WorldWideScience

Sample records for penile small arteries

  1. Contribution of K+ channels and ouabain-sensitive mechanisms to the endothelium-dependent relaxations of horse penile small arteries

    Prieto, Dolores; Simonsen, Ulf; Hernández, Medardo; García-Sacristán, Albino

    1998-01-01

    Penile small arteries (effective internal lumen diameter of 300–600 μm) were isolated from the horse corpus cavernosum and mounted in microvascular myographs in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) and bradykinin (BK).In arteries preconstricted with the thromboxane analogue U46619 (3–30 nM), ACh and BK elicited concentration-dependent relaxations, pD2 and maximal responses being 7.71±0.09 and 91±1% (n=23), and 8.80±0.07 and 89±2% (n=24) for ACh and BK, respectively. These relaxations were abolished by mechanical endothelial cell removal, attenuated by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 μM) and unchanged by indomethacin (3 μM). However, raising extracellular K+ to concentrations of 20–30 mM significantly inhibited the ACh and BK relaxant responses to 63±4% (P<0.01, n=7) and to 59±4% (P<0.01, n=6), respectively. ACh- and BK-elicited relaxations were abolished in arteries preconstricted with K+ in the presence of 100 μM L-NOARG.In contrast to the inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, the blockers of Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, charybdotoxin (30 nM) and apamin (0.3 μM), each induced slight but significant rightward shifts of the relaxations to ACh and BK without affecting the maximal responses. Combination of charybdotoxin and apamin did not cause further inhibition of the relaxations compared to either toxin alone. In the presence of L-NOARG (100 μM), combined application of the two toxins resulted in the most effective inhibition of the relaxations to both ACh and BK. Thus, pD2 and maximal responses for ACh and BK were 7.65±0.08 and 98±1%, and 9.17±0.09 and 100±0%, respectively, in controls, and 5.87±0.09 (P<0.05, n=6) and 38±11% (P<0.05, n=6), and 8.09±0.14 (P<0.01, n=6) and 98±1% (n=6), respectively, after combined application of charybdotoxin plus apamin and L-NOARG.The selective inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 5 μM) did not alter the maximal responses to either ACh or BK, but slightly decreased the sensitivity to both agonists, δpD2 being 0.25±0.07 (P<0.05, n=6) and 0.62±0.12 (P<0.01, n=6) for ACh and BK, respectively. Combined application of ODQ and charybdotoxin plus apamin produced further inhibition of the sensitivity to both ACh (δpD2=1.39±0.09, P<0.01, n=6) and BK (1.29±0.11, P<0.01, n=6), compared to either ODQ or charybdotoxin plus apamin alone.Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) present in acidified solutions of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and S-nitroso-cysteine (SNC) both concentration-dependently relaxed penile resistance arteries, pD2 and maximal responses being 4.84±0.06 and 82±3% (n=12), and 6.72±0.07 and 85±4% (n=19), respectively. Charybdotoxin displaced to the right the dose-relaxation curves for both NO (δpD2 0.38±0.06, P<0.01, n=6) and SNC (δpD2 0.50±0.10, P<0.01, n=5), whereas apamin only reduced sensitivity (δpD2=0.35±0.12, P<0.05, n=5) and maximum response (65±9%, P<0.05, n=6) to SNC. ODQ shifted to the right the dose-relaxation curves to both NO and SNC. The relaxant responses to either NO or SNC were not further inhibited by a combination of ODQ and charybdotoxin or ODQ and charybdotoxin plus apamin, respectively, compared to either blocker alone.In the presence of 3 μM phentolamine, 5 μM ouabain contracted penile resistance arteries by 50±6% (n=17) of K-PSS, but did not significantly change the relaxant responses to either ACh, BK or NO. However, in the presence of L-NOARG ouabain reduced the ACh- and BK-elicited relaxation from 94±3% to 16±5% (P<0.0001, n=6), and from 98±2% to 13±3% (P<0.0001, n=5), respectively. Combined application of ODQ and ouabain inhibited the relaxations to NO from 92±2% to 26±3% (P<0.0001, n=6).The present results demonstrate that the endothelium-dependent relaxations of penile small arteries involve the release of NO and a non-NO non-prostanoid factor(s) which probably hyperpolarize(s) smooth muscle by two different mechanisms: an increased charybdotoxin and apamin-sensitive K+ conductance and an activation of the Na+-K+ATPase. These two mechanisms appear to be independent of guanylate cyclase stimulation, although NO itself can also activate charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels and the Na+-K+ pump through both cyclic GMP-dependent and independent mechanisms, respectively. PMID:9605568

  2. Penile angiography and superselective embolization therapy in arterial priapism

    Purpose: To report feasibility, benefit and complications of penile angiography and superselective penile embolization in arterial priapism. Materials and Methods: Four consecutive patients (aged 28, 29, 40 and 49 years), who underwent penile angiography for arterial priapism (high-flow priapism) within a four-year period, were identified by a keyword search of our radiology information system. One patient had sustained a direct penile trauma (severe blow to the erected penis) and three patients suffered from recurrent spontaneous priapism. All patients had previously undergone corporeal aspiration and noradrenaline injection to achieve detumescence. Two patients had one or several unsuccessful spongiocavernous shunt procedures. Results: In three of the four patients, superselective pudendal and penile angiography demonstrated pathologic arteriocavernous shunting. In two of the three patients, superselective embolization using a coaxial micro-catheter was attempted. In one of the two patients, the cavernous artery became spastic before embolization material was actually injected, inducing immediate and lasting detumescence. In the other patient, unilateral Gelfoam embolization led to immediate detumescence but the priapism recurred 12 hours after the procedure. A subsequent contralateral Gelfoam embolization was successful. Erectile function was preserved in all cases. No procedure-related complications occurred. Conclusion: Our experience supports the prevailing opinion found in the current literature that superselective coaxial embolization constitutes the treatment of choice in patients with high-flow priapism. Prognosis is good with high probability of preserving the erectile function. (orig.)

  3. Involvement of large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels in both nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type relaxation in human penile small arteries

    Kirly, Istvn; Pataricza, Jnos; Bajory, Zoltn; Simonsen, Ulf; Varro, Andrs; Papp, Julius Gy; Pajor, Lszlo; Kun, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels (BKC a ), located on the vascular smooth muscle, play an important role in regulation of vascular tone. In penile corpus cavernosum tissue, opening of BKC a channels leads to relaxation of corporal smooth muscle, which is essential during erection...

  4. Correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction

    Ahmed M Emarah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Emarah1, Shawky M El-Haggar2, Ihab A Osman2, Abdel Wahab S Khafagy21Departments of Ophthalmology, 2Andrology and Sexology, Cairo University Hospital, EgyptObjectives: Arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED is a target organ disease of atherosclerosis, and therefore might be a predictor of systemic atherosclerosis. Being systemic, it might be possible to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis from retinal vascular findings. We investigated the possible correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in patients with arteriogenic ED.Patients and methods: Sixty patients with ED were divided according to the peak systolic velocity (PSV in their penile cavernosal arteries into two groups; Group A included 30 patients with PSV less than 25 cm/sec, and Group B included 30 patients with PSV more than 35 cm/sec. Blood flow in the penile cavernosal artery was measured with color Doppler ultrasonography. All patients were assessed by ocular fundus examination under amydriatic conditions to evaluate retinal vascular atherosclerotic changes using Hyman’s classification.Results: Evidence of retinal vascular atherosclerotic changes was found in 19 patients (63.3% in Group A and in 10 patients (33.3% in Group B.Conclusions: Our study confirms the possibility of predicting penile arterial vascular status in patients with ED from their retinal vascular findings by using amydriatic simple, practical funduscopy.Keywords: erectile dysfunction, atherosclerosis, retinal vascular atherosclerosis

  5. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Penile Cancer Revealed by Next-Generation Small RNA Sequencing.

    Zhang, Li; Wei, Pengfei; Shen, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanwei; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Xiansheng; Kong, Rui; Xu, Lingfan; Gao, Jingjing; Zou, Duohong; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-01-01

    Penile cancer (PeCa) is a relatively rare tumor entity but possesses higher morbidity and mortality rates especially in developing countries. To date, the concrete pathogenic signaling pathways and core machineries involved in tumorigenesis and progression of PeCa remain to be elucidated. Several studies suggested miRNAs, which modulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level, were frequently mis-regulated and aberrantly expressed in human cancers. However, the miRNA profile in human PeCa has not been reported before. In this present study, the miRNA profile was obtained from 10 fresh penile cancerous tissues and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues via next-generation sequencing. As a result, a total of 751 and 806 annotated miRNAs were identified in normal and cancerous penile tissues, respectively. Among which, 56 miRNAs with significantly different expression levels between paired tissues were identified. Subsequently, several annotated miRNAs were selected randomly and validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the previous publications regarding to the altered miRNAs expression in various cancers and especially genitourinary (prostate, bladder, kidney, testis) cancers, the most majority of deregulated miRNAs showed the similar expression pattern in penile cancer. Moreover, the bioinformatics analyses suggested that the putative target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs between cancerous and matched normal penile tissues were tightly associated with cell junction, proliferation, growth as well as genomic instability and so on, by modulating Wnt, MAPK, p53, PI3K-Akt, Notch and TGF-β signaling pathways, which were all well-established to participate in cancer initiation and progression. Our work presents a global view of the differentially expressed miRNAs and potentially regulatory networks of their target genes for clarifying the pathogenic transformation of normal penis to PeCa, which research resource also provides new insights into future investigations aimed to explore the in-depth mechanisms of miRNAs and other small RNAs including piRNAs in penile carcinogenesis regulation and effective target-specific theragnosis. PMID:26158897

  6. Comparison of digital subtraction angiography, CT angiography, and ultrasonic doppler examination in the evaluation of penile arterial lesions

    Kawanisi, Yasuo; Kimura, Kazunori; Lee, Kyong Soo; Koizumi, Takahiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroyoshi; Kojima, Keiji; Yamamoto, Akira; Numata, Akira [Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    CT angiography reconstructed by a multidetector-row helical CT scanner is a newly developed form of imaging. We compared CT angiography and ultrasonic Doppler examination with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the diagnosis of arterial lesion. Eighteen patients with arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) underwent color Doppler study DSA, and CT angiography after providing informed consent. The CT angiography images were obtained by a multidetector-row helical CT scanner, Asteion TSX021A (TOSHIBA). We injected prostaglandin E{sub 1} into the penile cavernous body, and then rapidly infused nonionic contrast medium into the antecubital vein. DSA and CT angiography images of the bilateral internal pudendal arteries and cavernous arteries were examined for stenotic lesions or occlusion. We also compared the peak systolic blood flow velocity in the cavernous artery measured by color Doppler ultrasound with CT angiography and DSA. The CT anigography and color Doppler studies were performed on an outpatient basis, but DSA required hospitalization. In the 36 internal pudendal arteries, DSA represented 22 normal arteries and 14 stenosis or occlusions. CT angiography showed 15 normal arteries and 21 occlusions. For the diagnosis of stenosis or occlusion in the internal pudendal artery, the CT angiography image had a good agreement, with a sensitivity of 1.00, specificity of 0.68, and accuracy of 0.81. For diagnosis in the cavernous artery, CT angiography image also showed a good agreement with DSA; however, the quality of the images of fine arteries was better in the DSA images. The inferior view and internal view of the pelvis in CT angiography were helpful for visulaizing the internal pudendal artery, especially at the pubic bone. There was insufficient correlation between peak systolic blood flow velocity and DSA findings. There were no serious complications involved in either examination. CT angiography has not yet reached the same level as DSA in the evaluation of fine arteries. However, CT angiography can produced images sufficient for the diagnosis of arteriogenic ED with some advantages. We believe that with improvement, CT angiography will become an adequate replacement for DSA in the diagnosis of penile arterisl lision. (author)

  7. Comparison of digital subtraction angiography, CT angiography, and ultrasonic doppler examination in the evaluation of penile arterial lesions

    CT angiography reconstructed by a multidetector-row helical CT scanner is a newly developed form of imaging. We compared CT angiography and ultrasonic Doppler examination with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the diagnosis of arterial lesion. Eighteen patients with arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) underwent color Doppler study DSA, and CT angiography after providing informed consent. The CT angiography images were obtained by a multidetector-row helical CT scanner, Asteion TSX021A (TOSHIBA). We injected prostaglandin E1 into the penile cavernous body, and then rapidly infused nonionic contrast medium into the antecubital vein. DSA and CT angiography images of the bilateral internal pudendal arteries and cavernous arteries were examined for stenotic lesions or occlusion. We also compared the peak systolic blood flow velocity in the cavernous artery measured by color Doppler ultrasound with CT angiography and DSA. The CT anigography and color Doppler studies were performed on an outpatient basis, but DSA required hospitalization. In the 36 internal pudendal arteries, DSA represented 22 normal arteries and 14 stenosis or occlusions. CT angiography showed 15 normal arteries and 21 occlusions. For the diagnosis of stenosis or occlusion in the internal pudendal artery, the CT angiography image had a good agreement, with a sensitivity of 1.00, specificity of 0.68, and accuracy of 0.81. For diagnosis in the cavernous artery, CT angiography image also showed a good agreement with DSA; however, the quality of the images of fine arteries was better in the DSA images. The inferior view and internal view of the pelvis in CT angiography were helpful for visulaizing the internal pudendal artery, especially at the pubic bone. There was insufficient correlation between peak systolic blood flow velocity and DSA findings. There were no serious complications involved in either examination. CT angiography has not yet reached the same level as DSA in the evaluation of fine arteries. However, CT angiography can produced images sufficient for the diagnosis of arteriogenic ED with some advantages. We believe that with improvement, CT angiography will become an adequate replacement for DSA in the diagnosis of penile arterisl lision. (author)

  8. Penile angiography and superselective embolization therapy in arterial priapism; Penisangiographie und superselektive Embolisationstherapie bei high-flow Priapismus

    Dinkel, H.P.; Triller, J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Hochreiter, W. [Urologische Klinik, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland)

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: To report feasibility, benefit and complications of penile angiography and superselective penile embolization in arterial priapism. Materials and Methods: Four consecutive patients (aged 28, 29, 40 and 49 years), who underwent penile angiography for arterial priapism (high-flow priapism) within a four-year period, were identified by a keyword search of our radiology information system. One patient had sustained a direct penile trauma (severe blow to the erected penis) and three patients suffered from recurrent spontaneous priapism. All patients had previously undergone corporeal aspiration and noradrenaline injection to achieve detumescence. Two patients had one or several unsuccessful spongiocavernous shunt procedures. Results: In three of the four patients, superselective pudendal and penile angiography demonstrated pathologic arteriocavernous shunting. In two of the three patients, superselective embolization using a coaxial micro-catheter was attempted. In one of the two patients, the cavernous artery became spastic before embolization material was actually injected, inducing immediate and lasting detumescence. In the other patient, unilateral Gelfoam embolization led to immediate detumescence but the priapism recurred 12 hours after the procedure. A subsequent contralateral Gelfoam embolization was successful. Erectile function was preserved in all cases. No procedure-related complications occurred. Conclusion: Our experience supports the prevailing opinion found in the current literature that superselective coaxial embolization constitutes the treatment of choice in patients with high-flow priapism. Prognosis is good with high probability of preserving the erectile function. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung der Interventionsmoeglichkeiten bei arteriellem (high-flow) Priapismus durch endovaskulaere superselektive Embolisation der Penisarterien. Methode: Alle innerhalb eines Vierjahreszeitraums (1/99-5/2002) wegen Priapismus zur Angiographie zugewiesenen Patienten wurden erfasst. Eine elektronische RIS-Abfrage ergab vier Maennern im Alter von 28, 29, 40 und 49 Jahren. Bei einem Patienten lag anamnestisch ein peniles Trauma vor; bei drei Patienten bestand ein spontaner, rezidivierender Priapismus. Bei allen Patienten wurden zunaechst eine kavernoese Blutaspiration und intrakavernoese Noradrenalininjektionen durchgefuehrt, um eine Detumeszenz zu erreichen. Zwei Patienten hatten zuvor eine oder mehrere frustrane kavernosospongioese Shuntprozeduren. Ergebnisse: Bei drei von vier Maennern wurde angiographisch eine pathologische arterio-kavernoese Hyperperfusion nachgewiesen. Zwei Patienten wurden durch superselektive Embolisation behandelt. Dabei kam es allerdings in einem Fall vor der Einbringung des Embolisats zu einem spastischen Verschluss der A. profunda penis (A. cavernosa), wodurch umgehend eine dauerhafte Detumeszenz erzielt wurde. Bei einem weiteren Patienten wurde die A. profunda penis rechts mit Gelfoam embolisiert, wodurch die Detumeszenz erreicht wurde; am Folgetag kam es zu einem Rezidiv, das durch kontralaterale arteriokavernoese Hyperperfusion bedingt war und mit einer linksseitigen Teilembolisation erfolgreich behandelt wurde. Postinterventionell blieb die Erektionsfaehigkeit jeweils vollstaendig erhalten. Schlussfolgerung: Unsere Erfahrungen bestaetigen die in der Literatur vorherrschende Meinung, dass die transarterielle Katheterembolisation als Therapieverfahren der Wahl beim arteriellen Priapismus betrachtet werden darf. Die Prognose des arteriellen Priapismus ist gut bei hoher Chance des volstaendigen Erhalts der erektilen Funktion. (orig.)

  9. Correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction

    Ahmed M Emarah; Shawky M El-Haggar; Osman, Ihab A; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Ahmed M Emarah1, Shawky M El-Haggar2, Ihab A Osman2, Abdel Wahab S Khafagy21Departments of Ophthalmology, 2Andrology and Sexology, Cairo University Hospital, EgyptObjectives: Arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) is a target organ disease of atherosclerosis, and therefore might be a predictor of systemic atherosclerosis. Being systemic, it might be possible to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis from retinal vascular findings. We investigated the possible correlation between penile cavern...

  10. AB053. MicroRNA expression profile in penile cancer revealed by next-generation small RNA sequencing

    Zhang, Li; Wei, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Penile cancer (PeCa) is a relatively rare tumor entity but possesses higher morbidity and mortality rates especially in developing countries. To date, the concrete pathogenic signaling pathways and core machineries involved in tumorigenesis and progression of PeCa remain to be elucidated. Several studies suggested miRNAs, which modulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level, were frequently mis-regulated and aberrantly expressed in human cancers. However, the miRNA profile in human PeCa has not been reported before. Methods In this present study, the miRNA profile was obtained from 10 fresh penile cancerous tissues and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues via next-generation sequencing. Results As a result, a total of 751 and 806 annotated miRNAs were identified in normal and cancerous penile tissues, respectively. Among which, 56 miRNAs with significantly different expression levels between paired tissues were identified. Subsequently, several annotated miRNAs were randomly and validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the previous publications regarding to the altered miRNAs expression in various cancers and especially genitourinary (prostate, bladder, kidney, testis) cancers, the most majority of deregulated miRNAs showed the similar expression pattern in penile cancer. Moreover, the bioinformatics analyses suggested that the putative target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs between cancerous and matched normal penile tissues were tightly associated with cell junction, proliferation, growth as well as genomic instability and so on, by modulating Wnt, MAPK, p53, PI3K-Akt, Notch and TGF-β signaling pathways, which were all well-established to participate in cancer initiation and progression. Conclusions Our work presents a global view of the differentially expressed miRNAs and potentially regulatory networks of their target genes for clarifying the pathogenic transformation of normal penis to PeCa, which research resource also provides new insights into future investigations aimed to explore the in-depth mechanisms of miRNAs and other small RNAs including piRNAs in penile carcinogenesis regulation and effective target-specific theragnosis.

  11. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Penile Cancer Revealed by Next-Generation Small RNA Sequencing

    Zhang, Li; Wei, Pengfei; Shen, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanwei; XU, BO; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Xiansheng; Kong, Rui; Xu, Lingfan; Gao, JingJing; Zou, Duohong; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-01-01

    Penile cancer (PeCa) is a relatively rare tumor entity but possesses higher morbidity and mortality rates especially in developing countries. To date, the concrete pathogenic signaling pathways and core machineries involved in tumorigenesis and progression of PeCa remain to be elucidated. Several studies suggested miRNAs, which modulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level, were frequently mis-regulated and aberrantly expressed in human cancers. However, the miRNA profile in human PeC...

  12. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions. PMID:20602076

  13. Acupuncture assisted local anesthesia for penile surgeries

    Zaid, Uwais X.; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2013-01-01

    Although the mechanism of acupuncture for analgesia is not fully elucidated, a combination of acupuncture and several methods of topical blocks for local anesthesia has been effective to patients with indications for penile surgeries on ambulatory basis. We sought to review this unique clinical application since 1998. To summarize practice-based medical literature contingent this unique application and, in contrast, the commonly agreed either general or spinal anesthesia concerning those surgeries on this most sensitive organthe delicate penis. From July 1998 to July 2013, total of 1,481 males underwent penile surgeries with specific topical nerve blockage in addition to acupuncture in which the acupoints of Hegu (LI4), Shou San Li (LI10), Quchi (LI11), and either Waiguan (TE5) or Neiguan (PC6) were routinely used. Careful anesthetic block of the paired dorsal nerve in the penile hilum associated with a peripenile infiltration was categorized to method I which is sufficient to anesthetize the penile structures for varied penile surgeries including 993 men of penile venous stripping surgeries, 336 cases of penile corporoplasty, 8 males of urethroplasty, 7 patients of vaso-vasostomy, 6 men of penile arterial reconstruction and 3 surgeries of penectomy. Whereas the bilateral cavernous nerve block and crural blockage were indispensably added up for anesthetizing the sinusoids of the corpora cavernosa (CC) for penile implant of varied model. It was allocated to method II and had been applied in 125 males. A further topical injection of the medial low abdominal region made it possible for implanting a three-piece model in three males. Thus recent discoveries and better understanding of the penile anatomy had been meaningful in the development and improvement of specific nerve blockade techniques for penile surgeries in particularly adding up with acupuncture techniques, while minimizing anesthetic adverse effects and resulting in a rapid return to daily activity with minimal complications.

  14. Development of Small Diameter Nanofiber Tissue Engineered Arterial Grafts

    Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Maxfield, Mark W; Tara, Shuhei; Rocco, Kevin A.; Bagi, Paul S.; Yi, Tai; Udelsman, Brooks; Zhuang, Zhen W; Cleary, Muriel; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Breuer, Christopher K; Shinoka, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    The surgical repair of heart and vascular disease often requires implanting synthetic grafts. While synthetic grafts have been successfully used for medium-to-large sized arteries, applications for small diameter arteries (

  15. Penile Cancer

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  16. Anatomic Basis for Penis Transplantation: Cadaveric Microdissection of Penile Structures.

    Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Erenoglu, Cagil Meric; Lineaweaver, William C; Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet; Ozek, Cuneyt

    2016-06-01

    We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery. Dorsal nerves showed proximal branching pattern. In a possible penile transplantation, level of harvest should be determined according to the patient and the defect, where a transgender patient will receive a total allograft and a male patient with a proximal penile defect will receive a partial shaft allograft. We designed an algorithm for different levels of penile defect and described the technique for harvest of partial and total penile transplants. PMID:27070689

  17. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: Comparison of aged and adult rats

    Emin Ozbek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7 and aged (24 mo, n = 7 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14 fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrified and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  18. Mechanisms Involved in Thromboxane A2-induced Vasoconstriction of Rat Intracavernous Small Penile Arteries

    Grann, Martin; Comerma Steffensen, Simon Gabriel; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Simonsen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with erectile dysfunction and with hypercontractility in erectile tissue and this is in part ascribed to increased formation of thromboxane. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of calcium sensitization and contraction in vascular smooth muscle. This study investigated the ...

  19. Erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostate cancer and radiation dose to the penile structures: A critical review

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sequela after external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy for prostate cancer. There are several structures in the vicinity of the prostate that are critical to erectile function and that receive a substantial radiation dose: neurovascular bundles (NVBs), internal pudendal arteries (IPAs), accessory pudendal arteries, corpora cavernosa and the penile bulb. Most reports analyzing the correlation between radiation dose to these structures and radiation-induced ED are limited by the small number of patients analyzed in each study. So far, there is no evidence for a role of the NVBs in radiation-induced ED. There are no reports on the IPAs, based on reduced arterial flow in the penis. Several studies show contradicting results on the corpora cavernosa, which house the erectile tissue required for erection. There are contradicting reports on the penile bulb, although studies with more patients tend not to find any correlation. Sparing of the penile bulb to improve potency-preservation is not sufficiently supported by the current literature. If sparing of the penile bulb is achieved by reducing the margin for the apex, an oncological risk is taken, while it is uncertain whether this will improve potency-preservation

  20. Review of penile fracture

    A detailed current review was performed of penile fracture. A literature search and analysis were compiled of studies made in the last 15 years about the proper management of penile fracture. These have allowed for a practical guide to the diagnosis and early treatment by the urologist

  1. Sonographic evaluation of penile in patients with erectile dysfunction

    A review of the current state of knowledge is made on sonographic evaluation of penile in patients with erectile dysfunction. This sonography is developed with high resolution ultrasound on gray scale, combined with color Doppler ultrasonography; which the arteries of penile are examined before and during the erection. The penile ultrasonography has meant an important tool in the evaluation of specific patients who have submitted erectile dysfunction, particularly, in those with record of trauma and history of Peyronie's disease. In addition, through a sonographic evaluation has permitted to prove manifestations of the pathophysiological phenomena of the patient in order to establish their classification and guide their treatment

  2. Penil kalcifylaksi

    Kjaerskov, Mette Wanscher; Comstedt, Lisbeth Rosholm; Bygum, Anette; Yderstraede, Knud Bonnet

    2009-01-01

    A 64-year-old diabetic man on peritoneal dialysis developed painful necrotic ulcers of the glans penis over a period of six months. On suspicion of atherosclerotic necrosis, a partial resection of his penis was performed. Histological examination showed calciphylaxis. This vasculopathy with...... calcification and intimal fibrosis in small blood vessels is mostly seen in patients with end-stage renal disease. The condition is characterized by painful livedoid and infiltrated plaques and ulcers. Involvement of the penis is rare, but probably underdiagnosed. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-May-25...

  3. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Yiee, Jenny H.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile sk...

  4. Genetic fuzzy system predicting contractile reactivity patterns of small arteries

    Tang, J; Sheykhzade, Majid; Clausen, B F; Boonen, H C M

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of physiological surrogate end points in drug development generates dynamic time-domain data reflecting the state of the biological system. Conventional data analysis often reduces the information in these data by extracting specific data points, thereby discarding potentially useful...... information. We developed a genetic fuzzy system (GFS) algorithm that is capable of learning all information in time-domain physiological data. Data on isometric force development of isolated small arteries were used as a framework for developing and optimizing a GFS. GFS performance was improved by several...... strategies. Results show that optimized fuzzy systems (OFSs) predict contractile reactivity of arteries accurately. In addition, OFSs identified significant differences that were undetectable using conventional analysis in the responses of arteries between groups. We concluded that OFSs may be used in...

  5. 'Variant' angina: Evidence for small vessel coronary artery spasm

    A unique case of 'variant' angina pectoris has been observed in a patient with normal coronary arteries and typical chest pain appearing spontaneously at rest, and repeatedly provoked by ergonovine maleate (0.1 mg iv) associated with large transmural perfusion defects on 201TI-imaging (after ergonovine) and a marked increase in T wave voltage despite no demonstrable spasm of a major coronary artery after the same doses of ergonovine. While saline solution could not provoke chest pain and treatment with a beta-blocking agent increased the frequency of ischemic attacks, a calcium antangonist therapy reduced and eventually eliminated the attacks. Thus, this case provides evidence for yet another aspect of a 'variant' form of angina pectoris: small vessel coronary artery spasm. (orig.)

  6. Penile rehabilitation after pelvic cancer surgery.

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

  7. Strategies for maintaining penile size following penile implant

    Lee, King Chien Joe; Brock, Gerald B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Loss of penile size is a common complaint that can negatively affect patient satisfaction rates following successful penile prosthetic implant surgery. Objective The aim of this review is to describe the various strategies that have been used to maintain penile length or girth after the insertion of a penile prosthetic implant. Methods An extensive systematic literature review was performed, based on a search of the PUBMED database for articles published between 2002 to 2012. The...

  8. Small artery structure during antihypertensive therapy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension

    Buus, Niels H; Mathiassen, Ole N; Fenger-Grn, Morten; Prstholm, Michael N; Sihm, Inger; Thybo, Niels K; Schroeder, Anne P; Thygesen, Kristian; Aalkjr, Christian; Lederballe, Ole; Mulvany, Michael J; Christensen, Kent L

    2013-01-01

    Structural changes of small resistance arteries occur early in the disease process of essential hypertension and predict cardiovascular events in previously untreated patients. We investigated whether on-treatment small artery structure also identifies patients at elevated risk despite...

  9. Doppler velocity measurements from large and small arteries of mice

    Hartley, Craig J.; Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Madala, Sridhar; Entman, Mark L.; Michael, Lloyd H.; Taffet, George E.

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of genetic engineering, mice have become increasingly common as models of human diseases, and this has stimulated the development of techniques to assess the murine cardiovascular system. Our group has developed nonimaging and dedicated Doppler techniques for measuring blood velocity in the large and small peripheral arteries of anesthetized mice. We translated technology originally designed for human vessels for use in smaller mouse vessels at higher heart rates by using high...

  10. Penile metastasis from rectal carcinoma

    Murhekar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile metastases are infrequent and often originate from genitor-urinary organs including bladder and prostate. In the present communication, we report an unusual case of penile metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma. Though uncommon, this presentation is not unknown. A review of literature of penile metastases in colorectal cancers is also summarized here.

  11. Overview of Contemporary Penile Rehabilitation Therapies

    Run Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction affects a considerable number of men and is a significant quality of life issue. There has been a substantial amount of research on the treatment of post-prostatectomy ED, and now there is a rising interest in the concept of penile rehabilitation. The goal of penile rehabilitation is to moderate the destructive processes that occur after prostatectomy in order to preserve erectile function, either through spontaneous or assisted means. Methods. We reviewed published data and experiences of post-prostatectomy penile rehabilitation using regimented interventions of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, vacuum erectile device, and intracavernosal agents, and we present and analyze the research conducted. Results. These studies show improved objective and subjective clinical outcomes in regards to physical parameters, sexual satisfaction, and rates of spontaneous erections. Conclusion. These studies are often limited by small size, study period, and study design. There continues to be a need for large, randomized, placebo controlled trials with adequate followup to fully evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the various proposed penile rehabilitation regiments before a clear standard can be established.

  12. Radioisotope penile plethysmography: Technique for evaluating corpora cavernosal blood flow during early tumescence in patients with erectile dysfunction

    Radioisotope penile plethysmography is a new adaptation of technetium-labeled red blood cell imaging. It is designed to assess penile corpora cavernosal blood flow during early tumescence in patients with erectile dysfunction. Peak corporal flow rates and volume changes in the penis were analyzed and compared with arterial integrity (arteriography) and venous-sinusoidal competence (cavernosometry). Peak corporal flow rates correlated most accurately with arterial integrity (r =.01). No significant correlation was identified with venous leakage variables (r =.01) The significant correlation of peak corporal flow and arteriography suggests that radioisotope penile plethysmography may assist in the evaluation of arterial inflow disorders in patients with erectile dysfunction

  13. Relaxant effects of hexosamines on isolated small human placental arteries.

    Uldbjerg, N; Allen, J; Maigaard, S; Forman, A

    1987-01-01

    Wharton's jelly contains large amounts of hyaluronic acid, and glucosamine is an important constituent of this macromolecule. In order to evaluate the placental vascular effects of this aminosugar, small chorionic and stem villous arteries were dissected from placental specimens obtained at normal term vaginal deliveries (n = 15). Ring preparations were mounted in organ baths, and isometric wall tensions were measured. Glucosamine and its epimer galactosamine (5 X 10(-4) to 10(-2) M) produced marked relaxation of contractions induced by PGF2 alpha (10(-5) M) in both chorionic and stem villous arteries. The effect was unchanged after pretreatment with atropin, propranolol and indomethacin. The relaxant effect of the neutral sugar mannose was less pronounced compared with that of the hexosamines. Total tissue concentrations of placental hexosamines have been reported within the range needed to produce placental vascular relaxation in the present study. However, the major part of these compounds is integrated in macromolecules, and the tissue level of free hexosamine is probably far below the total concentrations. Accordingly, the effects of hexosamines demonstrated in the present study might not be of physiological importance in the regulation of fetal placental medial smooth muscle tension. PMID:3684970

  14. Management of penile fractures

    Objective was to present our experience with surgical and conservative management of penile fracture. This prospective study was carried out in the Urology and Nephrology Center, at Al-Thawra General and Teaching Hospital, Sana'a, Yemen from June 2003 to September 2007 and included 30 patients presenting with penile fracture. Diagnosis was made clinically in all our patients. Six patients with simple fracture were treated conservatively while 24 patients with more severe injuries were operated upon. Patient's age ranged from 24-52 years (mean 31.3 years) 46.7% of patients were under the age of 30 years and 56.7% were unmarried. Hard manipulation of the erect penis for example during masturbation was the most frequent mechanism of fracture in 53.3% of patients. Solitary tear was found in 22 patients and bilateral corporal tears associated with urethral injury were found in 2 patients. Corporal tears were saturated with synthetic absorbable sutures and urethral injury was repaired primarily. All operated patients described full erection with straight penis except 3 of the 8 patients who were managed by direct longitudinal incision, in whom mild curvature during erection was observed. The conservatively treated patients described satisfactory penile straightness and erection. The optimal functional and cosmetic results are achieved following immediate surgical repair of penis fracture. Good results can also be obtained in some selected patients with conservative management. (author)

  15. Penile abscess and necrotizing fasciitis secondary to neglected false penile fracture

    Al-Reshaid Reshaid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile infection and abscess formation have been described in association with priapism, cavernosography, intracavernosal injection therapy, trauma and penile prosthesis. We report a case of penile abscess and necrotizing fasciitis of penile skin in a 37-year-old male, presented 3 weeks after neglected false penile fracture.

  16. Pulsed and Color Doppler Sonographic Findings of Penile Mondor' Disease

    Han, Hye Yeon; Chung, Dong Jin; Kim, Kum Won; Hwang, Cheol Mog [University of Konyang School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Penile Mondor's disease is a rare disease that's characterized by thrombosis in the dorsal vein of the penis. Doppler ultrasonography (US) clearly visualizes dorsal vein thrombosis and the associated hemodynamic alterations. Previous studies have demonstrated the typical color Doppler US findings of superficial dorsal vein thrombosis without the flow signals in this area, yet this is insufficient to understand the hemodynamics in penile Mondor's disease. We report here for the first time a cavernosal artery flow signal pattern in a penile Mondor's disease patient, in addition to its previously reported classic US findings. In conclusion, the Doppler US findings of thrombus without blood flow in the superficial dorsal vein and the low-flow, high resistance in the cavernosal artery may be suggestive of penile Mondor's disease.

  17. Pressure Myography to Study the Function and Structure of isolated small arteries

    Schjørring, Olav; Carlsson, Rune; Simonsen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Small arteries play an important role in regulation of peripheral resistance and organ perfusion. Here we describe a series of the methods allowing measurements in pressurized segments of small arteries from the systemic and coronary circulation of mice as well as other species. The pressure myog...

  18. Decellularized ovine arteries as small-diameter vascular grafts

    Atherosclerosis and its complications still represent the leading cause of death in the developed countries. While autologous blood vessels may be regarded as the best solution for peripheral and coronary bypass, they are unavailable in most patients. Even though tissue engineering techniques are often applied to the development of small-diameter vascular grafts, limiting factors of this approach are represented by the lack of essential extracellular matrix proteins and/or poor biomechanical properties of the scaffolds used. Along these lines, the aim of this study was to develop a decellularization protocol for ovine carotids to be used as suitable small-diameter vascular grafts. Samples were treated either with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or with Trypsin and Triton X-100; a final nuclease digestion was performed for both protocols. Morphological analyses demonstrate complete removal of nuclei and cellular components in treated vessels, also confirmed by significant reduction in wall thickness and DNA content. Essential extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, elastin, and fibronectin are well preserved after decellularization. From a mechanical point of view, Trypsin and Triton X-100 treated arteries show elastic modules and compliance comparable to native carotids, whereas the use of SDS makes samples stiffer, with a significant decrease in the compliance mean value and an increase in longitudinal and circumferential Young’s modules. It is demonstrated that the treatment where Trypsin and Triton X-100 are combined guarantees complete decellularization of carotids, with no significant alteration of biomechanical and structural properties, thus preserving a suitable environment for adhesion, proliferation, and migration of cells. (paper)

  19. Traumatic purpuric penile ulcer.

    Witkowski, Joseph A; Parish, Jennifer L; Parish, Lawrence Ch

    2004-01-01

    A 33-year-old man presented with a history of a penile ulcer of four days' duration. He was immediately treated with 2.4 million IU of benzathine penicillin IM and tested for syphilis, but subsequently proved non-reactive. He was already receiving doxycycline BID from another physician for this nonspecific genital ulcer and minocycline for acne. Past medical history revealed periodic flares of hidradenitis suppurativa, limited to the buttocks and inguinal region; acne, involving the face and back; and angiokeratoma of the scrotum. He had no known drug allergies, nor had he admitted to taking any other medicaments. Examination revealed an 8 x 15 mm irregularly shaped, shallow, tender ulcer over a larger purpuric base and involving part of the corona and the distal portion of the shaft. No inguinal adenopathy or buboes could be found on palpation. The patient was placed on a cream containing 3% iodochlorhydroxyquin 1% hydrocortisone. By the end of two weeks of therapy, the lesion had healed with no residual discoloration. Subsequently, the patient revealed that he masturbated daily, rubbing his penis back and forth on the bed sheet while lying prone on the bed. Eleven months later, he consulted us again for a new purpuric penile ulcer, because he had begun to masturbate in his usual fashion. The ulcer healed within several days, and there were no sequellae. PMID:15075044

  20. Radioisotope penile plethysmography: A technique for evaluating corpora cavernosal blood flow during early tumescence

    Schwartz, A.N.; Graham, M.M.; Ferency, G.F.; Miura, R.S.

    1989-04-01

    Radioisotope penile plethysmography is a nuclear medicine technique which assists in the evaluation of patients with erectile dysfunction. This technique attempts to noninvasively quantitate penile corpora cavernosal blood flow during early penile tumescence using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells. Penile images and counts were acquired in a steady-state blood-pool phase prior to and after the administration of intracorporal papaverine. Penile counts, images, and time-activity curves were computer analyzed in order to determine peak corporal flow and volume changes. Peak corporal flow rates were compared to arterial integrity (determined by angiography) and venosinusoidal corporal leak (determined by cavernosometry). Peak corporal flow correlated well with arterial integrity (r = 0.91) but did not correlate with venosinusoidal leak parameters (r = 0.01). This report focuses on the methodology and the assumptions which form the foundation of this technique. The strong correlation of peak corporal flow and angiography suggests that radioisotope penile plethysmography could prove useful in the evaluation of arterial inflow disorders in patients with erectile dysfunction.

  1. Radioisotope penile plethysmography: A technique for evaluating corpora cavernosal blood flow during early tumescence

    Radioisotope penile plethysmography is a nuclear medicine technique which assists in the evaluation of patients with erectile dysfunction. This technique attempts to noninvasively quantitate penile corpora cavernosal blood flow during early penile tumescence using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells. Penile images and counts were acquired in a steady-state blood-pool phase prior to and after the administration of intracorporal papaverine. Penile counts, images, and time-activity curves were computer analyzed in order to determine peak corporal flow and volume changes. Peak corporal flow rates were compared to arterial integrity (determined by angiography) and venosinusoidal corporal leak (determined by cavernosometry). Peak corporal flow correlated well with arterial integrity (r = 0.91) but did not correlate with venosinusoidal leak parameters (r = 0.01). This report focuses on the methodology and the assumptions which form the foundation of this technique. The strong correlation of peak corporal flow and angiography suggests that radioisotope penile plethysmography could prove useful in the evaluation of arterial inflow disorders in patients with erectile dysfunction

  2. Penile Enhancement Surgery: An Overview

    Marta R. Bizic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penile size is a frequently observed concern in men of all ages. The way in which some men see their personality is defined, appraised, or reflected by their penis, with the view that ‘bigger is better’, is termed ‘phallocentrism’. In this review article, we assess the literature and evaluate the evidence on what is ‘normal’ in relation to penile size, and evaluate techniques for penile lengthening and girth augmentation with emphasis on the possible benefits and complications of the procedures reviewed.

  3. A review of penile metastasis

    Luigi Mearini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer as primary disease is relatively rare in developed countries. The penis is a rare site of metastases in spite of its rich vascularization. Approximately 500 cases have been reported in the literature; almost 70% of primary lesions are of pelvic origin (from genitourinary or recto-sigmoid primary tumors. We describe a case of penile metastasis from lung cancer. The rarity of the event prompted us to also explore related reviews and discuss the incidence, physiopathology, diagnosis and therapy of penile secondary cancer.

  4. Penile Corporeal Reconstruction during Difficult Placement of a Penile Prosthesis

    Sherif R. Aboseif

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For some patients with impotence and concomitant severe tunical/corporeal tissue fibrosis, insertion of a penile prosthesis is the only option to restore erectile function. Closing the tunica over an inflatable penile prosthesis in these patients can be challenging. We review our previous study which included 15 patients with severe corporeal or tunical fibrosis who underwent corporeal reconstruction with autologous rectus fascia to allow placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis. At a mean follow-up of 18 months (range 12 to 64, all patients had a prosthesis that was functioning properly without evidence of separation, herniation, or erosion of the graft. Sexual activity resumed at a mean time of 9 weeks (range 8 to 10. There were no adverse events related to the graft or its harvest. Use of rectus fascia graft for coverage of a tunical defect during a difficult penile prosthesis placement is surgically feasible, safe, and efficacious.

  5. Evaluation of carotid artery elasticity changes in patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    Huang, Xiaochun; Kang, Xiaoyan; Xue, Jiping; Kang, Chunsong; Lv, Hong; Li, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial elasticity of the common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) by applying radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound technology. Methods: Fifty SVD subjects (SVD group) and fifty-three matched controls (Control group) were enrolled in the study. Structural and functional changes in the common carotid arterial wall were investigated by quality intima-media thickness (QIMT...

  6. Complications of trans-bronchial arterial chemo-embolization for non-small cell lung cancer

    Objective: Retrospectively evaluate the incidence and correlative factors of complication of transcatheter bronchial arterial chemo-embolization for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Transcatheter bronchial arterial embolization was performed in 135 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Bronchial arterial angiograms were taken prior to confirm the blood supply route of the lesions. Chemo- embolization was then performed through the catheterized bronchial artery or the super-selected catheterized branches with co-axial technique. Chemotherapy was taken first with the perfusion of combined three drugs: carboplatin 300 mg, MMC 10-20 mg or Epirubicin 40-60 mg, 5-FU 1000 mg; and then followed by bronchial arterial embolization with gelfoam particles or lipiodol separately. Results: Complications happened in 5.9% cases, including 1 case of spinal medullary ischemia (0.7%), 5 cases of intercostal artery ischemic syndrome(3.7%), and 2 cases of pulmonary artery embolization(1.5%). All complications were relieved after one to four weeks treatment. Spinal medullary ischemic and intercostal ischemic syndrome occurred both in the cases of main bronchial arterial embolization. Spinal medullary ischemia and pulmonary arterial embolization only happened in patients embolized with lipiodol, while intercostal ischemic syndrome was seen in both gelfoam particles and lipiodol embolization. Conclusions: Transcatheter bronchial arterial embolization should be performed carefully. Super-selective catheterization with gelfoam particles is the method of choice to avoid potential ischemic complications. (authors)

  7. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Imaging of penile traumas - therapeutic implications

    Bertolotto, Michele; Calderan, Loretta; Cova, Maria Assunta [Universita di Trieste, UCO di Radiologia, Trieste (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    Injury to the penis may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating trauma. Nonpenetrating injury to the erect penis can produce albugineal tear, intracavernous hematoma or extraalbugineal hematoma from rupture of the dorsal vessels. Nonpenetrating injury to the flaccid penis usually follows blunt perineal traumas producing extratunical or cavernosal haematomas, or cavernosal artery tear followed by high flow priapism. Differential diagnosis between albugineal tear and other penile injuries must be obtained as soon as possible, since early surgical repair of albugineal tear reduces significantly the rate of postraumatic curvature and fibrosis. Ultrasonography (US) is able to detect the exact site of the tear in most patients as an interruption of the thin echogenic line of the tunica albuginea. Other imaging techniques are rarely required in the clinical practice. Color Doppler US is the imaging modality of choice to evaluate patients with high flow priapism. Focal or diffuse cavernosal fibrosis can be identified with US as echogenic areas in the cavernosal bodies. Postraumatic erectile dysfunction can result from fibrotic changes, nerve and vascular impairment or both. Doppler evaluation of penile vasculature is required in young patients with postraumatic impotence before surgical revascularization procedures. (orig.)

  9. Imaging of penile traumas - therapeutic implications

    Injury to the penis may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating trauma. Nonpenetrating injury to the erect penis can produce albugineal tear, intracavernous hematoma or extraalbugineal hematoma from rupture of the dorsal vessels. Nonpenetrating injury to the flaccid penis usually follows blunt perineal traumas producing extratunical or cavernosal haematomas, or cavernosal artery tear followed by high flow priapism. Differential diagnosis between albugineal tear and other penile injuries must be obtained as soon as possible, since early surgical repair of albugineal tear reduces significantly the rate of postraumatic curvature and fibrosis. Ultrasonography (US) is able to detect the exact site of the tear in most patients as an interruption of the thin echogenic line of the tunica albuginea. Other imaging techniques are rarely required in the clinical practice. Color Doppler US is the imaging modality of choice to evaluate patients with high flow priapism. Focal or diffuse cavernosal fibrosis can be identified with US as echogenic areas in the cavernosal bodies. Postraumatic erectile dysfunction can result from fibrotic changes, nerve and vascular impairment or both. Doppler evaluation of penile vasculature is required in young patients with postraumatic impotence before surgical revascularization procedures. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic analysis of a small artery of a human finger by optical coherence tomography

    Kuwabara, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Natsuki; Takada, Daisuke; Ohmi, Masato; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2011-03-01

    OCT is highly potential for development of a new field of dynamic skin physiology, as recently reported by the authors. In this paper, we demonstrate dynamic analysis of a small artery of a human finger by the SS-OCT. Among the vascular system, only the small artery has two physiological functions both for the elastic artery (like main and middle arteries) and for muscle-controlled one (like arterioles). It, therefore, is important for dynamic analysis of blood flow and circulation. In the time-sequential OCT images obtained with 25 frames/s, it is found that the small artery makes a sharp response to sound stress for contraction and expansion while it continues pulsation in synchronization with the heartbeats. This result indicates that the small artery exhibits clearly the two physiological functions for blood flow and circulation. In response to sound stress, blood flow is controlled effectively by thickness change of the tunica media which consists of five to six layers of smooth muscles. It is thus found that the thickness of the tunica media changes remarkably in response to external stress, reflecting activity of the sympathetic nerve. The dynamic OCT of the small artery presented here will allow us not only to understand the mechanism of blood flow control and also to detect abnormal physiological functions in the whole vascular system.

  11. Different involvement of extracellular matrix components in small and large arteries during chronic NO synthase inhibition.

    Bouvet, Céline; Gilbert, Liz-Ann; Girardot, Daphné; deBlois, Denis; Moreau, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    In essential hypertension, conduit arteries present hypertrophic remodeling (increased cross-sectional area), whereas small arteries undergo eutrophic remodeling. The involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and de-adhesion proteins, such as tenascin-C and thrombospondin, has been relatively well characterized in large artery remodeling, but their contribution is not known in small artery remodeling. Rats received N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg per day) in their drinking water on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28. Arterial MMP-2 activity was measured by ELISA, whereas levels of tenascin-C and thrombospondin were assessed by Western blotting. To determine the involvement of MMPs, additional L-NAME rats received the nonselective MMP inhibitor doxycycline (30 mg/kg per day) on days 7, 14, and 28. Already, at day 1, pressure was elevated. Media/lumen ratio of mesenteric arteries and the aorta increased gradually to reach significance at 28 days. However, the cross-sectional area increased only in the aorta, confirming the heterogeneous remodeling process. In small arteries, MMP-2 activity increased after 7 and 14 days of treatment and returned to baseline at 28 days, whereas the elevation was more progressive but sustained in the aorta. The level of thrombospondin paralleled that of MMP-2 in small arteries, whereas tenascin-C levels declined rapidly and stayed below control values. Doxycycline blunted large artery remodeling but had no influence on the development of eutrophic remodeling despite elevation of MMP-2 activity in the process. Thus, in contrast to large artery hypertrophic remodeling, in which the contributions of cellular de-adhesion and matrix breakdown is manifest, the contribution of MMPs in eutrophic remodeling appears less crucial. PMID:15655118

  12. Embolization for Acute Small-Bowel Bleeding from the Collateral Artery of the Superior Mesenteric Left Deep Circumflex Iliac Artery Associated with Narrowing of the Bilateral Common External Iliac Arteries

    We present a case of acute small-bowel bleeding from the collateral artery of the superior mesenteric-left deep circumflex iliac artery that was successfully managed by transarterial coil embolization.

  13. Penile incerceration—A tight affair

    Faraj O. Alkizim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient presents with penile ring incarceration after using it for penile enlargement and prolonging tumescence. We present a case study of removal of the penile ring under local anaesthesia in a setting where cutting tools were inadequate.

  14. LARGE AND SMALL ARTERIAL ELASTICITY IN HEALTHY ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Anette S. Fjeldstad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare large and small arterial elasticity in apparently healthy sedentary and recreationally active adult women, and to examine if age affects large and small arterial elasticity. This cross-sectional study consisted of 43 premenopausal women without overt cardiovascular disease (age = 43.4 ± 4.7 yrs; mean ± SD. The subjects were grouped into a sedentary group or a leisurely active group (30 min, 3d wk of low intensity in addition to the following age groups: 35-40 years, n = 13; 41-45 years, n = 14; 46-54 years, n = 16. Subjects rested supine while pulse contour analysis was measured from the radial artery using an HDI/Pulsewave CR-2000 instrument (Hypertension Diagnostic, Inc. to examine arterial elasticity in the large and small arteries. Activity level and menopausal status was based on self-report. There were no differences in large (14.5 ± 1.0 ml/mmHg x 10; 14.9 ± 0.9 ml/mmHg x 10; mean ± SD and small (5.5 ± 0.5 ml/mmHg x 100; 6.4 ± 0.4 ml/mmHg x 100 arterial elasticity between the sedentary group and the recreationally active group, respectively. Large (12.8 ± 0.9 ml/mmHg x 10 arterial elasticity was lower in the oldest group (p = 0.008 compared to the youngest group (17.6 ± 5.9 ml/mmHg x 10. After adjusting for body mass index, large arterial elasticity (p = 0.022 remained lower in the oldest group. There was a trend for small arterial elasticity to be lower in the older group compared to the young group (p = 0.063. There was no difference in large and small arterial elasticity between healthy sedentary and recreationally active premenopausal women. This suggests that more strenuous physical activity may be necessary to gain beneficial effects on the vasculature. Large arterial elasticity is decreasing with advancing age independent of body mass index

  15. Quantification of penile "buckling" force.

    Hahn, P M; Leder, R

    1980-01-01

    A hand-held transducer was developed for measuring penile rigidity. This instrument gives a quantitative measure of the force at which the penis "buckles." The transducer consists of a cantilever beam with strain gages that is rugged, easy to calibrate, and adaptable to most graphic recorders. PMID:7466130

  16. Penile myiasis: a case report

    Passos, M; Barreto, N; Varella, R; Rodrigues, G; Lewis, D.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of penile myiasis in a Brazilian man caused by the larva of Dermatobia hominis. Myiasis is a parasitic disease of humans and other vertebrates caused by larvae of several fly species. Although urinary myiasis is well recognised, infestation of the genital tissue is a rare occurrence. Once the diagnosis has been made, the treatment is usually straightforward and uncomplicated.

  17. Phalloplasty: A panacea for 46,XY disorder of sex development conditions with penile deficiency?

    Callens, Nina; Hoebeke, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In cases of severe penile inadequacy, such as in pathological conditions involving penile amputation (e.g. penile cancer), or in 46,XY disorders of sex development with severe undervirilization or maldevelopment of the penis (e.g. idiopathic micropenis, cloacal exstrophy), standard (surgical) penile lengthening techniques do not provide patients with a phallus suitable for sexual intercourse. Genital dissatisfaction can lead to low self-esteem and psychosexual dysfunction. Therefore, phalloplasty, the gold standard in transgender surgery, may provide a possibility to achieve a satisfactory genital appearance and sexual function. Small series have reported cosmetically acceptable and erogenous sensate neophalli with incorporation of a neourethra to allow voiding in a standing position and with enough bulk to allow penile prosthesis insertion for pleasurable intercourse. Although early results seem promising, further publication of series with large numbers and longer follow-up is needed to evaluate to what extent phalloplasty improves physical and sexual outcomes. Complications are of particular concern because of associated scarring and loss of sensitive tissue. Without full preoperative workups assessing patients' expectations and reasons for undergoing surgery, they may still struggle with self/penile image and with psychological barriers for engaging in sexual activity. Recommendations for the psychosocial management of boys and men with penile deficiency are suggested. PMID:25247659

  18. AB006. Penile preserving and reconstructive surgery

    Burnett, Arthur L.

    2016-01-01

    Penile preserving and reconstructive surgery is applied in the management of the primary tumor in penile cancer as well as severe genital anomalies or loss. Its indications relate to preserving successful sexual relationships and retaining quality of life. For penile cancer, it is acknowledged that the historical “gold standard” of surgical amputation of the penis that results in penile disfigurement or emasculation should not be uniformly accepted. The option of organ-preserving treatment is possible when oncologically feasible. With penile preservation, the objective is to maintain penile length, appearance and sensation as well as urethral integrity. For the low-risk primary tumor in penile cancer, determinants of the treatment plan involve the pathological definition of the disease and discussion with the patient regarding preference based on informed counseling and understanding of comparative risks (oncologic efficacy versus morbidity). Innovative surgical options for penile preservation include wide local excision, glansectomy, and glans resurfacing. Surgical reconstructive techniques, as dictated by the extent of the penile defect, include primary closure, closure using skins flaps and grafts, penile lengthening and/or enhancement, and neophalloplasty.

  19. T-Stenting-and-Small-Protrusion Technique for Bifurcation Stenoses After End-to-Side Anastomosis of Transplant Renal Artery and External Iliac Artery: Report of Two Cases

    Chen, Yong, E-mail: cheny102@163.com; Ye, Peng, E-mail: thomas19871223@163.com [Southern Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital (China); Jiang, Wen-jin, E-mail: 18653501187@163.com [Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital (China); Ma, Shuo-yi, E-mail: mazelong123456789@126.com; Zhao, Jian-bo, E-mail: zhaojianbohgl@163.com; Zeng, Qing-le, E-mail: doctorzengqingle@126.com [Southern Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital (China)

    2015-10-15

    Bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery (TRA) and external iliac artery (EIA), including stenoses at the anastomosis and the iliac artery proximal to the TRA, are rare. In the present article, we report two successfully managed cases of bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of the TRA and EIA using the technique of T-stenting and small protrusion (TAP stenting)

  20. T-Stenting-and-Small-Protrusion Technique for Bifurcation Stenoses After End-to-Side Anastomosis of Transplant Renal Artery and External Iliac Artery: Report of Two Cases

    Bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery (TRA) and external iliac artery (EIA), including stenoses at the anastomosis and the iliac artery proximal to the TRA, are rare. In the present article, we report two successfully managed cases of bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of the TRA and EIA using the technique of T-stenting and small protrusion (TAP stenting)

  1. Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Small Coronary Arteries in Rats Exposed to Industrial Noise

    Lousinha, Ana; Antunes, Eduardo; Borrecho, Gonçalo; Oliveira, Maria João; Brito, José; Martins dos Santos, José

    2015-01-01

    Morphological changes induced by industrial noise (IN) have been experimentally observed in several organs. Histological observations of the coronary arteries showed prominent perivascular tissue and fibrosis among IN-exposed rats. The effects on the small arteries are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the histomorphometric changes induced by IN on rat heart small arteries. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats exposed to IN during a maximum period of seven months and 20 age-matched controls were studied. Hearts were transversely sectioned from ventricular apex to atria and a mid-ventricular fragment was selected for analysis. The histological images were obtained with an optical microscope using 400× magnifications. A total of 634 arterial vessels (298 IN-exposed and 336 controls) were selected. The mean lumen-to-vessel wall (L/W) and mean vessel wall-to-perivascular tissue (W/P) ratios were calculated using image J software. Results: There were no differences between exposed and control animals in their L/W ratios (p = 0.687) and time variations in this ratio were non-significant (p = 0.110). In contrast, exposed animals showed lower W/P ratios than control animals (p < 0.001), with significant time variations (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Industrial noise induced an increase in the perivascular tissue of rat small coronary arteries, with significant development of periarterial fibrosis. PMID:25946344

  2. Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Small Coronary Arteries in Rats Exposed to Industrial Noise

    Ana Lousinha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological changes induced by industrial noise (IN have been experimentally observed in several organs. Histological observations of the coronary arteries showed prominent perivascular tissue and fibrosis among IN-exposed rats. The effects on the small arteries are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the histomorphometric changes induced by IN on rat heart small arteries. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats exposed to IN during a maximum period of seven months and 20 age-matched controls were studied. Hearts were transversely sectioned from ventricular apex to atria and a mid-ventricular fragment was selected for analysis. The histological images were obtained with an optical microscope using 400× magnifications. A total of 634 arterial vessels (298 IN-exposed and 336 controls were selected. The mean lumen-to-vessel wall (L/W and mean vessel wall-to-perivascular tissue (W/P ratios were calculated using image J software. Results: There were no differences between exposed and control animals in their L/W ratios (p = 0.687 and time variations in this ratio were non-significant (p = 0.110. In contrast, exposed animals showed lower W/P ratios than control animals (p < 0.001, with significant time variations (p = 0.004. Conclusions: Industrial noise induced an increase in the perivascular tissue of rat small coronary arteries, with significant development of periarterial fibrosis.

