerebral or spinal analgesic activity. In relation to the effective doses (ED50 in micrograms/rat) flupirtine was of the same efficacy in both kinds of administration. Pethidine tested comparatively was found to be less potent by intrathecal than by intracerebroventricular application. On the other hand, morphine was weaker by intracerebroventricular than by intrathecal application. As in the experiments by oral administration, naloxone did not show any effect on the analgesic activity of flupirtine, neither by intracerebroventricular nor by intrathecal application. On the other hand, the analgesic effects of pethidine and morphine were completely suppressed by naloxone. These results demonstrate that the analgesic activity of flupirtine is not caused by the opiate mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3002399

  14. Effect of Large Dose Methylcobalamin on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    2005-01-01

    The effects of large dose methylcobalamin injection on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients were observed to observe the subjective symptom of diabetic perpheral neuropathy (DPN) patients and detect the motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and sense nerve conduction velocity (SCV). Fifteen patients were received large dose methylcobalamin injection for two weeks as treatment group, another eleven patients were received muscular injection VitB1 100mg/ d, VitB12 500ug/ d for two weeks as control group. After 2 weeks treatment the subjective symptoms and signs were significantly improved with a total effective rate of 82.9% in the treatment group however the effective rate only has 52.0% in the control group. The result has obvious difference in statistics nerve MCV in median common peroneal nerve, SCV in median and superficial peroneal nerve were improved significantly in the treatment group and no such changes were observed in the control group. So, large dose methylcobalamin is an effective and safe agent for treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  15. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    Villarreal, Eduardo A Garza; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception. PMID:22242169

  16. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    Eduardo A Garza Villarreal

    Full Text Available Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception.

  17. The peripheral vascular effects of diltiazem--dose-response characteristics.

    Finch, M B; Johnston, G D

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of increasing doses of diltiazem on peripheral blood flow were observed in six subjects. Each subject received, in random order, a single oral dose of placebo or diltiazem 60, 120 or 180 mg. Supine heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, digital systolic pressure, forearm and digital blood flow were recorded before and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h post-dosing. Plasma diltiazem concentrations were measured at each time interval and at 12 and 24 h after the 120 mg dose. At dose...

  18. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Reza Heidari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was performed on 32 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic, melatonin-treated diabetic and vitamin E-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (50 mg/kg injection. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p. and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 2 weeks after 21st day of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, pain-related behavior was assessed using 0.5% formalin test according to two spontaneous flinching and licking responses. The levels of lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were evaluated in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.ResultsFormalin-evoked flinching and total time of licking were increased in both acute and chronic phases of pain in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, whereas treatment with melatonin or vitamin E significantly reduced the pain indices. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in diabetic rats. Both antioxidants reversed the biochemical parameters toward their control values.ConclusionThese results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to induction of pain in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidants, melatonin and vitamin E, can reduce peripheral neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  19. The Evaluation of the Analgesic Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Solanum Melongena in Syrian Mice Using Tail Flick Test

    H Falah-Tafti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, many researches are being conducted in order to evaluate the analgesic effects of different plants which have been used as sedative in traditional medicine. Solanum Melongena is a plant with different theories about its analgesic effects. In this experimental trial research, the effects of intraperitoneal(IP injection of hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena were assessed and compared with different doses of morphine and distilled water in Syrian mice. Methods: The effects of different doses of Solanum Melongena (1, 10, 100, and 1000µg/Kg, different doses of morphine sulfate (1, 2, and 4 µg/Kg and distilled water on acute pain was assessed in Syrian mice. Tail flick latency after IP injection was measured for 75 minutes as the index of pain tolerance, using a tail flick apparatus which projects a condensed light stimulus on the animal's tail. Results: Our findings showed that different doses of Solanum increased analgesia index. This effect was more prominent in 45-60 minutes after IP injections which was significantly greater than the control group (p<0.05(. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena produces analgesic effect in a dose- related manner.

  20. [Analgesic-antispasmodic effect and safety of lysine clonixinate and L-hyoscinbutylbromide in the treatment of dysmenorrhea].

    Hernández Bueno, J A; de la Jara Díaz, J; Sedeño Cruz, F; Llorens Torres, F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal open but not comparative study was to confirm the safety and efficacy of Lysine clonixinate (125 mg) and hyoscinbutylbromide (10 mg) capsules, during a period of observation of there menstrual cycles on 30 women with uterine dysfunction due to primary or secondary dysmenorrhea. The time of evolution for primary dysmenorrhea was of 4.46 years, and for secondary was of 1.77 years. Some associated manifestations of dysmenorrhea were: nausea (92%), vomit (92%), general pain (82.1%), abdominal pain (85.7%) and headache (46.4%). Regarding to the menstrual pain intensity, at first was highly severe in 10.7% severe in 42.9%, and moderate in 46.4%. At the end of the study, only 1 of 28 patients showed menstrual pain of moderate intensity. Only three adverse effects of light intensity were found without needing treatment, related to the manifestations of gastralgia and sleepiness. The association of a spasmolytic analgesic (Lysine clonixinate and hyoscinbutylbromide bromide) on the treatment for primary or secondary dysmenorrhea, reduces and prevents the menstrual pain (colic) as well as the associated manifestations with few spasmolytic association is efficacy and safety. PMID:9580220

  1. Neurotransmission in CNS regions involved in pain modulation : Neurochemical effects of analgesic drugs and spinal cord stimulation in the spinal cord and midbrain periaqueductal grey of the rat

    Stiller, Carl-Olav

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmission in CNS Regions Involved in Pain Modulation Neurochemical effects of analgesic drugs and spinal cord stimulation in the dorsal horn and midbrain periaqueductal grey of the rat by Carl-Olav Stiller From the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Division of Pharmacology Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden The dorsal hom of the spinal cord and the midbrain penaqueductal grey matter (PAG) are important regions for pain modulation. In ...

  2. Effect of intraoperative esmolol infusion on anesthetic, analgesic requirements and postoperative nausea-vomitting in a group of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients

    Necla Dereli; Zehra Baykal Tutal; Munire Babayigit; Aysun Kurtay; Mehmet Sahap; Eyup Horasanli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Postoperative pain and nausea/vomitting (PNV) are common in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Sympatholytic agents might decrease requirements for intravenous or inhalation anesthetics and opioids. In this study we aimed to analyze effects of esmolol on intraoperative anesthetic-postoperative analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV. METHODS: Sixty patients have been included. Propofol, remifentanil and vecuronium were used for induction. Study groups were as follows;...

  3. Effects of multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation for chronic back or neck pain: a register-linkage study of sickness absences and analgesic purchases in an occupational cohort.

    Suoyrjö, H.; Hinkka, K.; Oksanen, T.; Kivimäki, M; Klaukka, T; Pentti, J.; Vahtera, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of multidisciplinary in-patient rehabilitation for chronic back or neck pain on sickness absences and analgesic purchases. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: 10 towns in Finland. PARTICIPANTS: 34 838 local government employees, including 418 participants in rehabilitation for chronic back pain and 195 participants in rehabilitation for chronic neck pain between 1994 and 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The annual rates of short (1-3 days), long...

  4. Analgesic effectiveness and tolerability of oral oxycodone/naloxone and pregabalin in patients with lung cancer and neuropathic pain: an observational analysis

    De Santis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Stefano De Santis,1 Cristina Borghesi,1 Serena Ricciardi,2 Daniele Giovannoni,1 Alberto Fulvi,2 Maria Rita Migliorino,2 Claudio Marcassa3 1Palliative Care and Cancer Pain Service, Oncological Pulmonary Unit, 2Oncological Pulmonary Unit, San Camillo-Forlanini Hospitals, Rome, 3Cardiologia Fondazione Maugeri IRCCS, Novara, Italy Introduction: Cancer-related pain has a severe negative impact on quality of life. Combination analgesic therapy with oxycodone and pregabalin is effective for treati...

  5. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of a Novel Biflavonoid from Shells of Camellia oleifera

    Yong Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum (p < 0.01, revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  6. Truncated G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1 splice variants are targets for highly potent opioid analgesics lacking side effects.

    Majumdar, Susruta; Grinnell, Steven; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Burgman, Maxim; Polikar, Lisa; Ansonoff, Michael; Pintar, John; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2011-12-01

    Pain remains a pervasive problem throughout medicine, transcending all specialty boundaries. Despite the extraordinary insights into pain and its mechanisms over the past few decades, few advances have been made with analgesics. Most pain remains treated by opiates, which have significant side effects that limit their utility. We now describe a potent opiate analgesic lacking the traditional side effects associated with classical opiates, including respiratory depression, significant constipation, physical dependence, and, perhaps most important, reinforcing behavior, demonstrating that it is possible to dissociate side effects from analgesia. Evidence indicates that this agent acts through a truncated, six-transmembrane variant of the G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1. Although truncated splice variants have been reported for a number of G protein-coupled receptors, their functional relevance has been unclear. Our evidence now suggests that truncated variants can be physiologically important through heterodimerization, even when inactive alone, and can comprise new therapeutic targets, as illustrated by our unique opioid analgesics with a vastly improved pharmacological profile. PMID:22106286

  7. Metabolic effect of fluvoxamine in mouse peripheral tissues.

    Rozenblit-Susan, Sigal; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren

    2016-03-15

    Serotonin leads to reduced food intake and satiety. Disrupted circadian rhythms lead to hyperphagia and obesity. The serotonergic and circadian systems are intertwined, as the central brain clock receives direct serotonergic innervation and, in turn, makes polysynaptic output back to serotonergic nuclei. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that peripherally serotonin alters circadian rhythms leading to a shift towards fat synthesis and weight gain. We studied the effect of serotonin and fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on the circadian clock and metabolic gene and protein expression in mouse liver, muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) and cell culture. We found that serotonin and/or the SSRI fluvoxamine led to fat accumulation in mouse liver and hepatocytes by shifting metabolism towards fatty acid synthesis mainly through low average levels of phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase (pACC) and phosphorylated protein phosphatase 2A (pPP2A). This shift towards fat synthesis was also observed in adipose tissue. Muscle cells were only slightly affected metabolically by serotonin or fluvoxamine. In conclusion, although centrally it leads to increased satiety, in peripheral tissues, such as the liver and WAT, serotonin induces fat accumulation. PMID:26797245

  8. Effects of hyperthermia on the peripheral nervous system: a review.

    Haveman, J; Van Der Zee, J; Wondergem, J; Hoogeveen, J F; Hulshof, M C C M

    2004-06-01

    The present paper overviews the current knowledge about effects of hyperthermia at temperatures used in clinical oncology on the peripheral nervous system. From the experimental studies it may be concluded that the heat sensitivity of the nerve is determined by the sensitivity of the nerve vasculature. These studies show that in order to avoid induction of severe neuropathy, application of heat to the peripheral nerves should not be in excess of doses of 30 min at 44 degrees C or equivalent. Using modern equipment for application of loco-regional hyperthermia the incidence of even mild neurological complications is very low. In hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) neurotoxicity is an often-mentioned side effect, this is in spite of the fact that in all studies a relatively mild hyperthermic temperature is used that, based on the experimental studies, should be well tolerated by the nerves and other normal tissues in the limbs. It seems that the neurotoxicity observed after HILP results from thermal enhancement of drug toxicity, very probably combined with effects of a high tourniquet pressure that is used to isolate the blood flow in the leg. Whole body hyperthermia (WBH), using anesthesia and appropriate monitoring to avoid cardiovascular stress is at present considered a safe procedure. Still in the recent past cases of neuropathy after treatment have been described. When chemotherapy, and notably cisplatin, is administered before or during hyperthermia there are several clinical and experimental observations that indicate a limited tolerance of the peripheral nervous tissue in such case. Also previous radiotherapy may limit the tolerance of nerves to hyperthermia, notably when radiation is applied with a large field size. Experimental studies show that combined treatment with radiation and heat leads to enhancement of effects of radiation (enhancement ratio approximately 1.5 at 60 min at 44 degrees C). A clear contraindication for the application of

  9. Effect of intramuscular tramadol hydrochloride as a labor analgesic in primagravidae

    Asha Rani K. N. M.

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: In low risk primigravidae, IM tramadol hydrochloride appears to be effective with minimal side effects. Hence, in developing nations, where availability of facilities is the main limiting factor, IM opioids can be considered as suitable alternatives. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 615-619

  10. Effects of estrogen peripheral metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis

    M. Cutolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the immune reactivity is modulated by gender. In fact, women show a more effective immune response as well as a more frequent development of autoimmune diseases. In particular, 17b-estradiol (E2 in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases leads to an higher production of IgG and IgM in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC and the secretion of metalloproteinases and IL-6 by synovial fibroblasts. The effect of E2 seems to be partially related to its concentration. In fact, at the physiological concentration, E2 seems to exert a pro-inflammatory effect, while at pharmacological concentrations shows anti-inflammatory effects. Steroid hormones can be converted in downstream hormones along defined pathways. The conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA in peripheral macrophages leads to the androgen production. Subsequently the enzyme aromatase converts androgens in estrogens, and its activity is increased by some inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-a. In the synovial fluids of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients the levels of estrogens result significantly increased compared with controls, showing the consequence of this unbalanced steroid metabolism. Furthermore, the metabolism of estrogens leads to some downstream hydroxylated metabolites, that are not waste products, but still active molecules in the inflammatory response. In fact, it has been found that synovial fluids of RA patients present a different ratio of 16-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites/ 2-hydroxylated metabolites, confirming that also the unbalanced metabolism of estrogens and not only the estrogen concentration seems to be related to the development and worsening of rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Prescription trajectories and effect of total hip arthroplasty on the use of analgesics, hypnotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytics: results from a population of total hip arthroplasty patients.