  3. Signs, symptoms and treatment of penile fracture.

    Bhoil, Rohit; Sood, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    Penile fracture is an uncommon injury and requires urgent treatment, therefore emergency nurses should be aware of the signs and symptoms and understand the importance of immediate surgical referral. This article describes the anatomy and physiology of penile erection and the ways in which penile fracture can occur. It also outlines the management of patients and includes a case study of a fracture caused by vigorous masturbation. PMID:26451939

  4. Secondary penile carcinoma originated from pancreas.

    Ahn, T. Y.; Choi, E H; Kim, K S

    1997-01-01

    Secondary penile cancers are rarely seen and most of them are originated from genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract. But metastatic penile cancer originated from pancreas are extremely rare and two cases have been reported in the literature, only one of them was pathological proven in autopsy. We report a case of secondary penile carcinoma originated from the pancreas as the primary site which was pathologically proven.

  5. New insights into the control of small artery function in human pregnancy and estrogen receptor beta knockout mice

    Luksha, Leanid

    2007-01-01

    Background: Available data clearly indicates functional and morphological differences between small and large arteries, and observations from studies on large arteries may not be applicable to understand the physiology of small arteries (~200-300mum) that actively participate in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance, blood pressure and flow to target organs. These events confer cardiovascular adaptation to normal pregnancy (NP), however they are disturbed in preec...

  6. Effects of weight loss on structural and functional alterations of subcutaneous small arteries in obese patients.

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Corbellini, Claudia; La Boria, Elisa; Boari, Gianluca E M; Pilu, Annamaria; Mittempergher, Francesco; Di Betta, Ernesto; Casella, Claudio; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Rosei, Claudia Agabiti; Ruggeri, Giuseppina; Caimi, Luigi; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2011-07-01

    Structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, as indicated by an increased media:lumen ratio, are frequently present in hypertensive and/or diabetic patients and may represent the earliest alteration observed. In addition, media:lumen ratios of small arteries have a strong prognostic significance. However, no data are available about the structure of small resistance arteries of obese patients, particularly after weight loss. We have investigated 27 patients with severe obesity. Twelve of them were normotensive, and 15 were hypertensive. All of the obese patients underwent bariatric surgery. We compared results obtained with those observed in 13 normotensive lean controls and in 13 hypertensive lean patients. All of the subjects and patients underwent a biopsy of subcutaneous fat during surgical intervention. In 8 obese patients, a second biopsy was obtained after consistent weight loss, during a surgical intervention for abdominoplasty. Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and structural parameters were measured. A concentration-response curve to acetylcholine was performed to evaluate endothelial function. Obese patients, independent from the presence of hypertension, show the presence of an increased media:lumen ratio and media cross-sectional area, together with an impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. After surgical correction of obesity and consistent weight loss, a significant improvement of microvascular structure and of some oxidative stress/inflammation markers were observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that the presence of obesity is associated with structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, mainly characterized by hypertrophic remodeling. Weight loss may improve microvascular structure. PMID:21555677

  7. AB155. High-throughput sequencing of small RNA component of penile in a post-radical prostatectomy model of erectile dysfunction

    Ruan, Yajun; Luan, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Hao; Li, Rui; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Tao; Liu, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The introduction of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy represents a milestone in the treatment of prostate cancer. However, a certain percentage of cancer survivors still suffer from erectile dysfunction. Recent research has stated that using PDE 5-inhibitors after radical prostatectomy may lead to biochemical recurrence. This study was performed to identify the expression profile of small RNA in rats with neurogenic erectile dysfunction, and to investigate possible genes and signaling pathways involving in the disease. Methods Neurogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) was induced in male rats by bilateral cavernous nerve crushing injury (BCNI). After 28 days, RNA was isolated from the corpus cavernosum (CC) of both control rats and neurogenic ED rats. Small RNA sequencing was conducted using an Illumina Hiseq 2500/2000 platform. Candidate small RNAs were validated by rael-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Intracavernous pressure (ICP) was significantly decreased in BCNI group compared with SHAM group. Real time PCR validated that miR-9a-5p, miR-203a-5p, miR-378a-3p and miR-3557-5p were upregulated, and meanwhile miR-3084a-3p was downregulated. Conclusion Small RNA, including microRNA, may play an important role in the regulation of genes in CC and some certain miRs may participate in post-prostatectomy ED. Further studies will be designed to investigate the specific mechanisms of these changes.

  8. Anaphylaxis of small arteries: putative role of nitric oxide and prostanoids.

    Laukeviciene, Ale; Ugincius, Paulius; Korotkich, Igor; Lazauskas, Robertas; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated possible implication of nitric oxide and prostanoids in anaphylactic reaction in small mesenteric and coronary arteries. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Isolated arteries from guinea pigs, sensitized with 0.5 mL of horse serum or sham-sensitized, were challenged with 1% of horse serum in vitro. Contractile responses of arteries (normalized diameter, 350-450 microm) were recorded by a small blood vessel wire myograph. For inhibition of the release of NO or prostanoids, vessels were pretreated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (30 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM), respectively. RESULTS. Antigen challenge was followed by contraction of both coronary and mesenteric vessels. Two patterns of contraction were observed: 1) peak contraction - an immediate transient contraction of relatively high amplitude; this was the most common pattern; 2) biphasic: the initial peak contraction was followed by a slow growing contraction with low amplitude. Biphasic pattern was observed in 60% of the mesenteric vessels and 40% of the coronary vessels. Inhibition of NO synthase significantly increased the peak contraction in the coronary vessels and the second-phase contraction in the mesenteric vessels. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase caused a decrease in the peak and second-phase contraction of both the coronary and mesenteric vessels. CONCLUSIONS. Despite anaphylactic contraction, nitric oxide seems to be released from the endothelium following antigen challenge in the small coronary and mesenteric arteries. This may contribute to the development of hypotension during anaphylaxis. Prostanoids are playing a different role - the contracting products of cyclooxygenase pathway are important for the development of anaphylactic contraction of the small isolated arteries. PMID:20234162

  9. Melanocortin Receptors, Melanotropic Peptides and Penile Erection

    King, Stephen H.; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Balse-Srinivasan, Preeti; HRUBY, VICTOR J.; Todd W. Vanderah; Wessells, Hunter

    2007-01-01

    Penile erection is a complex physiologic event resulting from the interactions of the nervous system on a highly specialized vascular organ. Activation of central nervous system melanocortinergic (MC) receptors with either endogenous or synthetic melanotropic ligands may initiate and/or facilitate spontaneous penile erection.

  10. Comparison of penile brachial index and penile arteriography

    Thirty patients complaining of erectile dysfunction were evaluated by measurement of the penile brachial index and arteriography. The PBIs were measured in five healthy controls. Half of the patients were studied in a vascular laboratory and the other half in a radiology-urology erectile dysfunction clinic. A poor correlation was found between PBI and arteriographic findings. No statistical difference was observed between the correlation coefficients for the two laboratory sites. Factors responsible for accurate and inaccurate assessments are discussed, and the process by which PBI measurements are obtained and their relationship to the physiology of erections is explained

  11. [Prosthetic implants for penile induration].

    Zanollo, A; Beretta, G; Zanollo, L; Spinelli, M

    1990-09-01

    From 1982 to 1988 we have evaluated 283 patients affected by Peyronie's disease. 81 of these complained erectile disfunction. Semirigid penile prosthesis were inserted in 38 patients with severe induratio penis plastica. Following surgery the patients were given a sexual questionnaire in order to determine whether they had realised their expectations as well as partner acceptance. Our results appear to be favourable and prosthesis insertion in selected patients with Peronie's disease seems to be the safest, most economical and best accepted choice. PMID:2148022

  12. Implantation of AMS 700 LGX penile prosthesis preserves penile length without the need for penile lengthening procedures

    Carlo Luigi Augusto Negro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP is a well-established definitive solution for erectile dysfunction when conservative treatments fail. Penile implants may shorten the penis. The AMS 700 LGX IPP is in common use but reports on its mechanical reliability, medium-term postsurgical patient satisfaction, and mean penile length preservation are lacking. We investigate the mean penile length, mechanical reliability, and patient satisfaction at 6 and 12 months after implantation of the AMS 700 LGX. This prospective study consecutively enrolled men undergoing first-time IPP implant surgery from February 2009 to April 2012. Stretched flaccid penile length, penile length at 50% and 100% of stiffness (P50 and P100 and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS scores, were measured at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Of 45 patients who underwent AMS 700 LGX implantation (median age 61 years and completed 6 months′ follow-up, 36 (80% completed the study. A significant difference in stretched flaccid penile length was seen between 6 and 12 months (P = 0.033. P100 was also significantly increased at 6 and 12 months, with a mean 10% increase (1.3 ± 0.4 cm from baseline to 12 months. Differences in mean IIEF scores at 6 and 12 months were significant for the desired domain (P = 0.0001 and for overall satisfaction (P = 0.002; however, mean EDITS scores at 6 and 12 months were not significantly improved. AMS 700 LGX is a powerful tool for preserving penile length in men undergoing penile prosthesis implantation.

  13. A free boundary problem for steady small plaques in the artery and their stability

    Friedman, Avner; Hao, Wenrui; Hu, Bei

    2015-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide; it originates from a plaque which builds up in the artery. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of plaque growth involving LDL and HDL cholesterols, macrophages and foam cells, which satisfy a coupled system of PDEs with a free boundary, the interface between the plaque and the blood flow. We prove that there exist small radially symmetric stationary plaques and establish a sharp condition that ensures their stability. We also determine necessary and sufficient conditions under which a small initial plaque will shrink and disappear, or persist for all times.

  14. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy.

    Cohen, David Jacques; Glina, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the main and most frequent side effect after radical prostatectomy. Also, ED is the primary impact factor for quality of life after radical prostatectomy. ED post radical prostatectomy is mainly due to lesions in the neurovascular bundles which can occur by partial or total sectioning, by stretching (the most common), or by thermal lesion of the nervous fibers, leading to a condition called "neuropraxia". The term penile rehabilitation (PR) after prostatectomy has been defined as any intervention with the intent of reestablishing preoperative erectile function and includes the isolated or combined use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), intracavernous injection, vacuum erectile device therapy, and use of intraurethral drugs. The use of intracavernous drugs, of intraurethral prostaglandin and the use of vacuum therapy have a poorly defined role regarding postoperative penile rehabilitation and must be better investigated through further studies. The use of PDE5i as PR is strongly supported by experimental research, but most clinical trials found controversial results. PMID:25642716

  15. Penile cavernous hemangioma

    Abdelmoughit ECHCHAOUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign lesions that occur in any part of the body in newborns or in young patients, they are typically capillary or cavernous. Cavernous hemangioma of the penis is extremely rare; and its etiology is not completely understood. Treatment options (surgical excision, laser therapy or sclerotherapy… are controversial and are required if pain, cosmetic defect and/or bleeding during intercourse.                                                  We report a case of a 26 years old man presented with a five years history of a painless lesion on his penis. Physical examination showed an ovoid, solid, 1 x 2 mm in size on the dorsum of penis (Panel A and two elevated irregular lesions on the ventral side (Panel B. The lesions were compressive, nonpulsatile and bluish-red in color with strawberry like appearance. Biopsy and histopathological examination of the lesion revealed a gaping and communicating vessels proliferated in the superficial and medium dermis which is pathognomonic for cavernous hemangioma (Panel C and D. Given the small size, the large number of the lesions, the young age, and the ulceration risk during intercourse if skin graft after excision, Neodymium: YAG laser coagulation was recommended to get a good cosmetic results and sexual function satisfaction.

  16. Penile paraffinoma and ulcers of penis.

    Bobik, O; Bobik, O

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a case of 33 year old Caucasian married man with an irregular 6 cm penile mass associated with multiple penile ulcers. He reluctantly admitted that 10 years ago he had multiple mineral oil (Vaseline) self injections into the penis, for penile enlargement purposes. The patient had a surgical intervention 10 years ago, but he has recurrent ulcers on his penis. We have administered an intravenous antibiotic therapy combined with local therapy. The term paraffinoma describes a distinct histopathological finding that results from the injection of foreign oily substances into the skin. Although such procedure may be considered rare, they are still performed in some countries. The major point we want emphasis is following: a lot of people seek penile augmentations, it is necessary to remind physicians and the public that nonscientific and inadequate procedure such as Vaseline may lead to debilitating and destructive consequences (Tab. 1, Ref. 12). PMID:22180996

  17. Penile extramedullary plasmacytoma in a dog.

    Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Dong Hoo; Choi, Ul Soo

    2010-12-01

    Penile tumours are rare in dogs. Reported herein is a case of a penile extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) in a 5-year-old male cocker spaniel that was brought to a local hospital for an evaluation of a penile mass. The mass was approximately 1.3 cm in diameter at the time of presentation. In fine needle aspiration and histopathological examinations, the neoplastic cells showed eccentric round nuclei, a moderate amount of basophilic cytoplasm, and a peri-nuclear clear zone, consistent with plasma cell morphology. There was nuclear pleomorphism with mononuclear giant cells and occasional bi-nucleation. Round cells on the periphery of the mass demonstrated plasmacytic differentiation. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells stained positive for MUM1 and light lambda chain. Based on the cytological and pathological observations, a diagnosis of penile EMP was established. PMID:19919625

  18. Penile gangrene in diabetes mellitus with renal failure: A poor prognostic sign of systemic vascular calciphylaxis

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Singh, Shrawan K.; Mandal, Arup K

    2007-01-01

    Penile gangrene associated with chronic renal failure is very uncommon. A 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, diffuse atherosclerosis, ischemic cardiomyopathy and end-stage renal disease presented with blackening of distal penis for 10 days. His general condition was poor and gangrene of prepuce and glans was noted. Doppler and magnetic-resonance angiography revealed bilateral internal iliac artery obstruction. He underwent trocar suprapubic cystostomy and was planned for partial penectom...

  19. Angiographic Evaluation of Carotid Artery Grafting with Prefabricated Small-Diameter, Small-Intestinal Submucosa Grafts in Sheep

    The purpose of this study was to report the longitudinal angiographic evaluation of prefabricated lyophilized small-intestinal submucosa (SIS) grafts placed in ovine carotid arteries and to demonstrate a variety of complications that developed. A total of 24 grafts, 10 cm long and 6 mm in diameter, were placed surgically as interposition grafts. Graft patency at 1 week was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, and angiography was used for follow-up at 1 month and at 3 to 4 months. A 90% patency rate was found at 1 week, 65% at 1 month, and 30% at 3 to 4 months. On the patent grafts, angiography demonstrated a variety of changes, such as anastomotic stenoses, graft diffuse dilations and dissections, and aneurysm formation. These findings have not been previously demonstrated angiographically by other investigators reporting results with small-diameter vessel grafts made from fresh small-intestinal submucosa (SIS). The complications found were partially related to the graft construction from four SIS layers. Detailed longitudinal angiographic study should become an essential part of any future evaluation of small-vessel SIS grafting.

  20. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population. PMID:17568760

  1. AB027. Penile augmentation: informed text briefing

    Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The men’s desire to have larger and longer penis have created endless medical demands throughout human history. Until up to date, various medical skills for penile augmentation have developed in aspect of experimental and clinical outcome. Recently with throwing away socially unacceptable ideas, the need for penile augmentation is considered as equivalent level with mammoplasty for breast augmentation in women for cosmetic and psychological reason. Concurrently advanced technologies in medical material and tissue engineering provide a variety of options to features functional plastic surgery as well as defected tissue compensation procedures. This creative description works accordingly presents state of art knowledge on the penile augmentation with more than 100 full-colored helpful illustrations clarifying penile surgical anatomy, operative procedures by experienced surgeon from the traditional fat transfer to the penile disassembly technique, the newest tissue engineering techniques by researchers with valuable data of world top level, auxiliary medical devices, and how to reconstruct for damaged penis by a quack or accident. Obviously this text book will be a great guidebook in clinical practice for all who are involved or interested in the penile augmentation procedure.

  2. Left anterior small thoracotomy for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Reser, Diana; Holubec, Tomas; Caliskan, Etem; Guidotti, Andrea; Maisano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990 s, minimally invasive cardiac surgery has gained wide acceptance due to patient and economic demand. The advantages are less trauma, bleeding, wound infections, pain and faster recovery. Many studies showed that the outcomes are comparable with those of conventional sternotomy. Left anterior small thoracotomy (LAST) evolved into a routine and safe access in specialized centres for minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting. The 6-cm incision is localized above the fourth intercostal space, 3-4 cm lateral to the left sternal border and below the left mammilla. With a double-lumen tube, the left lung is deflated before entering the pleural space. The left internal mammary artery is harvested under direct vision with the use of special retractors. The anastomosis of the left anterior descending artery is performed on the beating heart as known from off-pump surgery. One chest tube is inserted. The intercostal space is closed with braided sutures to prevent lung herniation. Ropivacaine is used for local infiltration. The pectoral muscle, subcutaneous tissue and skin are closed with running sutures. Complications of the LAST approach are rare (conversion to sternotomy, re-thoracotomy, phrenic nerve palsy, wound infection and thoracic wall hernia) and well manageable. PMID:26420246

  3. Evidence for two P2-purinoceptor subtypes in human small pulmonary arteries.

    Liu, S.F.; McCormack, D G; Evans, T. W.; BARNES, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    1. P2-purinoceptors have not been characterized in human pulmonary vessels and we therefore examined the effects of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and its analogues on human isolated small pulmonary arteries (SPA) in vitro. 2. Contractile responses were induced by all of the analogues, with the rank order of potency alpha,beta-methylene-ATP (alpha,beta-meATP) = beta,gamma-methylene-ATP (beta,gamma-meATP) greater than ATP greater than 2-methylthio-ATP, indicating the presence of vasoconstrict...

  4. Surgical or conservative treatment of penile fracture

    Đorđević D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penile fracture presents with rupture of corpora cavernosa. It is not rare but is remarkable. Treatment options are controversial. Aim: To establish the incidence, what are early and late complications in patients treated surgically or with conservative treatment options (prospective/retrospective and randomized analysis. To find out what therapy verified as superior. Material and method: The total of 32 patients with typical acute penile fracture were analyzed. The patients were between 20 and 56 years of age (Mean age 40+7.25 SD. A total of 11 patients that presented up to 48h after the rupture of tunica albuginea (34.37% were operated, while 9 patients (28.13% were conservatively treated. 12 patients (37.5% reported to andrology consulting room due to penile fibrous alterations and/or erectile dysfunction 6 to 14 months after the anamnesticaly established, typical penile fracture ("primary latent penile fracture". Both groups of patients were strictly clinically followed 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the penile fracture. Eventual development of late complications (erectile dysfunction ED, penile curvature, induratio, caverno-urethral fistula and urethral stenosis was also recorded. Etiology of ED was investigated: anamnesticaly, by hormone and laboratory analysis, using penodynamic test (PGE1, Duplex Doppler echosonography, and dynamic cavernosography. Results: In the operated group of patients, (11 pts, 34.37% preserved erectile capacity was recorded and no penile deformity or plaque lesions on the site of suture, after the patients were recommended to have 4 weeks of sexual abstinence. The rupture of tunica albuginea was always transversal in relation to penile axis i.e. in relation to axial force against which the penis acts during the intercourse. The rupture is always on the basis or mid penile portion . Out of 21 (65.63% conservatively treated patients in 13 (61.9% plaque lesions (longitudinal diameter 2 cm was recorded, while sexual dysfunction was established in 13 patients (12 with ED and 1 patient with incapability for vaginal penetration. Evaluation of post therapeutical complications in relation to type of treatment, significantly higher frequency was recorded in the group of conservatively treated patients (p<0.01. Penile veno-oclusive dysfunction was registrated as significantly most frequent cause of ED (in 10 - 76.92% out of 13 patients. All patients with ED had palpable fibrous lesion similar to Peyrone’s plaque, while the degree of penile deviation correlated to the size of plaque lesion. Conclusion: The late complications of penile fracture were significantly more frequently recorded in the group of conservative treated patients (p< 0.01 which proves that this lesion presents as urgent urological entity. The penile rupture is always transversal, and most probable place of rupture is physiological penile curve since this is the site of weakened structural integrity.

  5. Long-Term Results of Combined Tunica Albuginea Plication and Penile Prosthesis Implantation for Severe Penile Curvature and Erectile Dysfunction

    Massenio, Paolo; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Mancini, Vito; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation is the recommended treatment in patients with penile curvature and severe erectile dysfunction (ED) not responding to pharmacotherapy. Most patients with mild-to-moderate curvature can expect cylinder insertion to correct both ED and penile curvature. In patients with severe curvature and in those with persistent curvature after corporeal dilation and prosthesis placement, intraoperative penile “modelling” over the inflated prosthesis has been introduced as an effective treatment. We report for the first time the long-term results of a patient treated with combined penile plication and placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis. PMID:24790766

  6. Axial penile rigidity influences patient and partner satisfaction after penile prosthesis implantation

    Abdulla Al Ansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penile prosthesis implantation is one of the treatment choices that is kept for patients who were not satisfied with other treatments. Although penile prosthesis satisfaction rates are higher, there are some dissatisfied patients. The patients’ reasons are mostly shortness and softness of implanted prosthesis. It was previously demonstrated that penile axial rigidity of more than 500 grams is enough for successful vaginal intromission. To our knowledge, there is no study comparing axial rigidity of penile prosthesis and satisfaction. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether axial rigidity of penile prosthesis had impact on patient and partner satisfaction. Materials and Methods: We enrolled one hundred patients who were implanted penile prosthesis before to evaluate their penile axial rigidity. We used Rigidometry (by using the digital inflection rigidometer to assess the minimal axial pressure to bend the implanted penis. Results: We demonstrated that mean axial pressure to bend the implanted penis was 984.8 ± 268.7 grams. Overall satisfaction score with the penile prosthesis implant was 4.55 and 4.49 (out of 5 in patients and partners, respectively. In total, seven men were unsatisfied with their implant and reported a mean satisfaction score of 0.6 ± 0.48 (out of 5. All prostheses types showed good and more than 500 grams axial rigidity. The patients with Ambicor type, which were buckled at about 710.5 grams, showed worse satisfaction rates in comparison to other prostheses in two patients. Digital inflection rigidometer results of other penile prosthesis types in unsatisfied patient were 842.0, 872.0, 887.0 and 920 g. in CX700, Titan, Genesis and Titan OTR, respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrated that dissatisfaction rate was highest in Ambicor prosthesis implanted patients. Additionally, patients with 3-piece penile prosthesis were more satisfied than 2-piece or malleable ones, interestingly, although some cases had lower axial rigidity results.

  7. Hydrostatic Pressure Independently Increases Elastin and Collagen Co-expression in Small-diameter Engineered Arterial Constructs

    Crapo, Peter M.; Wang, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix production increase with hydrostatic pressure in vitro. We have engineered highly compliant small-diameter arterial constructs by culturing primary adult arterial SMCs under pulsatile perfusion on tubular, porous, elastomeric scaffolds composed of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS). This study investigates the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the biological and mechanical properties of...

  8. Successful Replantation of Amputated Penile Shaft following Industrial Injury

    A Ariafar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Penile amputation is an uncommon urological emergency. Although rare, traumatic amputation of penis is a challenging injury to treat. However, modern microsurgical reconstruction techniques have improved success rate of penile replantation and become the procedure of choice for managing these patients. Herein, we report on a case of penile amputation following an industrial accident.

  9. 21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in...

  10. Priapism secondary to penile metastasis of rectal cancer

    Ji Chan Park, Wook Hyun Lee, Min Kyu Kang, Suk Young Park

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic penile carcinoma is rare and usually originates from genitourinary tumors. The presenting symptoms or signs have been described as nonspecific except for priapism. Rectal adenocarcinoma is a very unusual source of metastatic penile carcinoma. We report a case of metastatic penile carcinoma that originated from the rectum. Symptomatic improvement occurred with palliative radiotherapy.

  11. Long-Term Results of Combined Tunica Albuginea Plication and Penile Prosthesis Implantation for Severe Penile Curvature and Erectile Dysfunction

    Luigi Cormio; Paolo Massenio; Giuseppe Di Fino; Giuseppe Lucarelli; Vito Mancini; Giuseppe Liuzzi; Giuseppe Carrieri

    2014-01-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation is the recommended treatment in patients with penile curvature and severe erectile dysfunction (ED) not responding to pharmacotherapy. Most patients with mild-to-moderate curvature can expect cylinder insertion to correct both ED and penile curvature. In patients with severe curvature and in those with persistent curvature after corporeal dilation and prosthesis placement, intraoperative penile “modelling” over the inflated prosthesis has been introduced as an e...

  12. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of sexual functions and sexual behaviors after penile brachytherapy in men treated for penile carcinoma

    Soh, Patrice Njomnang; Delaunay, Boris; Nasr, Elie Bou; Delannes, Martine; Soulie, Michel; Huyghe, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess sexual functions and behaviors of men treated by penile brachytherapy for a cancer of the penis. Materials and methods Thirty eight men (19 patients treated by penile brachytherapy for a cancer of the penis and 19 age paired-matched controls) participated in a survey about sexuality. The mean age of patients and controls were 73.2 +/- 11.7 and 70.0 +/- 10.5 years, respectively (NS). Controls were men without penile pathology, without history of cancer and no evidence of cogn...

  14. Update in the management of penile cancer

    Jorge R. Caso

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The management of penile cancer has evolved as less invasive techniques are applied in the treatment of the primary tumor and inguinal lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Herein we review the literature focusing on advances in the preservation of the phallus as well as less morbid procedures to evaluate and treat the groins. Results: Promising imaging modalities for staging are discussed. New techniques are described and tables provided for penile preservation. We also review the contemporary morbidity of modified surgical forms for evaluation of the inguinal nodes. Conclusions: Advances in surgical technique have made phallic preservation possible in a greater number of primary penile cancers. The groins can be evaluated for metastasis with greater accuracy through new radiologic means as well as with less morbid modified surgical techniques.

  15. Bilateral multicystic renal dysplasia with potter sequence: A case with penile agenesis

    Hereditary renal adysplasia (HRA) is rare autosomal dominant condition. Patients have several other anomalies including Potter facies, thoracic, cardiac, and extremity deformities. The case present dysmorphic facial features such as hypertelorism, prominent epicanthic folds, a flat and broad nose, choanal stenosis, low set ears and a receding chin. He had femoral bowing, hypoplastic right tibia and agenesis of the right foot. He had rich and thin skin. He had also a dysplastic empty scrotum, penile agenesis, and anal atresia. The autopsy revealed pulmonary hypoplasia, ventricular septal defect, bilateral multicystic renal dysplasia, agenesis of ureter and bladder, intraabdominal testicles, and a single umbilical artery. The penile agenesis was first reported, and including the consanguinity in the parents might further delineate the bilateral multicystic HRA. Vater/caudal regression anomalies, Mullerian duct/aplasia, unilateral renal agenesis, and cervicothoracic somite anomalies association and Coloboma, heart anomaly, choanal atresia, retardation, retardation, genital and ear anomalies syndrome has been considered in differential diagnosis. (author)

  16. Auto-Penectomy: A Devastating Complication of Advanced, Neglected Penile Carcinoma: Autopenectomy due to penile carcinoma

    Kumar, Arvind; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Satya N.

    2013-01-01

    Auto-penectomy is a rare consequence of penile carcinoma (PC). Two men, 65 and 74 years of age, presented with total penile loss secondary to PC. Due to poor hygiene and negligence, the ulcer was infected with maggots. The management was by local debridement and suprapubic cystostomy. No further treatment was done as the patients did not come for follow-up.

  17. Clinical application of radiofrequency ablation combined with bronchial artery infusion of docetaxel in treating non-small cell lung cancer

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application of radiofrequency ablation combined with bronchial artery infusion of docetaxel in treating non-small cell lung cancer and to summarize the experience of using this therapy in clinical practice. Methods: Radiofrequency ablation was performed in twenty-one patients with lung cancer. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy or bronchoscopic biopsy in all patients. One week after radiofrequency ablation treatment, bronchial artery infusion of docetaxel was conducted. The therapeutic results were observed and evaluated. Results: After the treatment, the lesion's size was markedly reduced and the clinical symptoms were dramatically improved in all patients. Conclusion: Radiofrequency ablation combined with bronchial artery infusion of docetaxel is a safe, effective and simple technique with excellent therapeutic results for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. It is really worth popularizing this technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  18. KATP-channel-induced vasodilation is modulated by the Na,K-pump activity in rabbit coronary small arteries

    Glavind-Kristensen, Marianne; Matchkov, Vladimir; Hansen, Vibeke Brogaard; Forman, Axel; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the importance of the Na,K-pump in relaxations induced by K(ATP)-channel openers in rabbit coronary small arteries. Arterial segments were mounted in myographs for recording of isometric tension. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to assess K(ATP)-channel cur......The purpose of the study was to evaluate the importance of the Na,K-pump in relaxations induced by K(ATP)-channel openers in rabbit coronary small arteries. Arterial segments were mounted in myographs for recording of isometric tension. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to assess K...... relaxant effect. In arteries preconstricted with U46619 pinacidil-induced relaxations were unaffected by pretreatment with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and only slightly reduced after mechanical removal of the endothelium. Pinacidil induced relaxations were not significantly affected by 1 micro......M glibenclamide. However, the relaxations were partly inhibited in potassium-free media and by 1 microM ouabain. In contrast, the concentration-dependent relaxation to cromakalim was partly blocked by 1 microM glibenclamide and partly by 1 microM ouabain and when both drugs were present the inhibition increased...

  19. Aging Reduces L-Type Calcium Channel Current and the Vasodilatory Response of Small Mesenteric Arteries to Calcium Channel Blockers

    Albarwani, Sulayma A.; Mansour, Fathi; Khan, Abdul Aleem; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Al-Kaabi, Abdulla; Al-Busaidi, Al-Manar; Al-Hadhrami, Safa; Al-Husseini, Isehaq; Al-Siyabi, Sultan; Tanira, Musbah O.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension. As aging is an independent risk factor for CVD, the use of CCBs increases with increasing age. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of aging on the sensitivity of small mesenteric arteries to L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LTCC) blockers and also to investigate whether there was a concomitant change in calcium current density. Third order mesenteric arteries from male F344 rats, aged 2.5–3 months (young) and 22–26 months (old) were mounted on wire myograph to measure the tension during isometric contraction. Arteries were contracted with 100 mM KCl and were then relaxed in a cumulative concentration-response dependent manner with nifedipine (0.1 nM–1 μM), verapamil (0.1 nM–10 μM), or diltiazem (0.1 nM–10 μM). Relaxation-concentration response curves produced by cumulative concentrations of three different CCBs in arteries of old rats were shifted to the right with statistically significant IC50s. pIC50 ± s.e.m: (8.37 ± 0.06 vs. 8.04 ± 0.05, 7.40 ± 0.07 vs. 6.81 ± 0.04, and 6.58 ± 0.07 vs. 6.34 ± 0.06) in young vs. old. It was observed that the maximal contractions induced by phenylephrine and reversed by sodium nitroprusside were not different between young and old groups. However, Bay K 8644 (1 μM) increased resting tension by 23 ± 4.8% in young arteries and 4.7 ± 1.6% in old arteries. LTCC current density were also significantly lower in old arteries (−2.77 ± 0.45 pA/pF) compared to young arteries (−4.5 ± 0.40 pA/pF); with similar steady-state activation and inactivation curves. Parallel to this reduction, the expression of Cav1.2 protein was reduced by 57 ± 5% in arteries from old rats compared to those from young rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that aging reduces the response of small mesenteric arteries to the vasodilatory effect of the CCBs and this may be due to, at least in part, reduced current density of LTCC.

  20. Rupture of a small middle cerebral artery aneurysm into middle fossa arachnoid cyst presenting as a chronic subdural haematoma.

    Kocaeli, H; Korfali, E

    2008-04-01

    The rupture of an aneurysm into an arachnoid cyst and subdural space is unusual. A 25-year-old man was admitted 2 weeks after having undergone a burr hole drainage for a chronic subdural haematoma elsewhere. An angiogram revealed a small aneurysm at the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. The aneurysm was clipped and the cyst communicated with the basal cisterns. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an association of an aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery with an arachnoid cyst presenting as a chronic subdural haematoma. PMID:18311525

  1. Clinical observation of trans-artery infusion chemotherapy with carboplatin or cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of trans-artery infusion chemotherapy with carboplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Fifty-two patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer pathologically confirmed were treated by trans-artery chemotherapy. They were divided into Carbo group and CDDP group according to anti-cancer drug. The effectiveness of treatment and complication were observed respectively, χ2 test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: There were 27 patients in Carbo group and 25 in CDDP group. In Carbo group, 15 had partial remission (PR), 8 were stable (S) and progression (P) was observed in 4. A responsive rate of 55.6% was obtained. In CDDP group, 15 cases showed rumor partial remission (PR), 7 were stable (S) and 3 were progression (P). The responsive rate was 60%. There was no statistical significance between them (P>0.05). There was no statistical significance in incidence rate of myelosuppression, nausea and vomiting between Carbo group and CDDP group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Compared with CD- DP, trans-artery infusion chemotherapy with Carbo has no better therapeutic effect and no less adverse effects. We maintain CDDP as anti-cancer drag when we perform arterial infusion chemotherapy of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. (authors)

  2. Histamine-dependent prolongation by aldosterone of vasoconstriction in isolated small mesenteric arteries of the mouse

    Schjerning, Jeppe; Uhrenholt, Torben R; Svenningsen, Per; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Skott, Ole; Jensen, Boye L; Hansen, Pernille B L

    2013-01-01

    recovery in arteries from wild type mice and the SNP-mediated dilatation in arteries from eNOS(-/-) mice was inhibited by the histamine H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine. RT-PCR showed expression of mast cell markers in mouse mesenteric arteries. The adventitia displayed granular cells positive for...... aldosterone inhibits recovery by stimulation of histamine release from mast cells along mesenteric arteries. The resulting activation of H2 receptors decreases the sensitivity to NO of vascular smooth muscle cells. Aldosterone may chronically affect vascular function through paracrine release of histamine....

  3. New stent design for use in small coronary arteries during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Juan F Granada

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan F Granada1, Barbara A Huibregtse2, Keith D Dawkins21The Jack H Skirball Center for Cardiovascular Research, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA, USAAbstract: Patients with diabetes mellitus, of female gender, increased age, and/or with peripheral vascular disease often develop coronary stenoses in small caliber vessels. This review describes treatment of these lesions with the paclitaxel-eluting 2.25 mm TAXUS Libert Atom stent. Given the same stent composition, polymer, antirestenotic drug (paclitaxel, and release kinetics as the first-generation 2.25 mm TAXUS Express Atom stent, the second-generation TAXUS Libert Atom stent incorporates improved stent design characteristics, including thinner struts (0.0038 versus 0.0052 inches, intended to increase conformability and deliverability. In a porcine noninjured coronary artery model, TAXUS Libert Atom stent implantation in small vessels demonstrated complete strut tissue coverage compared with the bare metal stent control, suggesting a similar degree of tissue healing between the groups at 30, 90, and 180 days. The prospective, single-armed TAXUS ATLAS Small Vessel trial demonstrated improved instent late loss (0.28 0.45 versus 0.84 0.57 mm, P < 0.001, instent binary restenosis (13.0% versus 38.1%, P < 0.001, and target lesion revascularization (5.8% versus 17.6%, P < 0.001 at nine months with the TAXUS Libert Atom stent as compared with the bare metal Express stent control, with similar safety measures between the two groups. The TAXUS Libert Atom also significantly reduced nine-month angiographic rates of both instent late loss (0.28 0.45 versus 0.44 0.61 mm, P = 0.03 and instent binary restenosis (13.0% versus 25.9%, P = 0.02 when compared with the 2.25 mm TAXUS Express Atom control. The observed reduction in target lesion revascularization with the TAXUS Libert Atom compared with the TAXUS Express Atom at nine months (5.8% versus 13.7%, P = 0.02 was sustained through three years (10.0% versus 22.1%, P = 0.008 with similar, stable safety outcomes between the groups. In conclusion, these data confirm the safety and favorable performance of the TAXUS Libert Atom stent in the treatment of small coronary vessels.Keywords: small vessel, paclitaxel, stent

  4. Increased Contractile Response to Noradrenaline Induced By Factors Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in Cultured Small Mesenteric Arteries

    Blædel, Martin; Sams, Anette; Boonen, Harrie C M; Sheykhzade, Majid

    UNLABELLED: This study investigated the effect of the metabolic syndrome associated risk factors hyperglycemia (glucose [Glc]), hyperinsulinemia (insulin [Ins]) and low-grade inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα]) on the vasomotor responses of resistance arteries. Isolated small mesenteric...... arteries from 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were suspended for 21-23 h in tissue cultures containing either elevated Glc (30 mmol/l), Ins (100 nmol/l), TNFα (100 ng/ml) or combinations thereof. After incubation, the vascular response to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine, isoprenaline and NA in the...... presence of propranolol (10 µmol/l) was measured by wire myography. RESULTS: Arteries exposed only to combinations of the risk factors showed a significant 1.6-fold increase in the contractile NA sensitivity, which suggests that complex combinations of metabolic risk factors might lead to changes in...

  5. Advanced coronary artery calcification and cerebral small vessel diseases in the healthy elderly

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores are widely accepted to predict risk of coronary heart diseases and are associated with atherosclerosis in other vasculatures. Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs), including white matter lesions (WML), silent lacunar infarction (SLI) and cerebral microbleeds (CMB), are considered to develop in conjunction with pro-atherogenic conditions, measured by CAC scores. Of 672 individuals aged ?65 years that underwent health screening, 312 subjects with brain magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) were enrolled in this study. The distribution of baseline characteristics among individuals with or without MRIs was not different. Clinical and laboratory information was collected and CAC scores were measured using multi-detector computed tomography. Cerebral SVD were independently assessed by 2 raters who were unaware of the CAC scores. The prevalence of CAC (CAC>0) was 71.7% in men and 50.0% in women. The associations between moderate-to-extensive CAC (CAC score ?100) and WML (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, 4.99 and 1.33-18.73), SLI (5.04 and 1.86-13.63) and CMB (6.07 and 1.54-23.94) remained significant after adjusting for relevant confounders. This study documents significant associations between CAC and cerebral SVDs. The findings suggest that SVDs in the brain and CAC in the heart may develop under similar systemic pathogenic processes. (author)

  6. Mondor's disease: a unique cause of penile pain.

    Dalal, Adam; Erlich, Y

    2016-02-01

    Superficial dorsal penile vein thrombosis (penile Mondor's disease (MD)) is a unique and reportedly uncommon condition. Many cases of penile MD are idiopathic, but it is often precipitated by trauma, sexually transmitted infections and different sexual practices, such as vigorous sexual activity and the use of sexual devices. We describe the case of a young active duty man diagnosed with a penile MD, preceded by an intense sexual activity. Once diagnosed, a supportive care was instituted, consisting of administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, temporary sexual abstinence and proper patient reassurance with complete recovery. We believe that military physicians, who care for a majority of young and sexually active adults, must be familiar with the diagnosis of penile MD and its treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of penile MD to be reported in a military setting. PMID:25698803

  7. Isolated Penile Torsion in Brothers: A Case Report

    Metin Gunduz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Penile torsion can be congenital and associated with hypospadias and chordee, or can be acquired after circumcision. The incidence of isolated neonatal penile torsion was 1.7 to 27% in the literature. The majority were between 10 and deg; and 20 and deg;. Generally, torsion was to the left in cases. The techniques for correction of penile torsion described in the literature are penile de-gloving and reattaching of skin, resection of Buck's fascia incising the base of the penis and removing angular ellipses of corporeal tissue with subsequent plication of tunica, and dorsal dartos flap rotation in severe cases. In conclusion, penile torsion may be familial. Therefore, brothers should be examined carefully. The degloving and realignment technique is successful in isolated penile torsion. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 122-124

  8. Atypical penile Mondor's disease - involvement of the circumflex vein.

    Arora, Rahul; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Gera, Tanu; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2015-04-01

    Mondor's disease is a rare condition characterised by superficial thrombophlebitis of subcutaneous veins, most commonly over the anterior chest wall. Penile Mondor's disease is rarer, arising out of thrombophlebitis of the penile veins. It typically involves the dorsal vein of the penis and presents with a cord-like indurated lesion with a beaded feel, palpable along the length of the involved vein. Though penile Mondor's disease involving the dorsal vein of the penis has been reported by many authors, we report a peculiar case of penile Mondor's disease in a 26-year-old sexually active man with thrombophlebitis of the circumflex vein of the penis with sparing of the dorsal vein. Diagnosis was confirmed on Doppler ultrasonography of the penile venous system. Despite exhaustive history taking, no cause could be elicited. The lesion completely subsided within three days with daily local hot fomentation. We propose the term 'atypical penile Mondor's disease' for such a case. PMID:24867818

  9. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence.

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function. [1] Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO 2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO 2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  10. Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Penile Cancer

    Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node status is a key prognostic factor in penile squamous cell carcinoma. Recently, growing evidence indicates a multimodality approach consisting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by consolidation surgery improves the outcome of locally advanced penile cancer. Thus, accurate estimation of survival probability in node-positive penile cancer is critical for treatment decision making, counseling of patients and follow-up scheduling. This article reviewed evolving developments in assess...

  11. Penile herpes zoster: an unusual location for a common disease

    Milan Bjekic; Milica Markovic; Sandra Sipetic

    2011-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common dermatological condition which affects up to 20% of the population, most frequently involving the thoracic and facial dermatomes with sacral lesions occurring rarely and only a few reported cases of penile shingles. Case report: We report two cases of unusual penile clinical presentations of varicella zoster virus infection in immunocompetent men. The patients presented with grouped clusters of vesicles and erythema on the left side of penile shaft and posterior aspe...

  12. The effect of vacuum devices on penile hemodynamics

    Katz, P.G.; Haden, H.T.; Mulligan, T.; Zasler, N.D. (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond (USA))

    1990-01-01

    External vacuum devices are being used increasingly for the management of erectile dysfunction. There is limited information regarding the effect of vacuum devices on penile blood flow and potential for ischemic penile injury. The penile xenon washout rate was measured before and after application of 2 vacuum systems in 15 subjects. Compared to flaccid state measurements the xenon washout rate did not change significantly with the Synergist Erection System but it was significantly reduced with the Osbon ErecAid System. However, the degree and duration of decrease in penile blood flow that may result in ischemic changes are unknown.

  13. The effect of vacuum devices on penile hemodynamics

    External vacuum devices are being used increasingly for the management of erectile dysfunction. There is limited information regarding the effect of vacuum devices on penile blood flow and potential for ischemic penile injury. The penile xenon washout rate was measured before and after application of 2 vacuum systems in 15 subjects. Compared to flaccid state measurements the xenon washout rate did not change significantly with the Synergist Erection System but it was significantly reduced with the Osbon ErecAid System. However, the degree and duration of decrease in penile blood flow that may result in ischemic changes are unknown

  14. Successful penile replantation using loupe magnification.

    Naraynsingh, Vijay; Harnarayan, Patrick; Hariharan, Seetharaman

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic penile amputation is a rare condition requiring urgent surgical consultation with almost immediate surgical intervention. Although seen in both paediatric and adult populations, the majority are seen in the latter age group. These injuries are penetrating in nature, usually occur with the organ flaccid and most are self-inflicted by mentally unstable patients. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery to reduce skin, urethra and graft loss, but these complications may still occur. Non-microsurgical techniques have been utilised with good post-operative outcomes. This report describes penile replantation in a 24-year old mentally challenged patient using 4.5 loupe-magnification to restore a functional, fully erectile penis without tissue loss and a 20-year problem free follow-up. PMID:20490665

  15. Penile enlargement: from medication to surgery.

    Nugteren, Helena M; Balkema, G T; Pascal, A L; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M; van Driel, M F

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient selection, outcome evaluation, and techniques applied. In our view, sexological counseling and detailed explanation of risks and complications are mandatory before any operative intervention. PMID:20169492

  16. Large Penile Mass With Unusual Benign Histopathology

    Nate Johnson; Maria Voznesensky; Graham VerLee

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an extremely rare condition presenting as a lesion on the glans penis in older men. Physical exam without biopsy cannot differentiate malignant from nonmalignant growth. We report a case of large penile mass in an elderly male with a history of lichen sclerosis, highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequent surgical removal and biopsy demonstrated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, an unusual benign histopathologic diagnosis with unclear prognosis. We revie...

  17. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  18. Management of Penile Fracture and its Outcome

    Objective: To describe the management and outcome of patients with penile fracture. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from March 2008 to March 2011. Methodology: Sixteen patients presenting with clinical findings / history of penile fracture were included in this study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history and clinical findings. Surgical exploration and repair was done on the same day. In all patients, a subcoronal circumferential degloving incision was made. Rent location and dimensions management and postoperative complication were noted. Postoperatively, erection was suppressed for 4 - 5 days. All patients were discharged with advice of avoidance of sex for about 8 weeks. Patients were followed-upto 6 months. Results: Majority of the patients (87.5%) were married and 13 (81.25%) were aged 18 - 45 years. The typical findings recorded in 100.0% patients were erection at time of fracture, detumescence, swelling and ecchymosis. Audible crackling sound and pain was present in 13 (81.25%) patients. Ten (62.5%) patients had rent in the proximal part of penile shaft and right lateral tear was present in 11 (68.75%) patients. Blood clots were evacuated and closure of rent was done with vicryl 2/0 (interrupted stitches). 100.0% patients had uneventful recovery with only 3 (18.75%) patients developed right chordae of erect penis after treatment. All (100.0%) patients were potent and without any problem of erection. Conclusion: Penile fracture is under-reported. A trauma to erect penis is essential to cause fracture. Surgical exploration and repair is the treatment of choice. (author)

  19. Penile Calciphylaxis in End Stage Renal Disease

    Fulvio Floccari; Moreno Malaguti; Giovanni Otranto; Antonio Gorini; Luca Di Lullo; Vincenzo Barbera; Alberto Santoboni

    2013-01-01

    Calciphylaxis, better described as Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), involves about 14% of hemodialysis patients all around the world with high mortality rates. We describe a rare clinical case of CUA in peritoneal dialysis patient associated with urological disease. Penile calciphylaxis represents rare clinical complication, and an early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are requested. Pathogenesis is still unclear, and therapeutic approaches need more long-term clinical trials...

  20. Penile Cancer: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Matthew C. Biagioli; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations o...

  1. Solitary penile ulcer associated with infections mononucleosis.

    Lawee, D.; Shafir, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Determining the cause of genital ulcers requires extensive laboratory investigation, particularly if there is no history of sexually transmitted disease. In a patient with a solitary penile erosion who was tired, weak, sweaty and febrile, hematologic and serologic tests suggested infectious mononucleosis, and bacteriologic and serologic studies, along with attempts at virus culture, ruled out syphilis and herpes simplex. The erosion healed soon after the other signs and symptoms resolved. It ...

  2. Synergism of clinical evaluation and penile sonographic imaging in diagnosis of penile fracture: a case report

    Bello Jibril

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Penile fracture is an uncommon urologic emergency, and is the traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea covering the corpus cavernosa. This usually occurs following blunt trauma sustained during coitus, masturbation or self-manipulations to hide or suppress an erection. Clinical diagnosis can often be easily made with typical history and examination findings. However, the patient may present atypically and/or with a suspicion of associated urethral injury. The roles of various diagnostic investigations are being evaluated in these situations. Case presentation We report the case of a 31-year-old African man with penile fracture and suspected associated urethral injury that occurred after self-manipulations to hide an erection. Conclusions Penile ultrasound and sonourethrography provide useful additional diagnostic information to supplement clinical history and physical examination findings and can be performed easily, at low cost and with no delays to surgery.

  3. Involvement of ATP in the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic inhibitory neurotransmission of lamb isolated coronary small arteries

    Simonsen, Ulf; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) transmitters, such as nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), in the neurogenic relaxation of lamb coronary small arteries was investigated in vessel segments with an internal lumen diameter of 200–550 μm, isolated from the left ventricle of the heart, and suspended for isometric tension recording in microvascular myographs.In both endothelium-intact and -denuded coronary small arteries treated with phentolamine (3×10−6 M), propranolol (3×10−6 M), and atropine (10−6 M) and contracted to 3×10−7 M of the thromboxane analogue U46619, electrical field stimulation (EFS) evoked frequency-dependent relaxations, which were markedly reduced in the presence of tetrodotoxin (10−6 M).Exogenous NO added as acidified sodium nitrite (10−6–10−3 M) and L-nitrosocysteine induced potent relaxations of lamb coronary small arteries. However, both inhibition of NO synthase with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 3×10−5 M), and mechanical endothelial cell removal increased rather than inhibited relaxations to EFS. In small arteries processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, activity was only observed within endothelial cells.In arteries contracted to U46619, exogenously added ATP caused concentration-dependent relaxations with pD2 and maximum responses of 4.72±0.12 and 89.6±3.8% (n=12), respectively. ADP and the P2Y-agonist, 2-methylthio-ATP, induced relaxations equipotent to ATP, while the P2X-agonist, α, β-methylene ATP (10−9–10−4 M), and the P2U-agonist, UTP (10−9–10−4 M) only caused small transient relaxations at the highest concentrations (10−4 and 10−3 M).ATP and EFS-induced relaxations were unchanged in the presence of the P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (10−5 M), while this antagonist inhibited the concentration-dependent relaxations to adenosine. In contrast, the P2-purinoceptor antagonist, suramin (3×10−5 M), markedly reduced the relaxations to EFS.After desensitization of P2X-purinoceptors with α, β-methylene ATP (2×10−5 M), the relaxations to exogenous added ATP were enhanced, but this procedure did not influence the relaxations to EFS. In contrast, the P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist, basilen blue E-3G (3×10−5 M, earlier named reactive blue 2) significantly inhibited the concentration-relaxation curves to ATP and almost abolished the EFS-induced relaxations.Mechanical removal of the endothelium significantly inhibited ATP-induced maximal relaxations without affecting sensitivity, pD2 and maximum relaxations being 4.72±0.12 and 89.7±3.8% (n=10), and 5.45±0.38 and 48.0±8.6% (P<0.05, paired t test, n=10) in endothelium-intact and -denuded coronary small arteries, respectively. However, incubation with L-NOARG did not change relaxations elicited by ATP.The present study suggests that in NANC conditions neurogenic relaxations of coronary small arteries are mediated by ATP, which relaxes coronary small arteries through P2Y-purinoceptors. A prejunctional modulation of these relaxations by endothelial-derived NO cannot be excluded. PMID:9031744

  4. Penile Injuries in Wild and Domestic Pigs.

    Weiler, Ulrike; Isernhagen, Marie; Stefanski, Volker; Ritzmann, Mathias; Kress, Kevin; Hein, Charlotte; Zöls, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In boars, sexually motivated mounting can not only cause problems such as lameness, but penile injuries are also reported. The relevance of penis biting in boars is discussed controversially, but reliable data is missing. In the present study, boars ( n = 435) and barrows ( n = 85) from experimental farms were therefore evaluated for scars, fresh wounds and severe injuries of the penis. Similarly, 321 boars from 11 farms specializing in pork production with boars, and 15 sexually mature wild boars from the hunting season of 2015/16 were included in the study. In domestic boars, a high incidence of penile injuries was obvious (76.6%-87.0% of animals with scars and/or wounds at experimental farms, 64.0%-94.9% at commercial farms). The number of boars with severe injuries was in a similar range in both groups (7.3% vs. 9.3%). At commercial farms, the number of scars but not that of fresh wounds increased per animal with age by 0.3 per week. Moreover, raising boars in mixed groups led to about a 1.5 times higher number of scars than in single-sex groups. In wild boars, a considerable proportion of animals (40%) revealed penile injuries, which were even severe in three animals. We therefore conclude that penis biting is a highly relevant and severe welfare problem in the male pig population, but this phenomenon is not limited to intensive production systems. PMID:27023619

  5. Fratura de pênis Penile fracture

    Leonardo de Souza Alves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as circunstâncias, o diagnóstico, o tratamento e a evolução dos pacientes com fratura de pênis. MÉTODO: Foram acompanhados 19 pacientes no período de 1999 à 2003 com diagnóstico de fratura de pênis. RESULTADOS: Quinze pacientes submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico nas primeiras 48 horas evoluiram bem. Os demais quatro pacientes que foram submetidos ao tratamento clínico, por diversos fatores, evoluiram com deformidade peniana. CONCLUSÕES: Afecção que ocorre somente quando o pênis encontra-se em ereção, o tratamento cirúrgico precoce é o que demonstra melhores resultados, com preservação da função erétil.BACKGROUND: To analize the ethiology, diagnosis, treatment and evolution of patients with penile fracture. METHODS: We analysed 19 pacients with penile fracture diagnosis between 1999 and 2003. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were submitted to surgical therapy within the first 48 hours with good results. Four patients developed penile curvature on follow up. CONCLUSION: Surgical therapy showed better results with erectile function preserved.

  6. Organ-Preserving Surgery for Penile Carcinoma

    Tomé M. Lopes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Penile carcinoma has traditionally been treated by either surgical amputation or radical radiotherapy, both associated with devastating anatomical, functional, and psychological impact on the patient's life. Innovative surgical techniques have focused on penile preservation in well-selected patients to minimize physical disfigurement and consequently maximize quality of life. The objective of this article is to define the current status of these organ-preserving surgical options for penile carcinoma. Materials and Methods. An extensive review of the Pubmed literature was performed to find articles discussing only reconstructive surgery which have contributed significantly to change traditional, frequently mutilating treatments, to develop less disfiguring surgery, and to improve patients' quality of life over the last two decades. Results. Several articles were included in this analysis in which a major contribution to the change in therapy was thought to have occurred and was documented as beneficial. Some articles reported novel techniques of less-mutilating surgery involving different forms of glans reconstruction with the use of flaps or grafts. The issue of safe surgical margins was also addressed. Conclusion. The development of less-disfiguring techniques allowing phallus preservation has reduced the negative impact on functional and cosmetic outcomes of amputation without sacrificing oncological objectives in appropriately selected patients based on stage, grade, and location of the tumour. Until more prospective studies are available and solid evidence is documented, organ preservation should be offered with caution.

  7. Three-component hydraulic penile prosthesis malfunction due to penile fibrolipoma secondary to augmentative phalloplasty: A case report

    Gabriele Antonini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomas are an infrequent type of lipomas. We describe a case of a man suffering from subcutaneous penile fibrolipoma, who twelve months earlier has been submitted to augmentative phalloplasty due to aesthetic dysmorphophobia. The same patient three years earlier has been submitted to three-component hydraulic penile prostheses implantation due to erectile dysfunction. After six months from removing of the mass, the penile elongation and penile enlargement were stable, the prostheses were correctly functioning and the patient was satisfied with his sexual intercourse and life. The diagnostics and surgical characteristics of this case are reported.

  8. Three-component hydraulic penile prosthesis malfunction due to penile fibrolipoma secondary to augmentative phalloplasty: A case report.