    Blågestad, Tone; Nordhus, Inger H; Grønli, Janne; Engesæter, Lars B; Ruths, Sabine; Ranhoff, Anette H; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been shown to reduce pain and improve function. In addition, it is suggested that THA improves sleep and alleviates symptoms of anxiety and depression. Patients with chronic pain are frequent users of analgesic and psychotropic drugs and thereby risk adverse drug events. The impact of THA on such drug use has not been thoroughly investigated. Based on merged data from the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, this study sought to investigate redeemed medications in a complete population (N = 39,688) undergoing THA in 2005 to 2011. User rates and redeemed drug volume of analgesics (nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and nonopioids) and psychotropics (hypnotics, anxiolytics, and antidepressants) were calculated for 4 quarters before and 4 quarters after surgery. We analysed preoperative prescription trends (Q1 vs Q4), postoperative prescription (Q4 vs Q5), and long-term effect of surgery (Q4 vs Q8). Before surgery, use of all drug groups increased from Q1 to Q4. Use of opioids, nonopioids, and hypnotics dramatically increased from Q4 to Q5. Long-term (Q4 vs Q8) surgery reduced prescriptions of analgesics, hypnotics, and anxiolytics, but not antidepressants. Overall, the present results extend the positive effects of THA to include reduced reliance on medication to alleviate symptoms. PMID:26588693

  12. Comparison of the analgesic effect of patient-controlled oxycodone and fentanyl for pain management in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

    Jung, Kyeo-Woon; Kang, Hyeon-Wook; Park, Chan-Hye; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Bang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Byung-Moon; Noh, Gyu-Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Oxycodone is a μ-opioid receptor agonist and is generally indicated for the relief of moderate to severe pain. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of patient-controlled oxycodone and fentanyl for postoperative pain in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Patients scheduled to undergo elective colorectal surgery (n=82) were allocated to receive oxycodone (n=41, concentration of 1 mg/mL) or fentanyl (n=41, concentration of 15 μg/mL) for postoperative pain management. After the operation, pain using a numerical rating scale (NRS), delivery to demand ratio, infused dose of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), side effects, and sedation levels were evaluated. Median (25%-75%) cumulative PCA dose of oxycodone group at 48 hours (66.9, 58.4-83.7 mL) was significantly less than that of fentanyl group (80.0, 63.4-103.3 mL, P=.037). Six hours after surgery, the mean (SD) NRS scores of the oxycodone and fentanyl groups were 6.2 (2.4) and 6.8 (1.9), respectively (P=.216). The mean equianalgesic potency ratio of oxycodone to fentanyl was 55:1. The groups did not differ in postoperative nausea, vomiting, and level of sedation. Patient-controlled oxycodone provides similar effects for pain relief compared to patient-controlled fentanyl in spite of less cumulative PCA dose. Based on these results, oxycodone can be a useful alternative to fentanyl for PCA in patients after colorectal surgery. PMID:27128496

  13. Narcotic receptor blockade and its effect on the analgesic response to placebo and ibuprofen after oral surgery.

    Hersh, E V; Ochs, H; Quinn, P; MacAfee, K; Cooper, S A; Barasch, A

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous opiates to the analgesic response after treatment with placebo, codeine, and ibuprofen after oral surgery. Eighty-one patients undergoing complicated dental extractions were pretreated with either a placebo or the narcotic antagonist naltrexone 50 mg, 30 minutes before surgery. After surgery, patients self administered one of three possible postsurgical medications, which included placebo, codeine 60 mg, and ibuprofen 400 mg, when their pain reached a moderate or severe intensity. The study was double-blind with the three postsurgical treatments being randomly allocated within each presurgical treatment block. Pain intensity, pain relief, pain half gone, and overall evaluations were assessed for up to 6 hours. Ibuprofen was significantly more efficacious (p < .05) than codeine or placebo for most analgesic measures. The administration of naltrexone before surgery reduced the analgesic response to both placebo and codeine. Pretreatment with naltrexone did not diminish the peak analgesic response to ibuprofen, but surprisingly prolonged (p < .05) the duration of its action. The results suggest that a blockade of endogenous opiates by naltrexone diminished the placebo response, but that naltrexone may prolong ibuprofen analgesia by some unknown mechanism. PMID:8387662

  14. Analgesic effects of dextromethorphan and morphine in patients with chronic pain.

    Heiskanen, Tarja; Härtel, Brita; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Seppälä, Timo; Kalso, Eija

    2002-04-01

    N-methyl-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been shown to improve opioid analgesia in the animal model. The cough suppressant dextromethorphan is a clinically available NMDA-receptor antagonist. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 20 patients with chronic pain of several years duration were given 100 mg of oral dextromethorphan or matching placebo 4 h prior to an intravenous infusion of morphine 15 mg. Pain intensity and adverse effects were assessed at 0, 4, 5 and 7 h. Dextromethorphan had no effect on morphine analgesia: the mean (+/-SEM) visual analogue scores for pain relief (VAS, 0-100 mm) at the end of the morphine infusion were 38 (+/-6) for dextromethorphan+morphine and 38 (+/-7) for placebo+morphine. VAS scores for pain intensity were comparable both at rest and at movement at all time points. The most common adverse effects reported were dizziness, nausea and sedation. There were no significant differences in either the incidence or severity of adverse effects. In conclusion, oral dextromethorphan 100 mg had no effect on pain relief by intravenous morphine 15 mg in patients with chronic pain. PMID:11972998

  15. Analgesic effect of highly reversible ω-conotoxin FVIA on N type Ca2+ channels

    Kim Hyun Jeong; Na Heung Sik; Suh Hong-Won; Ryu Jae Ha; Jung Hyun Ho; Lee Ju Yeon; Choi Hee-Woo; Back Seung Keun; Kim Yoonji; Lee Seungkyu; Rhim Hyewhon; Kim Jae Il

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background N-type Ca2+ channels (Cav2.2) play an important role in the transmission of pain signals to the central nervous system. ω-Conotoxin (CTx)-MVIIA, also called ziconotide (Prialt®), effectively alleviates pain, without causing addiction, by blocking the pores of these channels. Unfortunately, CTx-MVIIA has a narrow therapeutic window and produces serious side effects due to the poor reversibility of its binding to the channel. It would thus be desirable to identify new analge...

  16. Experimental studies on antipyretic, analgesic and antibacterial effects of GK 001, a poly-prescription of traditional chinese medicine

    JIANG Su-yun; ZhANG Ting-ting; DING Hong-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the anti-inflammatory effect of a poly-prescription of traditional Chinese medicine GK001. Methods 1. Inhibitory effect on pain in mice: The pain was induced by i. p. 0.2 ml of 0.6 % HAc per mouse 1 h post dosing GK001. The writhing numbers of mice were recorded in 10 minutes and the inhibitory rate of pain was calculated compared with the control group. 2. Antipyretie effect In single dose experiment 15 healthy rabbits weighing 1.7-2.8 kg with body temperature(BT) measured in the experiment day meeting to the requirements were selected for the experiment and divided into 5 groups(3 in each group), which were dosed orally with GK001 and 1 h later followed by i. p. injection of 40 EU bacterial endotoxin standard·kg-1. Then, the BT of rabbits was measured every 30 min during 1-3 h after administration. The difference between the highest BT post-dose and the average BT pre-dose was calculated. In multi-dose experiment rabbits were selected and grouped as well as received i. p. endotoxin in the same way as above, but were administered with GK001 for consecutive 5 day. 3. Bacteriostatie effect. The antibacterial activities of GK001 on Bacillus Pumilus, Bacillus Subtilis and Micrococcus Luteus were measured in vitro at concentrations of 0.125-1.0 g·mL-1. Results 1. The GK001 showed a significant and dose-dependent painsuppressant effect, with inhibitory rate being 45.2 %, 31.2 % and 20.8 % at high, medium and low dose, respectively (P< 0.05). 2. Both single and multiple administration of GK001 had no effect on rabbit pyrogen response caused by endotoxin. 3. GK001 had bacteriostatic effects on the aforementioned 3 bacteria significantly and in dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions GK001 has analgesic and in vitro antibacterial but no antipyretie effects.