    Antonini, Gabriele; Vicini, Patrizio; De Berardinis, Ettore; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Gentile, Vincenzo; Perito, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fibrolipomas are an infrequent type of lipomas. We describe a case of a man suffering from subcutaneous penile fibrolipoma, who twelve months earlier has been submitted to augmentative phalloplasty due to aesthetic dysmorphophobia. The same patient three years earlier has been submitted to three-component hydraulic penile prostheses implantation due to erectile dysfunction. After six months from removing of the mass, the penile elongation and penile enlargement were stable, the prostheses were correctly functioning and the patient was satisfied with his sexual intercourse and life. The diagnostics and surgical characteristics of this case are reported. PMID:26766813

  9. Acute penile pain and swelling in a 4-year-old child with Henoch-Schnlein purpura.

    Tewary, Kishor Kumar; Khodaghalian, Bernadette; Narchi, Hassib

    2015-01-01

    Henoch-Schnlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis found in children. It usually affects the small vessels of the skin, joints, gastrointestinal tract and, more rarely, kidneys, brain, lungs and genitalia. Apart from classical presentation with purpuric rashes around buttocks and lower extremities, features such as arthralgia, abdominal pain, haematuria and proteinuria as well as scrotal swelling have been described in the literature. Penile involvement is rare and is not commonly described. We describe a child with HSP who developed penile involvement. We review the literature of all the cases reported in detail, in order to highlight useful clinical presentation, management and prognosis of this rare manifestation. PMID:25858918

  10. TBX4 mutations (small patella syndrome) are associated with childhood-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Roofthooft, Marcus T R; Leter, Edward M; Douwes, J Menno; Van Dijk, Arie; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Dijk-Bos, Krista K; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Hoendermis, Elke S; Gille, Johan J P; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Hofstra, Robert M W; Berger, Rolf M F

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is rare and differs from adult-onset disease in clinical presentation, with often unexplained mental retardation and dysmorphic features (MR/DF). Mutations in the major PAH gene, BMPR2, were reported to cause PAH in only 10–16% of childhood-onset patients. We aimed to identify more genes associated with childhood-onset PAH. Methods We studied 20 consecutive cases with idiopathic or heritable PAH. In patients with accompanying MR/DF (n=6) array-comparative genomic hybridisation analysis was performed, with the aim of finding common deletion regions containing candidate genes for PAH. Three patients had overlapping deletions of 17q23.2. TBX2 and TBX4 were selected from this area as candidate genes and sequenced in all 20 children. After identifying TBX4 mutations in these children, we subsequently sequenced TBX4 in a cohort of 49 adults with PAH. Because TBX4 mutations are known to cause small patella syndrome (SPS), all patients with newly detected TBX4 mutations were screened for features of SPS. We also screened a third cohort of 23 patients with SPS for PAH. Results TBX4 mutations (n=3) or TBX4-containing deletions (n=3) were detected in 6 out of 20 children with PAH (30%). All living patients and two parents with TBX4 mutations appeared to have previously unrecognised SPS. In the adult PAH-cohort, one TBX4 mutation (2%) was detected. Screening in the cohort of (predominantly adult) SPS patients revealed no PAH. Conclusions These data indicate that TBX4 mutations are associated with childhood-onset PAH, but that the prevalence of PAH in adult TBX4 mutation carriers is low. PMID:23592887

  11. Omega-conotoxin GVIA is a potent inhibitor of sympathetic neurogenic responses in rat small mesenteric arteries.

    Pruneau, D.; Angus, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the effects of the N-type calcium channel blocker, omega-conotoxin GVIA, on contractile responses to nerve stimulation, noradrenaline and KCl in rat small mesenteric arteries. In separate experiments, single and summated excitatory junctional potentials (e.j.ps) evoked by nerve stimulation were recorded with an intracellular electrode in the absence and presence of omega-conotoxin. 2. Electrical field stimulation of intramural sympathetic nerves (30 V; 0.25 ms pulse wi...

  12. Microneurovascular reimplantation in a case of total penile amputation

    Bhatt Yogesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common aetiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis, which was successfully reattached by using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed.

  13. Nitric oxide, prostanoid and non-NO, non-prostanoid involvement in acetylcholine relaxation of isolated human small arteries

    Buus, Niels H; Simonsen, Ulf; Pilegaard, Hans K; Mulvany, Michael J

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to clarify to which extent nitric oxide (NO) contributes to acetylcholine (ACh) induced relaxation of human subcutaneous small arteries. Arterial segments were mounted in myographs for recording of isometric tension, NO concentration and smooth muscle membrane potential. In noradrenaline-contracted arteries, ACh induced endothelium-dependent relaxations. The NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) had a small significant effect on the concentration-response curves for ACh, and in the presence of L-NOARG, indomethacin only caused a small additional rightward shift in the ACh relaxation. The NO scavenger, oxyhaemoglobin attenuated relaxations for ACh and for the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). Inhibition of guanylyl cyclase with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ), and inhibition of protein kinase G with β-phenyl-1, N2-etheno-8-bromoguanosine- 3′, 5′- cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, slightly attenuated ACh relaxation, but abolished SNAP induced relaxation. ACh induced relaxation without increases in the free NO concentration. In contrast, for equivalent relaxation, SNAP increased the NO concentration 32±8 nM. ACh hyperpolarized the arterial smooth muscle cells with 11.4±1.3 mV and 10.5±1.3 mV in the absence and presence of L-NOARG, respectively. SNAP only elicited a hyperpolarization of 1.6±0.9 mV. In the presence of indomethacin and L-NOARG, ACh relaxation was almost unaffected by lipoxygenase inhibition with nordihydroguaiaretic acid, or cytochrome P450 inhibition with 17-octadecynoic acid or econazole. ACh relaxation was strongly reduced by the combination of charybdotoxin and apamin, but small increments in the extracellular potassium concentration induced no relaxations. The study demonstrates that the NO/L-arginine pathway is present in human subcutaneous small arteries and to a limited extent is involved in ACh induced relaxation. The study also suggests a small contribution of arachidonic acid metabolites. However, ACh relaxation is mainly dependent on a non-NO, non-prostanoid endothelium dependent hyperpolarization. PMID:10694219

  14. ‘Minipatch’ penile skin graft urethroplasty in the era of buccal mucosal grafting

    Hudak, Steven J.; Hudson, Tillman C.; Allen F. Morey

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe our experience with ‘minipatch’ penile skin graft (PSG) urethroplasty, as at our institution we prefer excision and primary anastomosis (EPA) urethroplasty whenever feasible, as it gives better outcomes than substitution urethroplasty. However, despite careful preoperative planning, the unanticipated need for a small graft is occasionally recognised intra-operatively, and in such cases we have found that harvesting a minipatch is an efficient alternative to harvesting a...

  15. Longitudinal study of aortic isthmus Doppler in appropriately grown and small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-04-01

    To establish reference ranges using longitudinal data for aortic isthmus (AoI) Doppler indices in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) fetuses and to document the longitudinal trends in a cohort of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

  16. Successful endothelialization and remodeling of a cell-free small-diameter arterial graft in a large animal model.

    Koobatian, Maxwell T; Row, Sindhu; Smith, Randall J; Koenigsknecht, Carmon; Andreadis, Stelios T; Swartz, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    The large number of coronary artery bypass procedures necessitates development of off-the-shelf vascular grafts that do not require cell or tissue harvest from patients. However, immediate thrombus formation after implantation due to the absence of a healthy endothelium is very likely. Here we present the successful development of an acellular tissue engineered vessel (A-TEV) based on small intestinal submucosa that was functionalized sequentially with heparin and VEGF. A-TEVs were implanted into the carotid artery of an ovine model demonstrating high patency rates and significant host cell infiltration as early as one week post-implantation. At one month, a confluent and functional endothelium was present and the vascular wall showed significant infiltration of host smooth muscle cells exhibiting vascular contractility in response to vaso-agonists. After three months, the endothelium aligned in the direction of flow and the medial layer comprised of circumferentially aligned smooth muscle cells. A-TEVs demonstrated high elastin and collagen content as well as impressive mechanical properties and vascular contractility comparable to native arteries. This is the first demonstration of successful endothelialization, remodeling, and development of vascular function of a cell-free vascular graft that was implanted in the arterial circulation of a pre-clinical animal model. PMID:26561932

  17. Histamine-dependent prolongation by aldosterone of vasoconstriction in isolated small mesenteric arteries of the mouse.

    Schjerning, Jeppe; Uhrenholt, Torben R; Svenningsen, Per; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Skøtt, Ole; Jensen, Boye L; Hansen, Pernille B L

    2013-04-15

    In arterioles, aldosterone counteracts the rapid dilatation (recovery) following depolarization-induced contraction. The hypothesis was tested that this effect of aldosterone depends on cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived products and/or nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibition. Recovery of the response to high K(+) was observed in mesenteric arteries of wild-type and COX-2(-/-) mice but it was significantly diminished in preparations from endothelial NOS (eNOS)(-/-) mice. Aldosterone pretreatment inhibited recovery from wild-type and COX-2(-/-) mice. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) restored recovery in arteries from eNOS(-/-) mice, and this was inhibited by aldosterone. Actinomycin-D abolished the effect of aldosterone, indicating a genomic effect. The effect was blocked by indomethacin and by the COX-1 inhibitor valeryl salicylate but not by NS-398 (10(-6) mol/l) or the TP-receptor antagonist S18886 (10(-7) mol/l). The effect of aldosterone on recovery in arteries from wild-type mice and the SNP-mediated dilatation in arteries from eNOS(-/-) mice was inhibited by the histamine H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine. RT-PCR showed expression of mast cell markers in mouse mesenteric arteries. The adventitia displayed granular cells positive for toluidine blue vital stain. Confocal microscopy of live mast cells showed loss of quinacrine fluorescence and swelling after aldosterone treatment, indicating degranulation. RT-PCR showed expression of mineralocorticoid receptors in mesenteric arteries and in isolated mast cells. These findings suggest that aldosterone inhibits recovery by stimulation of histamine release from mast cells along mesenteric arteries. The resulting activation of H2 receptors decreases the sensitivity to NO of vascular smooth muscle cells. Aldosterone may chronically affect vascular function through paracrine release of histamine. PMID:23396453

  18. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Penile Cancer: Case Report

    A case that illustrates the benefits of lymphatic mapping in penile cancer with sentinel nodes to detect lymphgammagraphy groin. This is a patient of 48 years who consulted the urology department for evaluation after partial penile amputation require at another institution by the appearance of a histologically confirmed lesion in the glans penis as Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of blood pressure ...

  20. Arterial hypertension due to fructose ingestion: model based on intermittent osmotic fluid trapping in the small bowel

    Kurbel Sven

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on recently reported data that fructose ingestion is linked to arterial hypertension, a model of regulatory loops involving the colon role in maintenance of fluid and sodium homeostasis is proposed. In normal digestion of hyperosmolar fluids, also in cases of postprandial hypotension and in patients having the "dumping" syndrome after gastric surgery, any hyperosmolar intestinal content is diluted by water taken from circulation and being trapped in the bowel until reabsorption. High fructose corn sirup (HFCS soft drinks are among common hyperosmolar drinks. Fructose is slowly absorbed through passive carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, along the entire small bowel, thus preventing absorption of the trapped water for several hours. Here presented interpretation is that ingestion of hyperosmolar HFCS drinks due to a transient fluid shift into the small bowel increases renin secretion and sympathetic activity, leading to rise in ADH and aldosterone secretions. Their actions spare water and sodium in the large bowel and kidneys. Alteration of colon absorption due to hormone exposure depends on cell renewal and takes days to develop, so the momentary capacity of sodium absorption in the colon depends on the average aldosterone and ADH exposure during few previous days. This inertia in modulation of the colon function can make an individual that often takes HFCS drinks prone to sodium retention, until a new balance is reached with an expanded ECF pool and arterial hypertension. In individuals with impaired fructose absorption, even a higher risk of arterial hypertension can be expected.

  1. Arterial hypertension due to fructose ingestion: model based on intermittent osmotic fluid trapping in the small bowel.

    Kurbel, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Based on recently reported data that fructose ingestion is linked to arterial hypertension, a model of regulatory loops involving the colon role in maintenance of fluid and sodium homeostasis is proposed.In normal digestion of hyperosmolar fluids, also in cases of postprandial hypotension and in patients having the "dumping" syndrome after gastric surgery, any hyperosmolar intestinal content is diluted by water taken from circulation and being trapped in the bowel until reabsorption. High fructose corn sirup (HFCS) soft drinks are among common hyperosmolar drinks. Fructose is slowly absorbed through passive carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, along the entire small bowel, thus preventing absorption of the trapped water for several hours.Here presented interpretation is that ingestion of hyperosmolar HFCS drinks due to a transient fluid shift into the small bowel increases renin secretion and sympathetic activity, leading to rise in ADH and aldosterone secretions. Their actions spare water and sodium in the large bowel and kidneys. Alteration of colon absorption due to hormone exposure depends on cell renewal and takes days to develop, so the momentary capacity of sodium absorption in the colon depends on the average aldosterone and ADH exposure during few previous days. This inertia in modulation of the colon function can make an individual that often takes HFCS drinks prone to sodium retention, until a new balance is reached with an expanded ECF pool and arterial hypertension. In individuals with impaired fructose absorption, even a higher risk of arterial hypertension can be expected. PMID:20579372

  2. Thrombophlebitis of the penile superficial vein, penile mondor's disease: a case report

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Doo Sang; Shin, Hyung Chul; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Soonchunhyang University, Chunan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Cheol [Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    Mondor's disease is commonly known as thrombophlebitis of the superficial vein in the breast, and this disease occurs rarely in the penis. Despite extensive information about the clinical presentation and course of this disease, imaging findings for this disease are limited. We report gray scale and power Doppler sonographic findings of penile Mondor's disease.

  3. Penile straightening maneuvers employed during penile prosthesis surgery: technical options and outcomes.

    Segal, R L; Cabrini, M R; Bivalacqua, T J; Burnett, A L

    2014-01-01

    Straightening maneuvers (SM), including manual penile modeling, tunical relaxing incisions and corporal reconstruction using grafting techniques, are occasionally required during inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) implantation to ensure functional penile straightness. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of men undergoing SM employed during IPP implantation compared with those wherein these maneuvers were not required. A retrospective review of 391 patients undergoing IPP implantation at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2000 to December 2011 was performed. Patients in whom some SM was employed (SM, n=93, 23.9% of the overall cohort) were compared with those for whom SM was not required (IPP group, n=298). Seven patients were excluded from final analysis (6 patients with IPPs inserted in neophalli (SM group), and 1 patient with incomplete data (IPP group). Patients in whom a SM was used were younger (55.4 vs 62.3 years), more likely to have Peyronie's disease, and less likely to have prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy or to have previously used erectile aids (all Pgore-tex grafts). There were no significant differences in terms of device infection (P=0.15), mechanical failure (P=0.23) or erosion (P=0.96). Although limited in size, this cohort study suggests that IPP implantation in men with penile deformity requiring complex reconstruction to achieve straightening may be done proficiently and without increased adverse outcome risk. PMID:24646675

  4. Penile enlargement with methacrylate injection: is it safe?

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Andrade, Enrico Martins de; Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Claro, Joaquim Francisco Almeida; Cury, Jose; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Penis size is a great concern for men in many cultures. Despite the great variety of methods for penile augmentation, none has gained unanimous acceptance among experts in the field. However, in this era of minimally invasive procedure, injection therapy for penile augmentation has become more popular. Here we report a case of methacrylate injection in the penis that evolved with penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. This work also reviews the investigation and management of this pathological condition. CASE REPORT A 36-year-old male sought medical care with a complaint of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction after methacrylate injection. The treatment administered was surgical removal. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were reached after two months. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for better structured scientific research to evaluate the outcomes and complication rates from all penile augmentation procedures. PMID:23538596

  5. Paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene: a Japanese mothers' view.

    Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the views of 20 Japanese mothers concerning paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene. In Japan, routine male circumcision has never been implemented for newborns and children, and adult males are mostly circumcised at aesthetic clinics. However, media reports indicate a trend of Japanese mothers willing to have their sons circumcised. In discussing penile hygiene and male circumcision, the construct of a 'sexual script' becomes relevant to understanding how linguistic and gender barriers made references to male genitalia and penile hygiene largely appear as 'vulgar' and 'unfeminine' in daily life conversations. Peers were often identified as the main source of information and only mothers who have struggled with their children's penile infections have learnt about male genital hygiene, a domain of knowledge largely transmitted by men. Male circumcision becomes a double-edged sword that could help prevent penile infections but also an embarrassing conversational topic that could elicit discrimination because most Japanese children are uncircumcised. PMID:24152018

  6. Malfunctioned and Fractured Penile Prosthesis Caused by Cross Placement: Case Report

    Nihat Karakoyunlu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penile prosthesis is a functional option for patients who have erectile dysfunction after failed medical and intracavernosal treatments. Malleable penile prosthesis is a good alternative. Penile prosthesis implantation is a surgical process. Seldomly complications occur. In this study we presented a 61 y old man who has malfunctioned and broken penile prosthesis due to cross implantation.

  7. Surgical Treatment of Penile Deformity Due to Curvature Using a Subcutaneous Soft Silicone Implant: Case Report

    James J. Elist; Vaheh Shirvanian; Gottfried Lemperle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital and acquired penile curvature has a negative impact on penile aesthetics, sexual capabilities, and male psychology. Surgical procedures yield satisfactory correction of curvature, but are usually associated with penile shortening and palpable suture material and nodules under the skin, resulting in patient dissatisfaction. Aims: To present a novel technique using a subcutaneous soft silicone implant for surgical treatment of penile soft tissue ...

  8. Small artery structure adapts to vasodilatation rather than to blood pressure during antihypertensive treatment

    Mathiassen, Ole N; Buus, Niels H; Larsen, Mogens L; Mulvany, Michael J; Christensen, Kent L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Correction of the abnormal structure of resistance arteries in essential hypertension may be an important treatment goal in addition to blood pressure (BP) reduction. We investigated how this may be achieved in a prospective clinical study. METHODS: Plethysmography was used to measure ...

  9. Penile brachytherapy: Results for 49 patients

    Purpose: To report results for 49 men with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis treated with primary penile interstitial brachytherapy at one of two institutions: the Ottawa Regional Cancer Center, Ottawa, and the Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Methods and Materials: From September 1989 to September 2003, 49 men (mean age, 58 years; range, 22-93 years) had brachytherapy for penile SCC. Fifty-one percent of tumors were T1, 33% T2, and 8% T3; 4% were in situ and 4% Tx. Grade was well differentiated in 31%, moderate in 45%, and poor in 2%; grade was unspecified for 20%. One tumor was verrucous. All tumors in Toronto had pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy (n = 23), whereas those in Ottawa had either Iridium wire (n 22) or seeds (n = 4). Four patients had a single plane implant with a plastic tube technique, and all others had a volume implant with predrilled acrylic templates and two or three parallel planes of needles (median, six needles). Mean needle spacing was 13.5 mm (range, 10-18 mm), mean dose rate was 65 cGy/h (range, 33-160 cGy/h), and mean duration was 98.8 h (range, 36-188 h). Dose rates for PDR brachytherapy were 50-61.2 cGy/h, with no correction in total dose, which was 60 Gy in all cases. Results: Median follow-up was 33.4 months (range, 4-140 months). At 5 years, actuarial overall survival was 78.3% and cause-specific survival 90.0%. Four men died of penile cancer, and 6 died of other causes with no evidence of recurrence. The cumulative incidence rate for never having experienced any type of failure at 5 years was 64.4% and for local failure was 85.3%. All 5 patients with local failure were successfully salvaged by surgery; 2 other men required penectomy for necrosis. The soft tissue necrosis rate was 16% and the urethral stenosis rate 12%. Of 8 men with regional failure, 5 were salvaged by lymph node dissection with or without external radiation. All 4 men with distant failure died of disease. Of 49 men, 42 had an intact and tumor-free penis at last follow-up or death. The actuarial penile preservation rate at 5 years was 86.5%. Conclusions: Brachytherapy is an effective treatment for T1, T2, and selected T3 SCC of the penis. Close follow-up is mandatory because local failures and many regional failures can be salvaged by surgery

  10. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating contraction in human small muscular pulmonary arteries: importance of the 5-HT1B receptor

    Morecroft, Ian; Heeley, Robert P; Prentice, Howard M.; KIRK, Alan; MacLean, Margaret R.

    1999-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediating vasoconstriction in isolated human small muscular pulmonary arteries (SMPAs) were determined using techniques of wire myography and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR).The agonists 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, unselective for 5-HT1 receptors) and sumatriptan (selective for 5-HT1B/D receptors) all caused contraction and were equipotent (pEC50s: 7.00.2, 7.10.3 and 6.70.1, respectively) suggesting the presence of ...

  11. Involvement of K channels and calcium-independent mechanisms in hydrogen sulfide-induced relaxation of rat mesenteric small arteries

    Hedegaard, Elise R; Gouliaev, Anja; Winther, Anna K; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Aalling, Mathilde; Sivasubramaniam, Nirthika; Wood, Mark E; Whiteman, Matthew; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Simonsen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in the regulation of vascular tone. We hypothesized that lowering of calcium and opening of K channels as well as calcium-independent mechanisms are involved in H2S-induced relaxation in rat mesenteric small arteries. Amperometric recordings revealed...... suggest that low micromolar concentrations of free H2S by a dual mechanism opens K channels followed by lowering of smooth muscle calcium and by a mechanism involving mitochondrial complex I and III leads to uncoupling of force, and hence vasodilation....

  12. Small arteries can be accurately studied in vivo, using high frequency ultrasound

    Nielsen, T H; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Tfelt-Hansen, P; Olesen, J

    1993-01-01

    coefficients of 0.18 mm (13.8%) to 0.31 mm (23.4%). The interobserver mean difference was 0.01 mm (0.69%) and the interobserver repeatability coefficient was 0.16 mm (11.1%). Pulsatile changes of the cross sectional area of the radial plus the ulnar artery averaged 0.93 mm2 compared to 0.63 mm2 by strain...

  13. Simple mechanical thrombectomy with intrapulmonary arterial thrombolysis in pulmonary thromboembolism: a small case series

    Ahmed, Khurshid; Munawar, Muhammad; Andina Munawar, Dian; Hartono, Beny

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a life-threatening condition with a high early mortality rate caused by acute right ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock. We report a series of three patients who presented with acute and subacute submassive PTE. They were successfully treated by simple catheter-based mechanical thrombectomy and intrapulmonary arterial thrombolysis. Mechanical fragmentation and aspiration of thrombus was performed by commonly used J-wire, multi-purpose and Judkin Right ...

  14. Penile Replantation After Five Hours of Warm Ischemia

    Fernando N. Facio Jr.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia.

  15. Penile Replantation After Five Hours of Warm Ischemia.

    Facio, Fernando N; Spessoto, Luis C; Arruda, Pedro; Paiva, Cristiano S; Arruda, José G; Facio, Maria F

    2015-05-01

    Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia. PMID:26793508

  16. Surgical Management of a Locally Advanced Symptomatic Recurrence of Penile Sarcoma Secondary to Prostate Brachytherapy

    Tariq S. Hakky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The surgical management of patients with symptomatic metastatic or locally advanced recurrences involving the penis remains poorly characterized. The aim of the present abstract and video is to detail our experience in the surgical management of a specific patient with a locally advanced symptomatic recurrence of penile sarcoma secondary to prostate cancer treated with primary brachytherapy. Materials and Methods A 70 year old male patient initially treated for localized prostate cancer with interstitial brachytherapy at an outside facility developed an unfortunate secondary malignancy consisting of a locally advanced penile sarcoma involving as well the prostate and base of the bladder. Despite our best efforts to control his pain, he developed a very symptomatic local recurrence with a secondary penile abscess and purulent periurethral drainage. At this time, it was felt a surgical resection consisting of a total penectomy, urethrectomy, cystoprostatectomy, and ileal conduit urinary diversion would be the best option for local cancer control in this particular patient. Results The patient underwent the surgical resection without any complications as illustrated in this surgical video, with a jejunal intestinal mass identified at the time of surgery which was resected with a primary bowel anastomosis performed. The patient was discharged from hospital uneventfully with his symptomatic local recurrence being successfully managed and the patient no longer requiring oral narcotics for pain control. The pathological report confirmed a locally advanced sarcoma involving the penile, prostate, and bladder which was resected with negative surgical margins and the jejunal mass was confirmed to represent a small bowel sarcoma metastatic site. Conclusion As highlighted in the present video, the treatment of a symptomatic sarcoma local recurrence contiguously involving the penis can be successfully managed provided the patient is informed of the potential morbidity and psychosocial implications imparted by performing a total penectomy and adjacent organ resection.

  17. Modified T-Graft for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient with Small-Caliber Femoral Arteries

    Calderon, Daniel; El-Banayosy, Aly; Koerner, Michael M.; Reed, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is generally used as a last resort to provide cardiopulmonary support in patients whose advanced cardiac or respiratory failure does not respond to less invasive treatments. Lower-limb ischemia secondary to the large diameter of the arterial cannula is one of ECMO's major limitations: in patients who have small-caliber arteries, the cannulas can reduce native blood flow. The creation of a T-grafta well-described technique to avoid limb ischemiaenables flow into the ECMO cannula without jeopardizing blood flow to the limb. However, leaving the graft exposed through an open groin wound can result in dislodgment, and it increases the risk of infection. We describe our modification of a conventional T-graft in an 18-year-old woman who had systolic heart failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and small-caliber femoral vessels. We tunneled a polytetrafluoroethylene graft inside a Dacron graft, then ran the combined graft through a subcutaneous tunnel similar to that created for a peripheral bypass. Thus, the graft was protected from environmental exposure and the risk of infection. Our technique seems safer and more secure than the original T-graft technique, and we recommend its consideration during ECMO cannulation. PMID:26664305

  18. Beneficial Effects of Scutellaria baicalensis on Penile Erection in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Li, Xiang; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Hye Yoom; Tan, Rui; Park, Min Cheol; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2016-04-01

    We have reported that ethanol extracts of the root from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (ESB) relax cavernous smooth muscles via the NO/cGMP system and Ca[Formula: see text]-sensitive K[Formula: see text] channels in the rabbit corpus cavernosum. In the present study, erectile function was assessed by intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. The ICP/MAP ratio was dose-dependently increased by the treatment of ESB in normal SD rats ([Formula: see text]). To investigate the beneficial effect of ESB on erectile dysfunction in a diabetic animal model, male SD rats were injected with streptozotocin (60[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and then 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day ESB was administered daily for eight weeks. In our in vivo study, administration of ESB in STZ rats significantly increased the ICP, ICP/MAP ratio, area under the curve (AUC), as well as the cavernous cGMP levels. Morphometric analyses showed that ESB administration increased both smooth muscle volume and the regular arrangement of collagen fibers compared to the STZ group. The protein expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and SM [Formula: see text]-actin from penile tissues were also significantly increased in the ESB-treated rats. Taken together, these results suggest that ESB ameliorates penile erectile dysfunction via the activation of the NO/cGMP pathways of the penile corpus cavernosum in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. PMID:27080943

  19. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: what the evidence really says.

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David; Snksen, Jens

    2013-11-01

    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue. This results in veno-occlusive dysfunction, therefore, penile rehabilitation programmes focus on tissue oxygenation. Animal studies support the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) after cavernous nerve damage but results from human studies are contradictory. The largest study to date found no long-term effect of either daily or on-demand PDE5I administration after RP compared with placebo. The effects of prostaglandin and vacuum erection devices are questionable and high-quality studies are lacking. Better documentation for current penile rehabilitation and/or better rehabilitation protocols are needed. One must be careful not to repeat the statement that penile rehabilitation improves erectile function after RP so many times that it becomes a truth even without the proper scientific backing. PMID:23826962

  20. Penile herpes zoster: an unusual location for a common disease

    Milan Bjekic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common dermatological condition which affects up to 20% of the population, most frequently involving the thoracic and facial dermatomes with sacral lesions occurring rarely and only a few reported cases of penile shingles. Case report: We report two cases of unusual penile clinical presentations of varicella zoster virus infection in immunocompetent men. The patients presented with grouped clusters of vesicles and erythema on the left side of penile shaft and posterior aspect of the left thigh and buttock, involving s2-s4 dermatomes. The lesions resolved quickly upon administration of oral antiviral therapy. Conclusion: Penile herpes zoster should not be overlooked in patients with unilateral vesicular rash.

  1. Distribution of mesenteric cranial artery in the small intestine of Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798 (Mammalia, Procyonidae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5839 Distribution of mesenteric cranial artery in the small intestine of Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798 (Mammalia, Procyonidae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5839

    Kleber Fernando Pereira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mesenteric artery is a high caliber vessel dependent on the abdominal artery, right below the emergence of the vessels destined for the liver and stomach. The present study aimed to describe the behavior of the arterial vessel in the small intestine of the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus. The animals were collected on highways (roadkill. Cannulation of the abdominal aorta, perfusion with warmed water (40°C and stained latex injection (Neoprene 450, Dupont do Brasil and Sulvinil stain, Glassuret S.A were performed, followed by formaldehyde fixation (10%. The dissection and photographic documents (Sony Cyber-shot, 8.1 megapixels made it possible to systemize the arteries and define the vascular patterns of the viscera. It was verified that the mesenteric cranial artery supports the entire jejune and the mesenteric portion of the ileum. Next to the mesenteric border, it becomes an anastomosis forming vascular arches from where straight arteries leave, supplying the mesenteric portion and sometimes also the jejunal anti-mesenteric portion. The artery that irrigates the ileum comes up as a branch of the cranial mesenteric artery. Anatomic knowledge of the vascular pattern of the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus is of fundamental importance for researches regarding the arterial distribution of the intestine considering anatomic variances.The mesenteric artery is a high caliber vessel dependent on the abdominal artery, right below the emergence of the vessels destined for the liver and stomach. The present study aimed to describe the behavior of the arterial vessel in the small intestine of the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus. The animals were collected on highways (roadkill. Cannulation of the abdominal aorta, perfusion with warmed water (40°C and stained latex injection (Neoprene 450, Dupont do Brasil and Sulvinil stain, Glassuret S.A were performed, followed by formaldehyde fixation (10%. The dissection and photographic documents (Sony Cyber-shot, 8.1 megapixels made it possible to systemize the arteries and define the vascular patterns of the viscera. It was verified that the mesenteric cranial artery supports the entire jejune and the mesenteric portion of the ileum. Next to the mesenteric border, it becomes an anastomosis forming vascular arches from where straight arteries leave, supplying the mesenteric portion and sometimes also the jejunal anti-mesenteric portion. The artery that irrigates the ileum comes up as a branch of the cranial mesenteric artery. Anatomic knowledge of the vascular pattern of the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus is of fundamental importance for researches regarding the arterial distribution of the intestine considering anatomic variances.

  2. Traumatic degloving lesion of penile and scrotal skin

    Luiz A. Zanettini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avulsions of penile and scrotal skin are uncommon events and are caused mainly by accidents with industrial machines and agricultural machine belts. We report the case of a 30-year old patient with avulsion and traumatic degloving of the penile and scrotal skin, with exposure of the cavernous bodies, spongy body, and testes due to an industrial machine accident. Reconstruction was performed in steps, achieving a satisfactory esthetic result, normal voiding and reestablished sexual function.

  3. Penile Agenesis: Report on 8 Cases and Review of Literature

    Alireza Mirshemirani; Ahmad Khaleghnejad; Hoshang Pourang; Naser Sadeghian; Mohsen Rouzrokh; Shadab Salehpour

    2009-01-01

    Background:Penile agenesis (PA) is an extremely rare anomaly with profound urological and psychological consequences. The opening of the urethra could be either over the pubis or at any point on perineum or most frequently in anterior wall of the rectum. The aim of treatment is an early female gender assignment and feminizing reconstruction of the perineum. Case(s) Presentation:We report 8 cases of penile agenesis with urination and defecation through the rectum, apparently normal scrotum, bi...

  4. Pulmonary Artery Invasion, High-Dose Radiation, and Overall Survival in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose radiation to the pulmonary artery (PA) affects overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Patients with medically inoperable/unresectable NSCLC treated with definitive radiation therapy in prospective studies were eligible for this study. Pulmonary artery involvement was defined on the basis of pretreatment chest CT and positron emission tomography/CT fusion. Pulmonary artery was contoured according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1106 atlas, and dose-volume histograms were generated. Results: A total of 100 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year for surviving patients were enrolled: 82.0% underwent concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Radiation dose ranged from 60 to 85.5 Gy in 30-37 fractions. Patients with PA invasion of grade ≤2, 3, 4, and 5 had 1-year OS and median survival of 67% and 25.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.7-35.1), 62% and 22.2 months (95% CI 5.8-38.6), 90% and 35.8 months (95% CI 28.4-43.2), and 50% and 7.0 months, respectively (P=.601). Two of the 4 patients with grade 5 PA invasion died suddenly from massive hemorrhage at 3 and 4.5 months after completion of radiation therapy. Maximum and mean doses to PA were not significantly associated with OS. The V45, V50, V55, and V60 of PA were correlated significantly with a worse OS (P<.05). Patients with V45 >70% or V60 >37% had significantly worse OS (13.3 vs 37.9 months, P<.001, and 13.8 vs 37.9 months, P=.04, respectively). Conclusions: Grade 5 PA invasion and PA volume receiving more than 45-60 Gy may be associated with inferior OS in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with concurrent chemoradiation

  5. Combination of bronchial artery infusion chemotherapy and radiation therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Objective: To compare the efficacy between bronchial artery infusion (BAI) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy plus radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: One hundred and twenty-one patients with stage III NSCLC were randomized into treatment group (58 cases) and control group (63 cases). In the treatment group, all patients were administered with BAI for 2-3 sessions, followed by irradiation 4-7 days after BAI. In the control group, altogether 4-6 cycles of standard systemic chemotherapy were given. Radiation was delivered alternately between the cycles of chemotherapy. Results: The short-term, long-term survival, median response duration and median survival time were similar between the two groups, except patients with stage IIIb who had a higher distant metastasis rate in the treatment group. The major side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy were hematological, gastrointestinal toxicities, pneumonitis, mediastinitis, and esophagitis, respectively. The side effects were milder, better tolerated and did not influence the regimen schedule in the treatment group, as compared with the control group. Seven patients withdrew from the control group, and in 28 patients, the scheduled chemotherapy and radiation was delayed or canceled. Conclusions: Bronchial artery infusion plus radiation is more advantageous over systemic chemotherapy plus radiation in less toxicities, better compliance, shorter treatment courses and more cost-effectiveness

  6. Histologic findings after in vivo placement of small intestine submucosal vascular grafts and saphenous vein grafts in the carotid artery in dogs.

    Sandusky, G E; S F Badylak; Morff, R. J.; Johnson, W. D.; Lantz, G.

    1992-01-01

    A small caliber vascular graft from porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS) was implanted in a canine carotid artery (n = 24) and compared with an autogenous saphenous vein graft that was implanted in the contralateral carotid artery. In this study, four grafts were evaluated at the following times after surgery: 2, 7, 14, 28, 90, and 180 days. One SIS graft thrombosed at 2 days, two SIS and two saphenous vein grafts were thrombosed at 90 days, and one SIS and one saphenous vein graft were th...

  7. Simultaneous penile prosthesis and male sling/artificial urinary sphincter.

    Lee, Dominic; Romero, Claudio; Alba, Frances; Westney, O Lenaine; Wang, Run

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from urethral sphincteric deficiency is not an uncommon problem. The commonest etiology is intervention for localized prostate cancer and/or radical cystoprostatectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Despite advances in surgical technology with robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and nerve sparing techniques, the rates of ED and SUI remain relatively unchanged. They both impact greatly on quality of life domains and have been associated with poor performance outcomes. Both the artificial urinary sphincter and penile prosthesis are gold standard treatments with proven efficacy, satisfaction and durability for end-stage SUI and ED respectively. Simultaneous prosthesis implantation for concurrent conditions has been well described, mostly in small retrospective series. The uptake of combination surgery has been slow due in part to technical demands of the surgery and to an extent, a heightened anxiety over potential complications. This paper aims to discuss the technical aspect of concurrent surgery for both disease entity and the current published outcomes of the various surgical techniques with this approach. PMID:23202702

  8. Effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions

    Laessøe, Line; Sønksen, Jens; Bagi, Per; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Ohl, Dana A; McGuire, Edward J; Kristensen, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions.......We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions....

  9. Evaluation of small ischemic lesions after carotid artery stenting: the usefulness of thin-slice diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Yamatogi, Shigenari; Furukawa, Matakazu; Iida, Etsushi; Takahashi, Shotaro; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Ishihara, Hideyuki; Kato, Shoichi; Suzuki, Michiyasu [Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    There has been concern regarding the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to evaluate the ischemic lesions associated with carotid artery stent placement (CAS). Some small lesions may be detected not by standard DWI but by thin-slice DWI alone, since most of the cerebral lesions are very small in size and clinically silent. The purpose of this study is to compare the detectability of the small ischemic lesions after CAS by standard and thin-slice DWI. Both standard DWI with slice thickness of 6 mm and thin-slice DWI with slice thickness of 2 mm were obtained at the same MR examination within 2 to 7 days after 20 procedures of CAS in 17 patients. Number and measured diameter size of the detected lesions on both DWI were compared. All CAS procedures in 17 patients were successfully completed. The focal ischemic lesions were detected in 14 of 20 on thin-slice DWI and seven examinations on standard DWI. The total numbers of hyperintense lesions were 31 on thin-slice DWI and ten on standard DWI (p < 0.001). The sizes of these ten lesions on thin-slice DWI were larger than those of standard DWI, and the mean size of the thin-slice DWI and that of standard DWI were significantly different (p < 0.005). Thin-slice DWI was able to detect small cortical lesions better than standard DWI. Thin-slice DWI may be useful to evaluate small silent ischemic lesions after CAS. (orig.)

  10. AB023. Penile augmentation surgery: characteristics of artificial graft material and preoperative preparation

    Lee, Woong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Penile augmentation surgical procedure includes diverse graft materials such as artificial collagen material as well as dermo-fat graft. Important factors of postoperative satisfaction are natural appearance of genitalia at the flaccid state and minimal resorption of graft volume. Artificial collagen materials and acellular dermal matrix are available for surgical procedure with variable size. History of penile augmentation surgery: Pediatric penile surgical procedure for lengthening and reconstructive surgery was developed as penile plastic surgical procedure combined with dermo-fat graft. In 1971, Kelly, Eraklis et al. reported preservation of dorsal neurovascular bundle and division of corporal crus from ischiopubic ramus for penile lengthening procedure. In 1974, Johnson reported the surgical cases in epispadias patient as division of crus from ischiopubic ramus and penile skin graft. The procedures include division of suspensory ligament and blunt dissection of fundiform ligament. In 1970’s Horton reported suprapubic fat resection and Z-plasty with anchoring on Scarpa’s fascia for lengthening procedure. In 1980’s several fat injection procedures in Darto’s fascia have been reported for girth enhancement but they were lack of reproducibility. (1year Resorption 50%) Later reports the result of cystic nodule, lump formation and fat migration. In 1990’s V-Y plasty for lengthening was reported. Historically illegal liquid injection materials with non-medical hands were reported as correction or reconstructive procedures for removal and treatment of deformed genitalia. In 1992 Horton reported flank abdominal free dermo-fat graft to Darto’s fascia. This procedure showed fair graft survival rate and developed to buttock skin crease dermo-fat graft. Medical grade silicone; long-term implantable; Gortex plate, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE); Acelluar dermal graft/(Alloderm, Surederm); Acellular xenogeniccollagen structure/(Lyoplant, Terudermis); Autologous tissue culture procedure with PLGA scaffold; Complex synthetic collagen with elastin (Matriderm); SIS (small intestine submucosa, porcine SIS). 48-72 h; Tissue fluid diffusion, 4 days; circulation and beginning of collagen accumulation. Initial graft survival depends on tissue condition and vascular supply of recipient bed. For stable vascular permeability graft should be anchored to recipient bed tissue. The prerequisites for wound healing; no infection, no hematoma, no seroma. Skin suture with no tension. Dermo-fat thickness less than 1 cm. Minimal incision on Darto’s fascia (external pudendal system). Graft anchoring between internal pudendal system and Buck’s fascia. Successful penile augmentation procedure means not only excellent surgical procedure and good wound healing process, but also patient subjective satisfaction. Preoperative interview with the patient is important for understanding the anatomy, procedure and goal of augmentation surgery. Also the proper selection of graft material is also important factor of successful girth enhancement with graft survival.

  11. Activation of endothelial and epithelial KCa2.3 calcium-activated potassium channels by NS309 relaxes human small pulmonary arteries and bronchioles

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Gorm; Laursen, Britt E; Pilegaard, Hans; Köhler, Ralf; Simonsen, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Small (KCa2) and intermediate (KCa3.1) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa) may contribute to both epithelium- and endothelium-dependent relaxations, but this has not been established in human pulmonary arteries and bronchioles. Therefore, we investigated the expression of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, and hypothesized that activation of these channels would produce relaxation of human bronchioles and pulmonary arteries. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Channel expression and functional studies were conducted in human isolated small pulmonary arteries and bronchioles. KCa2 and KCa3.1 currents were examined in human small airways epithelial (HSAEpi) cells by whole-cell patch clamp techniques. RESULTS While KCa2.3 expression was similar, KCa3.1 protein was more highly expressed in pulmonary arteries than bronchioles. Immunoreactive KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 proteins were found in both endothelium and epithelium. KCa currents were present in HSAEpi cells and sensitive to the KCa2.3 blocker UCL1684 and the KCa3.1 blocker TRAM-34. In pulmonary arteries contracted by U46619 and in bronchioles contracted by histamine, the KCa2.3/ KCa3.1 activator, NS309, induced concentration-dependent relaxations. NS309 was equally potent in relaxing pulmonary arteries, but less potent in bronchioles, than salbutamol. NS309 relaxations were blocked by the KCa2 channel blocker apamin, while the KCa3.1 channel blocker, charybdotoxin failed to reduce relaxation to NS309 (0.01–1 µM). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels are expressed in the endothelium of human pulmonary arteries and epithelium of bronchioles. KCa2.3 channels contributed to endo- and epithelium-dependent relaxations suggesting that these channels are potential targets for treatment of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:22506557

  12. The subclavian artery and its branches in the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

    Blagojević Zdenka M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within experimental, human and veterinary medicine, more and more attention has been paid to experimental animals. One of them being the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus. The small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus has a shod muzzle, small teeth, and is mostly of gray-greenish color; the lower pan of its neck, chest, belly and inner sides of its thoracic limbs being whitish. Its total length is about 110 cm, the tail being 50 cm long. On its head, on both sides, there are white hairs directed towards the neck, reminiscent of whiskers. The monkeys have large buccal sacs. The extremities and tail are more gray than the rest of the body. The skin of the face, ears and fore limbs is black. The digits are very long, whilst the thumb short. Cell cultures from the small green monkey are used for the cultivation of poliovirus in the manufacture of vaccines against poliomyelitis. In addition, kidney cultures from the same monkey serve for detection of the virus in biological material. This was the main reason that prompted us to undertake a study of one part of the monkey's cardiosvascular system and thus contribute to a better understanding of the structure of its body.

  13. Patient and partner outcome of inflatable and semi-rigid penile prosthesis in a single institution

    Ibrahim Halil Bozkurt; Burak Arslan; Tarik Yonguç; Zafer Kozacioglu; Tansu Degirmenci; Bulent Gunlusoy; Suleyman Minareci

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction:Penile prostheses are subject to a continuous development and have gained better mechanical reliability and safety during the last decades. In this study, we aimed to investigate the outcomes and satisfaction rates of inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) and semirigid penile prosthesis (SPP) implantation.Materials and Methods:From August 2001 to June 2012, 257 men with erectile dysfunction (ED) underwent penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) at our institution. Of the 257 pa...

  14. The impact of sexual activity on serum hormone levels after penile prosthesis implantation

    Onder Canguven; Talib, Raidh A; Ahmed Shamsodini; Abdulla Al Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Penile prosthesis implantation is the final treatment option for patients who have erectile dysfunction. Most of the patients use their penile prosthesis successfully and frequently for penile-vaginal intercourse. Previous literature showed that decrease in sexual activity resulted in decreased serum testosterone levels and vice versa. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sexual activity on serum sex hormone levels after penile prosthesis usage. Material and methods:...

  15. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (mean age 62.2 years, range 28-87 years) with clinically lymph node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (stage T2 or greater). Following local anaesthesia by xy-locaine 10% spray, technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 64.8 MBq, range 40-131 MBq) in a volume of 0.3-0.4 ml was injected intradermally around the tumour. Shortly after injection, a 20-min dynamic study was performed with a dual-head gamma camera; subsequently, static anterior and lateral images were obtained at 30 min and 2 h using simultaneous cobalt-57 flood source transmission scanning. 57Co-assisted skin marking defined SN location for gamma probe/blue dye-guided biopsy, which was performed the next day. The SN visualization rate was 97% (72/74). Lymphatic drainage was bilateral in 81% of the cases (58/72), exclusively to the left groin in 13% (9/72) and only to the right groin in 6%. Bilateral lymph node drainage was synchronous in 38% (22/58) and asynchronous in 62% (in 18 patients the initial route was the left groin, and in the other 18, the right groin). Visualization before 30 min occurred in 66 patients (93%), in 64 of them (88%) already during the dynamic study. A total of 173 SNs were visualized (85 in the right groin, 88 in the left groin). Pitfalls were caused by inguinal skin contamination during injection (four patients) and intracavernous administration (one patient). At surgery, a total of 161 SNs were identified and removed. Sixteen patients (22%) had a tumour-positive SN and underwent standard regional lymph node dissection subsequently. During follow-up (median 28 months, range 3-74 months), two patients with a negative SN developed lymph node metastases in the mapped basin. It is concluded that penile lymphoscintigraphy is a valid and well-tolerated method for lymphatic mapping and SN identification. Although bilateral early inguinal drainage is the most frequent pattern, late imaging is recommended principally in patients with initial unilateral drainage in order to exclude delayed lymph node filling in the contralateral groin. SN identification may lead to a more accurate staging and avoid extensive lymph node dissection in the majority of patients with penile carcinoma. (orig.)

  16. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Tanis, P.J.; Jansen, L.; Nieweg, O.E. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Meinhardt, W.; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    2001-05-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (mean age 62.2 years, range 28-87 years) with clinically lymph node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (stage T2 or greater). Following local anaesthesia by xy-locaine 10% spray, technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 64.8 MBq, range 40-131 MBq) in a volume of 0.3-0.4 ml was injected intradermally around the tumour. Shortly after injection, a 20-min dynamic study was performed with a dual-head gamma camera; subsequently, static anterior and lateral images were obtained at 30 min and 2 h using simultaneous cobalt-57 flood source transmission scanning. {sup 57}Co-assisted skin marking defined SN location for gamma probe/blue dye-guided biopsy, which was performed the next day. The SN visualization rate was 97% (72/74). Lymphatic drainage was bilateral in 81% of the cases (58/72), exclusively to the left groin in 13% (9/72) and only to the right groin in 6%. Bilateral lymph node drainage was synchronous in 38% (22/58) and asynchronous in 62% (in 18 patients the initial route was the left groin, and in the other 18, the right groin). Visualization before 30 min occurred in 66 patients (93%), in 64 of them (88%) already during the dynamic study. A total of 173 SNs were visualized (85 in the right groin, 88 in the left groin). Pitfalls were caused by inguinal skin contamination during injection (four patients) and intracavernous administration (one patient). At surgery, a total of 161 SNs were identified and removed. Sixteen patients (22%) had a tumour-positive SN and underwent standard regional lymph node dissection subsequently. During follow-up (median 28 months, range 3-74 months), two patients with a negative SN developed lymph node metastases in the mapped basin. It is concluded that penile lymphoscintigraphy is a valid and well-tolerated method for lymphatic mapping and SN identification. Although bilateral early inguinal drainage is the most frequent pattern, late imaging is recommended principally in patients with initial unilateral drainage in order to exclude delayed lymph node filling in the contralateral groin. SN identification may lead to a more accurate staging and avoid extensive lymph node dissection in the majority of patients with penile carcinoma. (orig.)

  17. Identification of somatic gene mutations in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    Ferrndiz-Pulido, Carla; Hernndez-Losa, Javier; Masferrer, Emili; Vivancos, Ana; Somoza, Rosa; Mars, Roso; Valverde, Claudia; Salvador, Carlos; Placer, Jose; Morote, Juan; Pujol, Ramon M; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; de Torres, Ines; Toll, Agusti; Garca-Patos, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of studies on somatic gene mutations and cell signaling driving penile carcinogenesis. Our objective was to analyze somatic mutations in genes downstream of EGFR in penile squamous cell carcinomas, especially the mTOR and RAS/MAPK pathways. We retrospectively analyzed somatic mutations in 10 in situ and 65 invasive penile squamous cell carcinomas by using Sequenom's Mass Spectrometry iPlex Technology and Oncocarta v1.0 Panel. The DNA was extracted from FFPE blocks and we identified somatic missense mutations in three in situ tumors and in 19 invasive tumors, mostly in PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and PDGFA genes. Somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene or RAS family genes were neither associated with tumor grade, stage or outcome, and were equally often identified in hrHPV positive and in hrHPV negative tumors that showed no p53 expression. Mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, and HRAS are frequent in penile squamous cell carcinoma and likely play a role in the development of p53-negative tumors. Although the presence of these mutations does not seem to correlate with tumoral behavior or outcome, they could be biomarkers of treatment failure with anti-EGFR mAb in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26216163

  18. Clinicopathological features of carcinoma of the distal penile urethra.

    Corbishley, Catherine M; Rajab, Ramzi M; Watkin, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Distal urethral carcinomas are very rare and are similar in their pathology and behaviour to tumours of the glans penis and foreskin. Similarly they are associated with penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) of both differentiated and undifferentiated types. Current management is mainly surgical, but increasingly involves specialist penile-preserving techniques. Handling and dissection of the specimens is broadly the same as other primary penile tumours. The prognosis of distal urethral lesions is believed to be worse than penile tumours and better than prostatic urethral tumours, but the evidence is sparse. The staging system for urethral tumours does not distinguish between proximal and distal, apart from prostatic urethra, and has led to much confusion in the literature. Although the subtypes of tumours seen in the distal urethra are the same as those on the glans and foreskin, there is an increased proportion of basaloid squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma whereas the majority of tumours seen in the proximal and prostatic urethra are of urothelial origin. In future, distal urethral tumours should be separately designated with site-specific staging/TNM and reporting system and pathologically classified in the same way as penile and foreskin tumours. Ultimately, this will improve the quality of data and produce evidence to inform management. PMID:25656527

  19. Imaging in primary penile cancer: current status and future directions

    Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm in the developed world. Clinical assessment often results in inaccurate staging and radiological techniques have a key role in staging and postoperative assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts penile anatomy in detail and is the most accurate technique for local staging and postoperative follow-up. MRI and ultrasound (US), although helpful for assessment of lymph nodes, are not reliable enough for accurate nodal staging. US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), however, remains a valuable tool to confirm metastases in suspicious inguinal nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy with dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) is a promising technique used to predict occult lymph node metastases. Novel imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) and nanoparticle enhanced MRI have high sensitivity and specificity for lymph node metastases but their availability is limited and clinical utility is not fully established. The radiologist needs to be familiar with the normal penile anatomy, imaging appearances of pre- and post-treatment penile cancer, and the advantages and limitations of the available imaging techniques. This review highlights the above points and presents a systematic approach to make the best use of imaging in the management of patients with penile cancer. (orig.)

  20. Supplementation with n3 fatty acid ethyl esters increases large and small artery elasticity in obese adults on a weight loss diet.

    Wong, Annette T Y; Chan, Dick C; Barrett, P Hugh R; Adams, Leon A; Watts, Gerald F

    2013-04-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease in obese individuals. Whether n3 fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) supplementation improves arterial stiffness in obese participants on a weight loss diet has not yet been investigated. The objective of the study was to carry out a 12-wk randomized, single-blind trial to test the effect of a 25% energy deficit weight loss diet alone (WL) (n = 12) or WL plus 4 g/d Omacor (46% EPA and 38% DHA) supplementation (WL+FAEE) (n = 13) on arterial elasticity in obese adults. Large (C1) and small artery elasticity (C2) were measured by pulse contour analysis of the radial artery. WL alone reduced (P FAEE intervention significantly reduced body weight (-4%), waist circumference (-4%), systolic (-8%) and diastolic (-5%) blood pressures, pulse pressure (-5%), heart rate (-8%), plasma TG concentration (-36%), and HOMA score (-12%) and increased stroke volume (+3%), plasma HDL cholesterol (+6%) and adiponectin concentrations (+28%), and C1 (+20%) and C2 (+22%) artery elasticity. The changes in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma TGs, C1, and C2 were significantly greater in the WL+FAEE group than in the WL group. Supplementation with n3 FAEEs improves C1 and C2 independently of weight loss in obese adults. PMID:23365106

  1. Penile Dysmorphic Disorder: Development of a Screening Scale.

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-11-01

    Penile dysmorphic disorder (PDD) is shorthand for men diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder, in whom the size or shape of the penis is their main, if not their exclusive, preoccupation causing significant shame or handicap. There are no specific measures for identifying men with PDD compared to men who are anxious about the size of their penis but do not have PDD. Such a measure might be helpful for treatment planning, reducing unrealistic expectations, and measuring outcome after any psychological or physical intervention. Our aim was, therefore, to validate a specific measure, termed the Cosmetic Procedure Screening Scale for PDD (COPS-P). Eighty-one male participants were divided into three groups: a PDD group (n = 21), a small penis anxiety group (n = 37), and a control group (n = 23). All participants completed the COPS-P as well as standardized measures of depression, anxiety, social phobia, body image, quality of life, and erectile function. Penis size was also measured. The final COPS-P was based on nine items. The scale had good internal reliability and significant convergent validity with measures of related constructs. It discriminated between the PDD group, the small penis anxiety group, and the control group. This is the first study to develop a scale able to discriminate between those with PDD and men anxious about their size who did not have PDD. Clinicians and researchers may use the scale as part of an assessment for men presenting with anxiety about penis size and as an audit or outcome measure after any intervention for this population. PMID:25731908

  2. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Cavalcanti Andre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  3. Osteosarcoma of the penile bone (os penis) in a dog.

    Peppler, C; Weissert, D; Kappe, E; Klump, S; Kramer, M; Reinacher, M; Neiger, R

    2009-01-01

    Osteosarcoma of the penile bone was diagnosed in a 5-year-old neutered male Rottweiler with recurrent dysuria. Imaging and cytological findings raised the suspicion for an osteosarcoma and ablation of the entire penis and scrotal urethrostomy was performed. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The dog recovered well and no postoperative signs of dysuria were observed. The dog survived without adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months when multiple tumours in the thorax and abdomen led to it being euthanased. Penile osteosarcoma is a rare disease, but must be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs presenting with dysuria. This is the second recorded case of a penile osteosarcoma in a dog, but the first with a detailed description of the diagnosis, treatment and outcome. PMID:19178479

  4. Outcomes of Small Coronary Artery Stenting with Bare-Metal Stents vs. Drug-Eluting Stents: Results from the NHLBI Dynamic Registry

    Parikh, Shailja V.; Luna, Michael; Selzer, Faith; Marroquin, Oscar C.; Mulukutla, Suresh R.; Abbott, J. Dawn; Holper, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Examine one year outcomes of patients with small coronary arteries in the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry (NHLBI) undergoing drug-eluting stent (DES) vs. bare-metal stent (BMS) placement. Background While randomized trials of DES vs. BMS demonstrate reduced target vessel revascularization, it is unclear if similar outcomes are seen in unselected patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for small coronary arteries. Methods Utilizing patients from the NHLBI Registry Waves 1–3 for BMS (1997–2002) and Waves 4–5 for DES (2004 and 2006), demographic, angiographic, in-hospital and one-year outcome data of patients with small coronary arteries treated with BMS (n= 686) vs. DES (n= 669) were evaluated. Small coronary artery was defined as 2.50 – 3.00 mm in diameter. Results Compared to BMS-treated patients, the mean lesion length of treated lesions was longer in the DES treated group (16.7 vs. 13.1 mm, p<0.001) and the mean reference vessel size of attempted lesions was smaller (2.6 vs. 2.7 mm, p<0.001). Adjusted analyses of one year outcomes revealed that DES patients were at lower risk to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.40, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.17–0.95, p=0.04), repeat PCI (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.35–0.82, p=0.004), and experience the combined major adverse cardiovascular event rate (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42–0.83, p=0.002). There was no difference in the risk of death and myocardial infarction (MI) (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.46–1.35, p=0.38). Conclusions In this real-world registry, patients with small coronary arteries treated with DES had significantly lower rates of repeat revascularization and major adverse cardiovascular events at one year compared to patients treated with BMS, with no increase in the risk of death and MI. These data confirm the efficacy and safety of DES over BMS in the treatment of small coronary arteries in routine clinical practice. PMID:21735515

  5. Incidence of penile curvature in various forms of hypospadias

    Đorđević Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the penis, characterised by ectopically positioned urethral meatus and associated anomalies (cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia, penile curvature. Proximal forms of hypospadias, as severe cases, are particularly accompanied by penile curvature (chordee. Distal types are considered to be mild degrees. Objective. To determine the incidence of congenital curvature within various forms of hypospadias in order to signify preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of chordee as a part of hypospadias repair. Methods. The total of 454 patients with hypospadias were treated surgically in a five-year period (2001-2006. at the University Children's Hospital of Belgrade. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgeon who had treated them. Only the first group of patients was tested for chordee as a part of standard procedure and complete treatment. In both groups we analyzed the number of patients treated for penile curvature within various types of hypospadias. We also compared scores in the two groups using Fisher test and χ2-test. Results. Scanning retrospective, 104 cases (22.9% of diagnosed and surgically corrected chordee were determined. In 31.6% of patients from the first group and 11.6% of patients from the second group we diagnosed and corrected some form of penile curvature was. Chordee was significantly more frequent in the first group, regarding hypospadias in general (p<0.01, as well as distal (p<0.05 and mid shaft forms (p<0.01. Conclusion. Penile curvature is not uncommon in hypospadias. In this study we report a significantly higher frequency as related to the patients in the second group who were not tested for curvature during hypospadias treatment. This is why standard techniques in hypospadias repair should definitely include the diagnosis and surgical correction of penile curvature.