  17. Effect of intraoperative esmolol infusion on anesthetic, analgesic requirements and postoperative nausea-vomitting in a group of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients

    Necla Dereli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Postoperative pain and nausea/vomitting (PNV are common in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Sympatholytic agents might decrease requirements for intravenous or inhalation anesthetics and opioids. In this study we aimed to analyze effects of esmolol on intraoperative anesthetic-postoperative analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV. METHODS: Sixty patients have been included. Propofol, remifentanil and vecuronium were used for induction. Study groups were as follows; I - Esmolol infusion was added to maintenance anesthetics (propofol and remifentanil, II - Only propofol and remifentanil was used during maintenance, III - Esmolol infusion was added to maintenance anesthetics (desflurane and remifentanil, IV - Only desflurane and remifentanil was used during maintenance. They have been followed up for 24 h for PNV and analgesic requirements. Visual analog scale (VAS scores for pain was also been evaluated. RESULTS: VAS scores were significantly lowest in group I (p = 0.001-0.028. PNV incidence was significantly lowest in group I (p = 0.026. PNV incidence was also lower in group III compared to group IV (p = 0.032. Analgesic requirements were significantly lower in group I and was lower in group III compared to group IV (p = 0.005. Heart rates were significantly lower in esmolol groups (group I and III compared to their controls (p = 0.001 however blood pressures were similar in all groups (p = 0.594. Comparison of esmolol groups with controls revealed that there is a significant decrease in anesthetic and opioid requirements (p = 0.024-0.03. CONCLUSION: Using esmolol during anesthetic maintenance significantly decreases anesthetic-analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV.

  18. Effects of Neutron Skin Thickness in Peripheral Nuclear Reactions

    FANG De-Qing; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; TIAN Wen-Dong; WANG Hong-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA) model. The reaction cross section, neutron (proton) removal cross section, one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied. It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness. Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.%Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA ) model.The reaction cross section,neutron (proton) removal cross section,one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied.It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei.The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness.Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.Determining the size and shape of a nucleus is one of the most important subjects since the discovery of atomic nuclei.The rms radii of the neutron (rn) and proton (rp) density distributions are among the most prominent observables for this purpose.Studies for stable nuclei have shown that the nuclear radii are proportional to A1/3,with A being the nuclear mass number.Meanwhile,the density distributions of neutrons and protons in stable nuclei are very similar.

  19. Effect of Oral Pregabalin as Preemptive Analgesic in Patients Undergoing Lower Limb Orthopedic Surgeries under Spinal Anaesthesia

    Sebastian, Bon; Nelamangala, Kiran; Krishnamurthy, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conquering postoperative pain which has significant impact on the surgery outcome can be challenging for the clinicians. Pregabalin is a GABA analogue used for various neuropathic pain syndromes. Very few studies are there with the use of pregabalin as a preemptive analgesic for orthopedic surgeries. Aim To compare pregabalin 150 mg with placebo for postoperative pain control in patients undergoing elective lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anaesthesia and to assess any side effects. Materials and Methods A randomized double blinded prospective study was undertaken. Ninety patients with ASA physical status I, II, aged between 18–50 years were enrolled in the study. One hour prior to spinal anaesthesia Group C - received colour matched empty capsules, Group P – received 150mg of oral pregabalin. Spinal anaesthesia was administered in sitting position in L3-L4 space with Inj. Bupivacaine heavy (0.5%) at a dose of 0.3mg/kg body weight with 20 mg being the maximum dose using 25 gauge spinal needle. Rescue analgesia was provided with using Inj. Diclofenac 1.5 mg/kg intramuscular. Results Time for rescue analgesia (VAS score >3) was significantly increased in Group P than in Group C. The total dose of diclofenac required in the 24 hour postoperative period was significantly lower in Group P than in Group C. The sedation scores and patient satisfaction scores were also more in Group P than in Group C. Conclusion Preemptive pregabalin in an oral dose of 150 mg offers good postoperative analgesia in lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anaesthesia.

  20. [The effect of blood serum proteins from the seal on the analgetic action of narcotic analgesics].

    Aslaniants, Zh K; Melik-Eganov, G R; Evstratov, A V; Ivanov, M P; Batrakov, S G; Korobov, N V; Iasnetsov, V V

    1991-11-01

    The protein fraction isolated from blood of seal, Phoca groenlandica, has been found to produce hyperalgesic effect on rats exposed to thermic or electrocutaneous nociceptive stimulation, but fail to affect writhes provoked by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid solution on mice. When combined with morphine, the fraction lowered completely its narcotic analgetic action in the above mentioned tests. On the contrary, these same proteins combined with promedol or fentanil enhanced and prolonged analgetic effect of the latter. Tested in vitro the protein showed neither opioid nor anti-opioid activity. Therefore it is reasonable to suppose that neurophysiological activity of the isolated fraction is due to the peptides formed on enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins in vivo rather than these proteins as such. PMID:1687360

  1. The Analgesic Effects of Apitoxin and its Mechanism via JOR and Measuring Expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and TPH using RT-PCR

    Cho Kwang Ho

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to prove the analgesic effects of apitoxin and its mechanism via jaw-opening reflex(JOR and measuring expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and Tryptophan hydroxylase(TPH using RT-PCR. The experiments were carried out on Sprague-Dawley rats(300-400g and mastocytoma (P-185 HTR for JOR and RT-PCR, respectively. Rats anesthetized with thiopental sodium (80mg/kg were used in the Tooth Pulp stimulation induced JOR. The amplitude of a digastric electromyogram (dEMG was recorded during the stimulation at an intensity of 1.5 times the threshold for JOR. Apitoxin used in this experiment was diluted with normal saline by 1:1000. Apitoxin was injected intravenously into the test group while normal saline to the control group. However, it was injected directly into the cell of mastocytoma. We referred to base sequence registered in Genbank in designing primers for RT-PCR. The results were as follows; (1Compared with control group, analgesic effect started to show right after Sprague-Dawely rats were treated with apitoxin(71.50±8.08 and lasted for 50 minutes. (2As a result of the experiment of RT-PCR, we witnessed significant changes in the degree of expression of phospholipase or rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of prostaglandins with 10μg/㎖ apitoxin.(31.74±18.98%, P<0.05 (3As a result of the experiment of RT-PCR, we witnessed significant changes in the degree of expression of TPH or rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of serotonin with 10μg/㎖ apitoxin.(131.37±16.87%, P<0.05. These results suggest that 10μg/㎖ apitoxin have the most analgesic effects. This study showed that apitoxin has analgesic effects and held good for 50 minutes. The injection of apitoxin has brought out changes in the degree of expression of phospholipase and TPH. These results strongly suggest that analgesic mechanism by apitoxin is closely related to prostaglandins and serotonin.