  6. Partial removal of the pulmonary artery in video-assisted thoracic surgery for non-small cell lung cancer

    Xu, Keping; Zhang, Zhi; Zhao, Jianqiang; Huang, Jianfeng; Yin, Rong; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Lobectomy with partial removal of the pulmonary artery in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) currently remains a challenge for thoracic surgeons. We were interested in introducing pulmonary vessel blocking techniques in open thoracic surgery into video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) procedures. In this study, we reported a surgical technique simultaneously blocking the pulmonary artery and the pulmonary vein for partial removal of the pulmonary artery under VATS. Seven patients with non...

  7. Silicone-induced Penile Sclerosing Lipogranuloma: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Tsili, Athina C; Xiropotamou, Olga N; Nomikos, Michael; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing lipogranuloma is a rare benign disease, representing a peculiar granulomatous reaction of fatty tissue. The majority of cases are secondary to injection of exogenous foreign bodies, such as silicone, paraffin, mineral, or vegetable oils. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of a silicone-induced penile lipogranuloma in a 52-year-old man evaluated with a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, including diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI of the penis by combining both conventional and functional information represents an important imaging tool in the preoperative workup of silicone-induced penile lipogranuloma.

  8. Penile cutaneous horn: An enigma-newer insights and perspectives

    Kaliaperumal Karthikeyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn refers to unusually cohesive keratinized material and not a true pathologic diagnosis. Though cutaneous horn has been described at various sites, horn over the penis is very rare and represents the most unusual site. The role of chronic irritation, phimosis, surgical trauma and radiotherapy have been implicated in penile horn formation. Penile horns present as elongated, keratinous, white or yellowish projections that range from a few millimeters to centimeters in size arising from the glans penis. Histopathology of the keratotic mass reveals nothing but keratin. The underlying mass may vary from verruca vulgaris to squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment is based on the pathology.

  9. Penile metastasis from rectal cancer by PET/CT.

    Alzayed, Mohammed Fahad; Artho, Giovanni; Nahal, Ayoub; Hickeson, Marc

    2015-04-01

    It is extremely rare for rectal tumors to metastasize to the penis, and when it occurs, it is associated with poor prognosis. The appearance of penile metastasis from rectal primary tumor on PET imaging has not been widely reported. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with previous history of treated stage III adenocarcinoma of the rectum 26 months ago. The restaging 18F-FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated a hypermetabolic mass at the base of his penile shaft. This lesion was confirmed on core biopsy to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma of colorectal origin consistent with the known primary rectal tumor. PMID:25546188

  10. Associations between arterial stiffness, depressive symptoms and cerebral small vessel disease: cross-sectional findings from the AGES-Reykjavik Study

    van Sloten, Thomas T.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; van Buchem, Mark A.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henry, Ronald M.A.; Levey, Andrew S.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness may contribute to depression via cerebral microvascular damage, but evidence for this is scarce. We therefore investigated whether arterial stiffness is associated with depressive symptoms and whether cerebral small vessel disease contributes to this association. Methods This cross-sectional study included a subset of participants from the AGES-Reykjavik study second examination round, which was conducted from 2007 to 2011. Arterial stiffness (carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity [CFPWV]), depressive symptoms (15-item geriatric depression scale [GDS-15]) and cerebral small vessel disease (MRI) were determined. Manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease included higher white matter hyperintensity volume, subcortical infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, Virchow–Robin spaces and lower total brain parenchyma volume. Results We included 2058 participants (mean age 79.6 yr; 59.0% women) in our analyses. Higher CFPWV was associated with a higher GDS-15 score, after adjustment for potential confounders (β 0.096, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.005–0.187). Additional adjustment for white matter hyperintensity volume or subcortical infarcts attenuated the association between CFPWV and the GDS-15 score, which became nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Formal mediation tests showed that the attenuating effects of white matter hyperintensity volume and subcortical infarcts were statistically significant. Virchow–Robin spaces, cerebral microbleeds and cerebral atrophy did not explain the association between CFPWV and depressive symptoms. Limitations Our study was limited by its cross-sectional design, which precludes any conclusions about causal mediation. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Conclusion Greater arterial stiffness is associated with more depressive symptoms; this association is partly accounted for by white matter hyperintensity volume and subcortical infarcts. This study supports the hypothesis that arterial stiffness leads to depression in part via cerebral small vessel disease. PMID:26505140

  11. Serum YKL-40 and uterine artery Doppler – a prospective cohort study, with focus on preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid; Johansen, Julia; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Skibsted, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test if serum YKL-40 is increased in women developing preeclampsia or small-for-gestational age fetuses. We also assessed the association between uterine artery pulsatility index, notching and serum YKL-40 levels. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A primary referral unit for......-week fetal growth examinations. Uterine artery Doppler was assessed and outcome was registered from medical records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preeclampsia, hypertension, small-for-gestational age. RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 was associated with increasing maternal age (p < 0.0001), body mass index (p = 0.......0002), primiparity (p = 0.0003), and hypertension (p = 0.015). Serum YKL-40 increased from 12 to 20 weeks and decreased from 20-25 and 25-32 weeks of gestation. No association was found between preeclampsia and serum YKL-40. Small-for-gestational-age at birth was significantly associated with a 5.4% increase in...

  12. Penile length of newborns and children in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Annang Giri Moelyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Penile length is a factor for assessing abnormalities in external genitalia. To diagnose micropenis, a condition in which penile length is 36 weeks newborns were 1.88 (SD 0.14 cm and 2.37 (SD 0.26 cm, respectively. The mean penile lengths by age groupings were as follows: 0-<6 months, 2.67 (SD 0.58 cm; 6-<12 months, 2.67 (SD 0.58 cm; 1-<3 years, 2.80 (SD 0.84 cm; 3-<5 years, 3.50 (SD 0.55 cm; 5-<7 years, 3.50 (SD 0.71 cm; 7-<9 years, 3.85 (SD 0.53 cm; 9-<11 years, 4.50 (SD 0.71 cm; 11-<13 years, 4.63 (SD 1.13 cm; 13-<15 years, 5.53 (SD 1.45 cm; and 15-18 years, 6.16 (SD 1.19 cm.Conclusion Normal penile length in boys in Surakarta is smaller than the normal range reference currently in use.

  13. [Penile dressings of C.M.H. silicone elastomer foam].

    Mollard, P

    1984-01-01

    We found silicone foam elastomer (produit by C.M.H. lab.) to be an excellent post-operative penile dressing. Although compressive the material is elastic enough to avoid ischemia and to allow slight swelling of the penis. Soft, light, it is never adherent to the wound and, thus, is removed easily without discomfort to the patient. PMID:6744501

  14. Dysfunctional penile cholinergic nerves in diabetic impotent men

    Impotence in the diabetic man may be secondary to a neuropathic condition of the autonomic penile nerves. The relationship between autonomic neuropathy and impotence in diabetes was studied in human corporeal tissue obtained during implantation of a penile prosthesis in 19 impotent diabetic and 15 nondiabetic patients. The functional status of penile cholinergic nerves was assessed by determining their ability to accumulate tritiated choline (34), and synthesize (34) and release (19) tritiated-acetylcholine after incubation of corporeal tissue with tritiated-choline (34). Tritiated-choline accumulation, and tritiated-acetylcholine synthesis and release were significantly reduced in the corporeal tissue from diabetic patients compared to that from nondiabetic patients (p less than 0.05). The impairment in acetylcholine synthesis worsened with the duration of diabetes (p less than 0.025). No differences in the parameters measured were found between insulin-dependent (11) and noninsulin-dependent (8) diabetic patients. The ability of the cholinergic nerves to synthesize acetylcholine could not be predicted clinically with sensory vibration perception threshold testing. It is concluded that there is a functional penile neuropathic condition of the cholinergic nerves in the corpus cavernosum of diabetic impotent patients that may be responsible for the erectile dysfunction

  15. Dysfunctional penile cholinergic nerves in diabetic impotent men

    Blanco, R.; Saenz de Tejada, I.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Impotence in the diabetic man may be secondary to a neuropathic condition of the autonomic penile nerves. The relationship between autonomic neuropathy and impotence in diabetes was studied in human corporeal tissue obtained during implantation of a penile prosthesis in 19 impotent diabetic and 15 nondiabetic patients. The functional status of penile cholinergic nerves was assessed by determining their ability to accumulate tritiated choline (34), and synthesize (34) and release (19) tritiated-acetylcholine after incubation of corporeal tissue with tritiated-choline (34). Tritiated-choline accumulation, and tritiated-acetylcholine synthesis and release were significantly reduced in the corporeal tissue from diabetic patients compared to that from nondiabetic patients (p less than 0.05). The impairment in acetylcholine synthesis worsened with the duration of diabetes (p less than 0.025). No differences in the parameters measured were found between insulin-dependent (11) and noninsulin-dependent (8) diabetic patients. The ability of the cholinergic nerves to synthesize acetylcholine could not be predicted clinically with sensory vibration perception threshold testing. It is concluded that there is a functional penile neuropathic condition of the cholinergic nerves in the corpus cavernosum of diabetic impotent patients that may be responsible for the erectile dysfunction.

  16. Penile length of newborns and children in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Annang Giri Moelyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Penile length is a factor for assessing abnormalities in external genitalia. To diagnose micropenis, a condition in which penile length is 36 weeks newborns were 1.88 (SD 0.14 cm and 2.37 (SD 0.26 cm, respectively. The mean penile lengths by age groupings were as follows: 0-<6 months, 2.67 (SD 0.58 cm; 6-<12 months, 2.67 (SD 0.58 cm; 1-<3 years, 2.80 (SD 0.84 cm; 3-<5 years, 3.50 (SD 0.55 cm; 5-<7 years, 3.50 (SD 0.71 cm; 7-<9 years, 3.85 (SD 0.53 cm; 9-<11 years, 4.50 (SD 0.71 cm; 11-<13 years, 4.63 (SD 1.13 cm; 13-<15 years, 5.53 (SD 1.45 cm; and 15-18 years, 6.16 (SD 1.19 cm. Conclusion Normal penile length in boys in Surakarta is smaller than the normal range reference currently in use. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:65-9.].

  17. Penile Strangulation by self-Placement of Metallic Nut.

    Kyei, M Y; Asante, E K; Mensah, J E; Klufio, G O; Paintsil, A; Gepi-Atee, S; Morton, B; Ampadu, K; Toboh, B

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old male who presented with a 12-hour history of a strangulating 2cm wide by 0.8 cm thick metallic nut on the penile shaft at the peno-scrotal junction. Unlike instances where these metallic objects are placed to enhance sexual stimulation this nut was rather placed to prevent intercourse. A Bosch electric circular grinder was successfully used for removal but a thermal burn to the penile tissues was sustained in the process as the hardness of the nut required a high energy to cut and its thickness did not allow for effective cooling during the process of removal. This resulted in a circumferential denudation of penile skin, a urethro-cutaneous fistula at the peno-scrotal junction and a mid-bulbar urethral stricture. The penile wound was subsequently covered with a split skin graft with a delayed closure of the urethrocutaneous fistula and a buccal mucosa patch urethroplasty for the mid bulbar stricture. Despite the degree of thermal burns sustained the patient has maintained good erectile function with grade four rigidity. The tunica albuginea and the underlying corpora cavernosa have shown a significant degree of resilience to thermal burns compared to the corpora spongiosum where the thermal burns led to a urethrocutaneous fistula. PMID:26339086

  18. A case of scrotal elephantiasis 30 years after treatment of penile carcinoma

    Horinaga, Minoru; Masuda, Takeshi; Jitsukawa, Seido [Urawa Municipal Hospital, Saitama (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    A 67-year-old man visited our hospital with complaints of scrotal swelling associated with occasional febrile episodes. Physical examination disclosed a huge scrotal mass, approximately the size of a child`s head, with numerous papillomatous lesions in its surface. His past medical history was significant in that he was diagnosed with penile carcinoma at the age of 35 years old and was treated with partial penectomy followed by radiation and chemotherapy at other hospital. During this admission tumor marker squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and microbiological tests for microfilariae were both negative. Ultrasound (US), computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed markedly thickened scrotal skin and small hydrocele with no evidence of local recurrence of the previous penile carcinoma. A percutaneous cystostomy was created because of chronic urinary retention and possible urine extravasation into the scrotum. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen from the scrotal mass demonstrated lymphagiectasia consistent with elephantiasis of the scrotum. Surgical excision of this huge scrotal mass was performed in August 1997. The resected tissue weighted 1,400 g. Convalescene was uneventful. He subsequently underwent perineal urethrostomy in place of the suprapubic cystostomy. (author)

  19. A case of scrotal elephantiasis 30 years after treatment of penile carcinoma

    A 67-year-old man visited our hospital with complaints of scrotal swelling associated with occasional febrile episodes. Physical examination disclosed a huge scrotal mass, approximately the size of a child's head, with numerous papillomatous lesions in its surface. His past medical history was significant in that he was diagnosed with penile carcinoma at the age of 35 years old and was treated with partial penectomy followed by radiation and chemotherapy at other hospital. During this admission tumor marker squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and microbiological tests for microfilariae were both negative. Ultrasound (US), computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed markedly thickened scrotal skin and small hydrocele with no evidence of local recurrence of the previous penile carcinoma. A percutaneous cystostomy was created because of chronic urinary retention and possible urine extravasation into the scrotum. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen from the scrotal mass demonstrated lymphagiectasia consistent with elephantiasis of the scrotum. Surgical excision of this huge scrotal mass was performed in August 1997. The resected tissue weighted 1,400 g. Convalescene was uneventful. He subsequently underwent perineal urethrostomy in place of the suprapubic cystostomy. (author)

  20. Penile prosthesis implant with bi-triangular excision and graft for surgical therapy of Peyronie's disease: A case report.

    De Freitas Miranda, Alexandre; Lopes Canado Machado, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 65-year-old man, who presented with moderate erectile dysfunction and a dorsal penile deviation of 60 caused by Peyronie's disease. The patient underwent bi-triangularshaped plaque excision, followed by grafting and implantation of inflatable penile prosthesis. Complete penile straightening, without mechanical or geometric abnormalities, was achieved using bi-triangular excision and grafting. Postoperatively, the patient reported high satisfaction with the results and could perform sexual intercourse naturally. This novel technique corrects any degree of penile curvature, permits malleable and semi-rigid penile prosthesis implantation, avoids penile length loss, and eliminates additional incisions. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the literature in which the bi-triangular technique was successfully used for penile prosthesis implantation secondary to Peyronie's disease. This new technique appears to be a good solution to correct penile curvature during penile prosthesis implantation for the treatment of Peyronie's disease associated with erectile dysfunction. PMID:26766812

  1. Anatomical evaluation of penile venous system by CT cavernosography in patients with erectile dysfunction and venous leakage

    P Famili

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erectile dysfunction is an important problem in men and an organic cause is found in about 50% of cases. When a vasculogenic etiology is suspected, imaging assessments are of great help. Cavernosography is traditionally recognized as an imaging modality for evaluation of venous leakage in men with impotency. We employed CT cavernosography as a novel technique for demonstrating penile venous anatomy and leaking veins.Methods: In the present case series study, we recruited 45 patients with erectile dysfunction by convenient sampling at Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during one year (1390. The patients had previously been diagnosed with venous incompetency by Doppler study. After intracavernosal injection of prostaglandin E1, we injected sterile normal saline into the corpora cavernosa to achieve penile erection. Later, we injected contrast media into the corpus cavernosum, which was followed by CT scan of the penis and pelvic area to show the venous anatomy and leakage sites.Results: The mean age of the patients was 35.8±8.9 years. 36 (80% patients had venous leakage in crural veins, 27 (60% in cavernosal veins, 27 (60% in circumflex veins, 24 (52.3% in urethral veins, 21 (46.7% in deep dorsal vein, 3 (6.7% in para-arterial veins and 3 (6.7% in corpus spongiosum. Conclusion: The results of this study show the high prevalence of venous leakage in patients referring for erectile dysfunction. Moreover, CT cavernosography was shown to be a useful method for evaluating penile venous system and its related leakage sites which are important for surgical planning.

  2. [Trans-Arterial Chemoembolization Therapy for Refractory Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Spherical Embolic Material-A Single Case Report].

    Kennoki, Norifumi; Hori, Shinichi; Yuki, Takeo; Sueyoshi, Satoshi; Hori, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report the use of trans-arterial chemoembolization for primary lung cancer. The patient was a 56-year-old woman with refractory Stage ? non-small cell lung cancer who had been treated with repeated systemic chemotherapy. The primary lesion in the right lower lobe was 75mm in size, with multiple lung metastases. It invaded the right main bronchus and caused severe cough. Radiotherapy was not indicated because of the size and extent of the lesion. During a period of 6 months, chemoembolization of the bilateral bronchial arteries using cisplatin 20 mg, docetaxel 20 mg, and 5-FU 250 mg with HepaSphere(super-absorbent polymer microspheres)was performed 5 times. Twenty mg of docetaxel was loaded onto 25 mg of HepaSphere. The microspheres were between 50 and 100 microns in the dry state. The endpoint of embolization was not stasis but the reduction of arterial flow. There were no serious complications during or after the procedure. Immediately after the first session, the patient's cough was significantly improved. After 5 sessions of the same treatment, the primary lesion was reduced to 48mm and the level of CEA was reduced from 9.8 to 4.3 ng/mL. The invasion to the right main bronchus was reduced. The patient has been well without any symptoms for 9 months after initiation of trans-arterial chemoembolization. PMID:26805186

  3. Detection of neuroendocrine tumours in the small intestines using contrast-enhanced multiphase Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT: the potential role of arterial hyperperfusion

    Interpretation of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) by Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT can be difficult. The potential benefit of arterial hyperperfusion for the detection of NETs was evaluated. Between 2006 and 2009, 320 consecutive Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT examinations, performed for NETs, revealed 40 lesions suggesting intestinal NETs in 25 patients. Two groups of lesions were distinguished: epigastric lesions evaluable in the arterial and venous CT scan (Group 1) and hypogastrial lesions evaluable in the venous CT scan only (Group 2). Lesions were jointly rated by two radiologists and a nuclear medicine physician. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) of lesions and background were assessed. The reference standard was histology (available for 28 lesions) or follow-up (for a mean of 22.9 months). PET detected all suspicious lesions but was false positive in 3 lesions. In Group 1 the arterial scan performed significantly better than the venous scan (p = 0.008). Diagnostic performance was better in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p < 0.001). SUVmax of true positive lesions were significantly higher than background SUVmax (p < 0.001) and SUVmax of false positive lesions (p = 0.005). The arterial phase of multiphase Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT might improve the localization of intestinal NETs and, thereby, improve the overall diagnostic accuracy of this modality in the assessment of intestinal NETs by adding information about lesion perfusion not available when only venous CT is performed

  4. Use of inflatable penile prostheses AMS CX with momentary squeeze in a patient with Peyronie’s disease after removal of two previously implanted penile prostheses

    Patrizio Vicini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peyronie's disease (PD is a fibrotic wound-healing condition of the tunica albuginea that results in penile deformity, curvature, hinging, narrowing and shortening, penile pain, and in some cases, erectile dysfunction (ED. Surgery remains the gold standard treatment option, ensuring the faster and trustworthy treatment. For those patients who have erectile dysfunction and PD, penile prosthesis placement with straightening procedure is the best method to solve both diseases. The aim of this article is to present the use of hydraulic penile prostheses AMS CX with Momentary Squeeze associated with a complete isolation of the neurovascular bundle in a complex case after removal of two previously implanted prostheses in a man suffering from Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction. Material and method: A 50 year-old patient underwent two previous prosthetic implants in another hospital. The first implantation was performed using an infrapubic approach followed by placement of a three-component hydraulic penile prosthesis. After six months the prosthesis was removed using an infra-pubic approach and two soft prosthesis Virilis II were implanted during the same surgery. One year after the second operation we implanted a hydraulic penile prosthesis AMS CX with Mo - mentary Squeeze after complete isolation of the neurovascular bundle, fixing the two crural tips at the same level of albuginea of the two corpora cavernosa. Result: Twelve months after surgery the penis was completely straight without penile shortening and the patient was fully satisfied with his sexual life. Conclusion: The procedure enabled a perfect alignment of the cylinders along the longitudinal axis and penile prosthetic symmetry to obtain a good penile rigidity and a perfect penile straightening.

  5. AB023. Penile augmentation surgery: characteristics of artificial graft material and preoperative preparation

    Lee, Woong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Penile augmentation surgical procedure includes diverse graft materials such as artificial collagen material as well as dermo-fat graft. Important factors of postoperative satisfaction are natural appearance of genitalia at the flaccid state and minimal resorption of graft volume. Artificial collagen materials and acellular dermal matrix are available for surgical procedure with variable size. History of penile augmentation surgery: Pediatric penile surgical procedure for lengthening and reco...

  6. Penile Low-Intensity Shock Wave Therapy: A Promising Novel Modality for Erectile Dysfunction

    Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Kitrey, Noam D.; Gruenwald, Ilan; Appel, Boaz; Vardi, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Penile extracorporeal low-intensity shock wave therapy (LIST) to the penis has recently emerged as a novel and promising modality in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). LIST has angiogenic properties and stimulates neovascularization. If applied to the corpora cavernosa, LIST can improve penile blood flow and endothelial function. In a series of clinical trials, including randomized double-blind sham-controlled studies, LIST has been shown to have a substantial effect on penile hemody...

  7. Epidermoid cyst of the coronal sulcus mimicking penile cancer: a case report

    Cormio, Luigi; Mancini, Vito; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Massenio, Paolo; Fucci, Livia; Bufo, Pantaleo; Traficante, Antonio; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidermoid cysts represent common benign tumors occurring anywhere in the body but very rarely in the penis. Only a few cases of penile localization have been reported in the literature so far, most of them being congenital and/or idiopathic, usually presenting in children as slow-growing, solitary, well-delimited cystic lesions. Here, we describe the case of a patient with a penile epidermoid cyst presenting as an ulcerated lesion of the coronal sulcus, thus mimicking penile can...

  8. US and MRI Findings of Penile Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Oh, Ha Yeun [Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Metastatic tumors of the penis originating from the gastrointestinal tract are rare clinical conditions. We experienced a case of penile metastasis in a 59-year-old man who underwent an abdomino-peritoneal resection for a moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rectum 4 years earlier. We report penile ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings on this uncommon metastatic penile tumor from a rectal adenocarcinoma and briefly review radiologic findings and relevant literature

  9. Satisfaction and complications with the Titan® one-touch release penile implant

    Lindeborg, Lisa; Fode, Mikkel; Fahrenkrug, Lasse; Sønksen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    organic erectile dysfunction underwent penile implant surgery during the study period. The Titan OTR inflatable penile implants were inserted using a penoscrotal approach. Patient and partner satisfaction was assessed with the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire....... CONCLUSION: Although it is important to inform patients about potential problems such as infection, pain and mechanical failure, the results show that inflatable penile implants are a good treatment choice for erectile dysfunction when conservative measures have failed....

  10. Combined technetium radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout: A technique for evaluating corpora cavernosal inflow and outflow during early tumescence

    Schwartz, A.N.; Graham, M.M. (Univ. of Washington Medical Center, Seattle (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Combined technetium radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout is a new technique that measures both corporal arterial inflow and venous sinusoidal outflow during early tumescence in patients with erectile dysfunction. Fourteen patients were studied using 99mTc-RBCs to measure inflow and 133Xe or 127Xe in saline to measure outflow. Tumescence was induced by injecting papaverine intracorporally. Peak corporal rates corrected for inflow (r = 0.88) and uncorrected for outflow (r = 0.91) and change in volume over 2 min centered around peak inflow (r = 0.96) all correlated with angiography. Outflow measurements did not correlate with intracorporal resistance. Thus, outflow rates alone could not be used to predict venous sinusoidal competence. Normal inflow rate is greater than 20 ml/min; probable normal 12-20; indeterminate inflow 7-12; and abnormal inflow less than 7 ml/min. Technetium-99m radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout can be performed together and both provide a method for simultaneously evaluating the relationship between corporal inflow and outflow rates in patients with erectile dysfunction.

  11. Combined technetium radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout: A technique for evaluating corpora cavernosal inflow and outflow during early tumescence

    Combined technetium radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout is a new technique that measures both corporal arterial inflow and venous sinusoidal outflow during early tumescence in patients with erectile dysfunction. Fourteen patients were studied using 99mTc-RBCs to measure inflow and 133Xe or 127Xe in saline to measure outflow. Tumescence was induced by injecting papaverine intracorporally. Peak corporal rates corrected for inflow (r = 0.88) and uncorrected for outflow (r = 0.91) and change in volume over 2 min centered around peak inflow (r = 0.96) all correlated with angiography. Outflow measurements did not correlate with intracorporal resistance. Thus, outflow rates alone could not be used to predict venous sinusoidal competence. Normal inflow rate is greater than 20 ml/min; probable normal 12-20; indeterminate inflow 7-12; and abnormal inflow less than 7 ml/min. Technetium-99m radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout can be performed together and both provide a method for simultaneously evaluating the relationship between corporal inflow and outflow rates in patients with erectile dysfunction

  12. AB160. A comprehensive, prospective study of penile dimensions in Chinese men of multiple ethnicities

    Chen, Xiaobao; Li, Rongxian; Yang, Huannan; Dai, Jican

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a reference range of penile length and circumference of adult males in China, and to compare the penile dimensions of different ethnical backgrounds. To do this, penile length and circumference measurements were obtained from 5,196 healthy males attending the Urology Counseling Clinic. The mean value of penile dimensions was a flaccid length of 6.5±0.7 cm, a stretched length of 12.9±1.2 cm, and a flaccid circumference of 8.0±0.8 cm. In the subgroup of 311 males, ...

  13. A delayed foreskin-sparing approach to the management of penile fractures in uncircumcised Jamaican men

    Dean P. Wong

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Delayed repair of penile fractures results in foreskin preservation, facilitates elective ambulatory care under local anaesthesia and decreases the incidence of negative surgical explorations.

  14. Isolated pump erosion of an inflatable penile prosthesis through the scrotum in a diabetic patient

    Raidh A. Talib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Isolated pump erosion is a rare complication in patients with inflatable penile prosthesis. We describe a case of a diabetic patient who underwent inflatable penile prosthesis implantation with subsequent isolated pump erosion. Repeated attempts of conservative repair of the erosion failed. Finally, the inflatable penile prosthesis was replaced with a malleable one to avoid new pump erosion. In case of isolated pump erosion, replacement of the inflatable penile prosthesis with a malleable one looks to be a good alternative salvage treatment for the patient.

  15. An unusual course after injection of industrial silicone for penile augmentation

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Choi, Hwang; Zhang, Li Tao; Zhao, Chen; Choi, In Sung; Park, Jong Kwan

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old male patient had an injection of industrial silicone under the penile skin for augmentation by non-medical practitioners a week before. There was complete necrosis of the dorsal part of the penile skin and soft tissue. In a penile magnetic resonance image, big masses of silicone under the penile skin were found and a part of the silicone was partially exposed. Debridement of the necrotic tissue was done. As the right side of the tunica albuginea was thin-walled, a silicone-induc...

  16. Our 8 Years Experience on Penile Fractures: The Diagnosis and Treatment

    Mustafa Gunes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study to present our experience with diagnosis and treatment management of penile fracture. Material and Method: Patients who were admitted our clinic with complaints of sudden penile swelling and pain during 8 years were screened. Clinical information of 30 patients aged between 16 and 45 retrospectively analyzed. The patients had applied to emergency room during the first 10 hours following penile swelling and pain. Results: Penile fracture was detected in 28 patients and dorsal penile vein rupture mimicking penile fracture was detected in 2 patients. The most common etiologies of penile fracture were coitus and manually bending the penis for detumescence. Diagnoses were made based on history and physical examination. The treatment was surgical in 28 cases with subcoronal circumferential degloving incision and 2 patients were treated with vein ligation due to dorsal vein rupture. Erectile dysfunction or penile curvature were not detected (except the last five cases during a mean follow up of 18.7 months (range 8-28. Discussion: Although conservative treatment options were adviced, many authors prefer surgery because of the rapid recovery, short hospitalization duration, less morbidity and less penil curvature during the long term period.

  17. Multiple Site Fracture of Both Rods in a Malleable Penile Implant

    Pinheiro, Marcelo Almeida; Barroso Filho, Haroldo Brasil; Mesquita, Francisco José Cabral; Teixeira de Souza, Ivon; Guimarães, Rafael Silva; Santos, Everaldo Moura; Augusto da Silveira, Rômulo; Regadas, Rommel Prata; Macedo, Geraldo Munguba

    2016-01-01

    Penile prosthesis implant is the definitive treatment for refractory erectile dysfunction. Fracture of malleable prosthesis is rarely described due to its low incidence. We describe a case of multiple, bilateral fracture of a malleable penile implant, ten years after implantation. After the diagnosis, a review surgery was performed and the implants were replaced. No corporal rupture or urethral lesion was observed. Review of the literature shows few articles reporting penile implant fractures, and to our knowledge no other article has described multiple, bilateral fractures of a penile prosthesis. PMID:27066289

  18. siRNA-induced in vivo downregulation of L-type calcium channels in rat small mesenteric arteries

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Larsen, Per; Kold-Petersen, Henrik Houmann; Bouzinova, Elena V.; Bødtkjer, Donna Marie Briggs; Andresen, Jørgen; Aalkjær, Christian

    2008-01-01

    . Homozygous knockout is, however, lethal but this limitation can be overcome by transient downregulation with small interference (siRNA). A specific downregulation of gene expression with siRNA can be a helpful tool in investigations of proteins in the vascular bed. The 1st to 3rd order branches of the...... mesenteric artery of anestisized Wistar rats were transfected with siRNAs targeting different exons of the α1C gene or with control non-related siRNAs. The effect of transfection was analyzed after 3 and 10 days using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The functional effects of transfection were...... studied using isometric myography. Specific transfection downregulates mRNA of Cav1.2 by 93±2% within 3 days but the mRNA level recovered 10 days after transfection (110±13 % of the control level). Immunohistochemistry identified reduced Cav1.2 expression in the arteries transfected with siRNA directed...

  19. A Contemporary Review of HPV and Penile Cancer.

    Stratton, Kelly L; Culkin, Daniel J

    2016-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a widespread sexually transmitted infection. In both men and women, HPV infection can result in a spectrum of genitourinary manifestations ranging from genital warts to cancer. Cervical cancer is nearly always associated with high-risk HPV infection. For men, penile cancer can develop following or independently of HPV infection. Basaloid and warty subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinoma are most frequently associated with HPV infection. Further research into the molecular alterations caused by HPV infection may provide prognostic markers and future treatment targets. Until an effective treatment for HPV infection is developed, prevention will remain the focus of disease control. For women, vaccination is increasingly utilized to prevent HPV infection and subsequent cervical cancer development. New recommendations for routine male vaccination may further reduce cancers for both men and women. PMID:26984219

  20. Penile Replantation, Science or Myth? A Systematic Review

    Mohammad Reza Safarinejad; Ali Reza Babaei

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Penile amputation is a rare urologic condition for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. The surgical technique used for repair has been modified and refined. Our aim was to assess the effects of several interventions and management for amputated penis after replantation. Materials and Methods: We searched the MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2007), EMBASE (January 1988 to January 2007), CINAHL (January 1982 to January 2007), PsycLIT (January 1984 to January 2007), ...

  1. Penile involvement in Systemic Sclerosis: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Aspects

    Antonio Aversa; Roberto Bruzziches; Davide Francomano; Edoardo Rosato; Felice Salsano; Giovanni Spera

    2010-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder featuring vascular alterations and an immunological activation leading to a progressive and widespread fibrosis of several organs such as the skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidney. Men with SSc are at increased risk of developing erectile dysfunction (ED) because of the evolution of early microvascular tissutal damage into corporeal fibrosis. The entity of penile vascular damage in SSc patients has been demonstrated by u...

  2. Lymphatic Dissemination of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus after Penile Inoculation.

    Ma, ZM; Dutra, J; Fritts, L; Miller, CJ

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is primarily transmitted by heterosexual contact, and approximately equal numbers of men and women worldwide are infected with the virus. Understanding the biology of HIV acquisition and dissemination in men exposed to the virus by insertive penile intercourse is likely to help with the rational design of vaccines that can limit or prevent HIV transmission. To characterize the target cells and dissemination pathways involved in establishing systemic simi...

  3. Penile gangrene following condom catheter urinary drainage : A case report

    Sandhya Gupta; Vinod Tamaknand; Amit Dangi; Bhawan Nangarwal; Rajesh Godara; Pradeep Garg

    2016-01-01

    External urine collecting devices have been a boon to patients of urinary incontinence since their invention in late 90s. They have replaced the need for uncomfortable indwelling catheters in these patients. As safe as they may be, ghastly complications have occurred infrequently, mostly due to their inappropriate application. Such penile and urethral complications add to the morbidity of the patients significantly. They can be easily avoided by following few simple steps of catheter care, th...

  4. A rare case of concurrent penile and spinal schwannomas.

    Wang, Luke; Arachchi, Asiri; Makris, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma of the penis is extremely rare. This is the case of a young male who presented with pain on sexual intercourse, multiple lumps on the dorsal shaft of his penis, as well as a temporal headache. He was subsequently diagnosed with schwannoma affecting both his penile region and cauda equina. This clinical finding has not been previously described in the literature. Hence, its presentation is unique to our specialty. PMID:27141200

  5. Assessment of Erectile and Ejaculatory Function after Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    Bae, Jang Ho; Song, Phil Hyun; Kim, Hyun Tae; Moon, Ki Hak

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We investigated erectile and ejaculatory function after penile prosthesis implantation. Materials and Methods A total of 121 patients were enrolled in the surgery group (SG) and 120 patients in the nonsurgery group (NSG). All subjects were evaluated by use of the following questionnaires: the erection function and intercourse satisfaction domains of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the ejaculation domain of the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ-EjD). Compar...

  6. Self-contained inflatable penile prosthesis: magnetic resonance appearance

    The appearance of an inflatable penile prosthesis, visualized on a short tau inversion recovery sequence, is reported, in a patient who had magnetic resonance imaging for pelvic pain subsequent to radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder carcinoma. With suppression of adjacent fat signal, the prosthesis is well delineated from adjacent structures. The fluid-containing cylinders of the prosthesis are of very bright signal intensity, with the relief valve assembly of low signal intensity. 5 refs., 2 figs

  7. Penile Prosthesis: What Should We Do about Complications?

    C. Bettocchi; Ditonno, P.; F. Palumbo; Lucarelli, G.; Garaffa, G.; B. Giammusso; Battaglia, M.

    2008-01-01

    Even in the era of phoshodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, penile implants are considered the definitive solution for the treatment of organic erectile disfunction. The advent of new surgical tools and new infection-resistant materials has significantly reduced the risk of intra and post-operative complications and the need for revision surgery. Various companies have also improved their mechanical systems in order to reduce the risk of failures, and their products are now so good they may last l...

  8. Penile Reconstruction: Evaluation of the Most Accepted Techniques

    Alireza Babaei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Loss of the penis can have a devastating effect on the lives of sufferers with significant psychogenic implications. Penile reconstruction or phallus construction poses a difficult challenge and a demanding problem to the urologists and plastic surgeons. Different techniques have been used forconstruction of a total penis and reconstruction of severely injured penis. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most popular penile reconstruction (PR and phallus construction techniques.Materials and Methods: We searched without language restriction MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL from January 1960 to January 2009. In addition, we searched the citation lists of relevant articles and book chapters. Studies evaluating the functional and cosmetic results of different techniques of total phallus construction (TPC and penile reconstruction (PR were identified. Two authors independently evaluated studies for selection, study quality, and extracted data. The primary outcome was creation of a sensate and cosmetically acceptable phallus. The secondary outcomes were competent neourethra that allows voiding in comfortable position, sexual intercourse, and the rate of complications. Results: One hundred and forty-six studies with a total of 1622 patients were included in this review.Conclusion: Data from the available studies are insufficient to recommendany technique for TPC or PR. In the absence of evidence to support any method, the review authors recommend the one-stage TPC or PR. Further studies are warranted, preferably multi-centered studies.

  9. Non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in penile carcinoma

    Kroon, Bin K.; Horenblas, Simon [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdes Olmos, Renato [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nieweg, Omgo E. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and cause of non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes on preoperative lymphoscintigrams for penile cancer and its implications for further management. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled nanocolloid in 123 clinically node-negative penile carcinoma patients. Anterior dynamic lymphoscintigraphy was performed during 20 min immediately after tracer injection. Subsequently, 5-min anterior and lateral static images were obtained 30 min and 2 h post injection. Lymphatic drainage to both groins was seen in 98 patients (79%), unilateral drainage in 23 patients (19%) and no drainage at all in two patients (2%). Thus, in 27 (11%) of 246 groins, no sentinel node was visualized. The amount of administered tracer dose was associated with non-visualization (p=0.01). Unilateral drainage was initially interpreted as a normal physiological phenomenon. After the occurrence of a tumour-positive node in a non-visualized groin, we explore non-visualized groins by blue dye mapping and intraoperative palpation. Sentinel nodes were retrieved in four out of eight such groins, of which one contained metastasis. In penile carcinoma patients, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy visualizes a sentinel node in 89% of groins. Visualization depends on the administered tracer dose. It is worthwhile to explore non-visualized groins. Sentinel nodes can be intraoperatively identified in more than half of these cases. (orig.)

  10. Surgical reimplantation of penile glans amputation in children during circumcision

    Bouassida Khaireddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circumcision is one of the oldest and most commonly performed surgical procedures. Unfortunately, various complications may occur during circumcision, ranging from trivial to tragic such as penile amputation which is a serious complication and a challenging injury to treat. We describe two cases of non-microsurgical successful reattachment of a distal penile glans which were amputated during circumcision. In the first case, a 5-year-old child underwent circumcision by an urologist under local anesthesia. In the second one, a 3-year-old child underwent circumcision by a general practitioner who used to make circumcision. In this article, the literature is reviewed; results and potential complications of this surgery are also discussed. Glans sensation was present, early morning erection was maintained, and there was an erectile response during penile manipulation in both cases. Although circumcision is not technically difficult, it should be taken seriously. The use of microsurgical reattachment is not always possible, especially in pediatric cases; it also requires special equipment and training.

  11. Early Surgical Treatment of Penile Fracture: Our Experience with 19 Patients

    Ozer Guzel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent surgical treatment due to penile fracture. Material and Method: Between 2007 and 2013, a total of 19 patients admitted to our hospital for penile fracture treated with early surgical repair were included in the study. In the pre-operative period, Age, first-five questions version of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 scores, penile fracture etiology, penile fracture formation, duration until referred to our hospital and duration of hospitalization were retrospectively obtained from medical data of patients. In the post-operative period, IIEF-5 scores, loss of penile sensation, painful erection and penile curvature development were evaluated. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.8 years. The mean follow-up time was 33.4 months. The mean time until the surgery and pre-operative IIEF-5 score were 11.1 hours and 22.7, respectively. In pre-operative period, 1 patient had mild-moderate degree erectile dysfunction (ED, 3 patients had mild degree ED. Fifteen patients had no ED. The mean of post-operative IIEF-5 score was 19.3. There was a significant difference between pre-operative and post-operative IIEF-5 scores (p=0.01. In the post-operative period, penile curvature was detected in 5 (26.3%, painful penile erection in 4 (21% and loss of penile sensation in 2 (%10.5 patients. Discussion: In light of our results, we believe that patients who undergo early penil fracture surgery should be well informed in terms of possible penile curvature, painful erections and ED development.

  12. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent nasogastric intubation before a baseline MRI scan, received 400 mL of Resource Energy (Nestle) as a bolus over 5 minutes or continuously over 4 hours via pump in this randomized crossover study. Changes in gastric volume, small bowel water content, and superior mesenteric artery blood flow and velocity were measured over 4 hours using MRI and blood glucose and plasma concentrations of insulin, peptide YY, and ghrelin were assayed every 30 minutes. Results: Bolus nasogastric feeding led to significant elevations in gastric volume (P < 0.0001), superior mesenteric artery blood flow (P < 0.0001), and velocity (P = 0.0011) compared with continuous feeding. Both types of feeding reduced small bowel water content, although there was an increase in small bowel water content with bolus feeding after 90 minutes (P < 0.0068). Similarly, both types of feeding led to a fall in plasma ghrelin concentration although this fall was greater with bolus feeding (P < 0.0001). Bolus feeding also led to an increase in concentrations of insulin (P = 0.0024) and peptide YY (P < 0.0001), not seen with continuous feeding. Conclusion: Continuous nasogastric feeding does not increase small bowel water content, thus fluid flux within the small bowel is not a major contributor to the etiology of tube feeding-related diarrhea. PMID:25549202

  13. Small dense LDL particles - a predictor of coronary artery disease evaluated by invasive and CT-based techniques: a case-control study

    Andreasen Annette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary angiography is the current standard method to evaluate coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected angina pectoris, but non-invasive CT scanning of the coronaries are increasingly used for the same purpose. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and other lipid and lipoprotein variables are major risk factors for coronary artery disease. Small dense LDL particles may be of particular importance, but clinical studies evaluating their predictive value for coronary atherosclerosis are few. Methods We performed a study of 194 consecutive patients with chest pain, a priori considered of low to intermediate risk for significant coronary stenosis (>50% lumen obstruction who were referred for elective coronary angiography. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were measured including the subtype pattern of LDL particles, and all patients were examined by coronary CT scanning before coronary angiography. Results The proportion of small dense LDL was a strong univariate predictor of significant coronary artery stenosis evaluated by both methods. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, and waist circumference only results obtained by traditional coronary angiography remained statistically significant. Conclusion Small dense LDL particles may add to risk stratification of patients with suspected angina pectoris.

  14. Novel optical system for in vitro quantification of full surface strain fields in small arteries: II. Correction for refraction and illustrative results.

    Genovese, K; Lee, Y U; Humphrey, J D

    2011-03-01

    In a companion paper, we described a theoretical foundation for and initial experimental implementation of a novel stereo-digital image correlation (DIC) method for quantifying the size, shape and deformation of small cylindrical specimens along their full length and around their entire circumference. In this paper, we further show that this panoramic-DIC method can be used to study mouse carotid arteries without affecting their native mechanical properties and show the advantage of the approach in studying more complex mouse aorta. In particular, we first resolve the ubiquitous issue of refraction in non-contacting optical measurements of strain while tissues are immersed in physiologic saline and we show that surface preparation for DIC does not affect the inferred mechanical properties either qualitatively or quantitatively, the latter via the use of a four-fibre family hyperelastic constitutive relation and associated estimation of material parameters using nonlinear regression. We thus submit that panoramic-DIC-based strain measurement has significant potential to increase our understanding of arterial mechanics in genetic models of arterial health and disease by allowing investigators to exploit advances in transgenic mice. PMID:21347913

  15. Antiphase oscillations of endothelium and smooth muscle [Ca2+]i in vasomotion of rat mesenteric small arteries

    Rahman, Awahan; Matchkov, Vladimir; Hughes, Alun; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to vasomotion in the presence of noradrenaline and inhibitors of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase were investigated in isolated rat mesenteric small arteries. Isobaric diameter and isometric force were measured together with membrane potential in...... endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMC). Calcium in the endothelial cells and SMC was imaged with confocal microscopy. In the presence of noradrenaline and cyclopiazonic acid, ryanodine-insensitive oscillations in tone were produced. The frequency was about 1min(-1) and amplitude about 70% of the...

  16. Thoracic Stent Graft Implantation for Aortic Coarctation with Patent Ductus Arteriosus via Retroperitoneal Iliac Approach in the Presence of Small Sized Femoral Artery

    Korkmaz, Ozge; Beton, Osman; Goksel, Sabahattin; Kaya, Hakkı; Berkan, Ocal

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular stent graft implantation is a favorable method for complex aortic coarctation accompanied by patent ductus arteriosus. Herein, an 18-year-old woman with complex aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus was successfully treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach. The reason for retroperitoneal iliac approach was small sized common femoral arteries which were not suitable for stent graft passage. This case is the first aortic coarctation plus patent ductus arteriosus case described in the literature which is treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach.

  17. Arterial Catheterization

    ... version AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY Patient Information Series Arterial Catheterization An arterial catheter is a thin, hollow tube ... PHYSICIANS: AND COPY Why Do I Need Arterial Catheterization? Common reasons an arterial catheterization is done include: ■ ...

  18. A comprehensive, prospective study of penile dimensions in Chinese men of multiple ethnicities.

    Chen, X B; Li, R X; Yang, H N; Dai, J C

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a reference range of penile length and circumference of adult males in China, and to compare the penile dimensions of different ethnical backgrounds. To do this, penile length and circumference measurements were obtained from 5196 healthy males attending the Urology Counseling Clinic. The mean value of penile dimensions was a flaccid length of 6.5 ± 0.7 cm, a stretched length of 12.9 ± 1.2 cm and a flaccid circumference of 8.0 ± 0.8 cm. In the subgroup of 311 males, the mean erectile length was 12.9 ± 1.3 cm and the mean erectile circumference was 10.5 ± 0.9 cm, the mean flaccid and erectile glans lengths were 2.7 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.4 cm, respectively, and the mean flaccid and erectile glans diameters were 2.6 ± 0.2 and 3.4 ± 0.4 cm, respectively. We found that flaccid penile length and circumference varied among different ethnicities. This study established a reference range for penile dimensions, which will help when counseling patients worried about their penile size or seeking penis enlargement surgery. We also found that penile dimensions are different in different ethnicities, but further investigations are needed to validate this. PMID:24784891

  19. Penile injury due to blunt trauma after circumcision in a male child: A case report

    Hulya Ozturk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury in the case presented here is different from the cause of penile trauma. Ourcase has been exposed to blunt trauma after circumcision. Type developments ofthe penile trauma, treatment, and precautions have been discussed with theliterature.

  20. Recurrent furunculosis as a cause of isolated penile lymphedema: a case report

    Sood Suneet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Isolated lymphedema of the penis is extremely rare: combined involvement of the scrotum and penis is the norm. Furunculosis as a cause is not, to our knowledge, previously reported. We present a case of isolated penile lymphedema that responded to excision of lymphedematous tissue and reconstruction with flaps. Case presentation A 32-year-old Arab man presented with a three-year history of a gradually increasing, painless penile swelling. Our patient's main complaint was non-erectile sexual dysfunction. The swelling was preceded by at least three prior episodes of severe furunculosis at the penile root. He had no other contributory past medical or family history. On examination there was gross penile enlargement, maximally at the mid shaft, associated with thickened skin at the sites of prior furunculosis. The glans and scrotum were normal. Both testes were palpable. Serology for filariasis, and urinary tract ultrasound and computed tomography scan were normal. The clinical diagnosis was lymphedema following recurrent penile furunculosis. At operation the lymphedematous tissues were removed. Closure of the penile shaft was accomplished by bilateral advancement of flaps from both ends of the penis. He resumed normal sexual activity one month after surgery. At 12 months, he had a good cosmetic result, with no signs of recurrence. Conclusions Furunculosis at the penile root may result in lymphedema confined to the penile shaft, sparing the scrotum. Excision of abnormal tissue and cover with a skin flap gave excellent cosmetic results, and allowed satisfactory sexual activity.

  1. The role of Nesbit's procedure in surgical reconstruction of penile deviation

    Martenstein, C; Peruth, J; Hamza, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We review our results after surgical reconstruction with the Nesbit's procedure for congenital or acquired penile deviation. Patients and methods: Etiology of penile deviation, surgical outcome for straightening the penis, postoperative patient satisfaction and clinical findings were evaluated for 5 patients undergoing Nesbit's procedure followed by a Medline review of contemporary literature regarding alternative surgical techniques. Follow-up included clinical examination, self...

  2. The role of penile prosthetic surgery in the modern management of erectile dysfunction

    Jain, S.; Bhojwani, A; Terry, T

    2000-01-01

    The management of erectile dysfunction looks set to be revolutionised with the introduction of effective oral therapies. There will remain, however, some men who do not respond to conservative measures. This article reviews the important role of penile prosthetic surgery as a treatment option in these patients.


Keywords: penile prosthesis; erectile dysfunction

  3. "Bird-Wing" abdominal phalloplasty: A novel surgical technique for penile reconstruction

    Minu Bajpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe a technique of phalloplasty that is devoid of donor site scarring and suitable for urethral inlay and penile prosthesis in subsequent stages in cases of aphallia. Materials and Methods: Four patients with various disorders of sex development with 46 XY and severe penile deficiency, including one with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome who was initially raised as female, have been operated using a "Bird Wing" lower abdominal skin crease incision. Results: The patients′ age ranged from 6 to 17 years with preoperative stretched penile lengths between 1 and 2.5 cm. Phallic sizes between 7.5 and 12.5 cm was achieved leaving the donor site unremarkable with lower abdominal skin crease linear scar and excellent postoperative recovery. Conclusions: This phalloplasty technique can be utilized as a definitive procedure in many situations of penile insufficiency. Subsequent stages of urethral repair and insertion of penile prosthesis can be easily added.

  4. Effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function: age-dependent shifts from beneficial to detrimental in small cerebral arteries of the rat.

    Deer, Rachel R; Stallone, John N

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, interactions of age and estrogen in the modulation of cerebrovascular function were examined in small arteries vasoconstriction was attenuated in ovariectomized + estrogen-replaced, multigravid adult rats (5-6 mo; MAE) but potentiated in older ovariectomized + estrogen-replaced, reproductively senescent rats (12-14 mo; RSE). SC560 and NS398 reduced reactivity similarly in ovariectomized multigravid adult rats (5-6 mo; MAO) and ovariectomized reproductively senescent rat (12-14 mo; RSO). In MAE, reactivity to VP was reduced to a greater extent by SC560 than by NS398; however, in RSE, this effect was reversed. VP-stimulated PGI2 was increased by estrogen, yet reduced by age. VP-stimulated TXA2 was increased by estrogen and age in RSE but did not differ in MAO and RSO. Taken together, these data reveal that the vascular effects of estrogen are distinctly age-dependent in F rats. In younger MA, beneficial and protective effects of estrogen are evident (decreased vasoconstriction, increased dilator prostanoid function). Conversely, in older RS, detrimental effects of estrogen begin to be manifested (enhanced vasoconstriction and CP function). These findings may lead to age-specific estrogen replacement therapies that maximize beneficial and minimize detrimental effects of this hormone on small cerebral arteries that regulate blood flow. PMID:26993224

  5. DNA Copy Number Aberrations, and Human Papillomavirus Status in Penile Carcinoma. Clinico-Pathological Correlations and Potential Driver Genes.

    La-Touche, Susannah; Lemetre, Christophe; Lambros, Maryou; Stankiewicz, Elzbieta; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Weigelt, Britta; Rajab, Ramzi; Tinwell, Brendan; Corbishley, Cathy; Watkin, Nick; Berney, Dan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease, in which somatic genetic aberrations have yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that gene copy aberrations might correlate with human papillomavirus status and clinico-pathological features. We sought to determine the spectrum of gene copy number aberrations in a large series of PSCCs and to define their correlations with human papillomavirus, histopathological subtype, and tumor grade, stage and lymph node status. Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded penile squamous cell carcinomas were centrally reviewed by expert uropathologists. DNA was extracted from micro-dissected samples, subjected to PCR-based human papillomavirus assessment and genotyping (INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus Genotyping Extra Assay) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization using a 32K Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array platform. Sixty-four samples yielded interpretable results. Recurrent gains were observed in chromosomes 1p13.3-q44 (88%), 3p12.3-q29 (86%), 5p15.33-p11 (67%) and 8p12-q24.3 (84%). Amplifications of 5p15.33-p11 and 11p14.1-p12 were found in seven (11%) and four (6%) cases, respectively. Losses were observed in chromosomes 2q33-q37.3 (86%), 3p26.3-q11.1 (83%) and 11q12.2-q25 (81%). Although many losses and gains were similar throughout the cohort, there were small significant differences observed at specific loci, between human papillomavirus positive and negative tumors, between tumor types, and tumor grade and nodal status. These results demonstrate that despite the diversity of genetic aberrations in penile squamous cell carcinomas, there are significant correlations between the clinico-pathological data and the genetic changes that may play a role in disease natural history and progression and highlight potential driver genes, which may feature in molecular pathways for existing therapeutic agents. PMID:26901676

  6. DNA Copy Number Aberrations, and Human Papillomavirus Status in Penile Carcinoma. Clinico-Pathological Correlations and Potential Driver Genes

    Lambros, Maryou; Stankiewicz, Elzbieta; Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; Rajab, Ramzi; Tinwell, Brendan; Corbishley, Cathy; Watkin, Nick; Berney, Dan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease, in which somatic genetic aberrations have yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that gene copy aberrations might correlate with human papillomavirus status and clinico-pathological features. We sought to determine the spectrum of gene copy number aberrations in a large series of PSCCs and to define their correlations with human papillomavirus, histopathological subtype, and tumor grade, stage and lymph node status. Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded penile squamous cell carcinomas were centrally reviewed by expert uropathologists. DNA was extracted from micro-dissected samples, subjected to PCR-based human papillomavirus assessment and genotyping (INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus Genotyping Extra Assay) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization using a 32K Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array platform. Sixty-four samples yielded interpretable results. Recurrent gains were observed in chromosomes 1p13.3-q44 (88%), 3p12.3-q29 (86%), 5p15.33-p11 (67%) and 8p12-q24.3 (84%). Amplifications of 5p15.33-p11 and 11p14.1-p12 were found in seven (11%) and four (6%) cases, respectively. Losses were observed in chromosomes 2q33-q37.3 (86%), 3p26.3-q11.1 (83%) and 11q12.2-q25 (81%). Although many losses and gains were similar throughout the cohort, there were small significant differences observed at specific loci, between human papillomavirus positive and negative tumors, between tumor types, and tumor grade and nodal status. These results demonstrate that despite the diversity of genetic aberrations in penile squamous cell carcinomas, there are significant correlations between the clinico-pathological data and the genetic changes that may play a role in disease natural history and progression and highlight potential driver genes, which may feature in molecular pathways for existing therapeutic agents. PMID:26901676

  7. Penile Prosthesis: What Should We Do about Complications?

    M. Battaglia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Even in the era of phoshodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, penile implants are considered the definitive solution for the treatment of organic erectile disfunction. The advent of new surgical tools and new infection-resistant materials has significantly reduced the risk of intra and post-operative complications and the need for revision surgery. Various companies have also improved their mechanical systems in order to reduce the risk of failures, and their products are now so good they may last lifelong. In this article, we evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative complications recorded in our experience and in literature reports, and make some suggestions as to how to prevent or correct them.

  8. Penile prosthesis: what should we do about complications?

    Bettocchi, C; Ditonno, P; Palumbo, F; Lucarelli, G; Garaffa, G; Giammusso, B; Battaglia, M

    2008-01-01

    Even in the era of phoshodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, penile implants are considered the definitive solution for the treatment of organic erectile disfunction. The advent of new surgical tools and new infection-resistant materials has significantly reduced the risk of intra and post-operative complications and the need for revision surgery. Various companies have also improved their mechanical systems in order to reduce the risk of failures, and their products are now so good they may last lifelong. In this article, we evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative complications recorded in our experience and in literature reports, and make some suggestions as to how to prevent or correct them. PMID:19009029

  9. Hair coil penile tourniquet syndrome in an unusual age.

    Zengin, Kursad; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Albayrak, Sebahattin; Tanik, Serhat; Atar, Muhittin; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, Muhammed Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Penile tourniquet syndrome (PTS), a rare urologic emergency, may lead to undesirable results including necrosis and amputation of penis, if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. Sometimes these injuries may be accepted as a forensic case. Miscellaneous objects used for strangulation can be metallic or nonmetallic. Of all ages, the most vulnerable period is infancy. Telogen effluvium is the most common cause of PTS in infants who are 0-6 years old. In the literature, telogen effluvium as a reason of PTS was not found except for this age group. Therefore, we aimed to present a boy who is 8 years old diagnosed as PTS because of his mother's hair coil. PMID:25763288

  10. Hair Coil Penile Tourniquet Syndrome in an Unusual Age

    Zengin, Kursad; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Albayrak, Sebahattin; Tanik, Serhat; Atar, Muhittin; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, Muhammed Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Penile tourniquet syndrome (PTS), a rare urologic emergency, may lead to undesirable results including necrosis and amputation of penis, if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. Sometimes these injuries may be accepted as a forensic case. Miscellaneous objects used for strangulation can be metallic or nonmetallic. Of all ages, the most vulnerable period is infancy. Telogen effluvium is the most common cause of PTS in infants who are 06 years old. In the literature, telogen effluvium as a reason of PTS was not found except for this age group. Therefore, we aimed to present a boy who is 8 years old diagnosed as PTS because of his mother's hair coil. PMID:25763288

  11. Comparative penile morphology of East African galagos of the genus Galagoides (family Galagidae): implications for taxonomy.