  2. Morphine-6-glucuronide: analgesic effects and receptor binding profile in rats

    The antinociceptive effects of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were examined in two animal models of pain, the tail immersion test (reflex withdrawal to noxious heat) and the formalin test (behavioral response to minor tissue injury). In the tail immersion test, M6G produced and increase in withdrawal latency that rose rapidly between 0.01 and 0.025 ug ICV or 1 and 2 mg/kg SC. A further increase occurred at doses greater than 0.2 ug ICV or 4 mg/kg SC and was associated with marked catelepsy and cyanosis. Naloxone, 0.1 mg/kg SC, shifted the lower component of the dose-effect relation by a factor of 24. In the formalin test, 0.01 ug M6G ICV produced hyperalgesia, while between 0.05 and 0.2 ug ICV, antinociception increased rapidly without toxicity. The dose effect relations for hyperalgesia and antinociception were shifted to the right by factors of 20- and 3-fold, respectively. By comparison, ICV morphine was 60 (formalin test) to 145-200 (tail immersion test) times less potent than M6G. At sub-nanomolar concentrations, M6G enhanced the binding of [3H]-etorphine, [3H]-dihydromorphine and [3H]-naloxone to rat brain membrane receptors by 20-40%. At higher concentrations, M6G displaced each ligand from binding sites, with K/sub i/ values of about 30 nM, as compared to morphine K/sub i/ values of about 3 nM

  3. Morphine-6-glucuronide: analgesic effects and receptor binding profile in rats

    Abbott, F.V.; Palmour, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were examined in two animal models of pain, the tail immersion test (reflex withdrawal to noxious heat) and the formalin test (behavioral response to minor tissue injury). In the tail immersion test, M6G produced and increase in withdrawal latency that rose rapidly between 0.01 and 0.025 ug ICV or 1 and 2 mg/kg SC. A further increase occurred at doses greater than 0.2 ug ICV or 4 mg/kg SC and was associated with marked catelepsy and cyanosis. Naloxone, 0.1 mg/kg SC, shifted the lower component of the dose-effect relation by a factor of 24. In the formalin test, 0.01 ug M6G ICV produced hyperalgesia, while between 0.05 and 0.2 ug ICV, antinociception increased rapidly without toxicity. The dose effect relations for hyperalgesia and antinociception were shifted to the right by factors of 20- and 3-fold, respectively. By comparison, ICV morphine was 60 (formalin test) to 145-200 (tail immersion test) times less potent than M6G. At sub-nanomolar concentrations, M6G enhanced the binding of (/sup 3/H)-etorphine, (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine and (/sup 3/H)-naloxone to rat brain membrane receptors by 20-40%. At higher concentrations, M6G displaced each ligand from binding sites, with K/sub i/ values of about 30 nM, as compared to morphine K/sub i/ values of about 3 nM.

  4. Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats

    Joseph; JY; Sung

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021,a Chinese herbal formula,and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS:JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials.All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia(2005).In a neonatal maternal separation(NMS)model,male SpragueDawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14,or no specific handling(NH).Starting from postnatal day 60,rats...

  5. Effects of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in rats

    Jin-ling YIN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of microwave radiation on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in Wistar rats.Methods A total of 100 Wistar rats(180-220g were exposed to microwave with different average power densities of 5,10,30 and 60 mW/cm2,and sham exposure of 0mW/cm2 was performed in a control group at the same time.At day 1,7,14 and 28 after microwave irradiation,the changes in peripheral CD3+,CD4+,CD8+ T cells,ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and CD45RA+ B lymphocyte in rats were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM.Results The CD3+ T cells decreased significantly in 10-30mW/cm2 groups at day 7 and in 5-30 mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05,and CD4+ T cells decreased significantly in 10mW/cm2 group at day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.01.From day 1 to day 14 after radiation,CD8+ T cells showed a reduction in number in all irradiated groups when compared with the control,but statistical significance was only found in the 30mW/cm2 group(P < 0.05.The CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased in 5mW/cm2 group on day 1,while decreased significantly in 5-30mW/cm2 groups on day 14 after radiation as compared with control group(P < 0.05.After microwave exposure,however,CD45RA+ B cells in 30mW/cm2 group at day 1 and in 30-60mW/cm2 groups at day 14 after radiation increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion A definite dosage of microwave radiation,ranging from 5-60mW/cm2,may induce changes in subpopulations of peripheral lymphocytes and cause acute immune function impairment in rats.

  6. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Thoracic Epidural Morphine and Fentanyl

    Gönül Sağıroğlu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to compare epidural morphine and fentanyl analgesia and the side effects in post-thoracotomy pain management. Material and Methods: Forty patients, planned for elective thoracotomy were included. Bupivacain- morphine was administered through an epidural catheter to the patients in Group-M while bupivacain-fentanyl was given in Group-F. Pain assessment was carried out with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and VAS-I and VAS-II were assessed in 0, 4, 16 and 24th hour in the postoperative unit. Adverse effects were recorded after the 24th hour. Statistical analyses were performed by using Two-sample independent-t test, Mann Whitney-U test, Wilcoxon-signed ranks test and Pearson chi-squared tests. Results: Although, the VAS-I and VAS-II scores were lower in Group-M than Group-F, the difference was not significant statistically (p>0.05. When other hours were compared with initial states, beginning from the 4th hour, in both groups there was a statistically significant drop in VAS-I and VAS-II scores at all times (p<0.001. Comparing the complications between the groups, in Group-M nausea-vomiting (p<0.015 and bradycardia (p<0.012 were found significantly more frequently than in Group-F. Conclusion: We concluded that, in pain management after thoracic surgery, either morphine or fentanyl may be chosen in thoracal epidural analgesia but, especially in the early postoperative hours, close follow-up is necessary due to the risk of bradycardia development.

  7. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of salmon calcitonin in metastatic bone pain

    Mishra Seema

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of calcitonin in controlling metastatic bone pain. Materials and methods: Patients with bone metastases, with a numerical pain score greater than 4 wererandomized to receive calcitonin 200 IU subcutaneously 6 hourly for 48 hours (n= 10 or normal saline placebo (n = 10 . The parameters measured were the 11-point numerical pain score, ECOG functional capacity score, morphine consumption in 24 hours, duration of pain in 24 hours and subjective assessment of efficacy of treatment by a blinded investigator. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in pain score at 48 hours (2 vs 6 and 7 days (3 vs 6 in the calcitonin arm as compared to the control arm. The reduction in duration of pain (3 vs 13 and improvement in ECOG (1.5 vs 2.5 score were also statistically significant. Adverse effects were nausea in 5 patients and vomiting in 3 patients on the day of calcitonin administration. This was controlled with antiemetics. There was no significant change in serum calcium level in either group.

  8. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of subcutaneous methadone after cesarean section

    Mitra Jabalameli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate pain control has a significant role in maternal and neonatal health in early post-partum period which interferes with breastfeeding and has a negative influence on child normal growth. The aim of this study is evaluation of subcutaneous methadone effectiveness on post-operative pain control. Materials and Methods: Double blind randomized prospective clinical trial involving 60 term pregnancy patients through 2008 to 2009 Undergo cesarean. Inclusion criteria: Prime gravid candidate of elective cesarean and spinal anesthesia class 1 or 2. Known case of drug allergy and methadone interaction, addiction, uncontrolled medical disease excluded. Case group injected 10 mg of subcutaneous methadone in the site of incision before final suture. Morphine was a pain reliever in follow up examination. Data include mean of pain, nausea and vomiting, MAP, etc., collected and analyzed by independent-T test and Man Whitney test. Results: Although mean usage of morphine between groups was not significant statistically but the mean pain severity (P value < 0.05 and mean satisfactory (P value = 0.02 was statistically significant between groups. Other parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusion: We suggest subcutaneous methadone as a safe pain reliever in post cesarean section patients.