    Perkin, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on the comparative penile morphology of galagos have revealed complex patterns that vary among both genera and species, and help with species identification. So far the penile morphologies of 14 galago species have been described and an identification key has been proposed. The present study extends and revises previous work. Wild Galagoides cocos, G. granti, G. zanzibaricus and G. rondoensis from the Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests of Tanzania and Kenya were live-trapped, and one species (G. orinus) was examined using a museum specimen. Penile morphology was photographed, traced, and described qualitatively. All of the mature males had penile spines. Spines were absent or indistinct in immature males of all of the species. The penile morphologies of G. cocos, G. granti, and G. zanzibaricus are similar in their overall distribution and type of spines, but differ in the shape of the glans penis. Both G. orinus and G. rondoensis have divergent penile morphologies compared to all other galagos, and are probably phylogenetically distinct. The results support other recent morphological and behavioral studies that consider these five galagos to be distinct species. The evolution of the baculum and spines is thought to be linked to sexual selection in multimale mating systems, but the mechanisms involved are not entirely understood. Adult male G. rondoensis appear to display the penile spines by exposing the distal section of the penis. PMID:17171678

  12. Renal Artery Embolization Combined With Radiofrequency Ablation in a Porcine Kidney Model: Effect of Small and Narrowly Calibrated Microparticles as Embolization Material on Coagulation Diameter, Volume, and Shape

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of renal artery embolization with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles on the coagulation diameter, volume, and shape of radiofrequency ablations (RFAs) in porcine kidneys. Forty-eight RFAs were performed in 24 kidneys of 12 pigs. In 6 animals, bilateral renal artery embolization was performed with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles. Upper and lower kidney poles were ablated with identical system parameters. Applying three-dimensional segmentation software, RFAs were segmented on registered 2 mm-thin macroscopic slices. Length, depth, width, volumesegmented, and volumecalculated were determined to describe the size of the RFAs. To evaluate the shape of the RFAs, depth-to-width ratio (perfect symmetry-to-lesion length was indicated by a ratio of 1), sphericity ratio (perfect sphere was indicated by a sphericity ratio of 1), eccentricity (perfect sphere was indicated by an eccentricity of 0), and circularity (perfect circle was indicated by a circularity of 1) were determined. Embolized compared with nonembolized RFAs showed significantly greater depth (23.4 ± 3.6 vs. 17.2 ± 1.8 mm; p segmented (8.6 ± 3.2 vs. 3.0 ± 0.7 ml; p calculated (8.4 ± 3.0 ml vs. 3.3 ± 1.1 ml; p < 0.001); significantly lower depth-to-width (1.17 ± 0.10 vs. 1.48 ± 0.44; p < 0.05), sphericity (1.55 ± 0.44 vs. 1.96 ± 0.43; p < 0.01), and eccentricity (0.84 ± 0.61 vs. 1.73 ± 0.91; p < 0.01) ratios; and significantly greater circularity (0.62 ± 0.14 vs. 0.45 ± 0.16; p < 0.01). Renal artery embolization with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles affected the coagulation diameter, volume, and shape of RFAs in porcine kidneys. Embolized RFAs were significantly larger and more spherical compared with nonembolized RFAs.

  13. Penile Agenesis: Report on 8 Cases and Review of Literature

    Alireza Mirshemirani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Penile agenesis (PA is an extremely rare anomaly with profound urological and psychological consequences. The opening of the urethra could be either over the pubis or at any point on perineum or most frequently in anterior wall of the rectum. The aim of treatment is an early female gender assignment and feminizing reconstruction of the perineum. Case(s Presentation:We report 8 cases of penile agenesis with urination and defecation through the rectum, apparently normal scrotum, bilateral descended testis, normally located anus, urethral opening in anus, 46xy karyotype and associated anomalies. In 2 cases parents refused any surgical interventions, but in 6 cases we did perform different operations (transforming five cases to females and one case to male gender.Conclusion:We recommend feminizing operations in newborns or infants, but in older patients, regarding the child's psychology, it is advised to perform masculinizing operations, and finally, no surgical intervention should be undertaken before counseling the parents.

  14. Penile Agenesis: Report on 8 Cases and Review of Literature

    Naser Sadeghian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Penile agenesis (PA is an extremely rare anomaly with profound urological and psychological consequences. The opening of the urethra could be either over the pubis or at any point on perineum or most frequently in anterior wall of the rectum. The aim of treatment is an early female gender assignment and feminizing reconstruction of the perineum. Case(s Presentation:We report 8 cases of penile agenesis with urination and defecation through the rectum, apparently normal scrotum, bilateral descended testis, normally located anus, urethral opening in anus, 46xy karyotype and associated anomalies. In 2 cases parents refused any surgical interventions, but in 6 cases we did perform different operations (transforming five cases to females and one case to male gender. Conclusion:We recommend feminizing operations in newborns or infants, but in older patients, regarding the childs psychology, it is advised to perform masculinizing operations, and finally, no surgical intervention should be undertaken before counseling the parents.

  15. Malignant priapism: Penile metastasis originating on a primary prostate adenocarcinoma

    Sandro Roberto da Silva Gaspar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant priapism is a definition invented in 1938 by Peacock, defined as a persistent erection, not related with sexual activity, caused by cavernous sinus and associated venous systems invasion with malignant cells. Penile secondary lesions are rare entities. Primary locations are usually the pelvic cavity organs, namely the prostate and the bladder as the most common ones. Priapism as a first manifestation of these kinds of lesions is even rarer. The aim was to present a 52-year-old patient harboring a penile metastasis that originated in the primary prostate adenocarcinoma, manifesting itself as a "common" priapism. The patient referred to the emergency room presenting with a priapism and nodules at the coronal sulcus, without previous similar episodes. His evolution until properly diagnosed was catastrophic with multiple lymph nodes, bone and organ involvement, and with his demise soon after from serious bleeding and congestive heart failure, almost 2 months after he first came to the emergency room. We review the literature concerning malignant priapism, diagnosis, and current treatment and survival perspectives.

  16. MRI of penile fracture: diagnosis and therapeutic follow-up

    Uder, Michael; Gohl, Dietrich; Takahashi, Masahide; Kramann, Bernhard; Schneider, Guenther [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Derouet, Harry [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Urologische Klinik; Defreyne, Luc [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University Hospital of Gent (Belgium)

    2002-01-01

    A rupture of corpus cavernosum (CC) is a rare injury of the erect penis. The present study describes the role of MRI for diagnosis and follow-up of this injury. Four patients with clinically suspected acute penile fractures underwent MRI. Imaging findings were confirmed at surgery. In three patients, follow-up MRI was also available at 1, 6 and 16 weeks after surgical repair. In all patients pre-contrast T1-weighted images (T1WI) clearly disclosed ruptures of CC, which depicted as discontinuity of low signal intensity of the tunica albuginea (TA). Concomitant subcutaneous haematoma were well visualised both on T1-weighted (T1WI) and T2-weighted images, whereas haematoma in CC were optimally demonstrated on contrast-enhanced T1WI. On follow-up MRI all fractures presented similar healing process. Shortly after the repair, the tunical suture showed an increase in signal intensity on pre-contrast T1WI and was strongly enhanced with the administration of contrast material. Then the tear site gradually recovered low signal intensity on all spin-echo sequences by 4 months after surgery. These serial findings may suggest the formation of vascularised granulation tissue during cicatrisation. Magnetic resonance imaging is of great value for the diagnosis and follow-up in patients with penile fracture. (orig.)

  17. The impact of sexual activity on serum hormone levels after penile prosthesis implantation

    Onder Canguven

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Penile prosthesis implantation is the final treatment option for patients who have erectile dysfunction. Most of the patients use their penile prosthesis successfully and frequently for penile-vaginal intercourse. Previous literature showed that decrease in sexual activity resulted in decreased serum testosterone levels and vice versa. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sexual activity on serum sex hormone levels after penile prosthesis usage. Material and methods: In this study, we examined sixtyseven patients for their sex hormone changes who had penile prosthesis surgery 2.7 ± 1.5 years ago. Results: Patients were using their penile prosthesis for sexual activity with a mean of 9.9 ± 5.7 times per month. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was significantly higher compared to pre-surgery results (5.3 ± 2.6 vs 4.5 ± 2.9; p = 0.031. Mean serum total testosterone levels of patients before and after penile prosthesis usage were clinically significant 15.78 ± 4.8 nmol/L and 16.5 ± 6.1 nmol/L, respectively. Mean serum luteinizing hormone levels of patients before and after penile prosthesis usage were 3.98 ± 2.16 IU/L and 5.47 ± 4.76 IU/L, respectively. No statistical significance difference was observed in the mean total and free testosterone, estradiol and luteinizing hormone levels between pre- and post-surgery. Conclusion: This study results demonstrated that sexual activity changed sex hormone levels positively among those men who were implanted penile prosthesis because of erectile dysfunction.

  18. Comparison of blood velocity measurements between ultrasound Doppler and accelerated phase-contrast MR angiography in small arteries with disturbed flow

    Jiang Jingfeng; Johnson, Kevin; Wieben, Oliver; Zagzebski, James [Medical Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, WI (United States); Strother, Charles; Consigny, Dan [Radiology Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, WI (United States); Baker, Sara, E-mail: jjiang2@wisc.edu [School of Ultrasound, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, WI (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Ultrasound Doppler (UD) velocity measurements are commonly used to quantify blood flow velocities in vivo. The aim of our work was to investigate the accuracy of in vivo spectral Doppler measurements of velocity waveforms. Waveforms were derived from spectral Doppler signals and corrected for intrinsic spectral broadening errors by applying a previously published algorithm. The method was tested in a canine aneurysm model by determining velocities in small arteries (3-4 mm diameter) near the aneurysm where there was moderately disturbed flow. Doppler results were compared to velocity measurements in the same arteries acquired with a rapid volumetric phase contrast MR angiography technique named phase contrast vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction magnetic resonance angiography (PC-VIPR MRA). After correcting for intrinsic spectral broadening, there was a high degree of correlation between velocities obtained by the real-time UD and the accelerated PC-MRA technique. The peak systolic velocity yielded a linear correlation coefficient of r = 0.83, end diastolic velocity resulted in r = 0.81, and temporally averaged mean velocity resulted in r = 0.76. The overall velocity waveforms obtained by the two techniques were also highly correlated (r = 0.89 {+-} 0.06). There were, however, only weak correlations for the pulsatility index (PI: 0.25) and resistive index (RI: 0.14) derived from the two techniques. Results demonstrate that to avoid overestimations of peak systolic velocities, the results for UD must be carefully corrected to compensate for errors caused by intrinsic spectral broadening.

  19. Self-mutilation. Plastic spherules in penile skin in yakuza, Japan's racketeers.

    Tsunenari, S; Idaka, T; Kanda, M; Koga, Y

    1981-09-01

    Despite the reduction in crime in Japan there is a problem with organized racketeer groups, or yakuza in Japanese. The members of the yakuza can be recognized by their speech and behavior and by their physical characteristics such as tattooing and digital amputations. Penile balls are unusual sexual devices that have been found on some yakuza. Nine cases of unusual way of identifying yakuza are reported. A survey of a detension house showed that 28 prisoners out of 130, or 21.5%, had penile balls. Penile balls and the yakuza are discussed in relation to forensic psychiatry. PMID:7325129

  20. A penal problem: the increasing incidence of implantation of penile foreign bodies.

    Flynn, Ryan M; Mostafa, Hesham I; Khan, Omar A; Haselhuhn, Gregory D; Jain, Samay

    2014-12-01

    Our objective is to describe a novel presentation of subcutaneous penile insertion of foreign bodies. This is a practice performed globally and mostly has been reported outside of the United States. We present three cases of incarcerated males that implanted sculpted dominos into the penile subcutaneous tissue. The patients presented with erosion of the foreign bodies through the skin without evidence of infection. We believe that insertion of foreign bodies into penile subcutaneous tissue by incarcerated American males for sexual enhancement is more widespread than previously reported. Erosion is a novel presentation. PMID:25483769

  1. Penile Involvement and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura: A Case Report

    Önder YAVAŞCAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP, characterized by non-thrombocytopenic purpura accompanied by arthritis/arthralgia, gastrointestinal and genitourinary system involvement is the most common vasculitis in childhood. Associated penile involvement is very rare in patients with genitourinary system involvement. We report a 4.5 year-old boy with penile involvement and arthritis after a shortduration remission of HSP. Prednisolone (1mg/kg/day, orally and conservative measures resulted in complete recovery within five days. In conclusion, steroid treatment could be administered in HSP children with penile involvement although controversial.

  2. Arterial stick

    ... the main arteries in the forearm (radial and ulnar arteries). The procedure is done as follows: The ... Arteries also have thicker walls and have more nerves. When the needle is inserted, there may be ...

  3. Bronchial artery infusion of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin combined with systemic chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: its short-term efficacy

    Objective: To assess the short-term efficacy of bronchial artery infusion (BAI) of Gemcitabine (GEM) plus Cisplatin (DDP) combined with systemic chemotherapy of GEM for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 60 patients with pathologically proved primary NSCLC were randomly selected. BAI with GEM (1000 mg/m2) and DDP (DDP 50 mg/m2) was performed on the first day, and systemic chemotherapy of GEM (1000 mg/m2) was carried out on the eighth day. The clinical results were analyzed. Results: Of the 60 patients, CR, PR, SD and PD were obtained in 3, 35, 17 and 5, respectively, with an overall effective rate of 63%. Twenty-two patients had adenocarcinoma and the effective rate of them was 45%. Thirty-eight patients had squamous cell carcinoma and their effective rate was 74%. The difference in the effective rate between the above two pathologic types was significant (P<0.05). Central type lung cancer was seen in 37 cases, their effective rate was 73%. The peripheral type lung cancer was seen in the remaining 23 patients and the effective rate was 48%. The difference in the effective rate was statistically significant between the central type and the peripheral type (P<0.05). Conclusion: The combination of bronchial artery infusion with systemic chemotherapy by using GP plan is an effective, feasible approach in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The short-term efficacy of the treatment bears a close relationship to the anatomical location and pathological type of the cancer. (authors)

  4. Penile Revascularization for Erectile Dysfunction: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Complications

    Ali Reza Babaei

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Patients with arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED caused by traumatic localized arterial lesions can be treated successfully by penile revascularization (PR surgery. We aimed to determine the subjective and objective outcomes of PR surgery in patients with arteriogenic ED.

    Materials and Methods: We searched for relevant publications released up to May 2008 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Biological Abstracts. The citation lists of review articles and included trials were also searched. Published studies on different operative techniques of PR for men with ED due to traumatic penile arterial lesions were selected by 2 reviewers. Data on participants’ characteristics, study quality, population, intervention, cure and adverse effects were collected and analyzed.

    Results: There were 25 studies that compared the selected operative techniques. Concerning subjective cure, the results in men younger than 30 years old were better than older ones (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.4; P = .001. Venous leak (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6 and history of smoking (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 5.6 influenced success rate. Inconsistent measurements of outcomes limited the findings, and none of the studies were randomized controlled trials.

    Conclusion: Traumatic patients with arteriogenic ED might benefit from PR. Patient selection is vital for a successful outcome. Variations in penile vascular anatomy are also likely to be important when individualizing penile revascularization procedures. In a limited number of highly selected individuals PR can be successful for the long-term. Randomized controlled trials examining different PR techniques are needed to better examine the PR techniques.

  5. Different modulation by Ca2+-activated K+ channel blockers and herbimycin of acetylcholine- and flow-evoked vasodilatation in rat mesenteric small arteries

    Thorsgaard, Michael; Lopez, Vanesa; Buus, Niels H; Simonsen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    The present study addressed whether endothelium-dependent vasodilatation evoked by acetylcholine and flow are mediated by the same mechanisms in isolated rat mesenteric small arteries, suspended in a pressure myograph for the measurement of internal diameter. In pressurized arterial segments contracted with U46619 in the presence of indomethacin, shear stress generated by the flow evoked relaxation. Thus, in endothelium-intact segments low (5.1±0.6 dyn cm−2) and high (19±2 dyn cm−2) shear stress evoked vasodilatations that were reduced by, respectively, 68±11 and 68±8% (P<0.05, n=7) by endothelial cell removal. Acetylcholine (0.01–1 μM) evoked concentration-dependent vasodilatation that was abolished by endothelial cell removal. Incubation with indomethacin alone did not change acetylcholine and shear stress-evoked vasodilatation, while the combination of indomethacin with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, NG,NG-asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA 1 mM), reduced low and high shear stress-evoked vasodilatation with, respectively, 52±15 and 58±10% (P<0.05, n=9), but it did not change acetylcholine-evoked vasodilatation. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated K+ channels with a combination of apamin (0.5 μM) and charybdotoxin (ChTX) (0.1 μM) did not change shear stress- and acetylcholine-evoked vasodilatation. In the presence of indomethacin and ADMA, the combination of apamin (0.5 μM) and ChTx (0.1 μM) increased contraction induced by U46619, but these blockers did not change the vasodilatation evoked by shear stress. In contrast, acetylcholine-evoked vasodilatation was abolished by the combination of apamin and charybdotoxin. In the presence of indomethacin, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A (1 μM), inhibited low and high shear stress-evoked vasodilatation with, respectively, 32±12 and 68±14% (P<0.05, n=8), but it did not change vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine. In the presence of indomethacin and ADMA, herbimycin A neither changed shear stress nor acetylcholine-evoked vasodilatation. The present study suggests that Ca2+-activated K+ channels sensitive for the combination of apamin and ChTx are involved in acetylcholine-evoked, mainly non-NO nonprostanoid factor-mediated, vasodilatation, while an Src tyrosine kinase plays a role for flow-evoked NO-mediated vasodilatation in rat mesenteric small arteries. PMID:12721112

  6. Failure to attain stretched penile length after intracavernosal injection of a vasodilator agent is predictive of veno-occlusive dysfunction on penile duplex Doppler ultrasonography.

    Yafi, F A; Libby, R P; McCaslin, I R; Sangkum, P; Sikka, S C; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-09-01

    Penile duplex Doppler ultrasound (PDDU) assesses the etiology of erectile dysfunction. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index (RI) are common PDDU parameters. We assessed whether stretched penile length (SPL) in the flaccid state and measured penile length at peak erection after intracavernosal injection (ICI) of a vasodilator during PDDU correlated with the etiology of erectile dysfunction. We performed a retrospective review of 93 patients who underwent PDDU for erectile dysfunction. Normal and stretched penile length were measured, both at a flaccid state prior to ICI and at peak erection during PDDU. Collected data included patient demographics, vascular, and anatomic parameters. The mean age was 52 years. SPL was equivalent to peak penile length after ICI in 60 patients (65%, group 1) and did not match in 33 (35%, group 2). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of flaccid, stretched, and post-ICI erect penile lengths, IIEF score, PSV, percent rigidity or tumescence, and vasodilator dose used. Patients in group 2 had less of a change in penile length from flaccid to erect state (36% vs. 44%, p = 0.02), higher EDV (12.0 vs. 8.5, p = 0.041), lower RI (0.6 vs. 1.0, p = 0.046), and more veno-occlusive dysfunction (82% vs. 53%, p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, failure to reach maximum SPL at peak ICI erection (OR 2.255, CI 1.191-4.271, p = 0.0126), EDV (OR 1.281, CI 1.115-1.471, p < 0.001) and RI (OR 0.694, CI 0.573-0.723, p = 0.009) predicted veno-occlusive dysfunction. Failure to reach maximal SPL during PDDU using ICI with a vasodilator agent predicted veno-occlusive dysfunction, which is independent of both penile rigidity and tumescence. This measurement could serve as another diagnostic tool for predicting veno-occlusive dysfunction when PDDU is not readily available. Limitations include the subjective nature of penile measurements and different PGE1 doses used. PMID:26235901

  7. Proteome Analysis of Human Arterial Tissue Discloses Associations Between the Vascular Content of Small Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteoglycans and Pulse Wave Velocity

    Lyck Hansen, Maria; Beck, Hans Christian; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon; Jensen, Pia Sndergaard; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that arterial stiffness is associated with changes in the arterial protein profile, particularly of extracellular matrix components. We aimed at determining differentially expressed proteins by quantitative proteome analysis in arterial tissue from patients with...... grafting. Protein extracts of well-defined, homogenous, nonatherosclerotic individual samples of the left mammary artery from 10 of these patients with high PWV and 9 with low PWV were compared by quantitative proteome analysis, using tandem mass tag labeling and nano-liquid chromatography mass...

  8. Opening of small and intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels induces relaxation mainly mediated by nitric-oxide release in large arteries and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in small arteries from rat

    Stankevicius, Edgaras; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Beck, Lilliana; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Misfeldt, Mikkel W; Nielsen, Gorm; Schjorring, Olav; Hughes, Alun; Simonsen, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca) or K(Ca)2) and intermediate (IK(Ca) or K(Ca)3.1) conductance activated by 6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime (NS309) are involved in both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolar......This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca) or K(Ca)2) and intermediate (IK(Ca) or K(Ca)3.1) conductance activated by 6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime (NS309) are involved in both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium...

  9. Penile cancer brachytherapy HDR mould technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center

    Piotr Paw?owski; Jaros?aw ?yczek; Robert Matys; Iwona Kubicka-Mendak; Iwona Stawiarska; Joanna Miedzinska; Pawe? Banatkiewicz; Aldona ?askawska-Wiatr; Justyna Wittych

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pictorial essay is to present the mould based HDR brachytherapy technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center for penile cancer patients. We use images to describe this method step by step.

  10. Simultaneous Inflatable Penile Prosthesis (IPP) and Male Sling Placement: Aiding in a Faster Return to Patient ...

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Inflatable Penile Prosthesis (IPP) and Male Sling Placement: Aiding in a Faster Return to Patient Quality-of-Life Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and ...

  11. Mechanisms of vasorelaxation induced by the cannabidiol analogue compound O-1602 in the rat small mesenteric artery.

    Al Suleimani, Y M; Al Mahruqi, A S; Hiley, C R

    2015-10-15

    Atypical cannabinoid O-1602 (5-Methyl-4-[(1R,6R)-3-methyl-6-(1-cyclohexen-1-yl]-1,3-benzenediol) induces vasorelaxation and activates the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 in human endothelial cells. This study investigates the underlying mechanisms of vasorelaxation induced by this compound. The vasodilator activity was assessed in the rat third order branch of the superior mesenteric artery using a wire myograph. The vasorelaxation was partially endothelium-dependent (pEC50%=5.80.3). The endothelial component was antagonized by the putative endothelial receptor antagonists rimonabant (3 M; pEC50%=5.10.2) and O-1918 (10 M; pEC50%=5.30.2) but not by the CB1 and CB2 receptors antagonists AM 251 (10 M) and AM 630 (10 M), respectively. The vasorelaxation was not pertussis toxin-sensitive and not mediated through TRPVI receptors or by the release of NO, but was reduced by inhibition of Ca2+ sensitive K+ channels (KCa). In endothelium-denuded vessels, O-1602 abolished CaCl2-induced contraction and the inhibition was apparently reversed by O-1918. O-1602 mediates its vasorelaxant effects partly by an endothelium-dependent pathway involving rimonabant- and O-1918-sensitive targets that are distinct from the classical CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and might involve activation of KCa. The endothelium-independent relaxation might involve interfering with Ca2+ entry. PMID:26297305

  12. Penile necrosis due to calciphylaxis in a patient of end stage renal disease

    A case of a 72-year-old diabetic, hypertensive male with end stage renal disease as a result of the underlying condition of calciphylaxis, presenting with gangrene of the glans penis is reported. In calciphylaxis, calcification of small and medium-sized arteries occurs, which may result in ischemia and gangrene. A computed tomography scan of the lower abdomen, pelvis and the upper thigh was performed, which showed diffuse and extensive calcification of the walls of the small and medium-sized arteries, with almost complete obliteration of the lumen of the small arteries. A 3-dimensional reconstruction of the penis using volume rendering technique, demonstrated the ulceration of the glans penis in an exquisite manner. The appearance is so peculiar that no histological confirmation is needed. A review of relevant literature related to the etiopathogenesis, radiological findings, treatment and prognosis is also discussed. (author)

  13. Distal penile prosthesis extrusion: treatment with distal corporoplasty or Gortex windsock reinforcement.

    Carson, C C; Noh, C H

    2002-04-01

    Subcutaneous extrusion of penile prosthesis cylinders beneath the glans penis is an unusual but difficult complication of penile prosthesis. Without surgical repair, extrusion, infection, and corporeal fibrosis may ensue. Twenty-eight patients with distal corporeal extrusion were reviewed to identify the optimum treatment outcome for these penile prosthesis complications. Records of 28 men with subcutaneous distal penile prosthesis cylinder extrusion were reviewed. Mean age was 56.2 y. Etiology of erectile dysfunction was diabetes mellitus in 11, vasculogenic in 10, Peyronie's disease in five, radical pelvic surgery in five. Duration of penile prosthesis was 8-72 months (mean 42.6). No patient had penile prosthesis infection or device exposure through the skin. Distal corporoplasty was treated on 18/28 men using cylinder repositioning and direct tunica albuginea repair. Ten men underwent repair using a Gortex windsock. 8/18 corporoplasty and 6/10 windsock patients required glans fixation for treatment of hypermobile glans following cylinder relocation. In two patients with windsock repair, extrusion recurrence occurred 6 and 18 months following surgery and 1/6 had post operative infection requiring prosthesis removal. Mean surgical time for corporoplasty was 52.8 minutes while windsock reconstruction was 89.6 minutes. Distal subcutaneous penile prosthesis cylinder extrusion produces coital pain and predisposes to cylinder exposure and infection. Early repair with or without additional prosthetic materials will return penile prostheses to a normal functioning state. Distal corporoplasty with cylinder repositioning appears to be a simple, low morbidity solution to this difficult dilemma. Outcomes with distal corporoplasty result in better function, less pain, and fewer recurrences than Gortex windsock repair. PMID:11979321

  14. Intraarterial chemotherapy as the first-line therapy in penile cancer

    Chiang, P-H; Chen, C-H.; Shen, Y-C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limited literature on the role of intraarterial chemotherapy as first-line therapy for penile squamous cell carcinoma is available. Methods: From 2005 to 2013, a total of 12 patients with various stages of penile squamous cell carcinoma received intraarterial chemotherapy. The chemotherapeutic agents used were methotrexate, mitomycin C, bleomycin, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil. Surgery was followed by the tumour responses. Results: An objective tumour response was noted in 10 of 1...

  15. Tadalafil rehabilitation therapy preserves penile size after bilateral nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Ozgu Aydogdu; Mehmet Ilker Gokce; Berk Burgu; Sumer Baltaci; Onder Yaman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the change in penile size r bilateral nerve sparing retropubic radical prostatectomy (BNSRRP) and possible effect of Tadalafil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 65 patients underwent BNSRRP and they were evaluated prospectively for a whole year of follow-up . The patients were randomized to control without rehabilitation (Group 1) or Tadalafil rehabilitation group (Group 2). The patients were evaluated at months 3, 6 and 12 postoperatively for erectile function, penile...

  16. Mechanisms Predisposing Penile Fracture and Long-Term Outcomes on Erectile and Voiding Functions

    Leonardo O. Reis; Marcelo Cartapatti; Rafael Marmiroli; Eduardo Jeronimo de Oliveira Jnior; Ricardo Destro Saade; Adriano Fregonesi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the mechanisms predisposing penile fracture as well as the rate of long-term penile deformity and erectile and voiding functions. Methods. All fractures were repaired on an emergency basis via subcoronal incision and absorbable suture with simultaneous repair of eventual urethral lesion. Patients' status before fracture and voiding and erectile functions at long term were assessed by periodic follow-up and phone call. Detailed history included cause, symptoms, and single...

  17. Recurrent furunculosis as a cause of isolated penile lymphedema: a case report

    Sood Suneet; Al-shaham Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Isolated lymphedema of the penis is extremely rare: combined involvement of the scrotum and penis is the norm. Furunculosis as a cause is not, to our knowledge, previously reported. We present a case of isolated penile lymphedema that responded to excision of lymphedematous tissue and reconstruction with flaps. Case presentation A 32-year-old Arab man presented with a three-year history of a gradually increasing, painless penile swelling. Our patient's main complaint was...

  18. Penile Reconstruction for a Case of Genital Lymphoedema Secondary to Proteus Syndrome

    Rees, R. (Robert); Manners, J; Ashouri, F.

    2011-01-01

    To our knowledge penile lymphoedema secondary to Proteus syndrome has not previously been reported. Hence we report a case of a 16-year-old male who was referred with features of right hemi-hypertrophy and severe lymphoedema affecting his scrotum and penis. He had previously undergone scrotal reduction surgery at the age of 13, but had since developed worsening penile oedema. His main concern was that of cosmetic appearance prior to sexual debut, and he also complained of erectile dysfunction...

  19. Imaging Findings of Sonography and Computed Tomography for a Penile Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report

    Chung, Jin; Chung, Jae Joon; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Joo Hee [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We report the ultrasonographic and computed tomography (CT) findings of a deep type of penile leiomyosarcoma that helped characterize a penile mass along with a review of the published literature. Leiomyosarcoma of the penis is a very rare disease characterized by a lobulated, expansile, soft tissue mass in CT images, with peripheral rim enhancement and internal homogeneous low density. The ultrasonographic findings revealed a lobulated and heterogeneously hypoechoic solid mass at the distal tip of the penis.

  20. Long term patient satisfaction and quality of life with AMS700CX inflatable penile prosthesis

    Antonio Vitarelli; Lucia Divenuto; Francesca Fortunato; Antonio Falco; Vincenzo Pagliarulo; Gabriele Antonini; Vincenzo Gentile; Alessandro Sciarra; Stefano Salciccia; Salvatore Sansalone; Maria Rosaria Di Placido; Giulio Garaffa; Arcangelo Pagliarulo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Penile prosthesis implantation is the solution of choice in patients who have failed or present contraindication to the use of all conservative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). Overall, satisfaction rates are high, with more than 80% of patients and partners fully satisfied with cosmetic and functional result of surgery. Chronic postoperative pain, penile shortening, soft or hyposensitive glans, pencil like penis syndrome and difficulty to cycle the device represent the mos...

  1. The role of Nesbit's procedure in surgical reconstruction of penile deviation

    Martenstein, Christian; Peruth, Julia; Hamza, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We review our results after surgical reconstruction with the Nesbit’s procedure for congenital or acquired penile deviation. Patients and methods: Etiology of penile deviation, surgical outcome for straightening the penis, postoperative patient satisfaction and clinical findings were evaluated for 5 patients undergoing Nesbit’s procedure followed by a Medline review of contemporary literature regarding alternative surgical techniques. Follow-up included clinical examination, s...

  2. Sexual outcomes after organ potency-sparing surgery and glans reconstruction in patients with penile carcinoma

    Gulino, Gaetano; Sasso, Francesco; Palermo, Giuseppe; D’Onofrio, Alfonso; Racioppi, Marco; Sacco, Emilio; Pinto, Francesco; Antonucci, Michele; D’Addessi, Alessandro; Bassi, Pierfrancesco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Radical surgery is the “gold standard” for treatment of invasive penile carcinoma but very poor aesthetic, functional and psychological outcomes have been reported. Our purpose was to assess the impact of organ potency-sparing surgery in locally confined carcinoma of the penis. Materials and Methods: We evaluated retrospectively 42 patients with early penile cancer (Ta,T1,T2), treated with glandulectomy and glanduloplasty with urethral mucosa and sparing of cavernosal apexes, or...

  3. Slightly modified technique of the original essed plication procedure for congenital penile deviation

    Van der Horst, C.; F.J. Martinez Portillo; C Seif; Musial, A.; Alken, P.; Jnemann, K.P.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Schroeder-Essed plication procedure is a standard technique for the correction of penile curvature. In a retrospective analysis we compared functional results and quality of life (LQ) of the original technique with inverted sutures as described by Schroeder-Essed and our slight modification consisting of horizontal incisions into the tunica albuginea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with congenital penis deviation were treated for penile deviation by the original Schro...

  4. “Bird-Wing” abdominal phalloplasty: A novel surgical technique for penile reconstruction

    Bajpai, Minu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To describe a technique of phalloplasty that is devoid of donor site scarring and suitable for urethral inlay and penile prosthesis in subsequent stages in cases of aphallia. Materials and Methods: Four patients with various disorders of sex development with 46 XY and severe penile deficiency, including one with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome who was initially raised as female, have been operated using a “Bird Wing” lower abdominal skin crease incision. Results: The patients’ a...

  5. Outcome of Glansectomy and Skin Grafting in the Management of Penile Cancer

    Patrick Keane; Thaigarajan Nambirajan; Ali Thwaini; Ho, K. J.; Ajay Pahuja; Hugh F. O'Kane

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report outcome data for patients with penile cancer treated surgically with glansectomy and skin grafting. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed data on all patients undergoing surgical management of penile cancer by a single surgeon between 1998 and 2008. Outcomes in patients who underwent glansectomy and skin grafting were analysed. Results. Between 1998 and 2008 a total of 25 patients with a mean age 60 (39–83) underwent glansectomy and skin grafting. Six patients ...

  6. Penile pyoderma gangrenosum successfully treated with topical Imiquimod

    Santosh P Rathod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum(PG is a rare ulcerating inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. Genital involvement has been rarely reported. We report such a case of 24- year- old, male patient living with HIV/AIDS(PLHIV who presented with progressive genital ulceration, not responding to oral antibiotics and aciclovir, gradually increasing in size over 15-18 months. Repeated biopsies showed acute on chronic inflammation. The lesion partially responded to oral and topical corticosteroids but soon increased in size after tapering the dosage of the steroids.Then patient was given Imiquimod 5% cream to be applied over the lesion once daily for 2-4 weeks. Lesion cleared completely in 4 weeks and is in remission since last 6 months. The case report highlights the successful use of topical Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of penile PG.

  7. Penile prosthesis implantation in an academic institution in Latin America

    Mario Paranhos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We performed a retrospective study to analyze the effectiveness of implantable penile prostheses in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 249 patients who received implants between 2001 and 2008. A total of 139 patients who underwent penile prosthesis implantation were interviewed. RESULTS: Approximately half of patients had previously used oral drugs before implantation of the prosthesis. About 45% had diabetes, 25.9% had previously undergone radical prostatectomy (RP, and 64% had hypertension. Exchange was performed in 5.7% for fracture, inadequate size, or extrusion. A total of 24.5% of men had immediate postoperative pain, 7.9% had local infection, and 8.6% had other complications. Patients who had previously undergone RP were 3.2 times more likely to experience a postoperative complication than patients who had not (p = 0.061. Eighty-nine (64% patients returned to having sex as they had before being diagnosed with ED. Ninety-two of the men (66.2% had sexual intercourse one to two times per week. One hundred twenty patients (86.3% rated their level of satisfaction as good, excellent or very good, which was similar to the percentage of partners. The mean follow-up was 40 months. CONCLUSION: Higher rates of postoperative infections and mechanical problems with the implant were found in this study as compared to other studies, which was probably associated with the relative lack of experience of the trainees who were performing the surgeries. Patients with a history of RP or diabetes mellitus prior to implantation were at higher risk of postoperative complications.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of penile metastases: a report on five cases

    Lau, T.N. [Singapore General Hospital, (Singapore). Department of Diagnostic Radiology; Wakeley, C.J.; Goddard, P. [Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, (United Kingdom). Department of Clinical Radiology

    1999-08-01

    Five cases of penile metastases are presented. Axial and sagittal T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans were performed in all patients. In some, coronal images were also obtained. The penile metastases were most often seen as discrete masses in the corpora cavernosa or corpus spongiosum. An atypical pattern of diffuse infiltration is also illustrated. Limitations of cavernosography, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) are discussed. The magnetic resonance (MR) features of penile metastases and possible role MR may have in the management of these patients are described. Metastatic deposits in the penis are uncommon. First described by Eberth in 1870 in a patient with a primary rectal carcinoma, there have since been over 300 cases reported in the literature. The imaging of penile metastases is, however, less clearly defined. Until now, cavernosography, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) have been used. These techniques have limitations. Only recently has magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) been employed. We describe five cases of penile metastases evaluated with MRI and discuss the role and features of penile metastases on MRI. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 4 figs.

  9. The role of Nesbit's procedure in surgical reconstruction of penile deviation

    Martenstein, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We review our results after surgical reconstruction with the Nesbit’s procedure for congenital or acquired penile deviation. Patients and methods: Etiology of penile deviation, surgical outcome for straightening the penis, postoperative patient satisfaction and clinical findings were evaluated for 5 patients undergoing Nesbit’s procedure followed by a Medline review of contemporary literature regarding alternative surgical techniques. Follow-up included clinical examination, self-photography on erection and a standardized interview with erectile dysfunction assessment using IIEF-5 questionnaire. Results: Overall patient satisfaction was 100% in two patients, 2 patients were partly satisfied and 1 patient reported no satisfaction because of severe penile shortening with insufficiency for sexual intercourse postoperatively. Preoperative mean angulation of the penis was 42°. Four patients had Peyronie’s disease and 1 patient’s curvature resulted from an untreated penile fracture during sexual intercourse. Conclusion: The Nesbit technique can give satisfactory results for mild and moderate penile curvature. However, each technique for the reconstruction of penile deviation has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore proper patient selection has a major impact on further outcome.

  10. Usefulness of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography During Ultraselective Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Small Hepatocellular Carcinomas that Cannot be Demonstrated on Angiography

    This study evaluated the usefulness of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during ultraselective transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) that could not be demonstrated on angiography. Twenty-eight patients with 33 angiographically occult tumors (mean diameter 1.3 0.3 cm) were enrolled in the study. The ability of CBCT during arterial portography (CBCTAP), during hepatic arteriography (CBCTHA), and after iodized oil injection (LipCBCT) to detect HCC lesions was retrospectively analyzed. The technical success of TACE was divided into three grades: complete (the embolized area included the entire tumor with at least a 5-mm wide margin), adequate (the embolized area included the entire tumor but without a 5-mm wide margin in parts), and incomplete (the embolized area did not include the entire tumor) according to computed axial tomographic (CAT) images obtained 1 week after TACE. Local tumor progression was also evaluated. CBCTAP, CBCTHA, and LipCBCT detected HCC lesions in 93.9% (31 of 33), 96.7% (29 of 30), and 100% (29 of 29) of patients, respectively. A single branch was embolized in 28 tumors, and 2 branches were embolized in five tumors. Twenty-seven tumors (81.8%) were classed as complete, and 6 (18.2%) were classed as adequate. None of the tumors were classed as incomplete. Twenty-five tumors (75.8%) had not recurred during 12.0 6.2 months. Eight tumors (24.2%), 5 (18.5%) of 27 complete success and 3 (50%) of 6 adequate success, recurred during 10.1 6.2 months. CBCT during TACE is useful in detecting and treating small HCC lesions that cannot not be demonstrated on angiography.

  11. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with bronchial arterial infusion of CDDP for the treatment of locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    The standard treatment for locally advanced (stage III) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is concurrent use of chemoradiotherapy containing cisplatinum (CDDP). To enhance the local control and reduce the systemic adverse effects, we have been performing intraarterial infusion of CDDP from the bronchial arteries (BAI of CDDP) instead of intravenous administration. In principle, we administered 80 mg/m2 of CDDP intra- arterially twice during the conventionally fractionated radiation therapy of 60 to 70 Gy. The dose of CDDP was changed according to the patient's renal function. Between 1996 and 2001 40 cases with stage III NSCLC were treated definitively. Median age was 75 years. There were 28 squamous cell carcinoma (Sqcca) and 9 adenoca. There were 7 stage IIIA and 33 stage IIIB cases. Average total RT dose was 63.4 Gy and median total CDDP dose was 220 mg. Median follow-up period was 63 months. Median survival time was 27 months. Five-year overall, relapse-free and cause-specific survival rates were 41%, 33% and 56%, respectively. Five-year local relapse-free rate was 57%. As for acute complications, we had only six (15%) grade 3 hematological and 2 (5%) grade 3 pulmonary complications, and we had no severe esophageal complications, which is often a dose-limiting factor. Our survival results of concurrent radiotherapy and BAI of CDDP for the treatment of stage III NSCLC have been promising with a low rate of severe adverse effects. Judging from the high rate of long-term disease-free survivors, disease clearance by chemoradiotherapy might be quite essential to improve the treatment results. (author)

  12. Human papillomavirus-associated increase in p16INK4A expression in penile lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma

    Prowse, DM; Ktori, EN; Chandrasekaran, D; Prapa, A; Baithun, S

    2008-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are sexually transmitted human carcinogens that may play a role in the oncogenesis of penile cancer. Objectives To investigate the role of HPV infection and expression of the tumour suppressor protein p16INK4A in the pathogenesis of penile cancer. Methods By means of polymerase chain reaction amplification and reverse hybridization line probe assay to detect HPV infection, and immunohistochemical staining for p16INK4A and Ki67, we analysed 26 penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 20 independent penile lichen sclerosus (LS) lesions from 46 patients. Results HPV DNA was found in 54% of penile SCCs and 33% of penile LS cases in single and multiple infections. High-risk HPV 16 was the predominant HPV type detected. No relationship between Ki67 expression and HPV infection was observed. Strong immunostaining for p16INK4A correlated with HPV 16/18 infection in both penile LS and penile SCC. In our penile SCC series the cancer margins were also associated with penile LS in 13 of 26 lesions, and HPV was detected in seven of the 13 SCC cases associated with LS and in six of the 11 SCC lesions not involving LS. Conclusions Our study shows a high prevalence of HPV 16 and p16INK4A expression in penile lesions, consistent with an active role for HPV in interfering with the retinoblastoma pathway. High-risk HPV infection could be involved in the tumorigenic process in 50% of penile cancers, and the use of prophylactic HPV vaccines has the potential to prevent these cancers. PMID:18047520

  13. Tunical plication in the management of penile curvature due La Peyronie’s disease. Our experience on 47 cases

    Iacono Fabrizio; Prezioso Domenico; Ruffo Antonio; Illiano Ester; Romeo Giuseppe; Amato Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Peyronie’s disease is an acquired connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea with fibrosis and inflammation. The disease produces palpable plaques, penile curvature and pain during erections. Patients report negative effects in four major domains: physical appearance and self-image, sexual function and performance. These changes damage sexual life and compromise the quality of life. Our objective is to review the patient's sexual life after penile tunical pl...

  14. Penile traction therapy and Peyronie’s disease: a state of art review of the current literature

    Chung, Eric; Brock, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, penile traction therapy (PTT) has gained considerable interest as a novel nonsurgical treatment option for men with Peyronie’s disease (PD) and short penises. The current published literature suggests that selected cases of PD may benefit from a conservative approach with PTT, resulting in increased penile length and reduction of penile deformity. It appears to be safe and well tolerated but requires a great deal of patient compliance and determination. This article reviews t...

  15. The relationship between the localization and etiology in childrens penile tourniquet syndrome: A case report and literature review

    Mustafa Yasar Ozdamar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Though the penile tourniquet syndrome is rarely seen, it is a disease which causescomplications from a simple edema to severe necrosis and amputation. Whethersimple or complicated, the penile strangulation that is the causative factor, exceptbabies, whom are usually questionable. Our aim is to investigate the relationbetween perpetrators and location of disease in the penile tourniquet syndrome.

  16. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality. PMID:25563384

  17. OUR EXPERIENCE WITH TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE URETHROPLASTY FOR DISTAL AND MID-PENILE HYPOSPADIAS

    Danijela Đerić

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypospadias does not present an isolated genital anomaly but a complex urological, sex-ual, psychological and psychiatric, reproductive and aesthetic problem. Although there are over 200 operative techniques, this great surgical challenge presently does not have ideal operative solution. Nowadays, the use of urethral plate for urethroplasty, through various surgical tech-niques, presents a revolutionary concept in hypospadias surgery and it is being accepted by an ever-increasing number of hypospadiologists.Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP -Snodgrass procedure was performed on a total of 22 boys; 16 distal (72.7%, 5 mid-penile (22.7% and 1 proximal hypospadias in period from 1.1.2000 to 30.08.2003, by the same surgical team. The average patient age was 4.5 years (6 mon. to 12 years. All reconstructions have been done as primary urethroplasty while one distal hypospadias had one previous, unsuccessful MAGPI procedure. Complication included small urethrocutaneous fistulas in 4 (18% and meatal stenosis in 1 (4.5% child. Snodgrass pro-cedure is a successful method for reparation of distal hypospadias for it provides an excellent aesthetic result with acceptable complications. In order to evaluate the success of this method in reparation of mid- and proximal hypospadias, as well as the possibility of its application on previously unsuccessful or circumcised patients, it is necessary to gain additional experience al-though the first results are encouraging.

  18. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of penile carcinoma

    Petera, J.; Odrazka, K.; Zouhar, M.; Bedrosova, J.; Dolezel, M. [Dept. of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Charles Univ. Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2004-02-01

    Background: interstitial low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy allows conservative treatment of T1-T2 penile carcinoma. High-dose-rate (HDR) is often considered to be dangerous for interstitial implants because of a higher risk of complications, but numerous reports suggest that results may be comparable to LDR. Nevertheless, there are no data in the literature available regarding HDR interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the penis. Case report: a 64-year-old man with T1 NO MO epidermoid carcinoma of the glans is reported. Interstitial HDR brachytherapy was performed using the stainless hollow needle technique and a breast template for fixation and good geometry. The dose delivered was 18 x 3 Gy twice daily. Results: after 232 days from brachytherapy, the patient was without any evidence of the tumor, experienced no serious radiation-induced complications, and had a fully functional organ. Conclusion: HDR interstitial brachytherapy is feasible in selected case of penis carcinoma, when careful planning and small single fractions are used. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in penile cancer cases from Brazil

    Larissa Alves Afonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a potentially mutilating disease. Although its occurrence is relatively rare worldwide, penile cancer rates can be high in developing countries. A few studies have been conducted on the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV in penile carcinoma, which have found HPV present in 30-70% of penile malignant lesions, with a higher prevalence of HPV 16 and 18. It has been assumed that cofactors, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections, may play a role in the progression of penile neoplasia. The aim of this study was to determine HPV and EBV prevalence in 135 penile malignant lesions from Brazilian men through the use of MY09/11 polymerase chain reaction (PCR, type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV prevalence among the men tested was 60.7%. Of the men who tested positive, 27 presented with HPV 16 (29.7%, five with HPV 18 (5.5%, 21 with HPV 45 (23.1% and nine with HPV 6 (9.9%. Seven mixed infections were detected (9.2%, while 11 cases remained untyped (13.4%. Regarding EBV positivity, 46.7% of the samples contained EBV DNA with EBV-1 as the most prevalent type (74.6%. More than 23% of the men were co-infected with both HPV and EBV, while 35% presented exclusively with HPV DNA and 20% presented only with EBV DNA. Penile carcinoma aetiology has not been fully elucidated and the role of HPV and EBV infections individually or synergistically is still controversial. Hence, more studies are needed to determine their possible role in carcinogenesis.

  20. Comparison of Small Intestinal Submucosa-Covered and Noncovered Nitinol Stents with PTFE Endografts in Injured Ovine Femoral Arteries: A Pilot Study

    The purpose of this study was to compare performance of small intestinal submucosa (SIS)-covered endografts (SCEs) to polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered endografts (PCEs) and to bare nitinol stents (BSs) in injured sheep femoral artery (FA). Bare Zilver 6 mm x 40 mm nitinol stents (n = 6), Zilver stents covered with SIS (n = 6), and Palmaz stents 6 mm x 37 mm covered with PTFE (n = 6) were implanted in the balloon-injured FAs of nine female sheep. Follow-up arteriograms were obtained before animal sacrifice at 1, 3 and 6 months, with three animals at each time point. The FAs with the implanted device were explanted for histologic studies and morphologic measurements. Stent implantation was technically successful in all sheep. All BS and SCEs were patent at each time point. Five BSs and five SCEs exhibited formation of progressive eccentric intimal hyperplasia (IH) that was more advanced in SCE at 6 months. Cross-sectional area narrowing averaged 60% for BSs and 67% for SCEs. One BS, one SCE and two patent PCEs exhibited mild-to-moderate formation of concentric IH. Four PCS occluded one at 1 month, two at 3 months and one at 6 months. Performance of the devices placed into sheep FAs depended on their relation to the curving peri-articular portion of the FA during extremity flexion. BSs and SCEs placed in this portion exhibited progressive growth of eccentric IH while PCEs placed in this portion occluded

  1. siRNA-induced in vivo downregulation of L-type calcium channels in rat small mesenteric arteries

    Møller, Kate; Aalkjær, Christian; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Previous gene deletion studies have provided insight into the critical role of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cav1.2) in regulation of blood pressure. Homozygous knockout is, however, lethal but this limitation can be overcome by a small RNA interference (siRNA). A specific downregulation of...... gene expression with siRNA can be a helpful tool in investigations of proteins in the vascular bed.   The 1st to 3rd order branches of the mesenteric artery of anestisized Wistar rats were transfected with siRNAs targeting Cav1.2 or with the control non-related siRNAs. The effect of transfection was...... evaluated after 3 days using qPCR and isometric myography.   In comparison to some other genes the expression of Cav1.2 is very sensitive to transfection procedure (see abstract Broegger et al.). The optimization has been made to avoid the unwanted changes in mRNA in the controls transfected with non...

  2. An unusual course after injection of industrial silicone for penile augmentation.

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Choi, Hwang; Zhang, Li Tao; Zhao, Chen; Choi, In Sung; Park, Jong Kwan

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old male patient had an injection of industrial silicone under the penile skin for augmentation by non-medical practitioners a week before. There was complete necrosis of the dorsal part of the penile skin and soft tissue. In a penile magnetic resonance image, big masses of silicone under the penile skin were found and a part of the silicone was partially exposed. Debridement of the necrotic tissue was done. As the right side of the tunica albuginea was thin-walled, a silicone-induced infection developed. Because of this, the wet dressing was done daily without closing the wound for the next 23 days. Finally, both scrotal skins were drawn and sutured to the dorsal glandular skin after the total penile skin was completely removed and sutured with T-style anastomosis. The ventral flap was anastomosed to the ventral glandular skin with the end-to-end technique with inverted V incision at 1 cm proximal from the sutured margin. Flaps survived completely without skin necrosis or dehiscence. PMID:25844103

  3. An unusual course after injection of industrial silicone for penile augmentation

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Choi, Hwang; Zhang, Li Tao; Zhao, Chen; Choi, In Sung; Park, Jong Kwan

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old male patient had an injection of industrial silicone under the penile skin for augmentation by non-medical practitioners a week before. There was complete necrosis of the dorsal part of the penile skin and soft tissue. In a penile magnetic resonance image, big masses of silicone under the penile skin were found and a part of the silicone was partially exposed. Debridement of the necrotic tissue was done. As the right side of the tunica albuginea was thin-walled, a silicone-induced infection developed. Because of this, the wet dressing was done daily without closing the wound for the next 23 days. Finally, both scrotal skins were drawn and sutured to the dorsal glandular skin after the total penile skin was completely removed and sutured with T-style anastomosis. The ventral flap was anastomosed to the ventral glandular skin with the end-to-end technique with inverted V incision at 1 cm proximal from the sutured margin. Flaps survived completely without skin necrosis or dehiscence. PMID:25844103

  4. Imperforate Anus with Fistula Exiting at the Penile Skin

    Mouravas, Vassilios; Lambropoulos, Vassilios; Kepertis, Chrysostomos; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a male neonate with imperforate anus and a fistula exiting on the penile skin. Anorectal malformations in boys often present themselves with an entero-perineal or entero-urinary tract fistula, the type of which is a key feature for the classification and the treatment plan. A fistula exiting in front of the scrotum, such as described in our case, is very rare and is not incorporated in the current classification and treatment algorithms. Scarce reports on misjudgment concerning the position of the blind rectal pouch in similar cases, led us to perform a colostomy instead of a one-stage correction. A posterior sagittal anorectoplasty was performed eight months later and the rectal pouch was found inside the levator sling, justifying the cautious approach. The colostomy was closed three months later and after six months the distal part of the fistula was excised. We believe that in cases with a rare fistula presentation, the position of the rectal pouch is not predictable and the surgeon should proceed with caution.

  5. Survival impact of early lymph node staging in a national study on 454 Danish men with penile cancer

    Jakobsen, J. K.; Krarup, K. P.; Sommer, P.; Nerstrom, H.; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Bakholdt, V.; Olsen, K. Ø.; Kromann, B.; Jensen, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: In few other cancers lymph node involvement has as clear a prognostic significance as in penile cancer. The latest revision of the Union for International Cancer Control Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) - criteria for penile cancer in 2009 amended the pathological nodal (pN...

  6. Penile metastasis from primary transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis: first manifestation of systemic spread

    Almost one-third of all penile metastases are detected at the same time as a primary tumor, whereas the remaining two-thirds are detected a mean of 18 months after the discovery of the primary tumor. Cutaneous metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is extremely rare and generally accepted as the late manifestation of a systemic spread. We report the first case of simultaneous penile and lung metastases from a primary TCC of the renal pelvis in a 76-year-old man, that occurred 8 years after a left nephroureterectomy. This case report underscores the importance of physical examinations of the skin of patients who undergo surgical procedures for TCC from bladder as well as from the upper urinary tract, including those seemingly without metastatic disease, because of the possibility of skin and penile metastatic spread

  7. Conservative Management of Penile Trauma may be Complicated by Abscess Formation.

    Bantis, Athanasios; Sountoulides, Petros; Kalaitzis, Christos; Deftereos, Savas

    2014-10-30

    Blunt penile trauma during sexual activity, although highly underreported due to the associated patient embarrassment, constitutes a real urological emergency requiring immediate attention and possibly early surgical intervention. We report a case of a 58-year old man who presented with penile pain following excessive masturbation. Although there were no clinical signs of penile deformity or hematoma, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a rupture in the tunica albuginea. The patient opted for non-surgical management and his recovery period was complicated by the formation of an abscess at the site of the albugineal tear thus prolonging his hospital stay. The abscess was surgically drained and the patient reports to have normal erections at 3-month follow up. PMID:25568766

  8. Conservative management of penile trauma may be complicated by abscess formation

    Athanasios Bantis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Blunt penile trauma during sexual activity, although highly underreported due to the associated patient embarrassment, constitutes a real urological emergency requiring immediate attention and possibly early surgical intervention. We report a case of a 58-year old man who presented with penile pain following excessive masturbation. Although there were no clinical signs of penile deformity or hematoma, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a rupture in the tunica albuginea. The patient opted for non-surgical management and his recovery period was complicated by the formation of an abscess at the site of the albugineal tear thus prolonging his hospital stay. The abscess was surgically drained and the patient reports to have normal erections at 3-month follow up.

  9. Incidence and cost of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer in Denmark

    Olsen, J.; Jorgensen, T. R.; Kofoed, K.; Larsen, H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Besides being a causative agent for genital warts and cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to 40-85% of cases of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer and precancerous lesions. HPV types 16 & 18 in particular contribute to 74-93% of these cases. Overall the number...... of new cases of these four cancers may be relatively high implying notable health care cost to society. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the health care sector costs of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Methods: New anogenital cancer patients were identified from the...... four anogenital cancers were estimated using regression analysis. Results: The annual incidence of anal cancer in Denmark is 1.9 per 100,000 persons. The corresponding incidence rates for penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer are 1.7, 0.9 and 3.6 per 100,000 males/females, respectively. The total number of...

  10. Complete Penile Necrosis in a Patient With Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report

    Anne-Sophie Blais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile necrosis is a rare condition that has been mostly described in association with diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease. We report an unusual case of acute penile necrosis because of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. A 75-year-old man presented with acute renal failure and experienced cardiac complications during the hospitalization. The patient was treated twice with intravenous heparin. He developed symptoms of penile necrosis 4 days after the reintroduction of heparin. At that moment, the platelet count dropped by 61%, and the analysis of heparin-pf4 antibodies was positive for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The patient underwent a total penectomy and a perineal urethrostomy.

  11. Penile metastasis from primary transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis: first manifestation of systemic spread

    Casale Paolo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost one-third of all penile metastases are detected at the same time as a primary tumor, whereas the remaining two-thirds are detected a mean of 18 months after the discovery of the primary tumor. Cutaneous metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is extremely rare and generally accepted as the late manifestation of a systemic spread. Case presentation We report the first case of simultaneous penile and lung metastases from a primary TCC of the renal pelvis in a 76-year-old man, that occurred 8 years after a left nephroureterectomy. Conclusions This case report underscores the importance of physical examinations of the skin of patients who undergo surgical procedures for TCC from bladder as well as from the upper urinary tract, including those seemingly without metastatic disease, because of the possibility of skin and penile metastatic spread.

  12. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acq...