  9. EFFECT OF PREOPERATIVE PREGABALIN ON POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIC REQUIREMENT AFTER SKIN GRAFTING

    Mamta

    2014-05-01

    effects.

  10. Peripheral and central locus of a nonspeech phonetic context effect

    Sullivan, Sarah C.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2002-05-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that nonspeech sounds with the appropriate spectral characteristics can affect the identification of speech sounds [Lotto and Kluender, Percept. Psychophys. 60, 602-619 (1998)]. It has been proposed that these spectral context effects are due to interactions in the peripheral auditory system. For example, they could be the result of masking at the auditory nerve or of auditory enhancement effects that have been demonstrated to be monaural [Summerfield and Assmann, Percept. Psychophys. 45, 529-536 (1989)]. To examine the locus of the context effect, synthesized syllables varying from /da/ to /ga/ were preceded by single-formant stimuli that mimicked the third formant of the syllables /al/ and /ar/. The nonspeech stimulus was presented either to the same or opposite ear as the target speech stimulus. Subjects speech identifications were shifted as a function of context in predicted directions for both presentation conditions. However, the size of the shift was smaller when the context was in the ear contralateral to the target syllable. These results agree well with similar results for speech contexts. The data suggest that the context effects occur at multiple levels of the auditory system and are not simply examples of masking or auditory enhancement.

  11. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

    Apurba Mukherjee, Meghali Chaliha and Swarnamoni Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  12. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Reza Heidari; Samad Zare; Farrin Babaei-Balderlou; Farah Farrokhi

    2010-01-01

    Objective(s)Previous studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study w...

  13. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum

    Sharma Satish Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the synthetic drugs used at present as analgesic and antiinflammatory agents cause many side effects and toxic effects. Many medicines of plant origin with analgesic and antiinflammatory activity have been used since long time without adverse effects. The plant Abutilon indicum (AI is reported to be used as a febrifuge, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory agent. It is also used to treat ulcers, toothache and hepatic disorders. Thus the present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory potential of the plant Abutilon indicum. The formalin induced paw licking and tail flick method were used to study the analgesic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to study anti-inflammatory activity. 200 mg/kg dose was selected to study both activities. Wistar strain albino rats were used for all studies. Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. In tail flick test the increase in the reaction time was highly significant (P < 0.001 with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant Abutilon indicum as compared to the control group. Acute edema in the left hind paw of the animals was induced by sub plantar injection of 0.1 ml (1% carrageenan suspension in normal saline. The ethanolic extract of the plant significantly (P <0.01 reduced the paw edema in carrageenan treated rats. The effect was maximum at 3hr after the carrageenan injection. The significant suppression of inflammation during the whole experimental period indicates the long duration of action of the ethanolic extract of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the ethanolic extract of the plant under study. The phytochemical constituents present in these extracts may be responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the plant Abutilon indicum and the actions may be

  14. The Analgesic Effect of Oxytocin in Humans: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study Using Laser-Evoked Potentials.

    Paloyelis, Y; Krahé, C; Maltezos, S; Williams, S C; Howard, M A; Fotopoulou, A

    2016-04-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide regulating social-affiliative and reproductive behaviour in mammals. Despite robust preclinical evidence for the antinociceptive effects and mechanisms of action of exogenous oxytocin, human studies have produced mixed results regarding the analgesic role of oxytocin and are yet to show a specific modulation of neural processes involved in pain perception. In the present study, we investigated the analgesic effects of 40 IU of intranasal oxytocin in 13 healthy male volunteers using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design and brief radiant heat pulses generated by an infrared laser that selectively activate Aδ- and C-fibre nerve endings in the epidermis, at the same time as recording the ensuing laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We predicted that oxytocin would reduce subjective pain ratings and attenuate the amplitude of the N1, N2 and P2 components. We observed that oxytocin attenuated perceived pain intensity and the local peak amplitude of the N1 and N2 (but not of P2) LEPs, and increased the latency of the N2 component. Importantly, for the first time, the present study reports an association between the analgesic effect of oxytocin (reduction in subjective pain ratings) and the oxytocin-induced modulation of cortical activity after noxious stimulation (attenuation of the N2 LEP). These effects indicate that oxytocin modulates neural processes contributing to pain perception. The present study reports preliminary evidence that is consistent with electrophysiological studies in rodents showing that oxytocin specifically modulates Aδ/C-fibre nociceptive afferent signalling at the spinal level and provides further specificity to evidence obtained in humans indicating that oxytocin may be modulating pain experience by modulating activity in the cortical areas involved in pain processing. PMID:26660859

  15. Peripheral oedema as a side-effect of fluticasone

    Myers, Alice; Godden, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl had experienced gross peripheral oedema for nearly 2 years. She was under review by several paediatric specialists for a variety of problems. Her local paediatric team were unable to find the cause of her oedema, despite extensive investigations. Eventually, her mother discovered the cause was inhaled fluticasone, prescribed at normal dosage for asthma. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first reported case of peripheral oedema associated with the use of fluticaso...

  16. [Analgesic and opioid-sparing effects of intravenous paracetamol in the early period after aortocoronary bypass surgery].

    Eremenko, A A; Kuslieva, E V

    2008-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the analgesic and opioid-sparing effect of intravenous paracetamol injections in cardiosurgical patients in the early postoperative period. Adequate analgesia within the first 12-18 hours of the early postoperative period is very important for a good prognosis of the further course of pain syndrome and for the reduction of a risk for its progression to its chronic form. In early studies, propacetamol lowered morphine use after orthopedic and gynecological operations. The efficacy of paracetamol used in cardiac surgery has been little studied and the results of the studies are conflicting. The randomized, blind, placebo-controlled study included patients after aortocoronary bypass surgery, of them 22 patients received paracetamol and 23 had placebo. The test drug (perfalgan 100 ml or placebo) was intravenously injected 30 min before extubation and then every 6 hours within succeeding 18 hours. The intensity of the pain syndrome was rated by a 5-score verbal scale every 2 hours. With pain score of 2 or more, promedol was intramuscularly administered in a dose of 10 mg. Inspiratory volume was recorded before extubation and the first administration of a drug just after extubation and then every 2 hours. The baseline indices did not differ in both groups. Throughout the observation, the inspiratory volume was lower in the paracetamol group than in the placebo group; however, there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.012) in the reduction in the manifestations of the pain syndrome (by 81%) only just after tracheal extubation. During this period, inspiratory volume values were higher in the paracetamol group; however, a statistically significant (39%) difference between the groups in the mean values was obtained only during and 2 hours after extubation. In the perfalgan group, the mean total use of promedol was 36% less than in the placebo-group, which was statistically significant (p = 0.019). The early postoperative use of

  17. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

    Y.J. Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50 of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m., respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

  18. Evidence for Inhibitory Effects of Flupirtine, a Centrally Acting Analgesic, on Delayed Rectifier K+ Currents in Motor Neuron-Like Cells

    Sheng-Nan Wu; Ming-Chun Hsu; Yu-Kai Liao; Fang-Tzu Wu; Yuh-Jyh Jong; Yi-Ching Lo

    2012-01-01

    Flupirtine (Flu), a triaminopyridine derivative, is a centrally acting, non-opiate analgesic agent. In this study, effects of Flu on K+ currents were explored in two types of motor neuron-like cells. Cell exposure to Flu decreased the amplitude of delayed rectifier K+ current (I K(DR)) with a concomitant raise in current inactivation in NSC-34 neuronal cells. The dissociation constant for Flu-mediated increase of I K(DR) inactivation rate was about 9.8  μ M. Neither linopirdine (10  μ M), NMD...