  13. Peoscopic diagnosis of flat condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia. Clinical manifestation.

    Cardamakis, E; Kotoulas, I G; Relakis, K; Metalinos, K; Stathopoulos, E; Diamantis, A; Korantzis, A; Michopoulos, J; Mantouvalos, C; Tzingounis, V

    1997-01-01

    Peoscopy was performed in order to assess penile lesions in the male sexual partners of 326 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or flat condyloma (FC). Each patient was submitted to a careful naked-eye inspection, peoscopy and biopsy of any suspicious lesion which was confirmed histologically and immunohistochemically. A brush cytologic examination of the distal portion of the urethra was also performed. The distribution of penile lesions was as follows: (1) 8 patients with herpes virus infection; (2) 37 patients with condyloma accuminata (CA); (3) 89 patients with FC; (4) 51 patients with FC and CA; (5) 18 patients with penile intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (PIN-I); (6) 2 patients with PIN-II; (7) 17 patients with PIN-III; (8) 92 patients with no penile lesions; (9) 7 patients with human papilloma virus infection of papillae coronae glandis, and (10) 5 patients with FC of the distal portion of the urethra. Naked-eye inspection revealed the presence of penile lesions in 39 of 233 patients (16.73%). Peoscopic examination revealed the presence of penile lesions in 233 of 326 patients (71.48%). In 135 of 155 patients the peoscopic findings were in accordance with the histologic diagnosis (87.09%). Immunohistochemical (by indirect peroxidase-antiperoxidase method) detection of virus antigens was positive in 16 of 34 patients (47.03%). It is concluded that peoscopy of the male sexual partners of women with CIN or FC should be performed to better assess the treatment used in the couple. PMID:9194625

  14. Semi-rigid penile prosthesis as a salvage management of idiopathic ischemic stuttering priapism

    Faddan AA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amr A Faddan, Alexey V Aksenov, Carsten M Naumann, Klaus P Jünemann, Daniar K Osmonov Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany Introduction: Priapism is the persistent erection resulting from dysfunction of the mechanisms that regulate penile swelling, stiffness, and sagging. It is a full or partial erection that persists for a period more than 4 hours beyond sexual stimulation and/or orgasm or is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Ischemic priapism should be managed in a step-by-step fashion. Objective: To demonstrate step-by-step management of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism. We report a case of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism. Moreover, we reviewed different approaches to priapism management in the literature. Case presentation: A 53-year-old male presented with a painful erection of 29 hours’ duration, probably caused by consumption of alcohol. The penile blood gas showed a pH of 7.08, PCO2 of 75 mmHg and PO2 of 39 mmHg. Aspiration was followed by irrigation of an α-adrenergic, Winter and T-shunt operations were preformed, and finally a semi-rigid penile prosthesis was implanted to overcome the refractory stuttering ischemic priapism. Conclusion: In case of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism, immediate implantation of a penile prosthesis is a simple and effective procedure that manages both the acute episode and the inevitable erectile dysfunction that would otherwise occur, while preserving penile length. Keywords: priapism, stuttering priapism, shunting operation, penile prosthesis 

  15. he relationship of body mass index to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys

    Rizky Adriansyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence suggests that obesity may be related to early onset of puberty in girls. However, few studies have found a link between body mass index (BMI and puberty onset in boys. More study is needed to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume. Objective To investigate the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent boys aged 9 to 14 years in Secanggang District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Province in August 2009. Subject's BMIs were calculated by dividing body weight (BW in kilograms by body height (BH in meters squared. Penile length (cm was measured with a spatula. We took the average of three measurements from the symphysis pubis to the tip of the glans penis. Testicular volume (mL was estimated by palpation using an orchidometer. Pearson's correlation test (r was used to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and BMI to testicular volume. Results There were 108 participants, consisting of 64 primary school students and 44 junior high school students. Subjects' mean age was 11.7 (SD 1.62 years,; mean BW was 35.2 (SD 8.84 kg; mean testicular volume was 3.6 (SD 1.20 mL. We found no significant association between BMI and penile length (r=-0.25, P= 0.006, nor between BMI and testicular volume (r=-021; P=0.09. Conclusion There was no significant relationship of BMI to penile length nor BMI to testicular volume in adolescent boys. [

  16. PENILE STRANGULATION BY A HARD PLASTIC BOTTLE NECK: A CASE REPORT

    Lingaraju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Application of Various metallic and non-metallic c onstricting objects on the external male genitalia for increasing sexual performance or beca use of autoerotic intentions is an unusual practice that can potentially lead to penile strang ulation with severe consequences. To remove such an object is a challenge as the chances of injury t o the surgeon and the patient were high. Here with we report a 65 year old male who presented in our h ospital with a hard plastic bottle neck at the base of penis which led to penile strangulation. The con stricting agent was successfully removed. The patient had an uneventful recovery.

  17. MR diagnosis of penile agenesis: is it just absence of a phallus?

    Goenka, Ajit; Jain, Vaibhav; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun K. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Bajpai, Minu [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India)

    2008-10-15

    Penile agenesis is an extremely rare anomaly that results from absence of the genital tubercle or its failure to develop into a penis during embryonic life. Associated anomalies of the genitourinary and distal gastrointestinal tracts are frequently present. Imaging modalities, particularly MRI and cystography, play a crucial role in establishing the diagnosis and guiding further management. We report a child with penile agenesis with a urethroanal fistula and a blind-ending anterior urethra who had been reared as a male until presentation. (orig.)

  18. AB148. Penile duplex Doppler ultrasonography evaluation in young men with erectile dysfunction

    Ou, Yin-Chien; Lin, Yung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective Young men present as erectile dysfunction (ED) were usually thought to be related to psychiatric problems. Penile duplex Doppler ultrasonography (PDDU) is a minimally-invasive method for evaluating the penile hemodynamics in men with ED. To date, little is known about the findings of PDDU in men younger than 40 years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of PDDU in this age group. Methods From June 2013 to May 2015, patients presented to our out-patient clinic with chief...

  19. Kaposi′s sarcoma: HIV-negative man with isolated penile localization

    Soufiane Mellas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi′s sarcoma is the malignant proliferation of the endothelial cell vessels. Its genesis is still unclear; however, it seems to be related to the herpes virus infection (HHV-8. This neoplasia usually affects the lower limbs and the affected persons are mostly from the Mediterranean region. The exclusive penile localization of the Kaposi′s sarcoma in a patient with a negative HIV serologia is exceptional. Our case is of a 73-year old patient with a negative HIV serology presenting an exclusive penile localization of the Kaposi′s sarcoma treated by radiotherapy.

  20. Pannus Is the New Prepuce? Penile Cancer in a Buried Phallus.

    Manwaring, Jared; Vourganti, Srinivas; Nikolavsky, Dmitriy; Valente, Alfredo L; Byler, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Two males presented to our urology department with complaints of bleeding and malodor from buried phallus within a suprapubic fat pad. Although both men had neonatal circumcisions, advanced penile carcinoma was found in both men. Formal penectomies showed high grade, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma invading the corporal bodies and urethra. Buried penis represents a difficulty in early detection of suspicious lesions but may also provide an environment susceptible to poor hygiene and subsequent chronic inflammation. Patients with buried penis may be at a higher risk for development of invasive penile cancer and may benefit from regular and thorough genital exams. PMID:26446361

  1. MR diagnosis of penile agenesis: is it just absence of a phallus?

    Penile agenesis is an extremely rare anomaly that results from absence of the genital tubercle or its failure to develop into a penis during embryonic life. Associated anomalies of the genitourinary and distal gastrointestinal tracts are frequently present. Imaging modalities, particularly MRI and cystography, play a crucial role in establishing the diagnosis and guiding further management. We report a child with penile agenesis with a urethroanal fistula and a blind-ending anterior urethra who had been reared as a male until presentation. (orig.)

  2. Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women

    Claeys Geert; De Backer Ellen; Saerens Bart; dos Santos Lopes Santiago Guido; Monstrey Stan; Gerris Jan; Verstraelen Hans; Weyers Steven; Vaneechoutte Mario; Verhelst Rita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin...

  3. Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A2B adenosine receptor signaling.

    Wen, Jiaming; Jiang, Xianzhen; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Tang, Yuxin; Sun, Hong; Mi, Tiejuan; Phatarpekar, Prasad V; Kellems, Rodney E; Blackburn, Michael R; Xia, Yang

    2010-03-01

    Priapism is a condition of persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation. Of men with sickle cell disease (SCD), 40% display priapism. The disorder is a dangerous and urgent condition, given its association with penile fibrosis and eventual erectile dysfunction. Current strategies to prevent its progression are poor because of a lack of fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms for penile fibrosis in priapism. Here we demonstrate that increased adenosine is a novel causative factor contributing to penile fibrosis in two independent animal models of priapism, adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice and SCD transgenic mice. An important finding is that chronic reduction of adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy successfully attenuated penile fibrosis in both mouse models, indicating an essential role of increased adenosine in penile fibrosis and a novel therapeutic possibility for this serious complication. Subsequently, we identified that both mice models share a similar fibrotic gene expression profile in penile tissue (including procollagen I, TGF-beta(1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA), suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways for progression to penile fibrosis. Thus, in an effort to decipher specific cell types and underlying mechanism responsible for adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis, we purified corpus cavernosal fibroblast cells (CCFCs), the major cell type involved in this process, from wild-type mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the major receptor expressed in these cells is the adenosine receptor A(2B)R. Based on this fact, we further purified CCFCs from A(2B)R-deficient mice and demonstrated that A(2B)R is essential for excess adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis. Finally, we revealed that TGF-beta functions downstream of the A(2B)R to increase CCFC collagen secretion and proliferation. Overall, our studies identify an essential role of increased adenosine in the pathogenesis of penile fibrosis via A(2B)R signaling and offer a potential target for prevention and treatment of penile fibrosis, a dangerous complication seen in priapism.-Wen, J., Jiang, X., Dai, Y., Zhang, Y., Tang, Y., Sun, H., Mi, T., Phatarpekar, P. V., Kellems, R. E., Blackburn, M. R., Xia, Y. Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A(2B) adenosine receptor signaling. PMID:19858092

  4. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging angioanatomy of the arterial blood supply to the penis in suspected prostate cancer patients

    Thai, Cao Tan, E-mail: bstanhatinh@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Rue du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre Lès Nancy Cedex (France); IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Tour Drouet, rue du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre Lès Nancy Cedex (France); Karam, Ibrahim Michel [Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation Department, University Hospital of Nancy (France); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Nancy, 9 Avenue de la Foret de haye BP, 54505 Vandoeuvre Lès Nancy Cedex (France); Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh [Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation Department, University Hospital of Nancy (France); INSERM, CIC-EC CIE6, 92 Avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 54000 Nancy (France); Lefèvre, Frédéric [Department of Radiology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Rue du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre Lès Nancy Cedex (France); Hubert, Jacques [Department of Urology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Rue du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre Lès Nancy Cedex (France); IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Tour Drouet, rue du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre Lès Nancy Cedex (France); Felblinger, Jacques [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Tour Drouet, rue du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre Lès Nancy Cedex (France); Eschwège, Pascal [Department of Urology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Rue du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre Lès Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Three patterns of penile arterial supply (according to the classification of Stéphane Droupy). • Our classification about accessory pudendal artery. • Origin of accessory pudendal artery. - Abstract: Purpose: To describe the internal pudendal artery (IPA) and accessory pudendal artery (APA) detected by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography to help surgeons to find and preserve them during radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and methods: Constrast-enhanced MR 3.0 T angiography of the pelvis were performed in 111 male patients suspected diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), and describe the penile arterial blood supply. Results: There are three patterns of the arterial blood supply to the penis (IPA and/or APA) accounting for 51.4%, 46.8% and 1.8% of cases, respectively. About the accessory pudendal artery (APA): 54/111 (48.6%) patients had APA with five different branching patterns, they were type I (APA bilateral symmetry): 17 (31.5%); type II (APA bilateral asymmetry): 1 (1.9%); type III (APA unilateral lateral): 13 (24%); type IV (APA unilateral apical): 21 (38.9%); type V (APA unilateral mix): 2 (3.7%). APA origin were from inferior epigastric artery (IEA): 7 (9.5%); from inferior vesical artery (IVA): 32 (43.2%); from obturator artery (OA): 35 (47.3%). Conclusion: A precise angioanatomic evalutation of arteries destined to the penis by MR angiography pre-operation for male pelvic organs will help surgeons to preserve them and contributes to reduce the erectile dysfunction after these procedures.

  5. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging angioanatomy of the arterial blood supply to the penis in suspected prostate cancer patients

    Highlights: • Three patterns of penile arterial supply (according to the classification of Stéphane Droupy). • Our classification about accessory pudendal artery. • Origin of accessory pudendal artery. - Abstract: Purpose: To describe the internal pudendal artery (IPA) and accessory pudendal artery (APA) detected by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography to help surgeons to find and preserve them during radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and methods: Constrast-enhanced MR 3.0 T angiography of the pelvis were performed in 111 male patients suspected diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), and describe the penile arterial blood supply. Results: There are three patterns of the arterial blood supply to the penis (IPA and/or APA) accounting for 51.4%, 46.8% and 1.8% of cases, respectively. About the accessory pudendal artery (APA): 54/111 (48.6%) patients had APA with five different branching patterns, they were type I (APA bilateral symmetry): 17 (31.5%); type II (APA bilateral asymmetry): 1 (1.9%); type III (APA unilateral lateral): 13 (24%); type IV (APA unilateral apical): 21 (38.9%); type V (APA unilateral mix): 2 (3.7%). APA origin were from inferior epigastric artery (IEA): 7 (9.5%); from inferior vesical artery (IVA): 32 (43.2%); from obturator artery (OA): 35 (47.3%). Conclusion: A precise angioanatomic evalutation of arteries destined to the penis by MR angiography pre-operation for male pelvic organs will help surgeons to preserve them and contributes to reduce the erectile dysfunction after these procedures

  6. Variant arteries at the base of the brain

    Nayak SB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of the important arteries at the base of brain can lead to serious clinical conditions like stroke or other functional deficits. We report here a variant pattern of arteries seen at the base of the brain. The left internal carotid artery was slightly larger than the right and it terminated by dividing into anterior and middle cerebral arteries. It gave an abnormally large posterior communicating artery, which was almost equal in size to that of the middle cerebral artery. This posterior communicating artery replaced the distal part of the left posterior cerebral artery. The proximal part of the left posterior cerebral artery was very small. There were two anterior communicating arteries. The left vertebral artery was larger than the right vertebral artery. The knowledge of these anomalous arteries may be useful for radiologists, neurosurgeons and clinicians in general.

  7. Quantitation of pharmacologically-induced penile erections: the value of radionuclide phallography in the objective evaluation of erectile haemodynamics.

    Siraj, Q H; Bomanji, J; Akhtar, M A; Rana, M H; Sadiq, M; Ahmed, M

    1990-06-01

    This study combines the pharmacologically-induced penile erection (PIPE) technique with radionuclide phallography (RNP) for the non-invasive study of penile haemodynamic changes during erection. Penile erections produced by the intracavernosal injections of two different vasoactive drugs, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and papaverine HCl (PPV) were assessed by quantitation of the dynamic RNP and parameters of erection were defined and compared. PGE1 intracavernosal injections were seen to elicit a better erectile response than PPV. Dynamic radionuclide phallography was performed using 99Tcm-labelled autologous RBCs in five normally potent volunteers, sixteen patients with psychogenic impotence, seven patients with vasculogenic impotence (three arteriogenic, four venous leakage) and one patient with neurogenic impotence. Physical parameters of erection including the penile length and circumference changes during erection and the erectile angle were compared with the indices of penile blood flow and volume derived through quantitation of the RNP. There was a close correlation between the penogram index (an index of penile blood volume) and penile circumference increase during erection (r = 0.77, p less than 10(-6). The erectile angle, a measure of penile rigidity, correlated strongly (r = 0.82, p less than 10(-6) with the flow index, a measure of penile blood volume. Patterns specific to various categories of impotence were observed and these aided in the diagnosis, especially in equivocal cases with a suboptimal clinical response to the intracavernosal injection. Quantitative RNP offers a non-invasive method which allows direct objective assessment of the erectile response providing several quantitative parameters for analysis. PMID:2385430

  8. Penile Hygiene: Puberty, Paraphimosis and Personal Care for Men and Boys with an Intellectual Disability

    Wilson, N. J.; Cumella, S.; Parmenter, T. R.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Shuttleworth, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Supporting men and boys with an intellectual disability (ID) to meet their penile hygiene needs is perhaps one of the least acknowledged but most confronting issues facing care staff. The delivery of intimate hygiene can be a challenging topic particularly as it has been drawn into the emerging sexuality discourse and the ongoing abuse…

  9. Penile carcinoma presenting as inguinal bubo, masquerading as a venereal disease.

    Gupta, Vishal; Rai, Ajay; Mutha, Shreyans; Firdaus Ali, Mohammad; Sharma, Vinod K

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of penile carcinoma presenting as an inguinal bubo in a young man. The associated painful genital ulcer and history of high-risk sexual behaviour raised a strong suspicion of a sexually transmitted infection. We review the literature for similar cases, highlight the similarities with venereal disease and discuss the differential diagnosis of inguinal bubo. PMID:25999165

  10. Simultaneous Inflatable Penile Prosthesis (IPP) and Male Sling Placement: Aiding in a Faster Return to Patient ...

    Full Text Available ... Penile Prosthesis (IPP) and Male Sling Placement: Aiding in a Faster Return to Patient Quality-of-Life Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. One-sheet spiraling full thickness skin graft for penile resurfacing after paraffinoma excision

    Theddeus O.H. Prasetyono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of on-going non-illicit practice of silicone or paraffin injection to enlarge penis, the author reported 3 cases of surgical treatment to resurface the body of the penis after excision of the destructed penile skin using full thickness skin graft. The skin excision was performed technically through penile body degloving procedure. Full thickness skin graft was then applied as a single sheet donor tissue to cover the denuded penile body spirally. The full thickness graft, which is relatively easy to be performed, is no doubt much thinner than a skin flap, while it also bears a smaller degree of secondary contraction than split skin graft. The color of the skin is considerably matched as it comes from the groin, which is a nearby area of penis. The size and skin sensitization of the penis looks to be natural. The only disadvantage is the common possibility of either spiral or circular junctional scar in between graft edges and between the graft and the penile mucosa and skin to develop hypertrophic scar. However, this possible scar problem applies also to any other surgical scar with any donor tissue. Fortunately, the 3 cases posed no scar problem and normal appearance. All the patients have also regained their normal sexual function. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:222-5Keywords: full thickness skin graft, paraffinoma, siliconoma, sexual function

  12. Detection of penile metastasis from bladder cancer using F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Lee, Dong Yun; Lee, Jong Jin [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A 74 year old man who had experienced priapism for 2 months after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer visited our hospital, and underwent metastatic work up {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography(PET/CT)showed diffuse hypermetabolic activity along the penis shaft, which was confirmed as a penile metastasis.

  13. Penile vibratory stimulation in the treatment of post-prostatectomy incontinence

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the treatment of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence (UI). METHODS: Patients with post-prostatectomy UI were included in a 12-week trial. A 24-hr pad test and a 72-hr voiding diary were collected at baseline. Participants were randomized ...

  14. Long-term patient satisfaction after surgical correction of penile curvature via tunical plication

    Alvaro Paez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess patient satisfaction and functional results at long term follow-up after surgical correction for Peyronie's disease (PD and congenital penile curvature (CPC with the technique of tunical plication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and two men operated for PD (n = 76 or CPC (n = 26 in four different departments of urology in public hospitals agreed to answer a six-question telephone questionnaire about treatment satisfaction. Tunica albuginea plication procedures represented the standard surgical approach. Subjects under investigation were correction of the deformity, feeling of bumps under the skin, pain during erection, penile sensory changes, development of erectile dysfunction (ED and postoperative ability for complete vaginal intromission. Subjective response rates were compared using the chi square test on the basis of the etiology of the disease (CPC or PD. RESULTS: Significant differences (p < 0.05 between patients with CPC and PD were noticed in the prevalence of postoperative penile deformity, sensory changes, ED and ability to complete vaginal intromission, PD patients always showing a more pessimistic view. No significant differences (p = ns were detected in terms of unpleasant nodes under the penile skin or pain during erection. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcome after surgical correction for PD and CPC with the technique of tunical plication can be poor. Probably patient expectations are above the real performance of surgical techniques. Preoperative information should be more exhaustive.

  15. Patient and partner outcome of inflatable and semi-rigid penile prosthesis in a single institution

    Ibrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Penile prostheses are subject to a continuous development and have gained better mechanical reliability and safety during the last decades. In this study, we aimed to investigate the outcomes and satisfaction rates of inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP and semirigid penile prosthesis (SPP implantation.Materials and Methods:From August 2001 to June 2012, 257 men with erectile dysfunction (ED underwent penile prosthesis implantation (PPI at our institution. Of the 257 patients, 118 underwent implantation of IPP and 139 underwent SPP implantation. The pre-operative and post-operative erectile status of the patients were assessed by international index of erectile function (IIEF questionnaire. The satisfaction of patients and partners were evaluated by a telephone interview using the erectile dysfunction inventory of treatment satisfaction (EDITS questionnaire and EDITS partner survey.Results:The overall major complication rate was higher in IPP group. PPI led to a significant improvement in IIEF scores in both groups. For IPP and SPP groups the average EDITS scores were 78±11and 57±8, respectively, and that for the partners were 72±10 and 49±7, respectively (pConclusion:Although the IPP implantation have better satisfaction rates, the SPP implantation is still a viable treatment option in the surgical treatment of ED because of low cost and high durability with acceptable satisfaction rates.

  16. The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Dhejne, Cecilia; Landen, Mikael; Elander, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC), to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011) of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM) persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual's goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements. PMID:22654902

  17. Penile Metastasis Secondary to Bladder Cancer: A Report of Two Cases

    Narendra Kumar; Tapesh Bhattacharyya; A.K. Mandal; Nalini Gupta; A Rajwanshi; Ritesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Penile metastasis secondary to primary bladder cancer is a rare entity and represents a challenging problem. The common mode of spread to the penis is by retrograde venous route. The overall outcome is dismal and most patients will die within 1 year even after optimum treatment. Here, we report two such cases.

  18. Penile metastasis secondary to bladder cancer: A report of two cases

    Narendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile metastasis secondary to primary bladder cancer is a rare entity and represents a challenging problem. The common mode of spread to the penis is by retrograde venous route. The overall outcome is dismal and most patients will die within 1 year even after optimum treatment. Here, we report two such cases.

  19. Penile Metastasis Secondary to Bladder Cancer: A Report of Two Cases

    Kumar, Narendra; Bhattacharyya, Tapesh; Mandal, A K; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, A; Kumar, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    Penile metastasis secondary to primary bladder cancer is a rare entity and represents a challenging problem. The common mode of spread to the penis is by retrograde venous route. The overall outcome is dismal and most patients will die within 1 year even after optimum treatment. Here, we report two such cases. PMID:24600185

  20. Urinary retention secondary to acute vasculitic penile swelling in a pediatric patient.

    Farkas, Nicholas; Black, John; Gupta, Ashish

    2016-03-01

    Acute urinary retention secondary to vasculitic penile swelling in children is extremely rare. Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a self-limiting IgA-mediated cutaneous vasculitis, which can cause soft tissue edema. Acute urinary retention requires urgent intervention to prevent obstructive uropathy. Suprapubic catheterization provides an effective management strategy in the emergency setting. PMID:27014447

  1. Satisfaction and complications with the Titan one-touch release penile implant

    Lindeborg, Lisa; Fode, Mikkel; Fahrenkrug, Lasse; Snksen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess complication rates and patient satisfaction with Coloplast Titan one-touch release (OTR) inflatable penile implants inserted at one university hospital centre between November 2008 and April 2011. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, 33 patients with orga...

  2. Salvage Procedure in Case of Urethrocavernous Fistula after Revision Surgery for Malfunctioning Three-Piece Penile Prosthesis

    Caraceni, Enrico; Marronaro, Angelo; Leone, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Urethrocavernous fistula is a rare complication of penile prosthesis. Literature lacks any materials regarding this complication's treatment. We report our experience with a 66-year-old man who developed urethrocavernous fistula after penile prosthesis implant. Our technique involves the careful closure of urethral and corpus cavernosum defects with application of TachoSil® above the sutures. After the salvage procedure, no recurrence of fistula occurred and patient was able to have sexual intercourse. We believe that our technique may be successfully used in case of urethrocavernous fistula after penile prosthesis implant. PMID:26925286

  3. Oral treatment with herbal formula B401 alleviates penile toxicity in aging mice with manganism

    Hsu CH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hsiang Hsu,1 Ching-Lung Lin,1 Sheue-Er Wang,1 Shuenn-Jyi Sheu,2 Chiang-Ting Chien,1 Chung-Hsin Wu1 1Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 2Brion Research Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The present study aims to elucidate the roles of nitric oxide synthase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile toxicity of aging mice associated with excess manganese (Mn treatment and to investigate the effect of oral treatment with the herbal formula B401 in this respect. ICR strain mice were divided into two groups: the vehicle (sham group and the B401 (50mg/kg group. The mice were orally treated for 5days; then a high single dose of MnCl2 (100mg/kg was given by intraperitoneal injection to the mice. One day after MnCl2 treatment, corpora cavernosal tissues of both Mn-treated mice and their controls were simultaneously sampled to examine their immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO production, levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, expression levels of factors governing angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2,4-hydroxynonenal, inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha, apoptosis (B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], Bcl-2-associated X protein [Bax], cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase [c-PARP], cytochrome C, caspase-12, and caspase-3 were evaluated in penile corpus cavernosum of the mice. We found that penile toxicity in the mice was enhanced under excess Mn treatment through reduction of NOS activity and increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the penile cavernous tissue. Furthermore, the penile toxicity in mice with manganism was alleviated by oral B401 treatment through enhancement of both nitric oxide synthesis and angiogenesis, with simultaneous reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile corpus cavernosum. We suggest that the herbal formula B401 may serve as a potential dietotherapeutic supplement for penile toxicity or dysfunction in aging males. Keywords: manganism, herbal formula, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis

  4. Long term patient satisfaction and quality of life with AMS700CX inflatable penile prosthesis

    Antonio Vitarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Penile prosthesis implantation is the solution of choice in patients who have failed or present contraindication to the use of all conservative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED. Overall, satisfaction rates are high, with more than 80% of patients and partners fully satisfied with cosmetic and functional result of surgery. Chronic postoperative pain, penile shortening, soft or hyposensitive glans, pencil like penis syndrome and difficulty to cycle the device represent the most common causes of patient’s dissatisfaction. Satisfaction rates are better assessed with the use of validated questionnaires such as the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS The aim of our study was to analyze the long-term mechanical reliability of the AMS 700CX/CXM inflatable penile prosthesis and the patient’s satisfaction rate using IIEF and EDITS questionaire as standard reference. Materials and methods: A retrospective case notes review of all patients who have undergone implantation of a three pieces inflatable penile prosthesis AMS 700 CX and CXR between October 1997 and December 2010. Overall, 80 patients have undergone implantation of 3 pieces inflatable penile prosthesis AMS 700 CX InhibiZone. Patients have been administered the IIEF-5 and EDITS questionnaires in combination with a non validated 9 domain questionnaire that assesses penile rigidity, sensation, orgasmic function, frequency of intercourse, impact of surgery on the quality of life, satisfaction rate. Results: Overall 10 years survival estimate according to the Kaplan Meier method of AMS 700 CX touch pump and AMS 700 CX momentary squeeze pump are respectively 77.6% and 82.5%. The median postoperative IIEF5 and EDITS score were respectively 21.46 and 73.11, which show a high level of satisfaction. 59 patients (90.8% were able to cycle the device and were engaging in penetrative sexual intercourse. Conclusions: Penile prosthesis implantation yields excellent results in terms of cosmetic and functional outcome and therefore has a significant impact on patients’ satisfaction, sex life and overall quality of life. Overall, long term reliability has been significantly improved and complication rates are low in the hands of experienced surgeons.

  5. Slightly modified technique of the original essed plication procedure for congenital penile deviation

    C Van Der Horst

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Schroeder-Essed plication procedure is a standard technique for the correction of penile curvature. In a retrospective analysis we compared functional results and quality of life (LQ of the original technique with inverted sutures as described by Schroeder-Essed and our slight modification consisting of horizontal incisions into the tunica albuginea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with congenital penis deviation were treated for penile deviation by the original Schroeder-Essed plication with inverted sutures (11 patients and by the described modification (15 patients. In case of modified technique, horizontal and parallel incisions 4 mm to 6 mm apart and about 8 mm - 10 mm long were made through the tunica albuginea. The outer edges of the incisions were then approximated with permanent inverted sutures (Gore-Tex 3-0. Mean age was 21.6 years in the first group and 23.2 years in the second group. Average follow-up was 28 months and 13 months, respectively. The preoperative penile deviation angle was > 25 in all patients without difference between the 2 groups. RESULTS: All patients in both groups reported an improvement in their quality of life and full ability to engage in sexual intercourse. Nine patients (88% in the first group and 14 patients (93% in the second group were satisfied with the cosmetic result. In contrast, 10 patients (91% of the first and 13 patients (87% of the second group complained of penile shorting. Recurrence of deviation was only noticed in 2 males in the first group (18%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that this simple modification of the Schroeder-Essed plication offers good functional and cosmetic results. Most patients were satisfied with the penile angle correction results.

  6. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in hypospadias repair surgeries in children

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to compare caudal or penile nerve block using bupivacaine in postoperative pain control in hypospadias repair in children. Patients and Methods: After local ethical committee approval and obtaining informed parental consent, 85 American society of Anesthesiologists status I and II patients, aged 6 months to 6 years old, undergoing hypospadias repair, were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the following two groups: Caudal block was performed in 44 and penile block was performed in 41 patients. Cardiorespiratory systems data, analgesic requirement and complications were compared between the groups. Results: There were statistically significant haemodynamic (blood pressureand heart rate alteration during operation in each group (P<0.01. The haemodynamic parameters were stable during operation in successful blocks in both groups. Caudal block success rate is 97.7%, whereas in penile block is 92.6%. Nineteen of 43 patients (44% in caudal group and 29 of 41 patients (70% in penile group received analgesia in the postoperative period and this difference was significant between the two groups (P = 0.025. Conclusions: Without ultrasonography and with blind block, with anatomic landmarks only, the caudal block success rate is high and if there is no contraindication for caudal block, it is the best choice in children under 6 years old (or 25 kg for hypospadias repai.

  7. New insights on pyrimidine signalling within the arterial vasculature - Different roles for P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors in large and small coronary arteries of the mouse.

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Spray, Stine; Syberg, Susanne; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Robaye, Bernard; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Edvinsson, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular pyrimidines activate P2Y receptors on both smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, leading to vasoconstriction and relaxation respectively. The aim of this study was to utilize P2Y knock-out (KO) mice to determine which P2Y receptor subtype are responsible for the contraction and relaxation in the coronary circulation and to establish whether P2Y receptors have different functions along the mouse coronary vascular tree. We tested stable pyrimidine analogues on isolated coronary arteries from P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptor KO mice in a myograph setup. In larger diameter segments of the left descending coronary artery (LAD) (lumen diameter~150μm) P2Y6 is the predominant contractile receptor for both UTP (uridine triphosphate) and UDP (uridine diphosphate) induced contraction. In contrast, P2Y2 receptors mediate endothelial-dependent relaxation. However, in smaller diameter LAD segments (lumen diameter~50μm), the situation is opposite, with P2Y2 being the contractile receptor and P2Y6 functioning as a relaxant receptor along with P2Y2. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm smooth muscle and endothelial localization of the receptors. In vivo measurements of blood pressure in WT mice revealed a biphasic response to the stable analogue UDPβS. Based on the changes in P2Y receptor functionality along the mouse coronary arterial vasculature, we propose that UTP can act as a vasodilator downstream of its release, after being degraded to UDP, without affecting the contractile pyrimidine receptors. We also propose a model, showing physiological relevance for the changes in purinergic receptor functionality along the mouse coronary vascular tree. PMID:26827897

  8. Wedding ring in the wrong place: an unusual presentation of penile incarceration in a child with a wedding ring

    Raza, Kazim; Khadim, Muhammad F; Naqvi, Gohar Abass; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    2009-01-01

    An unusual case of penile incarceration in a 13-year-old boy is presented, with lessons to be learned for Accident and Emergency Department junior doctors in particular and for all in general. The presentation was misleading and the condition would have gone undiagnosed with fatal consequences without a team effort. The object used was a wedding ring in this case. Penile incarceration is not common in routine practice. The need for development of necessary paediatric history taking and examin...

  9. Arterial embolism

    ... the affected artery Shedding (sloughing) of skin Skin erosion ( ulcer ) Tissue death (necrosis; skin is dark and ... of the following tests: Euglobulin lysis time (ELT) Factor VIII assay Isotope study of the affected organ ...

  10. Activation of endothelial and epithelial KCa2.3 calcium-activated potassium channels by NS309 relaxes human small pulmonary arteries and bronchioles

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Gorm; Laursen, Britt E; Pilegaard, Hans; Köhler, Ralf; Simonsen, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    (Ca) 2.3 and K(Ca) 3.1 proteins were found in both endothelium and epithelium. K(Ca) currents were present in HSAEpi cells and sensitive to the K(Ca) 2.3 blocker UCL1684 and the K(Ca) 3.1 blocker TRAM-34. In pulmonary arteries contracted by U46619 and in bronchioles contracted by histamine, the K(Ca) 2...

  11. Age-dependent impact of CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel deletion on myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilatation in small arteries

    Mikkelsen, Miriam F; Bjrling, Karl; Jensen, Lars Jrn

    2016-01-01

    The myogenic response and flow-mediated vasodilatation are important regulators of local blood perfusion and total peripheral resistance, and are known to entail a calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), respectively. CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channels a......-mediated vasomotor responses to prevent excess arterial tone, protect against cardiovascular disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. AB273. Challenge of AMS700CXR inflatable penile prosthesis for treating patients with severe ED in China

    Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    More than 50% of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) showed erectile tissues pathological changes include corpus cavernous fibrosis, endothelial dysfunction, arterial and/or vein disorder, neuropathy and hormon disorder et al. Currently used on demanded treating ED therapies, include oral medication using PDE5i, intra-cavernosal injection (ICI) therapy, vacuum device et al., the clinical efficacies of reached to 70% with some kinks of adverse events, however, these therapies showed no effects on sever ED with sever pathological changes in erectile tissue. Penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) is the solution of choice in patients who have failed or present contraindication to the use of all conservative treatment for ED. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcome of PPI in Chinese patients with severe erectile dysfunction (SED) from July 2000 to December 2011, 224 patients, overall satisfaction with the PPI surgery was reported by 89.0% of men and 82.5% of partners, mechanical malfunction occurred in 4 cases (2.0%) and 3 cases were re-implanted new device, and 2 cases (1.0%) developed a mild curvature of the penis. Scrotal erosion with infection occurred in 1 case with diabetes mellitus (0.5%) and required complete removal of the implanted AMS 700 CXM. After 3 years no PPI device available in China, AMS 700CXR finally approved by China SDA recently, and the quality this device is improved very much compared to AMS700CXM, and the long-term mechanical reliability studies on AMS 700CXR noted that the clinical efficacy and device service of AMS 700CXR showed significantly better than that of AMS 700 CXM, which yields excellent results in terms of cosmetic and functional outcome and therefore has a significant impact on patients' satisfaction, sex life and overall quality of life. Overall, long term reliability has been significantly improved and complication rates are low in the hands of experienced surgeons.

  13. AB020. Penile rehabilitation with PDE5 inhibitors in men following radical prostatectomy

    Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Post-radical prostatectomy (RP) erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a challenge for the urologist. Despite the improvements in surgical technique, ED occurs between 20% and 90% in patients treated with bilateral nerve-sparing RP. Patient factors, cancer selection, type of surgery, surgical techniques, and surgeon factors represent the key significant contributors to erectile function recovery. The aim of a penile rehabilitation program is to preserve the functional smooth-muscle content of the corpus cavernosum during the neuropraxia period. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are commonly used in rehabilitation programs. In animal models, such an approach could promote erectile function recovery, improve smooth muscle-to-collagen penile ration, reduce penile apoptotic index, preserve penile endothelial function and promote neuroprotection during nerve damage. Despite the strong basic science support from animal studies, discordant results have been reached in humans. The previous randomized trials comparing chronic versus on-demand PDE-5 inhibitors use after RP may be affected by improper patient selection in that only men at low risk of postoperative ED were included. These patients would recover erectile function regardless of the type of PDE5 inhibitor administration because of their excellent baseline profile. Prospective, randomized trials have shown a significant benefit of daily PDE5-I administration as compared with placebo in terms of postoperative EF recovery. Patients with intermediate risk of ED after surgery are the best candidates for daily treatment with PDE5 inhibitor after bilateral nerve-sparing RP. The maximal effect of penile rehabilitation may be found in those men with a certain (but not high) degree of systemic and erectile impairment preoperatively. In conclusion, penile rehabilitation could achieve faster and better natural erectile function after RP and should be started as early as possible. Chronic use of PDE5-I may confer the maximal gain as compared to the on-demand administration schedule. Attention should be pained to the observation that rehabilitation protocols are beneficial even in men with spontaneous erections postoperatively because further improvement in such patients was reported.

  14. New technique "Right Anterior Small Thoracotomy (RAST operation)" for beating heart grafting of the right internal thoracic artery to the posterior descending artery to the posterior descending artery in a third redo CABG patient. A novel coronary technique / Nova tcnica "Pequena toracotomia anterior direita (operao RAST)" para enxerto da artria torcica interna direita para a artria descendente posterior com o corao batendo em paciente de terceira RM. Uma tcnica coronria nova

    Maximo, Guida; Gustavo, Guida; Giuseppina, Pecora; Estefania De, Garate.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A terceira reoperao de revascularizao miocrdica um desafio para a equipe cirrgica. Normalmente, uma mamria patente a nica possibilidade de enxerto e a esternotomia torna-se um procedimento arriscado. A leso de enxerto patente tem sido associada a uma alta taxa de mortalidade. Muitas abo [...] rdagens diferentes tm sido propostas. Descrevemos uma nova tcnica de abordagem da artria coronria direita atravs de uma pequena toracotomia anterior direita usando a mamria direita prolongada com enxerto de veia safena para a artria descendente posterior com o corao batendo. A tcnica muito simples e vivel, pois anatomicamente a artria coronria direita e a mamria direita esto muito prximas e a mobilizao do corao mnima. Abstract in english Third REDO-CABG is a challenge for the surgical team. Usually a patent mammary is the only graft working and the sternotomy becomes a risky procedure. Injury to a patent graft has been associated to a high mortality rate. Many different approaches have been proposed. We describe a novel technique to [...] approach the right coronary artery through a right anterior small thoracotomy using the right mammary prolonged with saphenous vein for grafting the posterior descending artery on the beating heart. The technique is very simple and feasible because anatomically the right coronary artery and the right mammary are very close and the mobilization of the heart is minimal.

  15. Carotid artery surgery

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  16. Penile prosthesis implant with bi-triangular excision and graft for surgical therapy of Peyronie’s disease: A case report

    Alexandre de Freitas Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 65-year-old man, who presented with moderate erectile dysfunction and a dorsal penile deviation of 60° caused by Peyronie’s disease. The patient underwent bi-triangularshaped plaque excision, followed by grafting and implantation of inflatable penile prosthesis. Complete penile straightening, without mechanical or geometric abnormalities, was achieved using bi-triangular excision and grafting. Postoperatively, the patient reported high satisfaction with the results and could perform sexual intercourse naturally. This novel technique corrects any degree of penile curvature, permits malleable and semi-rigid penile prosthesis implantation, avoids penile length loss, and eliminates additional incisions. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the literature in which the bi-triangular technique was successfully used for penile prosthesis implantation secondary to Peyronie’s disease. This new technique appears to be a good solution to correct penile curvature during penile prosthesis implantation for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease associated with erectile dysfunction.

  17. Long-term patient satisfaction after surgical correction of penile curvature via tunical plication

    Alvaro, Paez; Juan, Mejias; Jorge, Vallejo; Ignacio, Romero; Miguel de, Castro; Fernando, Gimeno.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess patient satisfaction and functional results at long term follow-up after surgical correction for Peyronie's disease (PD) and congenital penile curvature (CPC) with the technique of tunical plication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and two men operated for PD (n = 76) or CPC [...] (n = 26) in four different departments of urology in public hospitals agreed to answer a six-question telephone questionnaire about treatment satisfaction. Tunica albuginea plication procedures represented the standard surgical approach. Subjects under investigation were correction of the deformity, feeling of bumps under the skin, pain during erection, penile sensory changes, development of erectile dysfunction (ED) and postoperative ability for complete vaginal intromission. Subjective response rates were compared using the chi square test on the basis of the etiology of the disease (CPC or PD). RESULTS: Significant differences (p

  18. Arterial vascular scleroses in the mammogram

    From 1974 to April 1979 5571 mammographies were made in the Department of Radiology of the University of Ulm. In 319 cases (5,7%) we observed calcifications of the mammarian arteries. The incidence of arterial calcifications in mammography in patients up to 60 years of age was higher than coronary calcifications could be diagnosed by chest fluoroscopy or in an autopsy series by other authors. As the small mammarian arteries show an equal histological structure as the coronary arteries, they must show the same type of calcification. Therefore we consider that calcifications of the mammarian arteries could be a sign of general arteriosclerosis. (orig.)

  19. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  20. An explosive course of squamous cell penile cancer in an AIDS patient.

    Thodore, C; Androulakis, N; Spatz, A; Goujard, C; Blanchet, P; Wibault, P

    2002-03-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old man in whom penile cancer was discovered while he was treated for AIDS 4 years after a human papillomavirus (HSV) infection. Despite initially localised disease with T1 N0 staging, he died of metastasis within 3 years. A brief review of the literature regarding HPV-related cancer in HIV-infected patients is presented and therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:11996481

  1. Congenital penile urethrocutaneous fistula: A rare anomaly and review of literature

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Barman, Shib Sankar

    2011-01-01

    Congenital penile urethrocutaneous fistula is described as an unusual developmental anomaly in children who present with an abnormal opening on the ventral aspect of penis with a normal foreskin and an absence of chordee and hypospadias. The authors present a discussion on the etiology, embryology, and management of this entity along with a description of three cases. We emphasize meticulous clinical examination for the diagnosis and to rule out other associated anomalies. PMID:21976932

  2. Timing of androgen receptor disruption and estrogen exposure underlies a spectrum of congenital penile anomalies.

    Zheng, Zhengui; Armfield, Brooke A; Cohn, Martin J

    2015-12-29

    Congenital penile anomalies (CPAs) are among the most common human birth defects. Reports of CPAs, which include hypospadias, chordee, micropenis, and ambiguous genitalia, have risen sharply in recent decades, but the causes of these malformations are rarely identified. Both genetic anomalies and environmental factors, such as antiandrogenic and estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), are suspected to cause CPAs; however, little is known about the temporal window(s) of sensitivity to EDCs, or the tissue-specific roles and downstream targets of the androgen receptor (AR) in external genitalia. Here, we show that the full spectrum of CPAs can be produced by disrupting AR at different developmental stages and in specific cell types in the mouse genital tubercle. Inactivation of AR during a narrow window of prenatal development results in hypospadias and chordee, whereas earlier disruptions cause ambiguous genitalia and later disruptions cause micropenis. The neonatal phase of penile development is controlled by the balance of AR to estrogen receptor ? (ER?) activity; either inhibition of androgen or augmentation of estrogen signaling can induce micropenis. AR and ER? have opposite effects on cell division, apoptosis, and regulation of Hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, and Wnt signaling in the genital tubercle. We identify Indian hedgehog (Ihh) as a novel downstream target of AR in external genitalia and show that conditional deletion of Ihh inhibits penile masculinization. These studies reveal previously unidentified cellular and molecular mechanisms by which antiandrogenic and estrogenic signals induce penile malformations and demonstrate that the timing of endocrine disruption can determine the type of CPA. PMID:26598695

  3. Semi-rigid penile prosthesis as a salvage management of idiopathic ischemic stuttering priapism

    Faddan AA; Aksenov AV; Naumann CM; Jünemann KP; Osmonov DK

    2015-01-01

    Amr A Faddan, Alexey V Aksenov, Carsten M Naumann, Klaus P Jünemann, Daniar K Osmonov Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany Introduction: Priapism is the persistent erection resulting from dysfunction of the mechanisms that regulate penile swelling, stiffness, and sagging. It is a full or partial erection that persists for a period more than 4 hours beyond sexual stimulation and/or orgasm or is unrelated to sexual stimulation....

  4. Long-term patient satisfaction after surgical correction of penile curvature via tunical plication

    Alvaro Paez; Juan Mejias; Jorge Vallejo; Ignacio Romero; Miguel Castro; Fernando Gimeno

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess patient satisfaction and functional results at long term follow-up after surgical correction for Peyronie's disease (PD) and congenital penile curvature (CPC) with the technique of tunical plication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and two men operated for PD (n = 76) or CPC (n = 26) in four different departments of urology in public hospitals agreed to answer a six-question telephone questionnaire about treatment satisfaction. Tunica albuginea plication procedures rep...

  5. Timing of androgen receptor disruption and estrogen exposure underlies a spectrum of congenital penile anomalies

    Armfield, Brooke A.; Cohn, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital penile anomalies (CPAs) are among the most common human birth defects. Reports of CPAs, which include hypospadias, chordee, micropenis, and ambiguous genitalia, have risen sharply in recent decades, but the causes of these malformations are rarely identified. Both genetic anomalies and environmental factors, such as antiandrogenic and estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), are suspected to cause CPAs; however, little is known about the temporal window(s) of sensitivity to EDCs, or the tissue-specific roles and downstream targets of the androgen receptor (AR) in external genitalia. Here, we show that the full spectrum of CPAs can be produced by disrupting AR at different developmental stages and in specific cell types in the mouse genital tubercle. Inactivation of AR during a narrow window of prenatal development results in hypospadias and chordee, whereas earlier disruptions cause ambiguous genitalia and later disruptions cause micropenis. The neonatal phase of penile development is controlled by the balance of AR to estrogen receptor α (ERα) activity; either inhibition of androgen or augmentation of estrogen signaling can induce micropenis. AR and ERα have opposite effects on cell division, apoptosis, and regulation of Hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, and Wnt signaling in the genital tubercle. We identify Indian hedgehog (Ihh) as a novel downstream target of AR in external genitalia and show that conditional deletion of Ihh inhibits penile masculinization. These studies reveal previously unidentified cellular and molecular mechanisms by which antiandrogenic and estrogenic signals induce penile malformations and demonstrate that the timing of endocrine disruption can determine the type of CPA. PMID:26598695

  6. Petroleum jelly-induced penile paraffinoma with inguinal lymphadenitis mimicking incarcerated inguinal hernia

    Sejben, Istvn; Rcz, Andrs; Svbis, Mihly; Patyi, Mrta; Cserni, Gbor

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous inflammation may develop after injecting foreign oily substances into the penis. The disorder affects mainly the site of administration, but regional lymphadenopathy or even systemic disease can occur. We present a 39-year-old man with petroleum jelly-induced penile lesion and unilateral inguinal lymphadenitis mimicking incarcerated inguinal hernia. At hernioplasty no hernial sac was found, but enlarged lymph nodes suspicious for malignancy were identified. The histopath...

  7. High CRP values predict poor survival in patients with penile cancer

    High levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) have recently been linked to poor clinical outcome in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative serum CRP level in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. This retrospective analysis included 79 penile cancer patients with information about their serum CRP value prior to surgery who underwent either radical or partial penectomy at two German high-volume centers (Ulm University Medical Center and Hannover Medical School) between 1990 and 2010. They had a median (mean) follow-up of 23 (32) months. A significantly elevated CRP level (>15 vs. ≤ 15 mg/l) was found more often in patients with an advanced tumor stage (≥pT2) (38.9 vs. 11.6%, p=0.007) and in those with nodal disease at diagnosis (50.0 vs. 14.6%, p=0.007). However, high CRP levels were not associated with tumor differentiation (p=0.53). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was 38.9% for patients with preoperative CRP levels above 15 mg/l and 84.3% for those with lower levels (p=0.001). Applying multivariate analysis and focusing on the subgroup of patients without metastasis at the time of penile surgery, both advanced local tumor stage (≥pT2; HR 8.8, p=0.041) and an elevated CRP value (>15 mg/l; HR 3.3, p=0.043) were identified as independent predictors of poor clinical outcome in patients with penile cancer. A high preoperative serum CRP level was associated with poor survival in patients with penile cancer. If larger patient populations confirm its prognostic value, its routine use could enable better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of patients with SCC of the penis

  8. Early history of inflatable penile prosthesis surgery: a view from someone who was there

    Mobley, David F

    2014-01-01

    The publication of the use of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) in 1973 by Dr. FB Scott. changed the world of treatment options for erectile dysfunction (ED). Much has been written since then about techniques, improvements, management of difficult cases, complications and their management, and mechanical and device changes over time. Few reports, if any, are available in the medical literature regarding the early development, surgical techniques, and controversies surrounding its introduc...

  9. A Rare Case of Penile Lymphangioma Circumscriptum Treated with the Split-Thickness Skin Grafting Technique

    Nurullah Hamidi; Onur Telli; Berk Burgu

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is an uncommon type of microcystic lymphatic malformation involving the skin and mucosa caused by saccular dilatation of lymphatic channels. Patients may suffer from edema, vesiculopustular lesions and lymphatic leakage. There are many treatment methods for the management of lymphangioma circumscriptum. In this paper, we present a 10-year-old patient who had penile edema treated with split-thickness skin grafting technique.

  10. A Rare Case of Penile Lymphangioma Circumscriptum Treated with the Split-Thickness Skin Grafting Technique

    Nurullah Hamidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC is an uncommon type of microcystic lymphatic malformation involving the skin and mucosa caused by saccular dilatation of lymphatic channels. Patients may suffer from edema, vesiculopustular lesions and lymphatic leakage. There are many treatment methods for the management of lymphangioma circumscriptum. In this paper, we present a 10-year-old patient who had penile edema treated with split-thickness skin grafting technique.

  11. Congenital penile urethrocutaneous fistula: A rare anomaly and review of literature

    Ram Mohan Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital penile urethrocutaneous fistula is described as an unusual developmental anomaly in children who present with an abnormal opening on the ventral aspect of penis with a normal foreskin and an absence of chordee and hypospadias. The authors present a discussion on the etiology, embryology, and management of this entity along with a description of three cases. We emphasize meticulous clinical examination for the diagnosis and to rule out other associated anomalies.

  12. Penile low-intensity shock wave therapy: a promising novel modality for erectile dysfunction.

    Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Kitrey, Noam D; Gruenwald, Ilan; Appel, Boaz; Vardi, Yoram

    2014-05-01

    Penile extracorporeal low-intensity shock wave therapy (LIST) to the penis has recently emerged as a novel and promising modality in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). LIST has angiogenic properties and stimulates neovascularization. If applied to the corpora cavernosa, LIST can improve penile blood flow and endothelial function. In a series of clinical trials, including randomized double-blind sham-controlled studies, LIST has been shown to have a substantial effect on penile hemodynamics and erectile function in patients with vasculogenic ED. LIST is effective in patients who are responsive to phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) and can also convert PDE5i nonresponders to responders. The response to LIST wanes gradually over time, and after 2 years, about half of the patients maintain their function. Extensive research is needed to understand the effect of LIST on erectile tissue, to modify the treatment protocol to maximize its outcomes, and to identify the patients who will benefit the most from this treatment. PMID:24868332

  13. The Clinical Features of Penile Cancer Patients at Sanglah General Hospital Bali-Indonesia

    Eka Kusmawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and outcomes after the follow-up of penile cancer patients. Method: We reviewed penile cancer patients during 8 years, started from April 1993 to March 2001. The data collected through medical record consisted of patient identities, history takings, physical and pathological findings, treatment modalities and their follow-up after 34 years Results: During eight years of study there were 46 patients aged 58+3 years. Out of 46 patients, 33 patients (72% have history of urogenital infection and 40 patients (87% with phymosis. With regard to physical examination, 24 patients (52% presented as stage III (Jackson classification. Pathological findings showed that 100% patients were keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Partial penectomy alone was carried out in 21 patients (46%, total penectomy alone was done in 17 patients (37%, and total penectomy with lymph node dissection was done in 8 patients (17%. During the follow-up, majority of the patients (42 showed no complications or recurrence; only 2 patients showed recurrent tumor and the rest 2 were lost to follow-up. Conclusions: During eight years at Sanglah General Hospital there were 46 penile cancer patients, mean of age was 583 years. Predispositioning factors were urogenital infection and phymosis. All of them were keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Total or partial penectomy with or without lymph node dissection was carried out with good results.

  14. Penile Tumescence Assessment Used for a Diagnosis of Paraphilia: A Pedophilia Case Report

    Ker-Li Hsueh

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of penile tumescence assessment to diagnose a paraphiliac clientwho was in denial about his problem. An 18-year-old male was accused of sexually assaultinga 4-year-old girl using physical restraint and vaginal penetration with a finger. During apsychiatric evaluation requested by the court, a comprehensive psychosexual assessmentrevealed that the subject was in denial about clarification of the paraphiliac experience.Penile tumescence under distinct visual stimulus was evaluated with electrobioimpedencevolumetric assessment using child and adult female pictures in separate time frames. Bothtypes of stimuli evoked arousal responses. However, child female stimuli demonstratedstronger responses than did adult female ones. Deviant sexual interest in children as well asa diagnosis of pedophilia was implied. Paraphiliac clients tend to be in denial toward psychosexualassessment which limits the interpretation of its results. Penile tumescence assessmentmay be more reliable than psychosexual assessment alone for detecting and diagnosingparaphilia. Further study is warranted in order to aid in more accurate diagnoses of paraphilia.

  15. Penile Duplication and Two Anal Openings Report of a Very Rare Case

    Mohamed Abdel Al M. Bakheet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Penile duplication (diphallus is an extremely rare disorder. It is almost always associated with other malformations like double bladder, exstrophy of the cloacae, imperforate anus, duplication of the rectosigmoid and vertebral deformities. Meanwhile anal canal duplication, the most distal and least common duplication of the digestive tube and is a very rare congenital malformation.Case Presentation: A 21 days old Egyptian neonate is reported with complete penile duplication and two scrotums with each one carrying two palpable testes. Both penises have normal shaft with normally located meatus. Clear urine voids from both meati spontaneously. The child had also a fold of redundant skin about 4×5 cm at the anal region in which two separate anal openings are present. In rectal examination we found two normal anuses passing stool spontaneously. Ascending (voiding cystourethrography revealed two penises with two separate meatuses and one bladder from which the two urethras go out separately. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP revealed two normal kidneys and ureters. Barium study revealed duplication of rectum and colon, otherwise normal GIT.Conclusion: In our review of the literature, we did not come across any other case of this variety of the penile duplication and congenital presence of two anuses. Unfortunately the patient expired before any surgical correction.

  16. Left Common Carotid Artery Cannulation for Type A Aortic Dissections

    Mochizuki, Yoshihiko; Iida, Hiroshi; Mori, Hideaki; Yamada, Yasuyuki; MIYOSHI, SHINICHIRO

    2003-01-01

    We used left common carotid artery cannulation for repair of type A aortic dissection in 2 patients for whom both femoral artery and axillary artery cannulation were thought to be more dangerous, due to dissection of the brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian artery in association with abdominal stenosis. Before performing end-to-side anastomosis, we attached a small partial clamp to the left common carotid artery, thereby maintaining adequate cerebral blood flow during perfusion. To date,...

  17. A preliminary study of the sensory distribution of the penile dorsal and ventral nerves: implications for effective penile block for circumcision.

    Long, Ronan M

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensory innervation of the penis, as regional anaesthesia is often used either for postoperative analgesia or as the sole anaesthetic technique for circumcision. Since first described in 1978 the dorsal penile nerve block has become the standard technique, but some blocks are ineffective; a better understanding of the sensory innervation of the penis might improve the efficacy of the dorsal penile block technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 13 men undergoing circumcision with local anaesthetic, cutaneous sensation was tested before and after infiltration of the dorsal aspect of the penis, and then again after infiltration of the ventral aspect. The area of anaesthesia was mapped using pin-prick sensation. RESULTS: Ten of the 13 patients showed a similar pattern of sensory distribution. After the dorsal block, the dorsal aspect of the shaft of the penis and glans penis became insensate. The ventral aspect of the shaft remained sensate up to and including the frenulum. After successful ventral infiltration all sensate areas became insensate and circumcision proceeded. In one case the frenulum and distal ventral foreskin was anaesthetized after the dorsal block and ventral infiltration was not required. No patient experienced pain during circumcision. CONCLUSION: For consistently successful regional anaesthesia of the foreskin in circumcision, a dorsal block must be used. This should be combined with ventral infiltration at the site of incision. This method will avoid inconsistencies and allow pain-free circumcision using local anaesthesia in most men.

  18. Carotid Artery Screening

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  19. Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion

    Padrón-Pérez N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noel Padrón-Pérez,1 Janny Rosario Aronés,2 Silvia Muñoz,1 Luis Arias-Barquet,1 Jorge Arruga1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 2Hospital de l'Esperança – Parc de Salut Mar, 3Institut Català de Retina, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic embolic event. Initially, she presented a superior branch retinal artery occlusion in her right eye followed by a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in her left eye. Some conservative maneuvers performed did not improve visual acuity in the left eye. Supra-aortic Doppler ultrasonography revealed mild right internal carotid artery stenosis and moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis with a small, smooth, and homogeneous plaque. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe calcification of the mitral valve with a mild-moderate rim of stenosis. Central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are characterized by painless monocular loss of vision. Clinical approach and management attempt to treat the acute event, find the source of the vascular occlusion, and prevent further vascular events from occurring. Giant cell arteritis is a potentially treatable cause of central retinal artery occlusion and should be excluded in every single patient over 50 years old.Keywords: loss of vision, branch retinal artery occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, Hollenhorst plaque

  20. Hydroxyethyl starch increases patency and reduces thrombus formation following arteriotomy/intimectomy in small arteries: An experimental study in the rabbit

    Twenty-four arteries of rabbit ears, divided into two groups of 12 vessels each, were prepared and 32P-labelled platelets were infused. Arteriotomy/intimectomy was performed after 1 hr and in vivo platelet accumulation recorded for 2 hr. Group A comprised untreated control animals and group B was treated with 1 g hydroxyethyl starch (HES), MW 450,000 in 17 ml saline/kg b.w. (Plasma-steril). Vessel bleeding-times were normal, patency was improved, and intraluminal thrombotic material was reduced after HES treatment. Initial in vivo platelet accumulation was rapid and reached similar levels in both groups. However, the platelet accumulation curves decreased more frequently following HES than in the control group. HES does not prevent platelet accumulation at trauma sites, but reduces the sizes of the thrombi formed and may enhance disaggregation/fibrinolysis

  1. Comparing the pre-operative and post-operative data of penile prosthetic implants with and without antibiotics

    Yiğit Akın

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate surgical results and postoperative results of men diagnosed with organic erectile dysfunction (ED who underwent penile prosthesis (antibiotic-coated vs. non-coated implantation in the last 13 years. Additionally, we compared the frequency of complications between the two groups.Materials and methods: In the last 13 years, 202 men diagnosed with organic erectile dysfunction (ED had previously undergone penile prosthesis implantation. Patient data were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 202 patients, 175 were included to the study. The mean age of patients was 57.5 (34-83 years. Preoperatively, a physical examination, medical and sexual history, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF questionnaire, Combined Injection and Stimulation (CIS test and, if necessary, Nocturnal Penile Tumescence (NPT / Penile Doppler ultrasonography (US were performed in all cases. Results: All patients were diagnosed with organic ED. We determined that 43 (21% patients had diabetes mellitus, 53 (26% had a history of radical pelvic surgery, 38 (19% had cardiovascular pathology and 19 (9% had other reasons for ED. Approximately 98% of patients and their partners were satisfied with the surgical results of the penile prosthesis operation. Conclusion: The infection rate results in the present study were not statistically significant, and the number of patients in our study was not sufficient to make reliable conclusions. Studies with a larger sample sizes are needed.

  2. Concordance of lymphovascular invasion diagnosed in penile carcinoma with and without the immunohistochemical markers ERG and CD31.

    Feng, Megan A; Ebel, Joshua J; Shabsigh, Ahmad; Zynger, Debra L

    2016-03-01

    Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an independent predictor of metastatic lymph node disease in penile carcinoma and is one factor used to guide clinical management. The presence of LVI with and without the use of the endothelial immunohistochemical (IHC) markers, ERG and CD31, was retrospectively assessed in 46 penectomy cases containing invasive penile carcinoma (43 squamous cell carcinoma and 3 non-squamous cell carcinoma). Concordance for the detection of LVI between the original report, upon pathology review, and with the use of IHC was determined and histologic pitfalls were identified. For penile squamous cell carcinoma, LVI was diagnosed in 27.9% of tumors in the original reports, 16.3% upon pathology review, and in 16.3% with use of ERG and CD31. Concordance of LVI identification in the original report compared to IHC was 74.4% while concordance of review compared to IHC was 95.3%. Using IHC data as the reference, false positive LVI diagnoses were more common in the original report than false negatives. Histologic mimickers of LVI including involvement of the penile corpora cavernosum or spongiosum vasculature, seromucinous colonization, and a nested pattern of tumor invasion were identified. We demonstrated that it was not uncommon for LVI in penile carcinoma to be overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. The use of endothelial IHC markers, such as ERG or CD31, or additional pathology consultation is recommended for penectomy cases in which LVI is difficult to histologically discern. PMID:26452171

  3. Segmented Coronary Artery Aneurysms and Kawasaki Disease

    Hamid Reza Ghaemi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is an acute vasculitis syndrome of unknown etiology. It occurs in infants and young children,affecting mainly small and medium-sized arteries, particularly the coronary arteries. Generalized microvasculitis occurs in the first 10 days, and the inflammation persists in the walls of medium and small arteries, especially the coronary arteries, and changes to coronary artery aneurysms.We report the case of a 10-month-old girl referred to our center three months after the onset of disease due to the aneurysmsof the coronary arteries. During the acute phase of her illness, she received 2 gr/kg intravenous gamma globulin; and afterher referral to us, the patient was treated by antiaggregant doses of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA (5 mg/kg and Warfarin (1 mg/daily. At three months’ follow-up, the aneurysms still persisted in the echocardiogram.

  4. Identifying the needs of penile cancer sufferers: A systematic review of the quality of life, psychosexual and psychosocial literature in penile cancer

    Lau Maurice M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy with an incidence of 1 per 100,000. Conservative and radical treatments can be disfiguring and may have an impact on sexual function, quality of life (QOL, social interactions, self-image and self-esteem. Knowledge of how this disease affects patients is paramount to developing a global, multi-disciplinary approach to treatment. Methods A Medline/PubMed literature search was conducted using the terms "sexual function penis cancer"; "quality of life penis cancer" and "psychological effects penis cancer" from 1985 to 2008. Articles containing quantitative data on QOL, sexual function or psychological well-being were included. Results 128 patients from 6 studies were included. 5 studies contained retrospective data whilst 1 study collected prospective data on erectile function. In the 6 studies 13 different quantitative tools were used to assess psychological well-being, QOL and sexual function. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ showed impaired well-being in up to 40% in 2 studies. Patients undergoing more mutilating treatments were more likely to have impaired well-being. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS demonstrated pathological anxiety up to 31% in 2 studies. 1 study used the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of psychiatric illness (DSM III-R with 53% exhibiting mental illness, 25% avoidance behaviour and 40% impaired well-being. 12/30 suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder. The IIEF-15 was the commonest tool used to assess sexual function. The results varied from 36% in 1 study with no sexual function to 67% in another reporting reduced sexual satisfaction to 78% in another reporting high confidence with erections. Conclusion The treatment of penile cancer results in negative effects on well-being in up to 40% with psychiatric symptoms in approximately 50%. Up to two-thirds of patients report a reduction in sexual function. This study demonstrates that penile cancer sufferers can exhibit significant psychological dysfunction, yet no standardised tools or interventional pathways are available. Therefore, there is a need to identify and assess adequate tools to measure psychological and sexual dysfunction in this group of patients.

  5. Coronary artery disease in severe haemophilia.

    Small, M; Jack, A. S.; Lowe, G.D.; Mutch, A F; Forbes, C. D.; Prentice, C R

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that the coagulation defect in haemophilia A protects these patients from coronary artery disease. We report two patients with severe haemophilia, who each had severe atheroma localised to the coronary arteries. Both patients had received only small amounts of factor VIII concentrates in their lifetime because of various social reasons. In one case death resulted from myocardial infarction secondary to an occlusive thrombus in a coronary artery. The implications of these...

  6. Graft arterial stenosis in kidney en bloc grafts from very small pediatric donors: incidence, timing, and role of ultrasound in screening.

    Bent, C; Fananapazir, G; Tse, G; Corwin, M T; Vu, C; Santhanakrishnan, C; Perez, R V; Troppmann, C

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies with different donor selection criteria and noncontemporary surgical techniques, graft arterial stenosis (GAS) has been reported to occur more frequently in adult recipients of pediatric en bloc renal allografts (EBKT) as compared to single adult donor allografts. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the incidence of GAS within our EBKT recipient population and to evaluate clinical and imaging features of those cases with GAS. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 182 EBKT performed at a single institution. We identified cases of suspected GAS based on clinical factors, lab results, and noninvasive imaging. Diagnosis of GAS was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. Two EBKT recipients (1.1% of 182) had angiographically confirmed GAS at 2.5 and 4.5 months after transplant. In both cases, the stenoses were short segment within the proximal (perianastomotic) donor aorta, color Doppler ultrasound demonstrated peak systolic velocities of >400?cm/s, and poststenotic parvus tardus waveforms were present. Both patients underwent angioplasty and demonstrated postintervention improvement in renal function and blood pressure. Restenosis did not occur during follow up. In conclusion, recipients of EBKT have a low incidence of GAS, similar to the lowest reported for adult single allografts. PMID:26153092

  7. Penile Cancer in Cali, Colombia: 10 Years of Casuistry in a Tertiary Referral Center of a Middle-Income Country

    Lina M. Rengifo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Penile cancer is a rare disease in Colombia; in Cali, it represents 0.7% of all cancers. Penile cancer has been associated with old age, bad hygiene, smoking and lack of circumcision. This study aimed to describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with penile cancer who consulted to a tertiary referral hospital. Methods: A case series of all penile cancer cases at a reference institution in Cali during 2001-2010. Socioeconomic, demographic and clinical features of patients were described, and bivariate analyses were carried out. Results: There were 46 penile cancer cases. The average age was 60 16.9 years. The main reason for consultation was an exophytic mass on the penis (75.0%. The most common location was the glans (69.6%, and the more frequent histology type was the squamous cell carcinoma (95.7%. With regard to risk factors, 65.5% of the patients had history of smoking and 90.9% did not have circumcision. Patients who underwent radical amputation had higher rates of positive nodes (55% vs. 13.5%, p=0.015 and ulcerative lesions (77.8% vs. 29.7%, p=0.018 than those who did not have the procedure done. Recurrence was associated with the presence of lymphadenopathy (p=0.02 and history of circumcision (p=0.015. Conclusion: Most of the patients with penile cancer found in this study had old age, history of tobacco use and lack of circumcision. Patients who presented with lymph node metastasis had to undergo more radical procedures and suffered a greater rate of recurrence compared with those without lymph node involvement. Robust studies to determine the risk factors among low-income populations are required.

  8. The role of radiation therapy after incomplete resection of penile cancer

    Langsenlehner, T.; Mayer, R.; Prettenhofer, U.; Kapp, K.S. [Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, F. [Inst. for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Langsenlehner, U. [Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Pummer, K. [Dept. of Urology, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the outcome in patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy for penile cancer. Patients and methods: between 1987 and 2006, 24 patients (median age, 62.7 years; range, 35.5-90.4 years) with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (T1, n = 10; T2, n = 11; T3, n = 3) received megavoltage external radiotherapy (n = 22) or {sup 192}Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy (n = 2) following total penectomy (n = 7), partial penectomy (n = 10), or local excision (n = 7); lymphadenectomy was performed in eight patients. In 14 patients, radiotherapy was delivered after incomplete tumor resection, and in 20 patients the planning target volume included the regional lymph nodes. Median total dose of external radiotherapy was 56 Gy/1.8-2 Gy (range, 50-60 Gy). Brachytherapy was given with a total dose of 45 Gy/3 Gy. Results: during a median follow-up of 58.4 months, penile or perineal recurrence was found in four patients giving a 5-year local control rate of 74.8%. Regional failure occurred in two patients. 5-year metastases-free survival and progression-free survival rates were 86.7% and 64.5%, respectively. Four patients died due to tumor progression. The actuarial 5-year cause-specific and overall survival rates were 84.3 and 56.6%, respectively. Conclusion: radiation therapy is a successful method of treatment for penile cancer in terms of local control and organ preservation after microscopically incomplete surgery. Radiotherapy of the regional lymph nodes might also be effective in preventing regional recurrence and can be considered in case of high-risk features and following excision of extensive lymph node involvement. (orig.)

  9. Doppler Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Penile Mondors Disease: Case Report and Literature Review

    Kantarc?, Umut Hasan; Dirik, Alper; ztrk, Yasemin Erdem; Kiri?, ?lker; Duymu?, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Penile involvement is a rare, self-limiting, benign genital condition. In Mondors disease the underlying pathology is thrombophlebitis of a superficial vein. Case Report In this case report, we want to present a rare Penile Mondors disease with literature review. Conclusions While the diagnosis can be based on history, physical examination and Doppler ultrasound, the necessity of both MRI, MR angiography and intracavernosal vasoactive agent administration can be questioned. Both MRI and intravenous vasoactive agent administration may be helpful in suspicious cases for differential diagnosis and to eliminate other etiologies like pelvic mass or thrombosis.

  10. [Destruction of a penile urethra resulting from a snake bite: Uretroplasty using inguinal flap of Mac Gregor].

    Kossoko, H; Allah, C; Assi Dj Bi Dj, V; Yo, S; Gagne, M; Richard Kadio, M

    2011-02-01

    Following a snake bite to the penis, a 69 years old man presented a large defect of hemicircumferential ventral penis, destroying the penile urethra along its entire length exposing the erectile bodies. The authors proposed a two-stage reconstruction of the urethra with an inguinal axial pedicle flap of Mac Gregor. This well-vascularized flap thick after degreasing helped repair the penile urethra along its entire length and make up losses of substance with a good functional and aesthetic result. PMID:21067854

  11. Three-dimensional mapping and comparative analysis of the distal human corpus cavernosum and the inflatable penile prosthesis

    Hakky, Tariq S.; Ferguson, Daniel; Spiess, Philippe E; Bradley, Paul; Tom F Lue; Carrion, Rafael E.

    2013-01-01

    The intricate anatomy of the corpus cavernosum in both the flaccid and tumescent state has not been fully elucidated. We report our experience using a three-dimensional (3D) scanner to reconstruct cadaveric casts and compare them with 3D images of two prototypes of penile prosthesis. Two different models of the Titan Coloplast inflatable penile prosthesis were analyzed using a 3D scanner. The first was the standard model and the second was a newer model with a rounder silicone tip. Two cadave...

  12. Glans reconstruction with the use of an inverted urethral flap after distal penile amputation for carcinoma

    Salvatore Sansalone

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of adequate cosmesis and preservation of sexual and urinary function are the main goals of penile reconstructive surgery following amputation for carcinoma. Split thickness skin grafts and oral mucosa grafts have been widely used for the creation of a pseudoglans with excellent cosmetic and functional results. The main drawbacks associated with the use of grafts are donor site morbidity, the lack of engorgement of the pseudoglans and the risk of poor graft take, which may lead to contracture and poor cosmetic results. In the present series the long term cosmetic and functional outcomes of glans reconstruction with an inverted distal urethral flap are described.

  13. Self-implanted subcutaneous penile balls--a new phenomenon in Western Europe.

    Rothschild, M A; Ehrlich, E; Klevno, W A; Schneider, V

    1997-01-01

    The subcutaneous self-implantation of spherical objects in the penis is a well-known practice among members of the Yakuza in Japan but this phenomenon has not previously been described in the Western world. However, recently there were two cases in Berlin of young Eastern Europe men in whom implanted penile balls as in the Yakuza were found at autopsy. Investigations in Russia revealed that this phenomenon is typically encountered there among prisoners and in certain army units. In addition to the feeling of belonging to a specific group, increased sexual confidence is one major reason for these implantations that are usually performed under primitive conditions. PMID:9168326

  14. First case report of isolated penile mucormycosis in a liver transplantation recipient

    Ming-chun Lai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare but potentially lethal complication of liver transplantation. Most reported cases have involved rhinocerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, or disseminated forms. We present herein the case of a 61-year-old male patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who developed isolated penile mucormycosis after orthotopic liver transplantation. Such a case has not been reported in the literature to date. Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention combined with comprehensive treatment are the key factors for improving the survival rate in patients with mucormycosis.

  15. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent naso...

  16. Prostatic Arterial Embolization with Small Sized Particles for the Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Due to Large Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Preliminary Results

    Li, Qiang; Duan, Feng; Wang, Mao-Qiang; Zhang, Guo-Dong; Yuan, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Background: The clinical failure after prostatic artery embolization (PAE) with conventional particles was relatively high, in treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We reported the results of PAE with combined polyvinyl alcohol particles 50 μm and 100 μm in size as a primary treatment in 24 patients with severe LUTS secondary to large BPH. Methods: From July 2012 to June 2014, we performed PAE in 24 patients (65–85 years, mean 74.5 years) with severe LUTS due to large BPH (≥80 cm3) and refractory to medical therapy. Embolization was performed using combination of 50 μm and 100 μm in particles size. Clinical follow-up was performed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), peak urinary flow (Qmax), postvoid residual (PVR) volume, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), prostatic specific antigen (PSA), and prostatic volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 3, 6, and every 6-month thereafter. Technical success was defined when PAE was completed in at least one pelvic side. Clinical success was defined as the improvement of both symptoms and QoL. A Student's t-test for paired samples was used. Results: PAE was technically successful in 22 patients (92%). Bilateral PAE was performed in 19 (86%) patients and unilateral in 3 (14%) patients. Follow-up data were available for 22 patients observed for mean of 14 months. The clinical improvement at 1, 3, 6, and 12-month was 91%, 91%, 88%, and 83%, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, the mean IPSS, QoL, PVR, and Qmax were from 27 to 8 (P = 0.001), from 4.5 to 2.0 (P = 0.002), from 140.0 ml to 55.0 ml (P = 0.002), and from 6.0 ml/s to 13.0 ml/s (P = 0.001), respectively. The mean prostate volume decreased from 110 cm3 to 67.0 cm3 (mean reduction of 39.1%; P = 0.001). The PSA and IIEF improvements after PAE did not differ from pre-PAE significantly. No major adverse events were noted. Conclusions: The combination of 50 μm and 100 μm particles for PAE is a safe and effective treatment method for patients with severe LUTS due to large BPH, which further improves the clinical results of PAE. PMID:26228221

  17. Tissue engineering penoplasty with biodegradable scaffold Maxpol-T cografted autologous fibroblasts for small penis syndrome.

    Jin, Zhe; Wu, Yi-Guang; Yuan, Yi-Ming; Peng, Jing; Gong, Yan-Qing; Li, Guang-Yong; Song, Wei-Dong; Cui, Wan-Shou; He, Xue-You; Xin, Zhong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of a poly acid-co-glycolide biodegradable scaffold (Maxpol-T) coated by autologous fibroblasts (AF) for penile girth enlargement in small penis syndrome (SPS). Eighty patients with SPS were enrolled in a clinical study at 2 medical centers; 69 patients completed the study protocol. Scrotal skin was harvested under local anesthesia, and AFs were cultured and seeded on a Maxpol-T scaffold; the cografted scaffold was implanted under the Buck's fascia of penile shaft via a circumcising incision. Patients were followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months to evaluate penile girth changes. Patient satisfaction was assessed via Visual Analogue Scale and scored on the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5). Mean preoperative penile girth in the flaccid and erect state was 8.18 ± 0.83 cm and 10.26 ± 1.22 cm, respectively. At the 6-month postoperative follow-up, mean penile girth in the flaccid and erect state was increased to 12.19 ± 1.27 cm and 13.18 ± 1.31 cm, respectively (P < .001 for change in both flaccid and erect state). Sixty-five patients (94.2%) reported satisfaction with the procedure. Among them, 4 cases (5.8%) were dissatisfied, 7 cases (10.1%) were satisfied, 26 cases (37.7%) were very satisfied, and 32 cases (46.4%) were extremely satisfied. All men maintained IIEF-5 scores of more than 22. Complications included prolonged subcutaneous edema in 3 patients (4.3%) and pinpoint erosion at the suture area in 3 patients (4.3%). Implantation of autologous fibroblasts seeded on a Maxpol-T collagen scaffold holds promise as a safe and novel technique for penile girth enhancement in patients with SPS. PMID:21164145

  18. Coronary artery disease (image)

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  19. Carotid Artery Disease

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  20. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that ... that supply blood to the intestine causes mesenteric ischemia. The arteries that supply blood to the intestines ...

  1. Penile cancer chemotherapy: twelve years' experience at Institut Gustave-Roussy.

    Kattan, J; Culine, S; Droz, J P; Fadel, E; Court, B; Perrin, J L; Wibault, P; Haie-Meder, C

    1993-11-01

    Between 1980 and 1992, 14 patients (median age 50 years) with penile carcinoma were treated with multidrug combination chemotherapy in our institution. Twelve patients had Stage IV (Jackson classification) tumor, 1 patient each had Stage III and Stage II. All patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Cisplatin was associated with either 5-fluorouracil (4 patients), methotrexate and bleomycin (4 patients), methotrexate (3 patients), Adriamycin (1 patient), bleomycin and vinblastine (1 patient), or bleomycin and epirubicin (1 patient). Thirteen patients were evaluable for response. Objective response was encountered in 2 patients (15%) with 1 complete response and 1 partial response. Response duration was difficult to determine because of additive radio-therapy or patient was lost to follow-up. There were 2 patients with long-term evidence of no disease among 12 patients with Stage IV disease. These 2 patients received complementary irradiation in association with the chemotherapy. The response rate was dismal in our series. Methotrexate-based regimens seem to be the most active. The bimodality treatment with multidrug chemotherapy and radiotherapy for advanced penile cancer could offer a survival advantage in the management of these patients. PMID:7694417

  2. Strategies for penile prosthesis placement in Peyronie's disease and corporal fibrosis.

    Yafi, Faysal A; Sangkum, Premsant; McCaslin, Ian Ross; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2015-04-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a wound healing disorder of the tunica albuginea of the penis. PD is generally categorized into two phases: the early acute inflammatory and late chronic fibrotic. Surgical reconstruction is only recommended during the latter established phase. There are a variety of options when erections are functional. However, when erectile dysfunction is present, the gold standard treatment is the placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis with or without additional straightening procedures. General recommendations include that after implanting and inflating the cylinders, if a clinically significant curvature is present, manual modeling is performed. If a residual curve >30° remains after modeling, then various techniques, including plaque releasing incision, is the next step. Grafting can be considered if tunical defects are >2.0 cm. Causes of corporal fibrosis include complications from an infected implant such as explantation, priapism, penile trauma, and prolonged use of an intracavernosal injection agent. Implant placement in the setting of corporal fibrosis can be technically challenging. Available strategies include incision or excision of the scar, corporotomies with or without grafting, the use of cavernotomes, or other specialized dilators, implant downsizing, and transcorporeal resection. PMID:25712763

  3. Use of autologous grafts in the treatment of acquired penile curvature: An experience of 33 cases

    Khawaja, Abdul Rouf; Dar, Tanveer Iqbal; Zahur, Suhael; Tariq, Sheikh; Hamid, Arf; Wani, M. S.; Wazir, B. S.; Iqbal, Arsheed

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective was to compare the use of autologous dermal and temporalis fascia grafts in the treatment of acquired penile curvatures. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective observational study of 33 cases, conducted in Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar from March 2007 to September 2013. All the patients had stable Peyronies disease (PD). Dorsal, dorsolateral and vental curvatures with good preoperative erections were included. PD index with visual analog scales for curvature was used preoperatively. An informed written consent was taken from all the patients with main emphasis on erectile dysfunction. Results: After an average follow up of 2 years, complete straightening of penis was observed in all patients with satisfactory sexual intercourse in 30 patients (90%). Three patients (10%) required frequent use of type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors for adequate erections. Overall 91% of patients and partners were satisfied with the procedure and cosmetically donor site was better in temporalis fascia graft site. No rejection of any graft was noted and glans hypoesthesia was noticed in 4 patients (12%). None of the patients required penile prosthesis. Total operative time for harvesting and application of the graft was more in dermal grafts (>3 hrs) than for temporalis fascia graft (2 hrs). Conclusion: Tunical lengthening procedures by autologous free grafts represents a safe and reproducible technique. A good preoperative erectile function is required for tunical lengthening procedure. Temporalis fascia graft is thin, tough membrane and effective graft for PD with good cosmetic and functional results. PMID:27141196

  4. Penile Fracture in A Patient With Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report

    Ümüt GÜZELKÜÇÜK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a case of penile fracture (PF in a patient with spinal cord injury (SCI. A 36-year-old male patient with T12 paraplegia ASIA-B fell during transfer from wheelchair to the bed. He had no complaint during the night. He observed swelling of the penis when he was doing clean intermittent catheterization in the morning. On physical examination, edema and ecchymosis were observed on the penis. Penil ultrasound revealed haematoma in the corpus cavernosum. The diagnosis of PF was established. Because the patient did not accept surgery, conservative treatment was performed. An indwelling catheter and Coban bandage were applied for 10 days. One month later, the appearance of the penis was normal. Patients with SCI might develop PF accidentally. Loss of sensation in SCI might cause delayed diagnosis of PF and increased complication risk. PF and its complications might further deteriorate the sexual or voiding problems that SCI patients already have. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2013;59:268-70.

  5. New compression mechanism in penile-scrotal lymphedema and sexual rehabilitation

    Jose Maria Pereira de Godoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe a new compression mechanism in the treatment of lymphedema of the penis and scrotum and the ensuing sexual rehabilitation. The patient, a 58-year-old man, had edema of the penile and scrotal region as a result of surgery of the pancreas and spleen and chemotherapy. The patient complained of pain, discomfort, and difficulties to walk and urinate. A clinical diagnosis of lymphedema of the penis and scrotum was reached. Treatment involved the continuous use of a cotton-polyester compression garment for the region together with thorough hygiene skin care. The swelling reduced significantly within a week to almost a normal aspect which was accompanied by clinical improvements of the symptoms. The reduction in penile edema allowed sexual rehabilitation even though erectile dysfunction required the use of a specific medication (sildenafil. In conclusion, simple and low-cost options can improve lymphedema of the penis and scrotum and allow sexual rehabilitation.

  6. Penile cancer and phallus preservation strategies: a review of current literature.

    Zukiwskyj, Marianna; Daly, Padraig; Chung, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Penile cancer is a rare malignancy in most developed nations but its management can have significant anatomical, functional and psychological effects in patients. Whilst total penectomy used to be widely practiced, it is associated with significant psychological consequences pertaining to body image and masculinity, with loss of sexual function and the ability to void upright. Recent advances in surgical techniques and technologies has allowed for many organ-sparing techniques with acceptable psychosexual and oncological outcomes. Factors to be considered in phallus preservation treatment include: local invasion, tumour stage and the ability to achieve complete oncological control. Topical chemotherapeutic agents, laser ablation, radiotherapy, Mohs micrographic surgery, glansectomy and partial penectomy have been frequently used to interfere as little as possible with functional anatomy without compromising local cancer control. The difficulty with these phallus-preserving techniques is the potential risk of disease recurrence both locally and distally. Providing that patients are suitable for penile-sparing therapy, have been informed adequately on risk of tumour recurrence and are willing to commit to rigorous close surveillance, good functional outcome as well as oncological control can be achieved. PMID:24127672

  7. Extended long term functional outcome of inflatable penile prosthesis in a single institution.

    Thomas, A Z

    2011-02-01

    We sought to evaluate the extended long term functional outcome of the AMS700 three piece inflatable prosthesis in men with erectile dysfunction in a single urological department and assess our revision rates. Patients that underwent first-time insertion or revision of an AMS700 3 piece inflatable penile prosthesis between 1984-2007 were included. Data was obtained from medical records and long term follow up of patients was conducted by telephone interview. The medical records of 38 patients were available for review. Of these 38 men, 56 prostheses were inserted. The mean follow up was 8.4 years (101 months). The revision rate at 50 months postoperatively was 7\\/38 (18%). The overall revision rate was 18\\/38 (47%). The mean time to revision in these 18 patients was 72 months (12-156 months) after initial insertion of AMS700 penile prosthesis. This study highlights that with longer follow u revision rates markedly increase after 72 months.

  8. Arterial stenosis following radiotherapy

    Published reports of arterial stenosis following radiotherapy are reviewed. In oncological practice, this complication is rare but experimental studies have demonstrated the role of irradiation in producing arterial lesions. The histological specificity and the mechanisms of radiation and related arterial lesions are discussed. Atherosclerosis risk factors and chemotherapy could have a synergic role on artery stenosis. Cases reported of arterial stenosis after radiotherapy include subclavicular artery after breast cancer, carotid artery after head and neck cancer, coronary artery and abdominal aorta or its trunks after pelvic and abdominal irradiation. The radiotherapy parameters described are not unusual. Therapeutical modalities and their indications are presented

  9. Comparison between Tubularised Incised Plate Urethroplasty and Onlay Island Flap Repair in Mid and Proximal Penile Hypospadias

    Objectives: To evaluate the surgical outcome of tubularised incised plate urethroplasty and onlay island flap repair for mid and proximal penile hypospadias. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur from June 2011 to May 2013. A total of 60 patients with mid and proximal penile hypospadias in the age range of 02 to 06 years were included. Patients with hypospadias other than mid and proximal penile, with chordee and history of previous hypospadias repair were excluded. Patients were divided into two equal groups. Urethroplasty was done for group I and flap repair for group II. The follow-up period was 12-24 months. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean duration of surgery was 62+-8.72 minutes for group I and 90+-11.25 minutes for group II (p<0.0001). In group I, only 03 (10.0%) patients had complications, while in group II, 09 (30.0%) patients developed complications (p=0.02). Cosmetic results were also excellent in group I compared to group II. Conclusion: Tubularised incised plate urethroplasty was better and superior than onlay island flap repair in terms of less operative time, complication rate and satisfactory cosmetic results for mid and proximal penile hypospadias. (author)

  10. Penile Analogue of Stratified Mucin-Producing Intraepithelial Lesion of the Cervix: The First Described Case. A Diagnostic Pitfall.

    Michal, Michael; Michal, Michal; Miesbauerova, Marketa; Hercogova, Jana; Skopalikova, Barbora; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-05-01

    The authors report a case where undifferentiated (classic) penile intraepithelial neoplasia was associated with the presence of goblet cells throughout the full epithelial thickness and which later progressed into an invasive carcinoma. The lesion evolved in three consecutive biopsies from only surface epithelium occupying numerous goblet cells in the first to variably sized solid nodules in the dermis composed of atypical squamous and/or basaloid cells intermixed with numerous goblet cells in the third biopsy. Both cellular components expressed CK7 and p16 protein. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping revealed high risk HPV type 16. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of such a lesion occurring on the penis, which can be considered the penile analogue of cervical stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE). The correct diagnosis was rendered retrospectively, after recognition of the existence of a vulvar lesion resembling cervical SMILE. The initial biopsy was misinterpreted as extramammary Paget disease, which also constitutes the main pitfall in the differential diagnosis. Another important differential diagnosis is penile/vulvar mucinous metaplasia. The finding of atypical squamous epithelial cells positive for p16 associated with mucinous cells present throughout the full epithelial thickness is a clue to the diagnosis of penile SMILE. PMID:27097242

  11. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of supra-aortic arteries especially the internal carotid artery

    Kachel, R.; Basche, S. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik); Heerklotz, I.; Grossmann, K. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin); Endler, S. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Neurologie und Psychiatrie)

    1991-06-01

    We present our experience with 105 patients in whom percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in 112 stenosed or occluded supra-aortic arteries. Symtoms of cerebrovascular and/or vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present in 104 of the 105 patients. The angioplasty was successful in 35 stenoses of the internal carotid artery, 2 stenoses of the common carotid artery, 1 stenosis of the external carotid artery, 15 stenoses of the vertebral artery, 3 stenoses of the innominate artery and 44 stenoses of the subclavian artery. There were only 4 minor-complications (2 haematomas, 1 transient ischemic attack, 1 small thrombus of the internal carotid artery which was detected by 111-indium platelet scintigraphy and treated by thrombendarterectomy before the appearance of neurological symptoms). All patients were symptom free after angioplasty. During the observations period of 3 to 109 months (average 58 months) there were only two cases with re-stenosis after subclavian angioplasty. The results of more than 700 personal and international published percutaneous transluminal angioplasties of supra-aortic arteries are presented. The results suggest that angioplasty of supra-aortic arteries is an effective method. On strict definition of the indications, the complication rate for angioplasty of the supra-aortic arteries is not likely to be higher than that for operative treatment. (orig.).

  12. Penile prosthesis surgery in out-patient setting: Effectiveness and costs in the “spending review” era

    Nicola Mondaini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penile implant patients are required to remain in the hospital after the operation for monitoring, antibiotic and analgesia administration. Cost containment, however, has resulted in the increased use of ambulatory surgery settings for many surgical procedures. Few studies have studied the feasibility of performing penile prosthesis insertion in an outpatient setting. The results are controversial and nowadays, in the most of centers that deal with prosthetic surgery, patients are still hospitalized. Aim: The aim of our investigation was to compare the feasibility of the performance as well as the complication profiles of penile implant surgery performed in an in-patient and an outpatient setting at a single center by a single surgeon. Methods: From January 2009 to June 2014, 50 patients of the same uro-andrological unit underwent penile prosthesis implantation performed by a single surgeon (N.M.. Twenty implantations were performed in an ambulatory day surgery setting. Main outcome measures: Effectiveness and costs of outpatient setting versus the in-patient setting of the penile prosthesis surgery. Results: There were some differences between the two groups in the intra-operative parameters, such as, operating time. Time lost from work was similar in both groups approximating 14 days. The mean number of analgesic pills ingested by the patients post-operatively was similar in both groups, averaging just under 25 pills per patient. There weren’t post-operative complications in the outpatient group. Cost were 17% less in outpatient clinic. Conclusions: The outpatient setting for this surgery is safe and effective even in patients with comorbidities or in case of secondary procedures. Costs are reduced by 17%.

  13. Penile fracture: Retrospective analysis of our case history with long-term assessment of the erectile and sexological outcome

    Nicola Pavan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the cases of patients with suspected penile fracture and asses erectile and sexological outcomes. Materials and methods: from 1987 to 2013 presented to the Urology Clinic of Trieste and at the AIED of Pordenone a total of 41 cases that were divided into two groups according to the timing of treatment: 18 patients with anamnestic diagnosis of penile fracture treated nonimmediately and 23 patients treated immediately after the trauma. For all patients we evaluated the type of treatment adopted, the occurrence of complications and reoperations and the follow-up. The erectile function was also evaluated through the IIEF, as well as the psychological impact of the trauma on social and sex life, using a psycho- sexological questionnaire. Results: Among patients treated immediately after the trauma 14 were subjected to surgery. About a year after surgery, penile curvature was reported in 1 patient, pain in 3 patients, urinary disorders in 1 patient, while none reported erectile dysfunction (ED. Out of these, only 3 patients underwent reoperation. Among those treated conservatively 1 patient reported curvature, 1 patient reported pain and none reported ED. Among patients who were admitted at a later date, 14 reported curvature and 4 reported pain whereas urinary disorders were reported in 1 and ED in 4 patients. From a psychological point of view, the trauma caused in most cases a fear of new trauma and of repercussions on erectile function and sensitivity. Conclusions: The diagnosis is mainly clinical; however, radiological investigation is essential to confirm the diagnosis, assess the site and extent of the trauma and possible urethral involvement, so as to plan the most appropriate treatment. In addition, immediate treatment leads to better long-term results, with a lower incidence of ED and penile curvature. Psychologically, penile trauma intensifies the fear of reoccurrence; it decreases, however, with the passage of time.

  14. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion

    We studied 9 patients with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion (BVAO). BVAO was confirmed using angiography in order to clarify its clinical feature, mechanism, and long term prognosis. We divided the patients into 4 groups according to MRI findings, as follows: Group 1 with no abnormal finding on MRI; Group 2 with deep pontine infarcts and non-territorial small cerebellar infarcts; Group 3 with extended pontine infarcts; and Group 4 with cerebellar cortical artery infarcts, deep pontine infarcts, and non-territorial small cerebellar infarcts. Six of the patients had vertebro-basilar symptoms after being in the upright position, including all the patients in Groups 2 and 4, which had cerebellar border zone/terminal zone infarcts. These results indicate that the hemodynamic mechanism plays an important role in BVAO. The prognosis was not always grave. Four of the patients could walk independently, 2 could walk with a cane, and 3 were bed ridden (2 of which died). Long-term follow-up data were obtained in all patients. In the patients who could walk, one had asymptomatic cerebellar infarcts, and one had TIAs frequently. Patients with BVAO often also have TIAs and/or preceding episode and show cerebellar border zone/terminal zone infarction. (K.H.)

  15. Myocardial arterial spin labeling.

    Kober, Frank; Jao, Terrence; Troalen, Thomas; Nayak, Krishna S

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for mapping regional myocardial blood flow. It does not require any contrast agents, is compatible with stress testing, and can be performed repeatedly or even continuously. ASL-CMR has been performed with great success in small-animals, but sensitivity to date has been poor in large animals and humans and remains an active area of research. This review paper summarizes the development of ASL-CMR techniques, current state-of-the-art imaging methods, the latest findings from pre-clinical and clinical studies, and future directions. We also explain how successful developments in brain ASL and small-animal ASL-CMR have helped to inform developments in large animal and human ASL-CMR. PMID:27071861

  16. The superiority of hollow fiber membrane over bubble oxygenator in a perfusion circuit for the evaluation of small caliber endothelialized arterial prostheses.

    Mazzucotelli, J P; Lecouls, L; Hamzaoui, A; Philippon, C; Bizouard, E; Moczar, M; Loisance, D Y

    1996-01-01

    A perfusion circuit was constructed from a pneumatic ventricular assist device, 2 compliance chambers, 4 small-diameter silicone tubes (ID 4 mm) simulating shear inducing vascular prostheses, and an oxygenator with a heat exchanger. A bubble oxygenator (in a BO circuit) and a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator (in an MO circuit) were studied. The circuits were perfused with 30% human serum containing culture medium for 7 days at 37 degrees C. The pH, Po2, PCo2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl, glucose, and total protein concentrations remained the same in BO and MO circuits during the 7 days of perfusion. The differences between the values measured in the perfusion medium and in the medium maintained in the static conditions of cell culture were not significant. In the BO circuit, the amount of cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations decreased whereas the relative amounts of albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma globulins remained stable in the perfusion medium. The medium from the BO circuit did not promote the proliferation of cultured human saphenous vein endothelial cells. In the medium from the MO circuit, the cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations did not change with perfusion time; the proliferation rate and anticoagulant function of endothelial cells were maintained. The hollow fiber membrane oxygenator preserves the biological characteristics of the cell culture medium in a perfusion circuit. The MO circuit permits the performance of relevant studies on shear stress resistance and functional activity of human endothelial cells seeded onto vascular prostheses. PMID:8645127

  17. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms

    Levi, N; Schroeder, T V

    1998-01-01

    To assess our experience with isolated iliac artery aneurysms and to assess the blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing surgery for iliac artery aneurysms.......To assess our experience with isolated iliac artery aneurysms and to assess the blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing surgery for iliac artery aneurysms....

  18. Hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Curran, F T; Taylor, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a 58 year old woman who had an aneurysm involving the common hepatic artery, the right and left hepatic arteries and the cystic artery which had ruptured into the liver. It was successfully treated by proximal ligation. The features and management of hepatic artery aneurysm are discussed.

  19. Incidence and cost of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer in Denmark

    Olsen Jens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides being a causative agent for genital warts and cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV contributes to 40-85% of cases of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer and precancerous lesions. HPV types 16 & 18 in particular contribute to 74-93% of these cases. Overall the number of new cases of these four cancers may be relatively high implying notable health care cost to society. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the health care sector costs of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Methods New anogenital cancer patients were identified from the Danish National Cancer Register using ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Resource use in the health care sector was estimated for the year prior to diagnosis, and for the first, second and third years after diagnosis. Hospital resource use was defined in terms of registered hospital contacts, using DRG (Diagnosis Related Groups and DAGS (Danish Outpatient Groups System charges as cost estimates for inpatient and outpatient contacts, respectively. Health care consumption by cancer patients diagnosed in 2004–2007 was compared with that by an age- and sex-matched cohort without cancer. Hospital costs attributable to four anogenital cancers were estimated using regression analysis. Results The annual incidence of anal cancer in Denmark is 1.9 per 100,000 persons. The corresponding incidence rates for penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer are 1.7, 0.9 and 3.6 per 100,000 males/females, respectively. The total number of new cases of these four cancers in Denmark is about 270 per year. In comparison, the total number of new cases cervical cancer is around 390 per year. The total cost of anogenital cancer to the hospital sector was estimated to be 7.6 million Euros per year. Costs associated with anal and vulvar cancer constituted the majority of the costs. Conclusions Anogenital cancer incurs considerable costs to the Danish hospital sector. It is expected that the current HPV vaccination program will markedly reduce this burden.

  20. Penile density and globally used chemicals in Canadian and Greenland polar bears.

    Sonne, Christian; Dyck, Markus; Rigét, Frank F; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik; Hyldstrup, Lars; Letcher, Robert J; Gustavson, Kim; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dietz, Rune

    2015-02-01

    Industrially produced chemicals have been a major environmental concern across our entire Globe since the onset of rapid industrial development around the early 1900. Many of the substances being used are known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and are also known to be long-range dispersed and to biomagnify to very high concentrations in the tissues of Arctic apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern relating to EDCs is their effects on vital organ-tissues such as bone and it is possible that EDCs represent a more serious challenge to the species' survival than the more conventionally proposed prey reductions linked to climate change. We therefore analyzed penile bone mineral density (BMD) as a key phenotype for reproductive success in 279 polar bear samples born 1990-2000 representing eight polar bear subpopulations. Since EDC concentrations were not available from the same specimens, we compared BMD with published literature information on EDC concentrations. Latitudinal and longitudinal BMD and EDC gradients were clearly observed, with Western Hudson bears having the highest BMD and lowest EDCs, and North East Greenland polar bears carrying the lowest BMD and highest EDCs. A BMD vs. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) regression analysis showed that BMD decreased as a function of the eight subpopulations' PCB concentrations and this relationship was close to being significant (p=0.10, R(2)=0.39). Risk quotient (RQ) estimation demonstrated that PCBs could be in a range that may lead to disruption of normal reproduction and development. It is therefore likely that EDCs directly affect development and bone density in polar bears. Canadian bears had in general the best health and the North East Greenland subpopulation being at the highest risk of having negative health effects. While reductions in BMD is in general unhealthy, reductions in penile BMD could lead to increased risk of species extinction because of mating and subsequent fertilization failure as a result of weak penile bones and risk of fractures. Based on this, future studies should assess how polar bear subpopulations respond upon EDC exposure since information and understanding about their circumpolar reproductive health is vital for future conservation. PMID:25601730

  1. Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women

    Claeys Geert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin flap technique. Secondary objectives were to describe possible correlations of this microflora with multiple patients' characteristics, such as sexual orientation, the incidence of vaginal irritation and malodorous vaginal discharge. Results Based on Gram stain the majority of smears revealed a mixed microflora that had some similarity with bacterial vaginosis (BV microflora and that contained various amounts of cocci, polymorphous Gram-negative and Gram-positive rods, often with fusiform and comma-shaped rods, and sometimes even with spirochetes. Candida cells were not seen in any of the smears. On average 8.6 species were cultured per woman. The species most often found were: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus anginosus group spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium sp., Mobiluncus curtisii and Bacteroides ureolyticus. Lactobacilli were found in only one of 30 women There was no correlation between dilatation habits, having coitus, rinsing habits and malodorous vaginal discharge on the one hand and the presence of a particular species on the other. There was however a highly significant correlation between the presence of E. faecalis on the one hand and sexual orientation and coitus on the other (p = 0.003 and p = 0.027 respectively. Respectively 82%, 58% and 30% of the samples showed an amplicon after amplification with M. curtisii, Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis primer sets. Conclusion Our study is the first to describe the microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women. It reveals a mixed microflora of aerobe and anaerobe species usually found either on the skin, in the intestinal microflora or in a BV microflora.

  2. Pudendal Nerve and Internal Pudendal Artery Damage May Contribute to Radiation-Induced Erectile Dysfunction

    Nolan, Michael W., E-mail: mwnolan@ncsu.edu [Department of Clinical Sciences, and Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Department of Environmental and Radiologic Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Marolf, Angela J. [Department of Environmental and Radiologic Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Ehrhart, E.J. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Rao, Sangeeta [Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Kraft, Susan L. [Department of Environmental and Radiologic Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Engel, Stephanie [Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Golden, Anne E. [Department of Environmental and Radiologic Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Wasserman, Todd H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); LaRue, Susan M. [Department of Environmental and Radiologic Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose/Objectives: Erectile dysfunction is common after radiation therapy for prostate cancer; yet, the etiopathology of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction (RI-ED) remains poorly understood. A novel animal model was developed to study RI-ED, wherein stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was used to irradiate the prostate, neurovascular bundles (NVB), and penile bulb (PB) of dogs. The purpose was to describe vascular and neurogenic injuries after the irradiation of only the NVB or the PB, and after irradiation of all 3 sites (prostate, NVB, and PB) with varying doses of radiation. Methods and Materials: Dogs were treated with 50, 40, or 30 Gy to the prostate, NVB, and PB, or 50 Gy to either the NVB or the PB, by 5-fraction SBRT. Electrophysiologic studies of the pudendal nerve and bulbospongiosus muscles and ultrasound studies of pelvic perfusion were performed before and after SBRT. The results of these bioassays were correlated with histopathologic changes. Results: SBRT caused slowing of the systolic rise time, which corresponded to decreased arterial patency. Alterations in the response of the internal pudendal artery to vasoactive drugs were observed, wherein SBRT caused a paradoxical response to papaverine, slowing the systolic rise time after 40 and 50 Gy; these changes appeared to have some dose dependency. The neurofilament content of penile nerves was also decreased at high doses and was more profound when the PB was irradiated than when the NVB was irradiated. These findings are coincident with slowing of motor nerve conduction velocities in the pudendal nerve after SBRT. Conclusions: This is the first report in which prostatic irradiation was shown to cause morphologic arterial damage that was coincident with altered internal pudendal arterial tone, and in which decreased motor function in the pudendal nerve was attributed to axonal degeneration and loss. Further investigation of the role played by damage to these structures in RI-ED is warranted.

  3. Pudendal Nerve and Internal Pudendal Artery Damage May Contribute to Radiation-Induced Erectile Dysfunction

    Purpose/Objectives: Erectile dysfunction is common after radiation therapy for prostate cancer; yet, the etiopathology of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction (RI-ED) remains poorly understood. A novel animal model was developed to study RI-ED, wherein stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was used to irradiate the prostate, neurovascular bundles (NVB), and penile bulb (PB) of dogs. The purpose was to describe vascular and neurogenic injuries after the irradiation of only the NVB or the PB, and after irradiation of all 3 sites (prostate, NVB, and PB) with varying doses of radiation. Methods and Materials: Dogs were treated with 50, 40, or 30 Gy to the prostate, NVB, and PB, or 50 Gy to either the NVB or the PB, by 5-fraction SBRT. Electrophysiologic studies of the pudendal nerve and bulbospongiosus muscles and ultrasound studies of pelvic perfusion were performed before and after SBRT. The results of these bioassays were correlated with histopathologic changes. Results: SBRT caused slowing of the systolic rise time, which corresponded to decreased arterial patency. Alterations in the response of the internal pudendal artery to vasoactive drugs were observed, wherein SBRT caused a paradoxical response to papaverine, slowing the systolic rise time after 40 and 50 Gy; these changes appeared to have some dose dependency. The neurofilament content of penile nerves was also decreased at high doses and was more profound when the PB was irradiated than when the NVB was irradiated. These findings are coincident with slowing of motor nerve conduction velocities in the pudendal nerve after SBRT. Conclusions: This is the first report in which prostatic irradiation was shown to cause morphologic arterial damage that was coincident with altered internal pudendal arterial tone, and in which decreased motor function in the pudendal nerve was attributed to axonal degeneration and loss. Further investigation of the role played by damage to these structures in RI-ED is warranted

  4. Is V-Y plasty necessary for penile lengthening? Girth enhancement and increased length solely through circumcision: description of a novel technique.

    Mertziotis, Nikos; Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Bogris, Elias

    2013-11-01

    Our objective is to describe a novel ligamentolysis approach using a subcoronal incision technique and to determine its safety and efficacy. During the last 7 years, 82 consecutive patients had penile augmentation surgery. Ligamentolysis, through a lower abdominal incision (V-Y plasty) in the first 35 males, was performed (Group A), followed by circumcision ligamentolysis in the next 47 males (Group B). The operation time, complications, and the preoperative and postoperative values of penile length and girth along with the self-esteem and relations questionnaire score as well as satisfaction score was calculated before and after the surgery, and a comparison was conducted between the groups. The mean age at presentation was 32 years (range: 18-56 years). Seventy-nine patients suffered from penile dysmorphophobia, and three patients had micropenises (length cosmetic appearance without any compromise in the gained penile size. PMID:23792340

  5. Complication after arterial bypass grafting.

    Dizon, M; Wallach, P; Matfin, G; Adelman, H M

    1998-10-15

    A 57-year-old man experienced sudden onset of pleuritic chest pain and respiratory distress 10 days after undergoing four-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The surgery was performed after cardiac catheterization had shown right coronary artery dominance and the presence of lesions occluding 40% of the mid right coronary artery, 20% of the left main coronary artery, and 99% of the lower left anterior descending artery and its first diagonal branch. The patient had initially presented with acute dyspnea following an episode of crushing, nonradiating pain in the left chest and was diagnosed as having a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction after cardiac enzyme testing. His hospital course before and immediately after CABG was uneventful. The first sign of difficulty was detected one week after surgery, on day 17. An echocardiogram showed a small pericardial effusion, moderate to severe concentric thickening of the left ventricle, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.60 (normal, 0.67 +/- 0.08), normal valves, and normal segmental wall motion. The pleural chest pains began two days later, on day 19. PMID:9793541

  6. Is V–Y plasty necessary for penile lengthening? Girth enhancement and increased length solely through circumcision: description of a novel technique

    Mertziotis, Nikos; Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Bogris, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Our objective is to describe a novel ligamentolysis approach using a subcoronal incision technique and to determine its safety and efficacy. During the last 7 years, 82 consecutive patients had penile augmentation surgery. Ligamentolysis, through a lower abdominal incision (V–Y plasty) in the first 35 males, was performed (Group A), followed by circumcision ligamentolysis in the next 47 males (Group B). The operation time, complications, and the preoperative and postoperative values of penile...

  7. SIVmac251 Is Inefficiently Transmitted to Rhesus Macaques by Penile Inoculation with a Single SIVenv Variant Found in Ramp-up Phase Plasma

    Ma, Zhong-min; Keele, Brandon F.; Qureshi, Huma; Stone, Mars; DeSilva, Veronique; Fritts, Linda; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that approximately half of all HIV patients acquire infection through penile exposure, there have been no recent studies of penile SIV transmission in rhesus macaques and the nature of the virus variants transmitted, target cells, and pathways of virus dissemination to systemic lymphoid tissues are not known. Single genome amplification (SGA) and sequencing of HIV-1 RNA in plasma of acutely infected humans allows the identification and enumeration of transmitted/founder virus...

  8. Impact of penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil on recovery of erectile function in Japanese men following nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    Yuzo Nakano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a major complication after radical prostatectomy (RP; however, debate continues regarding the efficacy of penile rehabilitation in the recovery of the postoperative erectile function (EF. This study included a total of 103 consecutive sexually active Japanese men with localized prostate cancer undergoing nerve-sparing RP, and analyzed the postoperative EF, focusing on the significance of penile rehabilitation. In this series, 24 and 79 patients underwent bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing RPs, respectively, and 10 or 20 mg of vardenafil was administered to 35 patients at least once weekly, who agreed to undergo penile rehabilitation. Twelve months after RP, 48 (46.6% of the 103 patients were judged to have recovered EF sufficient for sexual intercourse without any assistance. The proportion of patients who recovered EF in those undergoing penile rehabilitation (60.0% was significantly greater than that in those without penile rehabilitation (38.2%. Of several parameters examined, the preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure were significantly associated with the postoperative EF recovery rates in patients with and without management by penile rehabilitation, respectively. Furthermore, univariate analysis identified the preoperative IIEF-5 score, nerve-sparing procedure and penile rehabilitation as significant predictors of EF recovery, among which the preoperative IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure appeared to be independently associated with EF recovery. Considering these findings, despite the lack of independent significance, penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil could exert a beneficial effect on EF recovery in Japanese men following nerve-sparing RP.

  9. Sentinel-lymph node procedure in breast, uterine cervix, prostate, vulva and penile cancers: Practical methodology

    The nodal status is the strongest prognostic factor in early stage cancers. The sentinel-lymph node (S.L.N.) is defined as the first draining lymph node of an organ; the lymph node status is determined by the histological results of S.L.N.. The lymphadenectomy, with high morbidity, is realised only in case of metastatic S.L.N.. The S.L.N. identification, in most of cases, is performed using the combination of blue dye and radiocolloid 99mTc injections. The purpose of this article is to give some practical details about the S.L.N. isotopic procedure in breast cancer, vulva and penile cancer, uterine cervix and prostate cancer. (author)

  10. Penile fracture: Penoscrotal approach with degloving of penis after Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI

    Gabriele Antonini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the penis, a relatively uncommon emergency in Urology, consists in the traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum. Examination and clinical history can be highly suspicious of penile fracture in the majority of cases and ultrasonography (USS can be useful to identify the exact location of the tunical rupture, which is proximal in 2/3 of cases and therefore manageable through a penoscrotal approach. Although expensive and not readily available in the acute setting, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI may play a role in the differential diagnosis with rupture of a circumflex or dorsal vein of the penis or when the tunical rupture is not associated with tear of the overlying Buck’s fascia. This form of imaging is more sensitive than USS at identifying the presence of a tunical tear. The treatment of choice is immediate surgical repair, which allows preserving erectile function and minimizing corporeal fibrosis.

  11. Petroleum jelly-induced penile paraffinoma with inguinal lymphadenitis mimicking incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Sejben, Istvn; Rcz, Andrs; Svbis, Mihly; Patyi, Mrta; Cserni, Gbor

    2012-08-01

    Chronic granulomatous inflammation may develop after injecting foreign oily substances into the penis. The disorder affects mainly the site of administration, but regional lymphadenopathy or even systemic disease can occur. We present a 39-year-old man with petroleum jelly-induced penile lesion and unilateral inguinal lymphadenitis mimicking incarcerated inguinal hernia. At hernioplasty no hernial sac was found, but enlarged lymph nodes suspicious for malignancy were identified. The histopathologic findings of these nodes were consistent with mineral oil granuloma. Paraffinoma of the male genitalia can cause various clinical features posing a differential diagnostic dilemma. Regional lymphadenitis may be the main clinical characteristic. Patient's history, physical and histopathological examination are required to establish the diagnosis. PMID:23093564

  12. Early history of inflatable penile prosthesis surgery: a view from someone who was there

    David F Mobley

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the use of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP in 1973 by Dr. FB Scott. changed the world of treatment options for erectile dysfunction (ED. Much has been written since then about techniques, improvements, management of difficult cases, complications and their management, and mechanical and device changes over time. Few reports, if any, are available in the medical literature regarding the early development, surgical techniques, and controversies surrounding its introduction to the world's urological community. This article is, for the most part, the observations of one who was "there" in the early and mid-1970's and was a witness to the history of this remarkable marvel of creativity, engineering, design, and to the personalities involved.

  13. Standardization of Penile Plethysmography Testing in Assessment of Problematic Sexual Interests.

    Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Fedoroff, J Paul; Stewart, Hannah; Dwyer, R Gregg; Burke, William

    2015-09-01

    Penile plethysmography (PPG) is an objective measure of sexual arousal for men, commonly used to assess sexual arousal to both abnormal (i.e., paraphilic) and normal stimuli. While PPG has become a standard measure in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic interests in both Canada and the United States, there is a lack of standardization of stimulus sets and interpretation of results between sites. The current article critically reviews the current state of the art while highlighting clinical and research efforts that may be undertaken in an attempt to reduce issues arising from lack of standardization across sites. Types and themes of stimulus sets, assessment apparatuses, laboratory preparation, and testing procedures are discussed. The continued development of standardized testing protocol and procedures across multiple international sites continues to be encouraged to promote unified PPG administration and interpretation, thus further enhancing the practical utility of the measurements and decreasing inter-rater discrepancies and error. PMID:26350584

  14. Clinical significance of subclavian artery angiography in arterial embolization for hemoptysis

    Objective: To study the subclavian artery angiography for hemoptysis and its clinical value. Methods: Thirty-eight cases of hemoptysis undertook subclavian artery angiography after embolization of bronchial arteries and branches of thoracic aorta. Group A: 4 recurrent cases underwent subclavian artery angiography (unilateral: n=2, bilateral: n=2). Group B: 16 cases underwent subclavian artery angiography according to the manifestation on X-ray and CT (right: n=10, left:n=6). Group C: 18 cases underwent bilateral subclavian artery angiography. Results of subclavian artery angiography were divided into three classes: normal (-), chaotic and hyperplasia of small branchi vessels (+), obviously bleeding (++). Some of the obviously bleeding cases were embolized and analysed for clinical efficacy and complications. Results: Bleeding cases accounted for 63.2%(24/38) and bleeding subclavian arteries accounted for 50%(29/58), including (++): 37.9% (22/58) and (+): 12.1%(7/58). Positive rate of chronic fibro-cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis was the highest. Bleeding sites were coincided with lung lesions. Twelve cases were embolized with the immediate cessation rate of hemoptysis reaching 100%. Eight cases with long-term follow-up showed 5 cured, 1 with significant effect and 2 recurrent. The complications occurred with fever, vomiting, chest pain, hiccup and dyspnoea. Conclusions: Subclavian artery angiography has important clinical value in artery embolization for hemoptysis, especially for lesions in the upper lobes of lungs and with more fruitful result for chronic fibro-cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis. (authors)

  15. [Surgical correction of penile deviation. Nesbit vs. Schroeder-Essed method].