  19. Comparison of the Analgesic Effect of Diclofenac Sodium-Eudragit® RS100 Solid Dispersion and Nanoparticles Using Formalin Test in the Rats

    Khosro Adibkia; Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi; Mohammad Barzegar-Jalali; Siavash Hosseinzadeh; Saeed Ghanbarzadeh; Afshin Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the intensity and duration of analgesic effect of diclofenac Na - Eudragit® RS100 solid dispersion and nanoparticles were evaluated by using formalin test in the rats. Methods: The animals received different formulations of diclofenac Na and subsequently 50 μl of formalin solution (2.5%) was injected subcutaneously in the right paws after 1 h, 2 h and 3 h. The paw licking behavior was then evaluated in two phases. A dose of 20 mg/kg of pure diclofenac Na powder was d...

  20. 灯笼草镇痛作用及其机理的研究%Experimental Study on the Analgesic Effect and Its Mechanism of Physalis peruviana L.

    单立冬; 俞光第; 印其章; 郭试瑜; 久光正

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察灯笼草的镇痛作用。方法:采用扭体法、电刺激鼠尾-嘶叫法、钾离子透入法和辐射热-缩腿法等行为学指标以及丘脑束旁核神经元对伤害性刺激的放电反应的电生理指标。结果:灯笼草能剂量依赖地提高大鼠电刺激鼠尾-嘶叫法的痛阈,剂量依赖地抑制醋酸引起的小鼠扭体反应,对炎症性痛敏及神经源性痛敏灯笼草也有镇痛作用,灯笼草还能明显抑制丘脑束旁核神经元对伤害性刺激的放电反应。纳洛酮能翻转灯笼草的镇痛作用,反复给予灯笼草能产生耐受,但与吗啡镇痛之间不存在交叉耐受。结论:灯笼草具有镇痛作用,其镇痛作用可能涉及中枢阿片受体。%Objective: The experiment was performed to study the analgesic effect of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL.) Methods: The behavioral algesic measurements and the electrophysiological method were used to record extracellularly the nociceptive response of thalamic parafascicular neurons. Results: 1) PPL could dose-dependently raise the pain threshold in tail stimulation-vocalization test in rats and inhibit the writhing reaction induced by acetic acid in mice. PPL could decrease the hyperalgesia in adjuvant arthritis as well was in neuropathic pain in rats. 2) PPL could inhibit the nociceptive response of thalamic parafascicular neurons in rats evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation. 3) The analgesic effect of PPL could be reversed by naloxone; tolerance could develop after repeated administrations of PPL, but no cross-tolerance was observed with morphine analgesia. Conclusion: PPL has a dose-dependent analgesic effect and its analgesic effect might be mediated by central opioid receptor.

  1. The Isolated Effect of Adductor Canal Block on Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Strength After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Sørensen, Johan Kløvgaard; Jæger, Pia; Dahl, Jørgen Berg;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using peripheral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), without impeding mobility, is challenging. We hypothesized that the analgesic effect of adductor canal block (ACB) could increase the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle after...

  2. Topical piroxicam in vitro release and in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from palm oil esters-based nanocream

    Muthanna F Abdulkarim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Muthanna F Abdulkarim1*, Ghassan Z Abdullah1*, Mallikarjun Chitneni2, Ibrahim M Salman1, Omar Z Ameer1, Mun F Yam1,3, Elrashid S Mahdi1, Munavvar A Sattar1, Mahiran Basri4, Azmin M Noor11School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; *The First and Second Authors have Contributed Equally to this WorkIntroduction: During recent years, there has been growing interest in use of topical vehicle systems to assist in drug permeation through the skin. Drugs of interest are usually those that are problematic when given orally, such as piroxicam, a highly effective anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic, but with the adverse effect of causing gastrointestinal ulcers. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of a newly synthesized palm oil esters (POEs-based nanocream containing piroxicam for topical delivery.Methods: A ratio of 25:37:38 of POEs: external phase: surfactants (Tween 80:Span 20, in a ratio 80:20, respectively was selected as the basic composition for the production of a nanocream with ideal properties. Various nanocreams were prepared using phosphate-buffered saline as the external phase at three different pH values. The abilities of these formulae to deliver piroxicam were assessed in vitro using a Franz diffusion cell fitted with a cellulose acetate membrane and full thickness rat skin. These formulae were also evaluated in vivo by comparing their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with those of the currently marketed gel.Results: After eight hours, nearly 100% of drug was transferred through the artificial membrane from the prepared formula F3 (phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4 as the external phase and the marketed gel. The steady-state flux

  3. CR4056, a new analgesic I2 ligand, is highly effective against bortezomib-induced painful neuropathy in rats

    Meregalli C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Meregalli,1 Cecilia Ceresa,1 Annalisa Canta,1 Valentina Alda Carozzi,1 Alessia Chiorazzi,1 Barbara Sala,1 Norberto Oggioni,1 Marco Lanza,2 Ornella Letar,i2 Flora Ferrari,2 Federica Avezza,1 Paola Marmiroli,1 GianFranco Caselli,2 Guido Cavaletti11Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Technologies, University of Milan-Bicocca, 2Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Rottapharm | Madaus Research Center, Monza, ItalyAbstract: Although bortezomib (BTZ is the frontline treatment for multiple myeloma, its clinical use is limited by the occurrence of painful peripheral neuropathy, whose treatment is still an unmet clinical need. Previous studies have shown chronic BTZ administration (0.20 mg/kg intravenously three times a week for 8 weeks to female Wistar rats induced a peripheral neuropathy similar to that observed in humans. In this animal model of BTZ-induced neurotoxicity, the present authors evaluated the efficacy of CR4056, a novel I2 ligand endowed with a remarkable efficacy in several animal pain models. CR4056 was administered in a wide range of doses (0.6–60 mg/kg by gavage every day for 2–3 weeks in comparison with buprenorphine (Bupre (28.8 µg/kg subcutaneously every day for 2 weeks and gabapentin (Gaba (100 mg/kg by gavage every day for 3 weeks. Chronic administration of BTZ reduced nerve conduction velocity and induced allodynia. CR4056, Bupre, or Gaba did not affect the impaired nerve conduction velocity. Conversely, CR4056 dose-dependently reversed BTZ-induced allodynia (minimum effective dose 0.6 mg/kg. The optimal dose found, 6 mg/kg, provided a constant pain relief throughout the treatment period and without rebound after suspension, being effective when coadministered with BTZ, starting before or after allodynia was established, or when administered alone after BTZ cessation. A certain degree of tolerance was seen after 7 days of administration, but only at the highest doses (20 and 60 mg/kg. Bupre was effective

  4. Evaluation of analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis in albino rats

    Bhomik Goel

    2014-04-01

    Results: Emblica officinalis extract did not produced statistically significant (p>0.05 analgesia when compared with the control group in hot plate latency, but produced a statistically significant reduction in 6% NaCl induced abdominal writhing (pEmblica officinalis exhibit analgesic activity involving peripheral mechanisms. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 365-368

  5. Evolution in pharmacologic thinking around the natural analgesic palmitoylethanolamide: from nonspecific resistance to PPAR-α agonist and effective nutraceutical

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink Department of Pharmacology, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany Abstract: The history of development of new concepts in pharmacology is a highly interesting topic. This review discusses scientific insights related to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and its progression over a period of six decades, especially in light of the work of the science sociologists, Ludwig Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. The discovery of the cannabis receptors and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was the beginning of a completely new understanding of many important homeostatic physiologic mechanisms in the human body. These discoveries were necessary for us to understand the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of PEA, a body-own fatty amide. PEA is a nutrient known already for more than 50 years. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and has a multitude of physiologic functions related to metabolic homeostasis. PEA was identified in the 1950s as a therapeutic principle with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Since 1975, its analgesic properties have been noted and explored in a variety of chronic pain states. Since 2008, PEA has been available as a nutraceutical under the brand names Normast® and PeaPure®. A literature search on PEA meanwhile has yielded over 350 papers, all referenced in PubMed, describing the physiologic properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacologic and therapeutic profile. This review describes the emergence of concepts related to the pharmacologic profile of PEA, with an emphasis on the search into its mechanism of action and the impact of failing to identify such mechanism in the period 1957–1993, on the acceptance of PEA as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound. Keywords: palmitoylethanolamide, sociology, science, paradigm, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, nutraceutical

  6. 青黛镇痛、抗炎药效学研究%Pharmacokinetics Research on Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Analgesic Effect of Indigo Naturalis

    李东; 武彦舒; 王灿; 孙琴

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Indigo Naturalis by different administrations. Method: Two administration ways ( ig and external application) were applied respectively for 4 days. The experimental animals were randomly divided into different groups: blank control group, positive control group and Indigo Naturalis therapy groups( 150,300,600 mg·kg-1 by ig;400 mg for a mice and 500 mg for a rat by external application). Analgesic effects of Indigo Naturalis were investigated by hot plate test and acetic acid writhing test in mice; anti-inflammatory effects of Indigo Naturalis were investigated by xylene-induced aruical swelling in mice and granuloma induced by cotton ball implantation in rats. Result: By ig, Indigo Naturalis decresed the pain threshold in mice caused by hot plate test to 47% and acetic acid writhing test to 40% , shown a strong difference ,compared with blank control group( P <0. 05 ,P < 0. 01 ). The inhibition rate of aruical swelling was 48%on the acute inflammation model,shown a striking anti-inflammatory effect,compared with blank control group(P <0. 05 ) ;but there was no great effect on the sub-acute inflammation model. By external application, Indigo Naturalis had a good analgesic effect to the pain in mice caused by hot plate(P <0. 01 ) ,but did not had a good effect in the acetic acid writhing test. However, it showed good effects on both acute and subacute inflammation models(P <0.01 ). Conclusion: The results show that Indigo Naturalis have certain analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects by different administrations. But there are several differences in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects due to the different ways of administration.%目的:观察不同给药方式下青黛的镇痛、抗炎作用.方法:分别采用ig和外涂两种给药途径,用药4 d.动物分为空白对照组,阳性药组以及青黛治疗组(600,300,150 mg·kg-1ig 3个剂量;外

  7. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Analgesic Effect of the Newly Developed S(+)-Flurbiprofen Plaster on Inflammatory Pain in a Rat Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model.

    Sugimoto, Masanori; Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Hirose, Takuya; Endo, Hiromi; Futaki, Nobuko; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical Research This article describes the properties of a novel topical NSAID (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) patch, SFPP (S(+)-flurbiprofen plaster), containing the potent cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, S(+)-flurbiprofen (SFP). The present studies were conducted to confirm human COX inhibition and absorption of SFP and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of SFPP in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. COX inhibition by SFP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen was evaluated using human recombinant COX proteins. Absorption of SFPP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen from patches through rat skin was assessed 24 h after application. The AIA model was induced by injecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis followed 20 days later by the evaluation of the prostaglandin PGE2 content of the inflamed paw and the pain threshold. SFP exhibited more potent inhibitory activity against COX-1 (IC50  = 8.97 nM) and COX-2 (IC50  = 2.94 nM) than the other NSAIDs evaluated. Absorption of SFP was 92.9%, greater than that of ketoprofen and loxoprofen from their respective patches. Application of SFPP decreased PGE2 content from 15 min to 6 h and reduced paw hyperalgesia compared with the control, ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches. SFPP showed analgesic efficacy, and was superior to the ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches, which could be through the potent COX inhibitory activity of SFP and greater skin absorption. The results suggested SFPP can be expected to exert analgesic effect clinically. Drug Dev Res 76 : 20-28, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26763139

  9. Analgesic Effect of the Newly Developed S(+)‐Flurbiprofen Plaster on Inflammatory Pain in a Rat Adjuvant‐Induced Arthritis Model

    Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Hirose, Takuya; Endo, Hiromi; Futaki, Nobuko; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preclinical Research This article describes the properties of a novel topical NSAID (Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug) patch, SFPP (S(+)‐flurbiprofen plaster), containing the potent cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, S(+)‐flurbiprofen (SFP). The present studies were conducted to confirm human COX inhibition and absorption of SFP and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of SFPP in a rat adjuvant‐induced arthritis (AIA) model. COX inhibition by SFP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen was evaluated using human recombinant COX proteins. Absorption of SFPP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen from patches through rat skin was assessed 24 h after application. The AIA model was induced by injecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis followed 20 days later by the evaluation of the prostaglandin PGE2 content of the inflamed paw and the pain threshold. SFP exhibited more potent inhibitory activity against COX‐1 (IC50 = 8.97 nM) and COX‐2 (IC50 = 2.94 nM) than the other NSAIDs evaluated. Absorption of SFP was 92.9%, greater than that of ketoprofen and loxoprofen from their respective patches. Application of SFPP decreased PGE2 content from 15 min to 6 h and reduced paw hyperalgesia compared with the control, ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches. SFPP showed analgesic efficacy, and was superior to the ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches, which could be through the potent COX inhibitory activity of SFP and greater skin absorption. The results suggested SFPP can be expected to exert analgesic effect clinically. Drug Dev Res 76 : 20–28, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26763139

  10. Regulation of Neurotrophin-3 and Interleukin-1β and Inhibition of Spinal Glial Activation Contribute to the Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in Chronic Neuropathic Pain States of Rats

    Wenzhan Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence indicates that neurotrophin-3, interleukin-1β, and spinal glia are involved in neuropathic pain derived from dorsal root ganglia to spinal cord. Electroacupuncture is widely accepted to treat chronic pain, but the precise mechanism underlying the analgesic effect of EA has not been fully demonstrated. In this study, the mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were recorded. We used immunofluorescence and western blots methods to investigate the effect of EA on the expression of NT-3 and IL-1β in DRG and spinal cord of CCI rats; we also examined the expression of spinal GFAP and OX-42 in spinal cord. In present study, the MWT and TWL of CCI group rats were lower than those in the Sham CCI group rats, but EA treatment increased the pain thresholds. Furtherly, we found that EA upregulates the expression of NT-3 in DRG and spinal cord of CCI rats, while EA downregulates the expression of IL-1β. Additionally, immunofluorescence exhibited that CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes was inhibited significantly by EA treatment. These results demonstrated that the analgesic effect of EA may be achieved through promoting the neural protection of NT-3 as well as the inhibition of IL-1β production and spinal glial activity.