    Brake, M; Keller, H; Lamadé, F; Groh, R; Horsch, R

    1999-05-01

    60 patients with a marked penile deviation [40 because of a congenital penile deviation (CPD) and 20 as a result of the Peyronie's disease] were questioned about the result of the operation by means of a questionnaire in a retrospective study with an average follow-up of 45 month. The Nesbit procedure had been used with 49 of these 60 patients, the modified Schroeder-Essed technique had been used with 11 patients. There were 15 patients (25%) in all, who suffered a relapse. In spite of the continual use of non-absorbable suture material with the Schroeder-Essed technique, the number of relapses was in this group plainly higher than in the Nesbit group (55% and 18% respectively). In our opinion this is caused by the insufficient tensile strength of pure plications. Regardless of the operating method, patients suffering from IPP showed a higher number of relapses than patients having a CPD (35% and 20% respectively). The reason for this might be the fact that one can never rule out completely the possibility of a further progress of the disease. 71% of the patients in the Nesbit group were satisfied with the results of the operation, in the Schroeder-Essed group there were only 36%. Irrespective of the operating method, IPP patients complained moreoften about late complications and erection problems after the operation and were more rarely satisfied with the result than patients with a CPD (50% and 73% respectively). We put this down to the fact that patients with a CPD and patients suffering from IPP represent very different collectives as far as age structure and morbidity are concerned. IPP patients frequently have erection problems even before the operation. Especially with IPP patients, preoperative erectile disfunction must be excluded, in the case of their occurrence there are to prefer other programmes of therapy. PMID:10407986

  16. Epidemiological study of penile cancer in Pernambuco: experience of two reference centers

    Thiago Costa do, Couto; Rodrigo Medeiros Barbosa, Arruda; Moiss Costa do, Couto; Felipe Dubourcq, Barros.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate and analyze the epidemiological profile of penile cancer in the state of Pernambuco and compare this information with other studies related to the issue. Material and Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational and descri [...] ptive study of all patients with penile cancer in two reference centers in Pernambuco - Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. The variables studied were: age, region from the state, socio-economic situation, previous postectomy, smoking, time from the beginning of injury to diagnosis, staging of the primary lesion, tumor differentiation, treatment performed and death due to cancer. Results The total number of patients was 88. The highest prevalence was seen in those aged between 66 and 75 years. About the socio-economic situation, 67% worked informally and 64.8% received up to two minimum wages. Of all patients, 57% were married and 50% illiterate. The Metropolitan Region of Recife was the one with the highest number of cases, 41%. Tobacco smoking was reported in 48.9% of cases and prior postectomy in 3.4%. Most often it was observed an average period of six months from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis. And when the lesion was diagnosed, it usually had 2 to 5 cm (64.7%), stage T2 in 50% and well differentiated in 79.6%. Partial penectomy was performed in 76.1% and total in 17%. Death was observed in 27.3%. Conclusion The clinical profile and epidemiological characteristics found in this study are similar to other national and international studies related to the issue, i.e., typical of underdeveloped or developing countries.

  17. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review.

    Majzoub, Ahmad A; Canguven, Onder; Raidh, Talib A

    2015-01-01

    Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ± 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%), 83 (5%) patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture. PMID:26229311

  18. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review

    Ahmad A Majzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ΁ standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ΁ 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%, 83 (5% patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture.

  19. AB023. Penile rehabilitation with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in men after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Post-radical prostatectomy (RP) erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a challenge for the urologist. Despite the improvements in surgical technique, ED occurs between 20% and 90% in patients treated with bilateral nerve-sparing RP. Patient factors, cancer selection, type of surgery, surgical techniques, and surgeon factors represent the key significant contributors to erectile function recovery. The aim of a penile rehabilitation program is to preserve the functional smooth-muscle content of the corpus cavernosum during the neuropraxia period. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are commonly used in rehabilitation programs. In animal models, such an approach could promote erectile function recovery, improve smooth muscle-to-collagen penile ration, reduce penile apoptotic index, preserve penile endothelial function and promote neuroprotection during nerve damage. Despite the strong basic science support from animal studies, discordant results have been reached in humans. The previous randomized trials comparing chronic versus on-demand PDE-5 inhibitors use after RP may be affected by improper patients’ selection in that only men at low risk of postoperative ED were included. These patients would recover erectile function regardless of the type of PDE5 inhibitor administration because of their excellent baseline profile. Prospective, randomized trials have shown a significant benefit of daily PDE5-I administration as compared with placebo in terms of postoperative EF recovery. Patients with intermediate risk of ED after surgery are the best candidates for daily treatment with PDE5 inhibitor after bilateral nerve-sparing RP. The maximal effect of penile rehabilitation may be found in those men with a certain (but not high) degree of systemic and erectile impairment preoperatively. In conclusion, penile rehabilitation could achieve faster and better natural erectile function after RP and should be started as early as possible. Chronic use of PDE5-I may confer the maximal gain as compared to the on-demand administration schedule. Attention should be pained to the observation that rehabilitation protocols are beneficial even in men with spontaneous erections postoperatively because further improvement in such patients was reported.

  20. Penile Trauma

    ... What is Urology? The Urinary Tract System Free Patient Education Materials We provide free patient education materials on ... be ejaculated into the vagina. Share Causes Advertisement Patient Education Materials We provide free patient education materials on ...

  1. Arterial structure and function in vascular ageing: are you as old as your arteries?

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Carter, Sophie E; Green, Daniel J

    2016-04-15

    Advancing age may be the most potent independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, a relationship that is not fully explained by time-related changes in traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Since some arteries exhibit differential susceptibility to atherosclerosis, generalisations regarding the impact of ageing in humans may be overly simplistic, whereas in vivo assessment of arterial function and health provide direct insight. Coronary and peripheral (conduit, resistance and skin) arteries demonstrate a gradual, age-related impairment in vascular function that is likely to be related to a reduction in endothelium-derived nitric oxide bioavailability and/or increased production of vasoconstrictors (e.g. endothelin-1). Increased exposure and impaired ability for defence mechanisms to resist oxidative stress and inflammation, but also cellular senescence processes, may contribute to age-related changes in vascular function and health. Arteries also undergo structural changes as they age. Gradual thickening of the arterial wall, changes in wall content (i.e. less elastin, advanced glycation end-products) and increase in conduit artery diameter are observed with older age and occur similarly in central and peripheral arteries. These changes in structure have important interactive effects on artery function, with increases in small and large arterial stiffness representing a characteristic change with older age. Importantly, direct measures of arterial function and structure predict future cardiovascular events, independent of age or other cardiovascular risk factors. Taken together, and given the differential susceptibility of arteries to atherosclerosis in humans, direct measurement of arterial function and health may help to distinguish between biological and chronological age-related change in arterial health in humans. PMID:26140618

  2. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    Gebhart, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon and potentially fatal cause of small bowel obstruction where the third portion of the duodenum is compressed between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. This is most frequently seen after sudden and significant weight loss, but other etiologies can also cause this duodenal compression. This syndrome can lead to food aversion, poor intake, and weight loss that exacerbate symptoms in a vicious cycle. SMA syndrome is often a diagnosis of exclusion due to nonspecific symptoms, including abdominal pain and distention, feelings of fullness after meals, and bilious emesis. Diagnosis may be assisted with radiography, tomography, endoscopy, and ultrasound imaging. Once SMA syndrome is identified, treatment is directed toward symptom management and nutritional support. If conservative measures fail, symptoms are severe, or the duodenum is compromised, several effective surgical procedures are routinely considered. This article provides an overview of SMA syndrome including history, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic testing, medical and surgical treatment, and implications for nursing staff. PMID:26035775

  3. Application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the rehabilitation of patients after surgical correction of the penile urethral strictures

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to examine the impact and justify the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the complex rehabilitation of patients after surgery for penile urethral strictures. Material and Methods. A group of 37 patients were examined who underwent various reconstructive operations on the urethra, 16 of which in the postoperative period in addition to conventional therapy conducted hyperbaric oxygenation. Results. It is shown that the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the early postoperative period in patients undergoing replacement plastic of urethra can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications, and reduced the time of urethral drainage. Conclusion. An integrated approach with the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the rehabilitation of patients undergoing extended replacement plastic of penile urethral strictures, reduces the amount of potential effect-dependent postoperative complications, which generally leads to shorter hospital stay after surgical treatment.

  4. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Penile Block, Caudal Block and Intravenous Paracetamol for Circumcision: A prospective Randomized Study

    Ahmet Hakan, Haliloglu; Mehmet Ilker, Gokce; Semih, Tangal; Mehmet Salih, Boga; Hakan, Tapar; Ebru, Aladag.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of penile block, caudal block and intravenous paracetamol administration following circumcision. Materials and Methods In this prospective randomized study a total of 159 patients underwent circumcision under general anesthesia at urology c [...] linic of Ufuk University Faculty of Medicine and Sorgun State Hospital between May 2012 and September 2012. The patients were randomized to three groups to receive penile block (Group 1), caudal block (Group 2) and intravenous paracetamol administration (group 3). Pain measurement of the patients was done via CHEOPS scoring system at 30,60,120 and 180 minutes postoperatively and compared. Statistical tests were performed with a conventional statistics program and statistical significance was set at a p value of

  5. Dual Implantation of Artificial Urinary Sphincter and Inflatable Penile Prostheses for Concurrent Male Urinary Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction

    Al-Shaiji, Tariq F.

    2011-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence secondary to sphincter dysfunction are common conditions affecting many men worldwide with a negative effect on quality of life. They are encountered in a number of etiologies most commonly following radical prostatectomy in which they coexist in the same patient. Implantations of an artificial urinary sphincter and inflatable penile prosthesis have proven to be effective in the treatment of both conditions should conservative and minimally invasi...

  6. Sex-related penile fracture with complete urethral rupture: A case report and review of the literature

    Marco Garofalo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the management of a patient with partial disruption of both cavernosal bodies and complete urethral rupture and to propose a non-systematic review of literature about complete urethral rupture. Material and method - Case report: A 46 years old man presented to our emergency department after a blunt injury of the penis during sexual intercourse. On physical examination there was subcutaneous hematoma extending over the proximal penile shaft with a dorsal-left sided deviation of the penis and urethral bleeding. Ultrasound investigation showed an hematoma in the ventral shaft of the penis with a discontinuity of the tunica albuginea of the right cavernosal corporum. The patient underwent immediate emergency surgery consisted on evacuation of the hematoma, reparation the partial defect of both two cavernosal bodies and end to end suture of the urethra that resulted completely disrupted. Results: The urethral catheter was removed at the 12-th postoperative day without voiding symptoms after a retrograde urethrography. 6 months postoperatively the patients was evaluated with uroflowmetry demonstrating a max flow rate of 22 ml/s and optimal functional outcomes evaluated with validated questionnaires. 8 months after surgery the patients was evaluated by dynamic magnetic resonance (MRI of the penis showing only a little curvature on the left side of the penile shaft. Conclusion: Penile fracture is an extremely uncommon urologic injury with approximately 1331 reported cases in the literature till the years 2001. To best of our knowledge from 2001 up today, 1839 more cases have been reported, only in 159 of them anterior urethral rupture was associated and in only 22 cases a complete urethral rupture was described. In our opinion, in order to prevent long term complications, in case of clinical suspicion of penile fracture, especially if it is associated to urethral disruption, emergency surgery should be the first choice of treatment.

  7. The pericyte as a cellular regulator of penile erection and a novel therapeutic target for erectile dysfunction

    Guo Nan Yin; Nando Dulal Das; Min Ji Choi; Kang-Moon Song; Mi-Hye Kwon; Jiyeon Ock; Anita Limanjaya; Kalyan Ghatak; Woo Jean Kim; Jae Seog Hyun; Gou Young Koh; Ji-Kan Ryu; Jun-Kyu Suh

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are known to play critical roles in vascular development and homeostasis. However, the distribution of cavernous pericytes and their roles in penile erection is unclear. Herein we report that the pericytes are abundantly distributed in microvessels of the subtunical area and dorsal nerve bundle of mice, followed by dorsal vein and cavernous sinusoids. We further confirmed the presence of pericytes in human corpus cavernosum tissue and successfully isolated pericytes from mouse penis...

  8. Predictive factors for erectile dysfunction in men with prostate cancer after brachytherapy: Is dose to the penile bulb important?

    Purpose: To determine predictive factors for postimplant erectile dysfunction (ED) in a cohort of patients, according to prospectively collected data; specifically, to assess the impact of penile bulb volume and D50 and D95 (dose covering 50% and 95% of the penile bulb volume, respectively) on ED. Methods and Materials: Three hundred forty-two patients were identified who were potent before implant and who had at least 2 years' follow-up. Patient, tumor, treatment, and dosimetric data were collected on all patients. Postimplant ED was defined according to both physician-documented and patient-documented outcome data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to create multivariable models of predictors for ED at 1, 2, and 3 years after implant. Results: Physician-documented rates of ED were 57%, 48%, and 38% at 1, 2, and 3 years after implant, respectively. Patient-documented rates of ED were 70% and 66% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed age and degree of preimplant erectile function to be consistently significant predictors of ED. Use of hormones was significant at the 1-year physician-documented ED endpoint but not thereafter, in keeping with the time course of testosterone recovery. Penile bulb volume, D50, and D95 were not found to be predictive for ED at any time point, in contrast to previous studies. In addition, planning ultrasound target volume, number of needles, and institutional case sequence number were significant predictors of ED at various time points, consistent with a traumatic etiology of ED. Conclusions: We found no evidence to support penile bulb dosimetry as an independent predictive factor for ED after implant, using physician-documented or patient-documented outcomes

  9. A Two-Stage Buccal Mucosal Graft (BMG) for Managing Recurrent Proximal Penile Hypospadias in Pediatric & Adolescent Populations

    M. G. Elsheikh; A. Fayad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of a recurrent proximal penile hypospadius represents a surgical challenge to the urologist due to the presence of excessive scarring and fibrosis of the tissues. This problem is more pronounced in circumcised patients, in whom there is no enough skin for one stage procedures. Buccal mucosal grafts represent a good surgical option. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of two stages buccal mucosal urethroplasty in pediatric & adolescent patients, pre...

  10. CO2 laser ablation of external genital lesions with a SwiftLase flashscanner: treatment of extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva, penile condylomata, and other lesions

    Sacknoff, Eric J.; Schweitzer, Jay; Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.

    1995-05-01

    The ability to vaporize extremely thin layers of epithelial tissue without any char and with minimal thermal necrosis is extremely advantageous in the treatment of superficial lesions of the external genitalia. We present a novel CO2 laser `SwiftLase' flashscan technology capable of providing char free ablation of 3 mm diameter lesions with only 150 micron residual thermal necrosis depth at power level as low as 10 watts. These power levels are achievable with a small transportable CO2 laser. The SwiftLaser is a miniature opto- mechanical scanner which homogeneously covers a 3 mm diameter surface with a 0.1 mm spot size focused beam within 0.1 seconds. The instantaneous beam's dwelling time is 1 millisecond. The instantaneous power density level at the focal point is higher than the threshold for char free ablation, thus providing a large char free ablation crater. Since depth of each ablated layer is 0.1 mm, the depth of treatment can be precisely controlled. The SwiftLaser technology has extensively and successfully been used in the last two years for the treatment of HPV in female lower tracts (Vulvectomy). The same technique may be performed with extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva, penile condylomata, and other epithelial disorders of the external genitalia without damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Technique and clinical results will be discussed.

  11. The application of a penile block before circumcision: effects on the postoperative FLACC score and analgesic requirement

    Sacit Nuri Grgel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effect of the application of a penile block before circumcision on the postoperative Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC score and the analgesic requirement.Material and methods: In this study, 240 patients were included, age range 1 to 9 years, between April 2012 and August 2012. A penile block was performed in 125 of the 240 patients (Group 1 and was not performed in 115 of the 240 patients (Group 2. Both groups were compared in terms of age, operation times, FLACC score and analgesic requirement.Results: The mean age of the patients was 4.82.1 years in Group 1 and 5.33.1 years in group 2 (p=0.126. The mean operation time was 14.95.1 min in Group 1 and 15.26.2 min in Group 2 (p=0.242. The mean FLACC score of the patients was 3.11.9 (0-6 in group 1 and 6.43.3 (3-10 in group 2 (p<0.05. There was a postoperative analgesic requirement in 20 patients (16% of Group 1 and 75 patients (65% of Group 2. Early complications were not observed in any patients.Conclusion: We detected a significantly lower postoperative analgesic requirement and a mean FLACC score in patients with the application of a penile block before circumcision.

  12. Uptake of 3H-choline and synthesis of 3H-acetylcholine by human penile corpus cavernosum

    The neuroeffectors which relax penile smooth muscle and lead to erection are unknown; physiological studies of human corpus cavernosum, in vitro, have suggested a significant role of cholinergic neurotransmission. To further characterize the importance of cholinergic nerves, biopsies of human corpus cavernosum were obtained at the time of penile prosthesis implantation. Tissues were incubated in 3H-choline (10-5M, 80 Ci/mmol) in oxygenated physiological salt solution at 370C, pH 7.4 for 1 hour. Radiolabelled compounds were extracted with perchloric acid (0.4 M) and acetylcholine and choline were separated by HPLC; 14C-acetylcholine was used as internal standard. 3H-choline was accumulated by the tissues (20 +/- 1.9 fmol/mg), and 3H-acetylcholine was synthesized (4.0 +/- 1.1 fmol/mg). In control experiments, heating of the tissue blocked synthesis of 3H-acetylcholine. Inhibition of high affinity choline transport by hemicholinium-3 (10-5M) diminished tissue accumulation of 3H-choline and significantly reduced the synthesis of 3H-acetylcholine (0.5 +/ 0.2 fmol/mg, p < 0.05). These results provide direct evidence of neuronal accumulation of choline and enzymatic conversion to acetylcholine in human corpus cavernosum. Taken together with the physiological studies, it can be concluded that cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum plays a role in penile erection

  13. Radial Artery Catheterization

    ... Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Radial Artery Catheterization Nicholas R. Balaji , MD ; Pinak B. Shah , MD ... Previous Section Next Section Advantages of Radial Artery Catheterization Any catheter placement into a blood vessel is ...

  14. Spiral CT angiography (SCTA) study of celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery

    Objective: To study the visualization capability and scanning technique of SCTA in celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and other branches. Methods: Thirty patients, with normal abdominal SCTA results, were given small injection test dose after plain scan. The abdominal aorta parallel to the body of pancreas was chosen as target vessel, the peak-time plus 2 seconds as the best delay scan time. Iodine contrast medium 90∼110 ml was injected into antecubital vein at the speed of 3.5 ml/s, then scan from cranial to caudal was performed. Pitch 1.0 and slice thickness 3.2 mm were selected as the scan parameters. Maximum intensity projection (MaxIP) was employed in all patients and shaded surface display (SSD) in 23 cases. Results: The display rate using MaxIP and SSD of celiac artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery, proper hepatic artery and SMA were all 100%, the gastroduodenal artery 100% and 91%, the left gastric artery 83% and 87%, respectively. Conclusions: SCTA as a minimally invasive examination is a valuable method to detect and diagnose disease or variations of celiac artery, its branches and SMA. Spiral scanning technique and image processing have a decisive effect on the image quality

  15. Upper limb arterial thromboembolism

    Andersen, L V; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Lindholt, J S; Frost, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on risk factors, risk-modifying drugs and prognosis for upper limb arterial thromboembolism, and the relationship between upper limb arterial thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation (AF).......The aim of this review is to focus on risk factors, risk-modifying drugs and prognosis for upper limb arterial thromboembolism, and the relationship between upper limb arterial thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation (AF)....

  16. Remodelling of the microarchitecture of resistance arteries in cardiovascular diseases

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Leurgans, Thomas; Jensen, Pia Søndergaard; Bagatolli, Luis; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; De Mey, Jo

    Small resistance artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension [1, 2] and diabetes (types I and II) [3, 4]. In particular, the media-to-lumen ratio (M:L) is predictive of cardiovascular events. The exact nature of this resistance artery remodeling...... tissue in comparison to other well-studied microvascular beds (e.g. rat mesentery). In the future we aim to compare the microarchitecture of small resistance arteries from parietal pericardial biopsies between patients with and without (treated) hypertension, diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease. 1....... Buus, N.H., et al., Small artery structure during antihypertensive therapy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension. J Hypertens, 2013. 31(4): p. 791-7. 2. Mathiassen, O.N., et al., Small artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in...

  17. Vertebral artery aneurysms.

    Ravi Kumar C

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral artery (VA aneurysms are rare. We present our experience with three cases of VA aneurysms. Two aneurysms were located close to the origin of basilar artery while the third patient had a giant posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. These aneurysms were operated by the far lateral inferior suboccipital approach with good results.

  18. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    ... location of the heart. Figure B shows how vein and artery bypass grafts are attached to the heart. Overview CABG is ... if blockages form in the grafted arteries or veins or in arteries that weren't blocked before. Taking medicines and making ... NEXT >> Updated: February ...

  19. Use of chitosan and polypropylene for the surgical correction of penile deviation in bulls: clinical and histological aspects Uso de chitosan y polipropileno en la corrección quirúrgica de la desviación del pene en toros: aspectos clínicos e histológicos

    RR Rabelo; LAB Brito; AP Rodrigues; AM Moraes; Damasceno, A; VAS Vulcani; LAF Silva; CRO Lima

    2012-01-01

    Problems in the reproductive tract may result in difficulty or inability to copulate. Premature penile deviation is an important cause of impotency in male bovines. The aim of the study was to perform clinical and histological evaluation of the correction of surgically induced penile deviation in bulls by fixing the penile apical ligament in the tunica albuginea using synthetic or biological implants. Twenty-one animals with normal penile conformation were subjected to surgical induction of p...

  20. Patient’s satisfaction after 2-piece inflatable penile prosthesis implantation: An Italian multicentric study

    Giorgio Gentile

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penile prosthesis implant represents a valuable solution for pts with severe erectile dysfunction (ED, non-responders to medical management. The aim of our study was to evaluate the satisfaction of patients (pts after 2-pieces inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP. Aim of the study: to evaluate safety, reliability and post-operative patient’s satisfaction after implantation of two-pieces IPP. Materials and Methods: This retrospective multicentric analysis concerns a group of 42 patients undergone 2-pieces IPP implantation from November 2005 to November 2013, in four Centers of proven experience. As a first step, a detailed review of all clinical reports was performed. Secondly, every patient was asked to fill the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS specifically modified, in order to assess their own satisfaction after surgery and, its impact on patient’s quality of sexual life. Results: 42 pts were evaluated (AMS-Ambicor: 28; Coloplast- Excell: 14; mean age, at time of operation: 60,7 years; mean follow up: 27,6 months; etiology of ED: vascular 23,8%, diabetes 19%, La Peyronie D. 7,1%, consequence of radical prostatectomy 31%, consequence of other pelvic surgery 11,9%, spinal trauma 7%. Mean operative time: 117 ± 58 min, mean postoperative hospital stay 3 ± 1,6 days. Post operative short-term complications: 4 pts (9,5%. Post operative long-term complications: 4 pts (9,5%. Long-term functional results (Questionnaire: 71% of pts (30 reported regular use of the prosthesis, at least 1 time/week, the satisfaction was good in 42% of pts (18, quite good in 33,3% (14, quite bad in 2,4% (1, very bad in 7,1% (3, 6 pts (14,4% didn’t answer. Conclusions: 2 pieces IPP appears to be associated with a low complication rate and good satisfaction of pts especially in the elderly. It also assures satisfactory rates of aesthetics and functional results.

  1. Arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis

    Møller, S; Hillingsø, Jens; Christensen, E; Henriksen, J H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although low arterial oxygen tension (Po2) has been claimed to occur in one to two thirds of patients with cirrhosis, hypoxaemia appears to be rare in clinical practice. AIMS: To assess the frequency of arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis in relation to clinical and haemodynamic...... vascular resistance, and a low indocyanine green clearance (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis is about 22% in patients without encephalopathy, but it varies from 10-40% depending on the degree of hepatic dysfunction. Arterial hypoxaemia in patients with cirrhosis...... of differing severity seems lower than previously reported, and patients with severe arterial hypoxaemia are rare....

  2. Jet pump assisted artery

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  3. Avaliao das medidas do comprimento peniano de crianas e adolescentes Penile anthropometry in Brazilian child and adolescent

    Pedro N. Gabrich

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Classicamente, o pnis tem duas funes: permitir a fertilizao interna e direcionar o jato miccional. Entretanto, alteraes objetivas do tamanho peniano podem levar ao diagnstico de doenas. Alm disso, motivo comum de consulta mdica a busca por parmetros de normalidade do tamanho do pnis. Contudo, a antropometria do pnis da criana e do adolescente brasileiros ainda no foi devidamente estudada. O objetivo do estudo realizar a antropometria do pnis de crianas e adolescentes brasileiros, estabelecendo referncias para aplicao clnica. MTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, envolvendo 2.010 pacientes com idades variando entre 0 e 18 anos. Foram obtidas cinco medidas penianas: dimetro da haste peniana; comprimento aparente e real do pnis flcido; comprimento aparente e real (CRTmax do pnis flcido sob trao mxima. O desenvolvimento puberal foi caracterizado pelos critrios de Tanner. RESULTADOS: De todas as medidas penianas, o CRTmax foi a nica que no apresentou variao significativa interpesquisador em todas as faixas etrias analisadas (p = 0,255. Os resultados foram distribudos em tabelas com a mdia do CRTmax e os valores do que se considera micropnis (mdia - 2,5 desvio padro de acordo com as diferentes faixas etrias e com os diferentes graus de maturao sexual de Tanner. Foi desenvolvido um grfico com a distribuio dos valores do CRTmax distribudo por percentis 10, 25, 50, 75 e 90 por faixa etria. CONCLUSES: De todas as medidas antropomtricas penianas, o CRTmax a nica clinicamente til. Recomendamos nossos resultados como referncia de antropometria peniana para crianas e adolescentes brasileiros.OBJECTIVE: Classically, the penis has two functions: to make internal fertilization possible and to direct the urine stream. However, objective abnormalities in penis size can lead to diseases being diagnosed. Furthermore, many medical consultations are the result of patients seeking parameters for normal penis size. Additionally, the penile anthropometry of Brazilian children and adolescents has not yet been properly studied. The objective of this study is to carry out penile anthropometry of Brazilian children and adolescents, establishing references for clinical use. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out of 2,010 patients with ages varying from 0 to 18 years. Five penile measurements were taken: diameter of penile shaft; apparent and real length of flaccid penis; apparent and real (RSLmax length of flaccid penis fully stretched. Pubertal development was defined according to Tanner's criteria. RESULTS: Only RSLmax, out of all of the penile measurements, did not exhibit significant interobserver variation at all ages analyzed (p = 0.255. Results were tabulated with mean RSLmax and the values that define micropenis (mean - 2.5 standard deviations by age and by Tanner sexual maturity stages. A graph was plotted of the distribution of RSLmax results by the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles and by age. CONCLUSIONS: Out of all of the penile anthropometric measurements, only RSLmax is clinically useful. We recommend our results as a reference standard for penile anthropometry of Brazilian children and adolescents.

  4. ROLE OF IN VIVOVASCULAR REDOX IN RESISTANCE ARTERIES

    Hilgers, Rob H. P.; Das, Kumuda C

    2014-01-01

    Vascular thiol redox state has been shown to modulate vasodilator functions in large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels and other related channels. However, the role of vascular redox in small resistance arteries is unknown. To determine how in vivo modulation of thiol redox state impacts small resistance arteries relaxation we generated a transgenic mouse strain that overexpress thioredoxin (Trx), a small redox protein (Trx-Tg) and another strain that is Trx-deficient (dnTrx-Tg). The red...

  5. Priapism as the initial symptom of primary penile lymphoma: A case report.

    Gong, Zhaohua; Zhang, Ying; Chu, Hongjin; Lian, Peiwen; Zhang, Liangming; Sun, Ping; Chen, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Primary penile lymphoma presenting with priapism as the initial symptom is extremely rare. In total, <10 cases have been previously reported. The diagnosis can be difficult and patients often develop metastasis. The current study reports the case of a 48-year-old male, who presented with a one-month history of painless priapism. On admission to Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University (Yantai, China), examination revealed an erect penis, enlarged lymph nodes in the bilateral inguinal and swelling in the thighs. A biopsy was taken from the right inguinal lymph node and the pathological diagnosis confirmed a diffuse large B-cell type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while an enhanced computed tomography scan of the chest revealed evidence of the invasion of malignant lymphoma cells. Priapism disappeared two days following the completion of the first cycle of chemotherapy with the E-CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, epirubicin and etoposide); however, evidence of brain metastases was observed one month later, which was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient received cranial radiotheraphy and systemic treatment for cerebral edema. The patient did not respond well to treatment and succumbed to the disease three months following the initial diagnosis of lymphoma. Lymphoma may be difficult to diagnose, depending on the initial symptoms; therefore, the patient history must be carefully assessed so as to determine an early diagnosis and prevent metastasis, thus improving the prognostic outcome. PMID:25289080

  6. Urethral advancement technique for repair of distal penile hypospadias: A revisit

    Awad Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous ingenious methods have been described to repair hypospadias with variable results. The anterior urethral advancement technique reported by Chang[1] to repair distal hypospadias has shown encouraging results. We have reevaluated this technique with some modifications to improve its results. Materials and Methods: This study was done on 72 patients, 19 cases with glanular hypospadias, 20 cases with coronal hypospadias, 22 cases of subcoronal hypospadias,and 11 cases with anterior penile hypospadias in the period between September 1999 and October 2003. The patients′ age ranged from two years to twenty five years (median age 5.6 years. All the patients were operated using Chang′s technique with our modifications. Results: There were no major complications in any of our patients, no postoperative fistulae or urethral stricture. Three patients had meatal stenosis and preputial edema occurred in 83.3% in non-circumcised patients. Conclusion: Modifications of the anterior advancement technique has produced excellent Results. It is easy to do and learn and also offers good cosmetic and functional results.

  7. Glandectomy with preservation of corpora cavernosa in the treatment of penile carcinoma

    Fonseca Aluizio G. da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work is to describe a conservative surgical technique as an alternative to classic penile amputations, aiming the local control of the disease, in addition to trying to preserve the patient's sexual function. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: After a circular incision of the skin around the penis, the subfascial plane is developed until the base of the organ. The dorsal neurovascular bundle and the urethra are isolated in their distal extremities. The neurovascular bundle is sectioned distally. A retrocoronal dissection plane is developed between the glans and the corpora cavernosa. When this stage is complete, the glans is fixed only to the urethra, which is distally sectioned as well. The neurovascular bundle is fixed to the dorsal albuginea. Following the spatulation of the urethra, a neomeatus is created using the overlay skin of the penis. Between January 2001 and July 2002, we employed this technique in 6 patients who had epidermoid carcinoma of the penis, which were limited to the glans, superficial, well or moderately differentiated and measuring up to 3 cm. COMMENTS: Several conservative surgical methods for treatment of carcinoma of the penis aim the organ's preservation, in an attempt of improving the quality of life of patients, however the indexes of local recurrence and failure in disease control are significant. The described technique showed to be safe and effective for disease control, in addition to preserving sexual function in all patients who were treated, representing, thus, a quite appealing conservative surgical alternative in selected cases.

  8. Study of the response of the penile corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles to micturition

    El Sibai Olfat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reaction of the corpora cavernosa (CC, the corpus spongiosum (CS, the bulbocavernosus (BCM and ischiocavernosus (ICM muscles to passage of urine through the urethra during micturition is not known. We investigated the hypothesis that the passage of urine through the urethra stimulates the corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles. Methods In 30 healthy men (mean age 42.8 ± 11.7 years, the electromyographic activity (EMG of the CC, CS, BCM, and ICM were recorded before and during micturition, and on interruption of and straining during micturition. These tests were repeated after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue, and cavernosus muscles. Results During micturition, the slow wave variables (frequency, amplitude, conduction velocity of the CC and CS decreased while the motor unit action potentials of the BCM and ICM increased; these EMG changes were mild and returned to the basal values on interruption or termination of micturition. Micturition after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue and cavernosal muscles did not effect significant EMG changes in these structures, while saline administration produced changes similar to those occurring before saline administration. Conclusion The decrease of sinusoidal and increase of cavernosus muscles' EMG activity during micturition apparently denotes sinusoidal relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction. Sinusoidal muscle relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction upon micturition are suggested to be mediated through a 'urethro-corporocavernosal reflex'. These sinusoidal and cavernosus muscle changes appear to produce a mild degree of penile tumescence and stretch which might assist in urinary flow during micturition.

  9. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  10. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  11. IA-DSA using brachial artery

    It is proved to be advantageous that (trans-brachial DSA) TB-DSA can perform in the outpatient cases and further more, an excellent image quality can be obtained even in a small amount of contrast medium use. From a review of 113 TB-DSA studies in 108 cases, 38 cases of which are the out-patients, the distinctive feature is summarized as follows. 1) TB-DSA can demonstrate excellently the posterior fossa lesions by the selective vertebral artery injection if a catheter-tip is placed in the subclavian artery. 2) TB-DSA can also produce excellent demonstration of the vascular disease in the kidneys, the pelvic cavity or the lower legs by the abdominal aorta injection if a catheter is advanced to just above the renal arteries through the thoracic aorta. This procedure should not be indicated in the case of dissecting aortic aneurysm and occlusion or severe stenosis of the bilateral subclavian artery. (author)

  12. Hepatic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy

    Tuchmann, A.; Schller, J.; Kroiss, A.; Dinstl, K.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic artery chemotherapy was given to 36 patients, using totally implantable devices consisting of a port and external pump. Twenty-seven patients had inoperable liver metastases of colorectal origin. The infusion system was inserted by laparotomy into the hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery. There was no operative mortality. Thirteen infusion systems could not be used for chemotherapy due to dislodgement, early death and lack of follow-up. FUdR was infused every two weeks. There ...

  13. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  14. Right coronary artery aneurysm

    Luz, A; Silveira, J.; Cyrne-Carvalho, H.; Gomes, L.

    2007-01-01

    Int J Cardiol. 2007 Jan 18;114(3):e122-3. Epub 2006 Oct 16. Right coronary artery aneurysm. Luz A, Silveira J, Carvalho H, Gomes L. Abstract Coronary artery aneurysms, characterized by abnormal dilatations of a localized portion of the coronary artery, are an uncommon finding during angiography. We present a case where a giant right coronary aneurysm was detected during angiography, in a patient admitted with a inferior wall myocardial infarction. PMID: 17049395 [PubMed - inde...

  15. A large unilateral renal artery aneurysm in a young child

    The case of a 13-month-old boy with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) presenting with a large saccular aneurysm of the left renal artery and renovascular hypertension is reported. Renal and intrarenal arteries showed numerous small aneurysms alternating with stenoses. All arterial lesions were localized to the left kidney. After left nephrectomy, the patient's blood pressure normalized. Histopathologic examination of the arteries disclosed changes typical of medial fibroplasias, the most frequently described form of FMD in children. This diagnosis is rewarding as it represents a surgically curable cause of severe hypertension. (orig.)

  16. Vessel wall MRI for suspected isolated basilar artery dissection.

    Obusez, Emmanuel C; Jones, Stephen E; Hui, Ferdinand

    2016-05-01

    Isolated basilar artery dissection is an uncommon intracranial vasculopathy with a poor prognosis. Digital subtraction angiography is considered the definitive modality for diagnosis. Vessel wall MRI (VW-MRI) is an emerging non-invasive technique for assessing the structural integrity of intracranial vessel walls and lumina. Recently, a small number of studies have described the vessel wall patterns of intracranial artery dissection. However, studies on vessel wall imaging of isolated basilar artery dissection remain limited. We describe a patient with suspected isolated spontaneous basilar artery dissection diagnosed using VW-MRI. PMID:26765755

  17. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Bronchopulmonary arterial shunting without anatomic anastomosis in the dog.

    Hyman, A L; Knight, D S; Joiner, P D; Kadowitz, P J

    1975-09-01

    The effects of bronchial arterial administration of vasoactive substances on the pulmonary circulation were studied by a new technique for selective catheterization of a bronchial artery in intact dogs. In most experiments, this technique permitted pressor agents to be distributed mainly to one lung with smaller amounts to the other lung. The intercostal arteries were avoided, and in all but 2 of 23 experiments only microscopic quantities of injected India ink could be identified in the distribution of the esophageal and mediastinal branches. These studies indicate that serotonin, angiotensin, histamine, and norepinephrine injected selectively into a bronchial artery increase lobar arterial pressure. Since blood flow was constant and left atrial pressure did not change, the increase in pressure suggests active pulmonary vasoconstriction. Additionally, the responses to bronchial and lobar arterial injections of pressor agents were similar. The contribution of bronchopulmonary shunt flow to pulmonary flow was small, since, under conditions of controlled lobar blood flow, changes in bronchial flow elicited by 65-75-mm Hg changes in bronchial arterial pressure produced little if any change in pressure in the perfused lobar artery or small vein. Bronchoconstriction contributed little to the response to bronchial administration of pressor agents, since responses were similar in the ventilated and the collapsed lobe. Injection of vasoflavine dyes into the bronchial artery showed the close proximity of bronchial and pulmonary arteries and confirmed the bronchial arterial origin of the vasa vasorum of pulmonary arteries. No vasa venorum were identified. Although no direct anatomic bronchial artery-pulmonary artery shunt was identified, ascorbic acid and 5-hydroxydopamine diffused rapidly into intrapulmonary arteries from the bronchial artery. These data suggest that the pulmonary pressor response results from passage of the vasoactive agents from the bronchial artery to the lobar artery through the vasa vasorum and by diffusion. Since no vasa venorum were found, pulmonary venoconstriction probably resulted from pressor agents reaching the veins by way of bronchopulmonary shunt flow. These results suggest a mechanism by which pressor substances present or liberated in the bronchial vascular bed can affect tone in the pulmonary vascular bed. PMID:1157218

  19. Bilateral external iliac artery catheter-induced vasospasm during angiography--a case report.

    Gallagher, Chris; Shanklin, Chris; Roonsritong, Chanwit; Halldorsson, Ari; Tsikouris, James; Meyerrose, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of catheter-induced vasospasm of small-caliber arteries during cardiac angiography is well documented. In contrast, little documentation of catheter-induced vasospasm in large-caliber arteries exists. This case presents reproducible catheter-induced vasospasm with bilateral asymptomatic occlusion of the femoral and iliac arteries. PMID:16444466

  20. Diagnostic value of double injection of vasoactive drug in penile doppler ultrasonography

    To evaluate the usefuluess of double injection of a vasoactive drug in penile Doppler ultrasonography for the diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence. Eighty-four consecutive cases(bilateral sides) of 42 patients with suspected vasculogenic impotence were included in our study. We used computed sonography(Acuson, USA), with a 7 MHz linear array transducer. After the first intracavernosal injection of the vasoactive drug(10 μg of prostagladin E1), peak systolic velocity(PSV) and end diastolic velocity(EDV) were measured three times. According to mean PSV and EDV, the patients were classified into four groups : arteriogenic impotence(AI;N=29), venogenic impotence(VI;N=28), AI associated with VI(N=14), and normal(N=13). After the second injection, PSV and EDV were remeasured, using the same method. Mean velocities of the first injection were compared with those of the second, and the paired t-test was used to analyze the results. The extent to which patients were reclassified after the second injection was noted. In all four groups, PSV measured after the second injection was siginficantly different from PSV after the first(P=0.0001, 0.0001, 0.0010, 0.0072) ; except in the normal group, EDV measured after the second injection was not different from EDV after the first(P=0.9815, 0.0654, 0.0950, 0.0057). After the second injection, the numbers of patients reclassified into other groups were as follows : AI, 11(38%) ; VI, 6(21%) ; AI associated with VI, 11(79%);normal, 1(8%). Double injection of a vasoactive drug affected PSV, and therefore, appears to be a useful adjunctive procedure for the evaluation of patients in whom classification based on the results of the first injection is difficult

  1. Influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine on penile erection in Wistar rats.

    Radosavljevic, Milovan; Pajovic, Bogdan; Radunovic, Miodrag; Radojevic, Nemanja; Bjelogrlic, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The pilot study presented was conducted to determine as to whether ergot alkaloids (alpha-adrenergic blockers) have a potential effect on penile erectile function. The influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine was studied on the erection ability in intact, two-grade outbred male Wistar albino rats that were out of their estrous phase. The experimental animals were injected intrapenially with the substances under examination: dihydroergotoxine mesylate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1 mg/0.1 mL), bromocriptine mesylate (0.3 mg/0.1 mL, 1 mg/0.1 mL, and 3 mg/0.1 mL), and ergotamine tartrate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1mg/0.1 mL). Every dose was tested on a pattern of 30 rats. These mentioned substances were injected in the amount of 1 mm to the left of the proximal part of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis, in the region of the penis root. After injection, the animals were then observed within the next 90 minutes. In the trial, the following was observed: the number of rats with an erection achieved, the period of time from intrapenial application to the appearance of the first erection, and the duration of the erection. Ultimately, the research results confirm the efficiency of dihydroergotoxine and bromocriptine as erectogenic agents, as well as ergotamine as a detumescent compared with saline solutions. PMID:22441761

  2. Extracorporeal transient distal penile corporoglanular shunt in early ischemic priapism treatment

    Onder, Canguven; Raidh A., Talib.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Ischemic priapism, which is a compartment syndrome, needs urgent treatment in order to nourish corpora cavernosa. As the first step, the aspiration of blood and/or the irrigation of the cavernosal bodies are performed to prevent fibrotic activity and secure erectile capability. While perfor [...] ming aspiration and irrigation, there are some risks of the procedure in which most refrained one is cardiovascular side effects of adrenergic agonists. We aimed to evaluate extracorporeal transient distal penile corporoglanular shunt technique in place of aspiration/ irrigation techniques for early ischemic priapism treatment. Materials and Methods In this transient shunt technique, a sterile closed system blood collection set (BD Vacutainer, Cat. No.: 367282; NJ, USA), which has two 21G needles, was used. The length of the needle and tubing was 19 mm. (0.75 inch) and 178 mm. (7 inches), respectively. This blood collection set was designed to be used not only for blood collection but can also be used for short term infusions (maximum 2 hours). Results Ten patients out of fifteen with early ischemic priapism were successfully treated with this transient shunt technique. The permanent detumescence achieved in the first 10 minutes in nine out of fifteen patients. No additional procedure needed after the disappearance of rigidity in successfully treated patients. The permanent detumescence achieved in the first 10 minutes in nine out of fifteen patients. Conclusions We demonstrated that this extracorporeal transient shunt technique gets some advantages over aspiration and irrigation in early ischemic priapism treatment. Our results indicate that the presented technique to be offered for the patients with an ischemic priapism episode of no more than 7 hours.

  3. Endothelial derived hyperpolarization in renal interlobar arteries

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Charlotte M.

    In small arteries, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are connect by myoendothelial junctions (MEJ), usually extending from the EC. Ca2+ activated K+ channels (IKCa and SKCa) located in the MEJ are suggested to play a role in NO-independent endothelium derived...

  4. Distribution of mesenteric cranial artery in the small intestine of Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798 (Mammalia, Procyonidae = Comportamento da artéria mesentérica cranial no intestino delgado de mão-pelada Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798 (Mammalia, Procyonidae

    Vanessa Morais Lima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The mesenteric artery is a high caliber vessel dependent on the abdominal artery, right below the emergence of the vessels destined for the liver and stomach. The present study aimed to describe the behavior of the arterial vessel in the small intestine of the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus. The animals were collected on highways (roadkill. Cannulation of the abdominal aorta, perfusion with warmed water (40ºC and stained latex injection (Neoprene 450, Dupont do Brasil and Sulvinil stain, Glassuret S.A were performed, followed by formaldehyde fixation (10%. The dissection and photographic documents (Sony Cyber-shot, 8.1 megapixels made it possible to systemize the arteries and define the vascular patterns of the viscera. It was verified that the mesenteric cranial artery supports the entire jejune and the mesenteric portion of the ileum. Next to the mesenteric border, it becomes an anastomosis forming vascular arches from where straight arteries leave, supplying the mesenteric portion and sometimes also the jejunal antimesentericportion. The artery that irrigates the ileum comes up as a branch of the cranial mesenteric artery. Anatomic knowledge of the vascular pattern of the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus is of fundamental importance for researches regarding the arterialdistribution of the intestine considering anatomic variances.A artéria mesentérica é um vaso de grande calibre dependente da artéria aorta abdominal, imediatamente abaixo da emergência dos vasos destinados ao fígado e estômago. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever o comportamento dos vasos arteriais do intestino delgado em mão-pelada (Procyon cancrivorus. Os animais são procedentes de coleta em rodovias (mortos por acidente. Realizou-se a canulação da aorta abdominal, perfusão com água aquecida (40ºC e injeção de látex corado (Neoprene 450, Dupont do Brasil e Sulvinil Corante, Glassuret S.A, seguido de fixação em formaldeído (10%. As dissecações edocumentação fotográfica (Câmera Sony Cyber-shot, 8.1 megapixels permitiram sistematizar as artérias e definir os padrões vasculares da víscera. Verificamos que a artéria mesentérica cranial supre todo o jejuno e a face mesentérica do íleo. Próximo à borda mesentérica, anastomosa-se formando as arcadas vasculares e desta partem as artérias retas, que suprem à face mesentérica e, às vezes, a face antimesentérica do jejuno. A artéria que irriga o íleo surge como último ramo da artéria mesentérica cranial. O conhecimento anatômico do padrão vascular de mão-pelada (Procyon cancrivorus é de fundamental importância em pesquisas que se referem à distribuição arterial do intestino, levando-se em consideração as variações anatômicas.

  5. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  6. Heritability of cilioretinal arteries

    Taarnhøj, Nina Charlotte; Munch, Inger C; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Sander, Birgit; Kessel, Line; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Hougaard, Jesper L; Larsen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins were examined using digital fundus photography and visual assessment of grayscale fundus photographs and color transparencies to detect the presence of cilioretinal arteries. RESULTS: Cilioretinal arteries were present in 45.1% of participants and 28.8% of eyes. The...

  7. Embolization of pulmonary AVMs of feeding arteries less than 3 mm

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) with feeding arteries of 3 mm or more have been shown to be associated with paradoxical embolization and serious neurologic complications. Therefore it is generally recommended to occlude feeding arteries of this size, while smaller feeding arteries....... Further, it is well-known that with time PAVMs and their feeding arteries may enlarge. Also, embolization of small feeding arteries will minimize the risk of paradoxical emboli and reduce the need for CT follow-up controls in these patients. Two cases demonstrate the possibility to embolize small feeding...

  8. Robotically assisted multivessel minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of bilateral internal thoracic arteries.

    Nishida, Satoru; Yasuda, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Go; Kikuchi, Yujiro; Shintani, Yoshiko; Ito, Shigeki; Tabata, Shigeki; Kawachi, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    This case report presents the robotically assisted multivessel minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) technique using the bilateral internal thoracic arteries. A 54-year-old man with multivessel coronary artery disease was considered eligible for a robotically assisted myocardial revascularization. The bilateral internal thoracic arteries were harvested completely in a totally skeletonized fashion through three 1-2-cm-long incisions on the left thoracic wall. A small left anterior thoracotomy was then performed. The left internal thoracic artery was anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery, and the composite radial artery graft from the right internal thoracic artery was sequentially anastomosed to the first diagonal branch, the obtuse marginal branch, and the distal right coronary artery on the beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass. The harvesting time of the grafts was 66 min, and the total operative time was 5 h 58 min. Postoperative angiography revealed that all grafts were widely patent. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 10 days after the operation. Robotically assisted MIDCAB using the bilateral thoracic arteries is a safe and effective means of myocardial revascularization for patients with multivesssel disease. PMID:17721036

  9. Transcatheter arterial embolization of splenic artery aneurysms with NBCA and steel coils

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization with NBCA and steel coils for the treatment of splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs). Methods: Transcatheter arterial embolization with NBCA and steel coils was carried out in three patients with splenic aneurysms. The lesions were located at trunk of splenic artery (n=2) or at branch (n=1). After catheterization of the target artery, steel coils were implanted at the distal site of the aneurysm to obstruct the efferent artery, which was followed by the injection of NBCA-lipiodol mixture to occlude the proximal site of the aneurysm and the aneurysm as well. All the patients were followed up for 4 to 20 months and enhanced CT scanning was conducted to check the lesions. Results: The procedure was successful in all cases. No severe complications occurred. Follow-up enhanced CT scanning showed that the NBCA cast was clear and stable, the occlusion was complete and no sings of SAAs reopen could be found. Splenic infarction of small area was seen in 1 case. Conclusion: Treatment of splenic aneurysms transcatheter arterial embolization with NBCA and steel coils is a safe and effective technique. (authors)

  10. Coronary artery anomalies in adults: imaging at dual source CT coronary angiography

    Congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries have an incidence of 1%, and most of these are benign. However, a small number are associated with myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. Various imaging modalities are available for coronary artery assessment. Recently, multi-detector CT has emerged as an accurate diagnostic tool for defining coronary artery anomalies. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the dual source CT appearance of congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries in adults.

  11. Traumatic aneurysm of the callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction from penetrating injury by scissors.

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Sim, Sook Young

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) are rare and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. TICAs usually result from head injuries caused by traffic accidents, industrial accidents, or gunshots. We report a traumatic aneurysm of the callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction arising from a penetrating injury by scissors. A 51-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after suffering a penetrating injury caused by scissors. Computed tomography (CT) and CT-angiography demonstrated a right orbital roof fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, frontal lobe hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and a traumatic aneurysm of the right callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction. We trapped the traumatic aneurysm and repositioned a galeal flap. Postoperative CT showed a small infarction in the left frontal lobe. Follow-up angiography two months later showed no residual aneurysm. We suggest that an aggressive surgical intervention be performed whenever TICA is diagnosed. PMID:25024829

  12. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in pregnancy requiring emergency caesarean delivery followed by coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Weinberg, L; Ong, M; Tan, C O; McDonnell, N J; Lo, C; Chiam, E

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare and often fatal condition of pregnancy. The long-term morbidity is unknown, but a small cohort of patients develop severe ventricular dysfunction as a consequence. We describe a 37-week gestation parturient who presented with cardiogenic shock secondary to spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection. Despite rapid diagnosis, stabilisation with an intra-aortic balloon pump and prompt transfer to a tertiary centre for emergency caesarean delivery and coronary artery bypass grafting, the patient developed a severe postoperative dilated ischaemic cardiomyopathy. There is little information about the long-term outcomes and the specific anaesthesia management of combined emergency caesarean delivery and cardiac surgery in pregnancy for spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Therefore, we outline our multidisciplinary management of this critically ill pregnant woman. PMID:23530793

  13. Sexual scripting of heterosexual penile-anal intercourse amongst participants in an HIV prevention trial in South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    Duby, Zoe; Hartmann, Miriam; Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Colvin, Christopher J; Mensch, Barbara; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Sexual risk-taking is influenced by individual, interpersonal and social factors. This paper presents findings from a qualitative follow-up study to a clinical trial evaluating biomedical HIV prevention products among African women, explored participants' perceptions and experiences of heterosexual penile-anal intercourse, as well as the gendered power dynamics and relationship contexts in which this sexual behaviour occurs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 88 women from South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Findings reveal that despite its social stigmatisation, women engage in penile-anal intercourse for reasons including male pleasure, relationship security, hiding infidelity, menstruation, vaginal infections, money and beliefs that it will prevent HIV transmission. In addition, participants described experiences of non-consensual penile-anal intercourse. We used sexual scripting theory as an analytical framework with which to describe the sociocultural and relationship contexts and gendered power dynamics in which these practices occur. These data on the distinct individual, dyadic and social contexts of heterosexual penile-anal intercourse, and the specific factors that may contribute to women's HIV risk, make a unique contribution to our understanding of heterosexual behaviour in these sub-Saharan countries, thereby helping to inform both current and future HIV prevention efforts for women in the region. PMID:26223703

  14. Total Arterial Myocardial Revascularization

    Total arterial myocardial revascularization is an attempt to overcome the problems of late vein graft atherosclerosis occlusion and need for coronary re-operations. Despite increasing evidence of efficacy, the use of arterial conduits has not been accepted. as primary practice in most of the centers in Pakistan for various reasons. We analyze our initial experience to assess the feasibility of total arterial revascularization as a primary strategy in patients requiring first time coronary artery bypass grafting. Two hundred patients undergoing first time CABG at our institution, from January 2000 to April 2001, were studied. Group one consisted of 100 patients undergoing total arterial revascularization (using bilateral internal thoracic and radial arteries) and group two consisted of 100 patients undergoing conventional CABG (using one internal thoracic artery and supplemental veins).Thirty day mortality and early morbidity with particular reference to resternotomy for bleeding, cerebrovascular accidents, renal failure, and sternal dehiscence were the main outcome measures. Patients in Group 1 were younger (56.2+-10.4 vs. 60.3+-9.8 years; P<0.001), had lower Parsonnet scores (4.8+-0.4 vs. 9.6+-1.8; P<0.001), and had better left ventricular function. Both groups received a similar number of grafts. The percentage of patients undergoing total arterial revascularization rose from 20% in the first three months to over 65% in three later three-months period. Overall 30-day mortality was 1.5%, one patient (1%) in Group1 and two patients (2%) in Group2. There was similar incidence of postoperative complications and length of median postoperative stay in both groups. Total arterial revascularization can be adopted as a primary strategy in most patients undergoing CABG with no increase in mortality or morbidity. (author)

  15. There Is No Correlation Between Erectile Dysfunction and Dose to Penile Bulb and Neurovascular Bundles Following Real-Time Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    Purpose: We evaluated the relationship between the onset of erectile dysfunction and dose to the penile bulb and neurovascular bundles (NVBs) after real-time ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred forty-seven patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy met the following eligibility criteria: (1) treatment with 125I brachytherapy to a prescribed dose of 160 Gy with or without hormones without supplemental external beam radiation therapy, (2) identification as potent before the time of implantation based on a score of 2 or higher on the physician-assigned Mount Sinai Erectile Function Score and a score of 16 or higher on the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Function patient assessment, and (3) minimum follow-up of 12 months. Median follow-up was 25.7 months (range, 12-47 months). Results: The 3-year actuarial rate of impotence was 23% (34 of 147 patients). An additional 43% of potent patients (49 of 113 patients) were using a potency aid at last follow-up. The penile bulb volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V100) ranged from 0-0.05 cc (median, 0 cc), with a dose to the hottest 5% (D5) range of 12.5-97.9 Gy (median, 40.8 Gy). There was no correlation between penile bulb D5 or V100 and postimplantation impotency on actuarial analysis. For the combined right and left NVB structures, V100 range was 0.3-5.1 cc (median, 1.8 cc), and V150 range was 0-1.5 cc (median, 0.31 cc). There was no association between NVB V100 or V150 and postimplantation impotency on actuarial analysis. Conclusion: Penile bulb doses are low after real-time ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy. We found no correlation between dose to either the penile bulb or NVBs and the development of postimplantation impotency.

  16. Multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, testicular and suprarenal arteries

    Suresh Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations of blood vessels of the abdomen is important during operative, diagnostic and endovascular pro- cedures. During routine dissection of the abdominal cavity, we came across multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, suprarenal and testicular arteries. The left kidney was supplied by two renal arteries originating together from the abdomi- nal aorta, and the right kidney was supplied by two accessory renal arteries, one of which was arising from the right renal artery and the other one from the aorta (about 2 inches below the origin of the renal artery. Accessory renal veins were present on both sides. The right testicular artery was arising from the lower accessory renal artery. The left testicular artery was looping around the inferior tributary of the left renal vein, whereby forming a sharp kink. The left middle suprarenal artery was diving into three small branches; the upper two branches were supplying the left suprarenal gland, whereas the lower branch was supplying the left kidney. Furthermore, detailed literature and the clinical and surgical importance of the case are discussed. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(3.000: 168-171

  17. Isolated right pulmonary artery discontinuity

    Turner, DR; Vincent, JA; Epstein, ML

    2000-01-01

    Unilateral “absence” of the pulmonary artery is an uncommon malformation frequently associated with congenital heart disease. In fact, the pulmonary artery is typically discontinuous from the main pulmonary artery, not absent. We report a case of right pulmonary artery discontinuity not associated with congenital heart disease and review the embryogenesis and treatment of this rare congenital cardiac anomaly.

  18. Energetic and spatial constraints of arterial networks

    Sandro Rossitti

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The principle of minimum work (PMW is a parametric optimization model for the growth and adaptation of arterial trees. A balance between energy dissipation due to frictional resistance of laminar flow (shear stress and the minimum volume of the blood and vessel wall tissue is achieved when the vessel radii are adjusted to the cube root of the volumetric flow. The PMW is known to apply over several magnitudes of vessel calibers, and in many different organs, including the brain, in humans and in animals. Animal studies suggest that blood flow in arteries is approximately proportional to the cube of the vessel radius, and that arteries alter their caliber in response to sustained changes of blood flow according to PMW. Remodelling of the retinal arteriolar network to long-term changes in blood flow was observed in humans. Remodelling of whole arterial networks occurs in the form of increase or diminishing of vessel calibers. Shear stress induced endothelial mediation seems to be the regulating mechanism for the maintenance of this optimum blood flow/vessel diameter relation. Arterial trees are also expected to be nearly space filing. The vascular system is constructed in such a way that, while blood vessels occupy only a small percentage of the body volume leaving the bulk to tissue, they also crisscross organs so tightly that every point in the tissue lies on the boundary between an artery and a vein. This review describes how the energetic optimum principle for least energy cost for blood flow is also compatible with the spatial constraints of arterial networks according to concepts derived from fractal geometry.

  19. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  20. Cerebral Arterial Fenestrations

    Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T.; Kansagra, Akash P.; Yu, John Paul; Gu, Amy; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Steven W. Hetts; Randall T. Higashida; Dowd, Christopher F; Van V. Halbach

    2014-01-01

    Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies.